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Sample records for testis including carcinoma

  1. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M S; Gundgaard, M.G.; Daugaard, G

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ testis (CIS) is known as the precursor of germ cell cancer of the testis. International guidelines on diagnosis and treatment are inconsistent. Some countries offer routine biopsies of the contralateral testicle in relation to orchidectomy for testicular cancer, whereas other...... their androgen status measured on a regular basis to find those cases where hormone substitution is needed....

  2. Carcinoma in situ in the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, M; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Andersson, L

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the testis is a common precursor of germ-cell tumours in adults and adolescents, with the exception of spermatocytic seminoma. This article reviews existing knowledge on the pathobiology, genetic aspects and epidemiology of CIS, discusses current hypotheses concerning...

  3. Nuclear protein in testis carcinoma of the mediastinum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleto, Gonçalo; Perotin, Jeanne-Marie; Launois, Claire; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Birembaut, Philippe; Dury, Sandra; Vallerand, Hervé; Lebargy, François; Deslée, Gaëtan; Vella-Boucaud, Juliette

    2017-06-09

    Nuclear protein in testis carcinoma is a rare and very aggressive undifferentiated cancer which characteristically arises in the midline of the head, neck, and mediastinum. We describe the case of a 46-year-old white woman admitted for superior vena cava syndrome revealing a mediastinal tumor. Pathological examination of specimens obtained by mediastinoscopy revealed an undifferentiated tumor with solid growth and positive immunoreactivity for p40 and negative immunoreactivity for cytokeratin markers. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for nuclear protein in testis, allowing the diagnosis of nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma of the mediastinum. We present a rare case of mediastinal nuclear protein in testis carcinoma with diagnosis based on nuclear protein in testis protein positivity and atypical immunohistochemical features including p40 positivity and anti-cytokeratin negativity. Physicians must remain aware of the possibility of nuclear protein in testis carcinoma especially in young patients with thoracic symptoms and suspicion of neoplasm.

  4. Screening for carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis in patients with germinal testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, J G; Skakkebaek, N E; von der Maase, H

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty biopsy specimens from the contralateral testis in patients with unilateral germinal testicular cancer were analysed by light microscopy for carcinoma-in-situ changes. Changes were found in 13 (5.2%) patients. One-third of patients with an atrophic contralateral testis (volum...

  5. A case of descending colon carcinoma metastasized to left spermatic cord, testis, and epididymis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Herbert; Popper, Helmut; Pummer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of descending colon carcinoma metastasized to the left spermatic cord, testis, and epididymis. A 77-year old male patient underwent a left hemicolectomy for a descending colon cancer. He was referred to our department because of swelling and pain of the left scrotum two years and six months after surgery. High left orchiectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed a metastasis of the colon carcinoma within the spermatic cord and epididymis approaching the testicle. Reports on metastatic cancer of the testis are scarce, because this metastatic cancer is extremely rare. In general, testicular pain is rare in the elderly. We suggest that any elder presenting with testicular pain deserves a complete clinical and diagnostic evaluation. PMID:24578939

  6. Nuclear protein in testis carcinoma of the mediastinum: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Boleto, Gonçalo; Perotin, Jeanne-Marie; Launois, Claire; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Birembaut, Philippe,; Dury, Sandra; Vallerand, Hervé; Lebargy, François; Deslée, Gaëtan; Vella-Boucaud, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractBackgroundNuclear protein in testis carcinoma is a rare and very aggressive undifferentiated cancer which characteristically arises in the midline of the head, neck, and mediastinum.Case presentationWe describe the case of a 46-year-old white woman admitted for superior vena cava syndrome revealing a mediastinal tumor. Pathological examination of specimens obtained by mediastinoscopy revealed an undifferentiated tumor with solid growth and positive immunoreacti...

  7. Current approaches for detection of carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Olesen, Inge A; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    of carcinoma in situ (CIS). This review describes current possible approaches for the detection of CIS. At present, an open testicular biopsy is the only definitive way of establishing the presence of CIS. The tissue section should be of an adequate size, be properly fixed, and evaluation be supported...

  8. Current approaches for detection of carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Olesen, Inge A; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    of carcinoma in situ (CIS). This review describes current possible approaches for the detection of CIS. At present, an open testicular biopsy is the only definitive way of establishing the presence of CIS. The tissue section should be of an adequate size, be properly fixed, and evaluation be supported...... by at least one solid immunohistochemical marker, for example PLAP, OCT-3/4 or AP-2gamma. Determination of who should be offered testicular biopsies is based on clinical and ultrasonic examination along with the evaluation of risk factors. A surgical biopsy is an invasive procedure with potential...

  9. Carcinoma in situ of the testis. Some ultrastructural characteristics of germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Nielsen, M H; Skakkebaek, N E

    1982-01-01

    The two cytoplasmic organelles, dense-cored vesicles and "nuages" have been considered to allow positive identification of primordial germ cells in rodents, but no use of these potential markers has been applied to human material. We have observed dense-cored vesicles and "nuages" in the abnormal...... germ cells of carcinoma in situ of the testis and thus brought further evidence for the germ cell origin of this lesion. These organelles may be useful cytoplasmic markers in the study of germ cell tumors....

  10. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the origin of carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Novotny, Guy W

    2008-01-01

    the development of CIS cells, is a result of disturbed signalling between nurse cells and germ cells that allow embryonic germ cells to survive in the pre-pubertal and adult testis. The post-pubertal proliferation of CIS cells combined with aberrant signalling then leads to an accumulation of genetic changes...... foetus, but the genetic background may also play a role. The morphological similarity of carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells (the precursor of the majority of invasive testicular cancers) with primordial germ cells and gonocytes, and overlap in expression of protein markers suggests an origin of CIS from...

  11. Effect of Graded Testicular Doses of Radiotherapy in Patients Treated for Carcinoma-In-Situ in the Testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Giwercman, Aleksander; Daugaard, Gedske

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effect of radiotherapy in doses 14 to 20 Gy on eradication of carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) testis and on the Leydig cell function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-eight patients presented with unilateral testicular germ cell cancer and CIS of the contralateral testis. The CIS...... without signs of recurrence of CIS after an observation period of more than 5 years. One of 14 patients treated at dose level 14 Gy had a relapse of CIS 20 months after irradiation. Leydig cell function was examined before and regularly after radiotherapy in 44 of 48 patients. The levels of testosterone......-bearing testis was treated with daily irradiation doses of 2 Gy, 5 days a week, to a cumulative dose of 20 Gy (21 patients), 18 Gy (three patients), 16 Gy (10 patients), and 14 Gy (14 patients). RESULTS: All patients treated at dose levels 20 Gy to 16 Gy achieved histologically verified complete remission...

  12. Carcinoma in situ testis, the progenitor of testicular germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Daugaard, G

    2005-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT), including seminomas, embryonal carcinomas, teratomas and yolk sac tumours, have a common precursor, the carcinoma in situ (CIS) cell. Recent gene expression studies displaying close similarity of CIS cells to embryonic stem cells support the longstanding theory...

  13. Carcinoma in situ of contralateral testis in patients with testicular germ cell cancer: study of 27 cases in 500 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Maase, H; Rørth, M; Walbom-Jørgensen, S

    1986-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testis was diagnosed in 27 of 500 patients (5.4%) with unilateral testicular germ cell cancer. Eight of the 27 patients received intensive chemotherapy for spread of their initial testicular cancer. Follow up biopsy studies did not detect changes of carcinoma...... in situ in any of these patients, and none developed a contralateral testicular tumour (observation time 12-88 months). Of the remaining 19 patients with carcinoma in situ, seven developed contralateral testicular cancer. The estimated risk of developing invasive growth was 40% within three years and 50......% within five years. None of the 473 patients without carcinoma in situ detected by screening biopsy developed contralateral testicular cancer (observation time 12-96 months). No serious complications arose from the biopsy procedures. All patients with unilateral testicular germ cell cancer should...

  14. Over-expressed Testis-specific Protein Y-encoded 1 as a novel biomarker for male hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Li

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a male-predominant cancer. Previous studies have focused on the sex-related disparity in HCC, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we aimed to discover characteristic biomarkers for male HCC. Clinical samples were subjected to iTRAQ labeling followed by 2DLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Seventy-three differential proteins containing 16 up-regulated and 57 down-regulated proteins were screened out in the male HCC group compared to that in female HCC group. Testis-specific Protein Y-encoded 1(TSPY1 is characteristically present in male HCC and was chosen for further investigation. The data from the functional effects of TSPY1 indicated that over-expression of TSPY1 could potentiate HCC cell proliferation, increase soft agar colonization, induce higher cell invasive ability and correlate with the metastatic potential of the HCC cell lines. In addition, TSPY1 and androgen receptor (AR were co-expressed simultaneously in HCC cell lines as well as in HCC tissue. TSPY1 up- or down-regulation could lead to a high or low level expression of AR. These results implied that TSPY1 may be included in the regulation of AR expression involved in male HCC and it may act as a novel biomarker for male HCC.

  15. Over-expressed Testis-specific Protein Y-encoded 1 as a novel biomarker for male hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Mo, Cuiju; Huang, Shan; Yang, Shi; Lu, Yu; Peng, Qiliu; Wang, Jian; Deng, Yan; Qin, Xue; Liu, Yinkun

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a male-predominant cancer. Previous studies have focused on the sex-related disparity in HCC, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we aimed to discover characteristic biomarkers for male HCC. Clinical samples were subjected to iTRAQ labeling followed by 2DLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Seventy-three differential proteins containing 16 up-regulated and 57 down-regulated proteins were screened out in the male HCC group compared to that in female HCC group. Testis-specific Protein Y-encoded 1(TSPY1) is characteristically present in male HCC and was chosen for further investigation. The data from the functional effects of TSPY1 indicated that over-expression of TSPY1 could potentiate HCC cell proliferation, increase soft agar colonization, induce higher cell invasive ability and correlate with the metastatic potential of the HCC cell lines. In addition, TSPY1 and androgen receptor (AR) were co-expressed simultaneously in HCC cell lines as well as in HCC tissue. TSPY1 up- or down-regulation could lead to a high or low level expression of AR. These results implied that TSPY1 may be included in the regulation of AR expression involved in male HCC and it may act as a novel biomarker for male HCC.

  16. Expression of Cancer/Testis genes in ductal carcinoma in situ and benign lesions of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Otavia L; Shousha, Sami; Zhao, Qi; Simpson, Andrew J G; Coombes, R Charles; Neville, A Munro

    2014-01-01

    Cancer/testis (CT) genes represent a unique class of genes, which are expressed by germ cells, normally silenced in somatic cells, but activated in various cancers. CT proteins can elicit spontaneous immune responses in cancer patients and this feature makes them attractive targets for immunotherapy-based approaches. We have previously reported that CTs are relatively commonly expressed in estrogen receptor (ER) negative, high risk carcinomas. In this study, we examined the expression of selected CT genes in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and benign proliferative lesions of the breast. ER negative DCIS were found to be associated with significant CT gene expression together with HER2 positivity and a marked stromal immune response.

  17. Expression of cancer/testis antigens in salivary gland carcinomas with reference to MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Shintaro; Ito, Yohei; Fujii, Kana; Saida, Kosuke; Takino, Hisashi; Masaki, Ayako; Murase, Takayuki; Kusafuka, Kimihide; Iida, Yoshiyuki; Onitsuka, Tetsuro; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hanai, Nobuhiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Ijichi, Kei; Murakami, Shingo; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are detected in cancer cells but not in healthy normal tissues, with the exception of gametogenic tissues. CTAs are highly immunogenic proteins, and thus represent ideal targets for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated specific immune therapy. The aim of this study was to screen CTA expression in various types of salivary gland carcinoma and to clarify clinicopathological significance of MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 expression in adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCCs) of the salivary gland, which is one of the most common salivary gland carcinomas, and usually has a fatal outcome. We used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of four CTAs (MAGE-A, NY-ESO-1, CT7, and GAGE7) in various types of salivary gland carcinoma (n = 95). When carcinoma cases were divided into low-grade and intermediate/high-grade types, NY-ESO-1 and CT7 were expressed more frequently in intermediate/high-grade carcinomas. We then focused on MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 expression in a large cohort of adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCCs) (n = 46). MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 were frequently expressed in AdCC; specifically, MAGE-A was expressed in >60% of the AdCC cases. MAGE-A expression and tumour site (minor salivary gland) were identified as independent risk factors for locoregional tumour recurrence. These findings suggest that CTAs may be expressed in a variety of salivary gland carcinomas, especially in those with higher histological grades. In addition, MAGE-A, which is frequently expressed in AdCC cases, may be a useful prognostic factor for poorer locoregional recurrence-free survival. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Primary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the testis: An extremely rare ovarian-type surface epithelial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Onate Celdran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary mucinous epithelial tumors of the testis are extremely rare. Although isolated case reports and small series have been published, these interesting neoplasms are less well-known. We report a case of a primary intratesticular mucinous cystadenoma in an asymptomatic 44-year-old man. Right radical orchiectomy was performed because a malignant testicular tumor was suspected. We discuss the management of this uncommon testicular tumor based on the limited reports.

  19. Identification of a panel of tumor-associated antigens from breast carcinoma cell lines, solid tumors and testis cDNA libraries displayed on lambda phage

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    Cianfriglia Maurizio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor-associated antigens recognized by humoral effectors of the immune system are a very attractive target for human cancer diagnostics and therapy. Recent advances in molecular techniques have led to molecular definition of immunogenic tumor proteins based on their reactivity with autologous patient sera (SEREX. Methods Several high complexity phage-displayed cDNA libraries from breast carcinomas, human testis and breast carcinoma cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 were constructed. The cDNAs were expressed in the libraries as fusion to bacteriophage lambda protein D. Lambda-displayed libraries were efficiently screened with sera from patients with breast cancer. Results A panel of 21 clones representing 18 different antigens, including eight proteins of unknown function, was identified. Three of these antigens (T7-1, T11-3 and T11-9 were found to be overexpressed in tumors as compared to normal breast. A serological analysis of the 21 different antigens revealed a strong cancer-related profile for at least five clones (T6-2, T6-7, T7-1, T9-21 and T9-27. Conclusions Preliminary results indicate that patient serum reactivity against five of the antigens is associated with tumor disease. The novel T7-1 antigen, which is overexpressed in breast tumors and recognized specifically by breast cancer patient sera, is potentially useful in cancer diagnosis.

  20. Cancer/testis antigens: A prospective reagent as diagnostic and immunotherapeutic targets for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

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    Shohei Domae

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous tumor antigens have so far been identified from various tumors using the serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning (SEREX method. Among them, cancer/testis (CT antigens are considered promising target molecules for immunotherapy for patients with various cancers. We performed several SEREX analyses of various cancers to identify CT antigens, including gastric adenocarcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and colon cancer, and consequently identified additional CT antigens, such as XAGE-1, CCDC62-2, GKAP1, and TEKT5. However, although SEREX analysis of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC has been performed several times, only a few CT or HNSCC specific antigens have yet been isolated. Compared with other tumors, a small number of studies have been reported on the antigen proteins specific to HNSCC. We here reported the expression of selected CT antigens and their immunogenicity in patients with HNSCC. The results obtained suggested that CCDC62-2, GKAP1, and TEKT5 are immunogenic in HNSCC and also demonstrated their potencies as diagnostic markers for patients with HNSCC in combination with other CT antigens such as NY-ESO-1, MAGE-A3, and MAGE-A4.

  1. Analysis of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigen expression in early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen E; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2013-10-08

    The unique expression pattern and immunogenic properties of cancer/testis antigens make them ideal targets for immunotherapy of cancer. The MAGE-A3 cancer/testis antigen is frequently expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and vaccination with MAGE-A3 in patients with MAGE-A3-positive NSCLC has shown promising results. However, little is known about the expression of other cancer/testis antigens in NSCLC. In the present study the expression of cancer/testis antigens GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was investigated in patients with completely resected, early stage, primary NSCLC. Tumor biopsies from normal lung tissue and from a large cohort (n = 169) of NSCLC patients were examined for GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of these antigens was further matched to clinical and pathological features using univariate cox regression analysis. GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigens were not expressed in normal lung tissue, while SP17 was expressed in ciliated lung epithelia. The frequency of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 expression in NSCLC tumors were 26.0% (44/169), 11.8% (20/169) and 4.7% (8/169), respectively, and 33.1% (56/169) of the tumors expressed at least one of these antigens. In general, the expression of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was not significantly associated with a specific histotype (adenocarcinoma vs. squamous cell carcinoma), but high-level GAGE expression (>50%) was more frequent in squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.02). Furthermore, the frequency of GAGE expression was demonstrated to be significantly higher in stage II-IIIa than stage I NSCLC (17.0% vs. 35.8%; p = 0.02). Analysis of the relation between tumor expression of GAGE and NY-ESO-1 and survival endpoints revealed no significant associations. Our study demonstrates that GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigens are candidate targets for immunotherapy of NSCLC and further suggest that multi-antigen vaccines may be beneficial.

  2. Expression and clinical significance of MAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer-testis antigens in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, Johannes A; Heine, Daniela; Thierauf, Julia; Lennerz, Jochen; Shetty, Subasch; Schuler, Patrick J; Whiteside, Theresa; Beutner, Dirk; Meyer, Moritz; Grünewald, Inga; Ritter, Gerd; Gnjatic, Sacha; Sikora, Andrew G; Hoffmann, Thomas K; Laban, Simon

    2016-07-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the head and neck is a rare but highly malignant tumor. Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) represent an immunogenic family of cancer-specific proteins and thus represent an attractive target for immunotherapy. Eighty-four cases of ACC were identified, the CTAs pan-Melanoma antigen (pan-MAGE; M3H67) and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (NY-ESO-1; E978) were detected immunohistochemically (IHC) and correlated with clinical data. Expression of NY-ESO-1 was found in 48 of 84 patients (57.1%) and of pan-MAGE in 28 of 84 patients (31.2%). Median overall survival (OS) in NY-ESO-1 positive versus negative patients was 130.8 and 282.0 months (p = .223), respectively. OS in pan-MAGE positive versus negative patients was 105.3 and 190.5 months, respectively (p = .096). Patients expressing both NY-ESO-1 and pan-MAGE simultaneously had significantly reduced OS with a median of 90.5 months compared with 282.0 months in negative patients (p = .047). A significant fraction of patients with ACC show expression of the CTAs NY-ESO-1 and/or pan-MAGE with promising immunotherapeutic implications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1008-1016, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...... functions, including support of growth, survival and metastasis. This novel insight into the function of cancer/testis antigens has the potential to deliver more effective cancer vaccines. Moreover, immune targeting of oncogenic cancer/testis antigens in combination with conventional cytotoxic therapies...

  4. RNA interference against cancer/testis genes identifies dual specificity phosphatase 21 as a potential therapeutic target in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qing; Li, Kun-Yu; Chen, Hui; Dai, Ji-Hong; Zhai, Yang-Yang; Wang, Qun; Li, Niu; Wang, Yu-Ping; Han, Ze-Guang

    2014-02-01

    Cancer/testis (CT) antigens have been considered therapeutic targets for treating cancers. However, a central question is whether their expression contributes to tumorigenesis or if they are functionally irrelevant by-products derived from the process of cellular transformation. In any case, these CT antigens are essential for cancer cell survival and may serve as potential therapeutic targets. Recently, the cell-based RNA interference (RNAi) screen has proven to be a powerful approach for identifying potential therapeutic targets. In this study we sought to identify new CT antigens as potential therapeutic targets for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and 179 potential CT genes on the X chromosome were screened through a bioinformatics analysis of gene expression profiles. Then an RNAi screen against these potential CT genes identified nine that were required for sustaining the survival of Focus and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Among the nine genes, the physiologically testis-restricted dual specificity phosphatase 21 (DUSP21) encoding a dual specificity phosphatase was up-regulated in 39 (33%) of 118 human HCC specimens. Ectopic DUSP21 had no obvious impact on proliferation and colony formation in HCC cells. However, DUSP21 silencing significantly suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, and in vivo tumorigenicity in HCC cells. The administration of adenovirus-mediated RNAi and an atelocollagen/siRNA mixture against endogenous DUSP21 significantly suppressed xenograft HCC tumors in mice. Further investigations showed that DUSP21 knockdown led to arrest of the cell cycle in G1 phase, cell senescence, and expression changes of some factors with functions in the cell cycle and/or senescence. Furthermore, the antiproliferative role of DUSP21 knockdown is through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in HCC. DUSP21 plays an important role in sustaining HCC cell proliferation and may thus act as a potential therapeutic target in HCC treatment. © 2013 by

  5. Immunohistochemical expression of embryonal marker TRA-1-60 in carcinoma in situ and germ cell tumors of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Alexander; Andrews, P W; Jørgensen, N

    1993-01-01

    Testicular cancer is preceded by the noninvasive stage of carcinoma in situ (CIS). According to a recent hypothesis, testicular CIA cells are germ cells transformed in fetal life. The idea of an embryonal origin of testicular germ cell neoplasia would be strengthened by the finding of antigenic...... similarity between fetal germ cells, CIS cells, and invasive testicular germ cell tumors....

  6. Immunohistochemical expression of embryonal marker TRA-1-60 in carcinoma in situ and germ cell tumors of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Alexander; Andrews, P W; Jørgensen, N

    1993-01-01

    Testicular cancer is preceded by the noninvasive stage of carcinoma in situ (CIS). According to a recent hypothesis, testicular CIA cells are germ cells transformed in fetal life. The idea of an embryonal origin of testicular germ cell neoplasia would be strengthened by the finding of antigenic s...

  7. Analysis of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigen expression in early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen E

    2013-01-01

    NSCLC has shown promising results. However, little is known about the expression of other cancer/testis antigens in NSCLC. In the present study the expression of cancer/testis antigens GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was investigated in patients with completely resected, early stage, primary NSCLC....

  8. Do environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of carcinoma in situ testis and the testicular dysgenesis syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, S B; Hoei-Hansen, C E; Fisher, J S

    2004-01-01

    development, and may be provoked by external factors such as endocrine disruptors in addition to genetic predisposition. Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), considered the most severe symptom of TDS, have increased in incidence during the last 60 years, to become the most common malignancy in young...... (DBP) suggesting that ubiquitously present environmental endocrine disruptors may play a role in the aetiology of human TDS. So far, no animal model has been able to mimick all the symptoms of TDS including TGCTs although CIS-like cells have been found in a spontaneous testicular neoplasm in a rabbit....

  9. A systematic review including an additional pediatric case report: Pediatric cases of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouajio, Amanda L; Drejet, Sarah M; Phillips, D Ryan; Summerlin, Don-John; Dahl, John P

    2017-09-01

    Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) is a newly characterized salivary gland carcinoma resembling secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to being described, MASC was most commonly misdiagnosed as Acinic Cell Carcinoma. Though MASC is predominantly an adult neoplasm, cases have been reported in the pediatric population. Reporting and summarizing of known cases is imperative to understand the prognosis and clinical behavior of MASC. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Web of Science, Medline, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were searched for studies that included pediatric cases of MASC. Data on clinical presentation, diagnosis and management, and pathology were collected from all pediatric cases. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Since the first case of MASC in the pediatric population was described in 2011, only 12 cases, including this one, have been described in the literature. With this paucity of information, much remains unknown regarding this new pathologic diagnosis. The collection of clinical outcomes data of children with MASC is needed to better understand the behavior of this malignancy as well as determine optimal treatment regimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk factors for undescended testis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and

  11. Primary melanoma of testis

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    Katiyar R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary melanoma of testis is extremely rare and even the existence of such an entity is questioned. We present the case of a 60-year-old man with primary malignant melanoma in the testis. We report this case to emphasize the need for awareness of the possibility of the testis being the primary site in the patient with a melanoma and to underline the necessity of meticulous investigation of suspicious lesions of the testis in patients with or without a past history of malignant melanoma.

  12. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MAGE-A10 cancer/testis antigen is highly expressed in high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengus, Chantal; Schultz-Thater, Elke; Coulot, Julie; Kastelan, Zeljko; Goluza, Eleonora; Coric, Marijana; Spagnoli, Giulio C; Hudolin, Tvrtko

    2013-05-15

    Bladder cancer is a common urinary malignancy and a prevalent cause of cancer-related death. Current therapies of early stage non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) are frequently associated with undesirable toxicities and recurrence. Active antigen-specific immunotherapy may provide a valid therapeutic option for patients with NMIBC. Cancer-testis antigens (CTA) expressed in various tumour types and in a limited range of healthy tissues may represent potential targets for specific immunotherapy. MAGE-A10 is probably the most immunogenic antigen of the MAGE-A family. We evaluated the expression of MAGE-A10 in NMIBC. Seventy-nine patients undergoing surgical treatment for NMIBC were enrolled in the study. MAGE-A10 gene expression was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded sections. MAGE-A10 gene was specifically expressed in one-third of NMIBC (n = 24: 32.43%). Gene expression was correlated with high tumour grade. MAGE-A10 protein was exclusively detectable in nuclei of tumour cells. More importantly, MAGE-A10 protein was also more frequently detectable in high-grade tumours (p = 0.0001) and in stage T1 tumours invading subepithelial tissue or lamina propria (p = 0.01). A strong correlation between MAGE-A10 staining score and tumour grade and stage could accordingly be observed. These data indicate that MAGE-A10 expression is a feature of aggressive NMIBC and might be used as a novel target for specific immunotherapy of these cancers. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  14. Germ cell development in the postnatal testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili; Southwell, Bridget R

    2012-01-01

    To permit normal postnatal germ cell development, the mammalian testis undergoes a complex, multi-staged process of descent to the scrotum. Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth......, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer. Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes. In addition, it is thought...... the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty. The biology of postnatal germ cell development is of intense interest, as it is likely to be the key to the optimal timing...

  15. The undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikraman, Jaya; Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili

    2016-01-01

    Undescended testes (UDT), where one or both testes fail to migrate to the base of the scrotum, can be congenital (2-5% of newborn males) or acquired (1-2% of males). The testis may be found in any position along its usual line of descent. Cryptorchidism affects the developing testicular germ cell...

  16. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... or novel immunotherapies such as checkpoint blockade or adoptive transfer, represents a highly synergistic approach with the potential to improve patient survival....

  17. Consensus for nonmelanoma skin cancer treatment: basal cell carcinoma, including a cost analysis of treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauvar, Arielle N B; Cronin, Terrence; Roenigk, Randall; Hruza, George; Bennett, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in the US population affecting approximately 2.8 million people per year. Basal cell carcinomas are usually slow-growing and rarely metastasize, but they do cause localized tissue destruction, compromised function, and cosmetic disfigurement. To provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of BCC based on evidence from a comprehensive literature review, and consensus among the authors. An extensive review of the medical literature was conducted to evaluate the optimal treatment methods for cutaneous BCC, taking into consideration cure rates, recurrence rates, aesthetic and functional outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of the procedures. Surgical approaches provide the best outcomes for BCCs. Mohs micrographic surgery provides the highest cure rates while maximizing tissue preservation, maintenance of function, and cosmesis. Mohs micrographic surgery is an efficient and cost-effective procedure and remains the treatment of choice for high-risk BCCs and for those in cosmetically sensitive locations. Nonsurgical modalities may be used for low-risk BCCs when surgery is contraindicated or impractical, but the cure rates are lower.

  18. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and molecular study including 2 cases harboring ETV6-X fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yohei; Ishibashi, Kenichiro; Masaki, Ayako; Fujii, Kana; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Kawakita, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Manabu; Miyabe, Satoru; Shimozato, Kazuo; Nagao, Toshitaka; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade carcinoma with morphologic and genetic similarity, including ETV6-NTRK3 fusion, to secretory carcinoma of the breast. ETV6 is frequently involved in other epithelial and nonepithelial tumors, and many fusion partners of ETV6 have been reported. In the present study, 14 Japanese MASC cases were clinicopathologically and molecularly analyzed. The median age of the patients was 39 years, and the male:female ratio was 6:8. All cases showed histopathologic findings compatible with those previously described for MASC and harbored an ETV6 split as visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two cases showed thick fibrous septa and invasive features including vascular or perineural tumor involvement, findings that are rare in MASC. In addition, in these 2 cases, non-NTRK3 genes appeared to fuse with ETV6 (ETV6-X fusion). NTRK1 and NTRK2, both members of the NTRK family, were not involved. Of the 14 MASC cases, the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was positive in 6 cases, and the relative expression level of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was variable, ranging from 1 to 5.8. Results of the present study of MASC suggest that (1) ETV6 occasionally fuses with unknown non-NTRK3 genes, (2) ETV6-X cases might have an invasive histology, (3) for molecular diagnosis of MASC, fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect ETV6 splits is the method of choice, and (4) the expression level of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript is considerably variable. These findings provide a novel insight into the oncogenesis, histopathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this newly recognized carcinoma.

  19. Proteomics analysis of adult testis from Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Zhaoming; Gu, Peiming; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Dandan; Guo, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-10-01

    The development of the testis involves a large number of tissue-specific proteins, possibly because the sperms in it are the most divergent of all cell types. In this study, LC-MS/MS was employed to investigate the protein compositions of the adult testis of silkworm. A total of 14,431 peptides were identified in the adult testis of Bombyx mori, which were matched to 2292 proteins. Thirty-two HSPs constitute a group of most abundant proteins in the adult testis, suggesting that they are critical for the development, differentiation, and survival of germ cells. Other proteins in this analysis were also involved in testis-specific processes mainly including sperm motility, meiosis, germ cell development, and spermatogenesis. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000909 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000909). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. PIWIL2 and PL2L60 (Cancer/Testis genes Expression in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Esmaeili

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs are members of a group of proteins which are normally expressed in testis germ cells and to a lesser extent in the ovaries. Because of recent reports about their aberrant and specific expression in some tumoral tissues, they may play a role as new candidates for targeted therapy. Therefore, the study of the expression pattern of these biomarkers and its relationship with clinical features of the patients is a subject of great interest.Methods: In this study, expression of PIWIL2 and genes was studied by multiplex RT-PCR in 65 breast tissue samples including 30 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC, 30 normal adjacent tissue samples and five normal breast tissue samples and 2 normal testicular tissue samples as positive controls. beta actin was considered as internal control.Results: Results of gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated no significant expression of target genes in any sample except testis. Simultaneously, beta actin was expressed in all the samples.Conclusions: The present study indicates lack of PIWIL2 and PL2L60 expression at mRNA level in breast cancer. Although cell lines can be used in cancer research, they are not representative of tumor tissues. More studies investigating the expression of these genes at protein level will help us decide whether to apply these candidate genes as tumor markers or not.

  1. Undescended testis in Spigelian hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Spigelian hernias are uncommon in children. We report a 3-year-old boy with right spigelian hernia and right undescended testis. The hernial sac contained the testis, which is a rare presentation. The repair of the large defect with a prosthetic mesh and a concomitant orchidopexy were performed uneventfully.

  2. Pancreas Bone Testis Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfidan Coskun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone which has movement and support functions, is the largest organ of the body. Bone is regulated by hormonal signal but it also acts as an endocrine organ. Many peptide hormones such as osteocalcin are secreted from bone. Osteocalcin which is an osteoblast derived hormone, has two forms: and ldquo;carboxylated (inactive osteocalcin and decarboxylated (active osteocalcin and rdquo;. While inactive osteocalcin is found in bone matrix, active osteocalcin is given to blood circulation and acts as a multifunctional hormone. In the past ten years, numerous epidemiological, genetic and biochemical studies have revealed hormonal links between bone and pancreas, adipose tissue, gonads via active osteocalcin. In this review, a newly defined pathway called pancreas-bone-testis axis which stimulates testosterone synthesis independent of hypothalamic hypophyseal testicular axis, is discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 355-367

  3. Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Young, J; Nielsen, J E

    2014-01-01

    limited by the lack of experimental models. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental tissue culture model to maintain normal and malignant germ cells within their niche and allow investigation of treatment effects. METHODS: Human testis and testis cancer specimens from orchidectomies were...... cultured in 'hanging drops' and effects of activin A and follistatin treatment were investigated in seminoma cultures. RESULTS: Testis fragments with normal spermatogenesis or CIS cells were cultured for 14 days with sustained proliferation of germ cells and CIS cells and without increased apoptosis....... Seminoma cultures survived 7 days, with proliferating cells detectable during the first 5 days. Activin A treatment significantly reduced KIT transcript and protein levels in seminoma cultures, thereby demonstrating a specific treatment response. CONCLUSIONS: Hanging drop cultures of human testis...

  4. Identification of multiple DNA copy number alterations including frequent 8p11.22 amplification in conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaghi, Laura; Alkatan, Hind; Mahale, Alka; Othman, Maha; Alwadani, Saeed; Al-Hussain, Hailah; Jastaneiah, Sabah; Yu, Wayne; Maktabi, Azza; Edward, Deepak P; Eberhart, Charles G

    2014-12-09

    Little is known about the molecular alterations that drive formation and growth of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). We therefore sought to identify genetic changes that could be used as diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets. The DNA extracted from 10 snap-frozen cSCC tumor specimens and 2 in situ carcinomas was analyzed using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), and further examined with NanoString and quantitative PCR. The number of regions of DNA loss ranged from 1 to 23 per tumor, whereas gains and amplifications ranged from 1 to 15 per tumor. Most large regions of chromosomal gain and loss were confirmed by NanoString karyotype analysis. The commonest alteration was amplification of 8p11.22 in 9 tumors (75%), and quantitative PCR analysis revealed 100-fold or greater overexpression of ADAM3A mRNA from 8p11.22 locus. In addition, recurring losses were observed at 14q13.2 and 22q11.23, both lost in 5 (42%) of the 12 tumors, and at 12p13.31, lost in 4 (33%) of the 12 samples. Of the eight loci associated with the DNA damage repair syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum, three showed loss of at least one allele in our aCGH analysis, including XPA (9q22.33, one tumor), XPE/DDB2 (11p11.2, one tumor) and XPG/ERCC5 (13q33.1, three tumors). Conjunctival SCC contains a range of chromosomal alterations potentially important in tumor formation and growth. Amplification of 8p11.22 and overexpression of ADAM3A suggests a potential role for this protease. Our findings also suggest that defects in DNA repair loci are important in sporadic cSCC. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  5. Thyroid hormone and leptin in the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fonte Ramos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs. Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in humans and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis.

  6. Renal Cell Carcinoma With Chromosome 6p Amplification Including the TFEB Gene: A Novel Mechanism of Tumor Pathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R; Grignon, David J; Cheng, Liang; Favazza, Laura; Gondim, Dibson D; Carskadon, Shannon; Gupta, Nilesh S; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Palanisamy, Nallasivam

    2017-03-01

    Amplification of chromosome 6p has been implicated in aggressive behavior in several cancers, but has not been characterized in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We identified 9 renal tumors with amplification of chromosome 6p including the TFEB gene, 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and 6 from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases. Patients' ages were 28 to 78 years (median, 61 y). Most tumors were high stage (7/9 pT3a, 2/9 pN1). Using immunohistochemistry, 2/4 were positive for melanocytic markers and cathepsin K. Novel TFEB fusions were reported by TCGA in 2; however, due to a small composition of fusion transcripts compared with full-length transcripts (0.5/174 and 3.3/132 FPKM), we hypothesize that these represent secondary fusions due to amplification. Five specimens (4 TCGA, 1 fluorescence in situ hybridization) had concurrent chromosome 3p copy number loss or VHL deletion. However, these did not resemble clear cell RCC, had negative carbonic anhydrase IX labeling, lacked VHL mutation, and had papillary or unclassified histology (2/4 had gain of chromosome 7 or 17). One tumor each had somatic FH mutation and SMARCB1 mutation. Chromosome 6p amplification including TFEB is a previously unrecognized cytogenetic alteration in RCC, associated with heterogenous tubulopapillary eosinophilic and clear cell histology. The combined constellation of features does not fit cleanly into an existing tumor category (unclassified), most closely resembling papillary or translocation RCC. The tendency for high tumor stage, varied tubulopapillary morphology, and a subset with melanocytic marker positivity suggests the possibility of a unique tumor type, despite some variation in appearance and genetics.

  7. Undesended testis: How extensive should the work up be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shera Altaf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight various anomalies associated with undescended testis and to determine how much work up is necessary for this condition. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Pediatric Surgery SKIMS Srinagar, Kashmir. All patients between 0-14 years of age who attended out patient department (OPD from January 2002 to December 2003 with maldescent of testes were included in the study. Detailed relevant history and physical examination findings were recorded in all the cases. Baseline investigations were performed along with ultrasonography of the abdomen. In relevant cases other investigations like intravenous urography, micturating cystourethrography, CT scan and laparoscopy were performed as and when indicated. Results: A total of 250 cases of undescended testis were registered during this period. Maximum number of cases were in the age group of 5-10 years. In 130 (52% cases the right testis was undescended while 75 (30% had left sided undescended testis and 45 (18% had bilateral undescended testis. Maldescended testis comprised 11% of the admissions. The majority of cases were having gestational age of 37 weeks or more. The associated anomalies picked up on investigations included duplication of upper urinary tract (3.2%, hydronephrosis and polycystic kidney (0.8% each, horseshoe kidney, ectopic kidney, crossed renal ectopia (0.4% each Posterior urethral valves, Prune belly syndrome (0.4% and spina bifida (0.4%. On detailed clinical examination of genitalia several abnormalities were picked which included hydrocele, hypospadias, hernia, chordee, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Conclusion: We recommend ultrasonography to be done in all cases of undescended testis in addition to a thorough history and physical examination. Intravenous pyelography, micturating cystourethrogram, CT scan and other investigations should be performed selectively based on history, physical examination or

  8. Undescended testis: how extensive should the work up be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Altaf Hussain; Baba, Aejaz Ahsan; Gupta, Shyam Kumar; Gupta, Geetanjali; Sherwani, Afak Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight various anomalies associated with undescended testis and to determine how much work up is necessary for this condition. The study was conducted in the department of Pediatric Surgery SKIMS Srinagar, Kashmir. All patients between 0-14 years of age who attended out patient department (OPD) from January 2002 to December 2003 with maldescent of testes were included in the study. Detailed relevant history and physical examination findings were recorded in all the cases. Baseline investigations were performed along with ultrasonography of the abdomen. In relevant cases other investigations like intravenous urography, micturating cystourethrography, CT scan and laparoscopy were performed as and when indicated. A total of 250 cases of undescended testis were registered during this period. Maximum number of cases were in the age group of 5-10 years. In 130 (52%) cases the right testis was undescended while 75 (30%) had left sided undescended testis and 45 (18%) had bilateral undescended testis. Maldescended testis comprised 11% of the admissions. The majority of cases were having gestational age of 37 weeks or more. The associated anomalies picked up on investigations included duplication of upper urinary tract (3.2%), hydronephrosis and polycystic kidney (0.8% each), horseshoe kidney, ectopic kidney, crossed renal ectopia (0.4% each) Posterior urethral valves, Prune belly syndrome (0.4%) and spina bifida (0.4%). On detailed clinical examination of genitalia several abnormalities were picked which included hydrocele, hypospadias, hernia, chordee, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. We recommend ultrasonography to be done in all cases of undescended testis in addition to a thorough history and physical examination. Intravenous pyelography, micturating cystourethrogram, CT scan and other investigations should be performed selectively based on history, physical examination or ultrasound findings.

  9. CARCINOMA PROSTATE HISTOPATHOLOGY IN NEEDLE BIOPSIES INCLUDING REVISED GLEASON’S GRADING AND ROLE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Priyadarsini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Adenocarcinoma of prostate is the most common form of cancer in men accounting for 29% of cancers in developed nations and the incidence of prostatic cancer is 6.4% in males of Trivandrum District. MATERIALS AND METHODS All prostatic biopsies taken per rectally and stained by haematoxylin and eosin. In suspected cases of malignancy immunohistochemical markers, the AMACR P504S and high molecular weight cytokeratin 34E12 were done. RESULTS The total number of cases studied were 142. The final diagnosis with histomorphological features show that maximum cases were prostatic carcinoma constituting 45.5% of the samples received. CONCLUSION All prostatic carcinomas were graded by revised Gleason’s grade (ISUP 2005 and the use of immunohistochemical markers in arriving at a definite diagnosis in carcinoma prostate was confirmed.

  10. A Panel of Cancer Testis Antigens and Clinical Risk Factors to Predict Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molania, Ramyar; Mahjoubi, Frouzandeh; Mirzaei, Rezvan; Khatami, Saeed-Reza; Mahjoubi, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third common carcinoma with a high rate of mortality worldwide and several studies have investigated some molecular and clinicopathological markers for diagnosis and prognosis of its malignant phenotypes. The aim of this study is to evaluate expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer testis antigen (CTA) genes as well as some clinical risk markers to predict liver metastasis of colorectal cancer patients. The expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer/testis antigen (CTA) genes was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay in 90 colorectal tumor samples including both negative and positive liver metastasis tumors. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the association of three studied genes and clinical risk factors with CRC liver metastasis. The frequency of PAGE4 and SCP-1 genes expression was significantly higher in the primary tumours with liver metastasis when statistically compared with primary tumors with no liver metastasis (P < 0.05). Among all clinical risk factors studied, the lymph node metastasis and the depth of invasion were statistically correlated with liver metastasis of CRC patients. In addition, using multiple logistic regression, we constructed a model based on PAGE4 and lymph node metastasis to predict liver metastasis of CRC. PMID:26317029

  11. A Panel of Cancer Testis Antigens and Clinical Risk Factors to Predict Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramyar Molania

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third common carcinoma with a high rate of mortality worldwide and several studies have investigated some molecular and clinicopathological markers for diagnosis and prognosis of its malignant phenotypes. The aim of this study is to evaluate expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer testis antigen (CTA genes as well as some clinical risk markers to predict liver metastasis of colorectal cancer patients. The expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer/testis antigen (CTA genes was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay in 90 colorectal tumor samples including both negative and positive liver metastasis tumors. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the association of three studied genes and clinical risk factors with CRC liver metastasis. The frequency of PAGE4 and SCP-1 genes expression was significantly higher in the primary tumours with liver metastasis when statistically compared with primary tumors with no liver metastasis (P<0.05. Among all clinical risk factors studied, the lymph node metastasis and the depth of invasion were statistically correlated with liver metastasis of CRC patients. In addition, using multiple logistic regression, we constructed a model based on PAGE4 and lymph node metastasis to predict liver metastasis of CRC.

  12. A recurrent germline BAP1 mutation and extension of the BAP1 tumor predisposition spectrum to include basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, K A W; Aoude, L G; Johansson, P

    2015-01-01

    ) and mesothelioma, as previously reported for germline BAP1 mutations. However, mutation carriers from three new families, and one previously reported family, developed basal cell carcinoma (BCC), thus suggesting inclusion of BCC in the phenotypic spectrum of the BAP1 tumor syndrome. This notion is supported...

  13. Multiple cancer/testis antigens are preferentially expressed in hormone-receptor negative and high-grade breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tseng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis (CT antigens are protein antigens normally expressed only in germ cells of testis, and yet are expressed in a proportion of a wide variety of human cancers. CT antigens can elicit spontaneous immune responses in cancer patients with CT-positive cancers, and CT antigen-based therapeutic cancer vaccine trials are ongoing for "CT-rich" tumors. Although some previous studies found breast cancer to be "CT-poor", our recent analysis identified increased CT mRNA transcripts in the ER-negative subset of breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we performed a comprehensive immunohistochemical study to investigate the protein expression of eight CT genes in 454 invasive ductal carcinomas, including 225 ER/PR/HER2-negative (triple-negative carcinomas. We found significantly more frequent expression of all eight CT antigens in ER-negative cancers, and five of them--MAGEA, CT7, NY-ESO-1, CT10 and CT45, were expressed in 12-24% of ER-negative cancers, versus 2-6% of ER-positive cancers (p2 cm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CT antigens are preferentially expressed in hormone receptor-negative and high-grade breast cancer. Considering the limited treatment options for ER/PR/HER2 triple-negative breast cancer, the potential of CT-based immunotherapy should be explored.

  14. SEMINOMA COMPLICATING ECTOPIC ABDOMINAL TESTIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Departments of Surgery and Pathology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Germ cell tumors of the testis are the most common solid tumors in men ... weight loss were also noticed, but he had no cough, bone pains, jaundice or urinary symp- toms. The past medical history revealed a his-.

  15. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising...

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Signaling Pathways between XY and YY Testis in Yellow Catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjie; Xiong, Shuting; Jing, Jing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2015-01-01

    YY super-males have rarely been detected in nature and only been artificially created in some fish species including tilapia and yellow catfish (Pelteobagrusfulvidraco), which provides a promising model for testis development and spermatogenesis. In our previous study, significant differences in morphology and miRNA expression were detected between XY and YY testis of yellow catfish. Here, solexa sequencing technology was further performed to compare mRNA expression between XY and YY testis. Compared with unigenes expressed in XY testis, 1146 and 1235 unigenes have significantly higher and lower expression in YY testis, respectively. 605 differentially expressed unigenes were annotated to 1604 GO terms with 319 and 286 genes having relative higher expression in XY and YY testis. KEGG analysis suggested different levels of PI3K-AKT and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways between XY and YY testis. Down-regulation of miR-141/429 in YY testis was speculated to promote testis development and maturation, and several factors in PI3K-AKT and GPCR signaling pathways were found as predicted targets of miR-141/429, several of which were confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assays. Our study provides a comparative transcriptome analysis between XY and YY testis, and reveals interactions between miRNAs and their target genes that are possibly involved in regulating testis development and spermatogenesis.

  17. Prevalence and patterns of undescended testis among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was undertaken with the main objective of determining the prevalence and patterns of undescended testis (UDT) among 437 primary School pupils from randomly selected primary schools in one Division of ampala in Uganda. The study variables included age, tribe, scrotal findings, side and location ...

  18. Building the mammalian testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Koopman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    understood, the origins and roles of many testicular cell types and structures-including peritubular myoid cells, the tunica albuginea, the arterial and venous blood vasculature, lymphatic vessels, macrophages, and nerve cells-have remained unclear. This review synthesizes current knowledge of how...

  19. Magnetization transfer imaging of normal and abnormal testis: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsili, Athina C.; Ntorkou, Alexandra; Maliakas, Vasilios; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Baltogiannis, Dimitrios; Sylakos, Anastasios; Sofikitis, Nikolaos [University of Ioannina, Department of Urology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Stavrou, Sotirios [University of Ioannina, Department of Urology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); University Hospital of Ioannina, Leoforos S. Niarchou, Department of Urology, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G. [University of Ioannina, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2016-03-15

    The aim was to determine the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of normal testes, possible variations with age and to assess the feasibility of MTR in characterizing various testicular lesions. Eighty-six men were included. A three-dimensional gradient-echo MT sequence was performed, with/without an on-resonance binomial prepulse. MTR was calculated as: (SIo-SIm)/(SIo) x 100 %, where SIm and SIo refers to signal intensities with and without the saturation pulse, respectively. Subjects were classified as: group 1, 20-39 years; group 2, 40-65 years; and group 3, older than 65 years of age. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the least significant difference test was used to assess variations of MTR with age. Comparison between the MTR of normal testis, malignant and benign testicular lesions was performed using independent-samples t testing. ANOVA revealed differences of MTR between age groups (F = 7.51, P = 0.001). Significant differences between groups 1, 2 (P = 0.011) and 1, 3 (P < 0.001) were found, but not between 2, 3 (P = 0.082). The MTR (in percent) of testicular carcinomas was 55.0 ± 3.2, significantly higher than that of benign lesions (50.3 ± 4.0, P = 0.02) and of normal testes (47.4 ± 2.2, P < 0.001). MTR of normal testes decreases with age. MTR might be helpful in the diagnostic work-up of testicular lesions. (orig.)

  20. A Case Report of Lipid-Rich Carcinoma of the Breast Including Histological Characteristics and Intrinsic Subtype Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Kimura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old Japanese woman with schizophrenia, who had received long-term treatment with neuroleptics, noticed a painless, pea-sized lump in her right breast. She was admitted to our hospital and a malignant tumor was diagnosed. The patient underwent a conservative radical mastectomy (Patey’s operation. The excised tumor measured 2.0 × 1.2 × 1.1 cm in diameter, and its cut surface was grayish-white. Histologically, tumor cells with clear to foamy cytoplasm were invariably Oil Red O-positive and periodic acid Schiff-negative with or without diastase digestion. The tumor was diagnosed as a lipid-rich carcinoma accompanied by an in situ component. Neuroleptics increase serum prolactin levels by interfering with dopaminergic inhibition of prolactin secretion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that, although prolactin was not detected, the tumor cells expressed prolactin receptor, indicating prolactin as the genesis of this neoplasm. In immunohistochemical intrinsic subtype analysis, the tumor was negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 and 2, and basal cytokeratins (CK5, CK6, and CK14, indicating an unclassified (all-marker negative subtype. Axillary lymph nodes were free of metastasis (stage I, and the patient has been well for 20 years without any evidence of recurrence.

  1. Transcription factor AP-2gamma is a developmentally regulated marker of testicular carcinoma in situ and germ cell tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Nielsen, John E; Almstrup, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Transcription factor activator protein-2gamma (TFAP2C, AP-2gamma) was reported previously in extraembryonic ectoderm and breast carcinomas but not in the testis. In our recent gene expression study we detected AP-2gamma in carcinoma in situ testis (CIS, or intratubular germ cell neoplasia...

  2. Detection in testis, epididymis and ovary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... in normal reproductive tissues of male and female mice. For the first time, we demonstrate that beyond the oviduct,. Ovgp1 mRNA is expressed in the testis, epididymis and ovary, but not in the uterus, cervix, vagina, breast, seminal vesicles and prostate gland. In the testis, Ovgp1 mRNA was localized in the ...

  3. Stralenbehandeling van 'germinal tumors' van de testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, Sijbrand Pieter

    1957-01-01

    Na een kotte inleiding wordt in het eerste hoofdstuk een beknopt overzicht gegeven van de ontwikkeling van de testis bij het embryo. In het tweede hoofdstuk wordt de anatomie van de testis en zijn afvoersvsteem besproken, waarbij speciale aandacht wordt geschonken aan de afvoerende lymphvaten van de

  4. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated with Precision-Oriented Radiation Therapy Techniques Including Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Shan Liu

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports preliminary results with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Between August 2000 and May 2001, we treated 19 patients with NPC using IMRT. Twelve patients had stage I-II disease and seven had stage III-IV disease. Six patients received 9.0-19.8 Gy three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT before IMRT and 18 patients received a brachytherapy boost after IMRT. The mean follow-up time was 13.0 months. All patients with stage II-IV disease except one received two cycles of chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU during radiotherapy, followed by two to four cycles of chemotherapy after radiotherapy. Tumor response was assessed using clinical examination and computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The mean doses administered to the gross tumor volume and clinical tumor volume were 70.9 Gy and 63.2 Gy, respectively. The mean doses administered to the right and left parotid glands were 38.1 Gy and 38.6 Gy, respectively. All 19 patients had a complete response of primary and lymph node disease. Grade III mucositis developed during chemoradiotherapy in 15 patients (79%. In addition, clinical grade I xerostomia was recorded in nine patients, grade II in nine, and grade III in one. This study demonstrated that 3D-CRT, IMRT, intracavitary brachytherapy, and chemotherapy are effective and safe methods to treat NPC. Although IMRT treatment spared parotid gland function, its efficacy may be significantly influenced by disease stage and location of the neck lymph nodes. More cases and a longer follow-up to assess survival and complications are planned.

  5. Stem cell pluripotency factor NANOG is expressed in human fetal gonocytes, testicular carcinoma in situ and germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Almstrup, K; Nielsen, J E

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: NANOG is a key regulator of embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and pluripotency. Our recent genome-wide gene expression profiling study of the precursor of testicular germ cell tumours, carcinoma in situ testis (CIS), showed close similarity between ESC and CIS, including high NANOG...... earlier than for OCT-4. We detected no expression at the protein level in normal testis. CONCLUSIONS: NANOG is a new marker for testicular CIS and germ cell tumours and the high level of NANOG along with OCT-4 are determinants of the stem cell-like pluripotency of the preinvasive CIS cell. Timing of NANOG......; seminoma and embryonal carcinoma were strongly positive, differentiated somatic elements of teratoma were negative. We provide evidence for the fetal origin of testicular cancer as we detected strong expression of NANOG in fetal gonocytes up to gestational week 20, with subsequent down-regulation occurring...

  6. Examination for intratubular germ cell neoplasia at operation for undescended testis in boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J; Frisch, M

    1994-01-01

    A total of 843 consecutive boys (median age 12.7 years) who had undergone testicular biopsy at operation for undescended testis was followed into adulthood (median age 25.2 years) to examine for testicular germ cell neoplasia. Five cases of testicular germ cell neoplasia were identified, including...... 1 nonseminoma of the contralateral testis, which had been treated before surgery for an undescended testis, 1 nonseminoma found at followup, 1 seminoma and 2 intratubular germ cell neoplasms. Of the later 3 patients 1 had a 45,X/46,XY karyotype and 2 had abnormal external genitalia. Previous...

  7. Anatomy and histology of the scrotal ligament in adults: inconsistency and variability of the gubernaculum testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalie, G; Bellier, Alexandre; Marnas, G; Boisson, B; Robert, Y; Rabattu, P Y; Chaffanjon, P

    2017-07-31

    The anatomy of gubernaculum testis (GT) is often discussed; however, the postnatal anatomy of the GT or scrotal ligament (SL) is rarely described. Hence, we performed an anatomical and histological study to analyze histologically the structures between testis and scrotum. We performed anatomical dissections on 25 human fresh cadavers' testes. Each testis was removed with its envelopes and macroscopically analyzed. Then samples were included for histological study. Finally, they were analyzed under microscope, looking for attachments between testis, epididymis and scrotal envelopes. The absence of proximal and distal attachment was found in 56.0% of cases. Looking at the proximal attachment of the SL, the main one found is the epididymal attachment (28.0%), whereas no cases of testis attachment was found. Distally, there are more variations with scrotal attachment (12%) and cremaster attachment (12.0%). We found a significant prevalence of multiple adherences in 16.0% of cases too. Finally, in 15 cases (57.7%) an attachment is present between testis and epididymis, as it is commonly described. In the majority of cases there is no attachment of the lower pole of the testis and epididymis and these structures remain free. So it seems that the SL disappears with aging. Moreover, there is not only one kind of ligamentous attachment, but a high variability of attachments at the lower pole of the testiculo-epididymal structure. When it exists, this structure is never a real ligament and it seems more appropriate to use the term "attachments".

  8. Post-hatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brandon C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Botteri, Nicole L.; Lawler, Ashley N.; Mathavan, Ketan K.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first five months post-hatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we employed histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in one-week, one-month, three-month, and five-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS-reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS-reactivity. We observed putative inter-sex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed “medullary rests” resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared to previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we

  9. HGF and postnatal testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catizone, A; Ricci, G; Galdieri, M

    2005-09-28

    Hepatocyte growth factor regulates many cellular functions acting through c-met, its specific receptor with tyrosine kinase activity. We have previously reported that in prepubertal rats HGF is secreted in the seminiferous tubules by purified peritubular myoid cells whereas Sertoli cells do not express HGF mRNA. In the present paper we report that HGF is expressed by the myoid cells during the entire postnatal testicular development studied and secreted in the culture medium. On the contrary, in Sertoli cells HGF starts to be clearly detectable by northern blot at 25 days of age. HGF is expressed and secreted by Sertoli cells isolated from 35-day-old rats and is able to increase the levels of c-met expression of the Sertoli cells. Although the role of HGF during the development of the postnatal testis need further research to be clarified, the data here presented indicate that HGF is one of the growth factors regulating mammalian testicular function.

  10. Seminoma in the testis presenting as hemospermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beji, Sami; Hoejgaard, Martin; Lyngdorf, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Hemospermia is often considered idiopathic. We report a case of a patient who presented with hemospermia. Scrotal examination and ultrasonography found a testis tumor. This case underscores the importance of scrotal examination and eventually ultrasound in patients presenting with hemospermia....

  11. Papillary mesothelioma of the albuginea testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjandra, B. S.; Daemen, M. J.; Weil, E. H.

    1994-01-01

    An eleven-year-old boy is presented with symptom of a torsion of the testis. Scrotal exploration revealed a papillary mesothelioma of the tunica albuginea which is extremely rare in childhood. We report 1 case and review the literature

  12. UNDESCENDED TESTIS, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarta Lesmana Handrea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Undescended testis (UDT or cryptorchidism is one of the commonest abnormalities in male infants. In this anomaly, testes are not located normally in the scrotum. The incidence of UDT is 4-5% of term male infants, and 20-33% of premature male infants. The occurrence of abnormalities of hormones control or anatomy process that is required in the normal process of lowering the testes can cause UDT. UDT can be differentiated into palpable and nonpalpable. The diagnosis of UDT can be known through physical examination. However, if the testes are impalpable, laparoscopy can be done to determine the position of the testis. Hormonal therapy to overcome UDT is still under controversy. The action that often done is surgery, called orchidopexy. The most serious complication of orchidopexy is testicular atrophy. It occurs in a small percentage, which is about 5-10%. Infertility may occur in 1 to 3 of 4 adult males and the risk of occurrence of malignancies is increased by as much as 5-10 times higher in men with a history of UDT. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  13. [Undescended testis: current treatment guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, B

    2016-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is the most common genital malformation in male newborns. In recent years, guidelines concerning diagnosis and therapy have undergone considerable evolution with the implementation of recent knowledge in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy. The aim of this publication is to provide an overview of the current national and international guideline recommendations concerning diagnosis and treatment of cryptorchidism. Critical points are discussed in light of current scientific literature. The current guidelines of the European Association of Urology (EAU)/European Society for Pediatric Urology (ESPU), the American Association of Urology (AUA), the pediatric urologic task force of the Austrian Society of Urology (ÖGU), the international consultation on urological disease (ICUD) and the German Society of Urology (DGU)/German Association of Pediatric Surgery (DGKCh) have been analyzed concerning the most important aspects of treatment and diagnosis. There is broad consensus concerning most steps and decisions for the treatment of cryptorchidism. However, some aspects of diagnostic imaging, the use of hormonal therapy, and surgical access in nonpalpable testis warrant further discussion and are the fields of considerable changes.

  14. Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements of the thyroid gland: report of three cases including one case with breast cancer history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanjun; Liu, Xi; Huang, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Johnstone, Marianne; Deng, Yuan; Ke, Yongqiang; Nunes, Quentin M; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Yili; Zhang, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements (CASTLE) is a rare malignant tumor of the thyroid or adjacent neck soft tissues, whose histogenesis is still debated. It may resemble other primary or metastatic poorly differentiated tumors histologically and the differential diagnosis is crucial for CASTLE has a better prognosis. However, CASTLE as a second primary tumor has not been reported in the literature. We report three cases of thyroid CASTLE, including a unique tumor following breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast invasive carcinoma. There were two female and one male. All three tumors were located in the right lobe of the thyroid, and one tumor showed extension into the surrounding soft tissue. Histologically, all tumors showed expansive growth and consisted of cords, nests or sheets of epithelial cells divided into irregularly shaped lobules by fibrous connective tissue with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Focal squamous differentiation resembling Hassall's corpuscles were observed. All cases stained positively for CD5, CD117, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin, P63, carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen. Positive staining for Bcl-2 in two cases and chromogranin A in one case was noted. Ki-67 expression ranged from 15 to 25%. Thyroid transcription factor and CD3 were negative. There was no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease at following surgery. These features demonstrated CASTLE may arise from branchial pouch remnants, the thyroid solid cell nests. CASTLE is a rare entity, awareness of its occurrence as a second primary tumor is important to avoid overtreatment because it is associated with a favorable prognosis.

  15. Cancer testis antigen Sperm Protein 17 as a new target for triple negative breast cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Leonardo; Pedretti, Elisa; Figueroa, Jose A; Chiaramonte, Raffaella; Colombo, Michela; Chapman, Caroline; Grizzi, Fabio; Patrinicola, Federica; Kast, W Martin; Nguyen, Diane D; Rahman, Rakhshanda Layeequr; Daver, Naval; Ruvolo, Peter; Post, Sean M; Bresalier, Robert S; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2017-09-26

    Breast carcinoma is a major health issue for millions of women. Current therapies have serious side effects, and are only partially effective in patients with metastatic tumors. Thus, the need for novel and less toxic therapies is urgent. Moreover, hormonal and antibody therapies effective in other subtypes are not effective in Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC). Immunotherapeutic strategies directed against specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and mediated by specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been largely underexplored in this disease. Cancer-testis antigens (CTA) are a group of TAAs displaying the ideal characteristics of promising vaccine targets, i.e. strong immunogenicity and cancer specificity. The CTA, Sperm Protein 17 (SP17), has been found to be aberrantly expressed in different neoplasms, including ovarian and esophageal cancers, nervous system tumors and multiple myeloma, and has been suggested as a candidate target for immunotherapy. Here, we evaluated SP17 expression levels in breast cancer cell lines, invasive ductal breast carcinoma, including patients with TNBC, and adjacent non-neoplastic breast tissue, and determined whether SP17 was capable of generating SP17-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro. We showed that SP17 is expressed in breast cancer cell lines and primary breast tumors and importantly in TNBC subtype, but not in adjacent non-tumoral breast tissue or unaffected tissues, except in male germinal cells. Furthermore, we detected specific anti-SP17 antibodies in patients' sera and we generated SP17-specific, HLA class I-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocytes capable of efficiently killing breast cancer cells.

  16. Development of the human fetal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Peter J; Fowler, Paul A

    2014-05-01

    Masculinisation and adult fertility in the male are dependent on appropriate fetal endocrine programming. There is also now increasing evidence to indicate that the same mechanisms which regulate masculinisation also affect the general wellbeing of males throughout their life and, particularly, during ageing. Testosterone, secreted by the fetal testes, is the main factor regulating these processes and an understanding of fetal testis development in the human male is essential if we are to prevent adult reproductive disorders. This review focuses on what is known about human testis development and describes the effects of maternal smoking, a surrogate of possible xenotoxicant exposure on fetal testis and fetal liver function. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Xenografting of adult mammalian testis tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Lucía; Rathi, Rahul; Zeng, Wenxian; Honaramooz, Ali; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S; Dobrinski, Ina

    2008-06-01

    Xenografting of testis tissue from immature males from several mammalian species to immunodeficient mouse hosts results in production of fertilization-competent sperm. However, the efficiency of testis tissue xenografting from adult donors has not been critically evaluated. Testis tissue xenografting from sexually mature animals could provide an option to preserve the genetic material from valuable males when semen for cryopreservation cannot be collected. To assess the potential use of this technique for adult individuals, testes from adult animals of six species (pig, goat, cattle, donkey, horse and rhesus monkey) were ectopically grafted to host mice. Grafts were recovered and analyzed at three time points: less than 12 weeks, between 12 and 24 weeks and more than 24 weeks after grafting. Histological analysis of the grafts revealed effects of species and donor tissue maturity: all grafts from species with greater daily sperm production (pig and goat) were found to have degenerated tubules or grafts were completely degenerated. None of the xenografts from mature adult bull and monkeys contained differentiated spermatogenic cells when examined more than 12 weeks post-grafting but tubules with Sertoli cells only remained. In grafts from a young adult bull, Sertoli cells persisted much longer than with the mature adult grafts. In grafts from a young adult horse, spermatogenesis proceeded to meiosis. In grafts from a young adult donkey and monkey, however, complete spermatogenesis was found in the grafts. These results show that testis tissue grafts from mature adult donors did not support germ cell differentiation but seminiferous tubules with Sertoli cells only survived in some species. The timing and progression of tubular degeneration after grafting of adult testis tissue appear to be related to the intensity of spermatogenesis at the time of grafting. Testis tissue from sub-adult donors survives better as xenograft than tissue from mature adult donors, and

  18. Reliability of hypertrophy of the contralateral testis in prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliability of hypertrophy of the contralateral testis in prediction of the status of impalpable testis. Rafik Shalaby, Ahmad Alshamy, Mohamad Abd-Alrazek, Samir Gouda, Mohamad Mahfouz, Mohamad Shahin, Sabri Moussa, Sayed Elhady, Hassan Algallad ...

  19. Environment, testicular dysgenesis and carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inge A; Sonne, Si Brask; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E

    2007-01-01

    the hormonal milieu of the developing gonad are the endocrine disrupters. A prenatal exposure to commonly used chemicals, e.g. phthalates, may result in a TDS-like phenotype in rats. Currently, this animal model is the best model for TDS. In humans the situation is much more complex, and TDS exists in a wide...

  20. Undescended testis? How best to teach the physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zundel, S; Blumenstock, G; Herrmann-Werner, A; Trueck, M; Schmidt, A; Wiechers, S

    2016-12-01

    Undescended testis in boys is common. Guidelines recommend surgical treatment between the ages of 6 months and 2 years; nevertheless, orchidopexy is frequently performed at later ages. One reason is the belated diagnosis due to a perceived difficulty in the physical examination (PE) and correct localization of the testis. We aimed to find an effective method for teaching the physical examination of the testis in a child. An interdisciplinary team developed teaching sessions, including an educational video and a simulator. Medical students (n = 133) were randomized into three groups: self-study only, video, and video and simulator. The sessions were carried out and quantitative feedback was collected from the teachers and students. The learning achievements of the different groups were assessed with an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The differences in mean OSCE results between all three groups were tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). For multiple pairwise comparisons, a closed testing procedure was performed using unpaired t-tests. The self-study only group acquired the poorest results in the OSCE, with a mean score of 5.1 out of 10. The video-only-group reached a mean of 6.7, and the video-and-simulator group performed best with a mean score of 8.5. The differences between all three groups were found to be statistically significant, with P = 0.007. The attached figure illustrates this data. If analyzed in pairs, this difference was particularly apparent between the groups self-study only vs video and simulator, with P = 0.002. Qualitative feedback revealed doubtful effectiveness for educational videos, but positive reactions to training on a simulator. The poor results of the self-study-only group were in accordance with the literature, where textbook learning was found not to increase OSCE results. The effectiveness of video tutorials remains doubtful; studies focusing on this teaching method are divergent and the present

  1. NUT carcinoma presenting in the palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjornstrup, Libana Raffoul; Reibel, Jesper; Kiss, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    NUT carcinomas (NC) are rare and aggressive tumours characterized by chromosomal rearrangements of the gene encoding for nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) located on chromosome 15q14. This article presents a case of a 60-year-old woman diagnosed with NC presenting as a fast growing primary tumour...... differentiated carcinomas without glandular differentiation arising in the chest, and head and neck (Clin Cancer Res, 18, 2012, 5773)....

  2. TORSION TESTIS : ROLE OF COLOR DOPPLER : A STUDY OF 50 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: T orsion testis is one of the catast r ophic conditions in children and young a d u lts. Traditionally the diagnosis was made clinical presentation and suspicion. Critical decision making is essential to save the testis . OBJECTIVE: To study the usefu lness and efficacy of Doppler ultrasound in correctly diagnosing acute scrotal conditions in children and young adults to save the testis and to avoid negative explorations. METHODS: Over a period of two years 50 patients with acute scrotum were admitted i n general surgery department who underwent Doppler ultrasound scrotum and its efficacy in correctly diagnosing the pathology was analysed. RESULTS: 50 patients with age group <25 years were included in study. Scrotal pain was the most frequent presenting s ymptom of acute scrotum (98% followed by Swelling of the hemiscrolum on the involved side present in 86% of the patients. Doppler ultrasound showed torsion of testis in 18 patients. On Scrotal exploration, torsion of spermatic cord was confirmed in 16 pat ients, one patient had torsion of appendix of testis and the other had Epididymo - orchitis. Thus the sensitivity and specificity of Doppler ultrasonography for testicular torsion was 86.9% and 92.6% respectively. 2 patients with equivocal Doppler findings, but strong clinical suspicion of testicular torsion were explored, and testis was found to be torsed in both two patients. Doppler ultrasonography showed Epididymo - orchitis in 22 patients, torsion of testicular appendage in 2 patients, Idiopathic scrotal edema in one, and in 5 pts no significant pathology found. All twenty patients of epididymo - orchitis, two patients of torsion of testicular appendage, and one patient of idiopathic scrotal edema were managed conservatively. At three weeks follow up, all th e patients were free of symptoms. The sensitivity and specificity of Doppler ultrasonography for epididymo - orchitis was 95% and 100% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: color

  3. Association of intratubular seminoma and intratubular embryonal carcinoma with invasive testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sean K; Weiss, Lawrence M; Chu, Peiguo G

    2007-07-01

    The classification of intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the testis includes an unclassified type (IGCNU), in addition to various other intratubular lesions that show specific forms of differentiation, such as intratubular seminoma and intratubular embryonal carcinoma. Although IGCNU is recognized as a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors, the relationship between differentiated types of intratubular germ cell neoplasia and invasive germ cell tumors of the testis is not well established. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between invasive testicular germ cell tumors and intratubular neoplastic lesions, with particular emphasis on differentiated types of intratubular germ cell neoplasia. The seminiferous tubules adjacent to 42 testicular germ cell tumors were evaluated for the presence of various forms of intratubular germ cell neoplasia. IGCNU was observed in 37 (88%) of 42 cases, whereas intratubular seminoma and intratubular embryonal carcinoma were seen in 19% and 7% of the cases, respectively. Intratubular seminoma was associated primarily with seminomas or mixed germ cell tumors with a seminomatous component, but was also present in a case of a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor. Intratubular embryonal carcinoma was associated exclusively with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. All cases of intratubular embryonal carcinoma were identified morphologically and exhibited histologic features corresponding to traditional definitions of this lesion. No examples of intratubular embryonal carcinoma as defined by CD30 expression alone in the absence of an intratubular proliferation were observed. The presence of intratubular seminoma in a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor suggests that it is a true preinvasive lesion rather than a manifestation of intratubular spread of an established invasive seminoma. The low incidence of intratubular embryonal carcinoma supports the theory that most nonseminomatous germ cell tumors evolve initially as

  4. Comments to Recent Guidelines on Undescended Testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutasy, Balazs; Thorup, Joergen M; Wester, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    During the past couple of decades, our understanding of the treatment of undescended testis (UDT) has hugely expanded and it is still dynamically changing: new diagnostic tools are available, and experimental procedures are becoming a real-life treatment options. Our community needs to continuous...

  5. Perineal Ectopic Testis in an Adult

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    testes are prone to trauma and testicular torsion. This is also associated with inguinal hernia and infertility. (2, 5). Functional prognosis is similar (9). Orchidopexy through an inguinal incision is the standard procedure as the cord structures are of normal length (2). If the testis is severely atrophic , orchidectomy is undertaken.

  6. Free radicals in adolescent varicocele testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Carmelo; Santoro, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using "adolescent," "varicocele," "free radicals," "oxidative and nitrosative stress," "testis," and "seminiferous tubules" as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants.

  7. Predictive value of diffusion-weighted imaging without and with including contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in image analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noij, Daniel P., E-mail: d.noij@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Pouwels, Petra J.W., E-mail: pjw.pouwels@vumc.nl [Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Ljumanovic, Redina, E-mail: rljumanovic@adventh.org [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Knol, Dirk L., E-mail: dirklknol@gmail.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Doornaert, Patricia, E-mail: p.doornaert@vumc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Bree, Remco de, E-mail: r.debree@vumc.nl [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Castelijns, Jonas A., E-mail: j.castelijns@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands); Graaf, Pim de, E-mail: p.degraaf@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Primary tumor volume and lymph node ADC1000 are predictors of survival. • CE-T1WI does not improve the prognostic capacity of DWI. • Using CE-T1WI for ROI placement results in lower interobserver agreement. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess disease-free survival (DFS) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with (chemo)radiotherapy ([C]RT). Methods: Pretreatment MR-images of 78 patients were retrospectively studied. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were calculated with two sets of two b-values: 0–750 s/mm{sup 2} (ADC{sub 750}) and 0–1000 s/mm{sup 2} (ADC{sub 1000}). One observer assessed tumor volume on T1-WI. Two independent observers assessed ADC-values of primary tumor and largest lymph node in two sessions (i.e. without and with including CE-T1WI in image analysis). Interobserver and intersession agreement were assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) separately for ADC{sub 750} and ADC{sub 1000}. Lesion volumes and ADC-values were related to DFS using Cox regression analysis. Results: Median follow-up was 18 months. Interobserver ICC was better without than with CE-T1WI (primary tumor: 0.92 and 0.75–0.83, respectively; lymph node: 0.81–0.83 and 0.61–0.64, respectively). Intersession ICC ranged from 0.84 to 0.89. With CE-T1WI, mean ADC-values of primary tumor and lymph node were higher at both b-values than without CE-T1WI (P < 0.001). Tumor volume (sensitivity: 73%; specificity: 57%) and lymph node ADC{sub 1000} (sensitivity: 71–79%; specificity: 77–79%) were independent significant predictors of DFS without and with including CE-T1WI (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Pretreatment primary tumor volume and lymph node ADC{sub 1000} were significant independent predictors of DFS in HNSCC treated with (C)RT. DFS could be predicted from ADC-values acquired without and with including CE-T1WI in image analysis. The inclusion of CE-T1WI did not result in significant improvements in the predictive value of

  8. Relationship between response to induction chemotherapy and disease control in patients with advanced laryngeal carcinoma included in an organ preservation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Xavier; Valero, Cristina; Rovira, Carlota; Rodriguez, Camilo; López, Montserrat; García-Lorenzo, Jacinto; Quer, Miquel

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between the degree of response to induction chemotherapy and the disease control in patients with locally advanced laryngeal carcinomas candidates to total laryngectomy. This retrospective study includes 389 patients with T3-T4 laryngeal tumors candidates to total laryngectomy, diagnosed between 1985 and 2013, treated with induction chemotherapy in an organ preservation protocol. Five-year local recurrence-free survival for patients receiving conservative treatment with radiotherapy after a complete response to induction chemotherapy was 75.4%; for patients with partial response greater than 50%, it was 62.0%; and for patients with the absence of response, it was 32.7%. There were significant differences in local recurrence-free survival and laryngeal dysfunction-free survival according to the response to induction chemotherapy (P = 0.0001) at the expense of patients with absence of response to induction chemotherapy. Patients with partial response greater than 50% treated with radiotherapy had a tendency to have worse local recurrence-free survival and laryngeal dysfunction-free survival than patients with complete response, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Patients with the absence of response after induction chemotherapy had significant differences in disease-specific survival according to the second treatment: for patients treated with surgery it was 70.2%, whereas for patients treated with radiotherapy, it was 28.2% (P = 0.0001). In patients with the absence of response to induction chemotherapy, conservative treatment with radiotherapy implies a significant decrease in survival.

  9. Whole-body-MR imaging including DWIBS in the work-up of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noij, Daniel P., E-mail: d.noij@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boerhout, Els J., E-mail: e.boerhout@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pieters-van den Bos, Indra C., E-mail: i.pieters@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Comans, Emile F., E-mail: efi.comans@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oprea-Lager, Daniela, E-mail: d.oprea-lager@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reinhard, Rinze, E-mail: r.reinhard@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoekstra, Otto S., E-mail: os.hoekstra@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bree, Remco de, E-mail: r.debree@vumc.nl [Department Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Graaf, Pim de, E-mail: p.degraaf@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Castelijns, Jonas A., E-mail: j.castelijns@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: To assess the feasibility of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) including diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background-body-signal-suppression (DWIBS) for the evaluation of distant malignancies in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); and to compare WB-MRI findings with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) and chest-CT. Methods: Thirty-three patients with high risk for metastatic spread (26 males; range 48–79 years, mean age 63 ± 7.9 years (mean ± standard deviation) years) were prospectively included with a follow-up of six months. WB-MRI protocol included short-TI inversion recovery and T1-weighted sequences in the coronal plane and half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo T2 and contrast-enhanced-T1-weighted sequences in the axial plane. Axial DWIBS was reformatted in the coronal plane. Interobserver variability was assessed using weighted kappa and the proportion specific agreement (PA). Results: Two second primary tumors and one metastasis were detected on WB-MRI. WB-MRI yielded seven clinically indeterminate lesions which did not progress at follow-up. The metastasis and one second primary tumor were found when combining {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT and chest-CT findings. Interobserver variability for WB-MRI was κ = 0.91 with PA ranging from 0.82 to 1.00. For {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT κ could not be calculated due to a constant variable in the table and PA ranged from 0.40 to 0.99. Conclusions: Our WB-MRI protocol with DWIBS is feasible in the work-up of HNSCC patients for detection and characterization of distant pathology. WB-MRI can be complementary to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT, especially in the detection of non {sup 18}F-FDG avid second primary tumors.

  10. The TRENDY multi-center randomized trial on hepatocellular carcinoma - Trial QA including automated treatment planning and benchmark-case results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, S.J.M.; Sharfo, A.W.M.; Buijsen, J.; Verbakel, W.; Haasbeek, C.J.A.; Ollers, M.C.; Westerveld, H.; Wieringen, N. van; Reerink, O.; Seravalli, E.; Braam, P.M.; Wendling, M.; Lacornerie, T.; Mirabel, X.; Weytjens, R.; Depuydt, L.; Tanadini-Lang, S.; Riesterer, O.; Haustermans, K.; Depuydt, T.; Dwarkasing, R.S.; Willemssen, F.; Heijmen, B.J.M.; Romero, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The TRENDY trial is an international multi-center phase-II study, randomizing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients between transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with a target dose of 48-54Gy in six fractions. The radiotherapy

  11. The TRENDY multi-center randomized trial on hepatocellular carcinoma - Trial QA including automated treatment planning and benchmark-case results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habraken, Steven J. M.; Sharfo, Abdul Wahab M.; Buijsen, Jeroen; Verbakel, Wilko F. A. R.; Haasbeek, Cornelis J. A.; Öllers, Michel C.; Westerveld, Henrike; van Wieringen, Niek; Reerink, Onne; Seravalli, Enrica; Braam, Pètra M.; Wendling, Markus; Lacornerie, Thomas; Mirabel, Xavier; Weytjens, Reinhilde; Depuydt, Lieselotte; Tanadini-Lang, Stephanie; Riesterer, Oliver; Haustermans, Karin; Depuydt, Tom; Dwarkasing, Roy S.; Willemssen, François E. J. A.; Heijmen, Ben J. M.; Méndez Romero, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: The TRENDY trial is an international multi-center phase-II study, randomizing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients between transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with a target dose of 48-54 Gy in six fractions. The

  12. Lack of ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 Cancer/Testis Antigen Expression in Lung and Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheswaran, Emeaga; Pedersen, Christina B; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    cancers. Staining for the well-characterized MAGE-A proteins was included for comparison. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed previous mRNA analysis demonstrating that ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 proteins are confined to testis in normal individuals. Negative tissues included plancenta, which express many...... inhibitors has been proposed as an attractive strategy to increase the expression of cancer/testis antigens in tumors before immunotargeting; however, neither ADAM2, CALR3 nor SAGE1 could be significantly induced in lung and breast cancer cell lines using this strategy. Our results suggest that ADAM2, CALR3...... and antigenic properties, but the expression patterns of most of the more than 200 identified cancer/testis antigens in various cancers remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, we investigated the expression of the cancer/testis antigens ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 in lung and breast cancer, the two most...

  13. Lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase in human testis and in germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J E; Lindegaard, M L; Friis-Hansen, L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial lipase (EL, LIPG) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA and protein expression in normal human testis and testicular germ cell tumours (GCT). Both EL and LPL were expressed in normal seminiferous tubules and in the interstitial compartment. EL m......RNA and protein were found in all germ cells as well as in Sertoli and Leydig cells. EL mRNA was abundant in pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells and GCTs, and EL protein was present in the cytoplasm of these cells. LPL mRNA was also relatively abundant in germ cells, Sertoli cells, CIS cells and GCTs...

  14. A case of highly aggressive anaplastic seminoma of the testis presenting as fungating scrotal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Creta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic seminoma (AS is an uncommon histological variant of classical seminoma of the testis and account for 5%-15% of cases. It is poorly described in the scientific literature. We present the case of a 50-years-old homeless man presenting with fever, marked left scrotal hardness and a fungating left scrotal lesion. He underwent left orchiopexy 40 years before. A computed tomography with contrast media showed a suspect testis cancer with scrotal involvment, extensive intralesional necrosis and multiple systemic metastases. A wide excision of the left hemiscrotum including the testis was performed in order to prevent severe local and systemic infectious complications. Histological examination revealed an AS. General conditions showed a rapid deterioration and the patient died on post operative day 10.

  15. Tracheal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea is a rare primary tracheal malignancy. Obstructive symptoms such as dyspnoea, hoarseness of voice, dysphasia are commonly seen symptoms. Combined modality treatments including surgery and radiation therapy are considered as optimal treatment for these tumours. A case of adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 35 years old male patient who was treated successfully by surgical excision and external beam radiation therapy is presented.

  16. Cancer/Testis genes in relation to sperm biology and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Adebayo Babatunde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer testis antigens (CTAs, a large family of tumor-associated and immunogenic antigens expressed in human tumors of various histological origins, are highly restricted to the testis and trophoblast. CTAs have been identified as potent targets for tumor-specific immunotherapeutic advances and have immensely lead to the development of different clinical trials of CTA-based vaccine therapy because of their resilient in vivo immunogenicity and tumor-restricted expression pattern. Bladder cancer, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and melanoma are grouped as high CT gene expressors. Prostate and breast cancer as moderate, and colon and renal cancers are considered as low CT gene expressors. Large percentages of these identified CT genes are expressed during spermatogenesis but their function is still vaguely unknown. Researchers have taken a keen interest in CT genes as pertaining to their role in tumor growth and spermatogenesis. Testis has many similarities with cancerous tissues like cell division, immigration, and immortalization. The aim is to give a concise in-depth review on the role of some specific CT genes in spermatogenesis.

  17. Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria with Undescended Testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sandeep; Harith, Arun Kumar; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary porphyrias are a group of metabolic disorders of heme biosynthesis pathway that are characterized by acute neurovisceral symptoms, skin lesions, or both. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is an extremely rare disease with a mutation in the gene that codes for uroporphyrinogen III synthase leading to accumulation of porphyrin in different tissues and marked cutaneous photosensitivity. We report a case of CEP with infancy onset blistering, photosensitivity, red colored urine, and teeth along with scarring. Examination revealed an undescended testis of the left side. Mutation analysis revealed mutation in the uroporphyrinogen III synthase gene (UROS) resulting in c. 56 A > G (Tyr19Cys). The presence of undescended testis with a rare mutation in a case of CEP which itself is an extremely rare condition make the case interesting. PMID:27512208

  18. Senfølger efter torsio testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L; Brasso, K; Kay, L

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-five patients were examined six to eleven years after having been operated for torsion of the testis. Loss of testicular tissue was significantly associated with long preoperative duration of symptoms and with a low postoperative spermcount. No indications of autoimmunization affecting fer...... fertility nor evidence of bilateral defects were found. Apparently the reduced semen quality following testicular torsion is a matter of lost testicular tissue more than impairment of the quality of the remaining tissue....

  19. A Rare Cause of Testicular Metastasis: Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Nesip Manav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic testicular cancers are rare. Primary tumor sources are prostate, lung, and gastrointestinal tract for metastatic testicular cancers. Metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC to the testis is extremely rare. Two-thirds of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC is of invasive stage at diagnosis and metastatic sites are the pelvic lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone. We report a rare case of metastatic UTUC to the testis which has not been reported before, except one case in the literature. Testicular metastasis of UC should be considered in patients with hematuria and testicular swelling.

  20. Fluorescence and inmunohistological detection of estrogen receptors in dog testis and epidydimis after oral coumestrol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Hector; Perez-Rivero, Juan Jose; Martinez-Maya, Jose Juan; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro; Perez-Martinez, Mario; Garcia-Suarez, Maria-Dolores

    2008-12-01

    Estrogens are well recognized as important hormones in male reproduction and act as ligands to alpha and beta estrogen receptors. Both estrogen receptors could interact with estrogen-mimicking compounds such as the fluorescent phytoestrogen coumestrol, which acts both in an agonist or antagonist fashion. To investigate the presence of Coumestrol-Estrogen Receptor complexes by fluorescence in testis and epididymis, its effect in the ER expression by immunostain in the same tissues and the effect of this binding in the testis histological characteristics. Adult healthy and sexually active dogs were assigned to either the experimental or control group .Coumestrol impregnated dog biscuits were given to each animal from the experimental group once a week for a 4 week period. The control group received a biscuit with no Coumestrol, also once a week and for the same period. Testis morphology, ER immunodetection, and coumestrol-receptor binding were evaluated. The experiment was done in the facilities of the Mexico City canine shelter. Animals were caged individually with food and water ad libitum and having at least two daily hours for exercise. Morphological alterations in testis after oral administration of coumestrol were detected. The main alterations include decreased germinal epithelium in tubule, and the loss of a continuous proliferation and differentiation gamete layer. Fluorescence signals in testis interstitial Leydig cells and epididymus indicating ER-coumestrol complexes were detected at the same points to those Immunohystochemically detected ER. Coumestrol administration induces testis alterations and coumestrol-ER complexes can be co-localized by binding-enhanced fluorescence and immunoprecipitation.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Chad; Skoog, Steven

    2008-12-01

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumor is a rare benign neoplasm of the testicular stroma that accounts for 1-5% of all prepubertal testis tumors [Metcalfe PD, Farivar-Mohseni H, Farhat W, McLorie G, Khoury A, Bagli DJ. Pediatric testicular tumors: contemporary incidence and efficacy of testicular preserving surgery. J Urol 2003;170:2412-2416; Ross JH, Rybicki L, Kay R. Clinical behavior and a contemporary management algorithm for prepubertal testis tumors: a summary of the prepubertal testis tumor registry. J Urol 2002;168:1675-1679]. A prior case series retrospectively identified a cystic testis tumor on prenatal ultrasound images which was subsequently diagnosed as a juvenile granulosa cell tumor [Bryan DE, Cain MP, Casale AJ. Juvenile granulosa-theca cell (sex cord-stromal) tumor of the infant testis. J Urol 2003;169:1497-1498]. We report a case of a prenatally diagnosed testis tumor which was subsequently diagnosed as a juvenile granulosa cell tumor.

  2. Kihutav politseijuht Antropov testis Saaremaal Hummerit / Risto Berendson, Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berendson, Risto, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Politsei pressishefi sõnul testis politseijuht Robert Antropov Saaremaal julgestuspolitsei tarbeks maastikuautot Hummer. Endise politseijuhi Ain Seppiku kommentaare. Tabel: Tavaline politseimaastur võrreldes Hummeriga

  3. Serological identification of Tektin5 as a cancer/testis antigen and its immunogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafusa Tadashi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of new cancer antigens is necessary for the efficient diagnosis and immunotherapy. A variety of tumor antigens have been identified by several methodologies. Among those antigens, cancer/testis (CT antigens have became promising targets. Methods The serological identification of antigens by the recombinant expression cloning (SEREX methodology has been successfully used for the identification of cancer/testis (CT antigens. We performed the SEREX analysis of colon cancer. Results We isolated a total of 60 positive cDNA clones comprising 38 different genes. They included 2 genes with testis-specific expression profiles in the UniGene database, such as TEKT5 and a CT-like gene, A kinase anchoring protein 3 (AKAP3. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of TEKT5 was restricted to the testis in normal adult tissues. In malignant tissues, TEKT5 was aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers, including colon cancer. A serological survey of 101 cancer patients with different cancers by ELISA revealed antibodies to TEKT5 in 13 patients, including colon cancer. None of the 16 healthy donor serum samples were reactive in the same test. Conclusion We identified candidate new CT antigen of colon cancer, TEKT5. The findings indicate that TEKT5 is immunogenic in humans, and suggest its potential use as diagnostic as well as an immunotherapeutic reagent for cancer patients.

  4. The gut microbiota and developmental programming of the testis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Al-Asmakh

    Full Text Available Nutrients and environmental chemicals, including endocrine disruptors, have been incriminated in the current increase in male reproductive dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The gastrointestinal tract represents the largest surface area exposed to our environment and thereby plays a key role in connection with exposure of internal organs to exogenous factors. In this context the gut microbiome (all bacteria and their metabolites have been shown to be important contributors to body physiology including metabolism, cognitive functions and immunity. Pivotal to male reproduction is a proper development of the testis, including the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB that encapsulates and protects germ cells from stress induced environmental cues, e.g. pathogenic organisms and xenobiotics. Here we used specific pathogen free (SPF mice and germ-free (GF mice to explore whether gut microbiota and/or their metabolites can influence testis development and regulation of BTB. Lumen formation in the seminiferous tubules, which coincides with the development of the BTB was delayed in the testes of GF mice at 16 days postpartum. In addition, perfusion experiments (Evans blue demonstrated increased BTB permeability in these same mice. Reduced expressions of occludin, ZO-2 and E-cadherin in GF testis suggested that the microbiota modulated BTB permeability by regulation of cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, exposure of GF mice to Clostridium Tyrobutyricum (CBUT, which secrete high levels of butyrate, restored the integrity of the BTB and normalized the levels of cell adhesion proteins. Moreover, the GF mice exhibited lower serum levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH than the SPF group. In addition, the intratesticular content of testosterone was lower in GF compared to SPF or CBUT animals. Thus, the gut microbiome can modulate the permeability of the BTB and might play a role in the regulation of endocrine functions of the testis.

  5. Laparoscopic classification of the impalpable testis: an update

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inguinal tesis. (Type 4). Tesis found in the abdomen. (Type 4a) iliac. FSO. (Type 4b) pelvic. Primary orchiopexy. A flow chart to summarize management according to laparoscopic findings. Fig. 5. Four-year-old boy with nonpalpable testis. (a) Laparoscopic view of pelvic testis (type 4b); (b) stretch test for testicular vessels; ...

  6. Adult Patients Presenting with Undescended Testis in Awareness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Management of adults with undescended testis was challenging due to irreversible complications, psychological effects and poor outcome of treatment which shows the importance of awareness programs that will result in childhood presentation. Key Words: Undescended testis, cryptorchidism, infertility, adults, ...

  7. ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins in mouse testis

    OpenAIRE

    Faraone Mennella, Maria R.; Quesada, Piera; Farina, Benedetta; Leone, Enzo; Jones, Roy

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear acceptor proteins for poly(ADP-ribose) were investigated in mouse liver and testis. In liver, histones are ribosylated preferentially, whereas in testis the major acceptors are non-histone proteins. An analysis of the purified testicular acceptor proteins suggests that they are high- and low-mobility-group-like proteins.

  8. An oncological view on the blood-testis barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, J; Groen, HJM; van der Graaf, WTA; Hollema, H; Hendrikse, NH; Vaalburg, W; Sleijfer, DT; de Vries, EGE

    The function of the blood-testis barrier is to protect germ cells from harmful influences; thus, it also impedes the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the testis. The barrier has three components: first, a physicochemical barrier consisting of continuous capillaries, Sertoli cells in the tubular

  9. Torsion of the appendix testis in an undescended testicle | Hajji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical examination revealed a tender, swollen and painful undescended testis located in the inguinal area with an empty ipsilateral hemiscrotum. Men presenting with pain and undescended testis are more likely to have testicular torsion, malignancy, associated inguinal hernia or trauma. The extra-scrotal position of the ...

  10. Arterial supply of the human fetal testis during its migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampaio, FJB; Favorito, LA; Freitas, MA; Damiao, R; Gouveia, E

    Purpose: Irrespective of the surgical technique chosen to treat high undescended testis, preservation of an adequate arterial supply for the testis is crucial for successful orchiopexy with maintenance of normal testicular size and texture. To provide an anatomical background for such a procedure,

  11. Utilization Of Crude Testis Extract To Enhance Broiler Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of using aqueous testis extracts as growth promoters. In the first experiments, 100 Abore Acre chicks were assigned to four treatments in which the birds were given 0, 10,15 and 20% of a 3.3 % aqueous bull testis extract in drinking water ad libitum from week ...

  12. Development and descent of the testis in relation to cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Helena E; Cortes, Dina; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The testis descends in two phases. Animal studies suggest, that the transabdominal descent of the testis depends on the insulin-like hormone 3 (INSL3). Androgens are important in the inguinoscrotal testicular descent in animals and humans. In general, the cause of cryptorchidism is unknown...

  13. Testis-sparing surgery for the conservative management of small testicular masses: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunocilla, Eugenio; Gentile, Giorgio; Schiavina, Riccardo; Borghesi, Marco; Franceschelli, Alessandro; Pultrone, Cristian Vincenzo; Chessa, Francesco; Romagnoli, Daniele; Ghanem, Sadam Mahmoud; Gacci, Mauro; Martorana, Giuseppe; Colombo, Fulvio

    2013-11-01

    Malignant germ cell tumours represent the vast majority of palpable testicular masses, and radical orchiectomy is still considered the standard-of-care. Testis-sparing surgery (TSS) could be an alternative to radical orchiectomy in patients diagnosed with small testicular masses (STMs). The aim of this article was to review the current indications and the oncological and functional outcomes of TSS when performed for STMs. We performed a non-systematic review of literature using the Medline database, including a free-text protocol using the terms "testis sparing surgery", "partial orchiectomy", "testis tumour" and "sex cord tumour". Only the articles reporting data on organ-sparing surgery for testicular neoplasms were evaluated. No randomized controlled trials comparing TSS with radical orchiectomy have been reported. Indications for TSS are controversial, especially for patients with normal contra-lateral testis. For testicular masses of less then 2 cm, TSS seems to be the best treatment option. Frozen-section examination is an essential assessment at the time of TSS, and allows for discrimination of benign from malignant neoplasms. Intermediate- and long-term follow-up results showed no significant risk of local and distant recurrences in the main series reported in literature. According to currently available data, TSS is a safe and effective treatment for STMs in selected patients, and bypasses surgical overtreatment, without compromising oncological and functional outcomes. Further studies are needed in order to confirm the oncological safety of this procedure.

  14. The SOX gene family: function and regulation in testis determination and male fertility maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Hou, Cong-Cong; She, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2013-03-01

    The Sox (Sry-type HMG box) genes encode a group of proteins characterized by the existence of an SRY (sex-determining region on Y chromosome) box, a 79 amino acid motif that encodes an HMG (high mobility group) domain which can bind and bend DNA, which is the only part in SRY that is conserved between species. The Sox gene family functions in many aspects in embryogenesis, including testis development, CNS neurogenesis, oligodendrocyte development, chondrogenesis, neural crest cell development and other respects. The Sox gene family was originally identified through homology with Sry. The Sry gene is the mammalian testis-determining gene. It functions to open the testis determination pathway directly and close the ovary pathway indirectly. Sry and Sox9 are the most important two genes expressed during testis determination. Besides, researchers have found that Sox8 and Sox9 have functions in the male fertility maintenance after birth. In this review, information was evaluated from mouse or from human if not mentioned otherwise.

  15. Imaging of mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, M. [University of Trieste, Department of Radiology, Trieste (Italy); Boulay-Coletta, I. [Fondation Hopital Saint Joseph, Service d' Imagerie Medical, Paris (France); Butini, R. [Ospedale S. Giacomo, Department of Radiology, Castelfranco Veneto, TV (Italy); Dudea, S.M. [Univ. Med. Pharm. ' ' Iuliu Hatieganu' ' , Department of Radiology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Oltmanns, G. [University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ramchandani, P. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Stein, M.W. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Valentino, M. [Sant' Antonio Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tolmezzo, UD (Italy); Derchi, Lorenzo E. [University of Genoa, Department of Health Sciences, Genova (Italy); IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino IST, Radiologia d' Urgenza, Genova (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    To describe the imaging findings in a series of patients with mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. We reviewed clinical data, imaging findings and follow-up information in a series of 10 pathology-proven cases of mesothelioma (all had US; 2 had MR) of the tunica vaginalis. A variety of patterns could be observed, the most common (5/10) being a hydrocele with parietal, solid and hypervascular vegetations; one patient had a septated hydrocele with hypervascular walls; one had multiple, solid nodules surrounded by a small, physiological quantity of fluid; one a cystic lesion with thick walls and vegetations compressing the testis; two had a solid paratesticular mass. MR showed multiple small nodules on the surface of the tunica vaginalis in one case and diffuse thickening and vegetations in the other one; lesions had low signal intensity on T2-w images and were hypervascular after contrast injection. A preoperative diagnosis of mesotheliomas presenting as solid paratesticular masses seems very difficult with imaging. On the contrary, the diagnosis must be considered in patients in whom a hydrocele with parietal vegetations is detected, especially if these show high vascularity. (orig.)

  16. Effect of varicocelectomy on testis volume and semen parameters in adolescents: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele repair in adolescent remains controversial. Our aim is to identify and combine clinical trials results published thus far to ascertain the efficacy of varicocelectomy in improving testis volume and semen parameters compared with nontreatment control. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase and Web of Science, which included results obtained from meta-analysis, randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. The study population was adolescents with clinically palpable varicocele with or without the testicular asymmetry or abnormal semen parameters. Cases were allocated to treatment and observation groups, and testis volume or semen parameters were adopted as outcome measures. As a result, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs and nonrandomized controlled trials studying bilateral testis volume or semen parameters in both treatment and observation groups were identified. Using a random effect model, mean difference of testis volume between the treatment group and the observation group was 2.9 ml (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6, 5.2; P< 0.05 for the varicocele side and 1.5 ml (95% CI: 0.3, 2.7; P< 0.05 for the healthy side. The random effect model analysis demonstrated that the mean difference of semen concentration, total semen motility, and normal morphology between the two groups was 13.7 × 10 6 ml−1 (95% CI: −1.4, 28.8; P = 0.075, 2.5% (95% CI: −3.6, 8.6; P= 0.424, and 2.9% (95% CI: −3.0, 8.7; P= 0.336 respectively. In conclusion, although varicocelectomy significantly improved bilateral testis volume in adolescents with varicocele compared with observation cases, semen parameters did not have any statistically significant difference between two groups. Well-planned, properly conducted RCTs are needed in order to confirm the above-mentioned conclusion further and to explore whether varicocele repair in adolescents could improve subsequently spontaneous pregnancy rates.

  17. Radiochemotherapy including cisplatin alone versus cisplatin + 5-fluorouracil for locally advanced unresectable stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribius, Silke; Kilic, Yasemin [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kronemann, Stefanie [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Schroeder, Ursula [Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery, Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Hakim, Samer [Dept. of Oro-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Rades, Dirk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Background and purpose: the optimal radiochemotherapy regimen for advanced head-and-neck cancer is still debated. This nonrandomized study compares two cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy regimens in 128 patients with locally advanced unresectable stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Patients and methods: concurrent chemotherapy consisted of either two courses cisplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/d1-5 + 29-33; n = 54) or two courses cisplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/d1-5 + 29-33) + 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 600 mg/m{sup 2}/d1-5 + 29-33; n = 74). Results: at least one grade 3 toxicity occurred in 25 of 54 patients (46%) receiving cisplatin alone and in 52 of 74 patients (70%) receiving cisplatin + 5-FU. The latter regimen was particularly associated with increased rates of mucositis (p = 0.027) and acute skin toxicity (p = 0.001). Seven of 54 (13%) and 20 of 74 patients (27%) received only one chemotherapy course due to treatment-related acute toxicity. Late toxicity in terms of xerostomia, neck fibrosis, skin toxicity, and lymphedema was not significantly different. The 2-year locoregional control rates were 67% after cisplatin alone and 52% after cisplatin + 5-FU (p = 0.35). The metastases-free survival rates were 79% and 69%, respectively (p = 0.65), and the overall survival rates 70% and 51%, respectively (p = 0.10). On multivariate analysis, outcome was significantly associated with performance status, T-category, N-category, hemoglobin level prior to radiotherapy, and radiotherapy break > 1 week. Conclusion: two courses of fractionated cisplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/day) alone appear preferable, as this regimen resulted in similar outcome and late toxicity as two courses of cisplatin + 5-FU, but in significantly less acute toxicity. (orig.)

  18. HER-2/neu immunoreactivity in invasive mammary carcinomas: a comparative study using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies including the HercepTestTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouvêa Agostinho Pinto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HER-2/neu overexpression has been tested using immunohistochemistry as a reliable and cost-effective method to select patients with invasive mammary carcinomas (IMC for trastuzumab treatment, but there is no consensus regarding the best antibody to be used. The aim of the present study was to test five different antibodies for determining the status of HER-2/neu overexpression in IMC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-six formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded IMC were investigated by immunohistochemistry, using two polyclonal antibodies, HercepTestTM (Dako and A0485 (Dako, and three monoclonal antibodies, the clone CB11, from both Novocastra Laboratories and from Biogenex, and the clone 4D5 (Genentech. All immunostainings were scored according to the guidelines for the HercepTestTM. RESULTS: The A0485 was positive in 25 cases (37.9%. The HercepTestTM was positive in 14/66 cases (21.2%. Both CB11 antibodies yielded a positive reaction in the same nine patients (13.6%. The 4D5 was positive in only 4/66 cases (6.1%. All positive cases for CB11 or 4D5 were HercepTestTMpositive. All cases positive for HercepTestTM were positive for A0485. Most of the HercepTestTM and A0485 2+ cases were negative when using the other antibodies. DISCUSSION: There was a higher number of cases presenting HER-2/neu positivity with the A0485 and HercepTestTM than with the other antibodies, primarily in cases scored as 2+. There was no difference in positivity when the CB11Ab was used, regardless of company. CONCLUSION: The use of immunohistochemistry for the clinical assessment of HER-2/neu overexpression still needs prospective validation.

  19. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Bernadette

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a tumor arising from the epithelial cells that cover the surface and line the nasopharynx. The annual incidence of NPC in the UK is 0.3 per million at age 0–14 years, and 1 to 2 per million at age 15–19 years. Incidence is higher in the Chinese and Tunisian populations. Although rare, NPC accounts for about one third of childhood nasopharyngeal neoplasms. Three subtypes of NPC are recognized in the World Health Organization (WHO classification: 1 squamous cell carcinoma, typically found in the older adult population; 2 non-keratinizing carcinoma; 3 undifferentiated carcinoma. The tumor can extend within or out of the nasopharynx to the other lateral wall and/or posterosuperiorly to the base of the skull or the palate, nasal cavity or oropharynx. It then typically metastases to cervical lymph nodes. Cervical lymphadenopathy is the initial presentation in many patients, and the diagnosis of NPC is often made by lymph node biopsy. Symptoms related to the primary tumor include trismus, pain, otitis media, nasal regurgitation due to paresis of the soft palate, hearing loss and cranial nerve palsies. Larger growths may produce nasal obstruction or bleeding and a "nasal twang". Etiological factors include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, genetic susceptibility and consumption of food with possible carcinogens – volatile nitrosamines. The recommended treatment schedule consists of three courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, irradiation, and adjuvant interferon (IFN-beta therapy.

  20. Aggressive surgical management of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Maganty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is a rare and aggressive malignancy arising from the epididymal epithelium. We present a case of a 66-year-old male who presented with left testis mass. Histopathological analysis of orchiectomy specimen was consistent with adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. Subsequent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection revealed metastatic disease not detected on preoperative PET-CT. Prior reports have suggested poor response rates to both systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Aggressive surgical management of the retroperitoneum should be considered even in clinically node-negative patients given the paucity of other effective treatment regimens.

  1. Surgical treatment and follow up on undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jorgen; Cortes, Dina

    2009-01-01

    number at birth in some cryptorchid testes and Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia seen in early childhood. The hypothesis that the abnormal location of the testis exposes the testis to infertility and malignant transformation is supported by the findings of early treatment lowering the risk of both...... a common etiologic antenatal factor is associated with infertility and/or testicular malignancy is supported by the finding of the influence of maternal lifestyle factors on fertility, a relative cancer risk of OR: 2.0 in contralateral descended testis of unilateral cryptorchidism, impaired germ cell...... infertility and testicular cancer. Disrupted endocrine regulation may be combined with both hypotheses....

  2. Goat SRY induces testis development in XX transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannetier, Maëlle; Tilly, Gaëlle; Kocer, Ayhan; Hudrisier, Marthe; Renault, Lauriane; Chesnais, Nathalie; Costa, José; Le Provost, Fabienne; Vaiman, Daniel; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Pailhoux, Eric

    2006-06-26

    The testis-determining gene SRY is not well-conserved among mammals, particularly between mouse and other mammals, both in terms of protein structure and of expression regulation. To evaluate SRY phylogenic conservation in regards to its function, we expressed the goat gene (gSRY) in XX transgenic mouse gonads. Here, we show that gSRY induces testis formation, despite a goat expression profile. Our results demonstrate that sex-reversal can be induced in XX-mice by a non-mouse SRY thus suggesting a conserved molecular mechanism of action of this testis-determining gene across mammalian species.

  3. Mixed Germ Cell Tumor of the Testis with Post- Chemotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatinum) chemotherapy after left orchiectomy for mixed seminomatous and non- seminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis. He presented four months post-chemotherapy with a left scrotal mass which was excised and ...

  4. Penile ectopic testis: experience of an adolescent | Ongom | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dartos pouch. Postoperative recovery was normal. It was concluded that a penile ectopic testis, normal in size, may present during adolescence. The condition is correctible though there is need for screening and early detection in children through ...

  5. The relationship between testis size and stimulated plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    serving capacity, libido score and serve:mount ratio) of 14 Dorper rams were measured in the breeding season (March) in order to determine the influence of testis size and testosterone concentration on mating performance. Results indicated ...

  6. Torsion of an undescended testis located in the inguinal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Andrew P; Van Heukelom, Jon

    2012-05-01

    Torsion of undescended testis located within the inguinal canal is a rare finding in the emergency department (ED). This diagnosis can present as undifferentiated abdominal or groin pain, and a full genitourinary examination is essential to making this diagnosis. We present this case to increase awareness among emergency physicians regarding torsion of undescended testis. A 5-year-old boy presented to the ED with abdominal pain and a mass in his right groin. Physical examination and Doppler ultrasound were used to diagnose torsion of undescended testis. In a patient with undescended testis, torsion must be considered as a cause of abdominal or groin pain. Full genitourinary examination is essential to making this diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidermoid cyst of the testis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docal, I.; Crespo, C.; Pardo, A.; Prieto, A.; Alonso, P. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Da Costa, Burela (Lugo) (Spain); Calzada, J. [Servicio de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Da Costa, Burela (Lugo) (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    Epidermoid cyst of the testis is an uncommon benign tumour, with an overall incidence of 1-2 % of all resected testicular masses. When imaging findings suggest that an intratesticular mass is likely to be an epidermoid cyst, conservative management (enucleation with testicular preservation) can be performed rather than orchidectomy. This case report records an epidermoid cyst in a 12-year-old boy in whom the US findings allowed testis-sparing surgery instead of orchidectomy. (orig.)

  8. Menaquinone-4 enhances testosterone production in rats and testis-derived tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohsaki Yusuke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin K is essential for the posttranslational modification of various Gla proteins. Although it is widespread in several organs, including the testis, the function of vitamin K in these organs is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the function of vitamin K in the testis and analyzed its role in steroidogenesis. Methods Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were fed a diet supplemented with menaquinone-4 (MK-4, 75 mg/kg diet, one of the predominant K2 vitamins present in the testis, for 5 weeks. In vivo testosterone levels of the rats' plasma and testes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and in vitro testosterone levels of testis-derived tumor cells (I-10 cells maintained in Ham's F-10 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum were measured following treatment with MK-4 (0 to 100 μM at several time points. Testosterone and cellular protein levels were analyzed with respect to their effects on steroidogenesis. Results Testosterone levels in the plasma and testes of MK-4-fed rats were significantly increased compared to those of control rats, with no obvious differences in plasma luteinizing hormone levels. Secreted testosterone levels from I-10 cells were elevated by MK-4, but not by vitamin K1, in a dose-dependent manner independent of cAMP treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that expression of CYP11A, the rate-limiting enzyme in steroidogenesis, and phosphorylation levels of protein kinase A (PKA and the cAMP response element-binding protein were all stimulated by the presence of MK-4. Enhancement of testosterone production was inhibited by H89, a specific inhibitor of PKA, but not by warfarin, an inhibitor of γ-glutamylcarboxylation. Conclusions MK-4 stimulates testosterone production in rats and testis-derived tumor cells via activation of PKA. MK-4 may be involved in steroidogenesis in the testis, and its supplementation could reverse the downregulation of testosterone production in

  9. Laparoscopic diagnosis and treatment of nonpalpable testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco T. Denes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Treatment of the cryptorchid testicle is justified due to the increased risk of infertility and malignancy as well as the risk of testicular trauma and psychological stigma on patients and their parents. Approximately 20% of cryptorchid testicles are nonpalpable. In these cases, the videolaparoscopic technique is a useful alternative method for diagnosis and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present data concerning 90 patients submitted to diagnostic laparoscopy for impalpable testicles. Forty-six patients (51.1% had intra-abdominal gonads. In 25 testicles of 19 patients, we performed a two stage laparoscopic Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy. The other 27 patients underwent primary laparoscopic orchiopexy, in a total of 29 testicles. RESULTS: We obtained an overall 88% success rate with the 2 stage Fowler-Stephens approach and only 33% rate success using one stage Fowler-Stephens surgery with primary vascular ligature. There was no intraoperative complication in our group of patients. In the laparoscopic procedures, the cosmetic aspect is remarkably more favorable as compared to open surgeries. Hospital stay and convalescence were brief. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric age group, the laparoscopic approach is safe and feasible. Furthermore, the laparoscopic orchiopexy presents excellent results in terms of diagnosis and therapy of the impalpable testis, which is why this technique has been routinely incorporated in our Department.

  10. Expression and functional role of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (C-MET) during postnatal rat testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catizone, A; Ricci, G; Galdieri, M

    2001-05-01

    The met protooncogene encodes the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR, c-met). C-met, a tyrosine kinase receptor protein, is widely expressed in different cell types including the male reproductive tract. As we recently demonstrated, both c-met messenger RNA and protein are expressed in prebuberal rat testis. The aim of this work was to detect the expression of c-met during postnatal testis development and to study its functional role. Our findings show that in total rat testis c-met is expressed during postnatal life until the sexual maturation of the animals. To evaluate the receptor expression in the different cell types in the testis, homogeneous cell populations of Sertoli and peritubular myoid cells were isolated from the seminiferous tubules of 10- and 35-day-old animals. c-met gene is expressed in myoid cells at the ages considered and its expression decreases with increasing age. By contrast, in Sertoli cells c-met expression is first detectable at 25 days of life and its expression increases with the increasing age being well evident at 35 days of age. C-met protein was detected by immunocytochemistry and its expression correlates with gene expression. The receptor is functionally active because HGF administration induces morphological changes in myoid cells and in c-met-expressing Sertoli cells. As a consequence of HGF addition, Sertoli cells cultured on reconstituted basement membrane reorganize into cord-like structures that resemble testicular seminiferous cords. The data here reported demonstrate for the first time that in Sertoli cells c-met expression is developmentally regulated being present and functionally active in postpuberal Sertoli cells. Given that c-met expression persists in myoid cells during postnatal testis development and that in Sertoli cells its expression correlates over time with germ cell differentiation and lumen formation, we conclude that the c-met/HGF system is involved in testis development and function.

  11. A case report of thyroid carcinoma with multiple organ metastasis including brain metastasis effectively treated by surgery and [sup 131]I treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Masahito; Yoshida, Satoru; Kubota, Masahiro; Tsuda, Takatoshi; Morita, Kazuo (Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1993-12-01

    Reported is a case of a multiple organ metastases that also included a brain metastasis from a thyroid cancer for which surgery, followed by [sup 131]I therapy, proved very effective and enabled the patient to live for over 15 more years. The treatment for a differentiated thyroid cancer has somewhat been established. The outcome of this case, however, is considered extremely rare, in that a bone metastasis that was surgically removed resulted in no paraplegia and [sup 131]I therapy appeared to cause the disappearance of the brain metastasis. The authors report the encouraging news that for 15 years that followed the initial thyroidectomy, the patient's condition remained good. (author).

  12. Metachronous colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Svendsen, L B; Mellemgaard, A

    1990-01-01

    During the period 1943-67, 903 Danish patients aged less than 40 years had colorectal carcinoma. The patients were followed up for up to 41 years and during this period 44 of 501 (9 per cent) operated on for cure developed a metachronous colorectal carcinoma. The cumulative risk of a metachronous...... colorectal carcinoma was 30 per cent after up to 41 years of observation. The occurrence of a metachronous colorectal carcinoma was evenly distributed in the observation period. The cumulative survival rate after operation for a metachronous colorectal carcinoma was 41 per cent after 20 years of observation....... We propose a lifelong follow-up programme after resection of colorectal carcinoma for cure in this age group, including annual Hemoccult test and colonoscopy at 3-year intervals....

  13. Tubular Ectasia of the Rete Testis: What Is Behind It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Rogel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tubular ectasia of the rete testis (TERT is a dilatation of the seminiferous tubules of the mediastinum testis. It tends to be asymptomatic and usually constitutes an incidental finding of imaging studies. Scrotal ultrasound (SU shows tubules with a cystic appearance, suggesting a number of possible diagnoses, including testicular tumours. Objective: To review our experience and describe the clinical and ultrasound features. Design: Retrospective descriptive review. Setting: The images were obtained by SU on an ambulatory basis. SU was performed with the Pro Focus Ultrasound System (BK Medical®, Massachusetts, USA. The indications of the exploration, the SU findings, and the associated conditions were the variables analysed. Participants: 460 SU studies performed in our hospital between 2010 and 2013. The subjects were men, with a median age of 66 years (range 47–78. Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis: SPSS® version 20 (IBM, New York, USA was used for the descriptive analysis of the data. Results and Limitations: TERT was identified in 23 out of 460 SU studies performed. SU was indicated due to the presence of scrotal swelling in 7 patients (30%, an epididymal mass in 8 patients (35%, mild testicular pain in 6 patients (26%, and post-surgical control in 2 asymptomatic patients. Within the 23 patients, 10 (43.4% were diagnosed with an epididymal cyst, 3 (13% with chronic epididymitis, and 9 (39% with a hydrocoele. With regard to associated conditions, 3 (13% had undergone ipsilateral inguinal hernia repair, 3 (13% had undergone ipsilateral hydrocoelectomy, and 1 (4% had a history of contralateral testicular cancer. TERT was unilateral in all cases. No malignant degeneration of the lesions was observed in our series. Conclusions: According to our experience, TERT is an incidental condition where detailed clinical history, adequate physical examination, and SU findings can lead to the diagnosis. Knowledge of this disease

  14. Macrophages Contribute to the Spermatogonial Niche in the Adult Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony DeFalco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The testis produces sperm throughout the male reproductive lifespan by balancing self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs. Part of the SSC niche is thought to lie outside the seminiferous tubules of the testis; however, specific interstitial components of the niche that regulate spermatogonial divisions and differentiation remain undefined. We identified distinct populations of testicular macrophages, one of which lies on the surface of seminiferous tubules, in close apposition to areas of tubules enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia. These macrophages express spermatogonial proliferation- and differentiation-inducing factors, such as colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1 and enzymes involved in retinoic acid (RA biosynthesis. We show that transient depletion of macrophages leads to a disruption in spermatogonial differentiation. These findings reveal an unexpected role for macrophages in the spermatogonial niche in the testis and raise the possibility that macrophages play previously unappreciated roles in stem/progenitor cell regulation in other tissues.

  15. Pluripotent male germline stem cells from goat fetal testis and their survival in mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jinlian; Zhu, Haijing; Pan, Shaohui; Liu, Chao; Sun, Junwei; Ma, Xiaoling; Dong, Wuzi; Liu, Weishuai; Li, Wei

    2011-04-01

    Male germline stem cells (mGSCs) are stem cells present in male testis responsible for spermatogenesis during their whole life. Studies have shown that mGSCs can be derived in vitro and resemble embryonic stem cells (ESCs) properties both in the mouse and humans. However, little is know about these cells in domestic animals. Here we report the first successful establishment of goat GSCs derived from 2-5-month fetal testis, and developmental potential assay of these cells both in vitro and in vivo. These cells express pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Sox2, C-myc, and Tert when cultured as human ESCs conditions. Embryoid bodies (EBs) formed by goat mGSCs were induced with 2 × 10(-6) M retinoic acid (RA). Immunofluorescence analysis showed that some cells inside of the EBs were positive for meiosis marker-SCP3, STRA8, and germ cell marker-VASA, and haploid marker-FE-J1, PRM1, indicating their germ cell lineage differentiation. Some cells become elongated sperm-like cells after induction. Approximately 34.88% (30/86) embryos showed cleavage and four embryos were cultured on murine fibroblast feeder and formed small embryonic stem like colonies. However, most stalled at four-cell stage after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of these cells. Transplantation of DAPI labeled mGSCs into the seminiferous tubules of busulfan-treated mice, and showed that mGSCs can colonize, self-renew, and differentiate into germ cells. Thus, we have established a goat GSC cell line and these cells could be differentiated into sperm-like cells in vivo and sperms in vitro, providing a promising platform for generation of transgenic goat for production of specific humanized proteins.

  16. Initial Development of an Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Mirilas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop our previously presented mechanical device, the Testis Rigidity Tester (TRT, into an electronic system (Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester, ETRT by applying tactile imaging, which has been used successfully with other solid organs. A measuring device, located at the front end of the ETRT incorporates a tactile sensor comprising an array of microsensors. By application of a predetermined deformation of 2 mm, increased pressure alters linearly the resistance of each microsensor, producing changes of voltage. These signals were amplified, filtered, and digitized, and then processed by an electronic collector system, which presented them as a color-filled contour plot of the area of the testis coming into contact with the sensor. Testis models of different rigidity served for initial evaluation of ETRT; their evacuated central spaces contained different, increasing glue masses. An independent method of rigidity measurement, using an electric weight scale and a micrometer, showed that the more the glue injected, the greater the force needed for a 2-mm deformation. In a preliminary test, a single sensor connected to a multimeter showed similar force measurement for the same deformation in these phantoms. For each of the testis models compressed in the same manner, the ETRT system offered a map of pressures, represented by a color scale within the contour plot of the contact area with the sensor. ETRT found certain differences in rigidity between models that had escaped detection by a blind observer. ETRT is easy to use and provides a color-coded “insight“ of the testis internal structure. After experimental testing, it could be valuable in intraoperative evaluation of testes, so that the surgeon can decide about orchectomy or orcheopexy.

  17. Testicular microlithiasis in boys and young men with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Hack, W.W.M.; Voort-Doedens, L.M. van der; Pierik, F.H.; Looijenga, L.H.J.; Sijstermans, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis by ultrasound in boys and young men with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis. Materials and Methods: During followup for testicular growth patients with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis were also

  18. Breakdown of immune homeostasis in the testis of mice lacking Tyro3, Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Nan; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Yan, Keqin; Liu, Zhenghui; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Peng; Chen, Yongmei; Han, Daishu

    2013-07-01

    Tyro3, Axl and Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinases triple knockout (TAM(-/-)) mice are male infertile due to impaired spermatogenesis. However, the mechanism by which TAM receptors regulate spermatogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the testicular immune homeostasis was impaired in TAM(-/-) mice. As development after the onset of sexual maturity, germ cells were progressively degenerated. Macrophages and lymphocytes infiltrated into the testis as TAM(-/-) mice aged. Moreover, the integrity of blood-testis barrier was impaired, and the autoantibodies against germ cell antigens were produced. Major inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were upregulated in the testis of TAM(-/-) mice, and predominantly located in Sertoli cells (SCs). In vitro assays showed that TAM(-/-) SCs secrete significantly high levels of inflammatory cytokines compared with wild-type SCs after coculture with apoptotic germ cells. These results suggest that TAM receptors are important in the maintenance of the immune homeostasis in the testis.

  19. Association between testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) and testicular neoplasia: evidence from 20 adult patients with signs of maldevelopment of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; Holm, Mette; Hoei-Hansen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Based on a well established association between testicular cancer and undescended testis and more recent publications on epidemiological links between these disorders and male infertility, we proposed the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). In most cases TDS presents with impaired...... testicular biopsies derived from patients with infertility, hypospadias and undescended testis. We searched for histological signs of testicular dysgenesis: microliths, Sertoli-cell-only tubules, immature seminiferous tubules with undifferentiated Sertoli cells, and tubules containing carcinoma in situ (CIS...... of semen sampling and testicular histology. In conclusion, our study of 20 patients with various reproductive abnormalities provided evidence that TDS is a real clinical entity. We speculate that most of these abnormalities are caused by adverse environmental effects rather than specific gene mutations....

  20. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  1. Segmental infarction of the testis: can frozen sections avoid orchidectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacella, E; Grillo, F; Lapetina, C; Cabiddu, F; Auriati, L; Tunesi, G; Mastracci, L

    2015-03-01

    Segmental infarction (SI) of the testis is a rare condition that can masquerade as a mass lesion, thus requiring exclusion of tumour. If clinical exams do not exclude a neoplastic lesion with certainty, orchidectomy is usually performed. A case of SI of the testis is presented; the use of frozen section of the enucleated mass demonstrated the ischaemic nature of the lesion, so avoiding orchidectomy. The 8 year follow-up was uneventful. The use of frozen section in SI could permit the selection of cases in which testicular-sparing surgery should be considered.

  2. An improved perfusion fixation method for the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssmann, W G; Ito, S; Weihe, E; Aoki, A; Dym, M; Fawcett, D W

    1977-07-01

    A reliable and uniform vascular perfusion fixation method for the testis has been developed by using an initial washout solution containing a vasodilator and an anticoagulant. This is followed by a brief fixation with a sodium phosphate buffered formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde solution of conventional strenght, and then a second more concentrated aldehyde fixative solution containing picric acid. The method takes into account some of the unique features of the vascular supply of the male genital tract for its favorable perfusion and fixation. The advantages of this method are: (1) consistently favorable preservation of the testis; (2) simple and inexpensive apparatus; and (3) stable and relatively innocuous stock solutions.

  3. [Treatment of an undescended testis with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkiszewski, M; Wieckowski, J; Zieliński, W

    1989-01-01

    Seventy one patients with ectopic testis of age between 2 and 11.5 years were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) at doses recommended by the International Health Foundation. The descent of testis to the scrotum was achieved in almost half of the treated boys (49.3%). The descent was successful mainly in cases of lower inguinal position of the undescended testicle, and only rarely when the testicle was situated higher. The descent was never successful in cases when the scrotum was small and underdeveloped.

  4. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. Absent testis: does it exist in 46,XY males? | El Gohary | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion Based on embryological process of testicular development and testicular descent, agentic absent testis cannot exist. Therefore we strongly recommend to re-scope all patients who were initially diagnosed as absent testis to look for a hidden testis at the initial site of development and along the line of descent.

  9. File list: His.Adl.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: His.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: His.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: His.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: His.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. File list: ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: His.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. Identification of genes differentially expressed in testes containing carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Nielsen, J E; Almstrup, K

    2004-01-01

    Virtually all testicular germ cell tumours originate from a common precursor, the carcinoma in situ (CIS) cell. The precise nature of the molecular mechanisms leading to CIS remains largely unknown. We performed the first systematic analysis of gene expression in testis with CIS compared to norma...

  12. Rectal carcinoma after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma in patients with a family history of colorectal carcinoma: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melichar, B; Ryska, A; Krepelová, A; Holecková, P

    2007-01-01

    Rectal carcinoma is a rare, but well documented late complication of pelvic irradiation. Little is known about the factors predisposing to the development of radiation-associated rectal carcinoma. We present two patients who developed rectal carcinoma 17 and 26 years after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix. In one patient, mutation in exon 4 of the hMLH1 gene was detected. Radiation-associated rectal carcinoma represents a rare late toxicity of radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma that may occur in patients with a family history of colorectal carcinoma, including hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer.

  13. Synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the testis and kidney: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... obstructed left inguinoscrotal hernia and a right renal mass. The patient had surgery, and a diagnosis of synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the left testis, paratesticular tissue and right kidney was made by histology and immunohistochemistry. Keywords: Rhabdomyosarcoma; Synchronous tumour; Immunohistochemistry ...

  14. Contemporary Role of Testis Sparing Surgery: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Ivan Russo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testis-sparing surgery (TSS represents a therapeutic choice for testicular cancer (TC. However, international guidelines are very cautious about the use of the testis-sparing technique, namely due to the lack of certain indications and long-term oncological outcomes. The aim of this systematic-review is to illustrate current trends of what may today be the uses of organ-sparing surgery in TC, to evaluate the relationship between the organ-sparing safety and oncological features such as definitive histology, tumour size, and post-surgery oncological outcomes. This analysis was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines. An electronic search of the Medline and Embase was undertaken until September 2014. The search was limited to English-Language articles. Current indications of TSS are synchronous bilateral testicular tumours, metachronous contralateral tumours, or tumour in a solitary testis with normal preoperative testosterone levels. Moreover, histological characteristics should not be taken into account when performing a TSS approach. TSS outcomes for germ cell tumours are encouraging and we reported high rates of disease-free survival and a few cases of patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In light of the examined, TSS could be considered a viable alternative to radical surgery of the testis but it should be performed in specialised centres with competence.

  15. Terminology and details of the diagnostic process for testis cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    We examined the process and causes of diagnostic delay, defined as the interval from symptom onset to diagnosis, for testis (germ cell) cancer and the change with time. Diagnostic delay influences disease burden and may be subdivided into symptomatic interval, defined as symptom onset to first presentation, and diagnostic interval, defined as first presentation to diagnosis.

  16. Obestatin induces testosterone secretion from rat testis in vitro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... In this study, the effect of obestatin (23 amino acid peptide) on testosterone secretion in vitro, in the rat testis was observed. For this purpose, two ... ileum, stomach, pituitary and hypothalamus and testes. GPR39 was tested for its potency to ... temperature (22 to 25°C). Animals were provided with laboratory.

  17. Synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the testis and kidney: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde M. Duduyemi

    2015-04-15

    Apr 15, 2015 ... b Department of Paediatric Surgery, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana c Department of Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah ... The patient had surgery, and a diagnosis of synchronous rhabdomyosar- coma of the left testis, paratesticular ..... Children's cancer study group. Pediatric oncology group.

  18. Laparoscopic classification of the impalpable testis: an update ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose We present a classification for the nonpalpable testis (NPT) based on laparoscopic findings and suggest guidelines for the interpretation of these findings. Patients and methods From October 2002 to December 2010, 121 patients with NPT underwent laparoscopy at two tertiary centers of Pediatric surgery in Egypt.

  19. Steroidogenic Enzyme Histochemistry In The Testis Of Sprague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conclude that the water extract of papaya seed suppresses the activities of steroidogenic enzymes in the testis of Sprague Dawley rats, and that this may contribute to reversible suppression of spermatogenesis, a property that gives a possible male contraceptive potential. Key words: carica papaya seed extract; ...

  20. Ectopic testis in coati (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora C.V. Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper reports a case of unilateral extracorporeal ectopic testes in a captive coati (Nasua nasua in the State Park of Dois Irmãos Zoo, Recife/PE, Brazil. The testicle was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the inguinal region not adhered to the surrounding tissues. After bilateral orchiectomy, both testes were measured, fixed with 10% formalin buffered and embedded in paraffin for histopathological evaluation. The left testis measured 1.2 cm width by 1.7cm length, and the right one measured 1.5 cm width by 2.0 cm length. The ectopic testes had seminiferous epithelium without post-meiotic germ cell lines. The non-ectopic testis had several changes in the seminiferous epithelium that indicated degeneration. In both epididymis, the lumen did not contain sperm and the major epithelial structural alterations were more distinct in the epididymis associated to the ectopic testicle. In conclusion, the ectopic testis and epididymis had lesions compatible with testicular exposition to body temperature. Non-ectopic epididymis and testis had minor lesions but could be related to the infertility of the coati.

  1. Obestatin induces testosterone secretion from rat testis in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of obestatin (23 amino acid peptide) on testosterone secretion in vitro, in the rat testis was observed. For this purpose, two different doses of obestatin (10-9 M and 10-8 M) were used alone and in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in fasting and fed conditions in two age groups.

  2. Perineal Ectopic Testis in an Adult | Maranya | Annals of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of African Surgery ... Testicular maldescent may be cryptorchid with descent being arrested along its normal pathway resulting in an abdominal, inguinal or high scrotal testis, or it may stray from the normal descent to settle in an ectopic site outside the scrotum; such as the perineum, pubic region, dorsum of the penis, ...

  3. Effects of endocrine disruptors on the human fetal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie; Habert, René; Livera, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    The modern societies are exposing us to a huge variety of potentially harmful pollutants. Among these endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been especially scrutinized as several were proven to display reprotoxic effects in rodent models. In the context of high and growing concerns about the reprotoxicity of EDs, it is crucial to carry out studies in order to assess their impact on the human reproductive function. However, such evidence remains scarce. The fetal period is critical for the proper development of the testis and is known as a period of high sensitivity to many EDs. Our team has shown in 2009 that a phthalate, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), has a potential deleterious effect on the development of human male germ cells. This result was the first direct experimental proof of the toxic effect of an ED in human testis. More recently, we also reported that bisphenol A (BPA) impaired testosterone production in the human fetal testis. Here, we will summarize the known effects of EDs on the various cell types composing the human developing testis and discuss their relevancy to propose future directions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Absent testis: does it exist in 46,XY males?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3 Hadziselimovic F, Herzog B, Buser M. Development of cryptorchid testes. Eur J Pediatr 1987; 146 (Suppl 2):S8–S12. 4 Marshall FF, Shermeta DW. Epididymal abnormalities associated with undescended testis. J Urol 1979; 121:341–343. 5 Emanuel ER, Kirsch AJ, Thall EH, Hensle TW. Complete separation of the.

  5. Testicular development and relationship between body weight, testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... measurements of TL and TW to obtain the dimensions of testis proper (Hahns et al., 1969). Thereafter, the average measurements. (corrected) of TL and TW of both testes were recorded to the nearest 0.01 cm. Training of boars and semen collection. All in situ measurements of the testes were discontinued ...

  6. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor on the histological features in carp testis. Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 µg/L) for a period of 21 days. A single dose of 17-β estradiol.

  7. Undesended testis: How extensive should the work up be? | Shera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight various anomalies associated with undescended testis and to determine how much work up is necessary for this condition. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Pediatric Surgery SKIMS Srinagar, Kashmir. All patients between 0-14 years of age who ...

  8. Ontogeny of estrogen receptor-beta expression in rat testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, A. M.; de rooij, D. G.; van der Burg, B.; van der Saag, P. T.; Gustafsson, J. A.; Kuiper, G. G.

    1999-01-01

    The recently discovered estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) is expressed in rodent and human testes. To obtain insight in the physiological role of ERbeta we have investigated the cell type-specific expression pattern of ERbeta messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in the testis of rats of various ages by in

  9. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor on the histological features in carp testis. Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) for a period of 21 days. A single dose of 17-β estradiol (1 ...

  10. Sox9 induces testis development in XX transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, V. P.; Chaboissier, M. C.; de rooij, D. G.; Schedl, A.

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in SOX9 are associated with male-to-female sex reversal in humans. To analyze Sox9 function during sex determination, we ectopically expressed this gene in XX gonads. Here, we show that Sox9 is sufficient to induce testis formation in mice, indicating that it can substitute for the

  11. Ruptured Seminoma of Undescended Testis Presenting as Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiological and pre‑operative diagnosis of complications such as torsion or rupture is often difficult because, generally, the history of cryptorchidism is not provided and imaging findings can be non‑specific. In a male patient with undescended testis, and presence of a retroperitoneal mass on imaging, testicular malignancy.

  12. Thymic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Homem Machado

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thymic carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of aggressive, invasive epithelial malignancies. Their incidence is rare, occurring predominantly in middle-aged men. Here we present the typical imaging findings of a thymic carcinoma. The combination of imaging characteristics with tumor location and patient age provides a roadmap for approaching the differential diagnosis. Keywords: Thymus Gland; carcinoma; mediastinal neoplasms

  13. Efek Mangiferin terhadap Toksisitas Doksorubisin pada Testis Tikus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supraja Dwiyono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan doksorubisin (DOX sebagai antikanker dapat menyebabkan efek samping di organ lainseperti testis akibat peningkatan stres oksidatif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek antioksidanmangiferin yang terkandung dalam Mangifera indica untuk mengurangi toksisitas testis. Sebanyak 24 ekortikus jantan sprague dawley, dibagi menjadi empat kelompok. Kelompok normal mendapatkan injeksi NaCl0,9%, kelompok kontrol negatif mendapatkan DOX total 15mg/kgBB; kelompok DOX mendapat mangiferin30mg/kgBB dan mangiferin 60mg/kgBB. Setelah 7 minggu, tikus dimatikan dan testis dikumpulkan untukanalisis parameter stres oksidatif biokimia yaitu kadar malonedyaldehide (MDA, aktivitas superoxidedysmutase (SOD, perubahan histologi dan apoptosis kaspase-9 dan kaspase-12. Pemberian mangiferindosis 30mg/kgBB dan 60mg/kgBB selama 7 minggu dapat mengurangi kerusakan sel spermatogenik dansel sertoli tubulus seminiferus testis, menurunkan kadar MDA dan menurunkan ekspresi kaspase-9 padakelompok yang diberikan DOX dan mangiferin. Perbaikan parameter tersebut mengindikasikan mangiferinmempunyai efek proteksi terhadap kerusakan sel spematogenik dan sel sertoli tubulus seminiferus testis tikusyang diberikan DOX. Kata kunci: toksisitas doksorubisin, stres oksidatif, apoptosis, mangiferin, testis.   Mangiferin Effects against Doxorubicin Toxicity in Rat Testis Abstract The use of doxorubicin (DOX as an anti-cancer agent might cause side effects to other organs suchas testicle due to increased oxidative stress. This study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant effect ofmangiferin inside Mangifera indica for lowering testicle toxicity. A total of 24 sprague dawley male rats wasdivided into 4 groups. The normal group was injected with 0.9% of NaCl, the negative control group receivedDOX with dosage of 15 mg/BW while DOX treated group received mangiferin with dosage of 30 mg/BW and60 mg/BW. After 7 weeks, all rats were killed and testicles from every rats were

  14. New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 and cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiary, Ali; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2015-01-01

    New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1) is a known cancer testis gene with exceptional immunogenicity and prevalent expression in many cancer types. These characteristics have made it an appropriate vaccine candidate with the potential application against various malignancies. This article reviews recent knowledge about the NY-ESO-1 biology, function, immunogenicity and expression in cancers as well as and the results of clinical trials with this antigen.

  15. Expression and localization of aromatase during fetal mouse testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borday, Caroline; Merlet, Jorge; Racine, Chrystèle; Habert, René

    2013-01-01

    Both androgens and estrogens are necessary to ensure proper testis development and function. Studies on endocrine disruptors have highlighted the importance of maintaining the balance between androgens and estrogens during fetal development, when testis is highly sensitive to environmental disturbances. This balance is regulated mainly through an enzymatic cascade that converts irreversibly androgens into estrogens. The most important and regulated component of this cascade is its terminal enzyme: the cytochrome p450 19A1 (aromatase hereafter). This study was conducted to improve our knowledge about its expression during mouse testis development. By RT-PCR and western blotting, we show that full-length aromatase is expressed as early as 12.5 day post-coitum (dpc) with maximal expression at 17.5 dpc. Two additional truncated transcripts were also detected by RT-PCR. Immunostaining of fetal testis sections and of gonocyte-enriched cell cultures revealed that aromatase is strongly expressed in fetal Leydig cells and at variable levels in gonocytes. Conversely, it was not detected in Sertoli cells. This study shows for the first time that i) aromatase is expressed from the early stages of fetal testis development, ii) it is expressed in mouse gonocytes suggesting that fetal germ cells exert an endocrine function in this species and that the ratio between estrogens and androgens may be higher inside gonocytes than in the interstitial fluid. Furthermore, we emphasized a species-specific cell localization. Indeed, previous works found that in the rat aromatase is expressed both in Sertoli and Leydig cells. We propose to take into account this species difference as a new concept to better understand the changes in susceptibility to Endocrine Disruptors from one species to another.

  16. Cancer risk in mothers of men operated for undescended testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadriano M Lacerda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Undescended testis, or cryptorchidism, occurs in 2-5% of boys born at term, and by 12 months of age about 1% of all boys have manifest cryptorchidism. Several hormonal substances control this process and disruption of the foetal sex-hormones balance is a potential cause of undescended testis, however, to a great extent the aetiology of cryptorchidism is unclear. METHODOLOGY: To study risk factors involved in the aetiology of undescended testis, we assessed cancer risk in 15,885 mothers of men operated for undescended testis in Sweden. Women were followed-up for a median period of 23 years during which 811 first primary malignancies occurred. Their cancer incidence was compared with that in the general population estimating standardized incidence ratio (SIR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The overall cancer risk experienced by the mothers of cryptorchid men did not differ significantly from that of the general population (SIR = 0.94; 95% C.I. = 0.88-1.01. Specifically, there was a reduction in ovarian cancer risk (SIR = 0.72; 95% C.I. = 0.51-0.99, while the risk of lung (SIR = 1.38 95% C.I. 1.03-1.81 and biliary tract/liver cancer (SIR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.82 were increased. CONCLUSIONS: Although we cannot rule out the role of chance, our data suggest a positive association between undescended testis and maternal lung cancer and a negative association with ovarian cancer, where the first may be partly attributable to smoking and the second to an altered hormonal milieu during pregnancy and thus both exposures may be risk factors for cryptorchidism.

  17. Histochemical identification of sialylated glycans in Xenopus laevis testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Galder; Alonso, Edurne; Ubago, María Martínez; Madrid, Juan Francisco; Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Sáez, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrate chains of glycoprotein and glycosphingolipids are highly diverse molecules involved in many cell functions, including cell recognition, adhesion and signalling. Sialylated glycans are of special interest because the terminal position of sialic acid (NeuAc) in glycans linked by different ways to subterminal monosaccharides has been shown to be involved in several biological processes, as occurs with gangliosides, which have been reported as being essential in spermatogenesis in mammals. Some glycan-binding proteins, the lectins, which specifically recognize glycan sequences, have been extensively used to characterize tissue and cell carbohydrates by means of cytochemical techniques. The aim of the present work was to determine the presence of NeuAc by means of histochemical techniques in the testis of Xenopus laevis, an animal model widely used in cell and molecular biology research. However, considering that some NeuAc-binding lectins are capable of binding to N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), other GlcNAc-binding lectins were also assayed. The results showed that NeuAc is mainly expressed in the interstitium, and only a weak labelling in the male germ cells was observed. Most NeuAc was located in O-linked oligosaccharides, but some masked NeuAc in N-glycans were identified in primary and secondary spermatogonia and spermatocytes. By contrast, GlcNAc was widely expressed in all germ cell types. Deglycosylative pre-treatments suggest that both N- and O-glycans and/or glycolipids could be responsible for this labelling. In addition, GlcNAc in O-linked oligosaccharides has been identified in spermatogonial cells. The acrosome of spermatids was always negative. Variations of glycan expression have been found in different cell types, suggesting that glycosylation is modified during spermatogenetic development. PMID:22881213

  18. Characterizing Transcriptional Networks in Male Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma caeruleum that Regulate Testis Development over a Complete Reproductive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina A Bahamonde

    Full Text Available Intersex is a condition that has been associated with exposure to sewage effluents in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum. To better understand changes in the transcriptome that are associated with intersex, we characterized annual changes in the testis transcriptome in wild, unexposed fish. Rainbow darter males were collected from the Grand River (Ontario, Canada in May (spawning, August (post-spawning, October (recrudescence, January (developing and March (pre-spawning. Histology was used to determine the proportion of spermatogenic cell types that were present during each period of testicular maturation. Regression analysis determined that the proportion of spermatozoa versus spermatocytes in all stages of development (R2 ≥ 0.58 were inversely related; however this was not the case when males were in the post-spawning period. Gene networks that were specific to the transition from developing to pre-spawning stages included nitric oxide biosynthesis, response to wounding, sperm cell function, and stem cell maintenance. The pre-spawning to spawning transition included gene networks related to amino acid import, glycogenesis, Sertoli cell proliferation, sperm capacitation, and sperm motility. The spawning to post-spawning transition included unique gene networks associated with chromosome condensation, ribosome biogenesis and assembly, and mitotic spindle assembly. Lastly, the transition from post-spawning to recrudescence included gene networks associated with egg activation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, membrane fluidity, and sperm cell adhesion. Noteworthy was that there were a significant number of gene networks related to immune system function that were differentially expressed throughout reproduction, suggesting that immune network signalling has a prominent role in the male testis. Transcripts in the testis of post-spawning individuals showed patterns of expression that were most different for the majority of transcripts

  19. Improvement of prognosis in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center intermediate risk features by modern strategy including molecular-targeted therapy in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamba, Tomomi; Yamasaki, Toshinari; Teramukai, Satoshi; Shibasaki, Noboru; Arakaki, Ryuichiro; Sakamoto, Hiromasa; Matsui, Yoshiyuki; Okubo, Kazutoshi; Yoshimura, Koji; Ogawa, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    To identify the patient subgroups benefitting the most from the modern strategy including molecular-targeted therapy among patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in clinical practice. Retrospective analysis of 144 patients with mRCC diagnosed between 1992 and 2011 at Kyoto University Hospital was conducted. Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model was conducted to identify prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS). Subgroup analysis was conducted to identify patients who benefitted the most from molecular-targeted therapy. Independent factors associated with worse OS are: tumors of histological type other than clear-cell, decreased hemoglobin (Hb), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and metastases at ≥ 3 sites. Median OS of patients treated with molecular-targeted therapy alone or with prior immunotherapy and those treated with immunotherapy alone was 57, 45 and 28 months, respectively. Molecular-targeted therapy had more effect on OS than immunotherapy alone among female patients, patients with Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) intermediate risk features, and patients with metastatic progression less than 1 year after initial diagnosis of RCC, compared with their counterparts. The modern strategy including molecular-targeted therapy may improve OS in patients with mRCC and MSKCC intermediate risk features in clinical practice, relative to those with other risk features. However, the prognosis for patients with tumors of histological type other than clear-cell, decreased Hb, elevated LDH, elevated CRP, or metastases at ≥ 3 sites remains poor even in the modern molecular-targeted era. Novel treatment strategies are necessary to improve prognosis in these patients.

  20. DUX4 binding to retroelements creates promoters that are active in FSHD muscle and testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Young

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human double-homeodomain retrogene DUX4 is expressed in the testis and epigenetically repressed in somatic tissues. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is caused by mutations that decrease the epigenetic repression of DUX4 in somatic tissues and result in mis-expression of this transcription factor in skeletal muscle. DUX4 binds sites in the human genome that contain a double-homeobox sequence motif, including sites in unique regions of the genome as well as many sites in repetitive elements. Using ChIP-seq and RNA-seq on myoblasts transduced with DUX4 we show that DUX4 binds and activates transcription of mammalian apparent LTR-retrotransposons (MaLRs, endogenous retrovirus (ERVL and ERVK elements, and pericentromeric satellite HSATII sequences. Some DUX4-activated MaLR and ERV elements create novel promoters for genes, long non-coding RNAs, and antisense transcripts. Many of these novel transcripts are expressed in FSHD muscle cells but not control cells, and thus might contribute to FSHD pathology. For example, HEY1, a repressor of myogenesis, is activated by DUX4 through a MaLR promoter. DUX4-bound motifs, including those in repetitive elements, show evolutionary conservation and some repeat-initiated transcripts are expressed in healthy testis, the normal expression site of DUX4, but more rarely in other somatic tissues. Testis expression patterns are known to have evolved rapidly in mammals, but the mechanisms behind this rapid change have not yet been identified: our results suggest that mobilization of MaLR and ERV elements during mammalian evolution altered germline gene expression patterns through transcriptional activation by DUX4. Our findings demonstrate a role for DUX4 and repetitive elements in mammalian germline evolution and in FSHD muscular dystrophy.

  1. Parotid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; de Stricker, Karin

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to investigate the expression of kit protein (KIT) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in parotid carcinomas in order to correlate the expression to histology and prognosis. Further we want to perform mutation analysis of KIT-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from 73 patients with parotid gland carcinomas were used for the study. The sections were stained with both KIT and EGFR polyclonal antibodies. Twelve KIT-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas were examined for c-kit mutation in codon 816....... RESULTS: Of all carcinomas 25% were KIT-positive and 79% were EGFR-positive. Ninety-two percentage of the adenoid cystic carcinomas were KIT-positive. None of the adenoid cystic carcinomas had mutations in codon 816 of the c-kit gene. CONCLUSION: Neither KIT- nor EGFR-expression seem to harbour...

  2. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of Portunus trituberculatus exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dong-Fang [School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); The Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Zhu, Jun-Quan; Jin, Shan [School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Hu, Yan-Jun [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tan, Fu-Qing [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Yang, Wan-Xi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [The Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We identified P. trituberculatus MT-1 and MT-2 complete cDNA sequence. •We analyzed the protein alignment comparisons and phylogenetic trees of MT-1 and MT-2. •RT-PCR analysis the tissue expression of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA. •The spatial and temporal distribution pattern of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA during spermiogenesis. •Testis MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA expression are dramatically affected after the cadmium exposure. -- Abstract: Metallothioneins (MTs) possess a unique molecular structure that provides metal-binding and redox capabilities. These capabilities include the maintenance of metal equilibria that protect against heavy metals (especially cadmium) and oxidative damage. Past studies have focused on the function of MTs in vertebrates. However, the functions of MTs during spermiogenesis in invertebrates remain unclear. In order to investigate the function of MTs during spermiogenesis in Portunus trituberculatus, we used RT-PCR and RACE to identify two MT complete cDNA sequences in the total RNA from the P. trituberculatus testis. The 450 bp MT-1 cDNA consists of a 77 bp 5′ untranslated region, a 196 bp 3′ untranslated region, and a 177 bp open reading frame that encodes 58 amino acids including 19 cysteines. The 581 bp MT-2 cDNA consists of 73 bp 5′ untranslated region, a 328 bp 3′ untranslated region, and a 180 bp open reading frame that encodes 59 amino acids including 18 cysteines. MT-1 and MT-2 of P. trituberculatus more closely resemble invertebrate (especially crab) MT homologues than vertebrate MT homologues as indicated by protein alignment comparisons and phylogenetic tree analysis. MT-1 and MT-2 were detected in the heart, testis, muscle, hepatopancreas, and gill of P. trituberculatus by tissue expression analysis. In addition, MT-1 and MT-2 are present during the entire process of spermiogenesis in P. trituberculatus as indicated by H and E staining and in situ hybridization. MT-1 and MT-2 expression levels significantly increase

  3. Is testis-sparing surgery safe in small testicular masses? Results of a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keske, Murat; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Yalcin, Serdar; Kilicarslan, Aydan; Kibar, Yusuf; Tuygun, Can; Onder, Evrim; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Yildirim, Asif; Ozkanli, Sidika Seyma; Kandemir, Olcay; Kargi, Taner; Sar, Mehmet; Tugcu, Volkan; Resorlu, Berkan; Aslan, Yilmaz; Sarikaya, Selcuk; Boylu, Ugur; Cicek, Ali Fuat; Basar, Halil; Tuncel, Altug; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2017-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate benign and malignant lesions and testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) in the neighbouring normal-appearing testis tissue in men who underwent radical orchiectomy for testicular mass with a pathologic tumour size of ≤3cm. In this retrospective, multicentre study, data of 252 patients from 11 different institutions were included. Patients were divided into three groups based on tumour size: Group 1 (0-1 cm; n=35), Group 2 (1.1-2cm; n=99), and Group 3 (2.1-3 cm; n=118). Benign lesions and TIN were sought in the neighbouring testicular tissue and compared between groups. Mean patient age was 32.3 years. Benign lesions were reported in 54.3%, 33.3%, and 14.4% of Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p0.05 for Groups 2 vs. 3). Multifocality was detected in 8.6%, 4%, and 0% of Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p0.05 for Group 1 vs. Group 2). A tumour cutoff size of 1.5 cm was found to be significant for detecting benign tumour. TIN and multifocality rates were similar in patients with a tumour size of ≤1.5 vs. >1.5 cm (p>0.05). Benign lesions and TIN in the neighbouring testis were significantly decreased and multifocality was increased in patients with a tumour mass size of ≤1 cm. Testis-sparing surgery should be performed with caution and a safety rim of normal tissue should also be excised.

  4. Pleiotropic activity of hepatocyte growth factor during embryonic mouse testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Galdieri, M

    2002-10-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine whose action is mediated by c-met, a glycoproteic receptor with tyrosine kinase activity which transduces its multiple biological activities including cell proliferation, motility and differentiation. During embryonic development HGF acts as a morphogenetic factor as previously demonstrated for metanephric and lung development. Recently, culturing male genital ridges, we demonstrated that HGF is able to support in vitro testicular cord formation. In the present paper we report the expression pattern of the HGF gene during embryonic testis development and the multiple roles exerted by this factor during the morphogenesis of this organ. Northern blot analysis reveals a positive signal in urogenital ridges isolated from 11.5 days post coitum (dpc) embryos and in testes isolated from 13.5 and 15.5 dpc male embryos. On the contrary HGF mRNA is undetectable in ovaries isolated from 13.5 and 15.5 dpc embryos. Moreover, we demonstrate that HGF is synthesized and secreted by the male gonad and is biologically active. These data indicate a male specific biological function of HGF during embryonic gonadal development. This hypothesis is supported by the in vitro demonstration that HGF acts as a migratory factor for male mesonephric cells which is a male specific event. In addition we demonstrate that during testicular development, HGF acts as a morphogenetic factor able to reorganize dissociated testicular cells which, under HGF stimulation, form a tridimensional network of cord-like structures. Finally, we demonstrate that HGF induces testicular cell proliferation in this way being responsible for the size increase of the testis. All together the data presented in this paper demonstrate that HGF is expressed during the embryonic development of the testis and clarify the multiple roles exerted by this factor during the morphogenesis of the male gonad.

  5. Queen conch (Strombus gigas testis regresses during the reproductive season at nearshore sites in the Florida Keys.

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    Daniel J Spade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Queen conch (Strombus gigas reproduction is inhibited in nearshore areas of the Florida Keys, relative to the offshore environment where conchs reproduce successfully. Nearshore reproductive failure is possibly a result of exposure to environmental factors, including heavy metals, which are likely to accumulate close to shore. Metals such as Cu and Zn are detrimental to reproduction in many mollusks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Histology shows gonadal atrophy in nearshore conchs as compared to reproductively healthy offshore conchs. In order to determine molecular mechanisms leading to tissue changes and reproductive failure, a microarray was developed. A normalized cDNA library for queen conch was constructed and sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX pyrosequencer, producing 27,723 assembled contigs and 7,740 annotated transcript sequences. The resulting sequences were used to design the microarray. Microarray analysis of conch testis indicated differential regulation of 255 genes (p<0.01 in nearshore conch, relative to offshore. Changes in expression for three of four transcripts of interest were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated changes in biological processes: respiratory chain (GO:0015992, spermatogenesis (GO:0007283, small GTPase-mediated signal transduction (GO:0007264, and others. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Zn and possibly Cu were elevated in some nearshore conch tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Congruence between testis histology and microarray data suggests that nearshore conch testes regress during the reproductive season, while offshore conch testes develop normally. Possible mechanisms underlying the testis regression observed in queen conch in the nearshore Florida Keys include a disruption of small GTPase (Ras-mediated signaling in testis development. Additionally, elevated tissue

  6. Autoantibodies to Tumor-Associated Antigens in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma

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    Benjamin Piura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review will focus on recent knowledge related to circulating autoantibodies (AAbs to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. So far, the following TAAs have been identified to elicit circulating AAbs in epithelial ovarian carcinoma: p53, homeobox proteins (HOXA7, HOXB7, heat shock proteins (HSP-27, HSP-90, cathepsin D, cancer-testis antigens (NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1, MUC1, GIPC-1, IL-8, Ep-CAM, and S100A7. Since AAbs to TAAs have been identified in the circulation of patients with early-stage cancer, it has been speculated that the assessment of a panel of AAbs specific for epithelial ovarian carcinoma TAAs might hold great potential as a novel tool for early diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

  7. Warty Carcinoma Penis: An Uncommon Variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Sushma; Ghosh, Arnab; Shrestha, Santosh; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Narasimhan, Raghavan; Talwar, O P

    2017-01-01

    Penile carcinoma frequency varies widely in different parts of the world and comprises 1-10% of all the malignancies in males. Majority of the cases of penile carcinoma are squamous cell carcinoma of penis comprising 60% to 70% of all cases. Warty carcinoma of penis is an unusual neoplasm and a variant of penile squamous cell carcinoma comprising 5%-10% of all the variants. The other histological variants include basaloid, verrucous, papillary, sarcomatous, mixed, and adenosquamous carcinoma. The various histological entities with an exophytic papillary lesions including warty carcinoma are together referred to as the "verruciform" group of neoplasms. The warty carcinoma has to be differentiated from these lesions and is typically distinguished by histological features of hyperkeratosis, arborescent papillomatosis, acanthosis, and prominent koilocytosis with nuclear pleomorphism. We present a case of 65-year-old male with growth measuring 6 × 4 cm in the penis who underwent total penectomy and was diagnosed as warty carcinoma penis.

  8. Expression of FGFR3 during human testis development and in germ cell-derived tumours of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewen, Katherine A; Olesen, Inge A; Winge, Sofia B

    2013-01-01

    Observations in patients with an activating mutation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) suggest a role for FGFR3 signalling in promoting proliferation or survival of germ cells. In this study, we aimed to identify the FGFR3 subtype and the ontogeny of expression during human testis...... development and to ascertain whether FGFR3 signalling is linked to germ cell proliferation and the pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of young adult men. Using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, we examined 58 specimens of human testes throughout development for FGFR3...... expression, and then compared expression of FGFR3 with proliferation markers (PCNA or Ki67). We also analysed for FGFR3 expression 30 TGCTs and 28 testes containing the tumour precursor cell, carcinoma in situ (CIS). Fetal and adult testes expressed exclusively the FGFR3IIIc isoform. FGFR3 protein expression...

  9. Embryonic mouse testis development: role of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-BB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Galdieri, M

    2004-09-01

    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are paracrine growth factors mediating epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and exerting multiple biological activities which include cell proliferation, motility, and differentiation. As previously demonstrated, PDGFs act during embryonic development and recently, by culturing male genital ridges, we have demonstrated that PDGF-BB is able to support in vitro testicular cord formation. In the present paper, we report that PDGF-BB is present during embryonic testis development and, in organ culture, induces cord formation although with reduced diameters compared with the cords formed in the genital ridges cultured in the presence of HGF. Moreover we have analyzed the roles exerted by this growth factor during the morphogenesis of the testis. We demonstrate by immunohistochemical experiments that PDGF-BB and its receptors are synthesized by the male UGRs isolated from 11.5 and 13.5 dpc embryos and by Western blot that the factor is secreted in a biologically active form by testicular cells isolated from 13.5 dpc embryos. The biological roles of the factor have also been studied and we demonstrate that PDGF-BB acts as a migratory factor for male mesonephric cells whose migration is a male specific event necessary for a normal testicular morphogenesis. In addition we demonstrate that during testicular development, PDGF-BB induces testicular cell proliferation being in this way responsible for the increase in size of the testis. Finally we demonstrate that PDGF-BB is able to reorganize dissociated testicular cells inducing the formation of large cellular aggregates. However the structures formed in vitro under PDGF-BB stimulation never had a cord-like morphology similar to the cord-like structures formed in the presence of HGF (Ricci et al., 2002, Mech Dev 118:19-28), suggesting that this factor does not act as a morphogenetic factor during testicular development. All together the data presented in this paper demonstrate that PDGF

  10. Asymmetrical size and functionality of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) testes: Right testis is bigger but left testis is more efficient in spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerfeld, R; Villagrán, M; Lacuesta, L; Vazquez, N; Pérez, W

    2017-12-01

    Information about gonadal asymmetries in ruminants is very scarce. In this work, we performed three complementary studies to compare characteristics of both testes: (i) weight and size of offspring and adult dead males; (ii) the tissue:fluid relationship determined by ultrasound scanning; and (iii) the spermatogenic status using fine needle aspiration cytology. The right testis was heavier than the left one in both offspring and adult animals and had greater width and volume in adult males than the left one. The ultrasound pixel intensity was similar in both testes. The right testis tended to have more spermatogonia (p = .06) and had a greater percentage of early spermatids (p = .004) than the left testis. On the other hand, the left testis had a greater percentage of spermatozoa (p = .05). The left testis had a greater spermatozoa/spermatogonia ratio (p = .02) and tended to have more spermatozoa/Sertoli cells ratio (p = .07). The spermatogenic index tended to be greater in the left than in the right testis (p = .06). Overall, we concluded that the right testis of pampas deer males is bigger but according to the cytology, it seems to be less spermatogenically effective than the left one, but these differences are not explained by different tissue:fluid ratio in each testis. Although differences were greater in adults than in offspring, asymmetry was observed even in just born offspring. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumor of the Rete Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran P. Sajadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  12. Impact of electronic-cigarette refill liquid on rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Golli, N; Rahali, D; Jrad-Lamine, A; Dallagi, Y; Jallouli, M; Bdiri, Y; Ba, N; Lebret, M; Rosa, J P; El May, M; El Fazaa, S

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming the fashionable alternative to decrease tobacco smoking, although their impact on health has not been fully assessed yet. The present study was designed to compare the impact of e-cigarette refill liquid (e-liquid) without nicotine to e-liquid with nicotine on rat testis. For this purpose, e-liquid with nicotine and e-liquid without nicotine (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) were administered to adult male Wistar rats via the intraperitoneally route during four weeks. Results showed that e-liquid with or without nicotine leads to diminished sperm density and viability, such as a decrease in testicular lactate dehydrogenase activity and testosterone level. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis identified a reduction in cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450 scc) and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) mRNA level, two key enzymes of steroidogenesis. Following e-liquid exposure, histopathological examination showed alterations in testis tissue marked by germ cells desquamation, disorganization of the tubular contents of testis and cell deposits in seminiferous tubules. Finally, analysis of oxidative stress status pointed an outbreak of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and gluthatione-S-transferase, as well as an important increase in sulfhydril group content. Taken together, these results indicate that e-liquid per se induces toxicity in Wistar rat testis, similar to e-liquid with nicotine, by disrupting oxidative balance and steroidogenesis.

  13. [Effects of infrasound on ultrastructure of testis cell in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ya-Ning; Liu, Jing; Shu, Qing; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Jing-Zao

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effects of infrasound on ultrastructure of testis in mouse. Twelve male BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three groups according to exposed duration on 1, 7 and 14 day. The mice were separately exposed to infrasound environment under 8 Hz/90 dB, 8 Hz/130 dB, 16 Hz/90 dB, 16 Hz/130 dB 2 hours per day. There was another control group which had three mice were separated into module with no infrasound. All the mice were killed on schedule. Then all the sections of testis were observed under electronic microscope. The alterations of structure and the chromatin were observed. Some acute alteration in one day group was found in testis cell, such as cellular denaturation and necrosis, intercellular edema, mitochondria swelling, liposome hyperplasia. When the infrasound was up to 8 Hz/130 dB, the damage showed seriously. In 7 and 14 day group, the acute alteration was gradually decreased. A plenty of abnormal sperm were found. And other alteration was chromatin condense. The effect of variational frequency was important in ultrastructure. The infrasound markedly effected to testicular cell morphology and secreting function. Infrasound will lead to the alteration of procreation in mouse.

  14. Kloning Gen Melanoma Antigen 1 (Mage-1 dari Jaringan Testis untuk mendapatkan Plasmid Rekombinan Mage-1

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    Gondo Mastutik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma antigen-1 (Mage-1 is expressed by spermatogonia cells of normal testicular tissue and 60−80% is expressed by the liver of hepatocellular carcinoma (HC patients. Mage-1 expression is a marker for diagnosing HC and predicting gastric and colorectal cancers. Isolation of messenger ribonucleid acid (mRNA Mage-1 from the liver tissue of HC patients is difficult; therefore, Mage-1 mRNA isolates can be obtained from tissues that express Mage-1 such as normal testicular tissues . This is an explorative research that was conducted at the Institute of Tropical Diseases of Airlangga University during August 2006–August 2008. The aim was to clone the coding sequence of Mage-1 gene from testicular tissues into a vector and to get recombinant plasmid Mage-1. Isolation of the full-length Mage-1 was performed using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR which was then cloned into plasmid pET101/D-TOPO and transformed into Escherichia coli (E. coli Top10 to get recombinant plasmid Mage-1. The length of pET101/D-TOPO was 5,753 bp and Mage-1 was 927 bp. The length of recombinant plasmid was 6,680 bp (5,753+927. Restriction analysis using EcoRV showed 4,230 and 2,450 bp bands (4,230+2,450=6,680. Sequence analyses showed that Mage-1 was 100% homologous with M77481 and NM_004988, 99% homologous with BC01755. In conclusion, according to the results of the restriction and sequences analysis, the recombinant plasmid pETGM/MAGE1-Testis contains the full length coding region of Mage-1 and is useful for developing the hepatocellular carcinoma diagnostic kits.

  15. Tumor subtype-specific cancer-testis antigens as potential biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets for cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Caballero, Otavia L; Yung, W K Alfred; Weinstein, John N; Riggins, Gregory J; Strausberg, Robert L; Zhao, Qi

    2014-04-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are potential targets for cancer immunotherapy because of their restricted expression in immune-privileged germ cells and various malignancies. Current application of CT-based immunotherapy has been focused on CT expression-rich tumors such as melanoma and lung cancers. In this study, we surveyed CT expression using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets for ten common cancer types. We show that CT expression is specific and enriched within certain cancer molecular subtypes. For example, HORMAD1, CXorf61, ACTL8, and PRAME are highly enriched in the basal subtype of breast cancer; MAGE and CSAG are most frequently activated in the magnoid subtype of lung adenocarcinoma; and PRAME is highly upregulated in the ccB subtype of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Analysis of CT gene expression and DNA methylation indicates that some CTs are regulated epigenetically, whereas others are controlled primarily by tissue- and subtype-specific transcription factors. Our results suggest that although for some CT expression is associated with patient outcome, not many are independent prognostic markers. Thus, CTs with shared expression pattern are heterogeneous molecules with distinct activation modes and functional properties in different cancers and cancer subtypes. These data suggest a cancer subtype-orientated application of CT antigen as biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets.

  16. Characterization of MAGEG2 with testis-specific expression in mice

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    Juri Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Male germ cell development is a well-defined process occurring in numerous seminiferous tubules of the testis. Uncovering testicular novel genes related to intrinsic regulation of spermatogenesis is essential for the understanding of spermatogenesis. In the present study, we investigated mouse Mageg2, which belongs to a group of melanoma-associated antigens (MAGEs. Mageg2 is transcribed in the testis specifically, and its expression level is increased at the pachytene spermatocyte stage, indicating that Mageg2 is expressed predominantly in germ cells. We generated an antibody against mouse MAGEG2 for further characterization at the protein level. Immunoblot analysis suggested that MAGEG2 has specific testicular expression and the expression primarily occurred in pachytene spermatocytes. Proteomic analyses demonstrated that mouse MAGEG2 binded to testicular germ cell-specific serine/threonine-protein kinase 31 (STK31 and heat shock protein 9 (HSPA9. Direct binding with both interaction partners was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. We found that STK31 and HSPA9 bind MAGEG2 directly but not with each other. Interestingly, MAGEG2 reduced the kinase activity of STK31. Our study suggests that mouse MAGEG2 has at least two functions, including chaperone activity related to HSPA9 and regulation of pachytene spermatocyte-specific kinase, STK31. Altogether, our results provide the first information about MAGEG2 at the transcript and protein levels and suggest its potential molecular functions.

  17. The SSX Family of Cancer-Testis Antigens as Target Proteins for Tumor Therapy

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    Heath A. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs represent an expanding class of tumor-associated proteins defined on the basis of their tissue-restricted expression to testis or ovary germline cells and frequent ectopic expression in tumor tissue. The expression of CTA in MHC class I-deficient germline cells makes these proteins particularly attractive as immunotherapeutic targets because they serve as essentially tumor-specific antigens for MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells. Moreover, because CTAs are expressed in many types of cancer, any therapeutic developed to target these antigens might have efficacy for multiple cancer types. Of particular interest among CTAs is the synovial sarcoma X chromosome breakpoint (SSX family of proteins, which includes ten highly homologous family members. Expression of SSX proteins in tumor tissues has been associated with advanced stages of disease and worse patient prognosis. Additionally, both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to SSX proteins have been demonstrated in patients with tumors of varying histological origin, which indicates that natural immune responses can be spontaneously generated to these antigens in cancer patients. The current review will describe the history and identification of this family of proteins, as well as what is known of their function, expression in normal and malignant tissues, and immunogenicity.

  18. Selective use of percutaneous testis biopsy to optimize IVF-ICSI outcomes: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Russell P; Wright, Diane L; Toth, Thomas L; Tanrikut, Cigdem

    2016-01-01

    Sperm quality may degrade during transit through the male reproductive tract in some individuals. In this setting surgically retrieved testicular sperm may outperform ejaculated samples for use with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI). We sought to describe one center's experience with the use of fresh testicular sperm after prior failed IVF-ICSI with ejaculated samples. A retrospective review was conducted evaluating IVF-ICSI cycles performed at a tertiary IVF unit between 2009 and 2014. Couples who were managed with percutaneous testis biopsy to obtain sperm, despite availability of ejaculated sperm, were included. Four couples who underwent a total of 6 percutaneous testis biopsy/IVF-ICSI cycles were identified. Collectively, the couples had undergone 9 prior IVF-ICSI cycles using fresh ejaculated sperm without successful pregnancy. From the six cycles that used fresh testicular sperm four live births resulted (1 twin gestation, 3 singletons). Only 1 of the 4 couples remained childless. For patients who have had prior failed IVF-ICSI attempts, this small case series demonstrates a possible therapeutic benefit when freshly procured testicular sperm are used in lieu of ejaculated samples.

  19. Normal Levels of Sox9 Expression in the Developing Mouse Testis Depend on the TES/TESCO Enhancer, but This Does Not Act Alone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonen, Nitzan; Quinn, Alexander; O’Neill, Helen C; Koopman, Peter; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2017-01-01

    ... a 3.2 kb testis specific enhancer of Sox9 (TES), which includes a core 1.4 kb element, TESCO. SOX9 activity leads to differentiation of Sertoli cells, rather than granulosa cells from the bipotential supporting cell precursor lineage...

  20. Basisquamous Carcinoma

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    Yesudian Devakar P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50 year old woman presented with an ulceroproliferative mass in the value of 4 month duration. Biopsy of the lesion showed features of a basisquamous cell carcinoma. This is a rare tumour showing histopathological features of both basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. The clinical, histopathological and histogenetic status of this tumour are discussed.

  1. Effects of a simulated microgravity model on cell structure and function in rat testis and epididymis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jill A.; Hall, Joseph C.; O'Brien, Ami; Ball, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the structure and function of the testis and epididymis cells was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of tail suspension. Results of a histological examination revealed presence of disorganized seminiferous tubules and accumulation of large multinucleated cells and spermatids in the lumen of the epididymis. In addition, decreases in the content of testis protein and in testosterone levels in the testis, the interstitial fluid, and the epididymis were observed.

  2. Brain Metastases from Endometrial Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma. To date, 115 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence of 0.6% among endometrial carcinoma patients. The endometrial carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage and high-grade tumor. In most patients (~90%), brain metastasis was detected after diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma with a median interval from diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma to diagnosis of brain metastases of 17 months. Brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma was either an isolated disease limited to the brain only (~50%) or part of a disseminated disease involving also other parts of the body (~50%). Most often, brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma affected the cerebrum (~75%) and was solitary (~60%). The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma was 5 months; however, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and/or chemotherapy compared to WBRT alone. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be considered in the routine follow up of patients with endometrial carcinoma and that the search for a primary source in females with brain metastases of unknown primary should include endometrial biopsy. PMID:22523707

  3. Gene discovery in the hamster: a comparative genomics approach for gene annotation by sequencing of hamster testis cDNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduru, Sreedhar; Campbell, Janee L; Karri, SriTulasi; Hendry, William J; Khan, Shafiq A; Williams, Simon C

    2003-01-01

    Background Complete genome annotation will likely be achieved through a combination of computer-based analysis of available genome sequences combined with direct experimental characterization of expressed regions of individual genomes. We have utilized a comparative genomics approach involving the sequencing of randomly selected hamster testis cDNAs to begin to identify genes not previously annotated on the human, mouse, rat and Fugu (pufferfish) genomes. Results 735 distinct sequences were analyzed for their relatedness to known sequences in public databases. Eight of these sequences were derived from previously unidentified genes and expression of these genes in testis was confirmed by Northern blotting. The genomic locations of each sequence were mapped in human, mouse, rat and pufferfish, where applicable, and the structure of their cognate genes was derived using computer-based predictions, genomic comparisons and analysis of uncharacterized cDNA sequences from human and macaque. Conclusion The use of a comparative genomics approach resulted in the identification of eight cDNAs that correspond to previously uncharacterized genes in the human genome. The proteins encoded by these genes included a new member of the kinesin superfamily, a SET/MYND-domain protein, and six proteins for which no specific function could be predicted. Each gene was expressed primarily in testis, suggesting that they may play roles in the development and/or function of testicular cells. PMID:12783626

  4. Gene discovery in the hamster: a comparative genomics approach for gene annotation by sequencing of hamster testis cDNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Shafiq A

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete genome annotation will likely be achieved through a combination of computer-based analysis of available genome sequences combined with direct experimental characterization of expressed regions of individual genomes. We have utilized a comparative genomics approach involving the sequencing of randomly selected hamster testis cDNAs to begin to identify genes not previously annotated on the human, mouse, rat and Fugu (pufferfish genomes. Results 735 distinct sequences were analyzed for their relatedness to known sequences in public databases. Eight of these sequences were derived from previously unidentified genes and expression of these genes in testis was confirmed by Northern blotting. The genomic locations of each sequence were mapped in human, mouse, rat and pufferfish, where applicable, and the structure of their cognate genes was derived using computer-based predictions, genomic comparisons and analysis of uncharacterized cDNA sequences from human and macaque. Conclusion The use of a comparative genomics approach resulted in the identification of eight cDNAs that correspond to previously uncharacterized genes in the human genome. The proteins encoded by these genes included a new member of the kinesin superfamily, a SET/MYND-domain protein, and six proteins for which no specific function could be predicted. Each gene was expressed primarily in testis, suggesting that they may play roles in the development and/or function of testicular cells.

  5. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of stone crab Charybdis japonica exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Huan [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Tan Fuqing [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Wang Dahui [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu Junquan [Faculty of Life Science and Bioengineering, Ningbo University, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Zhou Hong [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang Wanxi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Metallothionein (MT) participates in metallic homeostasis and detoxification in living animals. Previous studies have focused mainly on the functions of MT in vertebrates, but the functions of MT during spermiogenesis in invertebrates remain unclear. In order to investigate the functions of MT during spermiogenesis in the Japanese stone crab (Charybdis japonica), we identified the C. japonica MT complete cDNA sequence from the total RNA of the testis using RT-PCR and RACE. The 587 bp MT cDNA contains: an 80 bp 5 Prime untranslated region, a 333 bp 3 Prime untranslated region, and a 174 bp open reading frame. MT has 57 amino acids including 19 cysteines. The protein alignment between MT sequences of C. japonica and other crabs shows a high similarity and a strong identity in cysteine residues vital for the metal-binding affinity of MT. After the cadmium (Cd) exposure, the testis displays both abnormal morphology and MT mRNA expression both of which indicate a sensitive response of testis MT to Cd. Therefore, we suggest that MT is an excellent biomarker candidate for evaluating Cd pollution.

  6. Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lisiane; Rodrigues, Luciana; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Chirano; Santos, Mônica; Talhari, Sinésio; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation. PMID:23739701

  7. [Effects of cadmium on testis function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynowicz, Helena; Skoczyńska, Anna; Karczmarek-Wdowiak, Beata; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2005-01-01

    The deterioration of male fertility, reported in numerous epidemiological studies over past decades, can be connected with growing exposure to environmental toxins. Heavy metals, especially cadmium, is widely spread and extremely toxic. The mechanisms of cadmium toxic effects vary and involve the damage of vascular endothelium, intracellular junctions, germ cells, Leydig and Sertoli cells. Cadmium can increase activity of reactive oxygen species and induce changes in activity of enzymatic systems and inflammatory reactions. The morphological changes caused by cadmium included the necrosis of seminiferous tubiles and interstitial edema. This metal can reduce testosterone synthesis at various levels and deteriorate spermatogenesis. Cadmium is also acknowledged carcinogen with confirmed mutagenic and genotoxic activity. Increasing environmental exposure to cadmium, currently existing occupational exposure and the prevalence of tobacco smoking results in constant increase in the number of diagnosed fertility impairments.

  8. Cadmium inhibits testis and epididymal acidification in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caflisch, C.r.p; DuBose, T.D. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The testis is known to be highly sensitive to functional impairment by cadmium, a widely distributed trace metal. Both vascular compromise and inhibition of Leydig cell androgen production may result in impaired sperm maturation and motility. Recent studies by our laboratory have confirmed the presence of an acid mileau in the testis and epididymis which may play an important role in sperm maturation. In this study the effect of cadmium on luminal acidification was assessed in rat seminiferous tubules, caput and cauda epididymis by glass membrane double-barrelled pH microelectrodes in vivo. Four Sprague-Dawley rats received CdCl/sub 2/ (0.015 mM/kg s.c.) 24 hrs. prior to micropuncture and 4 rats served as controls. Arterial blood gas values were within the normal range and were not different in the two groups. Cadmium resulted in marked alkalinization of seminiferous tubule fluid compared to controls (7.30 +/- 0.01 (15) vs 6.97 +/- 0.01 (25)) (p < 0.001). Similarly, the pH in proximal caput after CdCl/sub 2/ was 7.07 +/- 0.02 (19) a value significantly more alkaline (p < 0.001) than 6.58 +/- 0.02 (24) in untreated animals. In contrast, however, pH in the distal caput was 6.90 +/- 0.03 (19), a value indistinguishable from that observed in controls. In summary, CdCl/sub 2/ administration is associated with marked impairment of acidification in the testis and proximal epididymus while acidification in the distal epididymus remains intact.

  9. Testicular sparing surgery in small testis masses: A multinstitutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Galosi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of benign testicular tumors is increasing in particular in small lesion incidentally found at scrotal ultrasonography. Primary aim of this study was to perform radical surgery in malignant tumor. Secondary aim was to verify the efficacy of the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway recently adopted in management of small masses with testis sparing surgery in benign lesions. Materials and methods: In this multicenter study, we reviewed all patients with single testis lesion less than 15 mm at ultrasound as main diameter. We applied the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway described by Sbrollini et al. (Arch Ital Urol Androl 2014; 86:397 which comprises: 1 testicular tumor markers, 2 repeated scrotal ultrasound at the tertiary center, 3 surgical exploration with inguinal approach, intraoperative ultrasound, and intraoperative pathological examination. Definitive histology was reviewed by a dedicated uro-pathologist. Results: Twenty-eight patients completed this clinical flowchart. The mean lesion size was 9.3 mm (range 2.5-15. Testicular tumor markers were normal except in a case. Intraoperative ultrasound was necessary in 8/28 cases. We treated 11/28 (39.3% with immediate radical orchiectomy and 17/28 (60.7% with testis-sparing surgery. Definitive pathological results were: malignant tumor in 6 cases (seminoma, benign tumor in 10 cases (5 Leydig tumors, 2 Sertoli tumors, 1 epidermoid cyst, 1 adenomatoid tumor, 1 angiofibroma, benign disease in 11 (8 inflammation with haemorragic infiltration, 2 tubular atrophy, 1 fibrosis, and normal parenchyma in 1 case. We observed a good concordance between frozen section examination and definitive histology. Any malignant tumor was treated conservatively. Any delayed orchiectomy was necessary based on definitive histology. Conclusions: The incidence of benign lesions in 60% of small testis lesions with normal tumor markers makes orchiectomy an overtreatment. Testicular sparing surgery of single

  10. NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 coexpression with MAGE-A cancer/testis antigens: a tissue microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, Martin; Schultz-Thater, Elke; Zajac, Paul; Guller, Ulrich; Feder, Chantal; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Carafa, Vincenza; Terracciano, Luigi; Hudolin, Tvrtko; Spagnoli, Giulio C; Tornillo, Luigi

    2005-07-20

    The characterization of the expression pattern of different families of cancer/testis (C/T) antigens in different tumors, at the protein level, might be of relevance in the development of multiantigen vaccine preparations for active specific immunotherapy. We have used tissue microarray (TMA) technology to explore in large numbers of tumor specimens the expression of NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 C/T antigens and its correlation with MAGE-A expression by using D8.38 and 57B monoclonal antibodies (MAb). The epitopes recognized by these reagents in C/T antigens were identified by molecular mapping by using a bacterial expression system. Out of 2,052 samples, 119 (5.8%) scored positive upon staining with D8.38 NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1-specific MAb. Expression in >10% of cases was detectable in melanoma and basalioma (31.6 and 18.2%, respectively), large cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the lung (17.8 and 10.5%, respectively), stomach adenocarcinomas of the intestinal type (13.2%), pT2-4 bladder TCC (18.2%), nonseminomatous carcinomas of the testis (10.4%) and liposarcomas (15.4%). Simultaneous expression of NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 and MAGE-A C/T antigens was then addressed in a TMA where 101/845 and 73/845 samples (12 and 8.6%, respectively) showed evidence of MAGE-A or NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 specific staining, respectively. In 35/845 specimens (4.1%) concomitant expression of MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 was observed (p = 0.0002). Discrepancies in the expression of NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 and MAGE-A were conspicuously detectable in squamous cell carcinomas of the skin (MAGE-A positive but NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 negative) and in liposarcomas (NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 positive, but MAGE-A negative). Taken together, these data suggest novel areas of application of C/T antigens targeted active specific immunotherapy possibly based on multiantigen vaccine preparations. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. GALLBLADDER CARCINOMA

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    Blaž Trotovšek

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carcinoma of the gallbladder is a tumour with a dismal prognosis and 5-years overall survival rate less than 5%. Among the tumours of the gastrointestinal tract it is fifth in the row and its incidence is approximately 1.2/105. Tumour occurs more often (2–6 times in women and in people over 50 years old (90%. According to the Slovenian Registry of Cancer for year 1998 the incidence of gallbladder carcinoma was 2.7/105 and it occurred 4 times more often among women. The most important risk factors for development of gallbladder carcinoma are: bile stones, chronic inflammation and polyps of the gallbladder. Carcinoma of the gallbladder develops in only 2–3% of the patients with bile stones. When discovered, carcinoma has already invaded the liver in 60%, regional lymph nodes in 45% and the other surrounding organs in 40%. Carcinoma is at time of diagnosis already disseminated in distant organs in 20%. Only in 10% of the patients it is confined to the gallbladder wall. Before the routine use of the ultrasound, computed tomography and tumour markers the disease was discovered preoperatively in 10% versus 90% today. Diagnostic percutaneous biopsy is not recommended. TNM classification and staging of the disease is important for the decision of the modality of treatment.Conclusions. For TNM stage I gallbladder carcinoma, simple cholecystectomy is sufficient. When stage II-IVa is discovered, »en block« resection of gallbladder, liver segments 4b and 5, common bile duct and thorough lymphadenectomy is recommended. Regional radiotherapy and intraarterial chemotherapy with Mitomycin-C are showing promising results. Longterm outcome in patients with gallbladder carcinoma is improving but it is still disappointing.

  12. The value of ultrasonography in boys with a non-palpable testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Alexander; Vries, Annebeth Meij-de; Smets, Anne; Verbeke, Jonathan; Heij, Hugo; van der Steeg, Alida

    2014-01-01

    In patients with a non-palpable testis (NPT) on physical examination, the testis is assumed either to be situated intra-abdominally or to be hypoplastic or absent. Diagnostic laparoscopy in these boys is considered the preferable first step. In this study the diagnostic value of pre-operative

  13. Diethylstilbestrol regulates mouse gubernaculum testis cell proliferation via PLC-Ca2+-CREB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Ping, Hong-Yan; Li, Jian-Hong; Duan, Shou-Xin; Jiang, Xue-Wu

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested a positive correlation between environmental estrogens (EEs) and high incidence of abnormalities in male urogenital system, but the mechanism remains unclear. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen that disrupts the morphology and proliferation of gubernaculum testis cells, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, mouse gubernaculum testis cells were pretreated with phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122 and then treated with DES. The results demonstrated that U-73122 impaired DES-evoked intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in gubernaculum testis cells and inhibited DES-induced proliferation of gubernaculum testis cells. Mechanistically, we found that U-73122 inhibited DES-induced activation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in gubernaculum testis cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that the effects of DES on mouse gubernaculum testis cells are mediated by PLC-Ca 2+ -CREB pathway. Environmental estrogens remain a serious threat to male reproductive health, and it is important to understand the mechanism by which EEs affect the male productive system. Here we explore potential mechanisms how the proliferation and contractility of gubernaculum testis cells are regulated by diethylstilbestrol. Our findings provide the first evidence that PLC-Ca 2+ -CREB signalling pathway mediates the nongenomic effects of diethylstilbestrol on gubernaculum testis cells. These findings provide new insight into the role of diethylstilbestrol in the aetiology of male reproductive dysfunction and will help develop better approaches for the prevention and therapy of male reproductive malformation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Gene expression profiles in testis of pigs with extreme high and low levels of androstenone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Meuwissen, Theo; Lien, Sigbjørn

    2007-01-01

    Boar taint is a major obstacle when using uncastrated male pigs for swine production. One of the main compounds causing this taint is androstenone, a pheromone produced in porcine testis. Here we use microarrays to study the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in testis of high and low...

  15. Early onset sebaceous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltreider Sara A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular sebaceous carcinoma can masquerade as benign lesions resulting in delay of diagnosis. Early recognition is even more difficult in young patients where the disease rarely occurs. Here, we provide a clinicopathological correlation of ocular sebaceous carcinoma in a young individual lacking history of hereditary cancer or immunosuppression. Findings A detailed histopathological study including p53 DNA sequencing was performed on an aggressive sebaceous carcinoma presenting in a healthy 32 year-old Caucasian woman. She had no history of retinoblastoma, evidence for a hereditary cancer syndrome, or radiation therapy. However, she potentially was at risk for excessive UV light exposure. A detailed review of the literature is also provided. A moderately well differentiated sebaceous carcinoma was established histopathologically arising from the meibomian gland of the upper eyelid. In most areas, the cytoplasm contained small but distinct Oil-red-O positive vacuoles. Direct sequencing of p53 identified a G:C→A:T mutation at a dipyrimidine site. The mutation results in substitution of arginine for the highly conserved glycine at residue 199 located at the p53 dimer-dimer interface. Energy minimization structural modeling predicts that G199R will neutralize negative charges contributed by nearby inter- and intramonomeric glutamate residues. Discussion This study points to the importance of recognizing that sebaceous carcinoma can occur in young patients with no evidence for hereditary cancer risk or radiation therapy. The G199R substitution is anticipated to alter the stability of the p53 tetrameric complex. The role of UV light in the etiology of sebaceous carcinoma deserves further study. Our findings, taken together with those of others, suggest that different environmental factors could lead to the development of sebaceous carcinoma in different patients.

  16. Flow cytometry of DNA in mouse sperm and testis nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meistrich, M.L. (Univ. of Texas, Houston); Lake, S.; Steinmetz, L.L.; Gledhill, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Mutations that occur in spermatogenic cells may be expressed as changes in DNA content, but developmentally-dependent alteration of its staining properties complicates the quantitation of DNA in individual germ cells. These alterations have been studied with flow cytometric techniques. Nuclei from mouse testis cells and sperm were stained by the acriflavine--Feulgen method. The fluorescence intensity frequency distribution of nuclei of testis cells was characterized by 2 major and 5 minor peaks. Nuclei sorted from the various peaks with a fluorescence-activated cell sorter were identified microscopically. These data were confirmed by generation of peaks with nuclei prepared from cell suspensions enriched in specific cell types. One of the major peaks corresponded to round spermatid nuclei. The other major peak, located at 0.6 of the fluorescence intensity of the round nuclei, corresponded to elongated spermatid nuclei. Purified nuclei of epididymal and vas deferens spermatozoa displayed asymmetric fluorescence distributions. A minor peak at 0.8 the intensity of the round spermatid nuclei was tentatively assigned to elongating spermatids. 2 of the minor peaks, located at 1.7 and 2.0 times the fluorescence intensity of the round nuclei, corresponded to clumps of 2 haploid and diploid nuclei.

  17. HPLC quantification of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor saquinavir in brain and testis of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudigonda, Koteshwara; Jukanti, Raju; Apte, Shashank S; Ajjala, Devender R; Shrivastava, Wishu; Kandikere, Vishwottam N; Nirogi, Ramakrishna V S

    2006-10-01

    A rapid, reliable HPLC method with UV detection (240 nm) was developed and validated for quantitation of saquinavir in mice brain and testis. Saquinavir and the internal standard were isolated from homogenized tissue matrices using liquid-liquid extraction procedure and were then analyzed using an isocratic mobile phase by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The lower limit of quantification was 50 ng/g for both brain and testis. A linear dynamic range of 50-5000 ng/g for both brain and testis was established. This HPLC method was validated with between-batch precision of 0.5-4.4 and 1.5-5.5% for brain and testis, respectively. The between-batch accuracy was 94.7-105.9% and 97.5-105.0% for brain and testis, respectively. The present method was applied for tissue distribution studies of the novel drug delivery systems of saquinavir in mice.

  18. Hybrid verrucous-squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary with synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Tiffany T; Hamzi, Munir H; Macaron, Shady H; Magno, Winston B; Dudrick, Stanley J; Palesty, J Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma, a variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, is usually described in the literature as arising in the oral cavity, skin, and larynx. The reports on verrucous carcinoma arising in the genital tract, usually originating in the vagina, vulva, or uterine cervix, are few. Verrucous carcinoma arising in the ovary has not been previously reported. In this article, a unique hybrid carcinoma, a large aggressive verrucous carcinoma in combination with squamous carcinoma of the left ovary and synchronously occurring with a squamous cell carcinoma in the endometrium, is presented. This unique case of a hybrid carcinoma includes the first-known case of this type of carcinoma involving the ovary. The negative cervical evaluation findings, together with the histologic patterns of the tumors in the uterus and the ovary, support the conclusion that these 2 carcinomas are synchronous, one arising in the left ovary and the other arising in the uterus.

  19. Screening of subfertile men for testicular carcinoma in situ by an automated image analysis-based cytological test of the ejaculate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, K; Lippert, Marianne; Mogensen, Hanne O

    2011-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is usually diagnosed after manifestation of an overt tumour. Tumour formation is preceded by a pre-invasive and asymptomatic stage, carcinoma in situ (CIS) testis, except for very rare subtypes. The CIS cells are located within seminiferous tubules but can be exfoliated...

  20. Screening of subfertile men for testicular carcinoma in situ by an automated image analysis-based cytological test of the ejaculate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, K; Lippert, Marianne; Mogensen, Hanne O

    2011-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is usually diagnosed after manifestation of an overt tumour. Tumour formation is preceded by a pre-invasive and asymptomatic stage, carcinoma in situ (CIS) testis, except for very rare subtypes. The CIS cells are located within seminiferous tubules but can be exfoliated and...

  1. Diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of NY-ESO-1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Jutta; Mollaoglu, Nur; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Neukam, Friedrich W; Nkenke, Emeka

    2009-12-01

    Cancer/testis antigen 1B (NY-ESO-1) is exclusively expressed in various types of tumor but not in healthy normal tissue, except testis, and induces strong cellular and humoral immune responses. Therefore, it represents an ideal target for diagnostic and immunotherapeutic applications. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of NY-ESO-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to determine its impact as a diagnostic parameter or a therapeutic target for oral cancer. A total of 65 OSCC and 20 normal oral mucosal samples of otherwise healthy volunteers were included in this study. Expression of NY-ESO-1 was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results were correlated to diagnosis and clinicopathological parameters. NY-ESO-1 was expressed in 27.7% of the investigated tumor samples, but not in normal oral mucosal. The correlation between NY-ESO-1 expression and malignancy was significant (p=0.008). The prevalence of NY-ESO-1 expression was significantly associated with tumor size (p=0.033), but not with histological grading, positive lymph node status or clinical stage of disease. NY-ESO-1 expression is restricted to OSCC, clearly indicating malignancy. However, the expression rate of this antigen is too low for clinical application but it might be a useful additional biomarker within a multiple marker system for the diagnosis of OSCC. In addition, NY-ESO-1 might be a candidate for immunotherapy and polyvaccination in patients suffering from OSCC.

  2. Protective role of L-carnitine and vitamin E on the testis of atherosclerotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Afrah F; Kasem, Safwat M; Tousson, Ehab; Elsisy, Mohammed K H

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is a condition caused by lipid build-up and inflammation in the arteries, so hyperlipidemia is the major reason for atherosclerosis. Testis was found to be negatively affected by hyperlipidemia which leads to its impaired functions. Vitamin E and l-carnitine have well-known lipid-lowering and antioxidative activities. Triton WR 1339 is a non-ionic detergent, which induces severe hyperlipidemia by inhibition of lipoprotein lipase. The present study evaluates the protective role of vitamin E and l-carnitine on the testis in atherosclerosis and detects the most effective choice for protection against atherosclerosis; vitamin E, l-carnitine or a combination of both. A total of 80 albino male rats were divided into eight groups (10 rats for each group): control (G1), triton (G2), l-carnitine (G3), triton + l-carnitine (G4), vitamin E (G5), triton + vitamin E (G6), l-carnitine + vitamin E (G7) and triton + l-carnitine + vitamin E (G8). Data showed a significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 17 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 β HSD), testicular catalase and malondialdehyde (MDA) in G2 when compared with G1, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum testosterone, testicular 17 ketosteroid reductase (17 KSR), total thiol and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) data showed a significant decrease in G2 when compared with G1. Treatment with l-carnitine or/and vitamin E helps in improving the adverse effect of triton; also the histological changes confirm this finding. So the present study recommends all people to include l-carnitine and vitamin E in their diet to be protected against atherosclerosis. © The Author(s) 2012.

  3. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the human testis: heterogeneous protein expression and relation to invasive potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rod T; Camacho-Moll, Maria; Macdonald, Joni; Anderson, Richard A; Kelnar, Christopher JH; O’Donnell, Marie; Sharpe, Richard M; Smith, Lee B; Grigor, Ken M; Wallace, W Hamish B; Stoop, Hans; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Donat, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer develops from pre-malignant intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified cells that are believed to arise from failure of normal maturation of fetal germ cells from gonocytes (OCT4+/ MAGEA4−) into pre-spermatogonia (OCT4−/MAGEA4+). Intratubular germ cell neoplasia cell subpopulations based on stage of germ cell differentiation have been described, however the importance of these subpopulations in terms of invasive potential has not been reported. We hypothesised that cells expressing an immature (OCT4+/MAGEA4−) germ cell profile would exhibit an increased proliferation rate compared to those with a mature profile (OCT4+/ MAGEA4+). Therefore, we performed triple immunofluorescence and stereology to quantify the different intratubular germ cell neoplasia cell subpopulations, based on expression of germ cell (OCT4, PLAP, AP2γ, MAGEA4, VASA) and proliferation (Ki67) markers, in testis sections from patients with pre-invasive disease, seminoma and non-seminoma. We compared these subpopulations with normal human fetal testis and with seminoma cells. Heterogeneity of protein expression was demonstrated in intratubular germ cell neoplasia cells with respect to gonocyte and spermatogonial markers. It included an embryonic/fetal germ cell subpopulation lacking expression of the definitive intratubular germ cell neoplasia marker OCT4, that did not correspond to a physiological (fetal) germ cell subpopulation. OCT4+/MAGEA4- cells showed a significantly increased rate of proliferation compared with the OCT4+/MAGEA4+ population (12.8 v 3.4%, pneoplasia, which appears to be an important factor in determining invasive potential of intratubular germ cell neoplasia to seminomas. PMID:24457464

  4. The protective effect of goji berry extract in ischemic reperfusion in testis torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Recep; Zengin, Yılmaz; Gündüz, Ercan; İçer, Mustafa; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Dağgulli, Mansur; Kaplan, İbrahim; Alabalık, Ulaş; Güloğlu, Cahfer

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether goji berry extract (GBE), a known antioxidant, reduces ischemic reperfusion injury when administered to rats exposed to experimental testis torsion. A total of 32 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into 4 groups, including the control (sham), goji, torsion, and torsion-goji groups. The treatment groups received intraperitoneal GBE prior to torsion. The left testes of the animals were subjected to torsion via 5 hours of ischemia and 6 hours of reperfusion. TAC (total antioxidant capacity), TOS (total oxidant status) and OSI (oxidative stress index) levels were calculated. Approximately 5-μm-thick sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and examined under a light microscope. Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS 15 software package. The mean serum TAC level was significantly increased in Groups 2 and 4 compared with Groups 1 and 3 in biochemical analyses (for both P < 0.001). The mean serum TOS level was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 1, 2, and 4 (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.003, respectively). Comparison of the groups with regard to histopathological examination revealed that Group 4 exhibited a significantly higher rate of hemorrhage and congestion compared with Groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.038). The groups did not differ significantly with respect to degeneration. Ischemic reperfusion injury associated with testis torsion was reduced by the antioxidant effect of GBE. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to confirm the agent's efficacy for this indication.

  5. Origin of a rapidly evolving homeostatic control system programming testis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Pengli; Yagi, Shintaro; Shiota, Kunio; Alam, S M Khorshed; Vivian, Jay L; Wolfe, Michael W; Rumi, M A Karim; Chakraborty, Damayanti; Kubota, Kaiyu; Dhakal, Pramod; Soares, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Mammals share common strategies for regulating reproduction, including a conserved hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis; yet, individual species exhibit differences in reproductive performance. In this report, we describe the discovery of a species-restricted homeostatic control system programming testis growth and function. Prl3c1 is a member of the prolactin gene family and its protein product (PLP-J) was discovered as a uterine cytokine contributing to the establishment of pregnancy. We utilized mouse mutagenesis of Prl3c1 and revealed its involvement in the regulation of the male reproductive axis. The Prl3c1-null male reproductive phenotype was characterized by testiculomegaly and hyperandrogenism. The larger testes in the Prl3c1-null mice were associated with an expansion of the Leydig cell compartment. Prl3c1 locus is a template for two transcripts (Prl3c1-v1 and Prl3c1-v2) expressed in a tissue-specific pattern. Prl3c1-v1 is expressed in uterine decidua, while Prl3c1-v2 is expressed in Leydig cells of the testis. 5'RACE, chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA methylation analyses were used to define cell-specific promoter usage and alternative transcript expression. We examined the Prl3c1 locus in five murid rodents and showed that the testicular transcript and encoded protein are the result of a recent retrotransposition event at the Mus musculus Prl3c1 locus. Prl3c1-v1 encodes PLP-J V1 and Prl3c1-v2 encodes PLP-J V2. Each protein exhibits distinct intracellular targeting and actions. PLP-J V2 possesses Leydig cell-static actions consistent with the Prl3c1-null testicular phenotype. Analysis of the biology of the Prl3c1 gene has provided insight into a previously unappreciated homeostatic setpoint control system programming testicular growth and function. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Valproic acid induces histologic changes and decreases androgen receptor levels of testis and epididymis in rats

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    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Valproic acid (VPA, an anti-epileptic drug, can cause male subfertility. However, the degree to which testicular and epididymal histopathologies and androgen receptor (AR expression are changed under VPA treatment has never been reported. Objective: To investigate the histopathological changes and AR protein levels of testis and epididymis in VPA-treated rats for every single day. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into control and VPA-treated groups (n=8/ each. Treated rats were injected with 500 mg/ kgBW, intraperitoneally, VPA for 10 consecutive days. At the end of every experimental day, all reproductive parameters including histology by hematoxylin and eosin staining and protein expression of AR by Immuno-Western blot in testis and epididymis were examined. Results: VPA-treated rats showed dramatically changes in testicular and epididymal histopathologies compared to control group. The multinucleated giant cells and sloughing of germ cells were observed on day 6. The germ cell disintegration and increased intercellular spaces of seminiferous tubular epithelium appeared in days 7-10 of VPA treatment. Additionally, extensive multinucleated giant cells and complete exfoliation were clearly found from days 8-10. Such exfoliated germ cells were clearly seen in its epididymal lumen at day 10. The increasing rate of sperm concentration was approximately 32.31% of that in control group at day 10 (p=0.03. Moreover, the protein expressions of testicular and epididymal AR (% intensity/ 80 μg protein lysate was decreased in VPA-treated rats compared with control. Conclusion: VPA treatment induces histologic changes of germ cell epithelium in seminiferous tubules and decreases the expression of testicular and epididymal androgen receptors

  7. Expression Analysis of ARMC3, a Testis-Specific Gene, in Breast Cancer Patients

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    Zare

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women. Biomarkers that are expressed in tumors play a pivotal role in diagnosis and treatment. Cancer-testis (CT antigens are predominantly expressed in the testis and also have inappropriate expression in various tumor types. In the case of expression in tumors, they will be used as immunotherapy targets. Objectives Expression of ARMC3, a CT antigen, was analyzed to determine its potential as a tumor marker for breast cancer. Materials and Methods Eighty samples including 40 tumor samples and 40 normal adjacent tissue samples, were gathered from the ICBC biobank. RNA extraction was carried out on all samples. The extracted RNA was treated by DNaseI, after which cDNA was synthesized. Expression of ARMC3 with ACTB (internal control was studied using Real-Time PCR (polymerase chain reaction. Results Overall, 43.6% of tumors and 25.6% of normal adjacent tissues expressed ARMC3. ARMC3 was overexpressed in 41% of tumor samples (P = 0.00 and showed decreased expression in 46.2% (P = 0.00. Also, the expression of this gene in 12.8% of tumors was unchanged, which was statistically significant. It should be noted that all samples expressed ACTB gene. Conclusions Expression of ARMC3 in tumor samples and normal adjacent tissue is very important. The expression of this gene in tumor-adjacent tissue may be associated with the stage of cancer; it may be that these tissues are affected by epigenetic and oncogenic changes of breast cancer. Accordingly, aberrant expression of ARMC3 in tumor samples may be an attractive candidate for use as a tumor marker.

  8. Antioxidant and protective effects of Royal jelly on histopathological changes in testis of diabetic rats

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    Elham Ghanbari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease. It has adverse effects on male reproductive function. Royal Jelly (RJ has antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects and show protective effects against diabetes. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RJ on histopathological alterations of the testicular tissue in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C, royal jelly (R, diabetic (D and RJ-treated diabetic (D+R groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW. The rats from the R and D+R groups received daily RJ (100 mg/kg BW for 6 wks orally. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to analyze histopathological changes including: tunica albuginea thickness (TAT, seminiferous tubules diameter (STsD, Johnsen’s score, tubular differentiation index (TDI, spermiogenesis index (SPI, Sertoli cell index (SCI, meiotic index (MI, and mononuclear immune cells (MICs in testes. The antioxidant status was examined by evaluating testicular levels of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and catalase (CAT activity. Results: Histological results of the testis from diabetic rats showed significant decrease in STsD, Johnsen’s score, TDI, SPI, SCI and MI, and significant increase in TAT and MICs, while administration of RJ significantly reverted these changes (p<0.05. RJ treatment markedly increased activity of CAT and FRAP. There were significant differences in FRAP levels among C (13.0±0.5, RJ (13.4±0.3, D (7.8±0.6 and D+R (12.4±0.7 groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: RJ improved diabetes-induced impairment in testis, probably through its antioxidant property.

  9. Continual maintenance of the blood-testis barrier during spermatogenesis: the intermediate compartment theory revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazama, Futoshi

    2008-10-01

    Tight junctions occur between the lateral processes of neighboring Sertoli cells that divide the seminiferous epithelium into two compartments: basal and adluminal compartments. These tight junctions constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB). The established theory that the BTB must open when spermatocytes translocate from the basal compartment to the adluminal compartment is marked by one contradiction, that is, normal spermatogenesis occurs in the testis because the BTB is expected to constantly seclude the adluminal compartment from the basal compartment in order to protect haploid germ cells from the autoimmune system. Subsequently, another concept was proposed in which two BTBs divide the seminiferous epithelium into three compartments: basal, intermediate and adluminal compartments. It has been suggested that the transition from the basal region to the adluminal region without the BTB open occurs through the agency of a short-lived intermediate compartment embodying some primary spermatocytes. In contrast, the results of recent findings in the molecular architecture of the BTB suggest that the BTB in the seminiferous epithelium must "open". In this paper, I re-examine the BTBs of boar and experimental cryptorchid mouse testes by transmission electron microscope (TEM). TEM analysis showed that an atypical basal compartment existed in the thin seminiferous epithelium of 14-day post-cryptorchid mice testes. In developmental boar testes, ectoplasmic specialization (ES) of the seminiferous epithelium showed dynamic behavior. The intermediate compartment was clearly observed between the basal and adluminal compartments of the mature boar seminiferous epithelium. ESs were observed between Sertoli cells and spermatids at all developmental stages, including early, late and mature. Furthermore, ESs were situated on the apical surface of the seminiferous epithelium. From these results, I propose that the BTB is continually maintained during spermatogenesis and suggest a

  10. Ameloblastic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen B Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastoma of jaws are common and locally destructive tumors originating from odontogenic apparatus. They constitute approximately 1% of all jaw tumors with 80% occurring in the mandible. Ameloblastoma exhibiting a frank malignancy is a rare entity and occurs in less than 1% of all ameloblastomas. Among the two jaws, ameloblastic carcinoma involving maxilla is extremely rare with only few cases reported so far in the literature. Here we report two cases of ameloblastic carcinoma one involving the maxilla and the other involving mandible, with an aggressive clinical course leading to extensive local destruction of the affected jaws.

  11. Testis sparing surgery for sequential bilateral testicular tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Ozdemir, Ahmet Tunc; Akbulut, Ziya; Balbay, M Derya

    2009-06-01

    We present our experience in performing testis sparing surgery (TSS) to treat sequential bilateral testicular tumors. We performed TSS on two patients with bilateral sequential testicular tumors. A 43-year-old patient (Case 1) and a 33-year-old patient (Case 2) had previous inguinal orchiectomy for seminoma. The patients were diagnosed with secondary testicular tumors in the contralateral testes on follow up. They were treated with TSS after frozen section analysis of the peritumoral testicular tissue. Pathologic evaluation of the removed tumors revealed immature teratoma and Leydig cell tumor. Both patients are disease free without local recurrence and do not have erectile dysfunction, and thus do not need androgen replacement therapy after a follow up of 6 months and 44 months, respectively. TSS after frozen section analysis appears to be a safe and feasible procedure that, in carefully selected cases, offers adequate cancer control, preserves sexual function, and provides psychological benefits.

  12. The role of GAGE cancer/testis antigen in metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten Frier; Terp, Mikkel Green; Hansen, Malene Bredahl

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: GAGE cancer/testis antigens are frequently expressed in various types of malignancies and represent attractive targets for immunotherapy, however their role in cancer initiation and progression has remained elusive. GAGE proteins are expressed in normal cells during early development...... lines, which are equally tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice, but differ with their ability to generate metastases in the lungs and lymph nodes. RESULTS: Although GAGE proteins were strongly upregulated in the highly metastatic clone (CL16) compared to non-metastatic (NM2C5), weakly metastatic (M4A4......) and moderately metastatic clones (LM3), stable downregulation of GAGE expression did not affect the ability of CL16 cells to establish primary tumors and form metastasis in the lungs of immunodeficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that GAGE proteins per se do not support metastasis and that further...

  13. Recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in cryptorchid testis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Góes, Luccas Santos Patto de [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lopes, Roberto Iglesias [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Campos, Octavio Henrique Arcos [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Neves de; Sant' Anna, Alexandre Crippa; Dall' Oglio, Marcos Francisco; Srougi, Miguel [Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    A 23-year-old male with a history of bone marrow transplant for acute myeloid leukemia. He presented a large mass in the right inguinal region 5 years ago. Upon physical examination, right-sided cryptorchidism was observed. The tumor markers alpha-fetoprotein and beta-HCG were within normalcy range and lactate dehydrogenase was raised. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed right testicular mass in contiguity with the inguinal canal to the ipsilateral retroperitoneum, associated with right hydronephrosis. Due to the risk of germ-cell tumor in undescended testicle, the patient underwent radical right orchiectomy. The pathological examination showed recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in the testis. He was referred to oncology for adjuvant therapy. Our literature review found no similar cases described.

  14. Local Actions of Melatonin in Somatic Cells of the Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Beatriz Frungieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The pineal hormone melatonin regulates testicular function through the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal axis. In addition, direct actions of melatonin in somatic cells of the testis have been described. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences cellular growth, proliferation, energy metabolism and the oxidation state, and consequently may regulate spermatogenesis. These data pinpoint melatonin as a key player in the regulation of testicular physiology (i.e., steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis mostly in seasonal breeders. In patients with idiopathic infertility, melatonin exerts anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on testicular macrophages, and provides protective effects against oxidative stress in testicular mast cells. Consequently, melatonin is also involved in the modulation of inflammatory and oxidant/anti-oxidant states in testicular pathology. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin has important effects on testicular function and male reproduction.

  15. Taste perception: from the tongue to the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng

    2013-06-01

    In mammals, the sense of taste helps in the evaluation and consumption of nutrients, and in avoiding toxic substances and indigestible materials. Distinct cell types expressing unique receptors detect each of the five basic tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet and umami. The latter three tastes are detected by two distinct families of G protein-coupled receptors: T2Rs and T1Rs. Interestingly, these taste receptors have been found in tissues other than the tongue, such as the digestive system, respiratory system, brain, testis and spermatozoa. The functional implications of taste receptors distributed throughout the body are unknown. We therefore reviewed the remarkable advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of taste perception in 'taste' and 'non-taste' tissues. We also present our speculations on the direction of further research in the field of male reproduction.

  16. Yolk-sac–derived macrophages regulate fetal testis vascularization and morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Tony; Bhattacharya, Indrashis; Williams, Alyna V.; Sams, Dustin M.; Capel, Blanche

    2014-01-01

    Organogenesis of the testis is initiated when expression of Sry in pre-Sertoli cells directs the gonad toward a male-specific fate. The cells in the early bipotential gonad undergo de novo organization to form testis cords that enclose germ cells inside tubules lined by epithelial Sertoli cells. Although Sertoli cells are a driving force in the de novo formation of testis cords, recent studies in mouse showed that reorganization of the vasculature and of interstitial cells also play critical roles in testis cord morphogenesis. However, the mechanism driving reorganization of the vasculature during fetal organogenesis remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that fetal macrophages are associated with nascent gonadal and mesonephric vasculature during the initial phases of testis morphogenesis. Macrophages mediate vascular reorganization and prune errant germ cells and somatic cells after testis architecture is established. We show that gonadal macrophages are derived from primitive yolk-sac hematopoietic progenitors and exhibit hallmarks of M2 activation status, suggestive of angiogenic and tissue remodeling functions. Depletion of macrophages resulted in impaired vascular reorganization and abnormal cord formation. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for macrophages in testis morphogenesis and suggest that macrophages are an intermediary between neovascularization and organ architecture during fetal organogenesis. PMID:24912173

  17. Findings concerning testis, vas deference, and epididymis in adult cases with nonpalpable testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Coskun; Kalkan, Mehmet; Yalcinkaya, Soner

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to state the relationship between testis, epididymis and vas deference, in adult cases with nonpalpable testis. Between January 1996 and December 2009, we evaluated 154 adult cases with nonpalpable testes. Mean age was 23 years (20-27 years). Explorations were performed by open inguinal incision, laparoscopy, and by inguinal incision and laparoscopy together on 22, 131 and 1 patient, respectively. Of all the unilateral cases, 32 were accepted as vanishing testis. In five of these cases, vas deference was ending inside the abdomen, and in the others, it was ending inside the scrotum. In the remaining 99 unilateral and 22 bilateral cases, 143 testes were found in total. Testes were found in the inguinal canal as atrophic in one case, at the right renal pedicle level with dysmorphic testis in one case, and anterior to the internal ring between the bladder and the common iliac vessels at a smaller than normal size in 119 cases. One (0.69%) case did not have epididymis. While epididymis was attached to the testis only at the head and tail locations in 88 (61.53%) cases, it was totally attached to the testis in 54 (37.76%) cases. There is an obviously high incidence rate of testis and vas deference anomalies, where epididymis is the most frequent one. In cases with abdominal testes, this rate is highest for high localised abdominal testes.

  18. [Experimental varicocele affects the ipsilateral testis in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Cheng, Fan; Zhou, Ben-Zheng; Rao, Ting; Fei, An-Hua

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the impact of experimental varicocele (EV) on the ipsilateral testis in rats. EV was induced by partial ligation of the left renal vein in male SD rats, the control rats subjected to sham operation, and the testes of the EV models and controls were extirpated 6, 12, and 18 weeks later. Johnson's score, ultrastructure of seminiferous tubules, intratesticular testosterone concentration (ITC) and germ cell apoptotic index (AI) of each left testis were evaluated. Johnson's scores were (6.92 +/- 0.52), (4.83 +/- 0.41) and (2.95 +/- 0.26), ITCswere (6.32 +/- 0.85), (5.17 +/- 0.76) and (4.11 +/- 0.69) and AIs were (5.32 +/- 1.23), (15.21 +/- 0.97) and (21.13 +/- 1.12) respectively in the 6 w , 12 w and 18 w EV groups, significantly lower than in the corresponding control groups, (9.56 +/- 0.35, 9.63 +/- 0.31, 9.39 +/- 0.46), (9.64 +/- 1.23, 9.38 +/- 0.69, 9.73 +/- 0.49) and (3.21 +/- 1.15, 3.43 +/- 1.21, 3.61 +/- 1. 15) (P < 0.05), the former two showing a gradual decline while the latter a significant elevation with the increasing duration of varicocele. The damage to the ultrastructure of seminiferous tubules was aggravated with the prolonging of varicocele. EV can cause a progressive decline of ITC, dyszoospermia and increased AI of germ cells.

  19. Overexpression of a set of genes, including WISP-1, common to pulmonary metastases of both mouse D122 Lewis lung carcinoma and B16-F10.9 melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, O; Eisenbach, L; Amariglio, N; Kaminski, N; Harmelin, A; Pfeffer, R; Shohat, M; Rechavi, G; Berger, R

    2003-07-21

    Despite advances in the management of solid tumours, the development of metastases continues to be the most significant problem and cause of death for cancer patients. To define genetic determinants of pulmonary metastases, we have applied oligonucleotide microarrays to established murine models of highly metastatic D122 Lewis lung carcinoma and B16-F10.9 melanoma cell lines. These models are characterised by primary subcutaneous growth in C57BL/6J mice, a period of minimal residual disease and spontaneous pulmonary metastases. Microarray analysis defined seven genes, namely - arginase, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2), surfactant protein C (SP-C), uteroglobin (UG) and wnt-1-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1), which were consistently elevated in pulmonary metastases compared to the primary tumour of both D122 and B16-F10.9 models. Previous studies demonstrated that two of these seven genes, IL-1 alpha and PAI-2, are involved in the metastatic process. The results obtained by the microarrays were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR, for three chosen genes - PAI-2, WISP-1 and UG. Our approach aimed to identify genes essential for the metastatic process in general and for pulmonary metastases specifically. Further research should address the precise role of these genes in the metastasising process to the lungs and test if they could be used as targets for future therapies.

  20. Examination for intratubular germ cell neoplasia at operation for undescended testis in boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Frisch, M

    1994-01-01

    1 nonseminoma of the contralateral testis, which had been treated before surgery for an undescended testis, 1 nonseminoma found at followup, 1 seminoma and 2 intratubular germ cell neoplasms. Of the later 3 patients 1 had a 45,X/46,XY karyotype and 2 had abnormal external genitalia. Previous...... testicular biopsy from the patient in whom nonseminoma was noted at followup showed Sertoli cells only. We recommend that testicular biopsy be performed at operation for undescended testis in boys with abnormal sex chromosomes, particularly 45,X/46,XY karyotype, and in those with abnormal external genitalia...

  1. Blueberry Extracts Protect Testis from Hypobaric Hypoxia Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zepeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes oxidative damage to male rat reproductive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a blueberry extract (BB-4 in testis of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Morphometric analysis, cellular DNA fragmentation, glutathione reductase (GR, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were evaluated. Our results showed that supplementation of BB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation, decreased apoptosis, and increased GR and SOD activities in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia conditions . Therefore, this study demonstrates that blueberry extract significantly reduced the harmful effects of oxidative stress caused by hypobaric hypoxia in rat testis by affecting glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities.

  2. Bilateral interstitial cell tumor of the testis: a report of a case in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leotta, A; Lio, S G

    1994-10-01

    We describe a case of metachronous bilateral interstitial-cell tumor of the testis in a 54-year-old man with no evidence of endocrine symptoms. About 300 Leydig cell tumor cases have been reported in literature and only in 3% the tumor was bilateral. Rare examples have been reported in cryptorchid testis. In adult patients with Leydig cell tumor of the testis, endocrinologic signs occur in 20 per cent of cases and often precede the onset of a palpable testicular mass. Pathological aspects are discussed and a survey of the literature is reported.

  3. Carcinoma vulvar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamit Peñas Zayas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma de la vulva tiene una incidencia de aproximadamente un 3-5% dentro de todas las enfermedades ginecológicas malignas. El 90% de los tumores malignos de la vulva está constituido por carcinoma epidermoide, el resto son adenocarcinomas, carcinomas de células basales y melanomas. Se realiza la presentación de un caso de una paciente femenina de 25 años de edad con antecedentes  de Diabetes Mellitus tipo II y trombopatia, que ingresa en el servicio de ginecología con un cuadro cutáneo polimorfo, localizado en labios mayores y menores, dado por lesiones eritematoerosivas y vegetante, sospechándose clínicamente el diagnóstico  de un carcinoma epidermoide, corroborándose el mismo histológicamente al realizarse biopsia de piel. Se indicó tratamiento con quimioterapia. Por la edad de la paciente y ser menos frecuente en mucosa que en la piel,  motivo la presentación del caso.

  4. Parathyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Krøll, L; Ladefoged, C

    1986-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a slow growing tumor, and the patients most often die from complications to the hypercalcemia. Therefore, any attempt should be made to remove local recurrence and metastasis surgically, as medical treatment is disappointing. A case treated with extensive vascular surgery...

  5. Laryngeal carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological pharyngo-cutaneous fistula could not. One patient died markers of alcohol abuse in patients with from a ruptured carotid following radiotherapy three carcinoma of the larynx. Acta months after surgery, while the remaining eight are still. Otorrinolaringol Esp 1998 Aug- doing well with an average duration of follow ...

  6. Immunohistochemistry in ocular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramek, Brett; Lisle, Allison; Loy, Timothy

    2008-07-01

    The distinction between ocular sebaceous carcinoma, poorly differentiated ocular squamous cell carcinoma and ocular basal cell carcinoma can be challenging. An appropriate immunohistochemical panel may help to differentiate these lesions. To determine the distribution and use of several immunostains in these specimens, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from several of each was studied using an immunohistochemical technique. Positive staining for cytokeratin (CK)7 was seen in 100% of sebaceous carcinomas, 77.8% of basal cell carcinomas and 67.7% of squamous cell carcinomas. One hundred percent of sebaceous and basal cell carcinomas were positive for cytokeratin CAM 5.2, while only 83.3% of squamous cell carcinomas were positive. Using epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), 100% of squamous cell carcinomas and 80% of sebaceous carcinomas were positive, while basal cell carcinomas were uniformly negative. One hundred percent of basal cell carcinomas and 80% of sebaceous carcinomas were positive for Ber-EP4, while all squamous cell carcinomas were negative. Finally, 77.8%, 20% and 16.7% of basal cell carcinomas, sebaceous carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas showed immunoreactivity for the androgen receptor. An EMA positive, Ber-EP4 positive immunophenotype supports sebaceous carcinoma, EMA positive, Ber-EP4 negative result supports squamous cell carcinoma and an EMA negative, Ber-EP4 positive result supports basal cell carcinoma.

  7. Construction and analysis of a human testis/sperm-enriched interaction network: Unraveling the PPP1CC2 interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Yoon, Sooyeon; De Bock, Pieter-Jan; Goltsev, Alexander V; Gevaert, Kris; Mendes, José Fernando F; Fardilha, Margarida

    2017-02-01

    Phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit gamma 2 (PPP1CC2), a PPP1CC tissue-specific alternative splice restricted to testicular germ cells and spermatozoa, is essential for spermatogenesis and spermatozoa motility. The key to understand PPP1CC2 regulation lies on the characterization of its interacting partners. We construct a testis/sperm-enriched protein interaction network and analyzed the topological properties and biological context of the network. Further the interaction of a potential target for pharmacological intervention was validated in human spermatozoa. A total of 1778 proteins and 32,187 interactions between them were identified in the testis/sperm-enriched network. The network analysis revealed the members of functional modules that interact more tightly with each other. In the network, PPP1CC was located in the fourth maximum core part (k=41) and had 106 direct interactors. Sixteen PPP1CC interactors were involved in spermatogenesis-related categories. Also, PPP1CC had 50 direct interactors, highly interconnected and many of them part of the network maximum core (k=44), associated with motility-related annotations, including several previously uncharacterized interactors, such as, LMNA, JAK2 and RIPK3. In this study we integrated tissue-specific protein expression and protein-protein interaction data in order to identify key PPP1CC2 complexes for male reproductive functions. One of the most intriguing interactors was A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4), a testis-specific protein related to infertility phenotypes and involved in all major motility-related annotations. We demonstrated for the first time the interaction between PPP1CC2 and AKAP4 in human spermatozoa and the potential of the complex as contraceptive target. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Etiopathogenesis of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Makazlieva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Thyroid malignomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasm consisting of most frequent differentiated encountered carcinomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, then medullary thyroid carcinoma originating from neuroendocrine calcitonin-producing C-cells and rare forms of thyroid lymphomas arising from intrathyroidal lymphatic tissue, thyroid sarcomas and poorly differentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. There are increasing numbers of epidemiological studies and publications that have suggested increased incidence rate of thyroid carcinomas. We have read, analysed and compare available reviews and original articles investigating different etiological factors in the development of thyroid carcinomas through Google Scholar and PubMed Database. DISCUSSION: Aetiology involved in the development of thyroid carcinomas is multifactorial and includes external influences, as well as constitutional predispositions and genetic etiological factors. The actual effect of environmental and constitutional factors is on promoting genetic and epigenetic alterations which result in cell proliferation and oncogenesis. Until now are identified numerous genetic alterations, assumed to have an important role in oncogenesis, with MAPK and PI3K-AKT as crucial signalling networks regulating growth, proliferation, differentiation and cell survival/apoptosis. CONCLUSION: This new molecular insight could have a crucial impact on diagnosis and also on improving and selecting an appropriate treatment to the patients with thyroid malignancies.

  9. Expression and Location of Glucose-regulated Protein 78 in Testis and Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know the role of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/BiP/HSPA5 in spermatogenesis and its expression and location in the testis and epididymis. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect GRP78 location and expression in the testis and epididymis. Results: Glucose-regulated protein 78 was observed in spermatocytes, round spermatids and interstitial cells of the testis and in principal cells of the epididymis. Glucose-regulated protein 78 was first detected in the rat testis at postnatal day 14. Thereafter, the protein level increased gradually with age and was maintained at a high and stable state after postnatal day 28. In the rat, GRP78 was expressed in the principal cells but not in clear cells of the epididymis. Conclusion: Glucose-regulated protein 78 participates in the process of spermatogenesis.

  10. Human Fetal Testis Xenografts Are Resistant to Phthalate-Induced Endocrine Disruption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicholas E. Heger; Susan J. Hall; Moses A. Sandrof; Elizabeth V. McDonnell; Janan B. Hensley; Erin N. McDowell; Kayla A. Martin; Kevin W. Gaido; Kamin J. Johnson; Kim Boekelheide

    2012-01-01

    .... Impomntly, ex vivo phthalate exposure of the letal testis does not recapitulate the species-specific endocrine disruption, demonstrating me need for a new bioassay to assess the human response to phthalates. Objectives...

  11. Asbestos as a possible major cause of malignant lung tumors (including small cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma & mesothelioma), brain tumors (i.e. astrocytoma & glioblastoma multiforme), many other malignant tumors, intractable pain including fibromyalgia, & some cardio-vascular pathology: Safe & effective methods of reducing asbestos from normal & pathological areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    High incidences of Small Cell Carcinoma & Adenocarcinoma of the lung, Astrocytoma & Glioblastoma Multiforme of the brain and Mesothelioma of the lung were found in those who had a high accumulation of Asbestos in the eyes and upper respiratory system (nose, larynx, trachea, etc.). When measured non-invasively using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT), brain tumors had the highest concentration of Asbestos (0.2 approximately 2.1 mg BDORT units). Relatively high levels of Asbestos (0.2 approximately 0.6 mg BDORT units) were found in: Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the lungs & esophagus, Adenocarcinoma of the larynx & breast, myelogenic leukemia, arteries of these cancers, left ventricle of failing heart, myocardial infarction, some of the narrowed arteries, varicose veins, cataracts, balding heads, hot flashes, Alzheimer's Disease and Autism. A small, round or ellipsoidal area, with diameter of 5 mm or less, was found near the center of every cancer tissue with a higher level of Asbestos (1 approximately 3 mg), As, Zn, Cr and Se, than in the rest of the tumor; this small area may be where the cancer initiated. Among areas of intractable pain with frequent recurrence and gradual worsening, about 0.2 approximately 0.5 mg BDORT units (or higher) of Asbestos were found. The author found that in the Astrocytoma and many other cancer patients, the optimal dose of DHEA produced very significant reductions of cancer cell telomere from over 1400 ng in the brain tumors (and over 900 ng in other cancers) to close to or less than 1 yg (=10(-24) g), with circulatory improvement by reduction of TXB2. Unlike the standard, widely used treatment with DHEA 25 approximately 50 mg daily, which is an overdose; we only gave one optimal dose (1.5 approximately 12.5 mg) and the beneficial effects usually lasted anywhere between 3-6 months, unless inhibiting factors were introduced. In addition, once one optimal dose of DHEA was given, the amount of Asbestos from these tumors decreased very

  12. Changes in the Spermatogenesis and Histology of Testis in Rat Treated with Matricaria recutita

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Jamshidiyan; Dariush Saadati; Jasem Estakhr; Jina Khayatzade; Fereshteh Javadian

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the anti-spermatogenic potential of ethanolic extract of Matricaria recutita a plant belonging to Asteraceae family. The effects of an ethanolic extract of theMatricaria recutita on spermatogenesis, histology of testis and level of testosterone were examined in control and experimental groups. Results showed that Matricaria recutita extract did not cause any changes in body weight, but significantly decreased the testis weight (p

  13. Immunohistochemical distinction of ocular sebaceous carcinoma from basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinard, J H

    1999-06-01

    Diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma of the periorbital region is often delayed. Clinically, this lesion can mimic several inflammatory disorders. Histopathologically, it can mimic either squamous cell or basal cell carcinoma. To identify an immunohistochemical approach to assist in the diagnosis of periorbital sebaceous carcinoma. The immunohistochemical profiles of several cases of periorbital sebaceous, basal cell, and squamous cell carcinoma were examined. Although at least focal epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) staining can effectively distinguish sebaceous carcinoma (10 of 11 were positive) from basal cell carcinoma (1 of 16 were positive), most squamous cell carcinomas examined were also focally EMA positive (11 of 14). However, Cam 5.2 reactivity was seen in most sebaceous carcinomas (8 of 11) but no squamous cell carcinomas (0 of 14). In addition, at least focal BRST-1 reactivity was also seen in most sebaceous carcinomas (7 of 11) but no basal cell carcinomas (0 of 16). Periorbital sebaceous, basal cell, and squamous cell carcinomas have different immunohistochemical staining profiles; a panel of commonly available antibodies, including anti-EMA, BRST-1, and Cam 5.2, may help distinguish these diseases from each other when that distinction cannot be clearly made by light microscopy alone.

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ovary and testis reveals potential sex-related genes and pathways in spotted knifejaw Oplegnathus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinxin; Wang, Bo; Liu, Xiumei; Liu, Xiaobing; He, Yan; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Xubo

    2017-12-30

    The spotted knifejaw (Oplegnathus punctatus) is a newly emerging fishery species inhabiting the Pacific Ocean around Hawaii, China, Japan and Korean Peninsula. Little information on the mechanism of gonadal development and gametogenesis in this species could be used for research and breeding work. In this study, RNA-seq technology was applied to generate a deep-coverage sequencing data of spotted knifejaw testis and ovary. A total of 262,392,754 reads (ovary 133,403,270, testis 128,989,484) were generated from the cDNA library. After filtering and assembling, a total of 113,794 unigenes were obtained with the N50 of 1658bp. Unigenes were annotated with multiple public databases, including non-redundant protein databases (NR) (42,460, 37.31%), Swiss-Prot (33,632, 29.56%), eukaryotic Orthologus Groups (KOG) (26,195, 23.02%), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) (10,978, 9.65%), and Gene Ontology (GO) (30,514, 26.82%). By comparing ovary and testis, 4496 differentially expressed unigenes (1986 in female, 2510 in male) were identified, in which 469 were specially expressed in females and 859 in males. The expression levels of 12 unigenes were confirmed by qRT-PCR. In addition, 35,054 simple sequence repeats were identified. By GO and KEGG analyses, a set of unigenes related to gonadal development and gametogenesis were filtered. foxl2 was deduced to be a key regulator for gonadal development and gametogenesis in females and dmrt1 in males. bmp15, nanos3, sox9 and amh were likely to function in the regulation of gonad physiology and germ line cells maintenance in ovary and testis. Interestingly, p53, apoptosis, Jak-STAT and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathways were found to be pivotal in regulating gonadal development and gametogenesis of spotted knifejaw in various aspects. This study provides a fundamental support for further research in reproduction biology, population genetics and functional genomics in spotted knifejaw. Copyright © 2017

  15. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. ... and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less ...

  16. [Cloning and characterization of a novel rat gene RSD-7 differentially expressed in testis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-dong; Gou, Da-wei; Miao, Shi-ying; Zhang, Jian-chao; Zong, Shu-dong; Wang, Lin-fang

    2003-06-01

    To isolate and identify the differentially expressed genes in spermatogenesis for the understanding molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis. Screening of the cDNA library, Northern blot, expression and purification in E. coli with GST expression system, immunocytochemical staining of testis sections were used. (1) A cDNA fragment designated as RSD-7 was isolated from rat testis cDNA library. It was 1,238 bp in length, coding a protein of 232 amino acids with the GenBank accession number AF315467. The encoding protein of RSD-7 cDNA had a Ubiquitin-like domain. (2) Northern blot indicated that RSD-7 was uniquely expressed in rat testis, and in the testis RSD-7 emerged on the 30th postnatal day and expressed until 120th postnatal day. (3) Expression and purification of RSD-7 protein in E. coli with GST expression system and were used to obtain anti-RSD-7 antibody. (4) Immunolocalization of RSD-7 in rat testis revealed that it is expressed only in Sertoli cells. Transcription pattern of RSD-7 and localization of RSD-7 protein in testis have been made, which established the base for the functional study of RSD-7.

  17. Comparison of combined antioxidants and thymoquinone in the prevention of testis ischemia - reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, B; Sari, U; Amasyali, A S; Ozkanli, S; Sogut, S; Hanci, V; Efiloglu, O; Danacioglu, Y O; Engin, P; Yencilek, F; Atis, G; Yildirim, A; Alkoc, O A; Caskurlu, T

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to compare the preventive effects of combined antioxidants (CA1, 2) with a single antioxidant drug (thymoquinone; TQ) on experimental testis Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury. Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of seven rats each: control, testis I/R, testis I/R + CA1, testis I/R + CA2, and testis I/R + TQ. After 1 h of testicular ischemia, reperfusion was achieved by detorsion for 4 h. Antioxidants were intraperitoneally administered for 30 min prior to reperfusion. All rats were sacrificed 4 h after reperfusion to evaluate the tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant status (TAS) and the immunohistochemical evaluation of tissue inducible and endothelial nitric acid synthase (iNOS, eNOS) and apoptosis protease-activating factor 1 (APAF-1). MDA levels were lower and TAS values were higher in the I/R + antioxidant groups than in the I/R group (p antioxidant groups were also lower than those in the I/R group (p antioxidant treatment may more effectively reduce apoptosis and increase preventive effects in testis I/R injury. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Chronic pain has a negative impact on sexuality in testis cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pühse, Gerald; Wachsmuth, Julia Urte; Kemper, Sebastian; Husstedt, Ingo W; Evers, Stefan; Kliesch, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Testis cancer is a disease that directly affects a man's sense of masculinity and involves treatments compromising sexual function. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and the influence of chronic pain on sexuality in long-term testis cancer survivors. Thus, we examined 539 patients after they had one testis removed because of a testicular germ cell tumor. Having completed oncologic therapy, all patients received a detailed questionnaire asking about the occurrence and clinical presentation of testis pain before and after orchiectomy. In addition, items from the abridged International Index of Erectile Function and Brief Sexual Function Inventory were used to gain precise information on individual sexual function. Overall, 34.5% of our testicular cancer survivors complained of reduced sexual desire, and sexual activity was reduced in 41.6%. Erectile dysfunction was present in up to 31.5% of patients. In 24.4%, the ability to maintain an erection during intercourse was impaired. Ejaculatory disorders (premature, delayed, retrograde, or anejaculation) occurred in 84.9% of our testis cancer survivors. A total of 32.4% of our participants experienced a reduced intensity of orgasm, and 95.4% experienced reduced overall sexual satisfaction. There was a significant correlation between the occurrence of chronic pain symptoms and the relative frequency and intensity of erectile dysfunction, inability to maintain an erection, ejaculation disorders, and reduced intensity of orgasm. In conclusion, chronic pain has a negative impact on sexuality in testis cancer survivors.

  19. Cancer testis antigen SPAG9 is a promising marker for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Biqiong; Wei, Xiaobin; Zou, Guoying; He, Junyu; Xu, Guofeng; Xu, Fei; Huang, Yiran; Zhu, Haowen; Li, Yong; Ma, Guoan; Yu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Cancer testis antigen sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) is highly expressed in many types of cancers. In the present study, to obtain a better understanding of the relevance of SPAG9 in cancer diagnosis and treatment, the expression of SPAG9 mRNA and protein in lung cancer specimens was evaluated by RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. ELISA was used to quantify the SPAG9 autoantibody in the peripheral blood of lung cancer patients. The results showed that the expression of SPAG9 mRNA and protein in the lung cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues (Plung cancer patients was significantly higher than the level in the healthy controls (Plung cancer patients than these levels in the untreated patients (P=0.006, P=0.026, respectively), while no statistical difference was found between treated and untreated squamous cell carcinoma patients. Our results suggest that the SPAG9 antibody in serum is a promising marker for the diagnosis of lung cancer, and the level of the humoral immune response to this antigen appears to be related to the type of lung cancer.

  20. Identification and in vitro derivation of spermatogonia in beagle testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs is important for exploration of SSCs self-renewal, differentiation, and manipulation. There are several reports on rodent SSC cultures; however, data on SSC cultures in domestic animals are limited. To provide basic scientific information on canine SSC cultures, we report canine testes development, and the development of spermatogonia-derived colonies (SDCs for in vitro cultures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Testes from 2-, 3-, and 12-month-old beagles were used for histology, immunohistochemistry, in vitro culture, immunocytochemistry, and PCR. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5-positive spermatogonia, both single and paired, were found to be abundant in the testes of 2-month-old beagles. stempro-34 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with 5% fetal bovine serum provided as useful substrates for culture of SDCs, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF played a key role in colony formation. Colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase and anti-PGP9.5 staining. The early spermatogonia and stem cell markers such as octamer binding protein 4 (Oct4, Nanog homeobox (Nanog, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF, PGP9.5, and GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRα-1 were expressed in the colonies at higher levels than in the testis tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Testes of the 2-month-old beagles had abundant single and paired spermatogonia, which can be used for derivation of SDCs, and FGF was important for colony formation.

  1. Endocrine disrupting compounds exposure and testis development in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbowona, Biola F.; Mustapha, Olajide A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades, there is substantial evidence that male reproductive function is deteriorating in humans and wildlife and this is associated with unintentional exposure to widely used synthetic chemicals. Subsequently, much has been done to show that certain chemicals in the environment adversely interfere with the developing fetal gonads of the laboratory animals. Some in vitro studies have demonstrated treatment-induced reproductive problems in offspring exposed to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) which are similar to those observed in wildlife and human population. Few EDC studies have demonstrated that there are certain periods of gestation when the developing fetus is highly sensitive and at risk of small endocrine changes. Similar observations have been made in the sewage sludge model, however, while animal studies have been insightful in providing valuable information about the range of effects that can be attributed to in utero exposure to EDCs, varying levels of maternal doses administered in different studies exaggerated extrapolation of these results to human. Thus the EDC concentration representative of fetal exposure levels is uncertain because of the complexities of its nature. So far, the level of fetal exposure can only be roughly estimated. There is substantial evidence from animal data to prove that EDCs can adversely affect reproductive development and function in male and more has accumulated on the mechanisms by which they exert their effects. This paper therefore, reviews previous studies to highlight the extent to which testis development can be disrupted during fetal life. PMID:29255381

  2. Sertoliform cystadenoma: a rare benign tumour of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Felix; Schweyer, Stefan; Behnes, Carl Ludwig; Blech, Manfred; Radzun, Heinz Joachim

    2013-02-14

    Sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis represents an uncommon benign tumour. They appear in patients from 26 to 62 years of age. We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with a tumour in the area of the epididymal head. The tumour markers were not increased. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour an inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The cut surface of this tumour was of grey/white color and showed small cysts. The tumour consisted of two compartments. The epithelial like tumour cells showed a sertoliform growth pattern and cystic dilatations. In between the tumour cells repeatedly actin expressing sclerotic areas could be recognized as the second tumour component. Proliferative activity was not increased. Immunohistochemically the tumour cells were positiv for inhibin, S-100, and CD 99. Alpha feto protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) as well as synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigene (EMA), and BCL-2 were not expressed. As far as we know this is the sixth reported case of this tumour. Because of the benign nature of this tumour the correct diagnosis is important for the intra- and postoperative management. Here we present a case of this rare tumour and discuss potential differential diagnosis. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1956026143857335.

  3. Cancer/testis antigen PASD1 silences the circadian clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Alicia K.; Harvey, Stacy L.; Sammons, Patrick J.; Anderson, Amanda P.; Kopalle, Hema M.; Banham, Alison H.; Partch, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The circadian clock orchestrates global changes in transcriptional regulation on a daily basis via the bHLH-PAS transcription factor CLOCK:BMAL1. Pathways driven by other bHLH-PAS transcription factors have a homologous repressor that modulates activity on a tissue-specific basis, but none have been identified for CLOCK:BMAL1. We show here that the cancer/testis antigen PASD1 fulfills this role to suppress circadian rhythms. PASD1 is evolutionarily related to CLOCK and interacts with the CLOCK:BMAL1 complex to repress transcriptional activation. Expression of PASD1 is restricted to germline tissues in healthy individuals, but can be induced in cells of somatic origin upon oncogenic transformation. Reducing PASD1 in human cancer cells significantly increases the amplitude of transcriptional oscillations to generate more robust circadian rhythms. Our results describe a function for a germline-specific protein in regulation of the circadian clock and provide a molecular link from oncogenic transformation to suppression of circadian rhythms. PMID:25936801

  4. Capillary hemangioma of the testis. A case report of a rare benign tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Białek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the case of a very rare capillary hemangioma of the testis in a 23-yearold patient. Physical examination revealed a tumor located in the upper pole of the left testis, which was suspected of being malignant due to its significantly increased density and irregular contours. Blood levels of the following tumor markers were determined: alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin and lactate dehydrogenase. No abnormalities were found in any of these tests. A gray-scale ultrasound scan of the scrotum revealed a lesion located in the upper pole of the left testis, 24 mm in diameter with slightly decreased echogenicity and irregular contours, which suggested infiltration of the tunica albuginea of the testis. Color and power Doppler scans demonstrated a dense network of blood vessels and increased blood flow in the lesion described. In addition, 3D ultrasound scan images were obtained, which allowed for a thorough determination of the topography of the lesion. No abnormalities were found in the patient’s medical history, physical examination or ultrasound scan of the right testis. Taking into account the suspected malignancy with signs of infiltration of the tunica albuginea of the upper pole of the testis a decision was made to remove the left testis together with the spermatic cord using the inguinal approach. A histopathological examination of the whole specimen revealed a multifocal capillary hemangioma of the testis, signs of testicular fibrosis and significant atrophy of the spermatogenic epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. Immunohistochemistry: CD31 (+, CD34 (+, FVIII (−, vimentin (+, CK MNF116 (−, mesothelial cells (−, calretinin (−, MIB-1 = 8.4%. The tumor described is one of the few benign lesions originating from the tissues of the testis for which partial resection of the organ may be considered. Intraoperative histopathological examination and resection of the lesion with the preservation of a healthy

  5. Protective role of hesperidin against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Nadia Z; Ahmed Zahran, Ahmed M; El-Rashidy, Fatma H; Abdo Kodous, Ahmad S

    2017-12-01

    Gamma (γ) ray, an electromagnetic radiation, is occasionally accompanying the emission of an alpha or beta particle. Exposure to such radiation can cause cellular changes such as mutations, chromosome aberration and cellular damage which depend upon the total amount of energy, duration of exposure and the dose. Ionizing radiation can impair spermatogenesis and can cause mutations in germ cells. In general, type B spermatogonia are sensitive to this type of radiation. The current study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of hesperidin (H), as a polyphenolic compound, on rat testis injury induced by γ-radiation. Rats were divided into groups including C group (control rats), R (irradiated) group (rats irradiated with γ-radiation), Vehicle (V) group (rats administered with dimethylsulfoxide "DMSO"), H group (rats administered with H only), HR and RH groups (rats treated with H before and after exposure to γ-radiation, respectively). Malondialdehyde (MDA: the end product of lipid peroxidation "LPO") and xanthine oxidase (XO: it generates reactive oxygen species "ROS") in testes homogenate as well as nitric oxide (NO: as ROS) in mitochondrial matrix were determined. The apoptotic markers including DNA-fragmentation (DNAF) in testes homogenate and calcium ions (Ca(2+)) in mitochondrial matrix were determined. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in testes homogenate, while reduced glutathione "GSH" in nuclear matrix were determined. Also histopathological examination for testes tissues through electron microscope was studied. Exposure of rats to γ-radiation (R group) increased the levels of MDA, NO, DNAF, Ca(2+) and XO activity, while it decreased GSH level, SOD and CAT activities as compared to the C groups; γ-radiation increased oxidative stress (OS), LPO, apoptosis and induced testes injuries. These results are in agreement with the histopathological examination. In contrast, treatment with H before or after exposure to

  6. Public awareness of testis cancer and the prevalence of testicular self-examination-changing patterns over 20 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Rowan G

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Delay in treatment of testis cancer (TC) has a proven negative impact on disease stage, treatment outcome, and mortality. Poor public awareness of the disease and lack of testis self-examination (TSE) may account for late presentation. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge of TC and performance of TSE in a group of men over 2 time periods 20 years apart. METHODS: In the current study, 677 men from a banking institution were surveyed on their knowledge of TC and their performance of TSE. Comparisons were made from the current data and those from the original study in 1986. RESULTS: This study demonstrates an increase in public awareness and modest concomitant increase in TSE since first studied in this country in 1986. There was no difference in knowledge across age groups in this study. Furthermore, men who demonstrate a superior degree of knowledge were more likely to perform TSE. Limitations included possible selection bias in the 2 studies conducted in a banking institution. CONCLUSIONS: Increased testicular cancer knowledge combined with TSE may have a role in improving detection of significant testicular pathology.

  7. The Effects of Trifluralin on LH, FSH and Testosterone Hormone Levels and Testis Histological Changes in Adult Rats

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    Mehrdad Shariati

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trifluralin is a herbicide and used in agriculture widely. It enters plants throughdeveloping roots and stops plant cells from division and elongation (meristemic inhibitor.Extensive application of trifluralin to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in agriculture,horticulture and horn garden, leads to environmental pollution and its entrance into the food chaincould have determined effects on human and other species. In this research the effects of trifluralinon reproductive parameters of the male rats including serum luteinizing hormone (LH, folliclestimulatinghormone (FSH, testosterone levels, and changes in testicular tissue and body weightwere investigated.Materials and Methods: For this purpose male rats were randomly divided in 5 groups, to includecontrol, sham (received normal saline as a solvent, and three experimental groups which received500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg oral trifluralin respectively. After 16 days, body and testis weight weremeasured and blood samples were taken from heart and used for measurement of LH, FSH andtestosterone levels. To evaluate histological changes, testes were removed and weighed and, afterobtaining tissue section, stained by HE.Results: Serum testosterone, FSH, and LH levels showed significant decrease in experimentalgroups (p<0.05. There was significant decrease in the number of germinal and somatic cells intestis in experimental groups. There was also a significant decrease in body and testis weight inexperimental groups.Conclusion: It can be concluded that oral administration of trifluralin could decrease gonadotropinsand testosterone hormone levels and also this herbicide could have hazardous effects on testistissue.

  8. PATE, a gene expressed in prostate cancer, normal prostate, and testis, identified by a functional genomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Tapan K.; Maitra, Rangan; Iavarone, Carlo; Salvatore, Giuliana; Kumar, Vasantha; Vincent, James J.; Sathyanarayana, B. K.; Duray, Paul; Lee, B. K.; Pastan, Ira

    2002-03-01

    To identify target antigens for prostate cancer therapy, we have combined computer-based screening of the human expressed sequence tag database and experimental expression analysis to identify genes that are expressed in normal prostate and prostate cancer but not in essential human tissues. Using this approach, we identified a gene that is expressed specifically in prostate cancer, normal prostate, and testis. The gene has a 1.5-kb transcript that encodes a protein of 14 kDa. We named this gene PATE (expressed in prostate and testis). In situ hybridization shows that PATE mRNA is expressed in the epithelial cells of prostate cancers and in normal prostate. Transfection of the PATE cDNA with a Myc epitope tag into NIH 3T3 cells and subsequent cell fractionation analysis shows that the PATE protein is localized in the membrane fraction of the cell. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of PATE shows that it has structural similarities to a group of proteins known as three-finger toxins, which includes the extracellular domain of the type transforming growth factor receptor. Restricted expression of PATE makes it a potential candidate for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer.

  9. lines and bowl affect the specification of cyst stem cells and niche cells in the Drosophila testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNardo, Stephen; Okegbe, Tishina; Wingert, Lindsey; Freilich, Sarah; Terry, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To function properly, tissue-specific stem cells must reside in a niche. The Drosophila testis niche is one of few niches studied in vivo. Here, a single niche, comprising ten hub cells, maintains both germline stem cells (GSC) and somatic stem cells (CySC). Here, we show that lines is an essential CySC factor. Surprisingly, lines-depleted CySCs adopted several characteristics of hub cells, including the recruitment of new CySCs. This led us to examine the developmental relationship between CySCs and hub cells. In contrast to a previous report, we did not observe significant conversion of steady-state CySC progeny to hub fate. However, we found that these two cell types derive from a common precursor pool during gonadogenesis. Furthermore, lines mutant embryos exhibited gonads containing excess hub cells, indicating that lines represses hub cell fate during gonadogenesis. In many tissues, lines acts antagonistically to bowl, and we found that this is true for hub specification, establishing bowl as a positively acting factor in the development of the testis niche. PMID:21486923

  10. De niet-scrotale testis: huidige standpunten van de Werkgroep Kinderurologie van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Urologie [Undescended testis: Current views and advice for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hack, W.W.M.; Sijstermans, K.; Voort-Doedens, L.M. van der; Meijer, R.W.; Heij, H.A.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Pierik, F.H.

    2008-01-01

    Eerder dit jaar verschenen in dit tijdschrift drie artikelen gewijd aan de niet-scrotale testis (NST).1-3 Ze hebben tot veel discussie geleid binnen de Werkgroep Kinderurologie (WGKU) van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Urologie (NVU), hetgeen resulteerde in dit commentaar. Vooral de artikelen van

  11. Expression of SSX-1 and SSX-5 genes in the peripheral blood of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fawzy, Amal; Fawzy, Niveen; El-Sayed Zaher, Amr; Gomaa, Asmaa I; Hashim, Mohamed; Abdallah, Ayat R.; Moawad, Mahmoud; Youakim, Magdy Fouad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh in women. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis and accounts for 90% of primary liver cancer. Synovial sarcoma X chromosome (SSX) genes belong to cancer testis antigens (CTA) family; expressed only in germ cell tumors. There have been some studies about the SSX genes expression in the HCC. To the best of our knowledge no reports inclu...

  12. Deep sequencing of transcriptome profiling of GSTM2 knock-down in swine testis cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yuqi; Jin, Yi; Zhou, Yongqiang; Jin, Jianjun; Ma, Zhenfa; Ren, Zhuqing

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases mu 2 (GSTM2), a kind of important Phase II antioxidant enzyme of eukaryotes, is degraded by nonsense mediated mRNA decay due to a C27T substitution in the fifth exon of pigs. As a reproductive performance-related gene, GSTM2 is involved in embryo implantation, whereas, functional deficiency of GSTM2 induces pre- or post-natal death in piglets potentially. To have some insight into the role of GSTM2 in embryo development, high throughput RNA sequencing is performed using the swine testis cells (ST) with the deletion of GSTM2. Some embryo development-related genes are observed from a total of 242 differentially expressed genes, including STAT1, SRC, IL-8, DUSP family, CCL family and integrin family. GSTM2 affects expression of SRC, OPN, and SLCs. GSTM2 suppresses phosphorylation of STAT1 by binding to STAT1. In addition, as an important transcription factor, STAT1 regulates expression of uterus receptive-related genes including CCLs, IRF9, IFITs, MXs, and OAS. The present study provides evidence to molecular mechanism of GSTM2 modulating embryo development. PMID:27905550

  13. Evaluation of Culture Time and Media in an In Vitro Testis Organ Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Noriko; Merry, Gwenn E; Inselman, Amy L; Sloper, Daniel T; Del Valle, Pedro L; Sato, Takuya; Ogawa, Takehiko; Hansen, Deborah K

    2017-04-17

    The complexity of spermatogenesis makes development of appropriate in vitro testis models challenging. A novel in vitro mouse testis culture system has been reported but not yet evaluated as an alternative model for male reproductive toxicity testing. We assessed the effects of media composition on sperm differentiation and testis morphology of cultured mouse testis fragments. Testes from postnatal day 5 B6:CBA-Tg(Acrv1-EGFP)2727Redd/J male mice were cultured in knockout serum replacement (KSR) or Albumax I (Albumax) medium. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression was examined on days 35, 42, 45, and 49 of culture. Histology and flow cytometry were performed for testis morphology and spermatid differentiation. EGFP signals were first observed in round spermatids on day 22 of culture (corresponding to postnatal day 27) and were observed until the end of culture, indicating testis-specific protein expression. A-kinase anchor protein 4 expression, a marker of elongated spermatid (step 15-16) occurred earlier in explants cultured in KSR than Albumax medium (typically day 35 and after day 42 of culture, respectively). The percentage of seminiferous tubules with elongated spermatid was higher in Albumax than KSR medium from days 45 to 49 of culture. Albumax medium may facilitate or support better morphology and spermatid production than KSR medium. Further studies need to improve spermatid production and refinement of this in vitro testis culture system that may be useful as a supplement to current male reproductive toxicity testing or an alternative model in cases where in vivo testing may be unfeasible. Birth Defects Research 109:465-474, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Carcinoma Basocelular

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    Inês Alencar de Castro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Vemos na região frontal de um paciente masculino, fototipo II de Fitzpatrick, lesão ulcerada com bordas papulosas róseas e peroladas, correspondendo a Carcinoma Basocelular. É lesão maligna originária das células não- queratinizadas da camada basal da epiderme, sendo a forma mais comum de câncer em humanos. Estima-se em torno de 100.000 casos/ano no Brasil. Ocorre predominantemente em pele exposta de indivíduos com pouca capacidade de se bronzear. Pode se tornar invasivo, mas raramente metastatiza.

  15. Carcinoma basocelular

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Daniel Holthausen.

    2013-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Florianópolis, 2013. Introdução: O carcinoma basocelular (CBC) é o tumor maligno de pele mais comum em humanos. Atualmente existem inúmeras terapias para tratar o CBC, entretanto não se sabe se a inflamação peritumoral influencia na decisão cirúrgica, nem que fatores adicionais influenciam na qualidade de vida (QV) de seus portadores. Objetivos: 1) Aval...

  16. Metabolic syndrome-associated sperm alterations in an experimental rabbit model: relation with metabolic profile, testis and epididymis gene expression and effect of tamoxifen treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiani, Sara; Vignozzi, Linda; Filippi, Sandra; Gurrieri, Bruna; Comeglio, Paolo; Morelli, Annamaria; Danza, Giovanna; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Maggi, Mario; Baldi, Elisabetta

    2015-02-05

    The influence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on sperm quality and function is debated. Using a well-established high fat diet (HFD) rabbit model resembling human MetS, including development of hypogonadism, we demonstrate that HFD decreased sperm motility, morphology and acrosome reaction in response to progesterone and increased sperm cholesterol content. All the above parameters were associated with most MetS features, its severity and plasma testosterone (T) at univariate analysis. After T adjustment, sperm morphology and motility retained a significant association, respectively, with mean arterial pressure and circulating cholesterol levels. MetS modified the expression of inflammatory and tissue remodelling genes in the testis and of aquaporins in the epididymis. In a multivariate analysis, sperm morphology resulted associated with testis expression of fibronectin and collagen type 1 genes, whereas motility with epididymis aquaporin 1 gene. Administration of tamoxifen, used in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility, to HFD rabbits partially restored motility, but further decreased morphology and increased spontaneous acrosome reaction, without restoring responsiveness to progesterone. Overall our results indicate that development of MetS produces detrimental effects on sperm quality and functionality by inducing metabolic disorders leading to alterations in testis and epididymis functions and evidence a role of hypertension as a new determinant of abnormal sperm morphology, in line with a previous human study from our group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ceccanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol. RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  18. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Bhuloka Reddy, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India)]. E-mail: sbr_r@yahoo.com; Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Rama Lakshmi, P.V.B. [Pathology Department, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam 530 002 (India); Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 001 (India)

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  19. Transcriptome profiling of testis during sexual maturation stages in Eriocheir sinensis using Illumina sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin He

    Full Text Available The testis is a highly specialized tissue that plays dual roles in ensuring fertility by producing spermatozoa and hormones. Spermatogenesis is a complex process, resulting in the production of mature sperm from primordial germ cells. Significant structural and biochemical changes take place in the seminiferous epithelium of the adult testis during spermatogenesis. The gene expression pattern of testis in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been performed on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for testis of E. sinensis. In two runs, we produced 25,698,778 sequencing reads corresponding with 2.31 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 342,753 contigs or 141,861 scaffold sequences, which identified 96,311 unigenes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 39,995 unigenes were annotated based on having a Blast hit in the non-redundant database or ESTscan results with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5. This is the first report of a mitten crab transcriptome using high-throughput sequencing technology, and all these testes transcripts can help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis and testis maturation.

  20. Rare presentation of a testicular angiofibroma treated with testis sparing surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Leone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Testicular benign tumors are very rare (< 5%. Testicular Angiofibroma (AF is one of those, however the gold standard of treatment and follow-up is still unclear. Case report: A 47 years-old man with only one functioning testis was referred to our clinic for a palpable right testicular mass and atrophic contralateral testis. Patient underwent testis-sparing surgery with inguinal approach and intraoperative frozen sections examination with diagnosis of AF. Final histology confirmed AF. Post-operative follow-up was uneventful. Clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up was negative after 8 months. Conclusion: We report a conservative surgery in a patient with AF of the solitary testis. AF is a benign para-testicular fibrous neoplasm that could be misinterpreted as malignant tumor and treated with orchiectomy. Testis-sparing surgery is recommended in this case with intraoperative pathological examination. The excision of the mass is enough but in front of a possible recurrence a long follow-up is advisable.

  1. Vulnerability of Prepubertal Mice Testis to Iron Induced Oxidative Dysfunctions In Vivo and Functional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyagaraju BM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study describes the susceptibility of prepubertal testis of mice toprooxidant induced oxidative impairments both under in vitro and in vivo exposure conditions.Materials and Methods: Following in vitro exposure to iron (5,10 and 25 M, oxidative responsemeasured in terms of lipid peroxidation and hydroperoxide levels in testis of pre pubertal mice (4wk was more robust compared to that of pubertal mice (6 wk.Results: Further, in an in vivo study, pre pubertal mice administered (i.p sub lethal doses (12.5,25 and 50mg/100g bw/d, 5d of Iron dextran, showed significant induction of oxidative stressresponse in testis cytosol and mitochondria manifested as lipid peroxidation, generation of reactiveoxygen species, hydroperoxide levels and enhanced protein carbonyl levels (a measure of proteinoxidation. Diminished levels of GSH and total thiols in both cytosol and mitochondria of testissuggested an altered redox state. Significant perturbations in the activities of antioxidant enzymessuch as glutathione transferase, glutathione peroxidase and SOD were discernible suggesting theongoing oxidative stress in vivo. These oxidative impairments were accompanied by functionalimplications in testis as reflected in the altered activities of dehydrogenases and reduced activitiesof both 3 - and 17 -hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase.Conclusion: Collectively, these data provide an account of the susceptibility of prepubertal testisto iron-induced oxidative stress, associated functional consequences and this model is being furtherexploited for understanding the implications on the physiology of testis and consequent effect onfertility.

  2. Expression and function of HSP110 family in mouse testis after vasectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Ning Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HSP110 functions to protect cells, tissues, and organs from noxious conditions. Vasectomy induces apoptosis in the testis; however, little is known about the reason leading to this outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and function of HSP110 in mouse testis after vasectomy. Following bilateral vasectomy, we used fluorescent Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL to detect apoptosis, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to examine HSP110 expression and localization. Serum antisperm antibody (AsAb and testosterone were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS sensors and downstream signaling components was measured by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR, and the phosphorylation of eIF2α and JNK was detected by Western blotting. Vasectomy induced morphologic changes, increased apoptosis in the testis, increased serum AsAb, and decreased testosterone levels. After vasectomy, ORP150 mRNA level was increased first and then decreased, Bcl-2 was decreased, and the expression of HSPA4l, GRP78, GADD153, PERK, ATF6, IRE-1, XBP-1s, Bax, Bak, and caspases and the phosphorylation of eIF2α and JNK were increased. We present that an ER stress-mediated pathway is activated and involved in apoptosis in the testis after vasectomy. HSPA4l and ORP150 may play important roles in maintaining the normal structure and function of testis.

  3. Effects of flour or flaxseed oil upon testis mass in rats subjected to early weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; da Camara Boueri, Bianca Ferolla; Pessanha, Carolina Ribeiro; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2017-09-07

    Study evaluates testis mass in rats subjected to early weaning and subsequently nourished with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil. Pups were weaned for separation from mothers at 14 days (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). After 21 days, the control group (C60) was nourished with control diet. EW was divided as: control (EWC60), flaxseed flour (EWFF60) and flaxseed oil (EWFO60) group diets for the next 60 days. At 21st and 60th day, body mass, serum cholesterol and triglycerides and testis mass were evaluated. At 21 day, EW group showed lower (p < 0.05) body mass, serum cholesterol and testis mass. At 60 days, EWC60 and EWFO60 groups showed lower (p < 0.05) body mass (vs. C60 and EWFF60). EWFF60 group showed lower (p < 0.05) serum cholesterol (vs. EWC60 and EWFO60) and higher (p < 0.05) testis mass (vs. C60, EWC60 and EWFO60). Flaxseed flour (vs. oil) was associated with higher testis mass following early weaning.

  4. Protective effect of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Taherian, A; Azami-Tameh, A; Hosseini, S M; Moravveji, A

    2014-08-01

    Decreasing the side effects of chemotherapy in testis has been the subjects of many studies. In this study, the protective effects of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis were investigated after chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide. Histological and biochemical parameters were compared in cyclophosphamide-treated rats with or without ginger extract intake. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into four groups each 10. The control group received a single injection of 1 ml isotonic saline intraperitoneally. The Cyclophosphamide (CP) group received a single dose of cyclophosphamide (100 mg kg(-1) BW) intraperitoneally. CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups received orally 300 or 600 mg of ginger extract, respectively, for a period of 6 weeks after cyclophosphamide injection. The morphologic and histological structure of the testis was compared in different groups of the rats. Also, factors like malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant capacity and testosterone level were assessed in blood serum as well. Our results showed that although ginger extract could not change testis weight, malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS, but antioxidant and testosterone levels in serum were increased significantly. Also, an obvious improved histological change was seen in CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups in comparison with CP group. These protective effects of ginger on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment could be attributed to the higher serum level of antioxidants. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. METASTATIC PENILE CARCINOMA: A STUDY OF NINE CASES AND

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9 55 bladder TCC total penectomy 21. TCC = transitional cell carcinoma, SCC = squamous cell carcinoma. The rarity of the event prompted this study which describes 9 metastatic penile carcinoma cases including 7 originating from the bladder and one each from the lung and the bone mar- row. PATIENTS AND METHODS.

  6. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered.

  7. STUDIARE IN ITALIANO: ELABORAZIONE DI ESERCIZI SU TESTI UNIVERSITARI DI GEOGRAFIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gilardi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nella prospettiva indicata dal CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning l'articolo presenta un modello di unità didattica in cui si collocano esercizi per lo sviluppo della capacità di lettura per l'apprendimento disciplinare destinati a studenti universitari stranieri con l'obiettivo di sviluppare un livello di competenza linguistico-comunicativa corrispondente ai livelli B1 e B2 del Quadro Comune Europeo di Riferimento per le Lingue. Gli esercizi proposti sono finalizzati alla comprensione di testi, tratti da manuali di geografia, di cui viene indicato il livello di difficoltà in base all'indice di difficoltà Gulpease.   Following the CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning guidlines, this article presents a model for a didactic unit which includes reading skills exercises in a specific field of study for foreign university students.  The aim for the students was to reach a B1 linguistic and a B2 comunicative language level according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The  reading comprehension exercises utilize texts from Geography textbooks, which are marked with the level of difficulty based on the Gulpease difficulty index.

  8. Circumscribed breast carcinoma: Mammographic and sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Ke Sook [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Circumscribe breast cancer is a well demarcated mass with or without a lobulated border simulating a benign tumor like fibroadenoma on mammography or breast US and is reported as approximate 10% of the incidence among primary breast carcinoma(1.2). Pathologically medullary, colloid, papillary, intraductal and rarely invasive ductal carcinomas are included in this group which show the less intense desmoplastic reaction than the scirrhous type cancer, resulting in the most favorable prognosis of all carcinoma of the breast. Among 214 primary breast carcinoma during the past 8 years, we experienced 6 case of pathologically proven circumscribed breast cancer(2 cases of medullary carcinoma, 1 of colloid carcinoma, 1 of intracystic papillary carcinoma, 2 of comedo type intraductal carcinoma). Clinically 2 cases showed bloody nipple discharge from one hole of a unilateral nipple orifice. Mammography showed a well circumscribed nodule with or without partial lobular contour and no pathologic calcification. Breast sonographic findings were a well defined heterogeneous hypoechoic nodule with weak posterior acoustic enhancement. Characteristically a thin dilated lactiferous duct between the mass and the nipple on US could be detected in 2 cases which clinically was accompanied by bloody nipple discharge. Although the mammographic criteria is promising as benign tumor, the possibility of circumscribed as benign tumor, the possibility of circumscribed breast carcinoma must be considered in heterogeneous hypoechoic nodule with weak posterior acoustic enhancement in US, especially in the presence of a dilated lactiferous duct between the mass and the nipple with bloody nipple discharge.

  9. Ureteric carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ureteric neoplasms are rare tumors. The annual incidence (during the period 1995-2005 was 0,95-1,15/100.000 person-year. They are almost always urothelial tumors, especially papillary transitional cell carcinoma, as in the image above, and are less common than tumors of the renal pelvis and 10 times less common than urinary bladder tumors. In a large series of 1249 cases of urothelial neoplasms of the upper urinary tract (pelvis and ureter (upper urinary tract tumors; UUTT 34% of the cases involved the ureter, and in 8% the neoplasia was found in both sites concomitantly. Concomitance with bladder tumors is also observed, either synchronously or methachronously. When metachronous; bladder tumors precede UUTT in 10,2% of cases, and when synchronous in 49%.

  10. Parotid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Schultz, Joyce H; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical data and possible prognostic factors of patients with primary carcinoma of the parotid gland. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was made of 85 patients with suspected parotid cancer who were admitted to the Center of Head and Neck Oncology at Odense University......%) were excluded from the analysis, leaving 75 individuals for the study. RESULTS: Twenty-four percent of patients were classified as T1, 32% as T2, 15% as T3, and 28% as T4. One patient (1%) was not classifiable (TX). Regional lymph node metastases were found in 17 cases (23%). Two of these were......-year recurrence-free survival of the entire study group was 63%, disease-specific survival was 69%, and crude survival was 52%. In univariate analysis, tumor size, histological appearance, T status, stage, the presence of lymph node metastases, distant metastases, pain, and facial nerve dysfunction had...

  11. Marlin-1 is expressed in testis and associates to the cytoskeleton and GABAB receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, René L; Ramírez, Alfredo; Castro, Maite; Concha, Ilona I; Couve, Andrés

    2008-02-15

    Marlin-1 is a GABA(B) receptor and Jak tyrosine kinase-binding protein that also associates with RNA and microtubules. In humans and rodents, expression of Marlin-1 is predominantly restricted to the brain, but expression in lymphoid cells has also been reported. Here, we have studied the distribution of Marlin-1 in testis and spermatozoa. Our results indicate that Marlin-1 is highly expressed in testis. The protein is abundant in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatozoa, and Sertoli cells. We also have studied the subcellular distribution in spermatozoa. Marlin-1 is present in the tail and to a lesser degree in the head of the sperm cell. Finally, we have explored two protein interactions. Our findings demonstrate that Marlin-1 associates with a microtubule fraction and with GABA(B) receptors in testis suggesting that the set of protein interactions of Marlin-1 are conserved in different tissues. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Hh signalling is essential for somatic stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Marcus; Kupinski, Adam P; Raabe, Isabel; Bökel, Christian

    2012-08-01

    In the Drosophila testis, germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs) are arranged around a group of postmitotic somatic cells, termed the hub, which produce a variety of growth factors contributing to the niche microenvironment that regulates both stem cell pools. Here we show that CySC but not GSC maintenance requires Hedgehog (Hh) signalling in addition to Jak/Stat pathway activation. CySC clones unable to transduce the Hh signal are lost by differentiation, whereas pathway overactivation leads to an increase in proliferation. However, unlike cells ectopically overexpressing Jak/Stat targets, the additional cells generated by excessive Hh signalling remain confined to the testis tip and retain the ability to differentiate. Interestingly, Hh signalling also controls somatic cell populations in the fly ovary and the mammalian testis. Our observations might therefore point towards a higher degree of organisational homology between the somatic components of gonads across the sexes and phyla than previously appreciated.

  13. Lipid peroxidation in kidney and testis tissues in experimental hypothyroidism: the role of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R; Ayyildiz, M; Kafali, E; Koyuncuoglu, T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation and zinc deficiency on the lipid peroxidation in the testis and kidney tissues of rats with experimentally induced hypothyroidism. The experimental Groups were formed as follows: 1 - Control; 2 - Sham-Hypothyroidism; 3 - Hypothyroidism (intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg/day PTU for 4 weeks); 4 - Hypothyroidism + 3 mg/kg/day zinc supplementation (4 weeks); 5 - Hypothyroidism + zinc deficiency (4 weeks). The examination of the study results revealed that hypothyroidism in testis and kidney tissues increased MDA levels and decreased GSH levels (phypothyroidism, however, reduced the increased MDA amount and elevated GSH levels (phypothyroidism, on the other hand, was found to produce the opposite results (phypothyroidism caused lipid peroxidation in kidney and testis tissues. Zinc deficiency together with hypothyroidism made lipid peroxidation more evident, while zinc supplementation significantly inhibited the increased oxidative stress by activating the antioxidant system (Tab. 1, Ref. 24).

  14. Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Moura de Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC, an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8 or water (n=9. Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

  15. Genome-scale analysis of positional clustering of mouse testis-specific genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bernett TK

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes are not randomly distributed on a chromosome as they were thought even after removal of tandem repeats. The positional clustering of co-expressed genes is known in prokaryotes and recently reported in several eukaryotic organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens. In order to further investigate the mode of tissue-specific gene clustering in higher eukaryotes, we have performed a genome-scale analysis of positional clustering of the mouse testis-specific genes. Results Our computational analysis shows that a large proportion of testis-specific genes are clustered in groups of 2 to 5 genes in the mouse genome. The number of clusters is much higher than expected by chance even after removal of tandem repeats. Conclusion Our result suggests that testis-specific genes tend to cluster on the mouse chromosomes. This provides another piece of evidence for the hypothesis that clusters of tissue-specific genes do exist.

  16. Cytologic and histopathologic diagnosis in bronchopulmonary squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăgan, Ana Maria; Roşca, Elena; Muţiu, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The classification of squamous cell carcinomas, based on cellular differentiation features, includes the poorly differentiated epidermoid carcinomas and well-differentiated epidermoid carcinomas. The histogenetic cytologic data clarify conventional cytodiagnosis of poorly differentiated epidermoid carcinomas and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, and also eliminate other categories such as large cell carcinoma and small cell anaplastic carcinoma. We conducted a study for evaluating the degree of differentiation of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma in 620 patients - 551 men (88.8%) and 69 women (11.1%) who had lung cancer confirmed by cytologic, histologic and bronchoscopic examination. The cytologic examination was performed on slides with samples obtained by bronchial brushing and prints of bronchial biopsy stained with the Giemsa method. Histopathologic examination was performed on samples obtained by bronchial biopsy and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. At cytologic examination we found: poorly differentiated epidermiod carcinomas in 66 cases (33.8%), moderately differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 22 cases (11.2%) and well differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 107 cases (54.8%). Histological examination revealed: poorly differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 133 cases (45.7%), moderately differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 32 cases (10.9%), and well differentiated epidermoid carcinomas in 126 cases (43.2%). Our results suggested the importance of the association between cytologic and histopatologic examinations in the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  17. Oesophageal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, A. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Radiology

    1997-08-01

    Oesophageal carcinoma is an aggressive malignant tumour, and in Western countries accounts for only about 3 per cent of all malignancies. In other countries, such as China, this rate can be as high as 25 per cent, and as a result, is responsible for many deaths from malignancy. Despite this fairly low presentation rate in Westernised countries, the survival rate for sufferers beyond five years is dismal. This is also reflected in other parts of the world. Even with complex surgical techniques and Radiation Therapy, the survival rate has not improved markedly with these advanced techniques. This article gives a broad overview of Oesophageal Carcinoma, with a Westmead influence in reference to diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The assessment of the tumour is done in a number of different ways. Barium Swallow is useful in assessing the length of the tumour. Endoscopy is also used to assess tumour length, this method being more sensitive than Barium Swallow. A CT of the Chest, Abdomen and Pelvis is performed to assess local spread, distant metastases and is also used for planning. The CT may be done as an Angio CT. Other methods of assessment used in a lesser extent, due to the technology being new, or from lack of experienced operators is MRI, endoscopic ultrasound and laparoscopic ultrasound. There are a number of different forms of treatment that may be considered, dependant upon the condition of the patient, and whether or not the tumour is considered `curable`. At Westmead Hospital, the considerations for treatment are: radiation therapy (as palliative therapy), surgery, combined radiation and chemotherapy and palliative therapy. 1 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  19. The protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciralik Harun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that brief episodes of sublethal ischemia-reperfusion, so-called ischemic preconditioning, provide powerful tissue protection in different tissues such as heart, brain, skeletal muscle, lung, liver, intestine, kidney, retina, and endothelial cells. Although a recent study has claimed that there are no protective effects of ischemic preconditioning in rat testis, the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on testicular tissue have not been investigated adequately. The present study was thus planned to investigate whether ischemic preconditioning has a protective effect on testicular tissue. Methods Rats were divided into seven groups that each contained seven rats. In group 1 (control group, only unilateral testicular ischemia was performed by creating a testicular torsion by a 720 degree clockwise rotation for 180 min. In group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5, group 6, and group 7, unilateral testicular ischemia was performed for 180 min following different periods of ischemic preconditioning. The ischemic preconditioning periods were as follows: 10 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 2; 20 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 3; 30 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 4; multiple preconditioning periods were used (3 × 10 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 5; multiple preconditioning periods were used (5, 10, and 15 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 6; and, multiple preconditioning periods were used (10, 20, and 30 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 7. After the ischemic protocols were carried out, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and testicular tissue samples were taken for biochemical measurements (protein, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and histological examination

  20. Undescended testis histology correlation with adult hormone levels and semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H; Canning, Douglas A; Snyder, Howard M; Kolon, Thomas F

    2012-10-01

    Cryptorchidism has been associated with infertility. We hypothesize that a positive correlation exists between testicular histopathology at orchiopexy and future fertility potential in patients with cryptorchidism. Patients with cryptorchidism who underwent orchiopexy with bilateral testis biopsies were followed into adulthood. Testis histology was stratified into groups based on total germ cells per tubule and adult dark spermatogonia per tubule. After age 18 years, patients underwent hormonal testing and semen analysis. Mean semen analysis parameters and hormone levels were compared among histopathology groups. A total of 91 patients with unilateral undescended testes and 19 with bilateral undescended testes had data for review. No significant differences in semen analysis parameters were seen among the germ cells per tubule groups. In unilateral undescended testis, sperm density and sperm count in the abnormal adult dark spermatogonia per tubule group remained within normal range but were significantly decreased (p = 0.005 and p = 0.028). Follicle-stimulating hormone levels were significantly higher in patients with unilateral undescended testis with abnormal adult dark spermatogonia per tubule but remained within normal range (p = 0.009). Sperm density was below normal range and was significantly decreased in the abnormal adult dark spermatogonia per tubule group in the bilateral undescended testes cohort (p = 0.0496). In bilateral undescended testes follicle-stimulating hormone level, sperm count and percent motility in the abnormal adult dark spermatogonia per tubule group were outside normal clinical range but these results were not statistically significant (p = 0.07-0.2). Total germ cell histopathology at the time of orchiopexy was not associated with significant changes in hormone levels or semen analysis results in adulthood. Testis biopsy at orchiopexy may be limited in predicting future fertility in unilateral undescended testis but more clinically

  1. Long non-coding RNA expression profiling of mouse testis during postnatal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    Full Text Available Mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis play critical roles in male fertility and continuation of a species. Previous research into the molecular mechanisms of testis development and spermatogenesis has largely focused on the role of protein-coding genes and small non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs and piRNAs. Recently, it has become apparent that large numbers of long (>200 nt non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are transcribed from mammalian genomes and that lncRNAs perform important regulatory functions in various developmental processes. However, the expression of lncRNAs and their biological functions in post-natal testis development remain unknown. In this study, we employed microarray technology to examine lncRNA expression profiles of neonatal (6-day-old and adult (8-week-old mouse testes. We found that 8,265 lncRNAs were expressed above background levels during post-natal testis development, of which 3,025 were differentially expressed. Candidate lncRNAs were identified for further characterization by an integrated examination of genomic context, gene ontology (GO enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes, promoter analysis for epigenetic modification, and evolutionary conservation of elements. Many lncRNAs overlapped or were adjacent to key transcription factors and other genes involved in spermatogenesis, such as Ovol1, Ovol2, Lhx1, Sox3, Sox9, Plzf, c-Kit, Wt1, Sycp2, Prm1 and Prm2. Most differentially expressed lncRNAs exhibited epigenetic modification marks similar to protein-coding genes and tend to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, the majority of differentially expressed lncRNAs harbored evolutionary conserved elements. Taken together, our findings represent the first systematic investigation of lncRNA expression in the mammalian testis and provide a solid foundation for further research into the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs function in mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis.

  2. Placental site trophoblastic tumor in a late recurrence of a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmeijer, AJH; Gietema, JA; Hoekstra, HJ

    Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a well-defined entity in the female genital tract. In the male genital tract, a single case of PSTT in the testis of a young boy has been reported. Despite its very rare occurrence, PSTT of the testis has been incorporated in the latest WHO classification

  3. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N; Vierula, M; Jacobsen, R

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we...... carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998-2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57-80) million/mL, 60 (51-71) and 48 (39...

  4. Effects of long-term cadmium exposure on the testis of rabbits: ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, P; Sacchettoni-Logroscino, G; Ranelletti, F O; Gioia, A; Carmignani, M

    1985-01-01

    Six male rabbits received for 9 months drinking water containing 20 micrograms/ml of cadmium (Cd). At the end of the treatment, the Cd contents of kidney and testis were 175 +/- 34 and 0.8 +/- 0.2 micrograms/g wet weight, respectively. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy (EM) showed that, in the Sertoli cells, the size of the lysosomes was increased; spermatogenetic cells, vessels and Leydig cells showed no significant alterations. Observations with both transmission and scanning EM did not evidence changes in the blood-testis barrier, but our results do not exclude that male fertility may be affected by chronic exposure to cadmium.

  5. Mucinous Cystadenoma of the Testis: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilhyang Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucinous cystadenoma of the testis is a very rare tumor. Herein, we report a case of mucinous cystadenoma arising in the testis of a 61-year-old man, along with a literature review. Computed tomography showed a 2.5-cm-sized poorly enhancing cystic mass. Grossly, the tumor was a unilocular cystic mass filled with mucinous material and confined to the testicular parenchyma. Histologically, the cyst had a fibrotic wall lined by mucinous columnar epithelium without atypia. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for cytokeratin 20 and CDX2, as well as focally positive for cytokeratin 7. The pathologic diagnosis was mucinous cystadenoma.

  6. Chloroma of the testis in a patient with a history of acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sanei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloroma, or granulocytic sarcoma, is a rare extramedullary solid hematologic cancer, found concomitant with acute myeloid leukemia. It is infrequently associated with other myeloproliferative disorders or chronic myelogenous leukemia. Chloroma of the testis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is particularly sparsely represented in the literature. It is suggested that an appropriate panel of marker studies be performed along with clinical correlation and circumspection to avoid misleading conclusions. We report an interesting case of a 32-year-old male with a clinical history of acute myelogenous leukemia, postallogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation that was found to have chloroma of the right testis.

  7. Primary malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis of the testis. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, E; Schiaffino, E; Minervini, M S; Longo, G; Schmid, C

    1997-02-01

    A case of primary malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis of the testis in a 75 year old man is here presented. Anamnesis for asbestos exposure was negative. Recurrent left hydrocele was the main symptom. Echography revealed a nodular mass in the caudal aspect of the epididymis and papillary projection on the surface of the tunica vaginalis of the testis. An inguinal left orchiectomy was performed. The tumor both in the solid area and in the papillary projections was identified as a malignant mesothelioma of epithelial type. The role of immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure for a correct definition of the tumor is underlined.

  8. Expression of MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 cancer-testis antigens in fetal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudolin, Tvrtko; Kastelan, Zeljko; Derezić, Danijel; Basić-Jukić, Nikolina; Cesare Spagnoli, Giulio; Juretić, Antonio; Jezek, Davor

    2009-01-01

    Immunohistochemical expression of MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 cancer testis antigens (CTA) was assessed in 24 fetal testes from 15th to 36th week of gestation. Three monoclonal antibodies were used for immunohistochemical staining: 77B recognizing MAGE-A1, 57B recognizing multiple MAGE-A CTA, and D8.38 recognizing NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1. Expression of MAGE-A1 was not observed in fetal testis samples, whereas multi-MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 specific reagents stained pro-spermatogonia in all samples with different expression levels during the period of fetal development observed. Significant expression of MAGE-A3/4 and almost continuous expression of NY-ESO-1 in fetal testes after 22nd week of gestation suggested their important role in the development of sex cords and pro-spermatogonia in particular.

  9. Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma Lobomicose e carcinoma espinocelular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Nogueira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation.A ocorrência de carcinoma espinocelular sobre lesões cutâneas de longa evolução é clássica em cicatrizes de queimadura e úlceras crônicas de etiologia variada, inclusive infecciosa. Na literatura, são raros os casos de pacientes com lobomicose de longa evolução que desenvolveram CEC. O seguimento cuidadoso desses pacientes é importante, pois, nas áreas de traumas, ulcerações e cicatrizes crônicas pode ocorrer degeneração carcinomatosa.

  10. Testis and vas deferens morphology of the red-clawed mangrove tree crab (Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Tatiane Martins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the structure of the testes and vas deferens of the red-clawed mangrove tree crab, Goniopsis cruentata. Testes and vas deferens were fixed with cold Bouin's solution and submitted to histological routine examinations. Light microscopy showed the testis to be divided into three regions: anterior, containing the germinal zone; intermediary, including the collecting duct; and posterior. The vas deferens, which was continuous with the testes, could be divided into two regions: one corresponding to the expansions and another lined by cubical epithelium, collagenous fibers and a circular layer of muscle cells and containing the androgenic gland. Spermatophores were observed in both vas deferens regions suggesting that they participated in the maturation of the spermatozoids preparing the male functionally for fertilization.

  11. NUT carcinoma in children and adults: A multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelle, Lauriane; Pierron, Gaëlle; Fréneaux, Paul; Huybrechts, Sophie; Spiegel, Alexandra; Plantaz, Dominique; Julieron, Morbize; Dumoucel, Sophie; Italiano, Antoine; Millot, Fréderic; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Leverger, Guy; Chastagner, Pascal; Carton, Matthieu; Orbach, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) carcinoma (formerly NUT midline carcinoma) is an aggressive tumor defined by the presence of NUT rearrangement with a poor prognosis. This rare cancer is underdiagnosed and poorly treated. The primary objective of this study was to describe the clinical, radiologic, and biological features of NUT carcinoma. The secondary objective was to describe the various treatments and assess their efficacy. This retrospective multicenter study was based on review of the medical records of children and adults with NUT carcinoma with specific rearrangement or positive anti-NUT nuclear staining (>50%). This series of 12 patients had a median age of 18.1 years (ranges: 12.3-49.7 years). The primary tumor was located in the chest in eight patients, the head and neck in three patients, and one patient had a multifocal tumor. Nine patients presented regional lymph node involvement and eight distant metastases. One-half of patients were initially misdiagnosed. Specific NUT antibody was positive in all cases tested. A transient response to chemotherapy was observed in four of 11 patients. Only two patients were treated by surgery and five received radiotherapy with curative intent. At the end of follow-up, only one patient was still in remission more than 12 years after the diagnosis. Median overall survival was 4.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-17.7). NUT carcinoma is an aggressive disease refractory to conventional therapy. Early diagnosis by NUT-specific antibody immunostaining in cases of undifferentiated or poorly differentiated carcinoma to identify the specific rearrangement of NUT gene is useful to propose the optimal therapeutic strategy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Treatment of thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma includes 2 different tumor types, papillary (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC), and although similar, their prognosis is different. FC is uncommon, and this has led to it often being analyzed together with PC, and therefore the true reality of this tumor is difficult to know. As a result, the diagnostic and therapeutic management and the prognostic factors in differentiated carcinoma are more predictive of PC than FC. In this review we analyze the current state of many of the therapeutic aspects of this pathology. The best surgical technique and the usefulness of associated lymphadenectomy is also analyzed. Regarding post-surgical ablation with 131I, the indications, doses and usefulness are discussed. For the remaining therapies we analyze the few indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Medullary carcinoma of the colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Grauslund, Morten; Glenthøj, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the colon is a rare variant of colorectal cancer claimed to have a more favorable prognosis than conventional adenocarcinomas. The histopathologic appearance may be difficult to distinguish from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic...... interobserver agreement and to characterize the immunohistochemical and molecular differences between these two subgroups. Fifteen cases initially classified as medullary carcinoma and 30 cases of poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas were included. Two pathologists reviewed the slides independently without...... differences in CK20 (p = 0.005) expression and in the rate of BRAF mutations (p = 0.0035). In conclusion, medullary carcinomas of the colon are difficult to discriminate from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma even with the help of immunohistochemical and molecular analyses. This raises the question whether...

  14. Oncofetal fibronectins in oral carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandel, U; Gaggero, B; Reibel, J

    1994-01-01

    -B-containing isoform and the oncofetal FN isoform derived by O-glycosylation, in oral squamous cell carcinomas, premalignant lesions, and normal oral mucosa. A selective expression of the ED-B-containing isoform was demonstrated in close relation to the invading carcinoma (38/38), whereas there was virtually...... no staining in submucosa underlying premalignant lesions (1/11) and normal epithelium (0/5). The ED-B-containing FN showed close co-distribution and staining pattern with the oncofetal isoform derived by O-glycosylation. These results demonstrate that accumulation of FN adjacent to oral carcinomas includes...... in breast and oral tumors. Another oncofetal FN isoform containing the ED-B sequence is derived by alternative splicing, and FN containing ED-B has been found to be a stromal marker of malignancies in various tissues. Here we report a comparative study by immunohistology of the distribution of the ED...

  15. Mucoepidermoid Lung Carcinoma in Child

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usually includes asthma, pneumonia, atelectasis, middle lobe syndrome and pleural effusion. Recurrent pneumonia in the same region of the lung should raise clinical suspicion of an endobronchial lesion or mass, such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma.[1] Because MECs are most commonly found in the segmental or lobar ...

  16. A novel double staining strategy for improved detection of testicular carcinoma in situ cells in human semen samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J E; Kristensen, D M; Almstrup, K

    2012-01-01

    Prompted by the recently reported expression of POU5F1 (OCT3/4) in epididymis, a panel of markers for carcinoma in situ (CIS) testis and testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT), including AP-2¿(TFAP2C), NANOG, OCT3/4, KIT, placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), M2A/PDPN and MAGE-A4 were examined...... by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridisation in urogenital epithelia, which may interfere with detection of CIS cells in semen. In addition to OCT3/4, the expression of AP-2¿ and NANOG or their variants was detected in urogenital epithelia, while other CIS markers, including PLAP/alkaline phosphatase were absent....... A combination of immunocytological staining for AP-2¿ or OCT3/4 and rapid cytochemical alkaline phosphatase reaction was subsequently developed. This approach was tested in 22 patients with TGCT. In 14 patients (63.6%), double stained cells were found and thus the method was proven suitable for the detection...

  17. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  18. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... think Sebaceous carcinoma Skin cancer in people of color Skin reactions from targeted cancer therapy Squamous cell carcinoma What is Mohs surgery? Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Other conditions Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail ...

  19. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... think Sebaceous carcinoma Skin cancer in people of color Skin reactions from targeted cancer therapy Squamous cell carcinoma What is Mohs surgery? Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Other conditions Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail ...

  20. Identification of testis-relevant genes using in silico analysis from testis ESTs and cDNA microarray in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongsurawat Thidathip

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor reproductive maturation of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in captivity is one of the serious threats to sustainability of the shrimp farming industry. Understanding molecular mechanisms governing reproductive maturation processes requires the fundamental knowledge of integrated expression profiles in gonads of this economically important species. In P. monodon, a non-model species for which the genome sequence is not available, expressed sequence tag (EST and cDNA microarray analyses can help reveal important transcripts relevant to reproduction and facilitate functional characterization of transcripts with important roles in male reproductive development and maturation. Results In this study, a conventional testis EST library was exploited to reveal novel transcripts. A total of 4,803 ESTs were unidirectionally sequenced and analyzed in silico using a customizable data analysis package, ESTplus. After sequence assembly, 2,702 unique sequences comprised of 424 contigs and 2,278 singletons were identified; of these, 1,133 sequences are homologous to genes with known functions. The sequences were further characterized according to gene ontology categories (41% biological process, 24% molecular function, 35% cellular component. Through comparison with EST libraries of other tissues of P. monodon, 1,579 transcripts found only in the testis cDNA library were identified. A total of 621 ESTs have not been identified in penaeid shrimp. Furthermore, cDNA microarray analysis revealed several ESTs homologous to testis-relevant genes were more preferentially expressed in testis than in ovary. Representatives of these transcripts, homologs of saposin (PmSap and Dmc1 (PmDmc1, were further characterized by RACE-PCR. The more abundant expression levels in testis than ovary of PmSap and PmDmc1 were verified by quantitative real-time PCR in juveniles and wild broodstock of P. monodon. Conclusions Without a genome sequence, a

  1. An original procedure for balanus repair with transposition of the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kurbatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the unique clinical experience of successful sexual rehabilitation of a patient who has undergone penile amputation for cancer. Complex reconstruction of all parts of the lost organ, by using known methods and those proposed for the first time in global practice (balanus repair with transposition of the testis, was performed in the patient.

  2. Histological changes in the testis of rats treated with Alomo Bitter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the increasing demand for herbal aphrodisiacs, this study investigates the effect of Alomo bitters on the histology of testis in adult rats. 36 male rats of comparable weight (151.67 ± 2.89 grams) and sizes were involved in this study. The animals were assigned into four groups; a control group (A) and three test ...

  3. The Blood Testis Barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction following Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    lines represent the injured animals, the blue bars represent sham animals and the gray bars are naïve animals. The hollow red bar means significant... Queen JH, Grill RJ. Spinal cord injury causes sustained disruption of the blood-testis barrier in the rat. PloS one. 2011;6(1):e16456. PubMed PMID

  4. Protective effect of ginger on gentamicin-induced apoptosis in testis of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Afshin; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Khaki, Arash; Ahmadnejad, Behnam

    2012-01-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, is one of the most widely used spices for various foods and as an herbal medicine in Asian countries. It has been shown that ginger has antioxidant power. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with a very broad spectrum against microbial pathogens, especially the gram-negative. Many studies revealed that gentamicin induces an oxidative stress-status in the testis by increasing free radical formation and lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate on the effects of Ginger as a natural anioxidant on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin in rats. In order to study the recovery effects of ginger on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin 40 adult Wistar male rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Normal salin control (group I) (n=10), gentamicin control (group II), ginger control (group III) and gentamicin + ginger (group IV) each 10 rats. There was observation of negative effect of Gentamicin on testis histology in rats. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in apoptosis in group III when compared with other groups (P<0.05).However, ginger could decrease apoptosis in group IV that received 100mg/kg/rat of Ginger. Regarding the results, it is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections.

  5. Protective Effect of Ginger on Gentamicin-Induced Apoptosis in Testis of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Zahedi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, is one of the most widely used spices for various foods and as an herbal medicine in Asian countries. It has been shown that ginger has antioxidant power. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with a very broad spectrum against microbial pathogens, especially the gram-negative. Many studies revealed that gentamicin induces an oxidative stress-status in the testis by increasing free radical formation and lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate on the effects of Ginger as a natural anioxidant on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin in rats. Methods: In order to study the recovery effects of ginger on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin 40 adult Wistar male rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Normal salin control (group I (n=10, gentamicin control (group II, ginger control (group III and gentamicin + ginger (group IV each 10 rats. There was observation of negative effect of Gentamicin on testis histology in rats. Results: The results revealed that there was a significant increase in apoptosis in group III when compared with other groups (P<0.05.However, ginger could decrease apoptosis in group IV that received 100mg/kg/rat of Ginger. Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections.

  6. a cause of therapy in Venous infarction of the testis non-response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-15

    Sep 15, 1990 ... non-response to conservatIve epididymo-orchitis. A case ... The right side of the scrotum was enlarged with erythema of the overlying skin. The right testis was moderately enlarged with tenderness on palpation. The right epididymis was ... Four factors are thought to contribute: (I) oedema of the epididymis ...

  7. Testis sparing surgery for Leydig cell tumors: New three cases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Chaabouni

    Testis sparing surgery for Leydig cell tumors: New three cases and review of the current literature. A. Chaabouni. ∗. , K. Chabchoub, N. Rebai, M. Bouacida, M.H. Slimen,. A. Bahloul, M.N. Mhiri. Department of Urology, Habib Bourguiba University Hospital, Majida Boulila Road, Sfax 3029, Tunisia. Received 25 January 2013 ...

  8. Antioxidant effects of alpha-tocopherol (vitamine E on testis regeneration in busulfan-treated mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rohnavaz

    2016-09-01

    (35, 40 mg/kg body weight intraperitonealy. The effects of busulfan was examinned on destruction of testis tissue, semen parameters and catalase enzymatic activity compared with control group after 30 days. Finally, fter determining the effective dose of busulfan, Vitamin E was injected to the mice as an antioxidant enzyme  and its effects on semen parameters and testis tissue was examined after one month.  Results: The results showed that oxidative stress was increased in busulfan-treated mice during 30 days. Catalase enzymatic activity decreased significantly in testis of Busulfan-treated mice in comparison with control group. A significant decrease of sperm number was observed according to treatment by Busulfan. After finding the most damaging dose of busulfan (40 mg/kg in destruction of testis tissue, these mice were injected by vitamine E. The results showed that the oxidative stress and percentage of abnormal sperm were decreased in Busulfan-treated mice that exposed a dose of 100 mg/kg vitamin E. The number of sperm and antioxidant activity of catalase was increased. Conclusion: Vitamin E improves a revival of spermatogenesis and improves testicular parameters in these patients. 

  9. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, N.; Vierula, M.; Jacobsen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we...

  10. Two lectin-like receptors for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in mouse testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Kirkeby, S; Bøg-Hansen, T C

    1997-01-01

    Three glycoforms of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were biotinylated to examine their binding in mouse testis by light microscopy. The transition from one stage to another in the spermatogenic cycle is marked with an appearance of a receptor for the Concanavalin A (Con A) non-reactive glycoform...

  11. Mesenchymal origin of multipotent human testis-derived stem cells in human testicular cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikhovskaya, J. V.; van Daalen, S. K. M.; Korver, C. M.; Repping, S.; van Pelt, A. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to mouse germ cell-derived pluripotent stem cells, the pluripotent state of human testis-derived embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like that spontaneously arise in primary testicular cell cultures remains controversial. Recent studies have shown that these cells closely resemble multipotent

  12. The effect of constant photoperiod on testis weight and the use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the birds aged, the effects of photorefractoriness wore off, but at the end of the experiment adult photorefractoriness was again evident, with birds on 14 h and longer having smaller average testis weights, and therefore, no longer .... However, measuring comb size would practically be easier than observing behaviour.

  13. Peritubular Contractile Cells in Testis and Epididymis of the Dog, Canis lupus familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter F. Egger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractile cells surrounding the tubular system of the mammalian testis and epididymis are supposed to contribute to the initial transport of spermatozoa from the testis to epididymis. Testicular peritubular smooth muscle cells have been characterised in detail especially in rodents and humans. The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of peritubular contractile cells of the canine tubuli seminiferi, rete testis channels, ductuli efferentes, and ductus epididymidis by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy and to classify these cells with respect to their possible physiological function. The entire tubular system of the canine testis and epididymis is surrounded by contractile cells expressing smooth muscle actin, smooth muscle myosin and desmin, which are enveloped, at least partly, by a basal lamina. Some contractile cells of the tubuli seminiferi, rete channels, and efferent ducts and sometimes also single peritubular cells of the ductus epididymidis express vimentin. Contractile cells of seminiferous tubules and efferent ducts represent an intermediate cell type exhibiting characteristics of both smooth muscle cells (SMC and myofibroblasts, those of rete channels stellate myofibroblasts, and those of the ductus epididymidis SMC. Differences in structure and arrangement of the contractile cells between seminiferous tubules, rete channels, efferent ducts, and ductus epididymidis suggest different functions. Myofibroblasts and contractile cells similar to them could be mainly responsible for the maintenance of an appropriate tissue turgor, whereas contraction of SMC of the ductus epididymidis might cause propulsion of spermatozoa by peristaltic waves.

  14. L’accademia dei morti viventi.Parte terza: i testi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available [Segue da Parte seconda: il fantasma dell'autore] La rete fa interagire i testi tramite i link. Li fa interagire fra loro ma soprattutto con il lettore e fra i lettori. Gli autori scrivono frasi, i tipografi stampano pagine, mentre i libri sono fatti dai rilegatori. Le loro proprietà formali non derivano dalla stampa, ma dalla [...

  15. The comparative histology of the testis of two cultured clariid species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and subsequently viewed under light microscope. Our findings showed that the seminiferous tubules of the Clarias gariepinus testis had wider lumen than those found in Heterobranchus bidorsalis. On the other hand the interlobular spaces were extensive in the Heterobranchus bidorsalis than that of Clarias gariepinus.

  16. Malar Bone Metastasis Revealing a Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsen Slim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common form of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. It is generally confined to the neck with or without spread to regional lymph nodes. Metastatic thyroid carcinomas are uncommon and mainly include lung and bone. Metastases involving oral and maxillofacial region are extremely rare. We described a case of malar metastasis revealing a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, presenting with pain and swelling of the left cheek in a 67-years-old female patient with an unspecified histological left lobo-isthmectomy medical history. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of a malar metastasis from a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  17. Colorectal carcinoma with dome-like phenotype: an under-recognised subset of colorectal carcinoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, L; Pachler, J; Holck, S

    2008-01-01

    The term dome carcinoma has been applied to a variant of colorectal carcinoma, thought to derive from M-cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Its distinguishing morphological features include a non-polypoid plaque-like lesion composed of closely apposed cystically dilated glands lined...

  18. Endocrine roles of D-aspartic acid in the testis of lizard Podarcis s. sicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci, F; D'Aniello, S; Di Fiore, M M

    2005-12-01

    In the lizard Podarcis s. sicula, a substantial amount of D-aspartate (D-Asp) is endogenous to the testis and shows cyclic changes of activity connected with sex hormone profiles during the annual reproductive phases. Testicular D-Asp content shows a direct correlation with testosterone titres and a reverse correlation with 17beta-estradiol titres. In vivo experiments, consisting of i.p. injections of 2.0 micromol/g body weight of D-Asp or other amino acids, in lizards collected during the three main phases of the reproductive cycle (pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive period), revealed that the testis can specifically take up and accumulate D-Asp alone. Moreover, this amino acid influences the synthesis of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol in all phases of the cycle. This phenomenon is particularly evident during the pre- and post-reproductive period, when endogenous testosterone levels observed in both testis and plasma were the lowest and 17beta-estradiol concentrations were the highest. D-Asp rapidly induces a fall in 17beta-estradiol and a rise in testosterone at 3 h post-injection in the testis and at 6 h post-injection in the blood. In vitro experiments show that testicular tissue converted L-Asp into D-Asp through an aspartate racemase. D-Asp synthesis was measured in all phases of the cycle, but was significantly higher during the reproductive period with a peak at pH 6.0. The exogenous D-Asp also induces a significant increase in the mitotic activity of the testis at 3 h (P proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The effects of D-Asp on the testis appear to be specific since they were not seen in lizards injected with other D- or L-forms of amino acids with known excitatory effects on neurosecretion. Our results suggest a regulatory role for D-Asp in the steroido-genesis and spermatogenesis of the testis of the lizard Podarcis s. sicula.

  19. Protection of testis through antioxidant action of Mallotus roxburghianus in alloxan-induced diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Vikas Kumar; Chenkual, Lalramdinthara; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2015-12-24

    Mallotus roxburghianus is used for its antihyperglycaemic properties in Southeast Asia especially in Northeast India (Mizoram) and is also recognized in traditional medicine. About 90% of diabetic patients have been associated with reproductive impairments. The primary aim of this investigation is to examine the effects of diabetes on oxidative stress, steroidogenesis, histopathology, proliferation of germ cells with proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and antioxidant status, and alleviative effect of M. roxburghianus on the testis dysfunction. Methanolic leaf extract of M. roxburghianus was given to male albino Wistar rats by oral gavage to study the acute toxicity. Phyto-chemical composition of the methanol extract of M. roxburghianus was analyzed by GC-MS. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups with seven animals in each group: untreated control; M. roxburghianus methanolic extract control (MRME, 400mg/kg); Alloxan diabetic control group (150 mg/kg); diabetic with 100mg/kg MRME treatment; diabetic with 400mg/kg MRME treatment; and diabetic with glibenclamide (0.1mg/kg) treatment. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg alloxan and was confirmed by testing fasting plasma blood glucose levels 5 days after injection. MRME was administered orally for 28 days. Body and testis weights, serum testosterone, testis malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione S transferase (GST) and protein levels were measured, and testis tissue was examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically (PCNA). No sign of mortality and organ toxicity was observed up to 3000 mg/kg in acute toxicity assay of MRME and inferred to be non-toxic and safe. Bergenin and betulinic acid are the major components of MRME with many biological activities. MRME treatment rendered significant increases in body weight, testis weight, testes-body weight ratio, down regulated the MDA levels, reduced the

  20. Immunolocalization of 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD in the testis of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisco, Marina; Liguoro, Annamaria; Ricchiari, Loredana; Del Giudice, Giuseppina; Angelini, Francesco; Andreuccetti, Piero

    2008-01-01

    Using polyclonal antibodies, we examined the localization of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) as markers of the site of steroidogenetic activity during the spermatogenesis of Torpedo marmorata. These enzymes play a central role in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, including androgen and oestrogen production. We demonstrated that in the spotted ray testis, Sertoli and Leydig cells, as well as spermatogonia, show a positive reaction to anti 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD antibodies. In particular, we demonstrated that Sertoli cells show a positive reaction to anti 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD antibodies in cysts containing spermatogonia and spermatozoa, while Leydig cells present a positive reaction only when they are located between cysts containing meiotic cells. This study strongly suggests that, as hypothesised in our previous study [Prisco, M., Liguoro, A., D'Onghia, B., Ricchiari, L., Andreuccetti, P., Angelini, F., 2002. Fine structure of Leydig and Sertoli cells in the testis of immature and mature spotted ray Torpedo marmorata. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 63, 192-201.], Sertoli and Leydig cells are differently involved in the hormonal control of spermatogenesis: Sertoli cells before the beginning of meiosis and after spermiation, Leydig cells only during meiosis phase. Moreover, the present paper deals with the possibility that also spermatogonia are engaged in the production of androgen hormones, as they are characterized by the presence of 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD enzymes, and show the ultrastructural features of steroid hormone-producing cells.

  1. Effects on rat testis of 1.95-GHz W-CDMA for IMT-2000 cellular phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Norio; Kawabe, Mayumi; Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio; Takahashi, Satoru; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2011-08-01

    In recent years concern has arisen whether carrying a cellular phone near the reproductive organs such as the testes may cause dysfunction and particularly decrease in sperm development and production, and thus fertility in men. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of a 1.95 GHz electromagnetic field on testicular function in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Five week old animals were divided into 3 groups of 24 each and a 1.95-GHz wide-band code division multiple access (W-CDMA) signal, which is used for the freedom of mobile multimedia access (FOMA), was employed for whole body exposure for 5 hours per day, 7 days a week for 5 weeks (the period from the age of 5 to 10 weeks, corresponding to reproductive maturation in the rat). Whole-body average specific absorption rates (SAR) for individuals were designed to be 0.4 and 0.08 W/kg respectively. The control group received sham exposure. There were no differences in body weight gain or weights of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate among the groups. The number of sperm in the testis and epididymis were not decreased in the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposed groups, and, in fact, the testicular sperm count was significantly increased with the 0.4 SAR. Abnormalities of sperm motility or morphology and the histological appearance of seminiferous tubules, including the stage of the spermatogenic cycle, were not observed. Thus, under the present exposure conditions, no testicular toxicity was evident.

  2. CRISPR/Cas9 Promotes Functional Study of Testis Specific X-Linked Gene In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyan Li

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated multistage process of sperm generation. It is hard to uncover the real function of a testis specific gene in vitro since the in vitro model is not yet mature. With the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 system, we can now rapidly generate knockout mouse models of testis specific genes to study the process of spermatogenesis in vivo. SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (SLX2 is a germ cell specific component, which contains a Cor1 domain and belongs to the XLR (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated family. Previous studies suggested that SLX2 might play an important role in mouse spermatogenesis based on its subcellular localization and interacting proteins. However, the function of SLX2 in vivo is still elusive. Here, to investigate the functions of SLX2 in spermatogenesis, we disrupted the Slx2 gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since Slx2 is a testis specific X-linked gene, we obtained knockout male mice in the first generation and accelerated the study process. Compared with wild-type mice, Slx2 knockout mice have normal testis and epididymis. Histological observation of testes sections showed that Slx2 knockout affected none of the three main stages of spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. In addition, we further confirmed that disruption of Slx2 did not affect the number of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis progression or XY body formation by immunofluorescence analysis. As spermatogenesis was normal in Slx2 knockout mice, these mice were fertile. Taken together, we showed that Slx2 itself is not an essential gene for mouse spermatogenesis and CRISPR/Cas9 technique could speed up the functional study of testis specific X-linked gene in vivo.

  3. Producing Recombinant mTEX101; a Murine Testis Specific Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar Yarmohammadi, Leila; Modarresi, Mohammad Hossein; Talebi, Saeed; Hadavi, Reza; Ostad Karampour, Mahyar; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Production of antibodies against specific proteins of testis germ cells is of great significance for the investigation of processes involved in spermatogenesis, study of infertility problems and determination of the probable role of these proteins as cancer-testis antigens. Murine Testis Specific Recombinant Protein 101 (mTEX101) is a 38kDa, GPI-anchored protein which is expressed in testis germ cells of adult mice but it seems to be absent in other tissues. The structure and function of mTEX101 is not completely understood yet, but it is speculated that it may transduce biochemical signals into the cytoplasm since mTEX101 does not have an intracellular domain but the precise mechanisms are still ambiguous. Materials and Methods RNA was extracted from three adult mice testis. The RNA was used in RT-PCR, employing a pair of specific primers for mTEX101 ORF region. TA-cloning technique was performed by the insertion of mTEX101 into a pGEM-T Easy Vector, followed by its subcloning into a His-tagged expression vector, pET-28a (+). The recombinant mTEX101 was then produced by transfection of the expression vector into BL 21 (DE3) E. coli strain. Results A recombinant protein, weighing 27kDa, was produced upon IPTG-induction of the bacterial host. The presence of mTEX101 protein was detected through Western blot analysis by anti-mTEX101 peptide antibodies. Conclusion We produced mTEX101 recombinant protein that could be used for the production of mono and polyclonal antibodies. PMID:23926468

  4. Influence of Aluminium Chloride on Antioxidant System in the Testis and Epididymis of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Kalaiselvi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the use of chemicals in agriculture, industry, and public health has become so common that the environment is continuously contaminated by the toxic substance-like metals. Aluminum released due to anthropogenic activities such as mining and industrial uses. Aluminium has several industrial uses. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aluminium chloride (AlCl3 on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the testis and epididymis of rats. Methods: Adult male rats were administered with aluminium chloride at two different doses, 50 mg and 100 mg/kg body weight, orally, daily for 45 days. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and their testis and the epididymis were removed. Antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, vitamin C, and vitamin E levels were also determined. Results: Aluminium chloride administration had no effect on the bodyweight of the animals but the weight of the testis and epididymis was decreased. Almost all the antioxidant enzymes studied markedly diminished in the testis and epididymis of aluminium chloride treated animals. The non-enzymatic antioxidants, vitamin C and vitamin E, also declined. Lipid peroxidation, on the other hand, significantly increased. The influence was found to be more in 100 mg treated rats when compared to 50 mg treated rats. Conclusions: The present study suggests the reproductive toxicity of aluminium by inducing the oxidative stress in the testis and epididymis and possible interference in sperm production and further maturational processes.

  5. The eyestalk-androgenic gland-testis endocrine axis in the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Isam; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Granot, Yosef; Keller, Rainer; Sagi, Amir

    2002-06-15

    In decapod crustaceans, a number of neurohormones regulating a variety of physiological processes, including reproduction, are to be found in the X-organ-sinus gland complex of the eyestalk. Bilateral eyestalk ablation was thus performed in mature males of the Australian red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus with the aim of studying the role of eyestalk-borne hormones on spermatogenic activity in the testis and on the androgenic gland (AG). The latter gland controls the differentiation and functioning of male sexual characteristics in crustaceans. Eyestalk ablation caused hypertrophy of the AG, as indicated by an increase in gland weight (3.9 +/- 0.44 mg vs < 0.1mg in intact males) and by overexpression of AG polypeptides. In the testes of eyestalk-ablated males, empty spermatogenic lobules were common, while lobules containing primary spermatocytes were infrequent. These findings were reflected in decreased amounts of DNA in these testes and a consequent increase in the relative weights of the sperm ducts. Since it was found that eyestalk ablation affected both the AG and the reproductive system, in vitro experiments were conducted to study the direct effects of the sinus gland on the AG and testes and of the AG on the testes. Sinus gland extracts inhibited by 30% the incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids into AG polypeptides and almost totally inhibited the secretion of radiolabeled AG polypeptides into the culture medium. However, sinus gland extracts had no significant effects on testicular tissue. On the other hand, AG extracts affected the in vitro phosphorylation of a testicular polypeptide (of 28 kDa), in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting a direct effect of AG-borne hormones on the testes. The above findings, together with the evidence for direct inhibition by the sinus gland on the AG, suggest an endocrine axis-like relationship between the sinus gland, the AG, and the male reproductive system in decapod crustaceans. Copyright 2002

  6. Unilateral orchidectomy in donkey (Equus asinus: Evaluation of different surgical techniques, histological and morphological changes on remaining testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ali Yousef Hussein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral orchidectomy (UO is required when further breeding potential is important. It is sometimes necessary to remove a single testis in a matured stallion for therapeutic reasons. In this study, twelve donkeys were used to evaluate three techniques of unilateral castration, histological and morphological changes on the remaining testis. Results of the study showed that each of the surgical techniques used had its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with the other two techniques. Therefore the selection among the three techniques depends on the surgeon preferences and the environment in which the unilateral orchidectomy is performed. The volume of the remaining testis recorded at the end of the study was significantly greater than that estimated at the start of the study (p < 0.05. The percentage of sperm motility obtained from the remaining testis was significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Histological examination of the testis in open surgery (group I (where the scrotum was left opened revealed severe hemorrhages, edema and fibrosis. The testis showed degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and interstitial orchitis. Histological examination of the testes removed using a closed technique, (in groups II and III where the scrotum wound was sutured, revealed hyperplasia of spermatogenic series and Leydig cells. In conclusion, unilateral orchidectomy had compensatory effects on the weight and volume of remaining testis. Adverse effects on sperm motility and viability can affect the fertility of the animal.

  7. Global transcriptome analysis of the C57BL/6J mouse testis by SAGE: evidence for nonrandom gene order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forejt Jiří

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We generated the gene expression profile of the total testis from the adult C57BL/6J male mice using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE. Two high-quality SAGE libraries containing a total of 76 854 tags were constructed. An extensive bioinformatic analysis and comparison of SAGE transcriptomes of the total testis, testicular somatic cells and other mouse tissues was performed and the theory of male-biased gene accumulation on the X chromosome was tested. Results We sorted out 829 genes predominantly expressed from the germinal part and 944 genes from the somatic part of the testis. The genes preferentially and specifically expressed in total testis and testicular somatic cells were identified by comparing the testis SAGE transcriptomes to the available transcriptomes of seven non-testis tissues. We uncovered chromosomal clusters of adjacent genes with preferential expression in total testis and testicular somatic cells by a genome-wide search and found that the clusters encompassed a significantly higher number of genes than expected by chance. We observed a significant 3.2-fold enrichment of the proportion of X-linked genes specific for testicular somatic cells, while the proportions of X-linked genes specific for total testis and for other tissues were comparable. In contrast to the tissue-specific genes, an under-representation of X-linked genes in the total testis transcriptome but not in the transcriptomes of testicular somatic cells and other tissues was detected. Conclusion Our results provide new evidence in favor of the theory of male-biased genes accumulation on the X chromosome in testicular somatic cells and indicate the opposite action of the meiotic X-inactivation in testicular germ cells.

  8. GATA3 immunohistochemistry expression in histologic subtypes of primary breast carcinoma and metastatic breast carcinoma cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deftereos, Georgios; Sanguino Ramirez, Angela M; Silverman, Jan F; Krishnamurti, Uma

    2015-09-01

    GATA3 plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation in many tissues, including breast, and it has been suggested that GATA3 expression correlates with ER expression. However, little is known on GATA3 expression in various subtypes of breast carcinoma, its utilization in cytology, and on how GATA3 performs in comparison with GCDFP-15 and mammaglobin. Eighty-four histology cases of breast carcinoma of various subtypes, including 28 triple-negative breast carcinomas, along with 20 cytology cases of metastatic breast carcinoma and 12 cytology cases of ER-positive metastatic gynecologic malignancies, were stained for GATA3, GCDFP-15, and mammaglobin. In non-triple-negative breast carcinomas (n=56), GATA3 showed 100% sensitivity, higher than GCDFP-15 (42.8%; Pcytology cases, 100% stained with GATA3, higher than GCDFP-15 (20%; Pgynecologic malignancies. Thus, in working up ER-positive metastatic malignancies GATA3 demonstrates specificity for breast.

  9. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    de Faria, J

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  10. Gallbladder carcinoma in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudah, Mohammad S; Daradkeh, S; Sroujieh, Ahmad S; Farah, Ghassan R; Masaad, Jamal

    2005-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, the prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is still poor. The purpose of this study is to look for peculiarities of primary gallbladder carcinoma in Jordan regarding its incidence, clinical and pathological aspects. A retrospective study over a period of 19 years comprising 66 patients was reviewed; only patients treated primarily in our hospital were included. There were 40 females and 26 males (ratio of 3:2). The main presenting symptom was abdominal pain in 54 patients (82%); correct preoperative diagnosis was made in only 20% of cases. Cholecystectomy alone was the most commonly performed operation (32 cases), cholecystectomy in combination with biliary bypass and/or hepatic resection (16 cases), biopsy of the gallbladder was performed in 12 cases and bypass with T-tube drainage in 6 cases. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were encountered in 48% and 18% respectively. The incidence and clinicopathological aspects of gallbladder cancer in Jordan seem to resemble that in the west, albeit with a lower age incidence. Diagnosis remains difficult and the outcome is still poor in the majority of cases.

  11. Hepatocellualar carcinoma serum markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Gaetano; Ardiri, Annalisa; Malaguarnera, Michele; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Bertino, Nicoletta; Calvagno, Giuseppe Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in some areas of the world. In most cases, HCC is diagnosed at a late stage. Therefore, the prognosis of patients with HCC is generally poor. The recommended screening strategy for patients with cirrhosis includes the determination of serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and an abdominal ultrasound every 6 months to detect HCC at an earlier stage. AFP, however, is a marker characterized by poor sensitivity and specificity, and abdominal ultrasound is highly dependent on the operator's experience. In addition to AFP, Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP (AFP-L3), des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP), glypican-3 (GPC-3), osteopontin (OPN), and several other biomarkers (such as squamous cell carcinoma antigen-immunoglobulin M complexes [SCCA-IgM], alpha-1-fucosidase [AFU], chromogranin A [CgA], human hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor) have been proposed as markers for the early detection of HCC. For these markers, we describe the mechanisms of production, and their diagnostic and prognosis roles. None of them is optimal; however, when used together, their sensitivity in detecting HCC is increased. Recent research has shown that some biomarkers have mitogenic and migratory activities in the angiogenesis of HCC and are a factor of tumor growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of estradiol and FSH on maturation of the testis in the hypogonadal (hpg mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayhew Terry M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypogonadal (hpg mouse is widely used as an animal model with which to investigate the endocrine regulation of spermatogenesis. Chronic treatment of these GnRH-deficient mice with estradiol is known to induce testicular maturation and restore qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. The aim of the current studies was to investigate whether these effects of estradiol are direct effects in the testis, or indirect actions via paradoxical stimulation of FSH secretion from the pituitary gland. Methods Initially, Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse tissues from hpg mice to identify potential sites of action of estradiol. In the main study, hpg mice were treated for 50 days with either an estradiol implant or daily injections of recombinant human FSH, or a combination of both, to determine whether estradiol would have an additive or synergistic effect with FSH on testis development, as assessed by histological analysis and stereological quantification of Leydig, Sertoli and germ cell proliferation. Results Western blot analysis revealed ERα immunoreactive bands of appropriate molecular weight in extracts of testis and pituitary glands from hpg mice, and immunohistochemical studies confirmed ERα in nuclei of anterior pituitary cells and Leydig and peritubular cells in hpg mice. Histological and morphometric analyses revealed that estradiol treatment alone was as effective as FSH in promoting Sertoli cell production and proliferation of the seminiferous epithelium, resulting in the production of elongating spermatids. Combined estradiol and FSH treatment did not produce a greater effect than either treatment alone, though an increased dose of FSH significantly increased seminiferous tubule volume and testis weight and increase Sertoli cell numbers further within the same time frame. In contrast, estradiol caused substantial increases in the wet weight of the seminal vesicles, whereas FSH was without effect on

  13. Life span, testis damage and immune cell populations of spleen in C57BL mice with neutron irradiation by lying flat pose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki Jung; kim, Myung Sup; Kyung, Yoo Bo [KAERI, Taejon (Korea)

    2003-10-01

    This study deals with the biological effects of black mouse (C57BL) irradiated with neutron irradiation by using Boron Neutron Capture Therapy facility in HANARO reactor. These include mortality, body wt., hair color, testis volume, sperm count and immune cell populations in mouse spleen after 80 days later by thermal neutron irradiation. Six week old C57BL male mice were irradiated with neutron irradiation for 1 hr or 2 hrs (flux : 1.036739E +09). These irradiat ion doses estimated 15Gy and 30Gy, respectively. Survival days and hair color in mice was checked. On day 80 after irradiation, testis were taken for volume and sperm count. Also spleen was taken for FACS and spleen cells were isolatd and discarded RBC by treating with lysising solution. These cells were placed on ice and immunofluorescence staining was performed. Phycoerythrin (PE )-anti-CD3e, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-anti-CD4, and FITC-anti-CD8 were added, then the immunostaining cells were incubated on ice for 40 min. The resulting cells were washed with a PBS buffer 3 times and analyzed using a Flow cytometer. All experimental animals survived over 90 days but in case of 30 Gy neutron irradiation, black mice hair were changed white color on the center of the back. Neutron irradiation of black mice show similar in damage of spleen immune cells by subpopulation of T helper and T cytotoxic cells compared to the control non - irradiated group. These results show that treatment of neutron irradiation without boron compounds for 2 hrs in mice can survive over 90 days with hair color change from black to white. Damaged spleen cells recover after long time by irradiation but testis volume and no. of sperm are not recover compared to the normal group in response to neutron irradiation.

  14. The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Garlic Extract on Testis Weight and Spermatogenesis in Mature Male Rats under Chemotherapy with Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzie Mirfard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Cyclophosphamide (with the brand name of Endoxana is an anti-cancer drug used in chemotherapy. The side effects of this drug include anoretic, nausea, decrease in genital gland function, creating amenorrhea, azoospermia and oligospermia. Garlic has been used throughout history as a medicinal drug and a beneficial spice in cooking. The beneficial effects of garlic which have been studied are its anti-oxidant, antibacterial, anti- atherosclerosis, anti-blood platelet effects as well as its role in reducing blood glucose and fat. Garlic has many compounds mostly contain a sulfuric content such as Di-alkyl Di-sulfide (Alicin, Di alyl Di sulfide (DAS, that caused antioxidant and protective properties. Materials & Methods: Cyclophosphamide and garlic extract were given to 56 rats for a period of 28 days. The rats were weighted and after anesthesia, their testis was taken out and tissue dissections were obtained, Student t-test was applied for the statistical analysis. Results: The results show that cyclophosphamide alone leads to a reduction in body and testis weight, and spermatogenesis compared to the control group. In the group that used cyclophosphamide along with garlic extract, as the dose of extract increased, the body and testis weight and spermatogenesis increased in the rats. Conclusion: It seems, the existing compounds in garlic extract can control active metabolites caused by cyclophosphamide and the destructive effect of this drug. Prescribing garlic extract along with cyclophosphamide can possibly be beneficial and effective due to the anti-oxidant characteristics of garlic and also its effect on reducing harmful metabolites.

  15. Scrotal metastases from colorectal carcinoma: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McWeeney, Doireann M

    2012-01-31

    ABSTRACT: A 72-year-old man presented with a two month history of rectal bleeding. Colonoscopy demonstrated synchronous lesions at 3 cm and 40 cm with histological analysis confirming synchronous adenocarcinomata. He developed bilobar hepatic metastases while undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Treatment was complicated by Fournier\\'s gangrene of the right hemiscrotum which required surgical debridement. Eight months later he re-presented with an ulcerating lesion on the right hemiscrotum. An en-bloc resection of the ulcerating scrotal lesion and underlying testis was performed. Immunohistological analysis revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma of large bowel origin. Colorectal metastasis to the urogenital tract is rare and here we report a case of rectal carcinoma metastasizing to scrotal skin.

  16. Use of the processes vaginalis: A new technique for reinforcing the neourethra in hypospadias associated with undescended testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Acharya

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: In patients of undescended testis with hypospadias, simultaneous repair with the processes vaginalis flap is an ideal technique with good results. Processes vaginalis is good vascular cover for neourethra.

  17. Wing Whiteness as an Indicator of Age, Immunocompetence, and Testis Size in the Eurasian Black-Billed Magpie (Pica pica)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guillermo Blanco; Juan A. Fargallo

    2013-01-01

    ... them. We investigated covariation of the white wing patch of the Eurasian Black-billed Magpie (Pica pica) with age, sex, feather wear, spleen size, parasite infection, and testis size to evaluate whether this trait is indicative of individual quality...

  18. An overview of the GAGE cancer/testis antigen family with the inclusion of newly identified members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, M F; Ditzel, H J

    2008-01-01

    GAGE cancer/testis antigens are frequently expressed in many different types of cancer, whereas their expression in normal tissues is limited to the germ cells of the immune-privileged organs, testis and ovary. Thus, GAGE proteins may be attractive candidates for immunotherapy of cancer. This rev......GAGE cancer/testis antigens are frequently expressed in many different types of cancer, whereas their expression in normal tissues is limited to the germ cells of the immune-privileged organs, testis and ovary. Thus, GAGE proteins may be attractive candidates for immunotherapy of cancer....... This review describes the structure and phylogeny of the GAGE family members and presents a revised nomenclature, which will enable a more clear distinction of genes and gene products. The GAGE gene locus at chromosome X p11.23 consists of at least 16 genes, each of which is located in one of an equal number...

  19. Synchronous gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2009-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare tumours that are divided into four subtypes depending on tumour characteristics. Patients with NECs are known to have an increased risk of synchronous and metachronous cancers mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract. A case...... of synchronous gastric NEC and hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with several other precancerous lesions is presented. The patient had anaemia, and a gastric tumour and two duodenal polyps were identified on upper endoscopy. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed several lesions in the liver. The lesions were...... invisible on B-mode sonography and real-time sonography fused with CT was used to identify and biopsy one of the lesions. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma. A literature search showed that only one case of a hepatocellular carcinoma synchronous with a gastric NEC has been reported previously. TRIAL...

  20. An acute unusual presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubin Dev Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC is a growing cause of mortality world over. The common risk factors include cirrhosis, viral infections, aflatoxin amongst others. Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP levels and Ultrasonography (USG are the preferred surveillance tools in early diagnosis of HCC. Here we present an unusual case of a young female with no known risk factors, no cirrhosis, no viral markers, and normal AFP levels who had a Acute hepatic failure eventually diagnosed as Primary Hepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of spermatogenically regressed, recrudescent and active phase testis of seasonally breeding wall lizards Hemidactylus flaviviridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Gautam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reptiles are phylogenically important group of organisms as mammals have evolved from them. Wall lizard testis exhibits clearly distinct morphology during various phases of a reproductive cycle making them an interesting model to study regulation of spermatogenesis. Studies on reptile spermatogenesis are negligible hence this study will prove to be an important resource. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Histological analyses show complete regression of seminiferous tubules during regressed phase with retracted Sertoli cells and spermatognia. In the recrudescent phase, regressed testis regain cellular activity showing presence of normal Sertoli cells and developing germ cells. In the active phase, testis reaches up to its maximum size with enlarged seminiferous tubules and presence of sperm in seminiferous lumen. Total RNA extracted from whole testis of regressed, recrudescent and active phase of wall lizard was hybridized on Mouse Whole Genome 8×60 K format gene chip. Microarray data from regressed phase was deemed as control group. Microarray data were validated by assessing the expression of some selected genes using Quantitative Real-Time PCR. The genes prominently expressed in recrudescent and active phase testis are cytoskeleton organization GO 0005856, cell growth GO 0045927, GTpase regulator activity GO: 0030695, transcription GO: 0006352, apoptosis GO: 0006915 and many other biological processes. The genes showing higher expression in regressed phase belonged to functional categories such as negative regulation of macromolecule metabolic process GO: 0010605, negative regulation of gene expression GO: 0010629 and maintenance of stem cell niche GO: 0045165. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first exploratory study profiling transcriptome of three drastically different conditions of any reptilian testis. The genes expressed in the testis during regressed, recrudescent and active phase of reproductive cycle are in concordance

  2. A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict the Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    confined to germ cells in normal testis and placenta , but aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers (Scanlan et al, 2004). Unfortunately, their...qRT-PCR 4 3. OVERALL PROJECT SUMMARY Summary of Tasks in SOW Tasks Summarized aims Time Major Task 1 Subtasks 1 and 2 Year 1 CTA gene expression...cells, except by normal testis that is an immune -privileged organ. Also, they are capable of inducing an immune response and though are good targets

  3. Persistent mullerian duct syndrome with teratoma in an ectopic testis: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlawar, R.S.; Patankar, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Seth G. S. Medical College and K. E. M. Hospital, Parel, Mumbai (India); Shah, J.R.; Parikh, V. [Dept. of CT and Ultrasound, Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2001-06-01

    The persistent mullerian duct syndrome represents a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism, secondary to mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF) deficiency. We describe imaging findings in a 30-year-old male (46 XY karyotype) with bilateral cryptorchidism and mullerian duct anomalies (presence of uterus and fallopian tubes). Grade-III teratoma with yolk sac tumour was detected in one of the undescended testis, lying in the pelvic cavity. The other testis was in the inguinal canal. The rest of the wolffian duct structures (e. g. prostate, seminal vesicles) were nearly normal. Very few reports of imaging findings of this entity have been published thus far, probably because of the rarity of entity, incidental detection of most of the cases at surgery and relatively asymptomatic clinical presentation. (orig.)

  4. Distribution of terminal sugar residues in the testis of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguoro, Annamaria; Prisco, Marina; Mennella, Clotilde; Ricchiari, Loredana; Angelini, Francesco; Andreuccetti, Piero

    2004-08-01

    Lectins represent a class of proteins/glycoproteins binding specifically to terminal sugar residues. The present investigation aims to identify lectin-binding sites in testis of Torpedo marmorata. Using a panel of lectins coupled with fluoresceine isothiocyanate, we demonstrated that germ and somatic cells present in Torpedo testis contain glycoconjugates, whose distribution at the level of the surface, the cytoplasm and the nucleus changes during germ cell differentiation. Moreover our observations demonstrate that the germ cells undergoing apoptosis (Prisco et al., 2003a: Mol Reprod Dev 64:341-348) overexpress a residual sugar recognised by WFA lectin that can be considered a specific marker for apoptotic germ cells. Finally, our results indicate that there is a progressive increase in glycosilation during spermatogenesis, especially at the level of the acrosome in the spermatocyte-spermatid step, and that Leydig cells are differently stained in relation to the spermatogenetic cycle. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Oxidative stress in testis of animals during aging with and without reproductive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Tiago Boeira; Hackenhaar, Fernanda Schäfer; Almeida, Ana Carolina; Schüller, Arthur Krumberg; Gil Alabarse, Paulo V; Ehrenbrink, Guilherme; Benfato, Mara Silveira

    2013-09-01

    The free radical theory of aging postulates that an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and antioxidant defenses is important in senescence. To address this issue and gain insight into the aging process, we have evaluated the antioxidant defenses and have assessed oxidative damage in testis tissues in aging male rats. In order to relate aging and reproduction, animals with and without reproductive activity were studied. In reproductive animals the results showed a progressive increase in antioxidant enzyme activity until 12 months of age followed by an abrupt fall at 24 months. In non-reproductive animals, antioxidant activity was stable through 12 months of age, but again, fell abruptly at 24 months of age. In addition, increased aconitase activity and increased testosterone levels were found among reproductively active animals. The data demonstrate the existence of metabolic differences in testis of reproductively experienced animals and reproductively naïve animals. © 2013.

  6. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an importantrole. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpacatestis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemicalstaining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old(newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed nosignificant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis,which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis.

  7. Zika Virus Causes Testis Damage and Leads to Male Infertility in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenqiang; Li, Shihua; Ma, Shuoqian; Jia, Lina; Zhang, Fuchun; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Jingyuan; Wong, Gary; Zhang, Shanshan; Lu, Xuancheng; Liu, Mei; Yan, Jinghua; Li, Wei; Qin, Chuan; Han, Daishu; Qin, Chengfeng; Wang, Na; Li, Xiangdong; Gao, George Fu

    2016-12-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) persists in the semen of male patients, a first for flavivirus infection. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV can induce inflammation in the testis and epididymidis, but not in the prostate or seminal vesicle, and can lead to damaged testes after 60 days post-infection in mice. ZIKV induces innate immune responses in Leydig, Sertoli, and epididymal epithelial cells, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. However, ZIKV does not induce a rapid and abundant cytokine production in peritubular cell and spermatogonia, suggesting that these cells are vulnerable for ZIKV infection and could be the potential repositories for ZIKV. Our study demonstrates a correlation between ZIKV and testis infection/damage and suggests that ZIKV infection, under certain circumstances, can eventually lead to male infertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Testis cancer: role of radiotherapy in 2003; Cancer du testicule: place de la radiotherapie en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clippe, S. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 69 - Lyon (France); Flechon, A.; Droz, J.P. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, Dept. de Cancerologie Medicale, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2003-11-01

    Germ-cell minors of the testis are rare tumors of the young adult. Half of them are seminoma. The majority of patients have disease limited to the testis. Radiotherapy still remains the standard treatment of these patients. Almost all patients are cured by orchidectomy and radiotherapy on the lomboaortic area extended to homolateral iliac area. The dose is 24 to 30 Gy in a standard fractionation. Different studies are ongoing to reduce the irradiation field (omission of the pelvic irradiation), to decrease irradiation dose (to 20 Gy). Other treatment options are strict surveillance and adjuvant carbo-platin based chemotherapy. None of these options are standard treatments. A strict attention must be directed on controlateral germ-cell tumors and second cancers. (author)

  9. Manifestation of osteoblastic phenotypes in the sarcomatous component of epithelial carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Yasutoshi; Murakami, Teppei; Inoue, Takao; Hagiyama, Man; Yoneshige, Azusa; Nishimura, Syunji; Akagi, Masao; Ito, Akihiko

    2017-06-01

    Epithelial carcinomas occasionally have sarcomatous components that consist primarily of spindle and cuboidal cells, which often resemble osteoblasts. Sarcomatoid carcinomas consist of similar cells. Recent studies have characterized these phenomena as a manifestation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in carcinoma cells, but the mesenchymal phenotypes that manifest in sarcomatous cells of epithelial carcinomas are not well understood. Here, we examined the expression profiles of four osteoblastic differentiation biomarkers in the sarcomatous components of multiple carcinoma types, including five renal clear cell, four breast invasive ductal, two esophageal, one maxillary squamous cell, three larynx, three lung, one liver, and one skin sarcomatoid carcinoma. Expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against cell adhesion molecule 1, a member of the IgCAM superfamily, osterix transcription factor (Osterix), cluster of differentiation 151, a transmembrane 4 superfamily member, and alkaline phosphatase. Immunostaining intensity was rated in scale 0 (negative), 0.5 (weak), and 1 (strong) for each marker, and the four scale values were summed to calculate osteoblastic scores. In all, 10 cases had a osteoblastic score ≥3, and all of these 10 cases were cell adhesion molecule 1- and Osterix-positive. Eight and five of the nine samples with a osteoblastic score carcinoma cells and that cell adhesion molecule 1 could be a useful marker for identifying this phenomenon in carcinoma tissues.

  10. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma P. Cotrim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases’ 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3, in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in

  11. The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Matricaria Recutita on the Hormonal Pituitary-Testis Axis and Testis Tissue Changes of Mature Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laili Hatami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Matricaria recutita is one of the most ancient and well- known medicinal plants, and its role in the treatment of a wide range of diseases has been studied . The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Matricaria recutita on spermatogenesis and the pituitary-gonadal axis in male adult rats.   Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, the animals were divided into two groups: the control group, which received 1 ml of distilled water orally, and the experimental group, which received 100 mg/kg of Matricaria recutita extract via gavage feeding once daily for an 8-week period. After the treatment period, several fertility indices such as the weight of the reproductive organs, sperm count, sperm motility and vitality, and testis histological changes as well as blood serum levels of testosterone, estrogen, FSH, and LH were measured.   Results: Our statistical analysis showed a significant increase in the weight of the reproductive organs, sperm count, and blood testosterone in the group which received 100 mg/kg of Matricaria recutita hydroalcholic extract .   Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that hydroalcholic extract of Matricaria recutita could increase the function of the hormonal pituitary-testis axis and spermatogenesis in male rats.  

  12. [Prediction of occult carcinoma in contralateral nodules for unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hanfeng; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Dangui; Xu, Zhengang

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the risks for occult carcinoma in contralateral nodules for unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma. The study included 157 consecutive cases of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma with benign nodules in the contralateral lobe identified by preoperative ultrasound or fine-needle aspiration from January 2011 to December 2013. The patients received total thyroidectomies and neck lymph node dissections. The frequency and predictive factors for contralateral occult carcinoma in these patients were analyzed. A total of 68 patients (43.3%) had occult papillary thyroid carcinoma in the contralateral lobe and the maximum diameter of contralateral occult papillary carcinoma ranged from 0.1 to 1.2 cm, including ≤ 0.5 cm in 56 patients, 0.5-1.0 cm in 9 patients and >1.0 cm in 3 patients respectively. In univariate analysis, occult carcinoma in the contralateral lobe was associated with patient age (χ(2) = 7.266, P = 0.007) and pathologically multifocality in the ipsilateral lobe (χ(2) = 5.090, P = 0.024), but not with family history, tumor size, thyroid function, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, perithyroidal invasion, multifocality in the ipsilateral lobe, clinically or pathologically node-negative neck. In multivariate Logistic an analysis, age (OR = 1.054, P = 0.001) and multifocality in the ipsilateral lobe on final pathology (OR = 2.443, P = 0.021) were independent predictive factors for contralateral occult papillary thyroid carcinoma. Occult carcinoma is common in the contralateral "benign" nodules in patients with unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma especially in young patients or the cases with multifocal tumors.

  13. Molecular cloning of a novel nuclear factor, TDRP1, in spermatogenic cells of testis and its relationship with spermatogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuanchun [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Jiang, Haowen [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Zhou, Wenbai; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Yang, Zhihong [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Lu, Yong [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Lu, Bin [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Wang, Xiang [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Ding, Qiang, E-mail: dingqiangd@hotmail.com [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Hu, Renming, E-mail: renminghu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2010-03-26

    We reported the identification of a novel gene termed TDRP (encoding testis development-related protein) that might be involved in spermatogenesis. The human TDRP gene had two distinct transcripts, TDRP1 and TDRP2, which encoded proteins of 183 aa and 198 aa respectively. Tdrp mRNA was predominantly expressed in testis tissue. We generated rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific against human TDRP1. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed TDRP1 was expressed in spermatogenic cells, especially with high expression in spermatocytes. We provided evidence that TDRP1 distributed in both cytoplasm and nuclei of spermatogenic cells. Expression patterns of Tdrp1 mRNA and its protein were investigated in the rat testis tissues of different developmental stages. Both Tdrp1 mRNA and its protein were barely detected in the testis of neonatal rats, increased remarkably at 3 weeks postpartum, and peaked at 2 months postpartum. We also investigated TDRP1 expressions in testis tissues of azoospermic men with defective spermatogenesis. Western blot analysis showed that TDRP1 expressions were significantly lower in the testis tissues of azoospermic men compared with normal controls. These current data demonstrated that as a nuclear factor, TDRP1 might play an important role in spermatogenesis.

  14. Unilateral orchidectomy in donkey (Equus asinus): Evaluation of different surgical techniques, histological and morphological changes on remaining testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud Ali Omar, Magda; Mohamed Ahmed Hassanein, Khaled; Khalifa Abdel-Razek, Abdel-Razek; Ali Yousef Hussein, Haroon

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral orchidectomy (UO) is required when further breeding potential is important. It is sometimes necessary to remove a single testis in a matured stallion for therapeutic reasons. In this study, twelve donkeys were used to evaluate three techniques of unilateral castration, histological and morphological changes on the remaining testis. Results of the study showed that each of the surgical techniques used had its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with the other two techniques. Therefore the selection among the three techniques depends on the surgeon preferences and the environment in which the unilateral orchidectomy is performed. The volume of the remaining testis recorded at the end of the study was significantly greater than that estimated at the start of the study (p < 0.05). The percentage of sperm motility obtained from the remaining testis was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Histological examination of the testis in open surgery (group I) (where the scrotum was left opened) revealed severe hemorrhages, edema and fibrosis. The test is showed degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and interstitial orchitis. Histological examination of the testes removed using a closed technique, (in groups II and III) where the scrotum wound was sutured, revealed hyperplasia of spermatogenic series and Leydig cells. In conclusion, unilateral orchidectomy had compensatory effects on the weight and volume of remaining testis. Adverse effects on sperm motility and viability can affect the fertility of the animal.

  15. Hepatocyte growth factor and c-MET are expressed in rat prepuberal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catizone, A; Ricci, G; Arista, V; Innocenzi, A; Galdieri, M

    1999-07-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor (c-MET) is present in different mammalian tissues and transduces multiple biological effects. The HGF is known to regulate many fundamental cellular functions, such as cell growth, movement and differentiation, and is involved in embryonal morphogenesis. We have studied HGF and c-MET expression in prepuberal rat testis. c-MET gene expression was found in total testis and in homogeneous cell populations, as demonstrated by Northern blotting. In the seminiferous tubules, c-MET gene was only expressed in the myoid cells. In these cells, c-MET was detectable and constantly expressed for at least six days of culture. The interstitial tissue was also c-MET positive. The protein encoded by the MET proto-oncogene was detected in myoid cells, and HGF administration to these cells induced morphological changes in the cells. HGF expression was not detected by Northern blotting using RNA extracted from total testis. By contrast, when homogenous cell populations were used, HGF expression was detectable and exclusively localized in myoid cells. Myoid cell-conditioned medium was able to induce scattering of canine kidney epithelial (MDCK) cells, and the scatter effect of a 3-days conditioned medium was evident even after 7-fold dilution of the medium. Our findings demonstrate that HGF and its receptor are present in rat prepuberal testis. The coexpression of factor and receptor in the myoid cells suggests a new role for HGF as autocrine regulator of myoid cell function and, possibly, as regulator of mammalian testicular function.

  16. Necrotic seminoma of the testis: establishing the diagnosis with Masson trichrome stain and immunostains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentine, Barbara D; Roscher, Arno A; Garrett, Jerry; Warner, Nancy E

    2002-02-01

    We describe an infarcted mass in the testis containing "ghost" cells suspicious for neoplasm. The entire lesion was necrotic. A Masson trichrome stain greatly improved nuclear and cytologic detail, confirming the suspicion of neoplasm. Placental alkaline phosphatase revealed specific membrane staining of the neoplastic cells and established a diagnosis of seminoma. Masson trichrome plus selected immunostains offer a promising approach to the diagnosis of certain necrotic neoplasms.

  17. Tumor subtype-specific cancer-testis antigens as potential biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets for cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Jun; Caballero, Otavia L.; Yung, W.K. Alfred; Weinstein, John N.; Riggins, Gregory J.; Strausberg, Robert L.; Zhao, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are potential targets for cancer immunotherapy because of their restricted expression in immune-privileged germ cells and various malignancies. Current application of CT-based immunotherapy has been focused on CT expression-rich tumors such as melanoma and lung cancers. In this study, we surveyed CT expression using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets for ten common cancer types. We show that, CT expression is specific and enriched within certain cancer molecul...

  18. Dose- and time-related effects of caffeine on the testis in immature male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaeman; Choi, Hyeonhae; Choi, Yuri; Roh, Jaesook

    2017-01-27

    We previously showed that prepubertal chronic caffeine exposure adversely affected the development of the testes in male rats. Here we investigated dose- and time-related effects of caffeine consumption on the testis throughout sexual maturation in prepubertal rats. A total of 80 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: controls and rats fed 20, 60, or 120 mg caffeine/kg/day, respectively, via gavage for 10, 20, 30, or 40 days. Preputial separation was monitored daily before the rats were sacrificed. Terminal blood samples were collected for hormone assay, and testes were grossly evaluated and weighed. One testis was processed for histological analysis, and the other was collected to isolate Leydig cells. Caffeine exposure significantly increased the relative weight of the testis in a dose-related manner after 30 days of exposure, whereas the absolute testis weight tended to decrease at the 120 mg dose of caffeine. The mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules and height of the germinal epithelium significantly decreased in the caffeine-fed groups after 40 days of caffeine exposure, which was accompanied by a reduced BrdU incorporation rate in germ cells. In addition, caffeine intake significantly reduced in vivo and ex vivo testosterone production in a dose-related manner. Our results demonstrate that caffeine exposure during sexual maturation alter the testicular microarchitecture and also slow germ cell proliferation even at the 20 mg dose level. Furthermore, caffeine may act directly on Leydig cells and interfere with testosterone production in a dose-related manner, consequently delaying onset of sexual maturation.

  19. Association of Human Development Index with global bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Alyssa K; Rosoff, James S; Prasad, Sandip M

    2017-12-01

    To describe contemporary worldwide age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer and their association with development. We obtained gender-specific, age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with socio-economic development using the 2014 United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). Age-standardized incidence rates were 2.9 (bladder) to 7.4 (testis) times higher for genitourinary malignancies in more developed countries compared with less developed countries. Age-standardized mortality rates were 1.5-2.2 times higher in more vs less developed countries for prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, with no variation in mortality rates observed in testis cancer. There was a strong inverse relationship between HDI and MIR in testis (regression coefficient 1.65, R2 = 0.78), prostate (regression coefficient -1.56, R2 = 0.85), kidney (regression coefficient -1.34, R2 = 0.74), and bladder cancer (regression coefficient -1.01, R2 = 0.80). While incidence and mortality rates for genitourinary cancers vary widely throughout the world, the MIR is highest in less developed countries for all four major genitourinary malignancies. Further research is needed to understand whether differences in comorbidities, exposures, time to diagnosis, access to healthcare, diagnostic techniques or treatment options explain the observed inequalities in genitourinary cancer outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Blood-testis-barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction Following Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    dependent male infertility is characterized by a significant reduction in numbers and quality of functional sperm. The mechanism(s) underlying this...stem cells from the immune system. We reported that a contusive injury to the rat spinal cord causes a profound and sustained loss of BTB integrity...term effects on the blood-testis-barrier as a mechanism underlying male infertility following spinal cord injury. Goals/Milestones (Example) CY12/13

  1. Burned-out tumor of the testis presenting as supraclavicular lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebapci, Mahmut; Aslan, Ozgur [Dept. of Radiology, Osmangazi University School of Medicine, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Can, Cavit [Department of Urology, Osmangazi University School of Medicine, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Isiksoy, Serap; Oner, Ulku [Department of Pathology, Osmangazi University School of Medicine, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2002-02-01

    Burned-out tumor of the testis is a rare clinical entity. It generally presents with metastases and is nonpalpable in testicular palpation. We present a case of testicular burned-out tumor having supraclavicular and retroperitoneal lymph node metastases. Imaging findings of such tumors have insufficiently been documented in radiology literature. Scrotal sonography is crucial in detecting the regressed tumors especially in patients with extragonadal metastasis of a testicular primary. (orig.)

  2. Protective effects of some fruit juices with low-fat diet on rat testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological sections of testis indicated that low-fat diet has obvious effects than basal diet in both the low-fat diet with CCl4 "LdC""con++", LdC with grape juice 2 ml "grpL2", LdC with pomegranate juice 2 ml "pomL2" and hyper effect in LdC with pomegranate juice 4 ml "pomL4" while it was equal in effect with basal diet in ...

  3. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...

  4. Burned-out testis tumour that metastasized to retroperitoneal lymph nodes: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Mehmet

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Burned-out testicular tumour is a very rare clinical entity. There is no clinical finding in the testicle, because it regresses spontaneously with no treatment, and generally presents with metastases. Abdominal masses in young male patients may sometimes be caused by a metastatic burned-out testicular tumour. We report a patient with a burned-out testicular tumour that metastasized to retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Case presentation A 28-year-old man complained of an abdominal mass and continuously increasing pain over the previous 2 months. A midabdominal mass, atrophy and minimal induration in the right testis were revealed on physical examination. Ultrasound findings revealed focally increased echogenicity, which is typical of burned-out tumours. Inguinal orchiectomy was performed, and the histological examination of the biopsy specimen revealed a large area of hyalinization, tubular hyalinization, interstitial fibrosis and focal Leydig cell hyperplasia, with no abnormal pathological findings in the epididymis and spermatic cord. The final pathological diagnosis was concluded as "burned-out" testicular tumour. Surgical treatment was followed by appropriate chemotherapy and in the follow-up, the abdominal mass was observed to regress. The patient is currently free of disease 5 years after diagnosis. Conclusion For the detection of intratesticular lesions, especially in patients with extragonadal metastatic involvement and normal palpation findings for the testis, scrotal sonography is very important. A burned-out testicular tumour should be considered and testis biopsies should be performed if there is any risk factor of malignancy.

  5. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor expression and role of HGF during embryonic mouse testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Innocenzi, A; Galdieri, M

    1999-12-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, c-met, transduces the HGF multiple biological activities. During embryonic development the system HGF/c-met regulates the morphogenesis of different organs and tissues. In this study we examined c-met gene expression during mouse testis development and, by means of Northern blot and in situ hybridization, we report the receptor expression pattern. C-met expression is not detectable in male genital ridges isolated from embryos at 11.5 days postcoitum (dpc). In testes isolated from 12.5 and 13.5 dpc, c-met expression is detectable and essentially localized in the developing cords. Male genital ducts do not express c-met at the reported ages, whereas female ducts appear c-met positive. Moreover, we report that HGF is able to induce testicular morphogenesis in vitro. Male genital ridges isolated from embryos at 11.5 dpc are morphologically nonorganized. Culturing 11.5 dpc urogenital ridges in the presence of HGF we obtained testis organization and testicular cord formation. Our data demonstrate that c-met is expressed during the beginning period of testis differentiation and that HGF is able to support testicular differentiation in vitro. All these data indicate that this growth factor, besides its role as mitogenic factor, plays a fundamental role during testicular cord formation probably inducing cell migration and/or cell differentiation. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. Sertoli cells maintain Leydig cell number and peritubular myoid cell activity in the adult mouse testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rebourcet

    Full Text Available The Sertoli cells are critical regulators of testis differentiation and development. In the adult, however, their known function is restricted largely to maintenance of spermatogenesis. To determine whether the Sertoli cells regulate other aspects of adult testis biology we have used a novel transgenic mouse model in which Amh-Cre induces expression of the receptor for Diphtheria toxin (iDTR specifically within Sertoli cells. This causes controlled, cell-specific and acute ablation of the Sertoli cell population in the adult animal following Diphtheria toxin injection. Results show that Sertoli cell ablation leads to rapid loss of all germ cell populations. In addition, adult Leydig cell numbers decline by 75% with the remaining cells concentrated around the rete and in the sub-capsular region. In the absence of Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cell activity is reduced but the cells retain an ability to exclude immune cells from the seminiferous tubules. These data demonstrate that, in addition to support of spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells are required in the adult testis both for retention of the normal adult Leydig cell population and for support of normal peritubular myoid cell function. This has implications for our understanding of male reproductive disorders and wider androgen-related conditions affecting male health.

  7. Amyloid precursor protein interaction network in human testis: sentinel proteins for male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Yoon, Sooyeon; Domingues, Sara; Guimarães, Sofia; Goltsev, Alexander V; da Cruz E Silva, Edgar Figueiredo; Mendes, José Fernando F; da Cruz E Silva, Odete Abreu Beirão; Fardilha, Margarida

    2015-01-16

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is widely recognized for playing a central role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Although APP is expressed in several tissues outside the human central nervous system, the functions of APP and its family members in other tissues are still poorly understood. APP is involved in several biological functions which might be potentially important for male fertility, such as cell adhesion, cell motility, signaling, and apoptosis. Furthermore, APP superfamily members are known to be associated with fertility. Knowledge on the protein networks of APP in human testis and spermatozoa will shed light on the function of APP in the male reproductive system. We performed a Yeast Two-Hybrid screen and a database search to study the interaction network of APP in human testis and sperm. To gain insights into the role of APP superfamily members in fertility, the study was extended to APP-like protein 2 (APLP2). We analyzed several topological properties of the APP interaction network and the biological and physiological properties of the proteins in the APP interaction network were also specified by gene ontologyand pathways analyses. We classified significant features related to the human male reproduction for the APP interacting proteins and identified modules of proteins with similar functional roles which may show cooperative behavior for male fertility. The present work provides the first report on the APP interactome in human testis. Our approach allowed the identification of novel interactions and recognition of key APP interacting proteins for male reproduction, particularly in sperm-oocyte interaction.

  8. Presumed normal ultrasonographic findings of the testis and epididymis of botos (Inia geoffrensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Flávio Ribeiro; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Martin, Anthony Richard; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-12-01

    Fifteen live adult male botos, or Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis), were examined using ultrasonography during the yearly capture expedition, between October and November 2005, at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, within the Brazilian Amazon (3 degrees S, 65 degrees W). All examinations were performed with a Sonosite 180 plus ultrasound unit in conjunction with a 2- to 5-MHz multifrequency transducer convex array 180 Plus/Elite-C60. Age and maturity estimates were determined considering the body length, weight, and external characteristics. In all examinations, the testes were discerned by the presence of a hyperechoic central line, called the mediastinum testis, a landmark for their identification during ultrasonography. No significant differences in echogenicity were detected on the ultrasonographic appearance of the testes among the studied animals. On adult male botos, apparent parenchymal nodulation of the testis was observed on scanning in most of the animals and probably constituted evidence of reproductive maturity. Using the color Doppler technique, blood flow was detected along the mediastinum testis that progressively decreased toward the periphery of this organ. Little blood flow could be identified by color Doppler. Power Doppler allowed better accuracy to identify testicular vessels, their topography, and their differentiation from adjacent structures. Ultrasonographic examination provides useful data for morphologic characterization of the boto's testes. Examination using Doppler techniques was considered a valuable tool to evidence blood flow through the testicular parenchyma.

  9. Copper nanoparticles differentially target testis of the catfish, Clarias batrachus: in vivo and in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Murugananthkumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study examined the impact of copper (Cu as nanoparticle (Cu-NPs and soluble form (CuSO4 in adult male catfish Clarias batrachus. Following treatment, upregulation of transcripts of several testis-related genes and increased androgen levels were evident. Though profound promotional effect was seen at gene and androgen levels, structural analysis revealed completely different scenario. Histological observations of testis showed disruption of basal lamina, distinct spermatogonium and enlarged spermatocytes in the treated groups. Quite alarmingly, transmission electron microscopic analysis showed damage of testicular lumen with irregular basal lamina and distinctive spermatocytes. In addition, Sertoli cells and erythrocytes exhibited damage after Cu treatments. Cytotoxic effects of Cu in catfish primary testis and TM3 Leydig cells showed cytotoxicity which is correlated well with morphological and flow cytometric analysis. Taken together, the results demonstrated that low dose of Cu/Cu-NPs can be detrimental to catfish testicular recrudescence vis-à-vis reproduction and the toxic effect manifest drastically in in vitro cultures.

  10. Ultra-Structure Study of Lead Acetate Cytotoxic Effects on Testis in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nassiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Lead is one the world wide using metals it has been used since ancient time. It is also a toxin, known to have adverse effects on the body even at low level of exposure and it induces a bread range of physiological, biochemical, and behavioral dysfunctions. Studies have been showed that this metal has harmful effects on several tissues such as: nervous system, blood tissues, and cardiovascular system, reproductive and urinary system. Because it damage human, animal and plants. Nowadays has been attended on this metal. Materials & Methods: White male rabbits of New Zealand race were used and divided into two groups. Experimental groups (N =10 6.5 Mg/Kg of lead acetate were injected intraperitoneally every other day to each animal for 7 weeks as chronic dose and control group (N=10 were injected only with demonized water. After taking biopsy from testis tissues of each group, tissue preparation was performed for LM and EM studies as standard method. Morphologic study was carried out on electron micrographs. Data have been compared using statistically methods. Results: Morphological findings showed that testis tissue in experimental group that chronic dose has been sever changed histologically compared with control group. Seminifar tubules diameter showed significant decrease (p<0.05. Primary spermotocyte nucleus showed heterochromatin and mitochondria showed vacuelaution Conclusion: These results (based on present study findings revealed that lead acetate could have vivid effects on testis tissue during chronic dose.

  11. Histopathological evaluation of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio testis following exposure to methyl paraben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Hassanzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Methyl paraben (MP is widely used as a preservative in various products. It frequently enters into aquatic environment and renders potential threat to fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate reproductive toxicity of MP on zebrafish (Danio rerio under laboratory conditions. Male zebrafish were exposed to four concentrations of MP (0.001, 0.01, 1, and 10 mg L-1 for 21 days in semi-static condition. Changes in mean length, mean weight, gonadosomatic index (GSI and histology of testis were studied. Treatment at 0.001 to 10 mg L-1 MP had no significant effect on the survival, mean length and mean weight of fish. But, GSI decreased in a dose dependent manner and the decrease was significant in the group that received the highest dose. Histological alteration of testis consisted of general testicular atrophy, multi-nucleated gonocytes (MNGs, impaired germ cell, spermatogonial proliferation, Leydig cell hyperplasia, interstitial fibrosis and apoptosis of Sertoli cells. It was concluded that sub-chronic exposures of MP could adversely affect GSI, disrupt the histology of testis and produce estrogenic and antispermatogenic activity in male zebra fish.

  12. Intravaginal testicular torsion in newborns. To fix or not to fix the contralateral testis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bordin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrotal swelling suggesting testicular torsion is a rare urological emergency which requires a clinical urgent evaluation and most of the times must be managed surgically. In newborns it can occur in the postnatal period, usually within the twenty-eighth day of life, or more frequently in utero, during the descent of the testis into the scrotum. Usually its poor fixedness allows the testis an abnormal mobility inside the scrotum, configuring the framework of extravaginal torsion. On the contrary during the perinatal period a twist that takes place inside the tunica vaginalis, known as intravaginal torsion, is extremely uncommon and only few cases are well documented in the literature. Authors present a rare case of intravaginal testicular torsion occurred in perinatal period. In this situation only the early surgical exploration of the scrotum may allow the rescue of the gonad, although in rare cases. Timing of surgical treatment and need for contralateral testicular fixation remain controversial. However since the anatomical defect of the tunica vaginalis can be bilateral the surgical fixation even of the contralateral testis is important, now or later, in order to prevent any future torsion of this gonad. The authors also present a brief review of recent literature on the subject.

  13. Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Nasser; Nilton Nasser Filho; Bruno Trauczynski Neto; Lissandra Melati da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no s...

  14. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lau, W. Y

    2008-01-01

    ... mortality rate was very high. Now, not only has liver surgery become safe, but the best clinical practice encompasses a multidisciplinary approach including the disciplines of surgery, interventional radiology, medical oncology, hepatology, diagnostic radiology, pathology, molecular biology, and even epidemiology. This is a multiauthor book on hep...

  16. National Incidence, Management and Survival of Urachal Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Dearbhaile C.; Kyra Velázquez-Kennedy; Sandra Deady; Brady, Adrian P.; Paul Sweeney; Derek G. Power

    2016-01-01

    Urachal carcinoma is an uncommon cancer whose rarity has precluded its study and evidence-based management strategies are lacking. This study assessed all urachal carcinomas in Ireland and clinical parameters in order to improve understanding. Urachal carcinomas diagnosed from 1994 to 2011 were identified from the National Cancer Registry in Ireland. Data obtained included patient age, gender, diagnostic year, pathology, tumor stage, patient treatment strategies and survival. Twenty-six urach...

  17. Follicular Adenoma and Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    McHenry, Christopher R.; Phitayakorn, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland include benign follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Currently, a follicular carcinoma cannot be distinguished from a follicular adenoma based on cytologic, sonographic, or clinical features alone. As a result, all patients with a follicular neoplasm should, at minimum, undergo a diagnostic thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy. A completion thyroidectomy is necessary for invasive follicular carcinoma. The overall ten-year survival for patients w...

  18. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beggs, Rachel E

    2012-09-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater are rare and confer a very poor prognosis despite aggressive therapy. There are few case reports of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater in the literature and to date no studies have been done to establish optimal management. We describe a pooled case series from published reports of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater including a case which presented to our institution.

  19. Salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance...

  20. Testi, editori e lettori “digitali”. Riflessioni pedagogiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Di Bari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, marked by the digital technologies, textuality is taking on new forms. The transformations concern books and medias, but also editors and readers: the paper aims to evaluate how pedagogy can interpret these changes and can allow the subject to use these technologies (new forms of books includ- ing as educational tools.

  1. Primary cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Markus Winther; Steiniche, Torben; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a case of primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the skin and reviews the available literature on this topic. Myoepitheliomas and carcinomas arise most frequently from myoepithelial cells within the salivary glands but are found in many anatomical locations. We documented a case...... of an 80-year-old man with a 2 × 2 × 1 cm tumour located on the scalp. This tumour emerged over a period of 2 months. The tumour was radically excised, and histological examination revealed a cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma. At an 18-month follow-up, no recurrence of the tumour was found. A systematic...... literature search identified 23 papers that reported 58 cases of cutaneous myoepitheliomas and myoepithelial carcinomas. All cases are reviewed in the presented paper. This case report and literature review serves to increase awareness regarding myoepithelial carcinomas. These tumours exhibit high metastatic...

  2. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined.

  3. [Torsion of spermatic cord: can we trust a previous orchidopexy? A case report with loss of a single testis with medico-legal issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Glabeke, E; Ferhi, K; Maloum, C

    2010-10-01

    The authors report the case of a patient aged of 27 years who presented in the past a testicular torsion with loss of the ipsilateral testis and fixation of the contralateral one. Ten years later, he presented with pain on the remaining testis, which evolved to necrosis, and led to a second orchidectomy. In retrospective, it appears that the assumption that the testis had been adequately fixed ten years earlier led to the loss of the remaining testis. We thus recommend an urgent surgical exploration when facing a suspicion of spermatic cord torsion, regardless of previous history of orchidopexy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of SOX2 expression in developing human testis and germ cell neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Perrett, Rebecca M.; Nielsen, John Erik

    2010-01-01

    The transcriptional regulators of pluripotency, POU5F1 (OCT4), NANOG and SOX2, are highly expressed in embryonal carcinoma (EC). In contrast to OCT4 and NANOG, SOX2 has not been demonstrated in the early human germ cell lineage or carcinoma in situ (CIS), the precursor for testicular germ cell...

  5. Administration of noradrenaline in the autonomic ganglia modifies the testosterone release from the testis using an ex vivo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Zulema Y; Palmada, Miguel N; Fóscolo, Mabel R; Capani, Francisco; Conill, Alberto; Cavicchia, Juan Carlos

    2009-08-01

    The male gonad receives nerve fibres from the autonomic ganglionic system. These fibres converge on the testis along two pathways, the superior and the inferior spermatic nerves. The superior spermatic nerve runs from the superior mesenteric ganglion alongside the testicular artery, whereas the inferior spermatic nerve originates in inferior mesenteric ganglion, accompanies the vas deferens and penetrates the inferior pole of the testis. The aim of this work was to evaluate androgen release after the addition of noradrenaline or adrenoreceptor antagonists (propranolol or phentolamine) to the ganglionic compartment. An ex vivo system used in a previous work was incubated in two separate containers, one for the testis and the other for the ganglion. Both organs remain interconnected (as in vivo) by the respective spermatic nerve. When noradrenaline was added to the inferior mesenteric ganglion, testosterone release in the gonad container underwent a progressive and significant increment. Propranolol diminishes and phentolamine increases the androgen release. When using the superior mesenteric ganglion, no changes were observed. These results indicate that the ganglionic stimulation of the autonomic system clearly participates in testosterone release from the testis. This effect depends on the ganglion involved. These results make it evident that not only the classical and well-known hypothalamus-hypophysial axis, but also the peripheral nervous system, via the autonomic ganglia, are directly involved in the endocrine control of the testis.

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogh J

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Julius Balogh,1,2 David Victor III,1,3,4 Emad H Asham,1,2 Sherilyn Gordon Burroughs,1,2 Maha Boktour,1,2 Ashish Saharia,1,2 Xian Li,1,2 R Mark Ghobrial,1,2 Howard P Monsour Jr,1,3,4 1Sherrie and Alan Conover Center for Liver Disease and Transplantation, 2Division of Transplantation, Department of Surgery, 3Department of Gastroenterology and Transplant Hepatology, 4Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most common primary liver malignancy and is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In the United States, HCC is the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths. Despite advances in prevention techniques, screening, and new technologies in both diagnosis and treatment, incidence and mortality continue to rise. Cirrhosis remains the most important risk factor for the development of HCC regardless of etiology. Hepatitis B and C are independent risk factors for the development of cirrhosis. Alcohol consumption remains an important additional risk factor in the United States as alcohol abuse is five times higher than hepatitis C. Diagnosis is confirmed without pathologic confirmation. Screening includes both radiologic tests, such as ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, and serological markers such as α-fetoprotein at 6-month intervals. Multiple treatment modalities exist; however, only orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT or surgical resection is curative. OLT is available for patients who meet or are downstaged into the Milan or University of San Francisco criteria. Additional treatment modalities include transarterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, cryoablation, radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy, and molecularly targeted therapies. Selection of a treatment modality is based on tumor size, location, extrahepatic spread, and underlying liver function. HCC is an

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of tumor antigens MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 in renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirović, Alma; Džombeta, Tihana; Tomas, Davor; Spajić, Borislav; Pavić, Ivana; Hudolin, Tvrtko; Milošević, Milan; Cupić, Hrvoje; Krušlin, Božo

    2010-10-15

    The distinction between renal oncocytoma (RO) and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC), especially the eosinophilic variant, can often be difficult. Our study has documented for the first time the expression of MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 cancer testis antigens (CTAs) in these tumors. A total of 35 patients (17 ROs and 18 ChRCCs) were included in the study. Two antibodies were used for immunohistochemical staining: 57B recognizing multiple MAGE-A and D8.38 recognizing NY-ESO-1 CTAs. Fifteen (88.2%) samples of RO stained positively for both MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 antigens. Regarding ChRCC, seven (38.9%) stained positively for MAGE-A3/4 and six (33.3%) for NY-ESO-1 antigens. Median MAGE-A3/4 expression was moderately positive in RO and negative in ChRCC. The difference in MAGE-A3/4 expression between two tumor groups was significant (P=0.0013). Median NY-ESO-1 expression was strongly positive in RO and negative in ChRCC. The difference in NY-ESO-1 expression between two tumor groups was also significant (P=0.0008). Our study has shown that RO had a significantly higher expression of both CTAs. However, additional research is needed to clarify their potential diagnostic implications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Vijaykumar Wader

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the kidney comprised of different histological variants. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC mainly diagnosed in the sixth decade of life. It is important to identify this entity because it has significantly better prognosis than the clear cell (conventional and papillary renal cell carcinomas. The chromophobe renal cell carcinoma should be differentiated from oncocytoma and clear cell carcinoma. We report a case of a 70 year-old male who presented with a six month history of hematuria, left sided flank pain and a palpable non-tender lump in the left lumbar region. On radiology, the possibility of a left renal neoplasm was raised. A left radical nephrectomy was done and histopathological diagnosis of Type 2 (mixed chromophobe renal cell carcinoma was given. We present this case owing to its relative rarity of incidence, difficulties encountered and differential diagnoses to be considered during diagnosis as the prognosis and management protocols differ with different variants.

  9. Histolopathological Patterns of Cervical Carcinoma Seen at A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histolopathological Patterns of Cervical Carcinoma Seen at A Radiotherapy Centre in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine. Journal Home ... Introduction: The treatment of cervical carcinoma is dependent on many factors including histological types and degree of differentiation. Degree of ...

  10. Metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in a patient previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidental papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in patients treated surgically for benign thyroid diseases including Graves' disease is a known phenomenon. However, the management of these patients remains an issue of concern and controversy for those who care for them. We report a case of metastatic paillary carcinoma of ...

  11. Pathologic Pattern of Invasive Bladder Carcinoma: Impact of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tumor histology included transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in 84 (56.7%), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 51 (34.5%), adenocarcinoma in 9 (6.1%) and anaplastic tumor in 4 (2.7%) of these specimens. Most tumors associated with bilharziasis were bulky and appeared fungating or ulcerative. The pathologic tumor stage ...

  12. Effect of cigarette smoke on DNA damage, oxidative stress, and morphological alterations in mouse testis and spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Maestra, Sebastiano; De Flora, Silvio; Micale, Rosanna T

    2015-01-01

    Although the adverse effects of active smoking on sperm quality and fertilization ability are well established, little is known about possible effects of involuntary exposures to cigarette smoke (CS). We designed an experimental study aimed at evaluating the induction of possible noxious effects on testicular morphology and functions in A/J mice exposed whole-body to CS during the first 70 days of life, from birth to early adulthood. Twenty-five sham-exposed neonatal mice and 23 CS-exposed neonatal mice were used. Exposure to CS caused a variety of interconnected alterations in male gonads, including loss of weight and histomorphological alterations of testis, accompanied by a significant increase in abnormalities affecting epidydimal spermatozoa. Induction of oxidative stress was demonstrated by significantly increased concentrations of both reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation products in sperm cells. Occurrence of DNA damage in the same cells was documented by using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, which showed a remarkable increase in DNA single- and double-strand breaks in CS-exposed mice, as compared with sham-exposed mice. Since biochemical and molecular alterations of sperm cells are known to be associated with impaired sperm quality, our findings suggest that involuntary smoking is potentially able to impair fertility in subjects exposed early in life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptome profiling of the murine testis during the first wave of spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Laiho

    Full Text Available Correct gene expression patterns form the basis for male germ cell differentiation and male fertility. Although previous studies have elucidated the importance of testis specific gene expression, the exact transcripts and comprehensive gene expression patterns remain unknown. Large scale sequencing techniques have enabled cost effective analysis of gene expression and isoform studies. Using the SOLiD 4 next-generation sequencing platform we have investigated the gene expression patterns at five different time points during the first wave on murine spermatogenesis. Our results highlight the upregulation of spermatogenesis related biological processes and associated cellular components. Elucidation of differential gene expression at important time points during the sperm development emphasizes the importance of correct timing of gene expression within biological processes. Differential gene level expression was analyzed with R/Bioconductor's Limma package and isoform analysis was conducted with the Cufflinks pipeline. At gene level total of 2494 differentially expressed genes were identified and Cufflinks characterized over 160,000 gene isoforms, of which 29% were novel transcripts assigned to known genes. Isoforms were detected for 57% of expressed genes and in a total over 26,000 genes were expressed in the testis. Differential promoter and transcription start site usage appears also to play a role in regulation of gene expression during spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we identified 947 upregulated long non-coding RNAs during the first wave of spermatogenesis. These RNAs appeared to be highly specific to different time points. Transcriptomic analysis of testis tissue samples is highly informative due to the large number of expressed genes and identified isoforms. Our study provides a very valuable basis for investigation of gene isoforms and regulation and factors contributing to male fertility.

  14. Protective effects of Launaea procumbens on rat testis damage by CCl4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rahmat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally various human diseases of kidneys, hormonal imbalance and sexual diseases are treated with Launaea procumbens (L. In the present study protective effects of methanolic extract of Launaea procumbens (LPME was evaluated against CCl4-induced oxidative damages in rat testis. Methods To examine the protective effects of Launaea procumbens on testis against oxidative stress of carbon tetrachloride in male rat, 30 male albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups (6 rats. First group was given standard diet and drinking water. Second group received CCl4 3 ml/kg intraperitoneally (30% in olive oil. Third and forth were given orally 100; 200 mg/kg b.w., in 99.8% dimethyl sulphooxide (DMSO, Launaea procumbens methanolic extracts (LPME after 48 h of CCl4 treatment twice a week and sixth group received only LPME in DMSO at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w., for four weeks. Protective effects of Launaea procumbens were observed on sperm concentration, motility and morphology, serum reproductive hormonal level, activity of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (TBARS and DNA damages. Results Results of the present study revealed that treatment of CCl4 significantly (p  reduced sperm concentration and motility comparatively to controls. Level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, were depleted markedly (p with treatment of CCl4. In addition, CCl4 induction in rats reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes while increased lipid peroxidation and DNA damages. Co-administration of LPME significantly (p improved these alterations in improving of hormonal level, activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation near to control rats. Conclusion From the results it is suggested that Launaea procumbens methanolic extract has the ability to protect testis against oxidative damages, possibly through antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds.

  15. The Effect of Heparin on the Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Changes in Rat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elçin Hakan Terzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the preventive effects of low molecular weight heparin on testis destruction created by low dose (0.25 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl4application.    Materials and Methods: Sixteen Spraque Dawley male rats were used. CCl4 induced testicular destruction was created. There were 4 rats in each group; Group I recieved 1 ml of intraperitoneal olive oil, Group recieved intraperitoneal 0,25ml/kg CCL4 in1 ml of olive oil, Group III recieved intraperitoneal 0,25ml/kg CCL4 in1 ml of olive oil plus subcutaneous 180 IU/kg low molecular weight heparin and Grup IV received only subcutaneous 180 IU/kg low molecular weight heparin. At the end of 4 weeks of study period, rats were sacrified and tissue samples were fixed in glutaraldehyde solution.Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of testis weight (p>0.05. Light microscopy showed vacuolization in the basal portion of the seminiferous tubules in Group II. Intercellular dehiscence between the spermatogenetic cells was significant in Group II compared to control group at the level of fine structure. Intercellular dehiscence was not significant in Group III compared to Group II. The seminiferous tubules structures in Group IV were found comparable with the control group. Low dose of CCl4 caused germ cell loss, inhibition of mitosis, and structural deterioration of the Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules of rat testes. Conclusions: Low molecular weight heparin was found to be effective preventing CCl4 induced testis destruction.  

  16. Mechanisms of the Testis Toxicity Induced by Chronic Exposure to Mequindox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianying Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mequindox (MEQ is a synthetic antimicrobial agent widely used in China since the 1980s. Although the toxicity of MEQ is well recognized, its testis toxicity has not been adequately investigated. In the present study, we provide evidence that MEQ triggers oxidative stress, mitochondrion dysfunction and spermatogenesis deficiency in mice after exposure to MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg in the diet for up to 18 months. The genotoxicity and adrenal toxicity may contribute to sperm abnormalities caused by MEQ. Moreover, using LC/MS-IT-TOF analysis, two metabolites, 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl quinoxaline-N4-monoxide (M4 and 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl quinoxaline-N1-monoxide (M8, were detected in the serum of mice, which directly confirms the relationship between the N→O group reduction metabolism of MEQ and oxidative stress. Interestingly, only M4 was detected in the testes, suggesting that the higher reproductive toxicity of M4 than M8 might be due to the increased stability of M4-radical (M4-R compared to M8-radical (M8-R. Furthermore, the expression of the blood-testis barrier (BTB-associated junctions such as tight junctions, gap junctions and basal ectoplasmic specializations were also examined. The present study demonstrated for the first time the role of the M4 in testis toxicity, and illustrated that the oxidative stress, mitochondrion dysfunction and interference in spermatogenesis, as well as the altered expression of BTB related junctions, were involved in the reproductive toxicity mediated by MEQ in vivo.

  17. Effects of chronic amiodarone treatment on rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Dilber, Embiya; Gürgen, Seren Gülşen; Kutlu, Ömer; Cansu, Ali; Gedik, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Amiodarone is a potent agent used to treat tachyarrhythmias, which are especially refractory to other medications, in both adults and children. Although widely used as an antiarrhythmic drug, amiodarone causes many serious adverse effects that limit its use. This study investigated the possible morphological and apoptotic effects of amiodarone on rat testes. Amiodarone was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 20 or 200mg/kg/day for 14 days. A histopathological examination of testicular tissue revealed the presence of inflammatory cells in the seminiferous tubule lumen together with swelling and vacuolization in the cytoplasm of some spermatogonia; these effects occured in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining showed evidence of apoptosis, including caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax and increased DNA fragmentation was detected via a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay. In conclusion, the results show that chronic amiodarone treatment causes dose-dependent degenerative and apoptotic effects on rat testes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. The Blood-Testis Barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction following Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    the urea metabolic cycle and energy metabolism in the testis at 72 hours post-SCI. carnosine 24 hours 72 hours 28 days 90 days 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3...of licofelone on these pathways. Methionine Sulfoxide: Oxidation of the sulfur motifs of methionine can indicate a pro-oxidative environment. We...Subsequent data was analyzed using ANOVA. Cell Death in the Testes at 72 Hours SCI caused an increase in  urea  and ornithine and a  decrease in creatinine

  19. An unexpected finding of a rare intrascrotal lesion: the sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnan, Kapil; Manjunath, Aditya; Vaughan-Shaw, Peter G; Mitsopoulos, Grigorios

    2013-02-20

    A 19-year-old man presented with a right testicular swelling. Testicular ultrasound demonstrated areas suspicious for malignancy and so it was decided to proceed for a right radical inguinal orchiectomy. Initial histological examination revealed a multiloculated cystic lesion at the area of the rete testis yet normal testicular parenchyma elsewhere. Specialist histological opinion was sought from the regional teratoma multi-disciplinary team which confirmed the diagnosis of a sertoliform cystadenoma, an extremely rare benign testicular neoplasm. The recognition of the benign nature of the mass enabled complete reassurance to be offered to the patient and avoided further oncological treatment.

  20. Experience in staging testis tumors with bleomycin cobalt 57 and present role of gallium 67 scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukerjee, M.G.; Mittemeyer, B.T.

    1976-10-01

    A technique was developed using bleomycin and cobalt 57 to study nodal metastases in testis tumors. Comparative studies were made on 15 cases with gallium 67, lymphangiography, supraclavicular node biopsy, liver and spleen scans, chest x-ray, excretory urogram, bone survey and pathological study of surgical specimens when possible. The results with the bleomycin-cobalt 57 complex and gallium 67 were discouraging. The bleomycin-cobalt 57 study was discontinued. Pathological staging is still the most accurate of all modalities available for staging testicular malignancies.

  1. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma associated with deep vein thrombosis following radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Hajime; Ataka, Ken; Mashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Kenta; Takahashi, Toru; Umezu, Hajime; Gejyo, Fumitake [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-11-01

    A 52-year-old man developed malignant peritoneal mesothelioma 17 years after radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis. Although asbestos exposure is considered to be the major risk factor for the development of malignant mesothelioma, prior therapeutic radiation has also been postulated as a causative factor. The unexplained appearance of ascites or pleural effusion within a previously irradiated area should be considered suggestive of malignant mesothelioma in any long-term survivor of cancer. In addition, the patient suffered a deep vein thrombosis four years before the diagnosis of mesothelioma. Deep vein thrombosis is a common complication of malignant disease, and is often the first clue to occult malignancy. (author)

  2. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis: A rare intrascrotal lesion managed with limited testicular excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Catanzariti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Testicular cancer is one of the most frequent in young men and its incidence is increasing in recent years because of incidental finding during routine ultrasound exams. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is one of the benign and rare pathological types incidentally detected and very few cases are described in the literature. Case report: A 40 years old man come to our attention for a balanoposthitis without testicular pain. During andrological examination we performed palpation of the testes and we noticed a palpable nodule of hard consistency in the left testicle. We then performed an ultrasound exam of the testis which highlighted the presence of an intra-didymus neoformation with diameters of 1.2 x 1.6 cm and with the presence of cysts inside. We also performed blood tests to check tumor markers alpha fetoprotein, beta hCG and LDH which resulted inside the normal range. We then conducted a chest and abdomen CT scan that showed no pathological elements. Therefore, as we suspected that this tumor was benign, we performed an enucleation of the neoplasm. The definitive histological examination revealed the presence of dilated ducts lined with epithelial cubic-columnar cells with clear cytoplasm rich in glycogen and the pathologist so concluded that the tumor could be classified as adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis. At three months of follow up, the patient doesn’t have any recurrent lesion to either testicles. Discussion: Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is a very rare intrascrotal lesion. This histological type is the most frequent between benign lesion of the ovary, but few works in literature reported this histological type in the male gonad and, in most of these works, authors described these lesion at epididymis. Conclusion: We believe that a conservative approach must be considered mandatory in case of testicular lesions 1.5 cm in diameter. A radical approach might have alterate fertility of the

  3. Expression and localization of N- and E-cadherin in the human testis and epididymis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Edvardsen, K; Skakkebaek, N E

    1994-01-01

    Cellular interactions in the testis and epididymis are an important prerequisite for spermatogenesis and sperm maturation, and involve a well-developed complex of intercellular junctions. Cadherins are cell surface proteins which mediate intercellular Ca(2+)-dependent adhesion and are believed...... epididymis E-cadherin, but not N-cadherin, was expressed and localized to the surface of the principal epithelial cells as shown by immunohistochemistry. These observations indicate that cadherins play an important role in the organization of the seminiferous and epididymal epithelium....

  4. Lacrimal gland ductal carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Grauslund, Morten; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ductal carcinomas (DCs) of the lacrimal gland are very rare but aggressive malignancies. We investigated DC of the lacrimal gland for potentially clinically actionable targets in the search for new therapeutic options. METHODS: Case 1: A 77-year-old man, presented with diplopia...... HER2 amplification was found in cases 2 and 3. CONCLUSION: This study identified a spectrum of genetic events and pattern of protein expression in DC of the lacrimal gland similar to a subset of carcinomas of the breast and ductal carcinomas of the salivary glands. For therapeutic purposes...

  5. Microcystic Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma is one of the new variants of urothelial carcinoma that was added to the WHO classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma. Methods. Various internet search engines were used to identify reported cases of the tumour. Results. Microscopic features of the tumour include: (i Conspicuous intracellular and intercellular lumina/microcysts encompassed by malignant urothelial or squamous cells. (ii The lumina are usually empty; may contain granular eosinophilic debris, mucin, or necrotic cells. (iii The cysts may be variable in size; round, or oval, up to 2 mm; lined by urothelium which are either flattened cells or low columnar cells however, they do not contain colonic epithelium or goblet cells; are infiltrative; invade the muscularis propria; mimic cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis; occasionally exhibit neuroendocrine differentiation. (iv Elongated and irregular branching spaces are usually seen. About 17 cases of the tumour have been reported with only 2 patients who have survived. The tumour tends to be of high-grade and high-stage. There is no consensus opinion on the best option of treatment of the tumour. Conclusions. It would prove difficult at the moment to be dogmatic regarding its prognosis but it is a highly aggressive tumour. New cases of the tumour should be reported in order to document its biological behaviour.

  6. The testis of the mice C57/BL6 offspring in adulthood have alterations due to maternal caffeine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda Silveira; Aiceles, Verônica; Moraes, Diana de Freitas Serapião; Alves-Pereira, Jorge Luiz; Faria, Tatiane Silva; Ramos, Cristiane da Fonte

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy to adult male testis mice offspring. Twenty pregnant mice were divided into control group (c) and caffeine group (cf). dams received daily saline or 20 mg/kg of caffeine subcutaneously. Male offspring were monitored daily until 13th week. The testis were used to evaluate both the proliferation (pcna) and apoptosis (bax); leptin receptor (ob-r); aromatase; follicle stimulating hormone (fshr), luteinizing hormone (lhr) and androgen receptors (ar); steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star); vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) and estrogen receptors (erα and erβ) by western blotting. Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol and leptin were measured. There was a significant reduction in food intake and the body mass gain (pcaffeine. The serum testosterone levels in the cf offspring were 90% lower than in the c offspring (p=0.04). Maternal caffeine consumption has a role and alters the testis of the offspring in adulthood.

  7. Identification of genetic networks that act in the somatic cells of the testis to mediate the developmental program of spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Fairchild

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is a dynamic developmental process requiring precisely timed transitions between discrete stages. Specifically, the germline undergoes three transitions: from mitotic spermatogonia to spermatocytes, from meiotic spermatocytes to spermatids, and from morphogenetic spermatids to spermatozoa. The somatic cells of the testis provide essential support to the germline throughout spermatogenesis, but their precise role during these developmental transitions has not been comprehensively explored. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of genes that are required in the somatic cells of the Drosophila melanogaster testis for progress through spermatogenesis. Phenotypic analysis of candidate genes pinpointed the stage of germline development disrupted. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that particular gene classes were associated with specific developmental transitions. Requirement for genes associated with endocytosis, cell polarity, and microtubule-based transport corresponded with the development of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids, respectively. Overall, we identify mechanisms that act specifically in the somatic cells of the testis to regulate spermatogenesis.

  8. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

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    Changsheng Dong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an important role. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpaca testis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemical staining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old (newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p < 0.05; 12- and 24-month old alpacas showed no significant differences (p > 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 55–61

  9. The Number of Grafted Fragments Affects the Outcome of Testis Tissue Xenografting from Piglets into Recipient Mice

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    Sepideh Abbasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the procedure for testis tissue xenografting, we grafted 2, 4, 8, or 16 small fragments of immature porcine testis tissue under the back skin of immunodeficient castrated mice (n=10 mice/group. At 8 months post grafting, the graft recovery rate did not differ between groups; however, not only the total but also the average graft weights were higher (by ∼12-fold and ∼2.5-fold, resp. in mice receiving 16 fragments than those receiving 2 fragments (P<.05. The recipient mice with 16 fragments had the largest vesicular glands (indicators of testosterone release by the grafts compared with those with 2 fragments (P=.007. The grafts in the group of 16 fragments also had more (P<.05 percentage of tubules with round spermatids than those of the group of mice receiving 2 fragments. Therefore, recipient mice can be grafted with at least 16 testis tissue fragments for optimal results.

  10. Follicular adenoma and carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Christopher R; Phitayakorn, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland include benign follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Currently, a follicular carcinoma cannot be distinguished from a follicular adenoma based on cytologic, sonographic, or clinical features alone. The pathogenesis of follicular carcinoma may be related to iodine deficiency and various oncogene and/or microRNA activation. Advances in molecular testing for genetic mutations may soon allow for preoperative differentiation of follicular carcinoma from follicular adenoma. Until then, a patient with a follicular neoplasm should undergo a diagnostic thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy, which is definitive treatment for a benign follicular adenoma or a minimally invasive follicular cancer. Additional therapy is necessary for invasive follicular carcinoma including completion thyroidectomy, postoperative radioactive iodine ablation, whole body scanning, and thyrotropin suppressive doses of thyroid hormone. Less than 10% of patients with follicular carcinoma will have lymph node metastases, and a compartment-oriented neck dissection is reserved for patients with macroscopic disease. Regular follow-up includes history and physical examination, cervical ultrasound and serum TSH, and thyroglobulin and antithyroglobulin antibody levels. Other imaging studies are reserved for patients with an elevated serum thyroglobulin level and a negative cervical ultrasound. Systemic metastases most commonly involve the lung and bone and less commonly the brain, liver, and skin. Microscopic metastases are treated with high doses of radioactive iodine. Isolated macroscopic metastases can be resected with an improvement in survival. The overall ten-year survival for patients with minimally invasive follicular carcinoma is 98% compared with 80% in patients with invasive follicular carcinoma.

  11. Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coca-Pelaz, A.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Triantafyllou, A.; Hunt, J.L.; Rinaldo, A.; Strojan, P.; Haigentz, M., Jr.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Takes, R.P.; Poorten, V. Van der; Ferlito, A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicopathological features, prognosis and therapeutic strategies for mucoepidermoid carcinoma originating in salivary and salivary-type glands of the head and neck are reviewed. We emphasise histopathological aspects, appraise the value of histochemistry, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry

  12. MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

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    V. S. Medvedev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  13. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... the lower neck. Causes About 80% of all thyroid cancers diagnosed in the United States are the papillary ...

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma and lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Uttara; Humar, Bostjan; Kolly, Philippe; Dufour, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    The majority of hepatocellular carcinoma occurs over pre-existing chronic liver diseases that share cirrhosis as an endpoint. In the last decade, a strong association between lifestyle and hepatocellular carcinoma has become evident. Abundance of energy-rich food and sedentary lifestyles have caused metabolic conditions such as obesity and diabetes mellitus to become global epidemics. Obesity and diabetes mellitus are both tightly linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and also increase hepatocellular carcinoma risk independent of cirrhosis. Emerging data suggest that physical activity not only counteracts obesity, diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but also reduces cancer risk. Physical activity exerts significant anticancer effects in the absence of metabolic disorders. Here, we present a systematic review on lifestyles and hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  16. Towards a rational terminology in the study of the gubernaculum testis: arguments in support of the notion that the cremasteric sac should be considered the gubernaculum in postnatal rats and other mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Schoot

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThere is need for a consistent definition of structures caudal to the testis that variously are termed 'gubernaculum testis' as a basis for understanding the emergence and sexually dimorphic further growth and differentiation of this specifically mammalian

  17. Papillary thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Sørensen, J A

    1994-01-01

    The age influence on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma was analyzed in a group of 67 patients. A marked decline in cause-specific survival was found for patients older than 60 years of age at the time of diagnosis. In order to find a tumor-biological explanation of the prognostic...... invasion and distant metastases. The results indicate that 60 years of age the time of diagnosis may be the "prognostic break-point" for papillary thyroid carcinoma....

  18. Cryotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Tahany; Thorlund, Kristian; Gluud, Christian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignant cancer of the liver. Evidence for the role of cryotherapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma is controversial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to evaluate the potential benefits and harms of cryotherapy...... national and topic-specific databases, bibliographies, conference abstracts, journals, and grey literature. Furthermore, we reviewed the reference lists and contacted the principal authors of the identified studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised clinical trials (irrespective of language or publication...

  19. The distribution of drug-efflux pumps, P-gp, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP2, in the normal blood-testis barrier and in primary testicular tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, J; Hollema, H; Groen, HJM; de Vries, EGE; Hendrikse, NH; Sleijfer, DT; Wegman, TD; Vaalburg, W; van der Graaf, WTA

    The drug-efflux pumps P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) are present in the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and may hamper the delivery of cytotoxic drugs to the testis. The precise localisation of P-gp and MRP1 in testicular tissue and the presence of the efflux

  20. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  1. Nephroblastoma Arising in a Primary Testicular Teratoma in a Nonatrophic Testis of a 50-Year-Old Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromka, Joseph J; Turner, Kevin; Elisco, Anthony; Hale, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    Extrarenal nephroblastoma is an extremely rare tumor thought to be related to teratoid tumors of germ cell origin. Because few cases have been reported, no standard method for categorizing and managing these tumors exists. To our knowledge, there have only been 3 adult cases of nephroblastoma arising in a germ cell tumor of testicular origin in a nonatrophic testis, all in men aged 19 to 22 years and with aggressive clinical courses. We report a case of nephroblastoma in a nonatrophic testis, with nephroblastoma being the only non-germ cell component, in an older patient and with a more indolent clinical course that was responsive to localized treatment.

  2. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Spinacia oleracea Modulates Radiation-Induced Biochemical Changes in Mice Testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Yadav, Ritu K; Sharma, K V; Bhatia, A L

    2008-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the radioprotective efficacy of spinach against radiation induced oxidative stress, since its leaves are rich in antioxidants like carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and high content of proteins, minerals, vitamin C. For the experimental study, healthy Swiss mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. Group I (normal) it did not receive any treatment. Group II (drug treated) was orally supplemented with extract of spinach extract once daily at the dose of 1100 mg/kg for fifteen consecutive days. Group III (control) received distilled water orally equivalent to spinach extract for fifteen days than exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation. Group IV (experimental) was also administered orally with spinach extract for 15 consecutive days once daily. Thereafter, exposed to single dose of 5Gy of gamma radiation. After the exposure mice were than sacrificed at different autopsy intervals viz. 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. Testis was removed for various biochemical estimations viz. LPO, protein, cholesterol and glycogen. Radiation induced augmentation in lipid peroxidation, glycogen and cholesterol values were significantly ameliorated by supplementation of SE extract, whereas radiation induced deficit in protein content could be elevated. This indicates that spinach extract pre - treatment renders protection against various biochemical changes in the mice testis to some extent if taken continuously which might be due to synergistic effect of antioxidant constituents present in the spinach.

  4. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic changes in the testis of freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, one of the most toxic environmental and industrial pollutants, is known to exert gonadotoxic and spermiotoxic effects. In the present study, we examined the toxic effect of Cd on the testis of freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense. Crabs were exposed to different Cd concentrations (from 0 to 116.00 mg·L(-1 for 7 d. Oxidative stress and apoptotic changes in the testes were detected. The activities of SOD, GPx and CAT initially increased and subsequently decreased with increasing Cd concentrations, which was accompanied with the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA and H(2O(2 content in a concentration-dependent manner. Typical morphological characteristic and physiological changes of apoptosis were observed using a variety of methods (HE staining, AO/EB double fluorescent staining, Transmission Electron Microscope observation and DNA fragmentation analysis, and the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were increased in a concentration-dependent manner after Cd exposure. These results led to the conclusion that Cd could induced oxidative damage as well as apoptosis in the testis, and the apoptotic processes may be mediated via mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway by regulating the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9.

  5. Chronic effects of cadmium on kidney, liver, testis, and fertility of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygi, S; Deniz, G; Kutsal, O; Vural, N

    1991-12-01

    Male Wistar rats (n:20), at 5 wk of age, were given cadmium in drinking water (10 mg/L water) for 52 wk; 8 males and 20 female rats, as controls, were given tap water. At the end of 28 and 40 wk, some of the cadmium-treated males and control group male rats were sacrificed for the histopathological examination of testis, kidney, and liver. At the end of 56 wk, histopathological examinations were performed in the same way. Liver, kidney, and testis cadmium levels were also determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All the cadmium-treated male rats showed pathological testicular alterations, and liver and kidney damage after chronic exposure. Cadmium levels were found to be highest in the kidney (1.009 +/- 0.034 microgram/g wet tissue in the infertile group). At the end of the 52-wk period, reproductive capacity of the cadmium-treated rats was investigated and was found to be lost in 39.89% of the animals.

  6. Escargot Restricts Niche Cell to Stem Cell Conversion in the Drosophila Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Voog

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells reside within specialized microenvironments, or niches, that control many aspects of stem cell behavior. Somatic hub cells in the Drosophila testis regulate the behavior of cyst stem cells (CySCs and germline stem cells (GSCs and are a primary component of the testis stem cell niche. The shutoff (shof mutation, characterized by premature loss of GSCs and CySCs, was mapped to a locus encoding the evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Escargot (Esg. Hub cells depleted of Esg acquire CySC characteristics and differentiate as cyst cells, resulting in complete loss of hub cells and eventually CySCs and GSCs, similar to the shof mutant phenotype. We identified Esg-interacting proteins and demonstrate an interaction between Esg and the corepressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP, which was also required for maintenance of hub cell fate. Our results indicate that niche cells can acquire stem cell properties upon removal of a single transcription factor in vivo.

  7. Single high scrotal incision orchidopexy for unilateral palpable testis: A randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almoutaz A. Eltayeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bianchi and Squire introduced single high trans-scrotal incision for mobilisation of palpable undescended testes to decrease the potential morbidity of the traditional inguinal approach. This incision has not gained widespread acceptance and there is still a considerable debate about its efficacy. This study evaluated the outcome of high single scrotal incision in comparison to the classic inguinal exploration for unilateral palpable testes regardless to its pre-operative location to assure its validity and safety. Patients and Methods: This was a randomised controlled study conducted on seventy males with palpable unilateral undescended testicles from November 2009 to October 2013. They were divided into two equal groups; group I had high single scrotal incision and group II had the classic inguinal approach. The comparative parameters between both groups were the operative time, intra-and post-operative complications, post-operative pain and scar. Results: There was statistical significant difference between both groups regarding the operative time (P < 0.001. The high scrotal approach (Group I was not completed in three cases and were converted to the classic inguinal approach. No statistical significant difference between both groups regarding the post-operative complications. Conclusions: Single high scrotal incision orchidopexy for palpable undescended testis is safe, has shorter operative time but may not be suitable for proximally lying testis.

  8. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  9. Exposure of the mouse perinatal testis to radiation leads to hypospermia at sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forand, A.; Messiaen, S.; Habert, R.; Bernardino-Sgherri, J. [Laboratory of Differentiation and Radiobiology of the Gonads, CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France); Unit of Gametogenesis and Genotoxicity, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France); INSERM, U566, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France)

    2009-07-01

    The first round of mouse spermatogenesis begins from 3 to 4 days after birth through differentiation of gonocytes into spermatogonial-stem cells and type A spermatogonia. Consequently, this step of differentiation may determine generation of the original population of stem cells and the fertility potential of the adult mouse. We aimed to determine the effect of perinatal exposure to ionizing radiation on the testis at the end of the first wave of spermatogenesis and at sexual maturity. Our results show that, radiation sensitivity of the testis substantially decreases from late foetal life to the end of the first week after birth. In addition, partial or full recovery from radiation induced testicular weight loss occurred between the first round of spermatogenesis and sexual maturity, and this was associated with the stimulation of spermatogonial proliferation. Exposure of mice at 17.5 days after conception or at 1 day after birth to {gamma}-rays decreased the sperm counts at sexual maturity, while exposure of 8 day-old mice had no effect. This suggests that irradiation of late foetal or early neonatal testes has a direct impact on the generation of the neonatal spermatogonial-stem cell pool. (authors)

  10. Association between testicular microlithiasis, testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and history of ascending testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatiou Konstantinos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To prospectively determine the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in symptomatic patients who were referred for scrotal ultrasound examination and to evaluate the possible association of testicular microlithiasis with testicular cancer and other conditions such as cryptorchidism or history of ascending testis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 391 men who were referred to our institutions between July 2002 and May 2005 for any type of symptoms from the testicles, underwent physical and scrotal ultrasound examination. The presence of testicular microlithiasis, the number of lesions and the involvement of both testicles in relation to the symptoms as well as the coexistence of other lesions were studied. RESULTS: Eighteen (4.6% of 391 men enrolled into the study had testicular microlithiasis. Two out of the eighteen patients (11% had concomitant testicular cancer, which was confirmed by pathological evaluation of the orchidectomy specimen. One of the patients with testicular microlithiasis presented a rising in biochemical tumor markers (LDH, and HCG and underwent orchidectomy one year later. Five of the remaining 373 (1.3% patients without microlithiasis were diagnosed with testicular cancer. Thirty six men reported having a history of ascending testis, but none of them was found with testicular cancer. Two cases of testicular torsion in a cryptorchid position had testicular microlithiasis, but the orchidectomy specimen (after surgery was negative for testicular cancer. The correlation between testicular cancer and testicular microlithiasis found in our study was statistically significant (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: There seems to be an association between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer.

  11. Chronic lead exposure effects in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, W G; Singh, A; McMahon, A; Rice, D C

    1998-01-01

    Although reproductive consequences of high circulating blood lead levels (> or = 60 micrograms/dL) have been reported, potential adverse effects of chronic lead exposure in males that result in low to moderate blood lead levels (10-25 and 26-60 micrograms/dL, respectively) are unknown. Effects of chronic lead exposure to testis ultrastructure were determined in the cynomolgus monkey after oral administration of lead acetate (1500 micrograms/kg BW/day) in a vehicle in the following groups: from birth to 10 years (lifetime), postnatal day 300 to 10 years (postinfancy), and postnatal day 0-400 (infancy); monkeys in the control group received only the vehicle (95% glycerol and 5% distilled water). At age 10 years, circulating lead concentrations in lifetime and postinfancy-dosed monkeys were approximately 35 micrograms/dL, and in control and infancy animals the concentrations were exposure to lead that results in moderate blood lead concentrations induced persistent ultrastructural alterations in the cynomolgus monkey testis. Results of this study on the primate, following extrapolation to humans, could influence further refining of the impact of environmental lead contamination concentrations vis-à-vis the health of children, adults, and aged human beings.

  12. [Histological characteristics of the testis and epididymis of calves during postnatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkov, M; Kovachev, K; Dzhurova, I

    1984-01-01

    A histologic investigation was carried out of the testis and epididymis of a total of 42 calves of the Black-and-white grouped in 14 test groups. The animals were currently castrated after the age of 2 months and were raised in the open. Material for investigation was taken on the 1st and 15th day, and once in every following month up to the completion of 12 months of age. It was found that up to the 3rd month there was no lumen in the testicular tubules, but only differentiating Sertoli cells and gonocytes were seen. Spermatogonia and spermatocytes were first observed at the age of 4 months, and prespermatids and sporadic spermatids--in the 8th month. Single spermatozoa in the phase of final shaping appeared in the 10th month, and completed spermatogenesis--in the 11th month. The histogenesis of the wall of the tubules of the epididymis completed earlier as compared to the histogenesis process in the testis--by the age of 8 months. Later on there were morphologically in the epididymis some proliferation and folding of the tubules with widening of the lumen, whereupon the amount of the surrounding connective tissue relatively decreased.

  13. Growing indications for CEUS: The kidney, testis, lymph nodes, thyroid, prostate, and small bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantisani, V., E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Department of Radiology, University of Trieste (Italy); Weskott, H.P. [Central Ultrasound Department, Klinikum Siloah , Hannover (Germany); Romanini, L. [University Hospital of Pavia (Italy); Grazhdani, H. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Passamonti, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Ospedale di Lodi (Italy); Drudi, F.M.; Malpassini, F. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Isidori, A. [Department of Experimental Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Meloni, F.M. [Dipartimento servizi diagnostici, Ospedale Valduce, Como (Italy); Calliada, F. [University Hospital of Pavia (Italy); D’Ambrosio, F. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications. • There is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. • Updated knowledge for proper use of CEUS in uncommon fields is provided. - Abstract: Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications as well, so that nearly all organs have been investigated. Among them, there is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. The possibility to differentiate benign from malignant nodes in cancer patients has been investigated. A new application is in the detection of sentinel nodes after intradermal microbubble injection. The need to distinguish thyroid nodules eligible for fine needle aspiration cytology has led to the use of CEUS in thyroid examinations as well. The potential of CEUS for prostate cancer detection has been extensively investigated, with encouraging initial results. Early promise, however, has not been fulfilled. New perspective regards evaluation of the extent of prostate tissue devascularization following ablative treatments.

  14. Toxic effects of cadmium on testis of birds and mammals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marettová, E; Maretta, M; Legáth, J

    2015-04-01

    In humans and other mammals, cadmium (Cd) causes various damages to different organs and tissues of the body. This review presents a comprehensive overview on the effect of Cd on the structure of seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells and blood vessels in the testis. The main observation of the effect of Cd is destruction of the seminiferous tubules with severe necrotic areas. Damage is to all stages of developing germ cells by inducing their structural changes and the apoptotic cell death. Sertoli supporting cells are considered the most vulnerable cells. Their damage results in cytoplasmic rearrangement and disruption of inter-Sertoli tight junctions resulting in increased permeability of the blood-testis barrier, structural changes in the Leydig cells and decreased testosterone secretion. After long time of Cd exposure an increase of the amount of interstitial connective tissue occurs. In blood vessels Cd exposure causes various morphological and physiological changes in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. In humans and other mammals, the range of effect depends on the dose, route, ways, and duration of exposure. After necrosis of the sensitive cells Cd produced lesions in surrounding tissue and activate free cells. Atrophy of the seminiferous tubules is followed by Leydig cell regeneration and interstitial revascularization. In birds, spermatogenic cells underwent irreversible degeneration or atrophy of seminiferous tubules in the absence of significant vascular lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cellular Source and Mechanisms of High Transcriptome Complexity in the Mammalian Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Soumillon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the extent of genomic transcription and its functional relevance is a central goal in genomics research. However, detailed genome-wide investigations of transcriptome complexity in major mammalian organs have been scarce. Here, using extensive RNA-seq data, we show that transcription of the genome is substantially more widespread in the testis than in other organs across representative mammals. Furthermore, we reveal that meiotic spermatocytes and especially postmeiotic round spermatids have remarkably diverse transcriptomes, which explains the high transcriptome complexity of the testis as a whole. The widespread transcriptional activity in spermatocytes and spermatids encompasses protein-coding and long noncoding RNA genes but also poorly conserves intergenic sequences, suggesting that it may not be of immediate functional relevance. Rather, our analyses of genome-wide epigenetic data suggest that this prevalent transcription, which most likely promoted the birth of new genes during evolution, is facilitated by an overall permissive chromatin in these germ cells that results from extensive chromatin remodeling.

  16. Brachytherapy in oesophageal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.T.; Kuan, R. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW (Australia)

    1995-11-01

    Patients with recurrent or locally advanced oesophageal carcinoma have a poor prognosis. Relief of dysphagia is often the goal of any further treatment. Several methods, including laser re-canalization, prosthetic intubation, dilatation, external beam irradiation (EBI) and intraluminal brachytherapy (IBT) can be used to alleviate dysphagia. In this retrospective review of 11 patients, eight with recurrent tumour and three newly diagnosed patients were treated with low dose rate IBT. Relief of dysphagia was achieved in nine patients, all of whom were able to maintain swallowing of at least a semi-solid diet until death or last follow-up. Toxicity was minimal, but survival was poor, with a median survival of only 3 months. IBT presents several advantages over other palliative methods, especially in recurrent tumours where re-treatment with EBI is often difficult because of normal tissue tolerance. Low dose rate IBT takes only 1-2 days to deliver, is highly effective, has little morbidity and the palliation achieved is relatively durable. 19 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  17. Carcinoma medular do rim Renal medullary carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Guilherme de Oliveira Salles

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available É relatado caso de paciente de 24 anos, portador de traço falciforme, com imagem sólida no rim direito, submetido a nefrectomia radical que revelou tumor, cujo exame anatomopatológico permitiu o diagnóstico de carcinoma medular do rim. Os autores discutem aspectos dessa neoplasia, tais como freqüência, patogênese, apresentação clínica, histopatologia e evolução.We report the case of a 24-year-old patient who presented a left kidney tumor that was diagnosed as a medullary renal cell carcinoma. The following aspects of this neoplasia are discussed in this communication: frequency, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, histopathological findings, differential diagnosis and follow-up.

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CARCINOMA OESOPHAGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oesophageal malignancies are not an uncommon disease entity in this part of India. It is observed in both the sexes. Patients present with progressive dysphagia for solids. The duration of symptoms varies from 6 months to 2 years. Among the various aetiological factors, smoking, alcohol intake, spicy hot food intake, industrial pollution and achalasia cardia are a few worth mentioning. AIM OF THE STUDY To evaluate the differences in the predisposing factors causing squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of oesophagus in this part of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study is conducted in the Department of Surgery at Government Medical College Hospital, Kozhikode; Kerala. One hundred patients attending the Department with history of Dysphagia were included after thorough history taking, clinical and endoscopic examination and found to have malignant growths in the oesophagus which was confirmed by biopsy and histopathological examination. Various aetiological factors were elicited and analysed in both the histological varieties of malignancy of oesophagus. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS Significant number of patients with history of paan chewing presented with histological picture of squamous cell carcinoma as compared to patients who had adenocarcinoma. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was more commonly associated with adenocarcinoma. Out of 37 patients with adenocarcinoma, 31 patients had history of gastroesophageal reflux disease (83.8%. 6 patients had no history of gastroesophageal reflux disease (16.2% within histology. Consumption of hot drinks, tea and coffee more than 10 per day has been analysed. 52 were consuming, 48 were not consuming, P value 0.179 non-significant. CONCLUSIONS Squamous cell carcinoma is more prevalent as compared to adenocarcinoma in present study. The main factor that has emerged is lifestyle, dietary habit, smoking and alcohol, and environmental factor. Consumption of alcohol and smoking is known risk factors in

  19. Thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Joy U L; Erdirimanne, Senarath; Eslick, Guy D

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is increasing worldwide. Graves' disease is the most common hyperthyroid disease. Studies have suggested an increased risk of thyroid malignancy in Graves' disease: there has not yet been a meta-analysis to allow quantitative comparison. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease, and to gather information on the histological subtypes of carcinoma and the co-existence of thyroid nodules. Several databases and article reference lists were searched. Inclusion criteria included appropriate diagnostic criteria for thyroid conditions and a diagnoses of carcinoma based on histology. 33 studies were selected, all reporting on surgically-resected specimens. The event rate of thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease was 0.07 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.12). There was no data to allow comparison with patients without hyperthyroid diseases. There was no increase in the odds of developing carcinoma in Graves' disease compared to toxic multinodular goitre and toxic uninodular goitre. 88% of thyroid carcinomas in Graves' disease were papillary, with solitary papillary micro-carcinoma (diameter 10 mm or less) comprising 23% of all detected thyroid carcinomas. Patients with Graves' disease and co-existing thyroid nodules were almost 5 times more likely to be diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma than those without nodules. Thyroid malignancy in Graves' disease requiring surgical treatment should be considered as likely as in other hyperthyroid diseases needing surgical treatment. Clinicians should consider screening selected patients with Graves' disease for nodules whilst being aware of potentially over-diagnosing papillary micro-carcinoma. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, Parissa; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron E

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and leading cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. Treatment guidelines are based according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. The choice among therapeutic options that include liver resection, liver transplantation, locoregional, and systemic treatments must be individualized for each patient. The aim of this paper is to review the outcomes that can be achieved in the treatment of HCC with the heterogeneous therapeutic options currently available in clinical practice. PMID:25132740