WorldWideScience

Sample records for testing techniques applied

  1. Applying modern psychometric techniques to melodic discrimination testing: Item response theory, computerised adaptive testing, and automatic item generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter M C; Collins, Tom; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-06-15

    Modern psychometric theory provides many useful tools for ability testing, such as item response theory, computerised adaptive testing, and automatic item generation. However, these techniques have yet to be integrated into mainstream psychological practice. This is unfortunate, because modern psychometric techniques can bring many benefits, including sophisticated reliability measures, improved construct validity, avoidance of exposure effects, and improved efficiency. In the present research we therefore use these techniques to develop a new test of a well-studied psychological capacity: melodic discrimination, the ability to detect differences between melodies. We calibrate and validate this test in a series of studies. Studies 1 and 2 respectively calibrate and validate an initial test version, while Studies 3 and 4 calibrate and validate an updated test version incorporating additional easy items. The results support the new test's viability, with evidence for strong reliability and construct validity. We discuss how these modern psychometric techniques may also be profitably applied to other areas of music psychology and psychological science in general.

  2. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, S.P., E-mail: s.p.jeffs@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Lancaster, R.J. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Garcia, T.E. [IUTA (University Institute of Industrial Technology of Asturias), University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Oeste 7.1.17, Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijón (Spain)

    2015-06-11

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k{sub SP} method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results.

  3. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  4. Parameters and definitions in applied technique quality test for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging system (NMRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhikai; Zhao Lancai

    1999-08-01

    During the past two decades, medical diagnostic imaging technique has achieved dramatic development such as CT, MRI, PET, DSA and so on. The most striking examples of them are the application of X ray computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging in the field of medical diagnosis. It can be predicted that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will definitely have more widespread prospects of applications and play more and more important role in clinical diagnosis looking forward to the development of image diagnostic technique for 21 st century. The authors also present the measuring methods for some parameters. The parameters described can be used for reference by clinical diagnosticians, operators on MRI and medical physicists who engages in image quality assurance (QA) and control (QC) in performing MRI acceptance test and routine test

  5. Digital Image Correlation Techniques Applied to Large Scale Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Rocket engine hot-fire ground testing is necessary to understand component performance, reliability and engine system interactions during development. The J-2X upper stage engine completed a series of developmental hot-fire tests that derived performance of the engine and components, validated analytical models and provided the necessary data to identify where design changes, process improvements and technology development were needed. The J-2X development engines were heavily instrumented to provide the data necessary to support these activities which enabled the team to investigate any anomalies experienced during the test program. This paper describes the development of an optical digital image correlation technique to augment the data provided by traditional strain gauges which are prone to debonding at elevated temperatures and limited to localized measurements. The feasibility of this optical measurement system was demonstrated during full scale hot-fire testing of J-2X, during which a digital image correlation system, incorporating a pair of high speed cameras to measure three-dimensional, real-time displacements and strains was installed and operated under the extreme environments present on the test stand. The camera and facility setup, pre-test calibrations, data collection, hot-fire test data collection and post-test analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  6. Applied ALARA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-01-01

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work

  7. Development of a superconductor magnetic suspension and balance prototype facility for studying the feasibility of applying this technique to large scale aerodynamic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, R. N.; Humphris, R. R.; Henderson, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    The basic research and development work towards proving the feasibility of operating an all-superconductor magnetic suspension and balance device for aerodynamic testing is presented. The feasibility of applying a quasi-six-degree-of freedom free support technique to dynamic stability research was studied along with the design concepts and parameters for applying magnetic suspension techniques to large-scale aerodynamic facilities. A prototype aerodynamic test facility was implemented. Relevant aspects of the development of the prototype facility are described in three sections: (1) design characteristics; (2) operational characteristics; and (3) scaling to larger facilities.

  8. Methods and post-irradiation examination techniques applied in testing the performance of irradiated CANDU nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvan, M.; Tuturici, I.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Post-irradiation Examination Laboratory, Lei, in Nuclear Research Institute at Pitesti, INR, is a nuclear facility which is in charge with examination of irradiated nuclear fuel as well as other irradiated materials components of nuclear reactor. Such irradiated fuels and materials come from the TRIGA materials testing reactor at INR Pitesti, the Cernavoda NPP and other nuclear power stations. The operational core of this laboratory is constituted of two blocks of hot cells suitable for handling and examination of radioactive materials with gamma activity level up to 10 6 Ci (E med ≤ 0.6 MeV and high concentrations of transuranium elements (Pu, Am, Cm). To obtain pertinent information regarding the performances of the domestic CANDU nuclear fuel, a significant number of fuel elements irradiated at different power histories in MW (Th)TRIGA reactor were examined in the Lei hot cells, making use of different post-irradiation examination techniques. These techniques imply both non-destructive examination methods (visual inspection and photography, testing with eddy currents, surface analysis, gamma scanning) and destructive methods (sheath boring and measurement of pressure and volumes of fission gases, metallography, ceramography, determination of burnup by mass spectroscopy on solved irradiated fuel samples, tensile test). The data obtained from post-irradiation examination are useful on one hand to certify the reliability and performance of nuclear fuel and on the other hand for developing the CANDU fuel

  9. Processing techniques applying laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yuji; Makino Yoshinobu

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for the processing of nuclear energy equipment include high precision, low distortion, and low heat input. Toshiba has developed laser processing techniques for cutting, welding, and surface heat treatment of nuclear energy equipment because the zone affected by distortion and heat in laser processing is very small. Laser processing contributes to the manufacturing of high-quality and high-reliability equipment and reduces the manufacturing period. (author)

  10. Biaxial compression test technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansard, E. T.

    1975-01-01

    Fixture and technique have been developed for predicting behavior of stiffened skin panels under biaxial compressive loading. Tester can load test panel independently in longitudinal and transverse directions. Data can also be obtained in combined mode.

  11. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  12. Early counterpulse technique applied to vacuum interrupters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.W.

    1979-11-01

    Interruption of dc currents using counterpulse techniques is investigated with vacuum interrupters and a novel approach in which the counterpulse is applied before contact separation. Important increases have been achieved in this way in the maximum interruptible current as well as large reductions in contact erosion. The factors establishing these new limits are presented and ways are discussed to make further improvements

  13. Dating technique tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical technique for dating ground water and polar ice up to a million years old has been successfully tested by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system, known as a rare gas atom counter, extends the capabilities of resonance ionization mass spectrometry to include counting single atoms of krypton-81. The counter is composed of a pulsed dye laser operated in tandem with a mass spectrometer to separate the various isotopes of krypton. In a collaborative study, ORNL scientists recently used the method for the first time to count krypton-81 in a liter of ground water removed from a sandstone aquifer near Zurich. Fewer than 1000 krypton-81 atoms were isolated from the ground water samples. According to Bernard Lehman, a collaborating geochemist at the University of Bern, this first test proved that counting the small numbers of krypton-81 atoms necessary to make an estimate of the age of water could actually be done. Among the applications of this method, Lehman says, could be improved siting of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes

  14. Software Testing Techniques and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Isha,; Sunita Sangwan

    2014-01-01

    Software testing provides a means to reduce errors, cut maintenance and overall software costs. Numerous software development and testing methodologies, tools, and techniques have emerged over the last few decades promising to enhance software quality. This paper describes Software testing, need for software testing, Software testing goals and principles. Further it describe about different Software testing techniques and different software testing strategies.

  15. Implementation of the non-destructive ultrasound testing by immersion through the transmission technique, applied to the quality control of nuclear fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Jofre, David Christian

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of global development, which seeks to reduce the enrichment of U 235 in nuclear fuels for research reactors, the Fuel Elements Plant (PEC) of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) has worked with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL-USA), for the fabrication of high density fuel plates based on the dispersion of Uranium-Molybdenum alloy powders (UMo), which are subjected to inspections and tests to qualify as a compliant product for use in nuclear research reactors. It is in this matter where the Non Destructive Test (NDT) of immersion ultrasound used in both facilities differs in its acceptance criteria, when is used different testing techniques; On the one hand, the PEC uses the pulse-echo technique, while the INL uses the transmission technique. Therefore, the present work is focused on the implementation of the ultrasound by immersion using the transmission technique. During the development of the work, the physical and virtual configuration of the ultrasound equipment was possible and elaborate an operation procedure, which allows to inspect through this technique, a series of fuel plates based on UMo and U 3 Si 2 powders, with different characteristics. The results allow to characterize the signals obtained in fuel plates according to the nuclear fuel material used. There is an inverse relationship between the uranium load per unit volume (uranium density, gU/cm 3 ) used in the fuel plate and the transmittance of the ultrasonic beam through the areas where there is nuclear fuel material (meat); the effect produced by a dispersed combustible material is observed and it is possible to identify discontinuities that may be present in the fuel plate. Finally, an inspection technical instruction for U 3 Si 2 fuel plates is elaborated, where acceptance and rejection criteria are defined

  16. Applying Brainstorming Techniques to EFL Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiya, Oishi; 湘北短期大学; aPart-time Lecturer at Shohoku College

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on brainstorming techniques for English language learners. From the author's teaching experiences at Shohoku College during the academic year 2014-2015, the importance of brainstorming techniques was made evident. The author explored three elements of brainstorming techniques for writing using literaturereviews: lack of awareness, connecting to prior knowledge, and creativity. The literature reviews showed the advantage of using brainstorming techniques in an English compos...

  17. Nuclear radioactive techniques applied to materials research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, João Guilherme; Wahl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review materials characterization techniques using radioactive isotopes at the ISOLDE/CERN facility. At ISOLDE intense beams of chemically clean radioactive isotopes are provided by selective ion-sources and high-resolution isotope separators, which are coupled on-line with particle accelerators. There, new experiments are performed by an increasing number of materials researchers, which use nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Mössbauer, Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC), beta-NMR and Emission Channeling with short-lived isotopes not available elsewhere. Additionally, diffusion studies and traditionally non-radioactive techniques as Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy, Hall effect and Photoluminescence measurements are performed on radioactive doped samples, providing in this way the element signature upon correlation of the time dependence of the signal with the isotope transmutation half-life. Current developments, applications and perspectives of using radioactive ion beams and tech...

  18. Overview of leak testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, N.G.

    2002-01-01

    In the past ten years leak testing techniques have gained greater importance as a powerful non-destructive testing tool particularly in nuclear, space, petro-chemical, fertilizer and chemical industries. Leak for various reasons is an undesirable feature in a component or system, still leaks do occur in practice and can some-times cause significant loss in terms of both money and human life. Hence it is essential that leaks are effectively detected and remedial measures to plug the leaks are taken sufficiently in advance. Over the years more than twenty different leak test methods have been developed with different detection sensitivities. In this article commonly used leak-detection methods have been described with emphasis to Helium leak detection technique which is one of the most widely used techniques today

  19. Basic principles of applied nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The technological applications of radioactive isotopes and radiation in South Africa have grown steadily since the first consignment of man-made radioisotopes reached this country in 1948. By the end of 1975 there were 412 authorised non-medical organisations (327 industries) using hundreds of sealed sources as well as their fair share of the thousands of radioisotope consignments, annually either imported or produced locally (mainly for medical purposes). Consequently, it is necessary for South African technologists to understand the principles of radioactivity in order to appreciate the industrial applications of nuclear techniques [af

  20. Dosimetry techniques applied to thermoluminescent age estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.

    1986-12-01

    The reliability and the ease of the field application of the measuring techniques of natural radioactivity dosimetry are studied. The natural radioactivity in minerals in composed of the internal dose deposited by alpha and beta radiations issued from the sample itself and the external dose deposited by gamma and cosmic radiations issued from the surroundings of the sample. Two technics for external dosimetry are examined in details. TL Dosimetry and field gamma dosimetry. Calibration and experimental conditions are presented. A new integrated dosimetric method for internal and external dose measure is proposed: the TL dosimeter is placed in the soil in exactly the same conditions as the sample ones, during a time long enough for the total dose evaluation [fr

  1. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to forensic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, Veronica; Montoro, Silvia; Pratta, Nora; Giandomenico, Angel Di

    1999-01-01

    Gun shot residues produced by firing guns are mainly composed by visible particles. The individual characterization of these particles allows distinguishing those ones containing heavy metals, from gun shot residues, from those having a different origin or history. In this work, the results obtained from the study of gun shot residues particles collected from hands are presented. The aim of the analysis is to establish whether a person has shot a firing gun has been in contact with one after the shot has been produced. As reference samples, particles collected hands of persons affected to different activities were studied to make comparisons. The complete study was based on the application of nuclear analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X Ray Electron Probe Microanalysis and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The essays allow to be completed within time compatible with the forensic requirements. (author)

  2. Development of superconductor magnetic suspension and balance prototype facility for studying the feasibility of applying this technique to large scale aerodynamic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, R. N.; Humphris, R. R.; Henderson, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    The unique design and operational characteristics of a prototype magnetic suspension and balance facility which utilizes superconductor technology are described and discussed from the point of view of scalability to large sizes. The successful experimental demonstration of the feasibility of this new magnetic suspension concept of the University of Virginia, together with the success of the cryogenic wind-tunnel concept developed at Langley Research Center, appear to have finally opened the way to clean-tunnel, high-Re aerodynamic testing. Results of calculations corresponding to a two-step design extrapolation from the observed performance of the prototype magnetic suspension system to a system compatible with the projected cryogenic transonic research tunnel are presented to give an order-of-magnitude estimate of expected performance characteristics. Research areas where progress should lead to improved design and performance of large facilities are discussed.

  3. Motion Capture Technique Applied Research in Sports Technique Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The motion capture technology system definition is described in the paper, and its components are researched, the key parameters are obtained from motion technique, the quantitative analysis are made on technical movements, the method of motion capture technology is proposed in sport technical diagnosis. That motion capture step includes calibration system, to attached landmarks to the tester; to capture trajectory, and to analyze the collected data.

  4. Monitoring of pipeline hydrostatic testing with artificial flaws applying acoustic emission and ultra-sonic techniques; Monitoracao de teste hidrostatico de tubos com descontinuidades artificiais empregando as tecnicas de emissao acustica e ultra-som

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Sergio Damasceno [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    Charts and parameters used to perform and analyzing the acoustic emission data collected during the hydrostatic test in pipe samples build in API XL 60 with 20 inches of diameter and 14 millimeters of thickness are shown. These pipes had internal and external artificial flaws done by electro-erosion process with aspect ratio 1 x 20. A relationship between acoustic emission results, ultrasound and J-Integral were established using the applied pressurization sequence. Characteristics values of acoustic emission signals were shown as a criteria of field tests. (author)

  5. Applying the digital-image-correlation technique to measure the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    digital-image-correlation) technique is used to measure the deformation of the retrofitted column. The result shows that the DIC technique can be successfully applied to measure the relative displacement of the column. Additionally, thismethod ...

  6. Magnetic Nondestructive Testing Techniques of Constructional Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Er-gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel is a kind of ferromagnetic material, which is extensively applied in such fields as buildings, bridges, railways, machines and lifeline engineering etc. Those engineering structures built of constructional steel will unavoidably experience some damages during their service lifetime, thus which will influence the distribution regularity of internal forces in structures, result in over-stresses, cause the local failure of structures, and even lead to collapse of the whole structure. Therefore, it is a pressing topic to study how to directly evaluate the real-time stressed states of structural members, damages and steel characteristics in present structural health monitoring and diagnosing fields. And the achievements of this research will be of theoretical significance and of application value of engineering. This paper summarizes varieties of new magnetic nondestructive testing techniques used in constructional steel, respectively investigates the testing principles, characteristics and application for the magnetic Barkhausen noise technique, magnetic acoustic emission technique, magnetic flux leakage technique, magnetic memory technique and magnetic absorption technique, and points out the problems present in the application of these new techniques to actual testing and the further research objective.

  7. SPSS for applied sciences basic statistical testing

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Cole

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a quick and basic guide to using SPSS and provides a general approach to solving problems using statistical tests. It is both comprehensive in terms of the tests covered and the applied settings it refers to, and yet is short and easy to understand. Whether you are a beginner or an intermediate level test user, this book will help you to analyse different types of data in applied settings. It will also give you the confidence to use other statistical software and to extend your expertise to more specific scientific settings as required.The author does not use mathematical form

  8. Cointegration versus traditional econometric techniques in applied economics

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Zietz

    2000-01-01

    The paper illustrates some of the well-known problems with cointegration analysis in order to provide some perspective on the usefulness of cointegration techniques in applied economics. A number of numerical examples are employed to compare econometric estimation on the basis of both traditional autoregressive distributed lag models and currently popular cointegration techniques. The results suggest that, first, cointegration techniques need to be applied with great care and that, second, th...

  9. Archaeometry: nuclear and conventional techniques applied to the archaeological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza L, R.; Cardenas G, E.

    2005-01-01

    The book that now is presented is formed by twelve articles that approach from different perspective topics as the archaeological prospecting, the analysis of the pre hispanic and colonial ceramic, the obsidian and the mural painting, besides dating and questions about the data ordaining. Following the chronological order in which the exploration techniques and laboratory studies are required, there are presented in the first place the texts about the systematic and detailed study of the archaeological sites, later we pass to relative topics to the application of diverse nuclear techniques as PIXE, RBS, XRD, NAA, SEM, Moessbauer spectroscopy and other conventional techniques. The multidisciplinary is an aspect that highlights in this work, that which owes to the great specialization of the work that is presented even in the archaeological studies including in the open ground of the topography, mapping, excavation and, of course, in the laboratory tests. Most of the articles are the result of several years of investigation and it has been consigned in the responsibility of each article. The texts here gathered emphasize the technical aspects of each investigation, the modern compute systems applied to the prospecting and the archaeological mapping, the chemical and physical analysis of organic materials, of metal artifacts, of diverse rocks used in the pre hispanic epoch, of mural and ceramic paintings, characteristics that justly underline the potential of the collective works. (Author)

  10. Testing philosophy and simulation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtbecker, H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews past and present testing philosophies and simulation techniques in the field of structure loading and response studies. The main objective of experimental programmes in the past was to simulate a hypothetical energy release with explosives and to deduce the potential damage to a reactor from the measured damage to the model. This approach was continuously refined by improving the instrumentation of the models, by reproducing the structures as faithful as possible and by developing new explosive charges. This paper presents an analysis of the factors which are expected to have an influence on the validity of the results e.g. strain rate effects and the use of water instead of sodium. More recently the discussion of a whole series of accidents in the probabilistic accident analysis and the intention to compare different reactor designs has revealed the need to develop and validate computer codes. Consequently experimental programmes have been started in which the primary aim is not to test a specific reactor but to validate codes. This paper shows the principal aspects of this approach and discusses first results. (Auth.)

  11. Chemical vapor deposition: A technique for applying protective coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, T.C. Sr.; Bowman, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition is discussed as a technique for applying coatings for materials protection in energy systems. The fundamentals of the process are emphasized in order to establish a basis for understanding the relative advantages and limitations of the technique. Several examples of the successful application of CVD coating are described. 31 refs., and 18 figs.

  12. Applying Parallel Processing Techniques to Tether Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, B. Earl

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this research has been to determine the effectiveness of applying parallel processing techniques to a sizable real-world problem, the simulation of the dynamics associated with a tether which connects two objects in low earth orbit, and to explore the degree to which the parallelization process can be automated through the creation of new software tools. The goal has been to utilize this specific application problem as a base to develop more generally applicable techniques.

  13. Applying advanced digital signal processing techniques in industrial radioisotopes applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, H.K.A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopes can be used to obtain signals or images in order to recognize the information inside the industrial systems. The main problems of using these techniques are the difficulty of identification of the obtained signals or images and the requirement of skilled experts for the interpretation process of the output data of these applications. Now, the interpretation of the output data from these applications is performed mainly manually, depending heavily on the skills and the experience of trained operators. This process is time consuming and the results typically suffer from inconsistency and errors. The objective of the thesis is to apply the advanced digital signal processing techniques for improving the treatment and the interpretation of the output data from the different Industrial Radioisotopes Applications (IRA). This thesis focuses on two IRA; the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) measurement and the defect inspection of welded pipes using a gamma source (gamma radiography). In RTD measurement application, this thesis presents methods for signal pre-processing and modeling of the RTD signals. Simulation results have been presented for two case studies. The first case study is a laboratory experiment for measuring the RTD in a water flow rig. The second case study is an experiment for measuring the RTD in a phosphate production unit. The thesis proposes an approach for RTD signal identification in the presence of noise. In this approach, after signal processing, the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) and polynomial coefficients are extracted from the processed signal or from one of its transforms. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) have been tested and compared for efficient feature extraction. Neural networks have been used for matching of the extracted features. Furthermore, the Power Density Spectrum (PDS) of the RTD signal has been also used instead of the discrete

  14. Applying the digital-image-correlation technique to measure the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been applied for analysing various structural problems. For exam- ple, French scholars Raffard et ... observe the crack development in masonry wall. One major advantage of DIC technique ... based on the characteristic gray-scale distributions in the image of the structural speckle on the specimen surface. As shown in ...

  15. Applying DEA Technique to Library Evaluation in Academic Research Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Wonsik

    2003-01-01

    This study applied an analytical technique called Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to calculate the relative technical efficiency of 95 academic research libraries, all members of the Association of Research Libraries. DEA, with the proper model of library inputs and outputs, can reveal best practices in the peer groups, as well as the technical…

  16. Fuzzy Control Technique Applied to Modified Mathematical Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, fuzzy control technique is applied to the modified mathematical model for malaria control presented by the authors in an earlier study. Five Mamdani fuzzy controllers are constructed to control the input (some epidemiological parameters) to the malaria model simulated by 9 fully nonlinear ordinary differential ...

  17. Environmental testing techniques for electronics and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Testing Techniques for Electronics and Materials reviews environmental testing techniques for evaluating the performance of electronic equipment, components, and materials. Environmental test planning, test methods, and instrumentation are described, along with the general environmental conditions under which equipment must operate. This book is comprised of 15 chapters and begins by explaining why environmental testing is necessary and describing the environment in which electronics must operate. The next chapter considers how an environmental test plan is designed; the methods

  18. Satellite SAR interferometric techniques applied to emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova Vassileva, Magdalena; Riccardi, Paolo; Lecci, Daniele; Giulio Tonolo, Fabio; Boccardo Boccardo, Piero; Chiesa, Giuliana; Angeluccetti, Irene

    2017-04-01

    This paper aim to investigate the capabilities of the currently available SAR interferometric algorithms in the field of emergency mapping. Several tests have been performed exploiting the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data using the COTS software ENVI/SARscape 5.3. Emergency Mapping can be defined as "creation of maps, geo-information products and spatial analyses dedicated to providing situational awareness emergency management and immediate crisis information for response by means of extraction of reference (pre-event) and crisis (post-event) geographic information/data from satellite or aerial imagery". The conventional differential SAR interferometric technique (DInSAR) and the two currently available multi-temporal SAR interferometric approaches, i.e. Permanent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) and Small BAseline Subset (SBAS), have been applied to provide crisis information useful for the emergency management activities. Depending on the considered Emergency Management phase, it may be distinguished between rapid mapping, i.e. fast provision of geospatial data regarding the area affected for the immediate emergency response, and monitoring mapping, i.e. detection of phenomena for risk prevention and mitigation activities. In order to evaluate the potential and limitations of the aforementioned SAR interferometric approaches for the specific rapid and monitoring mapping application, five main factors have been taken into account: crisis information extracted, input data required, processing time and expected accuracy. The results highlight that DInSAR has the capacity to delineate areas affected by large and sudden deformations and fulfills most of the immediate response requirements. The main limiting factor of interferometry is the availability of suitable SAR acquisition immediately after the event (e.g. Sentinel-1 mission characterized by 6-day revisiting time may not always satisfy the immediate emergency request). PSI and SBAS techniques are suitable to produce

  19. APPLYING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES TO HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERFACES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of UIMS (User Interface Management System), a system using a variety of artificial intelligence techniques to build knowledge-based user interfaces combining functionality and information from a variety of computer systems that maintain, test, and configure customer telephone...... and data networks. Three artificial intelligence (AI) techniques used in UIMS are discussed, namely, frame representation, object-oriented programming languages, and rule-based systems. The UIMS architecture is presented, and the structure of the UIMS is explained in terms of the AI techniques....

  20. A NOVEL TECHNIQUE APPLYING SPECTRAL ESTIMATION TO JOHNSON NOISE THERMOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezell, N Dianne Bull [ORNL; Britton Jr, Charles L [ORNL; Roberts, Michael [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Johnson noise thermometry (JNT) is one of many important measurements used to monitor the safety levels and stability in a nuclear reactor. However, this measurement is very dependent on the electromagnetic environment. Properly removing unwanted electromagnetic interference (EMI) is critical for accurate drift free temperature measurements. The two techniques developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to remove transient and periodic EMI are briefly discussed in this document. Spectral estimation is a key component in the signal processing algorithm utilized for EMI removal and temperature calculation. Applying these techniques requires the simple addition of the electronics and signal processing to existing resistive thermometers.

  1. Applying of USB interface technique in nuclear spectrum acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbin; Huang Jinhua

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces applying of USB technique and constructing nuclear spectrum acquisition system via PC's USB interface. The authors choose the USB component USB100 module and the W77E58μc to do the key work. It's easy to apply USB interface technique, when USB100 module is used. USB100 module can be treated as a common I/O component for the μc controller, and can be treated as a communication interface (COM) when connected to PC' USB interface. It's easy to modify the PC's program for the new system with USB100 module. The authors can smoothly change from ISA, RS232 bus to USB bus. (authors)

  2. Technique applied in electrical power distribution for Satellite Launch Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Rosário

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Launch Vehicle electrical network, which is currently being developed in Brazil, is sub-divided for analysis in the following parts: Service Electrical Network, Controlling Electrical Network, Safety Electrical Network and Telemetry Electrical Network. During the pre-launching and launching phases, these electrical networks are associated electrically and mechanically to the structure of the vehicle. In order to succeed in the integration of these electrical networks it is necessary to employ techniques of electrical power distribution, which are proper to Launch Vehicle systems. This work presents the most important techniques to be considered in the characterization of the electrical power supply applied to Launch Vehicle systems. Such techniques are primarily designed to allow the electrical networks, when submitted to the single-phase fault to ground, to be able of keeping the power supply to the loads.

  3. Applying recursive numerical integration techniques for solving high dimensional integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, Andreas [IVU Traffic Technologies AG, Berlin (Germany); Genz, Alan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Hartung, Tobias [King' s College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics; Jansen, Karl; Volmer, Julia [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Leoevey, Hernan [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik

    2016-11-15

    The error scaling for Markov-Chain Monte Carlo techniques (MCMC) with N samples behaves like 1/√(N). This scaling makes it often very time intensive to reduce the error of computed observables, in particular for applications in lattice QCD. It is therefore highly desirable to have alternative methods at hand which show an improved error scaling. One candidate for such an alternative integration technique is the method of recursive numerical integration (RNI). The basic idea of this method is to use an efficient low-dimensional quadrature rule (usually of Gaussian type) and apply it iteratively to integrate over high-dimensional observables and Boltzmann weights. We present the application of such an algorithm to the topological rotor and the anharmonic oscillator and compare the error scaling to MCMC results. In particular, we demonstrate that the RNI technique shows an error scaling in the number of integration points m that is at least exponential.

  4. Applying recursive numerical integration techniques for solving high dimensional integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, Andreas; Genz, Alan; Hartung, Tobias; Jansen, Karl; Volmer, Julia; Leoevey, Hernan

    2016-11-01

    The error scaling for Markov-Chain Monte Carlo techniques (MCMC) with N samples behaves like 1/√(N). This scaling makes it often very time intensive to reduce the error of computed observables, in particular for applications in lattice QCD. It is therefore highly desirable to have alternative methods at hand which show an improved error scaling. One candidate for such an alternative integration technique is the method of recursive numerical integration (RNI). The basic idea of this method is to use an efficient low-dimensional quadrature rule (usually of Gaussian type) and apply it iteratively to integrate over high-dimensional observables and Boltzmann weights. We present the application of such an algorithm to the topological rotor and the anharmonic oscillator and compare the error scaling to MCMC results. In particular, we demonstrate that the RNI technique shows an error scaling in the number of integration points m that is at least exponential.

  5. An overview of current techniques for ocular toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Samantha L; Ahearne, Mark; Hopkinson, Andrew

    2015-01-02

    Given the hazardous nature of many materials and substances, ocular toxicity testing is required to evaluate the dangers associated with these substances after their exposure to the eye. Historically, animal tests such as the Draize test were exclusively used to determine the level of ocular toxicity by applying a test substance to a live rabbit's eye and evaluating the biological response. In recent years, legislation in many developed countries has been introduced to try to reduce animal testing and promote alternative techniques. These techniques include ex vivo tests on deceased animal tissue, computational models that use algorithms to apply existing data to new chemicals and in vitro assays based on two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) cell culture models. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in ocular toxicity testing techniques, and discuss the regulatory framework used to evaluate their suitability. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Three-dimensional integrated CAE system applying computer graphic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshisada; Tanaka, Kazuo; Akitomo, Norio; Obata, Tokayasu.

    1991-01-01

    A three-dimensional CAE system for nuclear power plant design is presented. This system utilizes high-speed computer graphic techniques for the plant design review, and an integrated engineering database for handling the large amount of nuclear power plant engineering data in a unified data format. Applying this system makes it possible to construct a nuclear power plant using only computer data from the basic design phase to the manufacturing phase, and it increases the productivity and reliability of the nuclear power plants. (author)

  7. Applying field mapping refractive beam shapers to improve holographic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Williams, Gavin; McWilliam, Richard; Laskin, Vadim

    2012-03-01

    Performance of various holographic techniques can be essentially improved by homogenizing the intensity profile of the laser beam with using beam shaping optics, for example, the achromatic field mapping refractive beam shapers like πShaper. The operational principle of these devices presumes transformation of laser beam intensity from Gaussian to flattop one with high flatness of output wavefront, saving of beam consistency, providing collimated output beam of low divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible residual wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with several laser sources with different wavelengths simultaneously. Applying of these beam shapers brings serious benefits to the Spatial Light Modulator based techniques like Computer Generated Holography or Dot-Matrix mastering of security holograms since uniform illumination of an SLM allows simplifying mathematical calculations and increasing predictability and reliability of the imaging results. Another example is multicolour Denisyuk holography when the achromatic πShaper provides uniform illumination of a field at various wavelengths simultaneously. This paper will describe some design basics of the field mapping refractive beam shapers and optical layouts of their applying in holographic systems. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  8. High-voltage test and measuring techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Wolfgang; Lemke, Eberhard

    2014-04-01

    Reflects the unit of both HV testing and measuring technique. Intended as an ''application guide'' for the relevant IEC standards. Refers also to future trends in HV testing and measuring technique. With numerous illustrations. It is the intent of this book to combine high-voltage (HV) engineering with HV testing technique and HV measuring technique. Based on long-term experience gained by the authors as lecturer and researcher as well as member in international organizations, such as IEC and CIGRE, the book will reflect the state of the art as well as the future trends in testing and diagnostics of HV equipment to ensure a reliable generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy. The book is intended not only for experts but also for students in electrical engineering and high-voltage engineering.

  9. Machine-learning techniques applied to antibacterial drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Jacob D; Amaro, Rommie E

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria threatens to revert humanity back to the preantibiotic era. Even now, multidrug-resistant bacterial infections annually result in millions of hospital days, billions in healthcare costs, and, most importantly, tens of thousands of lives lost. As many pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic development in search of more lucrative therapeutics, academic researchers are uniquely positioned to fill the pipeline. Traditional high-throughput screens and lead-optimization efforts are expensive and labor intensive. Computer-aided drug-discovery techniques, which are cheaper and faster, can accelerate the identification of novel antibiotics, leading to improved hit rates and faster transitions to preclinical and clinical testing. The current review describes two machine-learning techniques, neural networks and decision trees, that have been used to identify experimentally validated antibiotics. We conclude by describing the future directions of this exciting field. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Applying machine learning classification techniques to automate sky object cataloguing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyad, Usama M.; Doyle, Richard J.; Weir, W. Nick; Djorgovski, Stanislav

    1993-08-01

    We describe the application of an Artificial Intelligence machine learning techniques to the development of an automated tool for the reduction of a large scientific data set. The 2nd Mt. Palomar Northern Sky Survey is nearly completed. This survey provides comprehensive coverage of the northern celestial hemisphere in the form of photographic plates. The plates are being transformed into digitized images whose quality will probably not be surpassed in the next ten to twenty years. The images are expected to contain on the order of 107 galaxies and 108 stars. Astronomers wish to determine which of these sky objects belong to various classes of galaxies and stars. Unfortunately, the size of this data set precludes analysis in an exclusively manual fashion. Our approach is to develop a software system which integrates the functions of independently developed techniques for image processing and data classification. Digitized sky images are passed through image processing routines to identify sky objects and to extract a set of features for each object. These routines are used to help select a useful set of attributes for classifying sky objects. Then GID3 (Generalized ID3) and O-B Tree, two inductive learning techniques, learns classification decision trees from examples. These classifiers will then be applied to new data. These developmnent process is highly interactive, with astronomer input playing a vital role. Astronomers refine the feature set used to construct sky object descriptions, and evaluate the performance of the automated classification technique on new data. This paper gives an overview of the machine learning techniques with an emphasis on their general applicability, describes the details of our specific application, and reports the initial encouraging results. The results indicate that our machine learning approach is well-suited to the problem. The primary benefit of the approach is increased data reduction throughput. Another benefit is

  11. Hypoxic challenge test applied to healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Helene Elgaard; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Hanel, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Commercial aircraft are pressurised to ~2438 m (8000 ft) above sea level that equates breathing 15% oxygen at sea level. A preflight hypoxic challenge test (HCT) is therefore recommended for children with cystic fibrosis or other chronic lung diseases and inflight oxygen is advised if...

  12. Multipurpose laboratory test system applying CAMAC standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.L.

    1976-11-01

    A flexible electronic product test and evaluation system is proposed. A system study was performed to determine how increasingly complex telemetry systems could be effectively evaluated during development and preproduction and after first production units were built. A primary requirement was that this system remain flexible with respect to configuration and mission and that it be easily maintainable. In addition, the system must be upgraded easily as old product requirements and definitions are replaced by new designs. As a result of this study it is concluded that this project would involve the expenditure of considerable funds and manpower at the beginning of the project and that the cost effectiveness of the system would be dependent upon its utilization and management. This study also demonstrates how the use of computer interface hardware standards (IEEE 583) can minimize requirements for expensive specially designed test equipment for each application.

  13. Applying AI techniques to improve alarm display effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, J.M.; Birrer, S.A.; Crosberg, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Alarm Filtering System (AFS) addresses the problem of information overload in a control room during abnormal operations. Since operators can miss vital information during these periods, systems which emphasize important messages are beneficial. AFS uses the artificial intelligence (AI) technique of object-oriented programming to filter and dynamically prioritize alarm messages. When an alarm's status changes, AFS determines the relative importance of that change according to the current process state. AFS bases that relative importance on relationships the newly changed alarm has with other activated alarms. Evaluations of a alarm importance take place without regard to the activation sequence of alarm signals. The United States Department of Energy has applied for a patent on the approach used in this software. The approach was originally developed by EG and G Idaho for a nuclear reactor control room

  14. Applying Metrological Techniques to Satellite Fundamental Climate Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolliams, Emma R.; Mittaz, Jonathan PD; Merchant, Christopher J.; Hunt, Samuel E.; Harris, Peter M.

    2018-02-01

    Quantifying long-term environmental variability, including climatic trends, requires decadal-scale time series of observations. The reliability of such trend analysis depends on the long-term stability of the data record, and understanding the sources of uncertainty in historic, current and future sensors. We give a brief overview on how metrological techniques can be applied to historical satellite data sets. In particular we discuss the implications of error correlation at different spatial and temporal scales and the forms of such correlation and consider how uncertainty is propagated with partial correlation. We give a form of the Law of Propagation of Uncertainties that considers the propagation of uncertainties associated with common errors to give the covariance associated with Earth observations in different spectral channels.

  15. Airflow measurement techniques applied to radon mitigation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrje, D.T.; Gadsby, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    During the past decade a multitude of diagnostic procedures associated with the evaluation of air infiltration and air leakage sites have been developed. The spirit of international cooperation and exchange of ideas within the AIC-AIVC conferences has greatly facilitated the adoption and use of these measurement techniques in the countries participating in Annex V. But wide application of such diagnostic methods are not limited to air infiltration alone. The subject of this paper concerns the ways to evaluate and improve radon reduction in buildings using diagnostic methods directly related to developments familiar to the AIVC. Radon problems are certainly not unique to the United States, and the methods described here have to a degree been applied by researchers of other countries faced with similar problems. The radon problem involves more than a harmful pollutant of the living spaces of our buildings -- it also involves energy to operate radon removal equipment and the loss of interior conditioned air as a direct result. The techniques used for air infiltration evaluation will be shown to be very useful in dealing with the radon mitigation challenge. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Test Concept for Advanced Oxidation Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Mortensen, Lars

    of conducting screening laboratory and pilot tests prior to onset of full scale treatment of a contaminated site with a given technology. For this purpose, Ramboll has developed a mobile test unit in co-operation with universities and technology suppliers. The unit includes equipment for both standard and more...... the assessor ends up with 3 or 4 applicable techniques. In stead of selecting a full scale technique solely based on information collected during a literature research, it is best practice to supplement the remediation screening phase with laboratory and in situ pilot treatability tests. As well...... as establishing the applicability of the proposed technique, the treatability tests also provide essential site-specific design parameters required for the full scale system, namely; oxidant demand, delivery method, kinetics etc. Drawing up field studies and laboratory data, this poster will discus the importance...

  17. Applying perceptual and adaptive learning techniques for teaching introductory histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Krasne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students are expected to master the ability to interpret histopathologic images, a difficult and time-consuming process. A major problem is the issue of transferring information learned from one example of a particular pathology to a new example. Recent advances in cognitive science have identified new approaches to address this problem. Methods: We adapted a new approach for enhancing pattern recognition of basic pathologic processes in skin histopathology images that utilizes perceptual learning techniques, allowing learners to see relevant structure in novel cases along with adaptive learning algorithms that space and sequence different categories (e.g. diagnoses that appear during a learning session based on each learner′s accuracy and response time (RT. We developed a perceptual and adaptive learning module (PALM that utilized 261 unique images of cell injury, inflammation, neoplasia, or normal histology at low and high magnification. Accuracy and RT were tracked and integrated into a "Score" that reflected students rapid recognition of the pathologies and pre- and post-tests were given to assess the effectiveness. Results: Accuracy, RT and Scores significantly improved from the pre- to post-test with Scores showing much greater improvement than accuracy alone. Delayed post-tests with previously unseen cases, given after 6-7 weeks, showed a decline in accuracy relative to the post-test for 1 st -year students, but not significantly so for 2 nd -year students. However, the delayed post-test scores maintained a significant and large improvement relative to those of the pre-test for both 1 st and 2 nd year students suggesting good retention of pattern recognition. Student evaluations were very favorable. Conclusion: A web-based learning module based on the principles of cognitive science showed an evidence for improved recognition of histopathology patterns by medical students.

  18. Defect detection in conducting materials using eddy current testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lorentz force eddy current testing (LET is a novel nondestructive testing technique which can be applied preferably to the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic moving conductors. The LET is compared (similar testing conditions with the classical eddy current testing (ECT. Numerical FEM simulations have been performed to analyze the measurements as well as the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic conductors. The results are compared with measurements to test the feasibility of defect identification. Finally, the use of LET measurements to estimate of the electrical conductors under test are described as well.

  19. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  20. Analytical techniques applied to study cultural heritage objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Bernardes, S.; Campos, P.H.O.V.; Kajiya, E.A.M.; Silva, T.F.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Moro, M.; Tabacniks, M.; Added, N., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    The scientific study of artistic and cultural heritage objects have been routinely performed in Europe and the United States for decades. In Brazil this research area is growing, mainly through the use of physical and chemical characterization methods. Since 2003 the Group of Applied Physics with Particle Accelerators of the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo (GFAA-IF) has been working with various methodologies for material characterization and analysis of cultural objects. Initially using ion beam analysis performed with Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and recently Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL), for the determination of the elements and chemical compounds in the surface layers. These techniques are widely used in the Laboratory of Materials Analysis with Ion Beams (LAMFI-USP). Recently, the GFAA expanded the studies to other possibilities of analysis enabled by imaging techniques that coupled with elemental and compositional characterization provide a better understanding on the materials and techniques used in the creative process in the manufacture of objects. The imaging analysis, mainly used to examine and document artistic and cultural heritage objects, are performed through images with visible light, infrared reflectography (IR), fluorescence with ultraviolet radiation (UV), tangential light and digital radiography. Expanding more the possibilities of analysis, new capabilities were added using portable equipment such as Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) and Raman Spectroscopy that can be used for analysis 'in situ' at the museums. The results of these analyzes are providing valuable information on the manufacturing process and have provided new information on objects of different University of Sao Paulo museums. Improving the arsenal of cultural heritage analysis it was recently constructed an 3D robotic stage for the precise positioning of samples in the external beam setup

  1. A general diagnostic model applied to language testing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias

    2008-11-01

    Probabilistic models with one or more latent variables are designed to report on a corresponding number of skills or cognitive attributes. Multidimensional skill profiles offer additional information beyond what a single test score can provide, if the reported skills can be identified and distinguished reliably. Many recent approaches to skill profile models are limited to dichotomous data and have made use of computationally intensive estimation methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo, since standard maximum likelihood (ML) estimation techniques were deemed infeasible. This paper presents a general diagnostic model (GDM) that can be estimated with standard ML techniques and applies to polytomous response variables as well as to skills with two or more proficiency levels. The paper uses one member of a larger class of diagnostic models, a compensatory diagnostic model for dichotomous and partial credit data. Many well-known models, such as univariate and multivariate versions of the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic item response theory model, the generalized partial credit model, as well as a variety of skill profile models, are special cases of this GDM. In addition to an introduction to this model, the paper presents a parameter recovery study using simulated data and an application to real data from the field test for TOEFL Internet-based testing.

  2. High-voltage test and measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hauschild, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    It is the intent of this book to combine high-voltage (HV) engineering with HV testing technique and HV measuring technique. Based on long-term experience gained by the authors as lecturer and researcher as well as member in international organizations, such as IEC and CIGRE, the book will reflect the state of the art as well as the future trends in testing and diagnostics of HV equipment to ensure a reliable generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy. The book is intended not only for experts but also for students in electrical engineering and high-voltage engineering.

  3. Improvements in skin-testing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Warner W

    2006-01-01

    Allergy skin testing is the primary modality used in the diagnosis of allergic diseases and guides development of treatment and avoidance plans. The goal of the Allergist is to skin test the appropriate population with a device and technique that minimizes pain while maximizing sensitivity and specificity. The debate involving the use of intradermal versus skin-prick testing in the diagnosis of aeroallergy has been long lasting. Past and present medical literature will be reviewed, establishing the lack of diagnostic use of intradermal testing in the setting of aeroallergy. New skin devices continue to be developed with a trend toward production of multidevices. Performance characteristics of various skin test devices will be reviewed with an emphasis on sensitivity, specificity, and variability of skin-prick testing devices. Significant statistical differences exist between all devices tested and reported in the literature. Whether these statistical differences equate to clinical differences is not known. With this review the practicing allergist should carefully evaluate multiple different devices and choose a device that suits their practice needs. In addition, allergists must ensure that technicians are sufficiently trained on the correct use of their device and should conduct continuing education to ensure that proper skin testing techniques are being used in their practice. Finally, the use of skin testing in pediatrics will be reviewed with a focus on safety. Care should be taken when skin testing infants < or = 6 months of age, especially in the setting of eczema and a family history of atopy.

  4. An analysis of induction motor testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soergel, S.

    1996-01-01

    There are two main failure mechanisms in induction motors: bearing related and stator related. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a study which was completed in 1985, and found that near 37% of all failures were attributed to stator problems. Another data source for motor failures is the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). This database reveals that approximately 55% of all motors were identified as being degraded before failure occurred. Of these, approximately 35% were due to electrical faults. These are the faults which this paper will attempt to identify through testing techniques. This paper is a discussion of the current techniques used to predict incipient failure of induction motors. In the past, the main tests were those to assess the integrity of the ground insulation. However, most insulation failures are believed to involve turn or strand insulation, which makes traditional tests alone inadequate for condition assessment. Furthermore, these tests have several limitations which need consideration when interpreting the results. This paper will concentrate on predictive maintenance techniques which detect electrical problems. It will present appropriate methods and tests, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each

  5. Thermal property testing technique on micro specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Isao; Taketoshi, Naoyuki

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at establishment of further development on some testing techniques on the nuclear advanced basic research accumulated by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology for ten years. For this purpose, a technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of less than 3 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness of micro specimen and technology to test heat diffusion ratio at micro area of less than 1 mm in area along cross section of less than 10 mm in diameter of column specimen were developed to contribute to common basic technology supporting the nuclear power field. As a result, as an element technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of the micro specimen, a specimen holding technique stably to hold a micro specimen with 3 mm in diameter could be developed. And, for testing the specific heat capacity by using the laser flush differential calorimetry, a technique to hold two specimen of 5 mm in diameter at their proximities was also developed. In addition, by promoting development of thermal property data base capable of storing thermal property data obtained in this study and with excellent workability in this 1998 fiscal year a data in/out-put program with graphical user interface could be prepared. (G.K.)

  6. Non destructive assay techniques applied to nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.

    2001-01-01

    Nondestructive assay is a suite of techniques that has matured and become precise, easily implementable, and remotely usable. These techniques provide elaborate safeguards of nuclear material by providing the necessary information for materials accounting. NDA techniques are ubiquitous, reliable, essentially tamper proof, and simple to use. They make the world a safer place to live in, and they make nuclear energy viable. (author)

  7. A Method to Test Model Calibration Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, Ron; Polly, Ben; Neymark, Joel

    2016-08-26

    This paper describes a method for testing model calibration techniques. Calibration is commonly used in conjunction with energy retrofit audit models. An audit is conducted to gather information about the building needed to assemble an input file for a building energy modeling tool. A calibration technique is used to reconcile model predictions with utility data, and then the 'calibrated model' is used to predict energy savings from a variety of retrofit measures and combinations thereof. Current standards and guidelines such as BPI-2400 and ASHRAE-14 set criteria for 'goodness of fit' and assume that if the criteria are met, then the calibration technique is acceptable. While it is logical to use the actual performance data of the building to tune the model, it is not certain that a good fit will result in a model that better predicts post-retrofit energy savings. Therefore, the basic idea here is that the simulation program (intended for use with the calibration technique) is used to generate surrogate utility bill data and retrofit energy savings data against which the calibration technique can be tested. This provides three figures of merit for testing a calibration technique, 1) accuracy of the post-retrofit energy savings prediction, 2) closure on the 'true' input parameter values, and 3) goodness of fit to the utility bill data. The paper will also discuss the pros and cons of using this synthetic surrogate data approach versus trying to use real data sets of actual buildings.

  8. Digital prototyping technique applied for redesigning plastic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, A.; Andrei, A.

    2015-11-01

    After products are on the market for some time, they often need to be redesigned to meet new market requirements. New products are generally derived from similar but outdated products. Redesigning a product is an important part of the production and development process. The purpose of this paper is to show that using modern technology, like Digital Prototyping in industry is an effective way to produce new products. This paper tries to demonstrate and highlight the effectiveness of the concept of Digital Prototyping, both to reduce the design time of a new product, but also the costs required for implementing this step. The results of this paper show that using Digital Prototyping techniques in designing a new product from an existing one available on the market mould offers a significantly manufacturing time and cost reduction. The ability to simulate and test a new product with modern CAD-CAM programs in all aspects of production (designing of the 3D model, simulation of the structural resistance, analysis of the injection process and beautification) offers a helpful tool for engineers. The whole process can be realised by one skilled engineer very fast and effective.

  9. Investigation of the shear bond strength to dentin of universal adhesives applied with two different techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Yaşa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of universal adhesives applied with self-etch and etch&rinse techniques to dentin. Materials and Method: Fourty-eight sound extracted human third molars were used in this study. Occlusal enamel was removed in order to expose the dentinal surface, and the surface was flattened. Specimens were randomly divided into four groups and were sectioned vestibulo-lingually using a diamond disc. The universal adhesives: All Bond Universal (Group 1a and 1b, Gluma Bond Universal (Group 2a and 2b and Single Bond Universal (Group 3a and 3b were applied onto the tooth specimens either with self-etch technique (a or with etch&rinse technique (b according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Clearfil SE Bond (Group 4a; self-etch and Optibond FL (Group 4b; etch&rinse were used as control groups. Then the specimens were restored with a nanohybrid composite resin (Filtek Z550. After thermocycling, shear bond strength test was performed with a universal test machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Fracture analysis was done under a stereomicroscope (×40 magnification. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests. Results: Statistical analysis showed significant differences in shear bond strength values between the universal adhesives (p<0.05. Significantly higher bond strength values were observed in self-etch groups (a in comparison to etch&rinse groups (b (p<0.05. Among all groups, Single Bond Universal showed the greatest shear bond strength values, whereas All Bond Universal showed the lowest shear bond strength values with both application techniques. Conclusion: Dentin bonding strengths of universal adhesives applied with different techniques may vary depending on the adhesive material. For the universal bonding agents tested in this study, the etch&rinse technique negatively affected the bond strength to dentin.

  10. Harmonic Mitigation Techniques Applied to Power Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of harmonic mitigation techniques are now available including active and passive methods, and the selection of the best-suited technique for a particular case can be a complicated decision-making process. The performance of some of these techniques is largely dependent on system conditions, while others require extensive system analysis to prevent resonance problems and capacitor failure. A classification of the various available harmonic mitigation techniques is presented in this paper aimed at presenting a review of harmonic mitigation methods to researchers, designers, and engineers dealing with power distribution systems.

  11. Applying data mining techniques to improve diagnosis in neonatal jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Duarte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperbilirubinemia is emerging as an increasingly common problem in newborns due to a decreasing hospital length of stay after birth. Jaundice is the most common disease of the newborn and although being benign in most cases it can lead to severe neurological consequences if poorly evaluated. In different areas of medicine, data mining has contributed to improve the results obtained with other methodologies. Hence, the aim of this study was to improve the diagnosis of neonatal jaundice with the application of data mining techniques. Methods This study followed the different phases of the Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining model as its methodology. This observational study was performed at the Obstetrics Department of a central hospital (Centro Hospitalar Tâmega e Sousa – EPE, from February to March of 2011. A total of 227 healthy newborn infants with 35 or more weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. Over 70 variables were collected and analyzed. Also, transcutaneous bilirubin levels were measured from birth to hospital discharge with maximum time intervals of 8 hours between measurements, using a noninvasive bilirubinometer. Different attribute subsets were used to train and test classification models using algorithms included in Weka data mining software, such as decision trees (J48 and neural networks (multilayer perceptron. The accuracy results were compared with the traditional methods for prediction of hyperbilirubinemia. Results The application of different classification algorithms to the collected data allowed predicting subsequent hyperbilirubinemia with high accuracy. In particular, at 24 hours of life of newborns, the accuracy for the prediction of hyperbilirubinemia was 89%. The best results were obtained using the following algorithms: naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron and simple logistic. Conclusions The findings of our study sustain that, new approaches, such as data mining, may support

  12. Biomechanical study of the funnel technique applied in thoracic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Funnel technique is a method used for the insertion of screw into thoracic pedicle. Aim: To evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of thoracic pedicle screw placement using the Funnel technique, trying to provide biomechanical basis for clinical application of this technology. Methods: 14 functional spinal ...

  13. Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques Applied to Nutritional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nuclear and isotopes methods have been used in industrialized countries to enhance the sensitivity of nutrition and environmental monitoring techniques. The isotope techniques used in nutrition research are: (i) deuterium dilution to measure total body water (TBW) and body composition for evaluating nutritional status, ...

  14. NEW TECHNIQUES APPLIED IN ECONOMICS. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Ilie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has the objective to inform the public regarding the use of new techniques for the modeling, simulate and forecast of system from different field of activity. One of those techniques is Artificial Neural Network, one of the artificial in

  15. A Permutation Encoding Technique Applied to Genetic Algorithm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a permutation chromosome encoding scheme is proposed for obtaining solution to resource constrained project scheduling problem. The proposed chromosome coding method is applied to Genetic algorithm procedure and implemented through object oriented programming. The method is applied to a ...

  16. LHC Magnet Tests Operational Techniques and Empowerment for Successful Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Chohan, V; Priestnall, K; Pirotte, F; Veyrunes, E; Ali, N; Awale, P; Bahuguna, S; Bhunia, U; Chauhan, V; Dixit, M; Gore, J; John, J; Kandaswamy, E; Kasbekar, A; Kashyap, P; Kasliwal, A; Kulkarni, C; Laddha, A; Malhotra, S; Mascarenhas, M; Mishra, J; Motiwala, P; Nair, K; Narayanan, R; Padmakumar, S; Pagare, A; Peruppayikkad, D; Raghunathan, S; Rao, S; Roy, D; Sharma, S; Shimjith, S; Singh, S; Sonnis, S; Sridhar, S; Surendran, P; Tikaria, A

    2007-01-01

    The LHC magnet tests operation team developed various innovative techniques, particularly since early 2004, to complete the superconductor magnet tests by Feb. 2007. Overall and cryogenic priority handling, rapid on-bench thermal cycling, rule-based goodness evaluation on round-the-clock basis, multiple, mashed web systems are some of these techniques applied with rigour for successful tests completion in time. This paper highlights these operation empowerment tools which had a pivotal role for success. A priority handling method was put in place to enable maximum throughput from twelve test benches, having many different constraints. For the cryogenics infrastructure, it implied judicious allocation of limited resources to the benches. Rapid On-Bench Thermal Cycle was a key strategy to accelerate magnets tests throughput, saving time and simplifying logistics. First level magnet appraisal was developed for 24 hr decision making so as to prepare a magnet further for LHC or keep it on standby. Web based system...

  17. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s−1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative ‘load cell’. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young’s modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  18. Applying decision-making techniques to Civil Engineering Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fam F. Abdel-malak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM techniques are found to be useful tools in project managers’ hands to overcome decision-making (DM problems in Civil Engineering Projects (CEPs. The main contribution of this paper includes selecting and studying the popular MCDM techniques that uses different and wide ranges of data types in CEPs. A detailed study including advantages and pitfalls of using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and Fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (Fuzzy TOPSIS is introduced. Those two techniques are selected for the purpose of forming a package that covers most available data types in CEPs. The results indicated that AHP has a structure which simplifies complicated problems, while Fuzzy TOPSIS uses the advantages of linguistic variables to solve the issue of undocumented data and ill-defined problems. Furthermore, AHP is a simple technique that depends on pairwise comparisons of factors and natural attributes, beside it is preferable for widely spread hierarchies. On the other hand, Fuzzy TOPSIS needs more information but works well for the one-tier decision tree as well as it shows more flexibility to work in fuzzy environments. The two techniques have the facility to be integrated and combined in a new module to support most of the decisions required in CEPs. Keywords: Decision-making, AHP, Fuzzy TOPSIS, CBA, Civil Engineering Projects

  19. Object oriented programming techniques applied to device access and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, A.; Klotz, W.D.; Meyer, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a model, called the device server model, has been presented for solving the problem of device access and control faced by all control systems. Object Oriented Programming techniques were used to achieve a powerful yet flexible solution. The model provides a solution to the problem which hides device dependancies. It defines a software framework which has to be respected by implementors of device classes - this is very useful for developing groupware. The decision to implement remote access in the root class means that device servers can be easily integrated in a distributed control system. A lot of the advantages and features of the device server model are due to the adoption of OOP techniques. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this paper is that 1. the device access and control problem is adapted to being solved with OOP techniques, 2. OOP techniques offer a distinct advantage over traditional programming techniques for solving the device access problem. (J.P.N.)

  20. Applying motivational interviewing techniques to palliative care communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Kathryn I; Childers, Julie W; Arnold, Robert M

    2011-05-01

    Palliative care relies heavily on communication. Although some guidelines do address difficult communication, less is known about how to handle conversations with patients who express ambivalence or resistance to such care. Clinicians also struggle with how to support patient autonomy when they disagree with patient choices. Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques may help address these responses. Specifically, MI techniques such as reflective statements and summarizing can help reduce a patient's resistance, resolve patient ambivalence, and support patient autonomy. Not all the MI techniques are applicable, however, in part because palliative care clinicians do not guide patients to make particular choices but, instead, help patients make choices that are consistent with patient values. Some elements from MI can be used to improve the quality and efficacy of palliative care conversations.

  1. Rare event techniques applied in the Rasmussen study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Rasmussen Study estimated public risks from commercial nuclear power plant accidents, and therefore the statistics of rare events had to be treated. Two types of rare events were specifically handled, those rare events which were probabilistically rare events and those which were statistically rare events. Four techniques were used to estimate probabilities of rare events. These techniques were aggregating data samples, discretizing ''continuous'' events, extrapolating from minor to catastrophic severities, and decomposing events using event trees and fault trees. In aggregating or combining data the goal was to enlarge the data sample so that the rare event was no longer rare, i.e., so that the enlarged data sample contained one or more occurrences of the event of interest. This aggregation gave rise to random variable treatments of failure rates, occurrence frequencies, and other characteristics estimated from data. This random variable treatment can be interpreted as being comparable to an empirical Bayes technique or a Bayesian technique. In the discretizing event technique, events of a detailed nature were grouped together into a grosser event for purposes of analysis as well as for data collection. The treatment of data characteristics as random variables helped to account for the uncertainties arising from this discretizing. In the severity extrapolation technique a severity variable was associated with each event occurrence for the purpose of predicting probabilities of catastrophic occurrences. Tail behaviors of distributions therefore needed to be considered. Finally, event trees and fault trees were used to express accident occurrences and system failures in terms of more basic events for which data existed. Common mode failures and general dependencies therefore needed to be treated. 2 figures

  2. Bioremediation techniques applied to aqueous media contaminated with mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Riaño, Möritz; Benavides-Otaya, Holman D

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the environmental and human health impacts of mercury contamination have driven the search for alternative, eco-efficient techniques different from the traditional physicochemical methods for treating this metal. One of these alternative processes is bioremediation. A comprehensive analysis of the different variables that can affect this process is presented. It focuses on determining the effectiveness of different techniques of bioremediation, with a specific consideration of three variables: the removal percentage, time needed for bioremediation and initial concentration of mercury to be treated in an aqueous medium.

  3. Techniques applied in design optimization of parallel manipulators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modungwa, D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available the process of optimization a cumbersome and time-consuming endeavour, especially when the variables are diverse and objective functions are excessively complex. Thus, several techniques devised by researchers to solve the problem are reviewed in this paper....

  4. Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

  5. Ion backscattering techniques applied in materials science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of Ion Backscattering Technique (IBT) to material analysis have expanded rapidly during the last decade. It is now regarded as an analysis tool indispensable for a versatile materials research program. The technique consists of simply shooting a beam of monoenergetic ions (usually 4 He + ions at about 2 MeV) onto a target, and measuring their energy distribution after backscattering at a fixed angle. Simple Rutherford scattering analysis of the backscattered ion spectrum yields information on the mass, the absolute amount and the depth profile of elements present upto a few microns of the target surface. The technique is nondestructive, quick, quantitative and the only known method of analysis which gives quantitative results without recourse to calibration standards. Its major limitations are the inability to separate elements of similar mass and a complete absence of chemical-binding information. A typical experimental set up and spectrum analysis have been described. Examples, some of them based on the work at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have been given to illustrate the applications of this technique to semiconductor technology, thin film materials science and nuclear energy materials. Limitations of IBT have been illustrated and a few remedies to partly overcome these limitations are presented. (auth.)

  6. X-diffraction technique applied for nano system metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Alexei Yu.; Machado, Rogerio; Robertis, Eveline de; Campos, Andrea P.C.; Archanjo, Braulio S.; Gomes, Lincoln S.; Achete, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    The application of nano materials are fast growing in all industrial sectors, with a strong necessity in nano metrology and normalizing in the nano material area. The great potential of the X-ray diffraction technique in this field is illustrated at the example of metals, metal oxides and pharmaceuticals

  7. Consulting with Parents: Applying Family Systems Concepts and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Fran; Edwards, Dana

    2001-01-01

    This article describes family systems concepts and techniques that school counselors, as consultants, can use to better understand the family system. The concepts are life cycle transitions and extrafamilial influences, extended family influences, boundaries, parental hierarchy and power, and triangulation. (Contains 39 references.) (GCP)

  8. Eddy current technique applied to automated tube profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbeni, D.; Melsen, C. van

    1982-01-01

    The use of eddy current methods in the first totally automated pre-service inspection of the internal diameter of PWR steam generator tubes is described. The technique was developed at Laborelec, the Belgian Laboratory of the Electricity Supply Industry. Details are given of the data acquisition system and of the automated manipulator. Representative tube profiles are illustrated. (U.K.)

  9. Applying the digital-image-correlation technique to measure the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4.2 Image analysis. The DIC technique is used to analyse the column deformation. After the position of every mark is traced, two parallel observation lines on the surface of column (as shown in figure 8) are cho- sen. There are 181 equal spaced points on each line. The positions of these points are calculated using B-Spline ...

  10. Applying program comprehension techniques to Karel robot programs

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Nuno; Henriques, Pedro; Cruz, Daniela; Pereira, Maria João; Mernik, Marjan; Kosar, Tomaz; Crepinsek, Matej

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—In the context of program understanding, a challenge research topic1 is to learn how techniques and tools for the comprehension of General-Purpose Languages (GPLs) can be used or adjusted to the understanding of Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs). Being DSLs tailored for the description of problems within a specific domain, it becomes easier to improve these tools with specific visualizations (at a higher abstraction level, closer to the problem level) in order to understand the ...

  11. Electrochemical Techniques Applied to Studies of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    corrosion (MIC). Applications Include evaluation of MIC of metals exposed 7, to seawater, fresh water, demineralized water, process chemicals, food stuffs...water, process chemicals, food stuffs, soils, aircraft important to focus elecatrochemical investigations notfuels, human plasma, and sewage. In this...negative than (CONICET-NSF). LaPlata, Argentina, Aquatec, E,., Progress can only be made if surface analytical Quimica , pp. 119-133 techniques are

  12. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.; Martin, J.; Garton, D.; Noorman, H.; Stelcer, E.; Johnson, P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  13. Biomechanical study of the funnel technique applied in thoracic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hai Dai,Chenxuan Tang*. Department of Orthopaedics, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325200, Zhejiang,. China. Abstract. Background: .... pulled out on the universal testing machine at 5 mm/ min (Fig. 1C).

  14. Canvas and cosmos: Visual art techniques applied to astronomy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Jayanne

    Bold color images from telescopes act as extraordinary ambassadors for research astronomers because they pique the public’s curiosity. But are they snapshots documenting physical reality? Or are we looking at artistic spacescapes created by digitally manipulating astronomy images? This paper provides a tour of how original black and white data, from all regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum, are converted into the color images gracing popular magazines, numerous websites, and even clothing. The history and method of the technical construction of these images is outlined. However, the paper focuses on introducing the scientific reader to visual literacy (e.g. human perception) and techniques from art (e.g. composition, color theory) since these techniques can produce not only striking but politically powerful public outreach images. When created by research astronomers, the cultures of science and visual art can be balanced and the image can illuminate scientific results sufficiently strongly that the images are also used in research publications. Included are reflections on how they could feedback into astronomy research endeavors and future forms of visualization as well as on the relevance of outreach images to visual art. (See the color online PDF version at http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0218271817300105; the figures can be enlarged in PDF viewers.)

  15. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results

  16. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  17. Innovative Visualization Techniques applied to a Flood Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, António; Ho, Quan; Lopes, Pedro; Malamud, Bruce D.; Ribeiro, Rita; Jern, Mikael

    2013-04-01

    The large and ever-increasing amounts of multi-dimensional, time-varying and geospatial digital information from multiple sources represent a major challenge for today's analysts. We present a set of visualization techniques that can be used for the interactive analysis of geo-referenced and time sampled data sets, providing an integrated mechanism and that aids the user to collaboratively explore, present and communicate visually complex and dynamic data. Here we present these concepts in the context of a 4 hour flood scenario from Lisbon in 2010, with data that includes measures of water column (flood height) every 10 minutes at a 4.5 m x 4.5 m resolution, topography, building damage, building information, and online base maps. Techniques we use include web-based linked views, multiple charts, map layers and storytelling. We explain two of these in more detail that are not currently in common use for visualization of data: storytelling and web-based linked views. Visual storytelling is a method for providing a guided but interactive process of visualizing data, allowing more engaging data exploration through interactive web-enabled visualizations. Within storytelling, a snapshot mechanism helps the author of a story to highlight data views of particular interest and subsequently share or guide others within the data analysis process. This allows a particular person to select relevant attributes for a snapshot, such as highlighted regions for comparisons, time step, class values for colour legend, etc. and provide a snapshot of the current application state, which can then be provided as a hyperlink and recreated by someone else. Since data can be embedded within this snapshot, it is possible to interactively visualize and manipulate it. The second technique, web-based linked views, includes multiple windows which interactively respond to the user selections, so that when selecting an object and changing it one window, it will automatically update in all the other

  18. Neoliberal Optimism: Applying Market Techniques to Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yuyang

    2017-01-01

    Global health and neoliberalism are becoming increasingly intertwined as organizations utilize markets and profit motives to solve the traditional problems of poverty and population health. I use field work conducted over 14 months in a global health technology company to explore how the promise of neoliberalism re-envisions humanitarian efforts. In this company's vaccine refrigerator project, staff members expect their investors and their market to allow them to achieve scale and develop accountability to their users in developing countries. However, the translation of neoliberal techniques to the global health sphere falls short of the ideal, as profits are meager and purchasing power remains with donor organizations. The continued optimism in market principles amidst such a non-ideal market reveals the tenacious ideological commitment to neoliberalism in these global health projects.

  19. Report on COTECH test procedure and characterization techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    .Characterization techniques and test procedure requirements for innovative self-ligating dental brackets (EO) Section 5.Characterization techniques and test procedure requirements for smart diagnostic chips comprising a microfluidic channel system (GBO) Section 6.Characterization techniques and test procedure...... requirements for multifunctional integrated lighting rear lamp for cars (CRP) Section 7.Characterization techniques and test procedure requirements for micro-fresnel lenses for cell phone flash lights (HEPTAGON) Section 8.Characterization techniques and test procedure requirements for 5 Pin Ric Connector...

  20. Statistical sampling techniques as applied to OSE inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.J.; Cote, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The need has been recognized for statistically valid methods for gathering information during OSE inspections; and for interpretation of results, both from performance testing and from records reviews, interviews, etc. Battelle Columbus Division, under contract to DOE OSE has performed and is continuing to perform work in the area of statistical methodology for OSE inspections. This paper represents some of the sampling methodology currently being developed for use during OSE inspections. Topics include population definition, sample size requirements, level of confidence and practical logistical constraints associated with the conduct of an inspection based on random sampling. Sequential sampling schemes and sampling from finite populations are also discussed. The methods described are applicable to various data gathering activities, ranging from the sampling and examination of classified documents to the sampling of Protective Force security inspectors for skill testing

  1. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment`s final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  2. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  3. Dust tracking techniques applied to the STARDUST facility: First results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malizia, A., E-mail: malizia@ing.uniroma2.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Camplani, M. [Grupo de Tratamiento de Imágenes, E.T.S.I de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Gelfusa, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Lupelli, I. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Richetta, M.; Antonelli, L.; Conetta, F.; Scarpellini, D.; Carestia, M.; Peluso, E.; Bellecci, C. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Salgado, L. [Grupo de Tratamiento de Imágenes, E.T.S.I de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Video Processing and Understanding Laboratory, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain); Gaudio, P. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Use of an experimental facility, STARDUST, to analyze the dust resuspension problem inside the tokamak in case of loss of vacuum accident. •PIV technique implementation to track the dust during a LOVA reproduction inside STARDUST. •Data imaging techniques to analyze dust velocity field: first results and data discussion. -- Abstract: An important issue related to future nuclear fusion reactors fueled with deuterium and tritium is the creation of large amounts of dust due to several mechanisms (disruptions, ELMs and VDEs). The dust size expected in nuclear fusion experiments (such as ITER) is in the order of microns (between 0.1 and 1000 μm). Almost the total amount of this dust remains in the vacuum vessel (VV). This radiological dust can re-suspend in case of LOVA (loss of vacuum accident) and these phenomena can cause explosions and serious damages to the health of the operators and to the integrity of the device. The authors have developed a facility, STARDUST, in order to reproduce the thermo fluid-dynamic conditions comparable to those expected inside the VV of the next generation of experiments such as ITER in case of LOVA. The dust used inside the STARDUST facility presents particle sizes and physical characteristics comparable with those that created inside the VV of nuclear fusion experiments. In this facility an experimental campaign has been conducted with the purpose of tracking the dust re-suspended at low pressurization rates (comparable to those expected in case of LOVA in ITER and suggested by the General Safety and Security Report ITER-GSSR) using a fast camera with a frame rate from 1000 to 10,000 images per second. The velocity fields of the mobilized dust are derived from the imaging of a two-dimensional slice of the flow illuminated by optically adapted laser beam. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the possibility of dust tracking by means of image processing with the objective of determining the velocity field values

  4. Optical Trapping Techniques Applied to the Study of Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morss, Andrew J.

    Optical tweezers allow for manipulating micron-sized objects using pN level optical forces. In this work, we use an optical trapping setup to aid in three separate experiments, all related to the physics of the cellular membrane. In the first experiment, in conjunction with Brian Henslee, we use optical tweezers to allow for precise positioning and control of cells in suspension to evaluate the cell size dependence of electroporation. Theory predicts that all cells porate at a transmembrane potential VTMof roughly 1 V. The Schwann equation predicts that the transmembrane potential depends linearly on the cell radius r, thus predicting that cells should porate at threshold electric fields that go as 1/r. The threshold field required to induce poration is determined by applying a low voltage pulse to the cell and then applying additional pulses of greater and greater magnitude, checking for poration at each step using propidium iodide dye. We find that, contrary to expectations, cells do not porate at a constant value of the transmembrane potential but at a constant value of the electric field which we find to be 692 V/cm for K562 cells. Delivering precise dosages of nanoparticles into cells is of importance for assessing toxicity of nanoparticles or for genetic research. In the second experiment, we conduct nano-electroporation—a novel method of applying precise doses of transfection agents to cells—by using optical tweezers in conjunction with a confocal microscope to manipulate cells into contact with 100 nm wide nanochannels. This work was done in collaboration with Pouyan Boukany of Dr. Lee's group. The small cross sectional area of these nano channels means that the electric field within them is extremely large, 60 MV/m, which allows them to electrophoretically drive transfection agents into the cell. We find that nano electroporation results in excellent dose control (to within 10% in our experiments) compared to bulk electroporation. We also find that

  5. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopic techniques as applied to Channelrhodopsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglof eRitter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Among optogenetic tools, channelrhodopsins, the light gated ion channels of the plasma membrane from green algae, play the most important role. Properties like channel selectivity, timing parameters or color can be influenced by the exchange of selected amino acids. Although widely used, in the field of neurosciences for example, there is still little known about their photocycles and the mechanism of ion channel gating and conductance. One of the preferred methods for these studies is infrared spectroscopy since it allows observation of proteins and their function at a molecular level and in near-native environment. The absorption of a photon in channelrhodopsin leads to retinal isomerization within femtoseconds, the conductive states are reached in the microsecond time scale and the return into the fully dark-adapted state may take more than minutes. To be able to cover all these time regimes, a range of different spectroscopical approaches are necessary. This mini-review focuses on time-resolved applications of the infrared technique to study channelrhodopsins and other light triggered proteins. We will discuss the approaches with respect to their suitability to the investigation of channelrhodopsin and related proteins.

  6. [Applying DNA barcoding technique to identify menthae haplocalycis herba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaohui; Xu, Haibin; Han, Jianping; Song, Jingyuan

    2012-04-01

    To identify Menthae Haplocalycis Herba and its closely related species using DNA barcoding technique. Total genomic DNA was isolated from Mentha canadensis and its closely related species. Nuclear DNA ITS2 sequences were amplified, and purified PCR products were sequenced. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner V3.0. The Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) distances were calculated using software MEGA 5.0. Identification analyses were performed using BLAST1, Nearest Distance and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods. The intra-specific genetic distances of M. canadensis were ranged from 0 to 0.006, which were lower than inter-specific genetic distances between M. canadensis and its closely related species (0.071-0.231). All the three methods showed that ITS2 could discriminate M. canadensis from its closely related species correctly. The ITS2 region is an efficient barcode for identification of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba, which provides a scientific basis for fast and accurate identification of the herb.

  7. SPI Trend Analysis of New Zealand Applying the ITA Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A natural temporary imbalance of water availability, consisting of persistent lower-than-average or higher-than-average precipitation, can cause extreme dry and wet conditions that adversely impact agricultural yields, water resources, infrastructure, and human systems. In this study, dry and wet periods in New Zealand were expressed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. First, both the short term (3 and 6 months and the long term (12 and 24 months SPI were estimated, and then, possible trends in the SPI values were detected by means of a new graphical technique, the Innovative Trend Analysis (ITA, which allows the trend identification of the low, medium, and high values of a series. Results show that, in every area currently subject to drought, an increase in this phenomenon can be expected. Specifically, the results of this paper highlight that agricultural regions on the eastern side of the South Island, as well as the north-eastern regions of the North Island, are the most consistently vulnerable areas. In fact, in these regions, the trend analysis mainly showed a general reduction in all the values of the SPI: that is, a tendency toward heavier droughts and weaker wet periods.

  8. A Kalman filter technique applied for medical image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goliaei, S.; Ghorshi, S.; Manzuri, M. T.; Mortazavi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Medical images contain information about vital organic tissues inside of human body and are widely used for diagnoses of disease or for surgical purposes. Image reconstruction is essential for medical images for some applications such as suppression of noise or de-blurring the image in order to provide images with better quality and contrast. Due to vital rule of image reconstruction in medical sciences the corresponding algorithms with better efficiency and higher speed is desirable. Most algorithms in image reconstruction are operated on frequency domain such as the most popular one known as filtered back projection. In this paper we introduce a Kalman filter technique which is operated in time domain for medical image reconstruction. Results indicated that as the number of projection increases in both normal collected ray sum and the collected ray sum corrupted by noise the quality of reconstructed image becomes better in terms of contract and transparency. It is also seen that as the number of projection increases the error index decreases.

  9. Applying inversion techniques to understanding nucleus-nucleus potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, R.S.; Cooper, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    The iterative-perturbative (IP) inversion algorithm makes it possible to determine, essentially uniquely, the complex potential, including spin-orbit component, for spin half particles given the elastic scattering S-matrix S lj . We here report an extension of the method to the determination of energy dependent potentials V(r,E) defined over an energy range for which S lj (E) are provided. This is a natural development of the IP algorithm which has previously been applied to fixed energy, fixed partial wave and the intermediate mixed case inversion. The energy range can include negative energies i.e. V(r,E) can reproduce bound state energies. It can also fit the effective range parameter for low energy scattering. We briefly define the classes of cases which can be studied, outline the IP method itself and briefly review the range of applications. We show the power of the method by presenting nucleon-αV(r,E) for S lj (E) derived from experiments above and below the inelastic threshold and relating them to V(r,E) inverted from S lj (E) for RGM theory. Reference is given to the code IMAGO which embodies the IP algorithm. (author). 38 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Hyperspectral imaging based techniques applied to polluted clay characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2006-10-01

    Polluted soils analysis and characterization is one of the basic step to perform in order to collect all the information to design and set-up correct soil reclamation strategies. Soil analysis is usually performed through "in-situ" sampling and laboratory analysis. Such an approach is usually quite expensive and does not allow to reach a direct and detailed knowledge of large areas for the intrinsic limits (high costs) linked to direct sampling and polluting elements detection. As a consequence numerical strategies are applied to extrapolate, starting from a discrete set of data, that is those related to collected samples, information about the contamination level of areas not directly interested by physical sampling. These models are usually very difficult to handle both for the intrinsic variability characterizing the media (soils) and for the high level of interactions between polluting agents, soil characteristics (organic matter content, size class distribution of the inorganic fraction, composition, etc.) and environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, presence of vegetation, human activities, etc.). Aim of this study, starting from previous researches addressed to evaluate the potentialities of hyperspectral imaging approach in polluting soil characterization, was to evaluate the results obtainable in the investigation of an "ad hoc" polluted benthonic clay, usually utilized in rubbish dump, in order to define fast and reliable control strategies addressed to monitor the status of such a material in terms of insulation.

  11. Semantic Data And Visualization Techniques Applied To Geologic Field Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. I. Q.; Royo-Leon, M.; Munoz, R.; Estrada, E.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.; Pennington, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Geologic field mapping involves the use of technology before, during, and after visiting a site. Geologists utilize hardware such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) connected to mobile computing platforms such as tablets that include software such as ESRI's ArcPad and other software to produce maps and figures for a final analysis and report. Hand written field notes contain important information and drawings or sketches of specific areas within the field study. Our goal is to collect and geo-tag final and raw field data into a cyber-infrastructure environment with an ontology that allows for large data processing, visualization, sharing, and searching, aiding in connecting field research with prior research in the same area and/or aid with experiment replication. Online searches of a specific field area return results such as weather data from NOAA and QuakeML seismic data from USGS. These results that can then be saved to a field mobile device and searched while in the field where there is no Internet connection. To accomplish this we created the GeoField ontology service using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Protégé software. Advanced queries on the dataset can be made using reasoning capabilities can be supported that go beyond a standard database service. These improvements include the automated discovery of data relevant to a specific field site and visualization techniques aimed at enhancing analysis and collaboration while in the field by draping data over mobile views of the site using augmented reality. A case study is being performed at University of Texas at El Paso's Indio Mountains Research Station located near Van Horn, Texas, an active multi-disciplinary field study site. The user can interactively move the camera around the study site and view their data digitally. Geologist's can check their data against the site in real-time and improve collaboration with another person as both parties have the same interactive view of the data.

  12. Techniques for Automated Testing of Lola Industrial Robot Language Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Lutovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of parsing execution directly affects the accuracy of semantic analysis, optimization and object code generation. Therefore, parser testing represents the basis of compiler testing. It should include tests for correct and expected, but also for unexpected and invalid cases. Techniques for testing the parser, as well as algorithms and tools for test sentences generation, are discussed in this paper. The methodology for initial testing of a newly developed compiler is proposed. Generation of negative test sentences by modifying the original language grammar is described. Positive and negative test cases generated by Grow, Purdom’s algorithm with and without length control, CDRC-P algorithm and CDRC-P algorithm with length control are applied to the testing of L-IRL robot programming language. For this purpose two different tools for generation of test sentences are used. Based on the presented analysis of possible solutions, the appropriate method can be chosen for testing the parser for smaller grammars with many recursive rules.

  13. Small Punch Tests applied to the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.; Gongora, P.; Bertolino, G; Yawny, A.

    2012-01-01

    The interest on miniaturized specimen techniques for the characterization of the mechanical behavior of materials was strongly motivated in the early eighties by the different programs associated with the development of fusion reactor technology. The importance of such developments is obvious in the case of the nuclear industry where the limited space available, the presence of fluence gradients in large specimens, the concern about gamma heating and dose to personnel in post-irradiation testing have all been motivations for reducing specimen size. Testing of miniature specimen includes a wide spectrum of techniques such as tensile, instrumented micro-hardness, small punch, bend, fracture, impact and fatigue. Small Punch Testing (SPT) techniques use a spherical penetrator which deforms to failure a miniature disc shaped flat specimen (typically, 3-10 mm in diameter and 0.25-0.50 mm in thickness) supported on its outer rim. Analysis of load-displacement data recorded along the test is performed for the determination of the property of interest. The present work focuses on the characterization of the elastoplastic response of pure Al, ADN 420 structural steel and AISI 304L using SPT and its correlation with the associated standard uniaxial testing behavior. In addition, the sensitivity of the technique to the specific material under study and to different experimental parameters, i.e. specimen diameter and thickness, clearance or clamping force and friction between disc and dies have been assessed both experimentally and by performing simulations using the finite element method (author)

  14. Unsupervised Neural Techniques Applied to MR Brain Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of brain image segmentation is to partition a given brain image into different regions representing anatomical structures. Magnetic resonance image (MRI segmentation is especially interesting, since accurate segmentation in white matter, grey matter and cerebrospinal fluid provides a way to identify many brain disorders such as dementia, schizophrenia or Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Then, image segmentation results in a very interesting tool for neuroanatomical analyses. In this paper we show three alternatives to MR brain image segmentation algorithms, with the Self-Organizing Map (SOM as the core of the algorithms. The procedures devised do not use any a priori knowledge about voxel class assignment, and results in fully-unsupervised methods for MRI segmentation, making it possible to automatically discover different tissue classes. Our algorithm has been tested using the images from the Internet Brain Image Repository (IBSR outperforming existing methods, providing values for the average overlap metric of 0.7 for the white and grey matter and 0.45 for the cerebrospinal fluid. Furthermore, it also provides good results for high-resolution MR images provided by the Nuclear Medicine Service of the “Virgen de las Nieves” Hospital (Granada, Spain.

  15. Machine learning techniques applied to the determination of road suitability for the transportation of dangerous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías, J M; Taboada, J; Ordóñez, C; Nieto, P G

    2007-08-17

    This article describes a methodology to model the degree of remedial action required to make short stretches of a roadway suitable for dangerous goods transport (DGT), particularly pollutant substances, using different variables associated with the characteristics of each segment. Thirty-one factors determining the impact of an accident on a particular stretch of road were identified and subdivided into two major groups: accident probability factors and accident severity factors. Given the number of factors determining the state of a particular road segment, the only viable statistical methods for implementing the model were machine learning techniques, such as multilayer perceptron networks (MLPs), classification trees (CARTs) and support vector machines (SVMs). The results produced by these techniques on a test sample were more favourable than those produced by traditional discriminant analysis, irrespective of whether dimensionality reduction techniques were applied. The best results were obtained using SVMs specifically adapted to ordinal data. This technique takes advantage of the ordinal information contained in the data without penalising the computational load. Furthermore, the technique permits the estimation of the utility function that is latent in expert knowledge.

  16. Testing of reactor fuel materials using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The tests presented here apply to: the quantitative determination of uranium in the core of fuel element plates by the detection of the number of neutrons produced in photo induced reactions in uranium; the determination of 235 U proportion in uranium dioxide samples, in the form of uranyl nitrate, by the technique of the detection of tracks produced by fission fragments and in pellet samples by passive gamma spectrometry and the checking of uranium homogenization distribution in fuel plates and uranium dioxide pellets. (Author) [pt

  17. 4. International colloquium on nondestructive testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The different papers about non destructive testing (ultrasonic testing, eddy current testing, radiography etc...) are presented. The colloquium deals particularly with utilization in the nuclear field for quality of materials, quality control, improvement of performances or automation [fr

  18. 31 CFR 205.11 - What requirements apply to funding techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements apply to funding techniques? 205.11 Section 205.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.11 What requirements apply to funding techniques? (a) A State and a Federal...

  19. Interesting Developments in Testing Methods Applied to Foundation Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobala, Dariusz; Tkaczyński, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    Both: piling technologies and pile testing methods are a subject of current development. New technologies, providing larger diameters or using in-situ materials, are very demanding in terms of providing proper quality of execution of works. That concerns the material quality and continuity which define the integral strength of pile. On the other side we have the capacity of the ground around the pile and its ability to carry the loads transferred by shaft and pile base. Inhomogeneous nature of soils and a relatively small amount of tested piles imposes very good understanding of small amount of results. In some special cases the capacity test itself form an important cost in the piling contract. This work presents a brief description of selected testing methods and authors remarks based on cooperation with Universities constantly developing new ideas. Paper presents some experience based remarks on integrity testing by means of low energy impact (low strain) and introduces selected (Polish) developments in the field of closed-end pipe piles testing based on bi-directional loading, similar to Osterberg idea, but without sacrificial hydraulic jack. Such test is suitable especially when steel piles are used for temporary support in the rivers, where constructing of conventional testing appliance with anchor piles or kentledge meets technical problems. According to the author’s experience, such tests were not yet used on the building site but they bring a real potential especially, when the displacement control can be provided from the river bank using surveying techniques.

  20. Fatigue testing of three peristernal median sternotomy closure techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsgard, Cameron; Cohen, David J; Griffin, Lanny V

    2008-09-24

    Failure of a sternotomy closure because of closure system fatigue is a complication that may result in dehiscence and put the individual at risk for serious complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the fatigue performance of three peristernal median sternotomy closure techniques (figure-of-eight stainless-steel wires, figure-of-eight stainless-steel cables, or Pectofix Dynamic Sternal Fixation [DSF] stainless-steel plates) in order to quantify the potential risk of fatigue failure of these devices when subject to cyclic loads in physiologically relevant loading directions. All tests were conducted on polyurethane foam sternal models. A cardiothoracic surgeon divided each sternal model longitudinally and repaired it with a closure device. Tests were performed using a materials testing system that applied cyclic loading in a uniaxial direction until the test model catastrophically broke or data run-out occurred. For each loading direction (lateral distraction and longitudinal shear), five trials of each closure technique were tested. Life data and location of device failure (if present) were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using regression with life data allowed for correlation between life data and the various closure techniques to develop risk assessment curves for each device. The data show that the figure-of-eight stainless-steel cable and the DSF plate systems are considerably less likely to fail under both lateral distraction and longitudinal shear cyclic loading conditions as compared to the figure-of-eight stainless-steel wire system. Moreover, the figure-of-eight stainless-steel cable system is the most resistant to failure, particularly for high cycle counts. This study in addition to Cohen and Griffin's earlier published biomechanical comparison of the ultimate strength of these same three closure techniques provide extensive experimental evidence regarding the mechanical differences among these three peristernal median

  1. Fatigue testing of three peristernal median sternotomy closure techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin Lanny V

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Failure of a sternotomy closure because of closure system fatigue is a complication that may result in dehiscence and put the individual at risk for serious complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the fatigue performance of three peristernal median sternotomy closure techniques (figure-of-eight stainless-steel wires, figure-of-eight stainless-steel cables, or Pectofix Dynamic Sternal Fixation [DSF] stainless-steel plates in order to quantify the potential risk of fatigue failure of these devices when subject to cyclic loads in physiologically relevant loading directions. Study Design All tests were conducted on polyurethane foam sternal models. A cardiothoracic surgeon divided each sternal model longitudinally and repaired it with a closure device. Tests were performed using a materials testing system that applied cyclic loading in a uniaxial direction until the test model catastrophically broke or data run-out occurred. For each loading direction (lateral distraction and longitudinal shear, five trials of each closure technique were tested. Life data and location of device failure (if present were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using regression with life data allowed for correlation between life data and the various closure techniques to develop risk assessment curves for each device. Results The data show that the figure-of-eight stainless-steel cable and the DSF plate systems are considerably less likely to fail under both lateral distraction and longitudinal shear cyclic loading conditions as compared to the figure-of-eight stainless-steel wire system. Moreover, the figure-of-eight stainless-steel cable system is the most resistant to failure, particularly for high cycle counts. Conclusion This study in addition to Cohen and Griffin's earlier published biomechanical comparison of the ultimate strength of these same three closure techniques provide extensive experimental evidence regarding the

  2. Improving Skill Development: An Exploratory Study Comparing a Philosophical and an Applied Ethical Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of…

  3. How to reduce errors in applying impairment tests

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Christian; Plenborg, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Fair value accounting has become predominant in accounting as a vast number of IAS/IFRS standards are based on fair value accounting, including IAS 36 Impairment of assets. Fair value accounting for goodwill is technically challenging, since market prices are not observable. Thus, valuation technologies must be applied in order to test goodwill for impairment. While prior research on goodwill has concentrated on either the (dis)advantages for each accounting procedure for goodwill or exami...

  4. Applications of NLP Techniques to Computer-Assisted Authoring of Test Items for Elementary Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Lin; Lin, Jen-Hsiang; Wang, Yu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The authors report an implemented environment for computer-assisted authoring of test items and provide a brief discussion about the applications of NLP techniques for computer assisted language learning. Test items can serve as a tool for language learners to examine their competence in the target language. The authors apply techniques for…

  5. Testing of statistical techniques used in SYVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalrymple, G.; Edwards, H.; Prust, J.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of the SYVAC (SYstems Variability Analysis Code) output adopted four techniques to provide a cross comparison of their performance. The techniques used were: examination of scatter plots; correlation/regression; Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks; comparison of cumulative distribution functions and risk estimates between sub-ranges of parameter values. The analysis was conducted for the case of a single nuclide chain and was based mainly on simulated dose after 500,000 years. The results from this single SYVAC case showed that site parameters had the greatest influence on dose to man. The techniques of correlation/regression and Kruskal-Wallis were both successful and consistent in their identification of important parameters. Both techniques ranked the eight most important parameters in the same order when analysed for maximum dose. The results from a comparison of cdfs and risks in sub-ranges of the parameter values were not entirely consistent with other techniques. Further sampling of the high dose region is recommended in order to improve the accuracy of this method. (author)

  6. Model techniques for testing heated concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanou, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental techniques are described which may be used in the laboratory to measure strains of model concrete structures representing to scale actual structures of any shape or geometry, operating at elevated temperatures, for which time-dependent creep and shrinkage strains are dominant. These strains could be used to assess the distribution of stress in the scaled structure and hence to predict the actual behaviour of concrete structures used in nuclear power stations. Similar techniques have been employed in an investigation to measure elastic, thermal, creep and shrinkage strains in heated concrete models representing to scale parts of prestressed concrete pressure vessels for nuclear reactors. (author)

  7. TESTING DIFFERENT SURVEY TECHNIQUES TO MODEL ARCHITECTONIC NARROW SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mandelli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the architectural survey field, there has been the spread of a vast number of automated techniques. However, it is important to underline the gap that exists between the technical specification sheet of a particular instrument and its usability, accuracy and level of automation reachable in real cases scenario, especially speaking about Cultural Heritage (CH field. In fact, even if the technical specifications (range, accuracy and field of view are known for each instrument, their functioning and features are influenced by the environment, shape and materials of the object. The results depend more on how techniques are employed than the nominal specifications of the instruments. The aim of this article is to evaluate the real usability, for the 1:50 architectonic restitution scale, of common and not so common survey techniques applied to the complex scenario of dark, intricate and narrow spaces such as service areas, corridors and stairs of Milan’s cathedral indoors. Tests have shown that the quality of the results is strongly affected by side-issues like the impossibility of following the theoretical ideal methodology when survey such spaces. The tested instruments are: the laser scanner Leica C10, the GeoSLAM ZEB1, the DOT DPI 8 and two photogrammetric setups, a full frame camera with a fisheye lens and the NCTech iSTAR, a panoramic camera. Each instrument presents advantages and limits concerning both the sensors themselves and the acquisition phase.

  8. Testing Different Survey Techniques to Model Architectonic Narrow Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, A.; Fassi, F.; Perfetti, L.; Polari, C.

    2017-08-01

    In the architectural survey field, there has been the spread of a vast number of automated techniques. However, it is important to underline the gap that exists between the technical specification sheet of a particular instrument and its usability, accuracy and level of automation reachable in real cases scenario, especially speaking about Cultural Heritage (CH) field. In fact, even if the technical specifications (range, accuracy and field of view) are known for each instrument, their functioning and features are influenced by the environment, shape and materials of the object. The results depend more on how techniques are employed than the nominal specifications of the instruments. The aim of this article is to evaluate the real usability, for the 1:50 architectonic restitution scale, of common and not so common survey techniques applied to the complex scenario of dark, intricate and narrow spaces such as service areas, corridors and stairs of Milan's cathedral indoors. Tests have shown that the quality of the results is strongly affected by side-issues like the impossibility of following the theoretical ideal methodology when survey such spaces. The tested instruments are: the laser scanner Leica C10, the GeoSLAM ZEB1, the DOT DPI 8 and two photogrammetric setups, a full frame camera with a fisheye lens and the NCTech iSTAR, a panoramic camera. Each instrument presents advantages and limits concerning both the sensors themselves and the acquisition phase.

  9. Simple Flame Test Techniques Using Cotton Swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes three new methods for performing simple flame tests using cotton swabs. The first method uses a Bunsen burner and solid metal salts; the second method uses a Bunsen burner and 1 M aqueous solutions of metal salts; and the third method uses candles, rubbing alcohol, and solid metal salts. These methods have the advantage of being easy to perform, require inexpensive and easily-obtained materials, and have easy cleanup and disposal methods. See the Discussion on this Tested Demonstation .

  10. Vibration monitoring/diagnostic techniques, as applied to reactor coolant pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sculthorpe, B.R.; Johnson, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    With the increased awareness of reactor coolant pump (RCP) cracked shafts, brought about by the catastrophic shaft failure at Crystal River number3, Florida Power and Light Company, in conjunction with Bently Nevada Corporation, undertook a test program at St. Lucie Nuclear Unit number2, to confirm the integrity of all four RCP pump shafts. Reactor coolant pumps play a major roll in the operation of nuclear-powered generation facilities. The time required to disassemble and physically inspect a single RCP shaft would be lengthy, monetarily costly to the utility and its customers, and cause possible unnecessary man-rem exposure to plant personnel. When properly applied, vibration instrumentation can increase unit availability/reliability, as well as provide enhanced diagnostic capability. This paper reviews monitoring benefits and diagnostic techniques applicable to RCPs/motor drives

  11. NDE Techniques Used in PARENT Open Round Robin Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-11-05

    This is a draft technical letter report for NRC client describing the NDE techniques used in the open testing portion of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT).

  12. Recording length criteria as applied in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Kroening, M.; Schober, H.; Fischdick, H.

    1983-01-01

    An appreciable method used to assess the quality and integrity of safety-related components in light water reactors is the ultrasonic examination, in which case great importance is attributed to the criteria pertaining to recording length and permissible defect size. The development of the recording length criteria as applied when employing this method of examination is portrayed, the latter being based on the criteria which have proven themselves throughout long years of practice in the examination of conventional components. When taking these criteria into account the application of conventional ultrasonic techniques often leads to problems in the case of thick-walled components the reason being that indications are overrated. Taking the design of reactor components as the basic point of consideration, modified criteria are derived particularly when the size of discontinuities calculated by fracture mechanics analyses is taken into account. The introduction of new ultrasonic examination techniques such as, for example, focussed probes revealed that a considerably more realistic assessment is possible and consequently results in a reduction of unnecessary repairs. A comparison of the size of indications determined using conventional and analytical technqiues renders possible the anchoring of an intermediate stage in the evaluation of indications which is encompassed in the consideration of the bundle divergence. Thus a new concept is realized for the evaluation of ultrasonic indications detected in reactor components, which in the meantime has found its way into the associated regulatory guides. (orig.)

  13. Hacking with Kali practical penetration testing techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Broad, James

    2013-01-01

    Hacking with Kali introduces you the most current distribution of the de facto standard tool for Linux pen testing. Starting with use of the Kali live CD and progressing through installation on hard drives, thumb drives and SD cards, author James Broad walks you through creating a custom version of the Kali live distribution. You'll learn how to configure networking components, storage devices and system services such as DHCP and web services. Once you're familiar with the basic components of the software, you'll learn how to use Kali through the phases of the penetration testing lifecycle

  14. E Test: a novel technique for antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Silva Sader

    Full Text Available We describe the applicability of the E test (AB Biodisk Solna, Sweden, a new method for determining minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents against bacteria. This report is based on the literature review and on our own experience using the E test for susceptibility testing of the Xanthomonas maltophilia, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus viridans group against eight different drugs.

  15. Applied field test procedures on petroleum release sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, G.; Nichols, L.

    1995-01-01

    The effective remediation of petroleum contaminated soils and ground water is a significant issue for Williams Pipe Line Co. (Williams): costing $6.8 million in 1994. It is in the best interest, then, for Williams to adopt approaches and apply technologies that will be both cost-effective and comply with regulations. Williams has found the use of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS) field test procedures at the onset of a petroleum release investigation/remediation accomplish these goals. This paper focuses on the application of AS/SVE as the preferred technology to a specific type of remediation: refined petroleum products. In situ field tests are used prior to designing a full-scale remedial system to first validate or disprove initial assumptions on applicability of the technology. During the field test, remedial system design parameters are also collected to tailor the design and operation of a full-scale system to site specific conditions: minimizing cost and optimizing effectiveness. In situ field tests should be designed and operated to simulate as close as possible the operation of a full-scale remedial system. The procedures of an in situ field test will be presented. The results of numerous field tests and the associated costs will also be evaluated and compared to full-scale remedial systems and total project costs to demonstrate overall effectiveness. There are many advantages of As/SVE technologies over conventional fluid extraction or SVE systems alone. However, the primary advantage is the ability to simultaneously reduce volatile and biodegradable compound concentrations in the phreatic, capillary fringe, and unsaturated zones

  16. Applying well flow adapted filtering to transient pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Alraune; Attinger, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    Transient pumping tests are often used to estimate porous medium characteristics like hydraulic conductivity and storativity. The interpretation of pumping test drawdowns is based on methods which are normally developed under the assumption of homogeneous porous media. However aquifer heterogeneity strongly impacts on well flow pattern, in particular in the vicinity of the pumping well. The purpose of this work is to present a method to interpret drawdowns of transient pumping tests in heterogeneous porous media. With this method we are able to describe the effects that statistical quantities like variance and correlation length have on pumping test drawdowns. Furthermore it allows inferring on the statistical parameters of aquifer heterogeneity from drawdown data by invers estimation, which is not possible using methods for homogeneous media like Theis' solution. The method is based on a representative description of hydraulic conductivity for radial flow regimes. It is derived from a well flow adapted filtering procedure (Coarse Graining), where the heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity is assumed to be log-normal distributed with a Gaussian correlation structure. applying the up scaled hydraulic conductivity to the groundwater flow equation results in a hydraulic head which depends on the statistical parameters of the porous medium. It describes the drawdown of a transient pumping test in heterogeneous media. We used an ensemble of transient pumping test simulations to verify the up scaled drawdown solution. We generated transient pumping tests in heterogeneous media for various values of the statistical parameters variance and correlation length and evaluated their impact on the drawdown behavior as well as on the temporal evolution. We further examined the impact of several aspects like the location of an observation well or the local conductivity at the pumping well on the drawdown behavior. This work can be understood as an expansion of the work of Zech et

  17. Applying BI Techniques To Improve Decision Making And Provide Knowledge Based Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maria Ioana FLOREA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on BI techniques and especially data mining algorithms that can support and improve the decision making process, with applications within the financial sector. We consider the data mining techniques to be more efficient and thus we applied several techniques, supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms The case study in which these algorithms have been implemented regards the activity of a banking institution, with focus on the management of lending activities.

  18. Testing techniques in nuclear, petroleum and metallurgic industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The nondestructive testing techniques by ultrasonic waves, eddy currents, acoustic emission used by Intercontrole (a CEA's affiliated firm in nuclear petrochemical, and engineering site measurements) are presented [fr

  19. Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques for Assertion-Based Software Testing Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeel, Ali M

    2015-01-01

    Software testing is a very labor intensive and costly task. Therefore, many software testing techniques to automate the process of software testing have been reported in the literature. Assertion-Based automated software testing has been shown to be effective in detecting program faults as compared to traditional black-box and white-box software testing methods. However, the applicability of this approach in the presence of large numbers of assertions may be very costly. Therefore, software developers need assistance while making decision to apply Assertion-Based testing in order for them to get the benefits of this approach at an acceptable level of costs. In this paper, we present an Assertion-Based testing metrics technique that is based on fuzzy logic. The main goal of the proposed technique is to enhance the performance of Assertion-Based software testing in the presence of large numbers of assertions. To evaluate the proposed technique, an experimental study was performed in which the proposed technique is applied on programs with assertions. The result of this experiment shows that the effectiveness and performance of Assertion-Based software testing have improved when applying the proposed testing metrics technique.

  20. Ground/Flight Test Techniques and Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    4A-9 .2 K Fig. 12 Fig. 13 E -vu~ P,-r 1. Fio T l i[ ~ I Ett..tu. ttPI.t: iq .... .. .. . .. .... .t -- ’-I -2t Fig. 14 Fig. 15 F%. fAt ~~S,- -lr R oCt...cand fat ihque test,, de- ’sonrs t ra to tha t the a i rc t ft is Jdoed Ute for t he di1 f fe rent des 1i unl ad L ud It 1 ohs rho ,e IOc:t ion of... excercise , the flight trials allow also an assessment of the fu-tioning of the arma- ment system, e.g. arming sequences, mechanical and electrical interfaces

  1. Testing applied in Brazilian studies in sport psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Melina Becker da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sport Psychology is one of the areas of the expertise of psychologists that makes use assessment tools. Therefore depends on the construction and validation of instruments for this population. Examine the instruments cited in this literature can help in this process. This study examined the instruments validated for the Brazilian population, cited in national articles on Sport Psychology, from 2002 to 2012. The descriptors "validation", "test", "sport", and "Psychophysiology", were crossed with descriptors "anxiety", "stress", "depression", "motivation", "leadership", "aggression," "imagination," "humor," "self-esteem", and "self-efficacy" - on the electronic bases Periódicos/CAPES, SciELO-Brazil and PubMed, in January 2013. For 38 sports and other non-competitive, six instruments translated and validated in Brazil were found, but not yet assessed / approved by the Federal Council of Psychology. The inclusion of the psychophysiological measures in the evaluation process and the validation of the instruments applied to Sport Psychology are discusses.

  2. Applying the GNSS Volcanic Ash Plume Detection Technique to Consumer Navigation Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, N.; Palo, S.; Larson, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) rely on predictably structured and constant power RF signals to fulfill their primary use for navigation and timing. When the received strength of GNSS signals deviates from the expected baseline, it is typically due to a change in the local environment. This can occur when signal reflections from the ground are modified by changes in snow or soil moisture content, as well as by attenuation of the signal from volcanic ash. This effect allows GNSS signals to be used as a source for passive remote sensing. Larson et al. (2017) have developed a detection technique for volcanic ash plumes based on the attenuation seen at existing geodetic GNSS sites. Since these existing networks are relatively sparse, this technique has been extended to use lower cost consumer GNSS receiver chips to enable higher density measurements of volcanic ash. These low-cost receiver chips have been integrated into a fully stand-alone sensor, with independent power, communications, and logging capabilities as part of a Volcanic Ash Plume Receiver (VAPR) network. A mesh network of these sensors transmits data to a local base-station which then streams the data real-time to a web accessible server. Initial testing of this sensor network has uncovered that a different detection approach is necessary when using consumer GNSS receivers and antennas. The techniques to filter and process the lower quality data from consumer receivers will be discussed and will be applied to initial results from a functioning VAPR network installation.

  3. Bioclimatic and vegetation mapping of a topographically complex oceanic island applying different interpolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Machado, Víctor; Otto, Rüdiger; del Arco Aguilar, Marcelino José

    2014-07-01

    Different spatial interpolation techniques have been applied to construct objective bioclimatic maps of La Palma, Canary Islands. Interpolation of climatic data on this topographically complex island with strong elevation and climatic gradients represents a challenge. Furthermore, meteorological stations are not evenly distributed over the island, with few stations at high elevations. We carried out spatial interpolations of the compensated thermicity index (Itc) and the annual ombrothermic Index (Io), in order to obtain appropriate bioclimatic maps by using automatic interpolation procedures, and to establish their relation to potential vegetation units for constructing a climatophilous potential natural vegetation map (CPNV). For this purpose, we used five interpolation techniques implemented in a GIS: inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), ordinary cokriging (OCK), multiple linear regression (MLR) and MLR followed by ordinary kriging of the regression residuals. Two topographic variables (elevation and aspect), derived from a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), were included in OCK and MLR. The accuracy of the interpolation techniques was examined by the results of the error statistics of test data derived from comparison of the predicted and measured values. Best results for both bioclimatic indices were obtained with the MLR method with interpolation of the residuals showing the highest R 2 of the regression between observed and predicted values and lowest values of root mean square errors. MLR with correction of interpolated residuals is an attractive interpolation method for bioclimatic mapping on this oceanic island since it permits one to fully account for easily available geographic information but also takes into account local variation of climatic data.

  4. Situational Awareness Applied to Geology Field Mapping using Integration of Semantic Data and Visualization Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. I. Q.

    2017-12-01

    21st century earth science is data-intensive, characterized by heterogeneous, sometimes voluminous collections representing phenomena at different scales collected for different purposes and managed in disparate ways. However, much of the earth's surface still requires boots-on-the-ground, in-person fieldwork in order to detect the subtle variations from which humans can infer complex structures and patterns. Nevertheless, field experiences can and should be enabled and enhanced by a variety of emerging technologies. The goal of the proposed research project is to pilot test emerging data integration, semantic and visualization technologies for evaluation of their potential usefulness in the field sciences, particularly in the context of field geology. The proposed project will investigate new techniques for data management and integration enabled by semantic web technologies, along with new techniques for augmented reality that can operate on such integrated data to enable in situ visualization in the field. The research objectives include: Develop new technical infrastructure that applies target technologies to field geology; Test, evaluate, and assess the technical infrastructure in a pilot field site; Evaluate the capabilities of the systems for supporting and augmenting field science; and Assess the generality of the system for implementation in new and different types of field sites. Our hypothesis is that these technologies will enable what we call "field science situational awareness" - a cognitive state formerly attained only through long experience in the field - that is highly desirable but difficult to achieve in time- and resource-limited settings. Expected outcomes include elucidation of how, and in what ways, these technologies are beneficial in the field; enumeration of the steps and requirements to implement these systems; and cost/benefit analyses that evaluate under what conditions the investments of time and resources are advisable to construct

  5. Electrochemical microfluidic chip based on molecular imprinting technique applied for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Min; Tian, Liping; Sun, Shiguo; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Feilang; Li, Yingchun

    2017-05-15

    In this work, a novel electrochemical detection platform was established by integrating molecularly imprinting technique with microfluidic chip and applied for trace measurement of three therapeutic drugs. The chip foundation is acrylic panel with designed grooves. In the detection cell of the chip, a Pt wire is used as the counter electrode and reference electrode, and a Au-Ag alloy microwire (NPAMW) with 3D nanoporous surface modified with electro-polymerized molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film as the working electrode. Detailed characterization of the chip and the working electrode was performed, and the properties were explored by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Two methods, respectively based on electrochemical catalysis and MIP/gate effect were employed for detecting warfarin sodium by using the prepared chip. The linearity of electrochemical catalysis method was in the range of 5×10 -6 -4×10 -4 M, which fails to meet clinical testing demand. By contrast, the linearity of gate effect was 2×10 -11 -4×10 -9 M with remarkably low detection limit of 8×10 -12 M (S/N=3), which is able to satisfy clinical assay. Then the system was applied for 24-h monitoring of drug concentration in plasma after administration of warfarin sodium in rabbit, and the corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. In addition, the microfluidic chip was successfully adopted to analyze cyclophosphamide and carbamazepine, implying its good versatile ability. It is expected that this novel electrochemical microfluidic chip can act as a promising format for point-of-care testing via monitoring different analytes sensitively and conveniently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Machine Learning Techniques Applied to Profile Mobile Banking Users in India

    OpenAIRE

    M. Carr; V. Ravi; G. Sridharan Reddy; D. Veranna

    2013-01-01

    This paper profiles mobile banking users using machine learning techniques viz. Decision Tree, Logistic Regression, Multilayer Perceptron, and SVM to test a research model with fourteen independent variables and a dependent variable (adoption). A survey was conducted and the results were analysed using these techniques. Using Decision Trees the profile of the mobile banking adopter’s profile was identified. Comparing different machine learning techniques it was found that Decision Trees out...

  7. Investigation about the efficiency of the bioaugmentation technique when applied to diesel oil contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the efficiency of the bioaugmentation technique when applied to diesel oil contaminated soils collected at three service stations. Batch biodegradation experiments were carried out in Bartha biometer flasks (250 mL used to measure the microbial CO2 production. Biodegradation efficiency was also measured by quantifying the concentration of hydrocarbons. In addition to the biodegradation experiments, the capability of the studied cultures and the native microorganisms to biodegrade the diesel oil purchased from a local service station, was verified using a technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP. Results obtained with this test showed that the inocula used in the biodegradation experiments were able to degrade the diesel oil and the tests carried out with the native microorganisms indicated that these soils had a microbiota adapted to degrade the hydrocarbons. In general, no gain was obtained with the addition of microorganisms or even negative effects were observed in the biodegradation experiments.Este trabalho investigou a eficiência da técnica do bioaumento quando aplicada a solos contaminados com óleo diesel coletados em três postos de combustíveis. Experimentos de biodegradação foram realizados em frascos de Bartha (250 mL, usados para medir a produção microbiana de CO2. A eficiência de biodegradação também foi quantificada pela concentração de hidrocarbonetos. Conjuntamente aos experimentos de biodegradação, a capacidade das culturas estudadas e dos microrganismos nativos em biodegradar óleo diesel comprado de um posto de combustíveis local, foi verificada utilizando-se a técnica baseada no indicador redox 2,6 - diclorofenol indofenol (DCPIP. Resultados obtidos com esse teste mostraram que os inóculos empregados nos experimentos de biodegradação foram capazes de biodegradar óleo diesel e os testes com os microrganismos nativos indicaram que estes solos

  8. Applying Communication Theories toward Designing Compliance-Gaining Techniques in Customer Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Matusitz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to apply three communication theories (namely, Argumentation Theory, the Foot-in-the-Door Technique, and the Door-in-the-Face Technique to the formulation of complaints that communicate effectively to company employees and yield compensation for the consumer. What the authors demonstrate is that complaining is not a haphazard procedure if communication theories are applied properly. In addition, also emphasized is the importance of self-efficacy, as a psychological component, to illustrate the necessity for complainers to have sufficient and trueself-confidence in order to carry out each of these theories in practice.

  9. Database 'catalogue of techniques applied to materials and products of nuclear engineering'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, E.E.; Golovanov, V.N.; Podkopayeva, I.A.; Temnoyeva, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    The database 'Catalogue of techniques applied to materials and products of nuclear engineering' (IS MERI) was developed to provide informational support for SSC RF RIAR and other enterprises in scientific investigations. This database contains information on the techniques used at RF Minatom enterprises for reactor material properties investigation. The main purpose of this system consists in the assessment of the current status of the reactor material science experimental base for the further planning of experimental activities and methodical support improvement. (author)

  10. Ultrasonic creeping wave test technique for dissimilar metal weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jianzhong; Shang Junmin; Yan Zhi; Yuan Guanghua; Zhang Guofeng

    2009-01-01

    To solve the problem encountered in the defect inspection of the surface and near-surface of dissimilar metal weld effectively, a new ultrasonic creeping wave test technique is developed. In this paper, the test technique and its experimental verification are mainly described. The verification results show that linear defect, which is similar to the defect found in liquid penetrant test, on the surface and near-surface of dissimilar metal weld can be detected effectively, by using ultrasonic creeping wave test technique. And the depth, length and height of the defect can be determined easily. The effective covering depth of ultrasonic creeping wave test technique will reach 0-9 mm. Meanwhile, the planar defect, with equivalent area more than 3 mm 2 , existed in welds can be detected efficiently. So, accurate measurement, which self height dimension of planar defect is above 2 mm, will be realized. (authors)

  11. Strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana – Julieta Josan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector.The approach of the paper is to identify the most appropriate strategies and techniques that non-profit sector can use to accomplish its objectives, to highlight specific differences between the strategies and techniques of the profit and non-profit sectors and to identify potential communication and public relations actions in order to increase visibility among target audience, create brand awareness and to change into positive brand sentiment the target perception about the non-profit sector.

  12. The impact of applying product-modelling techniques in configurator projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Shafiee, Sara

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to increase understanding of the impact of using product-modelling techniques to structure and formalise knowledge in configurator projects. Companies that provide customised products increasingly apply configurators in support of sales and design activities, reaping benefits...... though extant literature has shown the importance of formal modelling techniques, the impact of utilising these techniques remains relatively unknown. Therefore, this article studies three main areas: (1) the impact of using modelling techniques based on Unified Modelling Language (UML), in which...... ability to reduce the number of product variants. This paper contributes to an increased understanding of what companies can gain from using more formalised modelling techniques in configurator projects, and under what circumstances they should be used....

  13. Advanced examination techniques applied to the qualification of critical welds for the ITER correction coils

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano; Libeyre, Paul; Marcinek, Dawid Jaroslaw; Piguiet, Aline; Cécillon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The ITER correction coils (CCs) consist of three sets of six coils located in between the toroidal (TF) and poloidal field (PF) magnets. The CCs rely on a Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC), whose supercritical cooling at 4.5 K is provided by helium inlets and outlets. The assembly of the nozzles to the stainless steel conductor conduit includes fillet welds requiring full penetration through the thickness of the nozzle. Static and cyclic stresses have to be sustained by the inlet welds during operation. The entire volume of helium inlet and outlet welds, that are submitted to the most stringent quality levels of imperfections according to standards in force, is virtually uninspectable with sufficient resolution by conventional or computed radiography or by Ultrasonic Testing. On the other hand, X-ray computed tomography (CT) was successfully applied to inspect the full weld volume of several dozens of helium inlet qualification samples. The extensive use of CT techniques allowed a significant progress in the ...

  14. Applying the Implicit Association Test to Measure Intolerance of Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Oriana; Dentale, Francesco; Lauriola, Marco; Leone, Luigi

    2016-08-01

    Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is a key trans-diagnostic personality construct strongly associated with anxiety symptoms. Traditionally, IU is measured through self-report measures that are prone to bias effects due to impression management concerns and introspective difficulties. Moreover, self-report scales are not able to intercept the automatic associations that are assumed to be main determinants of several spontaneous responses (e.g., emotional reactions). In order to overcome these limitations, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was applied to measure IU, with a particular focus on reliability and criterion validity issues. The IU-IAT and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory (IUI) were administered to an undergraduate student sample (54 females and 10 males) with a mean age of 23 years (SD = 1.7). Successively, participants were asked to provide an individually chosen uncertain event from their own lives that may occur in the future and were requested to identify a number of potential negative consequences of it. Participants' responses in terms of cognitive thoughts (i.e., cognitive appraisal) and worry reactions toward these events were assessed using the two subscales of the Worry and Intolerance of Uncertainty Beliefs Questionnaire. The IU-IAT showed an adequate level of internal consistency and a not significant correlation with the IUI. A path analysis model, accounting for 35% of event-related worry, revealed that IUI had a significant indirect effect on the dependent variable through event-related IU thoughts. By contrast, as expected, IU-IAT predicted event-related worry independently from IU thoughts. In accordance with dual models of social cognition, these findings suggest that IU can influence event-related worry through two different processing pathways (automatic vs. deliberative), supporting the criterion and construct validity of the IU-IAT. The potential role of the IU-IAT for clinical applications was discussed. © The Author

  15. Recommendations for learners are different: Applying memory-based recommender system techniques to lifelong learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2007). Recommendations for learners are different: applying memory-based recommender system techniques to lifelong learning. Paper presented at the SIRTEL workshop at the EC-TEL 2007 Conference. September, 17-20, 2007, Crete, Greece.

  16. English Language Teachers' Perceptions on Knowing and Applying Contemporary Language Teaching Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucuoglu, Esen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of English language teachers teaching at a preparatory school in relation to their knowing and applying contemporary language teaching techniques in their lessons. An investigation was conducted of 21 English language teachers at a preparatory school in North Cyprus. The SPSS statistical…

  17. Implementation of Computer Assisted Audit Techniques in Application Controls Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Jakšić

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines possibilities of implementation of advanced computer assisted audit techniques into verification of efficiency and effectiveness of application controls. Application controls i.e. input, processing and output controls should ensure the completeness and accuracy of records. The main computer assisted audit techniques could be categorized as: test data, integrated test facility, parallel simulation and online audit monitor. There is a possibility of utilization of these tech...

  18. FPGA based mixed-signal circuit novel testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouros, Sotirios; Vassios, Vassilios; Papakostas, Dimitrios; Hristov, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Electronic circuits fault detection techniques, especially on modern mixed-signal circuits, are evolved and customized around the world to meet the industry needs. The paper presents techniques used on fault detection in mixed signal circuits. Moreover, the paper involves standardized methods, along with current innovations for external testing like Design for Testability (DfT) and Built In Self Test (BIST) systems. Finally, the research team introduces a circuit implementation scheme using FPGA

  19. Ninja hacking unconventional penetration testing tactics and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhelm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Ever thought of using the time-tested tactics and techniques of the ancient ninja to understand the mind of today's ninja, the hacker? As a penetration tester or security consultant you no doubt perform tests both externally and internally for your clients that include both physical and technical tests. Throw traditional pen testing methods out the window for now and see how thinking and acting like a ninja can actually grant you quicker and more complete access to a company's assets. Get in before the hacker does with these unorthodox techniques. Use all of the tools that the ninja has: di

  20. Statistical Techniques Used in Three Applied Linguistics Journals: "Language Learning,""Applied Linguistics" and "TESOL Quarterly," 1980-1986: Implications for Readers and Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleni, Vicki; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    A study investigated the statistical techniques used by applied linguists and reported in three journals, "Language Learning,""Applied Linguistics," and "TESOL Quarterly," between 1980 and 1986. It was found that 47% of the published articles used statistical procedures. In these articles, 63% of the techniques used could be called basic, 28%…

  1. An overview of current techniques for ocular toxicity testing

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Samantha L.; Ahearne, Mark; Hopkinson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED Abstract Given the hazardous nature of many materials and substances, ocular toxicity testing is required to evaluate the dangers associated with these substances after their exposure to the eye. Historically, animal tests such as the Draize test were exclusively used to determine the level of ocular toxicity by applying a test substance to a live rabbit’s eye and evaluating the biological response. In recent years, legislation in many developed countries has been introduced t...

  2. Technique for unit testing of safety software verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Duo; Zhang Liangju; Feng Junting

    2008-01-01

    The key issue arising from digitalization of the reactor protection system for nuclear power plant is how to carry out verification and validation (V and V), to demonstrate and confirm the software that performs reactor safety functions is safe and reliable. One of the most important processes for software V and V is unit testing, which verifies and validates the software coding based on concept design for consistency, correctness and completeness during software development. The paper shows a preliminary study on the technique for unit testing of safety software V and V, focusing on such aspects as how to confirm test completeness, how to establish test platform, how to develop test cases and how to carry out unit testing. The technique discussed here was successfully used in the work of unit testing on safety software of a digital reactor protection system. (authors)

  3. Biomechanical study of the funnel technique applied in thoracic pedicle screw replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jiang; Peng, Mao-Xiu; He, Shao-Qi; Liu, Liang-Le; Dai, Ming-Hai; Tang, Chenxuan

    2014-09-01

    Funnel technique is a method used for the insertion of screw into thoracic pedicle. To evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of thoracic pedicle screw placement using the Funnel technique, trying to provide biomechanical basis for clinical application of this technology. 14 functional spinal units (T6 to T10) were selected from thoracic spine specimens of 14 fresh adult cadavers, and randomly divided into two groups, including Funnel technique group (n = 7) and Magerl technique group (n = 7). The displacement-stiffness and pull-out strength in all kinds of position were tested and compared. Two fixed groups were significantly higher than that of the intact state (P 0.05). The mean pull-out strength in Funnel technique group (789.09 ± 27.33) was lower than that in Magerl technique group (P Funnel technique for the insertion point of posterior bone is a safe and accurate technique for pedicle screw placement. It exhibited no effects on the stiffness of spinal column, but decreased the pull-out strength of pedicle screw. Therefore, the funnel technique in the thoracic spine affords an alternative for the standard screw placement.

  4. Modelling the effects of the sterile insect technique applied to Eldana saccharina Walker in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Potgieter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is formulated for the population dynamics of an Eldana saccharina Walker infestation of sugarcane under the influence of partially sterile released insects. The model describes the population growth of and interaction between normal and sterile E.saccharina moths in a temporally variable, but spatially homogeneous environment. The model consists of a deterministic system of difference equations subject to strictly positive initial data. The primary objective of this model is to determine suitable parameters in terms of which the above population growth and interaction may be quantified and according to which E.saccharina infestation levels and the associated sugarcane damage may be measured. Although many models have been formulated in the past describing the sterile insect technique, few of these models describe the technique for Lepidopteran species with more than one life stage and where F1-sterility is relevant. In addition, none of these models consider the technique when fully sterile females and partially sterile males are being released. The model formulated is also the first to describe the technique applied specifically to E.saccharina, and to consider the economic viability of applying the technique to this species. Pertinent decision support is provided to farm managers in terms of the best timing for releases, release ratios and release frequencies.

  5. Twitch interpolation technique in testing of maximal muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim was to study the methodological aspects of the muscle twitch interpolation technique in estimating the maximal force of contraction in the quadriceps muscle utilizing commercial muscle testing equipment. Six healthy subjects participated in seven sets of experiments testing the effects...

  6. Quantitative thoracic CT techniques in adults: can they be applied in the pediatric population?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Soon Ho [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    With the rapid evolution of the multidetector row CT technique, quantitative CT has started to be used in clinical studies for revealing a heterogeneous entity of airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that is caused by a combination of lung parenchymal destruction and remodeling of the small airways in adults. There is growing evidence of a good correlation between quantitative CT findings and pathological findings, pulmonary function test results and other clinical parameters. This article provides an overview of current quantitative thoracic CT techniques used in adults, and how to translate these CT techniques to the pediatric population. (orig.)

  7. Renormalization techniques applied to the study of density of states in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Ibanez, J.

    1985-01-01

    A general scheme for real space renormalization of formal scattering theory is presented and applied to the calculation of density of states (DOS) in some finite width systems. This technique is extended in a self-consistent way, to the treatment of disordered and partially ordered chains. Numerical results of moments and DOS are presented in comparison with previous calculations. In addition, a self-consistent theory for the magnetic order problem in a Hubbard chain is derived and a parametric transition is observed. Properties of localization of the electronic states in disordered chains are studied through various decimation averaging techniques and using numerical simulations. (author) [pt

  8. Applying Data Mining Techniques to Improve Information Security in the Cloud: A Single Cache System Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Amany AlShawi

    2016-01-01

    Presently, the popularity of cloud computing is gradually increasing day by day. The purpose of this research was to enhance the security of the cloud using techniques such as data mining with specific reference to the single cache system. From the findings of the research, it was observed that the security in the cloud could be enhanced with the single cache system. For future purposes, an Apriori algorithm can be applied to the single cache system. This can be applied by all cloud providers...

  9. Best Available Technique (BAT) assessment applied to ACR-1000 waste and heavy water management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachar, M.; Julien, S.; Hau, K.

    2010-01-01

    The ACR-1000 design is the next evolution of the proven CANDU reactor design. One of the key objectives for this project was to systematically apply the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle to the reactor design. The ACR design team selected the Best Available Technique (BAT) assessment for this purpose to document decisions made during the design of each ACR-1000 waste and heavy water management systems. This paper describes the steps in the BAT assessment that has been applied to the ACR-1000 design. (author)

  10. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.

  11. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  12. Potential diagnostic consequences of applying non-invasive prenatal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, O B; Vogel, I; Ekelund, C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Targeted non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies and could be an alternative to traditional karyotyping. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of missing other abnormal karyotypes of probable phenotypic...

  13. Just-in-Time techniques as applied to hazardous materials management

    OpenAIRE

    Spicer, John S.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study investigates the feasibility of integrating JIT techniques in the context of hazardous materials management. This study provides a description of JIT, a description of environmental compliance issues and the outgrowth of related HAZMAT policies, and a broad perspective on strategies for applying JIT to HAZMAT management. http://archive.org/details/justintimetechn00spic Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

  14. Specificity and sensitivity assessment of selected nasal provocation testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Krzych-Fałta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal provocation testing involves an allergen-specific local reaction of the nasal mucosa to the administered allergen. Aim: To determine the most objective nasal occlusion assessment technique that could be used in nasal provocation testing. Material and methods : A total of 60 subjects, including 30 patients diagnosed with allergy to common environmental allergens and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The method used in the study was a nasal provocation test with an allergen, with a standard dose of a control solution and an allergen (5,000 SBU/ml administered using a calibrated atomizer into both nostrils at room temperature. Early-phase nasal mucosa response in the early phase of the allergic reaction was assessed via acoustic rhinometry, optical rhinometry, nitric oxide in nasal air, and tryptase levels in the nasal lavage fluid. Results : In estimating the homogeneity of the average values, the Levene’s test was used and receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted for all the methods used for assessing the nasal provocation test with an allergen. Statistically significant results were defined for p < 0.05. Of all the objective assessment techniques, the most sensitive and characteristic ones were the optical rhinometry techniques (specificity = 1, sensitivity = 1, AUC = 1, PPV = 1, NPV = 1. Conclusions : The techniques used showed significant differences between the group of patients with allergic rhinitis and the control group. Of all the objective assessment techniques, those most sensitive and characteristic were the optical rhinometry.

  15. The digital geometric phase technique applied to the deformation evaluation of MEMS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z W; Xie, H M; Gu, C Z; Meng, Y G

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of the structure deformation of microfabricated electromechanical systems is of importance for the design and functional control of microsystems. In this investigation, a novel digital geometric phase technique was developed to meet the deformation evaluation requirement of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The technique is performed on the basis of regular artificial lattices, instead of a natural atom lattice. The regular artificial lattices with a pitch ranging from micrometer to nanometer will be directly fabricated on the measured surface of MEMS devices by using a focused ion beam (FIB). Phase information can be obtained from the Bragg filtered images after fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) of the scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images. Then the in-plane displacement field and the local strain field related to the phase information will be evaluated. The obtained results show that the technique can be well applied to deformation measurement with nanometer sensitivity and stiction force estimation of a MEMS device

  16. Ultrasonic testing using time of flight diffraction technique (TOFD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram Shahzad; Ahmad Mirza Safeer Ahmad; Muhammad Asif Khan

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrasonic testing using Time Flight Diffraction (TOFD) Technique for welded samples having different types and sizes of defects. TOFD is a computerized ultrasonic system, able to scan, store and evaluate indications in terms of location, through thickness and length in a more easy and convenient. Time of Flight Diffraction Technique (TOFD) is more fast and easy technique for ultrasonic testing as we can examine a weld i a single scan along the length of the weld with two probes known as D-scan. It shows the image of the complete weld with the defect information. The examinations were performed on carbon steel samples used for ultrasonic testing using 70 degree probes. The images for different type of defects were obtained. (author)

  17. Discrete classification technique applied to TV advertisements liking recognition system based on low-cost EEG headsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria Morillo, Luis M; Alvarez-Garcia, Juan A; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ortega Ramírez, Juan A

    2016-07-15

    In this paper a new approach is applied to the area of marketing research. The aim of this paper is to recognize how brain activity responds during the visualization of short video advertisements using discrete classification techniques. By means of low cost electroencephalography devices (EEG), the activation level of some brain regions have been studied while the ads are shown to users. We may wonder about how useful is the use of neuroscience knowledge in marketing, or what could provide neuroscience to marketing sector, or why this approach can improve the accuracy and the final user acceptance compared to other works. By using discrete techniques over EEG frequency bands of a generated dataset, C4.5, ANN and the new recognition system based on Ameva, a discretization algorithm, is applied to obtain the score given by subjects to each TV ad. The proposed technique allows to reach more than 75 % of accuracy, which is an excellent result taking into account the typology of EEG sensors used in this work. Furthermore, the time consumption of the algorithm proposed is reduced up to 30 % compared to other techniques presented in this paper. This bring about a battery lifetime improvement on the devices where the algorithm is running, extending the experience in the ubiquitous context where the new approach has been tested.

  18. Study of different ultrasonic focusing methods applied to non destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Amrani, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis concerns the study of different ultrasonic focusing techniques applied to Nondestructive Testing (mechanical focusing and electronic focusing) and compares their capabilities. We have developed a model to predict the ultrasonic field radiated into a solid by water-coupled transducers. The model is based upon the Rayleigh integral formulation, modified to take account the refraction at the liquid-solid interface. The model has been validated by numerous experiments in various configurations. Running this model and the associated software, we have developed new methods to optimize focused transducers and studied the characteristics of the beam generated by transducers using various focusing techniques. (author). 120 refs., 95 figs., 4 appends

  19. Comparison between different techniques applied to quartz CPO determination in granitoid mylonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Eugenio; Punturo, Rosalda; Cirrincione, Rosolino; Kern, Hartmut; Wenk, Hans-Rudolph; Pezzino, Antonino; Goswami, Shalini; Mamtani, Manish

    2016-04-01

    Since the second half of the last century, several techniques have been adopted to resolve the crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of major minerals constituting crustal and mantle rocks. To this aim, many efforts have been made to increase the accuracy of such analytical devices as well as to progressively reduce the time needed to perform microstructural analysis. It is worth noting that many of these microstructural studies deal with quartz CPO because of the wide occurrence of this mineral phase in crustal rocks as well as its quite simple chemical composition. In the present work, four different techniques were applied to define CPOs of dynamically recrystallized quartz domains from naturally deformed rocks collected from a ductile crustal scale shear zone in order to compare their advantages and limitation. The selected Alpine shear zone is located in the Aspromonte Massif (Calabrian Peloritani Orogen, southern Italy) representing granitoid lithotypes. The adopted methods span from "classical" universal stage (US), to image analysis technique (CIP), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), and time of flight neutron diffraction (TOF). When compared, bulk texture pole figures obtained by means of these different techniques show a good correlation. Advances in analytical techniques used for microstructural investigations are outlined by discussing results of quartz CPO that are presented in this study.

  20. Wire-mesh and ultrasound techniques applied for the characterization of gas-liquid slug flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofuchi, Cesar Y.; Sieczkowski, Wytila Chagas; Neves Junior, Flavio; Arruda, Lucia V.R.; Morales, Rigoberto E.M.; Amaral, Carlos E.F.; Silva, Marco J. da [Federal University of Technology of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mails: ofuchi@utfpr.edu.br, wytila@utfpr.edu.br, neves@utfpr.edu.br, lvrarruda@utfpr.edu.br, rmorales@utfpr.edu.br, camaral@utfpr.edu.br, mdasilva@utfpr.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    Gas-liquid two-phase flows are found in a broad range of industrial applications, such as chemical, petrochemical and nuclear industries and quite often determine the efficiency and safety of process and plants. Several experimental techniques have been proposed and applied to measure and quantify two-phase flows so far. In this experimental study the wire-mesh sensor and an ultrasound technique are used and comparatively evaluated to study two-phase slug flows in horizontal pipes. The wire-mesh is an imaging technique and thus appropriated for scientific studies while ultrasound-based technique is robust and non-intrusive and hence well suited for industrial applications. Based on the measured raw data it is possible to extract some specific slug flow parameters of interest such as mean void fraction and characteristic frequency. The experiments were performed in the Thermal Sciences Laboratory (LACIT) at UTFPR, Brazil, in which an experimental two-phase flow loop is available. The experimental flow loop comprises a horizontal acrylic pipe of 26 mm diameter and 9 m length. Water and air were used to produce the two phase flow under controlled conditions. The results show good agreement between the techniques. (author)

  1. Optimal Filtering applied to 1998 Test Beam of Module 0

    CERN Document Server

    Camarena, F; Fullana, E

    2002-01-01

    Optimal filtering is an algorithm that allows the reconstruction of energy and time for a photomultiplier multiple sampled signal, minimazing the noise coming from electronics and Minimum Bias events. This is anticipated to be the method used in ATLAS. This note treat upon the application of optimal filtering technic to real data from test beam and the comparison with the method used until now.

  2. X-ray radiography and tomography applied to material testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechapt, Jean de.

    1982-11-01

    X-ray radiography and tomography are compared to detect a defect in an object. These image acquisition processes are first modelled by a convolution system. For a fixed contrast defect and a given X ray dose, the process providing the best signal-to-noise ratio is given by calculation. Then a system for pattern recognition is given: for identifying a defect, the related signs from binary images are sorted according to their size. The improvement in the detection performance of the device, for an adapted filtration of the images obtained, is assessed. The whole of the preceding results is validated on images synthesized on a computer, selecting between tomography and radiography, the technique making it possible to ensure the detectability of a defect with a minimal dose of X photons [fr

  3. Statistical homogeneity tests applied to large data sets from high energy physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusina, J.; Franc, J.; Kůs, V.

    2017-12-01

    Homogeneity tests are used in high energy physics for the verification of simulated Monte Carlo samples, it means if they have the same distribution as a measured data from particle detector. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, χ 2, and Anderson-Darling tests are the most used techniques to assess the samples’ homogeneity. Since MC generators produce plenty of entries from different models, each entry has to be re-weighted to obtain the same sample size as the measured data has. One way of the homogeneity testing is through the binning. If we do not want to lose any information, we can apply generalized tests based on weighted empirical distribution functions. In this paper, we propose such generalized weighted homogeneity tests and introduce some of their asymptotic properties. We present the results based on numerical analysis which focuses on estimations of the type-I error and power of the test. Finally, we present application of our homogeneity tests to data from the experiment DØ in Fermilab.

  4. Fuzzy Cognitive Map for Software Testing Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Larkman , Deane; Mohammadian , Masoud; Balachandran , Bala; Jentzsch , Ric

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper discusses a framework to assist test managers to evaluate the use of AI techniques as a potential tool in software testing. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) are employed to evaluate the framework and make decision analysis easier. A what-if analysis is presented that explores the general application of the framework. Simulations are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The framework proposed is innovative and it assists managers in making e...

  5. Special techniques for tensile tests of irradiated zirconium claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, V.I.; Makarov, O.Ju.; Smirnov, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Irradiated zirconium alloy claddings possessing property anisotropy should be tested in transverse and longitudinal directions. Such mechanical tests can be performed in conditions of large variety of geometric peculiarities of specimens, supports or grips. The objective of the work is the development of the unified complex of updated special techniques that allow investigation of mechanical pre- and post-irradiation properties of VVER claddings including radiation effect of property anisotropy changes in the same way. (author)

  6. The correlated k-distribution technique as applied to the AVHRR channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, David P.

    1995-01-01

    Correlated k-distributions have been created to account for the molecular absorption found in the spectral ranges of the five Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite channels. The production of the k-distributions was based upon an exponential-sum fitting of transmissions (ESFT) technique which was applied to reference line-by-line absorptance calculations. To account for the overlap of spectral features from different molecular species, the present routines made use of the multiplication transmissivity property which allows for considerable flexibility, especially when altering relative mixing ratios of the various molecular species. To determine the accuracy of the correlated k-distribution technique as compared to the line-by-line procedure, atmospheric flux and heating rate calculations were run for a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. For the atmospheric conditions taken into consideration, the correlated k-distribution technique has yielded results within about 0.5% for both the cases where the satellite spectral response functions were applied and where they were not. The correlated k-distribution's principal advantages is that it can be incorporated directly into multiple scattering routines that consider scattering as well as absorption by clouds and aerosol particles.

  7. Efficient combination of acceleration techniques applied to high frequency methods for solving radiation and scattering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Lorena; Algar, Ma Jesús; García, Eliseo; González, Iván; Cátedra, Felipe

    2017-12-01

    An improved ray-tracing method applied to high-frequency techniques such as the Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD) is presented. The main goal is to increase the speed of the analysis of complex structures while considering a vast number of observation directions and taking into account multiple bounces. The method is based on a combination of the Angular Z-Buffer (AZB), the Space Volumetric Partitioning (SVP) algorithm and the A∗ heuristic search method to treat multiple bounces. In addition, a Master Point strategy was developed to analyze efficiently a large number of Near-Field points or Far-Field directions. This technique can be applied to electromagnetic radiation problems, scattering analysis, propagation at urban or indoor environments and to the mutual coupling between antennas. Due to its efficiency, its application is suitable to study large antennas radiation patterns and even its interactions with complex environments, including satellites, ships, aircrafts, cities or another complex electrically large bodies. The new technique appears to be extremely efficient at these applications even when considering multiple bounces.

  8. 1980 Summer Study on Statistical Techniques in Army Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    WASHINGTON, D. C. 20310 f ARMY CIENCE BOARD 1980 SUMMER STUDY ON STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ARMY TESTING JULY 1980 DTICS ELECTE NOV 2 5 1980 B _STRI...statisticians is adequate, and in some cases, excellent. In the areas of education and the dissemination of information, the Study Group found that the

  9. Grading Scheme, Test Difficulty, and the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBattista, David; Gosse, Leanne; Sinnige-Egger, Jo-Anne; Candale, Bela; Sargeson, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how the grading scheme affects learning and students' reactions to the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IFAT), an answer form providing immediate feedback on multiple-choice questions. Undergraduate students (N = 141) took a general-knowledge multiple-choice test of low, medium, or high difficulty. They used the IFAT…

  10. Benefits of the Multiple Echo Technique for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.; Vandekamp, R.

    2011-02-10

    Much effort has been put into determining methods to make accurate thickness measurements, especially at elevated temperatures. An accuracy of +/- 0.001 inches is typically noted for commercial ultrasonic thickness gauges and ultrasonic thickness techniques. Codes and standards put limitations on many inspection factors including equipment, calibration tolerance and temperature variations. These factors are important and should be controlled, but unfortunately do not guarantee accurate and repeatable measurements in the field. Most technicians long for a single technique that is best for every situation, unfortunately, there are no 'silver bullets' when it comes to nondestructive testing. This paper will describe and discuss some of the major contributors to measurement error as well as some advantages and limitations of multiple echo techniques and why multiple echo techniques should be more widely utilized for ultrasonic thickness measurements.

  11. Bioelectrographic testing of mineral samples: a comparison of techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshelboim, Alex; Momoh, Kenneth S

    2005-04-01

    This study was initiated to determine the suitability of differing techniques to record optical properties of gemstones under electromagnetic stimulation. Such properties are of interest due to the historical use of gemstones in folkloric remedies, specifically as agents for concentrating, focusing, or otherwise conducting energy flows in the human body. The techniques researched produce a localized corona discharge around the tested material. The simplest technique, Tesla coil Kirlian photography (TCKP), uses a Tesla coil to introduce a strong electric current, and the circuit is completed by a glass electrode. The corona discharge is then photographed. The other technique used in the study is gas discharge visualization (GDV), which uses a pulsed current and a digital camera integral to the coil to produce digital images of the corona discharge. Gemstones were tested both whole and in powdered form. The sample gemstones were amethyst, aquamarine, garnet, golden citrine, pink tourmaline, and yellow topaz. Powdered gemstones were ground to a particle size of 2-5 microns; whole gemstones were roundcut to a diameter of 5 mm. In our tests, TCKP showed divergent effects for differing types of gemstone. The most extreme effects were exhibited by tourmaline, both in powdered and whole form. In addition, TCKP appeared to indicate differing effects for gemstones of the identical type but mined from differing locations. The GDV technique showed differing data among the gemstones for the measured parameters, indicating that a high relative intensity did not correspond to the size of the corona discharge. While both techniques showed promise in distinguishing differences in corona discharge behavior in gemstone samples, further work is necessary to determine the significance of differences in geographical sources or between gemstones of similar crystalline structure. The techniques explored show promise in characterizing the properties of gem materials under electromagnetic

  12. Software engineering techniques applied to agricultural systems an object-oriented and UML approach

    CERN Document Server

    Papajorgji, Petraq J

    2014-01-01

    Software Engineering Techniques Applied to Agricultural Systems presents cutting-edge software engineering techniques for designing and implementing better agricultural software systems based on the object-oriented paradigm and the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The focus is on the presentation of  rigorous step-by-step approaches for modeling flexible agricultural and environmental systems, starting with a conceptual diagram representing elements of the system and their relationships. Furthermore, diagrams such as sequential and collaboration diagrams are used to explain the dynamic and static aspects of the software system.    This second edition includes: a new chapter on Object Constraint Language (OCL), a new section dedicated to the Model-VIEW-Controller (MVC) design pattern, new chapters presenting details of two MDA-based tools – the Virtual Enterprise and Olivia Nova, and a new chapter with exercises on conceptual modeling.  It may be highly useful to undergraduate and graduate students as t...

  13. Advanced gamma spectrum processing technique applied to the analysis of scattering spectra for determining material thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Duc Tam; VNUHCM-University of Science, Ho Chi Minh City; Huynh Dinh Chuong; Tran Thien Thanh; Vo Hoang Nguyen; Hoang Thi Kieu Trang; Chau Van Tao

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an advanced gamma spectrum processing technique is applied to analyze experimental scattering spectra for determining the thickness of C45 heat-resistant steel plates. The single scattering peak of scattering spectra is taken as an advantage to measure the intensity of single scattering photons. Based on these results, the thickness of steel plates is determined with a maximum deviation of real thickness and measured thickness of about 4 %. Monte Carlo simulation using MCNP5 code is also performed to cross check the results, which yields a maximum deviation of 2 %. These results strongly confirm the capability of this technique in analyzing gamma scattering spectra, which is a simple, effective and convenient method for determining material thickness. (author)

  14. Applied methods and techniques for mechatronic systems modelling, identification and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Quanmin; Cheng, Lei; Wang, Yongji; Zhao, Dongya

    2014-01-01

    Applied Methods and Techniques for Mechatronic Systems brings together the relevant studies in mechatronic systems with the latest research from interdisciplinary theoretical studies, computational algorithm development and exemplary applications. Readers can easily tailor the techniques in this book to accommodate their ad hoc applications. The clear structure of each paper, background - motivation - quantitative development (equations) - case studies/illustration/tutorial (curve, table, etc.) is also helpful. It is mainly aimed at graduate students, professors and academic researchers in related fields, but it will also be helpful to engineers and scientists from industry. Lei Liu is a lecturer at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), China; Quanmin Zhu is a professor at University of the West of England, UK; Lei Cheng is an associate professor at Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China; Yongji Wang is a professor at HUST; Dongya Zhao is an associate professor at China University o...

  15. The verification tests of residual radioactivity measurement and assessment techniques for buildings and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, T.; Ishikura, T.; Yoshimura, Yukio; Nakazawa, M.; Makino, S.; Urayama, K.; Kawasaki, S.

    1996-01-01

    According to the standard procedure for decommissioning a commercial nuclear power plant (CNPP) in Japan, controlled areas will be released for unrestricted use before the dismantling of a reactor building. If manual survey and sampling techniques were applied to measurement for unrestricted release on and in the extensive surface of the building, much time and much specialized labor would be required to assess the appropriateness of the releasing. Therefore the authors selected the following three techniques for demonstrating reliability and applicability of the techniques for CNPPs: (1) technique of assessing radioactive concentration distribution on the surface of buildings (ADB); (2) technique of assessing radioactive permeation distribution in the concrete structure of buildings (APB); (3) technique of assessing radioactive concentration distribution in soil (ADS). These tests include the techniques of measuring and assessing very low radioactive concentration distribution on the extensive surfaces of buildings and the soil surrounding of a plant with automatic devices. Technical investigation and preliminary study of the verification tests were started in 1990. In the study, preconditions were clarified for each technique and the performance requirements were set up. Moreover, simulation models have been constructed for several feasible measurement method to assess their performance in terms of both measurement test and simulation analysis. Fundamental tests have been under way using small-scale apparatuses since 1994

  16. Applying Data Mining Techniques to Improve Information Security in the Cloud: A Single Cache System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany AlShawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the popularity of cloud computing is gradually increasing day by day. The purpose of this research was to enhance the security of the cloud using techniques such as data mining with specific reference to the single cache system. From the findings of the research, it was observed that the security in the cloud could be enhanced with the single cache system. For future purposes, an Apriori algorithm can be applied to the single cache system. This can be applied by all cloud providers, vendors, data distributors, and others. Further, data objects entered into the single cache system can be extended into 12 components. Database and SPSS modelers can be used to implement the same.

  17. Applying traditional signal processing techniques to social media exploitation for situational understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelzaher, Tarek; Roy, Heather; Wang, Shiguang; Giridhar, Prasanna; Al Amin, Md. Tanvir; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Kolodny, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Signal processing techniques such as filtering, detection, estimation and frequency domain analysis have long been applied to extract information from noisy sensor data. This paper describes the exploitation of these signal processing techniques to extract information from social networks, such as Twitter and Instagram. Specifically, we view social networks as noisy sensors that report events in the physical world. We then present a data processing stack for detection, localization, tracking, and veracity analysis of reported events using social network data. We show using a controlled experiment that the behavior of social sources as information relays varies dramatically depending on context. In benign contexts, there is general agreement on events, whereas in conflict scenarios, a significant amount of collective filtering is introduced by conflicted groups, creating a large data distortion. We describe signal processing techniques that mitigate such distortion, resulting in meaningful approximations of actual ground truth, given noisy reported observations. Finally, we briefly present an implementation of the aforementioned social network data processing stack in a sensor network analysis toolkit, called Apollo. Experiences with Apollo show that our techniques are successful at identifying and tracking credible events in the physical world.

  18. D-stem: a parallel electron diffraction technique applied to nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, K J; Kawasaki, M; Zhou, J P; Ferreira, P J

    2010-10-01

    An electron diffraction technique called D-STEM has been developed in a transmission electron microscopy/scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) instrument to obtain spot electron diffraction patterns from nanostructures, as small as ∼3 nm. The electron ray path achieved by configuring the pre- and postspecimen illumination lenses enables the formation of a 1-2 nm near-parallel probe, which is used to obtain bright-field/dark-field STEM images. Under these conditions, the beam can be controlled and accurately positioned on the STEM image, at the nanostructure of interest, while sharp spot diffraction patterns can be simultaneously recorded on the charge-coupled device camera. When integrated with softwares such as GatanTM STEM diffraction imaging and Automated Crystallography for TEM or DigistarTM, NanoMEGAS, the D-STEM technique is very powerful for obtaining automated orientation and phase maps based on diffraction information acquired on a pixel by pixel basis. The versatility of the D-STEM technique is demonstrated by applying this technique to nanoparticles, nanowires, and nano interconnect structures.

  19. New Technique for Cryogenically Cooling Small Test Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Karen M.; Henderson, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Convective heat removal techniques to rapidly cool small test articles to Earth-Moon L2 temperatures of 77 K were accomplished through the use of liquid nitrogen (LN2). By maintaining a selected pressure range on the saturation curve, test articles were cooled below the LN2 boiling point at ambient pressure in less than 30 min. Difficulties in achieving test pressures while maintaining the temperature tolerance necessitated a modification to the original system to include a closed loop conductive cold plate and cryogenic shroud

  20. Technique Comparison of the Fracture Toughness Tests for Irradiated Fuel Claddings in a Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sangbok; Kim, Dosik; Jung, Yanghong; Choo, Yongsun; Ryu, Wooseog

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of a fracture toughness in a fuel cladding is a important factor to restrict the operation safety in nuclear power plants. The fracture properties of claddings were traditionally measured through a rubber bung test, a burst test, etc. Those results were the qualitative fracture characteristics, and could not be used as design or operation safety evaluation data. We need to evaluate the quantitative characteristics of claddings under normal operation and in accidents. The application of a fracture mechanics concept in testing a fuel cladding is restricted by the cladding geometry and creating the correct stress-state conditions. The geometry of claddings does not meet the requirement of the ASTM Standards for a specimen configuration and an applied load. The specimen may be produced from previously flattened claddings, but the flattening causes some uncertainties in the results due to changes in the microstructure of the material and a new distribution of the internal stresses. Therefore many efforts have been devoted to developing new test techniques, to quantify the fracture characteristics of claddings. Researchers from JAEA and NFI in Japan, Studsvik Company Ltd in Sweden, IAEA in Australia, and KAERI in Korea have independently developed fracture test techniques. This study is designed to review the independently developed techniques and to compare of their merits. Finally we shall apply the other techniques to upgrade our developing techniques

  1. Zero order and signal processing spectrophotometric techniques applied for resolving interference of metronidazole with ciprofloxacin in their pharmaceutical dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A M; Nassar, Mohammed W I; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-02-05

    Four rapid, simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were used for the determination of ciprofloxacin in the presence of metronidazole as interference. The methods under study are area under the curve, simultaneous equation in addition to smart signal processing techniques of manipulating ratio spectra namely Savitsky-Golay filters and continuous wavelet transform. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines where accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can therefore be used for the routine analysis of ciprofloxacin in quality-control laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-destructive electrochemical techniques applied to the corrosion evaluation of the liner structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, I.; Castillo, A.; Andrade, C.

    2008-01-01

    The liner structure in nuclear power plants provides containment for the operation and therefore the study of its durability and integrity during its service life is an important issue. There are several causes for the deterioration of the liner, which in general involve corrosion due to its metallic nature. The present paper is aimed at describing the assessment of corrosion problems of two liners from two different nuclear power plants, which were evaluated using non-destructive electrochemical techniques. In spite of the testing difficulties arisen, from the results extracted it can be concluded that the electrochemical techniques applied are adequate for the corrosion evaluation. They provide important information about the integrity of the structure and allow for its evolution with time to be assessed

  3. Water spray cooling technique applied on a photovoltaic panel: The performance response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nižetić, S.; Čoko, D.; Yadav, A.; Grubišić-Čabo, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An experimental study was conducted on a monocrystalline photovoltaic panel (PV). • A water spray cooling technique was implemented to determine PV panel response. • The experimental results showed favorable cooling effect on the panel performance. • A feasibility aspect of the water spray cooling technique was also proven. - Abstract: This paper presents an alternative cooling technique for photovoltaic (PV) panels that includes a water spray application over panel surfaces. An alternative cooling technique in the sense that both sides of the PV panel were cooled simultaneously, to investigate the total water spray cooling effect on the PV panel performance in circumstances of peak solar irradiation levels. A specific experimental setup was elaborated in detail and the developed cooling system for the PV panel was tested in a geographical location with a typical Mediterranean climate. The experimental result shows that it is possible to achieve a maximal total increase of 16.3% (effective 7.7%) in electric power output and a total increase of 14.1% (effective 5.9%) in PV panel electrical efficiency by using the proposed cooling technique in circumstances of peak solar irradiation. Furthermore, it was also possible to decrease panel temperature from an average 54 °C (non-cooled PV panel) to 24 °C in the case of simultaneous front and backside PV panel cooling. Economic feasibility was also determined for of the proposed water spray cooling technique, where the main advantage of the analyzed cooling technique is regarding the PV panel’s surface and its self-cleaning effect, which additionally acts as a booster to the average delivered electricity.

  4. A Method to Test Model Calibration Techniques: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, Ron; Polly, Ben; Neymark, Joel

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a method for testing model calibration techniques. Calibration is commonly used in conjunction with energy retrofit audit models. An audit is conducted to gather information about the building needed to assemble an input file for a building energy modeling tool. A calibration technique is used to reconcile model predictions with utility data, and then the 'calibrated model' is used to predict energy savings from a variety of retrofit measures and combinations thereof. Current standards and guidelines such as BPI-2400 and ASHRAE-14 set criteria for 'goodness of fit' and assume that if the criteria are met, then the calibration technique is acceptable. While it is logical to use the actual performance data of the building to tune the model, it is not certain that a good fit will result in a model that better predicts post-retrofit energy savings. Therefore, the basic idea here is that the simulation program (intended for use with the calibration technique) is used to generate surrogate utility bill data and retrofit energy savings data against which the calibration technique can be tested. This provides three figures of merit for testing a calibration technique, 1) accuracy of the post-retrofit energy savings prediction, 2) closure on the 'true' input parameter values, and 3) goodness of fit to the utility bill data. The paper will also discuss the pros and cons of using this synthetic surrogate data approach versus trying to use real data sets of actual buildings.

  5. Validation, Verification, and Testing Techniques Throughout the Life Cycle of a Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Life cycle validation, verification, and testing (VV&T) is extremely important for the success of a simulation study. This paper surveys current software VV&T techniques and current simulation model VV&T techniques and describes how they can all be applied throughout the life cycle of a simulation study. The processes and credibility assessment stages of the life cycle are described and the applicability of the VV&T techniques for each stage is stated. A glossary is provided to explicitly ...

  6. An evaluation testing technique of single event effect using Beam Blanking SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, J.; Hada, T.; Pesce, A.; Akutsu, T.; Matsuda, S. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Igarashi, T.; Baba, S.

    1997-03-01

    Beam Blanking SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) testing technique has been applied to CMOS SRAM devices to evaluate the occurence of soft errors on memory cells. Cross-section versus beam current and LET curves derived from BBSEM and heavy ion testing technique, respectively, have been compared. A linear relation between BBSEM current and heavy ion LET has been found. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the application of focused pulsed electron beam could be a reliable, convenient and inexpensive tool to investigate the effects of heavy ions and high energy particles on memory devices for space application. (author)

  7. Large Field Photogrammetry Techniques in Aircraft and Spacecraft Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    The Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center is a 240 ft. high A-frame structure which is used for full-scale crash testing of aircraft and rotorcraft vehicles. Because the LandIR provides a unique capability to introduce impact velocities in the forward and vertical directions, it is also serving as the facility for landing tests on full-scale and sub-scale Orion spacecraft mass simulators. Recently, a three-dimensional photogrammetry system was acquired to assist with the gathering of vehicle flight data before, throughout and after the impact. This data provides the basis for the post-test analysis and data reduction. Experimental setups for pendulum swing tests on vehicles having both forward and vertical velocities can extend to 50 x 50 x 50 foot cubes, while weather, vehicle geometry, and other constraints make each experimental setup unique to each test. This paper will discuss the specific calibration techniques for large fields of views, camera and lens selection, data processing, as well as best practice techniques learned from using the large field of view photogrammetry on a multitude of crash and landing test scenarios unique to the LandIR.

  8. Gamma-radiography techniques applied to quality control of welds in water pipe lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, W.; Oki, H.

    1974-01-01

    Non-destructive testing of welds may be done by the gamma-radiography technique, in order to detect the presence or absence of discontinuities and defects in the bulk of deposited metal and near the base metal. Gamma-radiography allows the documentation of the test with a complete inspection record, which is a fact not common in other non-destructive testing methods. In the quality control of longitudinal or transversal welds in water pipe lines, two exposition techniques are used: double wall and panoramic exposition. Three different water pipe lines systems have analysed for weld defects, giving a total of 16,000 gamma-radiographies. The tests were made according to the criteria established by the ASME standard. The principal metallic discontinuites found in the weld were: porosity (32%), lack of penetration (29%), lack of fusion (20%), and slag inclusion (19%). The percentage of gamma-radiographies showing welds without defects was 39% (6168 gamma-radiographies). On the other hand, 53% (8502 gamma-radiographies) showed the presence of acceptable discontinuities and 8% (1330 gamma-radiographies) were rejected according to the ASME standards [pt

  9. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which will run from 1992-1996, and will build upon the experience gained by the Agency from the laboratory support that it has been providing for several years to BAPMoN - the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network programme organized under the auspices of the World Meterological Organization. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XFR, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in suspended particulate matter (including air filter samples), rainwater and fog-water samples, and in biological indicators of air pollution (e.g. lichens and mosses). The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for practically-oriented research and monitoring studies on air pollution ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural areas). This document reports the discussions held during the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Case study: how to apply data mining techniques in a healthcare data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, M; Sakata, T; Su, H C; Herman, C; Dolins, S B; O'Shea, M J

    2001-01-01

    Healthcare provider organizations are faced with a rising number of financial pressures. Both administrators and physicians need help analyzing large numbers of clinical and financial data when making decisions. To assist them, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center and Hitachi America, Ltd. (HAL), Inc., have partnered to build an enterprise data warehouse and perform a series of case study analyses. This article focuses on one analysis, which was performed by a team of physicians and computer science researchers, using a commercially available on-line analytical processing (OLAP) tool in conjunction with proprietary data mining techniques developed by HAL researchers. The initial objective of the analysis was to discover how to use data mining techniques to make business decisions that can influence cost, revenue, and operational efficiency while maintaining a high level of care. Another objective was to understand how to apply these techniques appropriately and to find a repeatable method for analyzing data and finding business insights. The process used to identify opportunities and effect changes is described.

  11. Comparison of different experimental techniques used for wax deposition testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenson, Stephen; Johnston, Angela [Nalco Energy Services, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Crude oils consist of various fractions of hydrocarbons, including n-paraffins. The paraffins precipitate out of oil below the temperature called WAT (wax appearance temperature) and accumulate in flow lines and pipelines causing major transport problems. Prediction of paraffin deposition is, therefore, a key element of flow assurance programs. The purpose of this study was to develop a general and reliable approach to prediction of wax deposition based on a critical comparison of several practical lab techniques. Wax deposition study was conducted on five separate crude oils by using a varying protocols and equipment. One experimental technique was a cold stress test of wax deposition combined with ketone precipitation of waxy paraffin crystals. Another set of experiments were carried out for wax deposits formed on the surface of U-tubes and cold fingers of different designs. A comparison of the effectiveness of several wax inhibitors was conducted for these crude oils by using the selected deposition techniques. In each test method the amount of precipitated wax was recorded and compared. The deposits were characterized by melting point, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the wax components using DSC, SARA and HTGC analyses. Efficiency of paraffin inhibitors was correlated with a profile of n-paraffins distribution in the deposits. The limitations and advantages of different deposition techniques were analyzed and discussed. (author)

  12. Optical coherence tomography applied to tests of skin care products in humans--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Pinto, L M C; Maldonado, E P; Raele, M P; Amaral, M M; de Freitas, A Z

    2015-02-01

    When evaluating skin care products for human skin, quantitative test methods need to be simple, precise and reliable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), provides high-resolution sectional images of translucent materials to a depth of a few millimeters, a technique usually applied to medical measurements in ophthalmology and dermatology. This study aimed to demonstrate the application of OCT as the main technique for monitoring changes in skin topography during tests of a wrinkle-reduction product in humans. We used a commercial OCT apparatus to perform clinical examinations of skin roughness in treated and non-treated sites in the periorbital region of thirty human voluntaries who were using an anti-aging product commercially available: Natura Chronos® Flavonóides de Passiflora 45+ FPS15, from Natura Cosméticos, Brazil. Measurements were performed days 0, 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. Equipment and software allowed real-time recording of skin roughness parameters and wrinkle depths. The OCT measurements have allowed the monitoring of changes in skin roughness, which have shown reduction in treated sites around 10%. The obtained depth distributions also indicate reduction in the occurrence of wrinkles deeper than 170 μm. The verified results are consistent with those typically obtained after successful treatment with modern anti-aging products. By using the OCT technique, it was possible to quantify changes in skin roughness and in the distribution of depths of skin wrinkles, with adequate sensitivity. OCT imaging allows the direct visualization of the skin topography with resolution of micrometers, a reliable and interactive tool for clinical use. Therefore, for the first time, we demonstrated the use of OCT technique to verify the efficacy of cosmetic products in real time. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Initial tests on in situ vitrification using electrode feeding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Oma, K.H.; Bigelow, C.E.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of an engineering-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test conducted to demonstrate the potential for electrode feeding in soils with a high concentration of metals. The engineering-scale test was part of a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) program to assist Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in conducting treatability studies of the potential for applying ISV to the mixed transuranic waste buried at the INEL subsurface disposal area. The purpose of this test was to evaluate the effectiveness of both gravity fed and operator-controlled electrode feeding in reducing or eliminating many of the potential problems associated with fixed-electrode processing of soils with high concentrations of metal. Actual site soils from INEL were mixed with representative concentrations of carbon steel and stainless steel for this engineering-scale test. 18 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Improved Nanomechanical Test Techniques for Surface Engineered Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Goodes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and implementation of a wide range of innovative nanomechanical test techniques to solve tribological problems in applications as diverse as biomedical and automotive are described in this review. For improved wear resistance and durability, the importance of understanding the system response rather than the coating-only properties is emphasized. There are many applications involving mechanical contact where the key to understanding the problem is to test at higher load and to combine reliable measurements taken across different length scales using both nano- and micro-indentation and related wear measurement techniques which more closely simulate contact conditions to fully understand the mechanical behaviour and hence deliver improved application performance. Results are presented with the NanoTest platform for applications for biomedical devices and surface engineering of lightweight alloys for the automotive industry. By combining results with different techniques it is possible to postulate predictive design rules – based on the elastic and plastic deformation energies involved in contact - to aid the reliable optimisation of mechanical properties in the various contact situations in the different applications.

  15. 3D-Laser-Scanning Technique Applied to Bulk Density Measurements of Apollo Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, R. J.; Kent, J. J.; Kiefer, W. S.; Britt, D. T.

    2015-01-01

    In order to better interpret gravimetric data from orbiters such as GRAIL and LRO to understand the subsurface composition and structure of the lunar crust, it is import to have a reliable database of the density and porosity of lunar materials. To this end, we have been surveying these physical properties in both lunar meteorites and Apollo lunar samples. To measure porosity, both grain density and bulk density are required. For bulk density, our group has historically utilized sub-mm bead immersion techniques extensively, though several factors have made this technique problematic for our work with Apollo samples. Samples allocated for measurement are often smaller than optimal for the technique, leading to large error bars. Also, for some samples we were required to use pure alumina beads instead of our usual glass beads. The alumina beads were subject to undesirable static effects, producing unreliable results. Other investigators have tested the use of 3d laser scanners on meteorites for measuring bulk volumes. Early work, though promising, was plagued with difficulties including poor response on dark or reflective surfaces, difficulty reproducing sharp edges, and large processing time for producing shape models. Due to progress in technology, however, laser scanners have improved considerably in recent years. We tested this technique on 27 lunar samples in the Apollo collection using a scanner at NASA Johnson Space Center. We found it to be reliable and more precise than beads, with the added benefit that it involves no direct contact with the sample, enabling the study of particularly friable samples for which bead immersion is not possible

  16. The scratch test - Different critical load determination techniques. [adhesive strength of thin hard coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekler, J.; Hintermann, H. E.; Steinmann, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Different critical load determination techniques such as microscopy, acoustic emission, normal, tangential, and lateral forces used for scratch test evaluation of complex or multilayer coatings are investigated. The applicability of the scratch test to newly developed coating techniques, systems, and applications is discussed. Among the methods based on the use of a physical measurement, acoustic emission detection is the most effective. The dynamics ratio between the signals below and above the critical load for the acoustic emission (much greater than 100) is well above that obtained with the normal, tangential, and lateral forces. The present commercial instruments are limited in load application performance. A scratch tester able to apply accurate loads as low as 0.01 N would probably overcome most of the actual limitations and would be expected to extend the scratch testing technique to different application fields such as optics and microelectronics.

  17. Evaluation of bond strength and thickness of adhesive layer according to the techniques of applying adhesives in composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Fernando Carlos Hueb; da Silva, Stella Borges; Valentino, Thiago Assunção; Oliveira, Maria Angélica Hueb de Menezes; Rastelli, Alessandra Nara de Souza; Conçalves, Luciano de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive restorations have increasingly been used in dentistry, and the adhesive system application technique may determine the success of the restorative procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the application technique of two adhesive systems (Clearfil SE Bond and Adper Scotchbond MultiPurpose) on the bond strength and adhesive layer of composite resin restorations. Eight human third molars were selected and prepared with Class I occlusal cavities. The teeth were restored with composite using various application techniques for both adhesives, according to the following groups (n = 10): group 1 (control), systems were applied and adhesive was immediately light activated for 20 seconds without removing excesses; group 2, excess adhesive was removed with a gentle jet of air for 5 seconds; group 3, excess was removed with a dry microbrushtype device; and group 4, a gentle jet of air was applied after the microbrush and then light activation was performed. After this, the teeth were submitted to microtensile testing. For the two systems tested, no statistical differences were observed between groups 1 and 2. Groups 3 and 4 presented higher bond strength values compared with the other studied groups, allowing the conclusion that excess adhesive removal with a dry microbrush could improve bond strength in composite restorations. Predominance of adhesive fracture and thicker adhesive layer were observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in groups 1 and 2. For groups 3 and 4, a mixed failure pattern and thinner adhesive layer were verified. Clinicians should be aware that excess adhesive may negatively affect bond strength, whereas a thin, uniform adhesive layer appears to be favorable.

  18. Determination of hydrogen diffusivity and permeability in W near room temperature applying a tritium tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, T.; Otsuka, T.; Tanabe, T.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten is a primary candidate of plasma facing material in ITER and beyond, owing to its good thermal property and low erosion. But hydrogen solubility and diffusivity near ITER operation temperatures (below 500 K) have scarcely studied. Mainly because its low hydrogen solubility and diffusivity at lower temperatures make the detection of hydrogen quite difficult. We have tried to observe hydrogen plasma driven permeation (PDP) through nickel and tungsten near room temperatures applying a tritium tracer technique, which is extremely sensible to detect tritium diluted in hydrogen. The apparent diffusion coefficients for PDP were determined by permeation lag times at first time, and those for nickel and tungsten were similar or a few times larger than those for gas driven permeation (GDP). The permeation rates for PDP in nickel and tungsten were larger than those for GDP normalized to the same gas pressure about 20 and 5 times larger, respectively.

  19. A systematic review of applying modern software engineering techniques to developing robotic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pons

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Robots have become collaborators in our daily life. While robotic systems become more and more complex, the need to engineer their software development grows as well. The traditional approaches used in developing these software systems are reaching their limits; currently used methodologies and tools fall short of addressing the needs of such complex software development. Separating robotics’ knowledge from short-cycled implementation technologies is essential to foster reuse and maintenance. This paper presents a systematic review (SLR of the current use of modern software engineering techniques for developing robotic software systems and their actual automation level. The survey was aimed at summarizing existing evidence concerning applying such technologies to the field of robotic systems to identify any gaps in current research to suggest areas for further investigation and provide a background for positioning new research activities.

  20. Imaging and pattern recognition techniques applied to particulate solids material characterization in mineral processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifazi, G.; La Marca, F.; Massacci, P.

    1999-01-01

    The characterization of particulate solids can be carried out by chemical and mineralogical analysis, or, in some cases, following a new approach based on the combined use of: i) imaging techniques to detect the surface features of the particles, and ii) pattern recognition procedures, to identify and classify the mineralogical composition on the bases of the previously detected 'pictorial' features. The aim of this methodology is to establish a correlation between image parameters (texture and color) and physical chemical parameters characterizing the set of particles to be evaluated. The technique was applied to characterize the raw-ore coming from a deposit of mineral sands of three different lithotypes. An appropriate number of samples for each lithotype has been collected. A vector of attributes (pattern vector), by either texture and color parameters, has been associated to each sample. Image analysis demonstrated as the selected parameters are quite sensitive to the conditions of image acquisition: in fact optical properties may be strongly influenced by physical condition, in terms of moisture content and optics set-up and lighting conditions. Standard conditions for acquisition have been selected according to the in situ conditions during sampling. To verify the reliability of the proposed methodology, images have been acquired under different conditions of humidity, focusing and illumination. In order to evaluate the influence of these parameters on image pictorial properties, textural analysis procedures have been applied to the image acquired from different samples. Data resulting from the processing have been used for remote controlling of the material fed to the mineral processing plant. (author)

  1. Models of signal validation using artificial intelligence techniques applied to a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mauro V.; Schirru, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    This work presents two models of signal validation in which the analytical redundancy of the monitored signals from a nuclear plant is made by neural networks. In one model the analytical redundancy is made by only one neural network while in the other it is done by several neural networks, each one working in a specific part of the entire operation region of the plant. Four cluster techniques were tested to separate the entire operation region in several specific regions. An additional information of systems' reliability is supplied by a fuzzy inference system. The models were implemented in C language and tested with signals acquired from Angra I nuclear power plant, from its start to 100% of power. (author)

  2. Development of a Fluid Structures Interaction Test Technique for Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilliac, Gregory G.; Heineck, James T.; Schairer, Edward T.; Mosher, Robert N.; Garbeff, Theodore Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Application of fluid structures interaction (FSI) computational techniques to configurations of interest to the entry, descent and landing (EDL) community is limited by two factors - limited characterization of the material properties for fabrics of interest and insufficient experimental data to validate the FSI codes. Recently ILC Dover Inc. performed standard tests to characterize the static stress-strain response of four candidate fabrics for use in EDL applications. The objective of the tests described here is to address the need for a FSI dataset for CFD validation purposes. To reach this objective, the structural response of fabrics was measured in a very simple aerodynamic environment with well controlled boundary conditions. Two test series were undertaken. The first series covered a range of tunnel conditions and the second focused on conditions that resulted in fabric panel buckling.

  3. An efficient permeability scaling-up technique applied to the discretized flow equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgelli, D.; Ding, Yu [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    1997-08-01

    Grid-block permeability scaling-up for numerical reservoir simulations has been discussed for a long time in the literature. It is now recognized that a full permeability tensor is needed to get an accurate reservoir description at large scale. However, two major difficulties are encountered: (1) grid-block permeability cannot be properly defined because it depends on boundary conditions; (2) discretization of flow equations with a full permeability tensor is not straightforward and little work has been done on this subject. In this paper, we propose a new method, which allows us to get around both difficulties. As the two major problems are closely related, a global approach will preserve the accuracy. So, in the proposed method, the permeability up-scaling technique is integrated in the discretized numerical scheme for flow simulation. The permeability is scaled-up via the transmissibility term, in accordance with the fluid flow calculation in the numerical scheme. A finite-volume scheme is particularly studied, and the transmissibility scaling-up technique for this scheme is presented. Some numerical examples are tested for flow simulation. This new method is compared with some published numerical schemes for full permeability tensor discretization where the full permeability tensor is scaled-up through various techniques. Comparing the results with fine grid simulations shows that the new method is more accurate and more efficient.

  4. How Can Synchrotron Radiation Techniques Be Applied for Detecting Microstructures in Amorphous Alloys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Qing Guo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, how synchrotron radiation techniques can be applied for detecting the microstructure in metallic glass (MG is studied. The unit cells are the basic structural units in crystals, though it has been suggested that the co-existence of various clusters may be the universal structural feature in MG. Therefore, it is a challenge to detect microstructures of MG even at the short-range scale by directly using synchrotron radiation techniques, such as X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption methods. Here, a feasible scheme is developed where some state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation-based experiments can be combined with simulations to investigate the microstructure in MG. By studying a typical MG composition (Zr70Pd30, it is found that various clusters do co-exist in its microstructure, and icosahedral-like clusters are the popular structural units. This is the structural origin where there is precipitation of an icosahedral quasicrystalline phase prior to phase transformation from glass to crystal when heating Zr70Pd30 MG.

  5. A numerical study of different projection-based model reduction techniques applied to computational homogenisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldner, Dominic; Brands, Benjamin; Zabihyan, Reza; Steinmann, Paul; Mergheim, Julia

    2017-10-01

    Computing the macroscopic material response of a continuum body commonly involves the formulation of a phenomenological constitutive model. However, the response is mainly influenced by the heterogeneous microstructure. Computational homogenisation can be used to determine the constitutive behaviour on the macro-scale by solving a boundary value problem at the micro-scale for every so-called macroscopic material point within a nested solution scheme. Hence, this procedure requires the repeated solution of similar microscopic boundary value problems. To reduce the computational cost, model order reduction techniques can be applied. An important aspect thereby is the robustness of the obtained reduced model. Within this study reduced-order modelling (ROM) for the geometrically nonlinear case using hyperelastic materials is applied for the boundary value problem on the micro-scale. This involves the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) for the primary unknown and hyper-reduction methods for the arising nonlinearity. Therein three methods for hyper-reduction, differing in how the nonlinearity is approximated and the subsequent projection, are compared in terms of accuracy and robustness. Introducing interpolation or Gappy-POD based approximations may not preserve the symmetry of the system tangent, rendering the widely used Galerkin projection sub-optimal. Hence, a different projection related to a Gauss-Newton scheme (Gauss-Newton with Approximated Tensors- GNAT) is favoured to obtain an optimal projection and a robust reduced model.

  6. Investigation of finite difference recession computation techniques applied to a nonlinear recession problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, J D

    1978-03-01

    This report presents comparisons of results of five implicit and explicit finite difference recession computation techniques with results from a more accurate ''benchmark'' solution applied to a simple one-dimensional nonlinear ablation problem. In the comparison problem a semi-infinite solid is subjected to a constant heat flux at its surface and the rate of recession is controlled by the solid material's latent heat of fusion. All thermal properties are assumed constant. The five finite difference methods include three front node dropping schemes, a back node dropping scheme, and a method in which the ablation problem is embedded in an inverse heat conduction problem and no nodes are dropped. Constancy of thermal properties and the semiinfinite and one-dimensional nature of the problem at hand are not necessary assumptions in applying the methods studied to more general problems. The best of the methods studied will be incorporated into APL's Standard Heat Transfer Program.

  7. MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO EVALUATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812361The evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for bioenergy production demands to consider several characteristicsand properties that may be correlated. This fact demands the use of various multivariate analysis techniquesthat allow the evaluation of relevant energetic factors. This work aimed to apply cluster analysis and principalcomponents analyses for the selection and evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for bioenergy production.8 types of residual biomass were used, whose the elemental components (C, H, O, N, S content, lignin, totalextractives and ashes contents, basic density and higher and lower heating values were determined. Bothmultivariate techniques applied for evaluation and selection of lignocellulosic wastes were efficient andsimilarities were observed between the biomass groups formed by them. Through the interpretation of thefirst principal component obtained, it was possible to create a global development index for the evaluationof the viability of energetic uses of biomass. The interpretation of the second principal component alloweda contrast between nitrogen and sulfur contents with oxygen content.

  8. Dynamic Mechanical Testing Techniques for Cortical and Cancellous Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, Trevor

    2017-06-01

    Bone fracture typically occurs as an impact loading event (sporting accidents, vehicle collisions), the simulation of which requires in-depth understanding of dynamic bone behavior. Bone is a natural composite material with a complex multi length-scale hierarchical microstructure. At a macroscopic level, it is classified into hard/compact cortical bone and soft/spongy cancellous (trabecular) bone, though both are low-impedance materials relative to steels. Cortical bone is predominant in long bones, while in complex bone geometries (joints, flat bones) a cancellous bone core supports a thin cortical shell. Bone has primarily been studied at quasi-static strain rates (ɛ˙ failure, with interrupted quasi-static tests revealing a strong microstructure dependence. However, bone specimens are typically destroyed during dynamic tests, leading to a lack of dynamic microstructural damage investigations. In this paper, a short overview of dynamic bone testing is presented to give context to the challenges of testing low impedance, strain-rate dependent, non-linear, visco-elastic-brittle materials. Recent state-of-the-art experimental developments in dynamic bone testing are reviewed, with emphasis on pulse shaping, momentum trapping and ISR testing. These techniques allow for dynamic bone testing at small strains and near-constant strain rates with intact specimen recovery. The results are compared to those obtained with varying strain rate tests. Interrupted dynamic test results with microstructural analysis of the recovered specimens are presented and discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the experimental and modeling challenges that lie ahead in the field of dynamic bone behavior. The financial assistance of the National Research Foundation and the University of Cape Town towards this research is hereby acknowledged. Opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at are those of the author alone.

  9. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Non-destructive testing methods (NDT), by their very nature, allow components to be fully examined for properties or flaws without interfering with their usefulness. This grouping of inspection methods has grown from a handful of primitive techniques practised by artists to a widely known discipline which is an essential part of quality control, largely as a result of the standards demanded by the nuclear and aerospace industries. Recognizing the need for an international publication of NDT training syllabi, the IAEA Consultants Meeting on ''Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel'' (Milan, 20-21 May 1986), recommended that the Agency publish the guidelines developed by Regional Working Group of the Latin America and Caribbean project. It was first issued in English in 1987 and has now been re-edited in English and Spanish and enlarged by the addition of programmes for other techniques

  10. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques. 1991 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Non-destructive testing methods (NDT), by their very nature, allow components to be fully examined for properties or flaws without interfering with their usefulness. This grouping of inspection methods has grown from a handful of primitive techniques practised by artists to a widely known discipline which is an essential part of quality control, largely as a result of the standards demanded by the nuclear and aerospace industries. Recognizing the need for an international publication of NDT training syllabi, the IAEA Consultants Meeting on ''Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel'' (Milan, 20-21 May 1986), recommended that the Agency publish the guidelines developed by Regional Working Group of the Latin America and Caribbean project. It was first issued in English in 1987 and has now been re-edited in English and Spanish and enlarged by the addition of programmes for other techniques

  11. Proposal of requirements for performance in Brazil for systems of external individual monitoring for neutrons applying the TLD-albedo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo M.; Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Pereira, Walsan W.; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da; Silva, Ademir X.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a criteria and conditions proposal for the regulations in Brazil of individual monitoring systems for neutrons applying the albedo technique with thermoluminescent detectors. Tests are proposed for the characterization performance of the system based on the Regulation ISO 21909 and on the experience of the authors

  12. An equipment test for grading lumber by transverse vibration technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigo Carreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great variability of its mechanical properties, the rational use of lumber for structural purposes is directly conditioned to its grading. There are several techniques available for grading structural lumber. The most relevant one is the transverse vibration technique which obtained reliable results in non-destructive evaluation of lumber. The purpose of this work is to present the bases for the mechanical grading of lumber and the results of the calibration test of the frst transverse vibration equipment developed in Brazil. In this research 30 beams of cupiúba (Goupia glabra with nominal dimensions of 5 cm X 10 cm X 300 cm, were used. The tests were accomplished at the Wood and Timber Structures Laboratory (LaMEM of the University of São Paulo (USP. The results showed a strong correlation between the elasticity modulus measured by the static bending test and the one obtained with the transverse vibration equipment, showing the high reliability of the vibration method for the grading of structural lumber. A determination coeffcient (R² of 0.896 was obtained with the Brazilian equipment, showing that it can be used in the grading of lumber.

  13. Fuel bundle examination techniques for the Phebus fission product test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.Y.; Clement, B.; Hardt, P. von der

    1996-01-01

    The paper develops the non-destructive examinations, with a special emphasis on transmission tomography, performed in the Phebus facility, using a linear accelerator associated with a line scan camera based on PCD components. This particular technique enabled the high level of penetration to be obtained, necessary for this high density application. Spatial resolution is not far from the theoretical limit and the density resolution is often adequate. This technique permitted: 1) to define beforehand the cuts on a precise basis, avoiding a long step-by-step choice as in previous in-pile tests; 2) to determine, at an early stage, mass balance, material relocations (in association with axial gamma spectrometry), and FP distribution, as an input into re-calculations of the bundle events. However, classical cuttings, periscopic visual examinations, macrographies, micrographies and EPMA analyses remain essential to give oxidation levels (in the less degraded zones), phase aspect and composition, to distinguish between materials of identical density, and, if possible, to estimate temperatures. Oxidation resistance of sensors (thermocouples or ultrasonic thermometers) is also traced. The EPMA gives access to the molten material chemical analyses, especially in the molten fuel blockage area. The first results show that an important part of the fuel bundle melted (which was one of the objectives of this test) and that the degradation level is close to TIMI-2 with a molten plug under a cavity surrounded by an uranium-rich crust. In lower and upper areas fuel rods are less damaged. Complementaries between these examination techniques and between international teams involved will be major advantages in the Phebus FPT0 test comprehension. 3 refs, 9 figs

  14. Estimates of error introduced when one-dimensional inverse heat transfer techniques are applied to multi-dimensional problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, C.; Koski, J.A.; Razani, A.

    2000-01-01

    A study of the errors introduced when one-dimensional inverse heat conduction techniques are applied to problems involving two-dimensional heat transfer effects was performed. The geometry used for the study was a cylinder with similar dimensions as a typical container used for the transportation of radioactive materials. The finite element analysis code MSC P/Thermal was used to generate synthetic test data that was then used as input for an inverse heat conduction code. Four different problems were considered including one with uniform flux around the outer surface of the cylinder and three with non-uniform flux applied over 360 deg C, 180 deg C, and 90 deg C sections of the outer surface of the cylinder. The Sandia One-Dimensional Direct and Inverse Thermal (SODDIT) code was used to estimate the surface heat flux of all four cases. The error analysis was performed by comparing the results from SODDIT and the heat flux calculated based on the temperature results obtained from P/Thermal. Results showed an increase in error of the surface heat flux estimates as the applied heat became more localized. For the uniform case, SODDIT provided heat flux estimates with a maximum error of 0.5% whereas for the non-uniform cases, the maximum errors were found to be about 3%, 7%, and 18% for the 360 deg C, 180 deg C, and 90 deg C cases, respectively

  15. Testing aspects of advanced coherent electron cooling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.; Jing, Y.; Pinayev, I.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Ratner, D.

    2015-05-03

    An advanced version of the Coherent-electron Cooling (CeC) based on the micro-bunching instability was proposed. This approach promises significant increase in the bandwidth of the CeC system and, therefore, significant shortening of cooling time in high-energy hadron colliders. In this paper we present our plans of simulating and testing the key aspects of this proposed technique using the set-up of the coherent-electron-cooling proof-of-principle experiment at BNL.

  16. Twitch interpolation technique in testing of maximal muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim was to study the methodological aspects of the muscle twitch interpolation technique in estimating the maximal force of contraction in the quadriceps muscle utilizing commercial muscle testing equipment. Six healthy subjects participated in seven sets of experiments testing the effects...... on twitch size of potentiation, time lag after potentiation, magnitude of voluntary force, stimulus amplitude, stimulus duration, angle of the knee, and angle of the hip. In addition, the consequences of submaximal potentiation on the estimation of maximal force from twitch sizes were studied in five...... healthy subjects. We found an increase in twitch size with increasing levels of potentiation and twitch size decreased exponentially following potentiation. We found a curvilinear relationship between twitch size and voluntary force, and these properties were more obvious when the stimulation intensity...

  17. Modern structure of methods and techniques of marketing research, applied by the world and Ukrainian research companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezkrovnaya Yulia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of empiric justification of the structure of methods and techniques of marketing research of consumer decisions, applied by the world and Ukrainian research companies.

  18. Learning mediastinoscopy: the need for education, experience and modern techniques--interdependency of the applied technique and surgeon's training level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walles, Thorsten; Friedel, Godehard; Stegherr, Tobias; Steger, Volker

    2013-04-01

    Mediastinoscopy represents the gold standard for invasive mediastinal staging. While learning and teaching the surgical technique are challenging due to the limited accessibility of the operation field, both benefited from the implementation of video-assisted techniques. However, it has not been established yet whether video-assisted mediastinoscopy improves the mediastinal staging in itself. Retrospective single-centre cohort analysis of 657 mediastinoscopies performed at a specialized tertiary care thoracic surgery unit from 1994 to 2006. The number of specimens obtained per procedure and per lymph node station (2, 4, 7, 8 for mediastinoscopy and 2-9 for open lymphadenectomy), the number of lymph node stations examined, sensitivity and negative predictive value with a focus on the technique employed (video-assisted vs standard technique) and the surgeon's experience were calculated. Overall sensitivity was 60%, accuracy was 90% and negative predictive value 88%. With the conventional technique, experience alone improved sensitivity from 49 to 57% and it was predominant at the paratracheal right region (from 62 to 82%). But with the video-assisted technique, experienced surgeons rose sensitivity from 57 to 79% in contrast to inexperienced surgeons who lowered sensitivity from 49 to 33%. We found significant differences concerning (i) the total number of specimens taken, (ii) the amount of lymph node stations examined, (iii) the number of specimens taken per lymph node station and (iv) true positive mediastinoscopies. The video-assisted technique can significantly improve the results of mediastinoscopy. A thorough education on the modern video-assisted technique is mandatory for thoracic surgeons until they can fully exhaust its potential.

  19. Applying machine-learning techniques to Twitter data for automatic hazard-event classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, R.; Bee, E. J.; Diaz-Doce, D.; Poole, J., Sr.; Singh, A.

    2017-12-01

    The constant flow of information offered by tweets provides valuable information about all sorts of events at a high temporal and spatial resolution. Over the past year we have been analyzing in real-time geological hazards/phenomenon, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, floods or the aurora, as part of the GeoSocial project, by geo-locating tweets filtered by keywords in a web-map. However, not all the filtered tweets are related with hazard/phenomenon events. This work explores two classification techniques for automatic hazard-event categorization based on tweets about the "Aurora". First, tweets were filtered using aurora-related keywords, removing stop words and selecting the ones written in English. For classifying the remaining between "aurora-event" or "no-aurora-event" categories, we compared two state-of-art techniques: Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) algorithms. Both approaches belong to the family of supervised learning algorithms, which make predictions based on labelled training dataset. Therefore, we created a training dataset by tagging 1200 tweets between both categories. The general form of SVM is used to separate two classes by a function (kernel). We compared the performance of four different kernels (Linear Regression, Logistic Regression, Multinomial Naïve Bayesian and Stochastic Gradient Descent) provided by Scikit-Learn library using our training dataset to build the SVM classifier. The results shown that the Logistic Regression (LR) gets the best accuracy (87%). So, we selected the SVM-LR classifier to categorise a large collection of tweets using the "dispel4py" framework.Later, we developed a CNN classifier, where the first layer embeds words into low-dimensional vectors. The next layer performs convolutions over the embedded word vectors. Results from the convolutional layer are max-pooled into a long feature vector, which is classified using a softmax layer. The CNN's accuracy

  20. An Encoding Technique for Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms Applied to Power Distribution System Reconfiguration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Guardado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Network reconfiguration is an alternative to reduce power losses and optimize the operation of power distribution systems. In this paper, an encoding scheme for evolutionary algorithms is proposed in order to search efficiently for the Pareto-optimal solutions during the reconfiguration of power distribution systems considering multiobjective optimization. The encoding scheme is based on the edge window decoder (EWD technique, which was embedded in the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2 and the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II. The effectiveness of the encoding scheme was proved by solving a test problem for which the true Pareto-optimal solutions are known in advance. In order to prove the practicability of the encoding scheme, a real distribution system was used to find the near Pareto-optimal solutions for different objective functions to optimize.

  1. An encoding technique for multiobjective evolutionary algorithms applied to power distribution system reconfiguration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado, J L; Rivas-Davalos, F; Torres, J; Maximov, S; Melgoza, E

    2014-01-01

    Network reconfiguration is an alternative to reduce power losses and optimize the operation of power distribution systems. In this paper, an encoding scheme for evolutionary algorithms is proposed in order to search efficiently for the Pareto-optimal solutions during the reconfiguration of power distribution systems considering multiobjective optimization. The encoding scheme is based on the edge window decoder (EWD) technique, which was embedded in the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2) and the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). The effectiveness of the encoding scheme was proved by solving a test problem for which the true Pareto-optimal solutions are known in advance. In order to prove the practicability of the encoding scheme, a real distribution system was used to find the near Pareto-optimal solutions for different objective functions to optimize.

  2. Complementary analysis techniques applied on optimizing suspensions of yttria stabilized zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Negra, Michela; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn; Klemensø, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Three different polymers with different functional groups and similar molecular weight were tested as dispersing agents for suspensions of yttria stabilized zirconia in ethanol: polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyethylene imine, polyvinyl butyral/acetal. The stability of the system was assessed consideri...... excellent performance of polyvinyl pyrrolidone and polyethylene imine as dispersing agents. The stability and dispersing power were finally utilized for preparing concentrated suspensions for tape casting and subsequently to sinter the tapes into dense ceramic pieces......., in details, all the processing steps, including suspension de-agglomeration, slurry manipulation, quality of sintered tapes microstructure, and final layer leak tightness. Different analytical techniques were used to monitor ceramic de-agglomeration and stability as a function of time, for different types...

  3. Multiple criteria decision making techniques applied to electricity distribution system planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espie, P.; Ault, G.W.; Burt, G.M.; McDonald, J.R. [University of Strathclyde (United Kingdom). Inst. for Energy and the Environment

    2003-09-01

    An approach is described for electricity distribution system planning that allows issues such as load growth, distributed generation, asset management, quality of supply and environmental issues to be considered. In contrast to traditional optimisation approaches which typically assess alternative planning solution by finding the solution with the minimum total cost, the proposed methodology utilises a number of discrete evaluation criteria within a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) environment to examine and assess the trade-offs between alternative solutions. To demonstrate the proposed methodology a worked example is performed on a test distribution network that forms part of an existing distribution network in one UK distribution company area. The results confirm the suitability of MCDM techniques to the distribution planning problem and highlight how evaluating all planning problems simultaneously can provide substantial benefits to a distribution company. (Author)

  4. Applying machine learning techniques to the identification of late-onset hypogonadism in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ti; Hu, Ya-Han; Tsai, Chih-Fong; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chen, Pei-Ling

    2016-01-01

    In the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH), the Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire or Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale can be used to assess related symptoms. Subsequently, blood tests are used to measure serum testosterone levels. However, results obtained using ADAM and AMS have revealed no significant correlations between ADAM and AMS scores and LOH, and the rate of misclassification is high. Recently, many studies have reported significant associations between clinical conditions such as the metabolic syndrome, obesity, lower urinary tract symptoms, and LOH. In this study, we sampled 772 clinical cases of men who completed both a health checkup and two questionnaires (ADAM and AMS). The data were obtained from the largest medical center in Taiwan. Two well-known classification techniques, the decision tree (DT) and logistic regression, were used to construct LOH prediction models on the basis of the aforementioned features. The results indicate that although the sensitivity of ADAM is the highest (0.878), it has the lowest specificity (0.099), which implies that ADAM overestimates LOH occurrence. In addition, DT combined with the AdaBoost technique (AdaBoost DT) has the second highest sensitivity (0.861) and specificity (0.842), resulting in having the best accuracy (0.851) among all classifiers. AdaBoost DT can provide robust predictions that will aid clinical decisions and can help medical staff in accurately assessing the possibilities of LOH occurrence.

  5. Probing Shells Against Buckling: A Nondestructive Technique for Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. Michael T.; Hutchinson, John W.; Sieber, Jan

    2017-12-01

    This paper addresses testing of compressed structures, such as shells, that exhibit catastrophic buckling and notorious imperfection sensitivity. The central concept is the probing of a loaded structural specimen by a controlled lateral displacement to gain quantitative insight into its buckling behavior and to measure the energy barrier against buckling. This can provide design information about a structure’s stiffness and robustness against buckling in terms of energy and force landscapes. Developments in this area are relatively new but have proceeded rapidly with encouraging progress. Recent experimental tests on uniformly compressed spherical shells, and axially loaded cylinders, show excellent agreement with theoretical solutions. The probing technique could be a valuable experimental procedure for testing prototype structures, but before it can be used a range of potential problems must be examined and solved. The probing response is highly nonlinear and a variety of complications can occur. Here, we make a careful assessment of unexpected limit points and bifurcations, that could accompany probing, causing complications and possibly even collapse of a test specimen. First, a limit point in the probe displacement (associated with a cusp instability and fold) can result in dynamic buckling as probing progresses, as demonstrated in the buckling of a spherical shell under volume control. Second, various types of bifurcations which can occur on the probing path which result in the probing response becoming unstable are also discussed. To overcome these problems, we outline the extra controls over the entire structure that may be needed to stabilize the response.

  6. The simulation of Typhoon-induced coastal inundation in Busan, South Korea applying the downscaling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dongmin; Park, Junghyun; Yuk, Jin-Hee; Joh, MinSu

    2017-04-01

    Due to typhoons, the south coastal cities including Busan in South Korea coastal are very vulnerable to a surge, wave and corresponding coastal inundation, and are affected every year. In 2016, South Korea suffered tremendous damage by typhoon 'Chaba', which was developed near east-north of Guam on Sep. 28 and had maximum 10-minute sustained wind speed of about 50 m/s, 1-minute sustained wind speed of 75 m/s and a minimum central pressure of 905 hpa. As 'Chaba', which is the strongest since typhoon 'Maemi' in 2003, hit South Korea on Oct. 5, it caused a massive economic and casualty damage to Ulsan, Gyeongju and Busan in South Korea. In particular, the damage of typhoon-induced coastal inundation in Busan, where many high-rise buildings and residential areas are concentrated near coast, was serious. The coastal inundation could be more affected by strong wind-induced wave than surge. In fact, it was observed that the surge height was about 1 m averagely and a significant wave height was about 8 m at coastal sea nearby Busan on Oct. 5 due to 'Chaba'. Even though the typhoon-induced surge elevated the sea level, the typhoon-induced long period wave with wave period of more than 15s could play more important role in the inundation. The present work simulated the coastal inundation induced by 'Chaba' in Busan, South Korea considering the effects of typhoon-induced surge and wave. For 'Chaba' hindcast, high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) was applied using a reanalysis data produced by NCEP (FNL 0.25 degree) on the boundary and initial conditions, and was validated by the observation of wind speed, direction and pressure. The typhoon-induced coastal inundation was simulated by an unstructured gird model, Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM), which is fully current-wave coupled model. To simulate the wave-induced inundation, 1-way downscaling technique of multi domain was applied. Firstly, a mother's domain including Korean peninsula was

  7. Nonbinary quantification technique accounting for myocardial infarct heterogeneity: Feasibility of applying percent infarct mapping in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrodicasa, Domenico; Elgavish, Gabriel A; Schoepf, U Joseph; Suranyi, Pal; van Assen, Marly; Albrecht, Moritz H; De Cecco, Carlo N; van der Geest, Rob J; Hardy, Rayphael; Mantini, Cesare; Griffith, L Parkwood; Ruzsics, Balazs; Varga-Szemes, Akos

    2018-02-15

    Binary threshold-based quantification techniques ignore myocardial infarct (MI) heterogeneity, yielding substantial misquantification of MI. To assess the technical feasibility of MI quantification using percent infarct mapping (PIM), a prototype nonbinary algorithm, in patients with suspected MI. Prospective cohort POPULATION: Patients (n = 171) with suspected MI referred for cardiac MRI. Inversion recovery balanced steady-state free-precession for late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) T 1 -mapping on a 1.5T system. Infarct volume (IV) and infarct fraction (IF) were quantified by two observers based on manual delineation, binary approaches (2-5 standard deviations [SD] and full-width at half-maximum [FWHM] thresholds) in LGE images, and by applying the PIM algorithm in T 1 and LGE images (PIM T1 ; PIM LGE ). IV and IF were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Agreement between the approaches was determined with Bland-Altman analysis. Interobserver agreement was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis. MI was observed in 89 (54.9%) patients, and 185 (38%) short-axis slices. IF with 2, 3, 4, 5SDs and FWHM techniques were 15.7 ± 6.6, 13.4 ± 5.6, 11.6 ± 5.0, 10.8 ± 5.2, and 10.0 ± 5.2%, respectively. The 5SD and FWHM techniques had the best agreement with manual IF (9.9 ± 4.8%) determination (bias 1.0 and 0.2%; P = 0.1426 and P = 0.8094, respectively). The 2SD and 3SD algorithms significantly overestimated manual IF (9.9 ± 4.8%; both P < 0.0001). PIM LGE measured significantly lower IF (7.8 ± 3.7%) compared to manual values (P < 0.0001). PIM LGE , however, showed the best agreement with the PIM T1 reference (7.6 ± 3.6%, P = 0.3156). Interobserver agreement was rated good to excellent for IV (ICCs between 0.727-0.820) and fair to good for IF (0.589-0.736). The application of the PIM LGE technique for MI

  8. The Study of Mining Activities and their Influences in the Almaden Region Applying Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, C.; Schmid, T.; Millan, R.; Gumuzzio, J.

    2010-01-01

    This scientific-technical report is a part of an ongoing research work carried out by Celia Rico Fraile in order to obtain the Diploma of Advanced Studies as part of her PhD studies. This work has been developed in collaboration with the Faculty of Science at The Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and the Department of Environment at CIEMAT. The main objective of this work was the characterization and classification of land use in Almaden (Ciudad Real) during cinnabar mineral exploitation and after mining activities ceased in 2002, developing a methodology focused on the integration of remote sensing techniques applying multispectral and hyper spectral satellite data. By means of preprocessing and processing of data from the satellite images as well as data obtained from field campaigns, a spectral library was compiled in order to obtain representative land surfaces within the study area. Monitoring results show that the distribution of areas affected by mining activities is rapidly diminishing in recent years. (Author) 130 refs

  9. Spatial analysis techniques applied to uranium prospecting in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio R.; Montero Cabrera, María Elena; Sanín, Luz H.; Reyes Cortés, Manuel; Martínez Meyer, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the distribution of uranium minerals in Chihuahua, the advanced statistical model "Maximun Entropy Method" (MaxEnt) was applied. A distinguishing feature of this method is that it can fit more complex models in case of small datasets (x and y data), as is the location of uranium ores in the State of Chihuahua. For georeferencing uranium ores, a database from the United States Geological Survey and workgroup of experts in Mexico was used. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of maximum entropy techniques to obtain the mineral's potential distribution. For this model were used 24 environmental layers like topography, gravimetry, climate (worldclim), soil properties and others that were useful to project the uranium's distribution across the study area. For the validation of the places predicted by the model, comparisons were done with other research of the Mexican Service of Geological Survey, with direct exploration of specific areas and by talks with former exploration workers of the enterprise "Uranio de Mexico". Results. New uranium areas predicted by the model were validated, finding some relationship between the model predictions and geological faults. Conclusions. Modeling by spatial analysis provides additional information to the energy and mineral resources sectors.

  10. OBIC technique applied to wide bandgap semiconductors from 100 K up to 450 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, H.; Planson, D.; Raynaud, C.; Bevilacqua, P.

    2017-05-01

    Wide bandgap semiconductors have recently become more frequently used in the power electronics domain. They are predicted to replace traditional silicon, especially for high voltage and/or high frequency devices. Device design has made a lot of progress in the last two decades. Substrates up to six inches in diameter have now been commercialized with very low defect densities. Such a development is due to continuous studies. Of these studies, those that allow an excess of charge carriers in the space charge region (like OBIC - optical beam induced current, and EBIC - electron beam induced current) are useful to analyze the variation of electric field as a function of the voltage and the beam position. This paper shows the OBIC technique applied to wide bandgap semiconductor-based devices. OBIC cartography gives an image of the electric field in the device, and the analysis of the OBIC signal helps one to determine some characteristics of the semiconductors, like minority carrier lifetime and ionization rates. These are key parameters to predict device switching behavior and breakdown voltage.

  11. Applying Toyota production system techniques for medication delivery: improving hospital safety and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Terry L; Steinmetz-Malato, Laura L; Van Dyke, Deborah L

    2011-01-01

    The inpatient medication delivery system used at a large regional acute care hospital in the Midwest had become antiquated and inefficient. The existing 24-hr medication cart-fill exchange process with delivery to the patients' bedside did not always provide ordered medications to the nursing units when they were needed. In 2007 the principles of the Toyota Production System (TPS) were applied to the system. Project objectives were to improve medication safety and reduce the time needed for nurses to retrieve patient medications. A multidisciplinary team was formed that included representatives from nursing, pharmacy, informatics, quality, and various operational support departments. Team members were educated and trained in the tools and techniques of TPS, and then designed and implemented a new pull system benchmarking the TPS Ideal State model. The newly installed process, providing just-in-time medication availability, has measurably improved delivery processes as well as patient safety and satisfaction. Other positive outcomes have included improved nursing satisfaction, reduced nursing wait time for delivered medications, and improved efficiency in the pharmacy. After a successful pilot on two nursing units, the system is being extended to the rest of the hospital. © 2010 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  12. Statistical Techniques Applied to Aerial Radiometric Surveys (STAARS): cluster analysis. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirkle, F.L.; Stablein, N.K.; Howell, J.A.; Wecksung, G.W.; Duran, B.S.

    1982-11-01

    One objective of the aerial radiometric surveys flown as part of the US Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was to ascertain the regional distribution of near-surface radioelement abundances. Some method for identifying groups of observations with similar radioelement values was therefore required. It is shown in this report that cluster analysis can identify such groups even when no a priori knowledge of the geology of an area exists. A method of convergent k-means cluster analysis coupled with a hierarchical cluster analysis is used to classify 6991 observations (three radiometric variables at each observation location) from the Precambrian rocks of the Copper Mountain, Wyoming, area. Another method, one that combines a principal components analysis with a convergent k-means analysis, is applied to the same data. These two methods are compared with a convergent k-means analysis that utilizes available geologic knowledge. All three methods identify four clusters. Three of the clusters represent background values for the Precambrian rocks of the area, and one represents outliers (anomalously high 214 Bi). A segmentation of the data corresponding to geologic reality as discovered by other methods has been achieved based solely on analysis of aerial radiometric data. The techniques employed are composites of classical clustering methods designed to handle the special problems presented by large data sets. 20 figures, 7 tables

  13. Formulation of Indomethacin Colon Targeted Delivery Systems Using Polysaccharides as Carriers by Applying Liquisolid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadria A. Elkhodairy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at the formulation of matrix tablets for colon-specific drug delivery (CSDD system of indomethacin (IDM by applying liquisolid (LS technique. A CSDD system based on time-dependent polymethacrylates and enzyme degradable polysaccharides was established. Eudragit RL 100 (E-RL 100 was employed as time-dependent polymer, whereas bacterial degradable polysaccharides were presented as LS systems loaded with the drug. Indomethacin-loaded LS systems were prepared using different polysaccharides, namely, guar gum (GG, pectin (PEC, and chitosan (CH, as carriers separately or in mixtures of different ratios of 1 : 3, 1 : 1, and 3 : 1. Liquisolid systems that displayed promising results concerning drug release rate in both pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 were compressed into tablets after the addition of the calculated amount of E-RL 100 and lubrication with magnesium stearate and talc in the ratio of 1 : 9. It was found that E-RL 100 improved the flowability and compressibility of all LS formulations. The release data revealed that all formulations succeeded to sustain drug release over a period of 24 hours. Stability study indicated that PEC-based LS system as well as its matrix tablets was stable over the period of storage (one year and could provide a minimum shelf life of two years.

  14. Do trained practice nurses apply motivational interviewing techniques in primary care consultations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordman, Janneke; van Lee, Inge; Nielen, Mark; Vlek, Hans; van Weijden, Trudy; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    Reducing the prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviour could positively influence health. Motivational interviewing (MI) is used to promote change in unhealthy lifestyle behaviour as part of primary or secondary prevention. Whether MI is actually applied as taught is unknown. Practice nurses' application of motivational interviewing in real-life primary care consultations was examined. Furthermore, we explored if (and to what extent) practice nurses adjust their motivational interviewing skills to primary versus secondary prevention. Thirteen Dutch practice nurses, from four general practices, trained in motivational interviewing participated, 117 adult patients visiting the practice nurse participated, 117 practice nurse-patient consultations between June and December 2010 were videotaped. Motivational interview skills were rated by two observers using the Behaviour Change Counselling Index (BECCI). Data were analyzed using multilevel regression. Practice nurses use motivational interviewing techniques to some extent. Substantial variation was found between motivational interviewing items. No significant differences in the use of motivational interviewing between primary and secondary prevention was found. Motivational interviewing skills are not easily applicable in routine practice. Health care providers who want to acquire motivational interview skills should follow booster sessions after the first training. The training could be strengthened by video-feedback and feedback based on participating observation. A possible explanation for the lack of differences between the two types of prevention consultations may be the gain to help patients in primary consultations by preventing complications equals the necessity to help the disease from aggravating in secondary prevention.

  15. Development of small specimen test techniques. Development of a remote controlled small punch testing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, Masao; Saito, Junichi; Ooka, Norikazu; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Hishinuma, Akimichi; Umino, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    An accelerator-driven deuterium-lithium (d-Li) stripping reaction-type neutron source, such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) planned by the International Energy Agency is recognized as one of the most promising facility to obtain test environments of high-energy neutrons for fusion reactor materials development. The limitation on the available irradiation volume of the irradiation facility requires the development of the small specimen test techniques (SSTT). Application of SSTT to evaluate the degradation of various components in the light water reactor for the life extension is expected to be also quite beneficial. A remote-controlled testing machine for the Small Punch (SP) and miniaturized tensile tests was developed at the hot laboratory of the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The machine is designed for testing at temperatures ranging between 93 and 1,123 K to evaluate the temperature dependence of the strength of materials including the embrittlement at low temperatures and the softening at elevated temperatures. The tests are performed in a vacuum or in an inert gas environment. The machine has been installed in a hot cell and is being used for the round robin test program of the SP test method. The round robin test program is planned to identify the capability of the test method and to establish a standard test procedure. The configuration and the specifications of the test machine are introduced and the results of the SP tests are also shown. (author)

  16. Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing Techniques. 2013 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The IAEA promotes industrial applications of radiation technology, including non-destructive testing (NDT), through activities such as Technical Cooperation Projects (national and regional) and Coordinated Research Projects. Through this cooperation, Member States have initiated national programmes for the training and certification of NDT personnel. National certifying bodies have also been established based on International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. As part of these efforts, the IAEA has been actively involved in developing training materials. Consequently, IAEA-TECDOC-407, Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing Techniques, was published in 1987, then revised and expanded as IAEA-TECDOC-628 in 1991. Revisions of IAEA-TECDOC-628 were considered essential to meet the demands of end-user industries in Member States, and revised and expanded versions were issued in 2002 and 2008. These latter versions included work conducted by the International Committee for Non-Destructive Testing (ICNDT) and many national NDT societies. It is one of the publications referred to in ISO 9712:2005, Non-destructive Testing: Qualification and Certification of Personnel, which in turn is an internationally accepted standard, revised as ISO 9712:2012, Non-destructive Testing: Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel. This publication is an updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-628. The content of which has been revised following the changes of ISO 9712 converging with EN 473 and becoming EN ISO 9712:2012, based on the experience of experts and comments from end-user industries. The details of the topics on each subject have been expanded to include the latest developments in the respective methods. The incorporated changes will assist the end-user industries to update their NDT qualification and certification schemes and course materials. This publication, like the previous versions, will continue to play an important role in international harmonization

  17. A iterative algorithm in computarized tomography applied to non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, C.A.C.

    1982-10-01

    In the present work, a mathematical model has been developed for two dimensional image reconstruction in computarized tomography applied to non-destructive testing. The method used is the Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) with additive corrections. This model consists of a discontinuous system formed by an NxN array of cells (pixels). The attenuation in the object of a collimated beam of gamma rays has been determined for various positions and angles of incidence (projections) in terms of the interaction of the beam with the intercepted pixels. The contribution of each pixel to beam attenuation was determined using the weight function wij. Simulated tests using standard objects carried out with attenuation coefficients in the range 0,2 to 0,7 cm -1 , were made using cell arrays of up to 25x25. Experiments were made using a gamma radiation source ( 241 Am), a table with translational and rotational movements and a gamma radiation detection system. Results indicate that convergence obtained in the iterative calculations is a function of the distribution of attenuation coefficient in the pixels, of the number of angular projection and of the number of iterations. (author) [pt

  18. UQ and V&V techniques applied to experiments and simulations of heated pipes pressurized to failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente Jose [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dempsey, J. Franklin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Antoun, Bonnie R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This report demonstrates versatile and practical model validation and uncertainty quantification techniques applied to the accuracy assessment of a computational model of heated steel pipes pressurized to failure. The Real Space validation methodology segregates aleatory and epistemic uncertainties to form straightforward model validation metrics especially suited for assessing models to be used in the analysis of performance and safety margins. The methodology handles difficulties associated with representing and propagating interval and/or probabilistic uncertainties from multiple correlated and uncorrelated sources in the experiments and simulations including: material variability characterized by non-parametric random functions (discrete temperature dependent stress-strain curves); very limited (sparse) experimental data at the coupon testing level for material characterization and at the pipe-test validation level; boundary condition reconstruction uncertainties from spatially sparse sensor data; normalization of pipe experimental responses for measured input-condition differences among tests and for random and systematic uncertainties in measurement/processing/inference of experimental inputs and outputs; numerical solution uncertainty from model discretization and solver effects.

  19. Experimental Nondestructive Test for Estimation of Buckling Load on Unstiffened Cylindrical Shells Using Vibration Correlation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspars Kalnins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nondestructive methods, to calculate the buckling load of imperfection sensitive thin-walled structures, such as large-scale aerospace structures, are one of the most important techniques for the evaluation of new structures and validation of numerical models. The vibration correlation technique (VCT allows determining the buckling load for several types of structures without reaching the instability point, but this technique is still under development for thin-walled plates and shells. This paper presents and discusses an experimental verification of a novel approach using vibration correlation technique for the prediction of realistic buckling loads of unstiffened cylindrical shells loaded under axial compression. Four different test structures were manufactured and loaded up to buckling: two composite laminated cylindrical shells and two stainless steel cylinders. In order to characterize a relationship with the applied load, the first natural frequency of vibration and mode shape is measured during testing using a 3D laser scanner. The proposed vibration correlation technique allows one to predict the experimental buckling load with a very good approximation without actually reaching the instability point. Additional experimental tests and numerical models are currently under development to further validate the proposed approach for composite and metallic conical structures.

  20. Study and development of a pyrometric in-core measurement technique to follow the temperature of the fuel rod cladding; applied to the study of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) during trial simulations in the Jules Horowitz Reactor (Material Testing Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiandrisoa, Liana

    2014-01-01

    In both research and industry, temperature is a key parameter for understanding and characterizing the behavior of materials. To study the thermomechanical behavior of a fuel rod, a test device is designed for the Jules Horowitz Material Testing Reactor (currently under construction in the CEA Cadarache). The device will be placed under accidental conditions (Loss Of Coolant Accident, LOCA) causing rapid overheating. The temperature tracking, between 700 and 1200 C, will be measured by a fiber optic sensor. The aim of the project is to optimize temperature measurement by comparing different pyrometry techniques. This study covers the management of the main difficulties inherent to the design of the sensor.The first challenge consists of predicting optical fiber behavior in such complex environments where irradiation and high temperature are combined. The fiber will be exposed to a neutron dose rate about 10 12 nfast/cm 2 /s and a dose rate of about 1 kGy/s. Moreover its extremity is heated to approximately 800 C. It is shown that under these conditions, light interferences, absorption bands and fluctuating attenuation are obstacles to overcome or to mitigate.The second challenge, concerning pyrometric measurement, comes from spectral variations expected for the rod emissivity. The material of study is chosen for its widespread use in France: Zircaloy-4. Under oxidizing conditions the spectral emissivity of this Zirconium alloy evolves. This thesis proves that between 700 and 800 C pyrometric measurement is possible from experimental point of view in laboratory without irradiation.In conclusion rod temperature tracking in JHR conditions may be possible providing that interferences are mastered and wavelengths are chosen. This work makes the use of optical pyrometry under civil nuclear extreme conditions more promising. (author) [fr

  1. Business jet approach noise abatement techniques - Flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, T. W.; Burcham, F. W.

    1976-01-01

    Operational techniques for reducing approach noise from business jet aircraft were evaluated in flight by measuring the noise generated by five such aircraft during modified approaches. Approaches with 4-deg glide slopes were approximately 4.0 EPNdB quieter than approaches with standard 3-deg glide slopes. Noise reductions for low-drag 3-deg approaches varied widely among the airplanes tested; the fleet-weighted reduction was 8.5 EPNdB. Two-segment approaches resulted in noise reductions of 7.0 EPNdB to 8.5 EPNdB 3 nautical miles and 5 nautical miles from touchdown. Pilot workload increased progressively for the 4-deg, low-drag 3-deg, and two-segment approach.

  2. Role of omics techniques in the toxicity testing of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Fröhlich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology is regarded as a key technology of the twenty-first century. Despite the many advantages of nanotechnology it is also known that engineered nanoparticles (NPs may cause adverse health effects in humans. Reports on toxic effects of NPs relay mainly on conventional (phenotypic testing but studies of changes in epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome induced by NPs have also been performed. NPs most relevant for human exposure in consumer, health and food products are metal, metal oxide and carbon-based NPs. They were also studied quite frequently with omics technologies and an overview of the study results can serve to answer the question if screening for established targets of nanotoxicity (e.g. cell death, proliferation, oxidative stress, and inflammation is sufficient or if omics techniques are needed to reveal new targets. Regulated pathways identified by omics techniques were confirmed by phenotypic assays performed in the same study and comparison of particle types and cells by the same group indicated a more cell/organ-specific than particle specific regulation pattern. Between different studies moderate overlap of the regulated pathways was observed and cell-specific regulation is less obvious. The lack of standardization in particle exposure, in omics technologies, difficulties to translate mechanistic data to phenotypes and comparison with human in vivo data currently limit the use of these technologies in the prediction of toxic effects by NPs.

  3. Teachers and Learners’ Perceptions of Applying Translation as a Method, Strategy, or Technique in an Iranian EFL Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mollaei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that translation is an efficient means to teach/learn grammar, syntax, and lexis of a foreign language. Meanwhile, translation is good for beginners who do not still enjoy the critical level of proficiency in their target language for expression.  This study was conducted to examine the teachers and learners’ perceptions of employing translation in the foreign language classroom; i.e., the effects, merits, demerits, limitations, as well as its use as a method, strategy or technique. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect and analyze the data from graduate and undergraduate learners (n=56 and teachers (n=44, male and female, who responded to two questionnaires. Additionally, only the teachers were interviewed to gain richer insight into their perceptions and attitudes. According to the results of independent samples t-test, there was no significant difference between teachers and learners’ attitude to applying translation as a method, strategy, or technique in learning a foreign language.  Based on the interview results, some teachers believed that employing translation in the foreign language context was helpful but not constantly. They claimed that translation was only effective in teaching vocabulary and grammar apart from leaners’ proficiency level as it can clarify meaning. But some other teachers noted that mother tongue would interfere with learning foreign language; they considered translation as a time-consuming activity through which students cannot capture the exact meaning.

  4. Application of modern well test analysis techniques to pressure transient tests in Kizildere geothermal field, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, M.; Serpen, U.; Gok, I.M. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Mines; Zeybek, A.D. [Al-Mutlaq Compound, Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia)

    2003-04-01

    The analyses of two build-up tests and one interference test in the Kizildere geothermal field, Turkey, are presented. Modern well test analysis methods based on pressure-derivative (logarithmic time rate of pressure) and non-linear regression, as well as conventional log-log and semi-log straight-line methods, have been used in the interpretation of these field pressure tests. Pressure transient models based on both homogeneous reservoirs and fractal reservoirs without matrix participation are considered in the analysis. It is shown that the use of conventional analysis methods alone can lead to an inaccurate interpretation of these field tests, and the use of modern analysis techniques in conjunction with conventional analysis techniques provides a more reliable and accurate interpretation of the well test data in the Kizildere geothermal field. The information obtained (e.g., estimates of permeability thickness and fractal dimensions) from analyses of these tests should prove useful for reservoir characterization studies in the Kizildere field, where reinjection is scheduled to begin soon. Finally, the modern interpretation methods described in this paper are recommended for analysis of well test pressure data from geothermal reservoirs. (Author)

  5. Influence of applied corneal endothelium image segmentation techniques on the clinical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Adam; Nurzynska, Karolina; Gronkowska-Serafin, Jolanta; Selig, Bettina; Boldak, Cezary; Reska, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The corneal endothelium state is verified on the basis of an in vivo specular microscope image from which the shape and density of cells are exploited for data description. Due to the relatively low image quality resulting from a high magnification of the living, non-stained tissue, both manual and automatic analysis of the data is a challenging task. Although, many automatic or semi-automatic solutions have already been introduced, all of them are prone to inaccuracy. This work presents a comparison of four methods (fully-automated or semi-automated) for endothelial cell segmentation, all of which represent a different approach to cell segmentation; fast robust stochastic watershed (FRSW), KH method, active contours solution (SNAKE), and TOPCON ImageNET. Moreover, an improvement framework is introduced which aims to unify precise cell border location in images pre-processed with differing techniques. Finally, the influence of the selected methods on clinical parameters is examined, both with and without the improvement framework application. The experiments revealed that although the image segmentation approaches differ, the measures calculated for clinical parameters are in high accordance when CV (coefficient of variation), and CVSL (coefficient of variation of cell sides length) are considered. Higher variation was noticed for the H (hexagonality) metric. Utilisation of the improvement framework assured better repeatability of precise endothelial cell border location between the methods while diminishing the dispersion of clinical parameter values calculated for such images. Finally, it was proven statistically that the image processing method applied for endothelial cell analysis does not influence the ability to differentiate between the images using medical parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Applying Geospatial Techniques to Investigate Boundary Layer Land-Atmosphere Interactions Involved in Tornadogensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Knupp, K. R.; Molthan, A.; Coleman, T.

    2017-12-01

    Northern Alabama is among the most tornado-prone regions in the United States. This region has a higher degree of spatial variability in both terrain and land cover than the more frequently studied North American Great Plains region due to its proximity to the southern Appalachian Mountains and Cumberland Plateau. More research is needed to understand North Alabama's high tornado frequency and how land surface heterogeneity influences tornadogenesis in the boundary layer. Several modeling and simulation studies stretching back to the 1970's have found that variations in the land surface induce tornadic-like flow near the surface, illustrating a need for further investigation. This presentation introduces research investigating the hypothesis that horizontal gradients in land surface roughness, normal to the direction of flow in the boundary layer, induce vertically oriented vorticity at the surface that can potentially aid in tornadogenesis. A novel approach was implemented to test this hypothesis using a GIS-based quadrant pattern analysis method. This method was developed to quantify spatial relationships and patterns between horizontal variations in land surface roughness and locations of tornadogenesis. Land surface roughness was modeled using the Noah land surface model parameterization scheme which, was applied to MODIS 500 m and Landsat 30 m data in order to compare the relationship between tornadogenesis locations and roughness gradients at different spatial scales. This analysis found a statistical relationship between areas of higher roughness located normal to flow surrounding tornadogenesis locations that supports the tested hypothesis. In this presentation, the innovative use of satellite remote sensing data and GIS technologies to address interactions between the land and atmosphere will be highlighted.

  7. Experimental Studies of Active and Passive Flow Control Techniques Applied in a Twin Air-Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshoy Ranjan Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow control in twin air-intakes is necessary to improve the performance characteristics, since the flow traveling through curved and diffused paths becomes complex, especially after merging. The paper presents a comparison between two well-known techniques of flow control: active and passive. It presents an effective design of a vortex generator jet (VGJ and a vane-type passive vortex generator (VG and uses them in twin air-intake duct in different combinations to establish their effectiveness in improving the performance characteristics. The VGJ is designed to insert flow from side wall at pitch angle of 90 degrees and 45 degrees. Corotating (parallel and counterrotating (V-shape are the configuration of vane type VG. It is observed that VGJ has the potential to change the flow pattern drastically as compared to vane-type VG. While the VGJ is directed perpendicular to the side walls of the air-intake at a pitch angle of 90 degree, static pressure recovery is increased by 7.8% and total pressure loss is reduced by 40.7%, which is the best among all other cases tested for VGJ. For bigger-sized VG attached to the side walls of the air-intake, static pressure recovery is increased by 5.3%, but total pressure loss is reduced by only 4.5% as compared to all other cases of VG.

  8. From birds to bees: applying video observation techniques to invertebrate pollinators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C J Lortie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Observation is a critical element of behavioural ecology and ethology. Here, we propose a similar set of techniques to enhance the study of the diversity patterns of invertebrate pollinators and associated plant species. In a body of avian research, cameras are set up on nests in blinds to examine chick and parent interactions. This avoids observer bias, minimizes interference, and provides numerous other benefits including timestamps, the capacity to record frequency and duration of activities, and provides a permanent archive of activity for later analyses. Hence, we propose that small video cameras in blinds can also be used to continuously monitor pollinator activity on plants thereby capitalizing on those same benefits. This method was proofed in 2010 in the alpine in BC, Canada on target focal plant species and on open mixed assemblages of plant species. Apple ipod nanos successfully recorded activity for an entire day at a time totalling 450 hours and provided sufficient resolution and field of view to both identify pollinators to recognizable taxonomic units and monitor movement and visitation rates at a scale of view of approximately 50 cm2. This method is not a replacement for pan traps or sweep nets but an opportunity to enhance these datasets with more detailed, finer-resolution data. Importantly, the test of this specific method also indicates that far more hours of observation - using any method - are likely required than most current ecological studies published to accurately estimate pollinator diversity.

  9. Psychological evaluation test after the use of assisted reproduction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, José Gonçalves; Razera Baruffi, Ricardo Luiz; Mauri, Ana Lucia; Petersen, Claudia Guilhermino; Felipe, Valeria; Garbellini, Erika

    2002-06-01

    The emotional changes provoked by the use of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) may trigger important psychological reactions. The objective of the present study was to develop a psychological evaluation test (PET-ART) in order to identify the occurrence of psychological problems and to facilitate their treatment. A total of 128 women were submitted to PET-ART of the Center for Human Reproduction, "Sinhá Junqueira" Maternity Foundation, after application of IVF/ICSI program at least once. The causes of infertility were male-related in 45% of cases, female-related in 48%, and both male- and female-related in 7%. Infertility was primary in 79% of cases and secondary in 21%. The mean age of the women was 34.5 +/- 5.2 years and the mean age of the men was 37.9 +/- 6.8 years. The PET-ART was evaluated using a questionnaire with 15 questions selected in order to detect emotional reactions caused by infertility. The responses were assigned four grades with respect to intensity (1 = mild intensity; 2 = medium intensity; 3 = high intensity; and 4 = maximum or unbearable intensity). The sum of the responses corresponded to PET-ART score ranging from 15 to 60 points. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated by the alpha coefficient of Cronbach. The PET-ART identified five questions receiving 50% or more responses of the high/maximum intensity type (sum of the percentages of responses with a score of 3 and 4). The questions were the following: 1--The waiting time before being submitted to a pregnancy test (82.8% of the patients); 2--A negative result of the pregnancy test (77.3% of the patients); 3--The degree of anxiety in a new attempt to obtain pregnancy (76.5% of the patients); 4--Finding the money necessary for the repetition of the IVF/ICSI techniques (66.4% of the patients); 5--The possibility of collecting few eggs, or of forming or not an embryo in the laboratory is an expectation that makes me anxious (57.8% of the patients). The mean PET-ART was 33

  10. Technique for Outdoor Test on Concentrating Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sansoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor experimentation of solar cells is essential to maximize their performance and to assess utilization requirements and limits. More generally tests with direct exposure to the sun are useful to understand the behavior of components and new materials for solar applications in real working conditions. Insolation and ambient factors are uncontrollable but can be monitored to know the environmental situation of the solar exposure experiment. A parallel characterization of the photocells can be performed in laboratory under controllable and reproducible conditions. A methodology to execute solar exposure tests is proposed and practically applied on photovoltaic cells for a solar cogeneration system. The cells are measured with concentrated solar light obtained utilizing a large Fresnel lens mounted on a sun tracker. Outdoor measurements monitor the effects of the exposure of two multijunction photovoltaic cells to focused sunlight. The main result is the continuous acquisition of the V-I (voltage-current curve for the cells in different conditions of solar concentration and temperature of exercise to assess their behavior. The research investigates electrical power extracted, efficiency, temperatures reached, and possible damages of the photovoltaic cell.

  11. Water Permeability of Pervious Concrete Is Dependent on the Applied Pressure and Testing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghong Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Falling head method (FHM and constant head method (CHM are, respectively, used to test the water permeability of permeable concrete, using different water heads on the testing samples. The results indicate the apparent permeability of pervious concrete decreasing with the applied water head. The results also demonstrate the permeability measured from the FHM is lower than that from the CHM. The fundamental difference between the CHM and FHM is examined from the theory of fluid flowing through porous media. The testing results suggest that the water permeability of permeable concrete should be reported with the applied pressure and the associated testing method.

  12. Advanced ultrasonic techniques for nondestructive testing of austenitic and dissimilar welds in nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengert, Anne; Dugan, Sandra; Homann, Tobias; Mitzscherling, Steffen; Prager, Jens; Pudovikov, Sergey; Schwender, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Austenitic stainless steel welds as well as dissimilar metal welds with nickel alloy filler material, used in safety relevant parts of nuclear power plants, still challenge the ultrasonic inspection. The weld material forms large oriented grains that lead, on the one hand, to high sound scattering and, on the other hand, to inhomogeneity and to the acoustic anisotropy of the weld structure. The ultrasonic wave fronts do not propagate linearly, as in ferritic weld joints, but along the curves, which depend on the specific grain structure of the weld. Due to the influence of these phenomena, it is difficult to analyze the inspection results and to classify the ultrasonic indications, which could be both from the weld geometry and from the material defects. A correct flaw sizing is not possible. In an ongoing research project, different techniques to improve the reliability of ultrasonic testing at these kinds of welds are investigated. In a first step (in the previous research project) two ultrasonic inspection techniques were developed and validated on plane test specimens with artificial and realistic flaws. In the ongoing project, these techniques are applied to circumferential pipe welds with longitudinal and transverse flaws. The technique developed at the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) in Germany uses a combination of ray tracing and synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). To investigate the unknown grain structure, the velocity distribution of weld-transmitting ultrasound waves is measured and used to model the weld by ray tracing. The second technique, developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP) in Germany, uses Sampling Phased Array (Full Matrix Capture) combined with the reverse phase matching (RPM) and the gradient elastic constant descent algorithm (GECDM). This inspection method is able to estimate the elastic constants of the columnar grains in the weld and offers an improvement of the

  13. Trends in analytical techniques applied to particulate matter characterization: A critical review of fundaments and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Elson Silva; Santos, Jane Meri; Lima, Ana Teresa; Reis, Neyval Costa; Orlando, Marcos Tadeu D'Azeredo; Stuetz, Richard Michael

    2018-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown the association of airborne particulate matter (PM) size and chemical composition with health problems affecting the cardiorespiratory and central nervous systems. PM also act as cloud condensation nuclei (CNN) or ice nuclei (IN), taking part in the clouds formation process, and therefore can impact the climate. There are several works using different analytical techniques in PM chemical and physical characterization to supply information to source apportionment models that help environmental agencies to assess damages accountability. Despite the numerous analytical techniques described in the literature available for PM characterization, laboratories are normally limited to the in-house available techniques, which raises the question if a given technique is suitable for the purpose of a specific experimental work. The aim of this work consists of summarizing the main available technologies for PM characterization, serving as a guide for readers to find the most appropriate technique(s) for their investigation. Elemental analysis techniques like atomic spectrometry based and X-ray based techniques, organic and carbonaceous techniques and surface analysis techniques are discussed, illustrating their main features as well as their advantages and drawbacks. We also discuss the trends in analytical techniques used over the last two decades. The choice among all techniques is a function of a number of parameters such as: the relevant particles physical properties, sampling and measuring time, access to available facilities and the costs associated to equipment acquisition, among other considerations. An analytical guide map is presented as a guideline for choosing the most appropriated technique for a given analytical information required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Time-series-analysis techniques applied to nuclear-material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.; Downing, D.J.

    1982-05-01

    This document is designed to introduce the reader to the applications of Time Series Analysis techniques to Nuclear Material Accountability data. Time series analysis techniques are designed to extract information from a collection of random variables ordered by time by seeking to identify any trends, patterns, or other structure in the series. Since nuclear material accountability data is a time series, one can extract more information using time series analysis techniques than by using other statistical techniques. Specifically, the objective of this document is to examine the applicability of time series analysis techniques to enhance loss detection of special nuclear materials. An introductory section examines the current industry approach which utilizes inventory differences. The error structure of inventory differences is presented. Time series analysis techniques discussed include the Shewhart Control Chart, the Cumulative Summation of Inventory Differences Statistics (CUSUM) and the Kalman Filter and Linear Smoother

  15. Applying data mining techniques to medical time series: an empirical case study in electroencephalography and stabilometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anguera

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the application of different knowledge discovery techniques for the purposes of classification within the above domains. The accuracy of this application for the two classes considered in each case is 99.86% and 98.11% for epilepsy diagnosis in the electroencephalography (EEG domain and 99.4% and 99.1% for early-age sports talent classification in the stabilometry domain. The KDD techniques achieve better results than other traditional neural network-based classification techniques.

  16. Leak testing of bubble-tight dampers using tracer gas techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); DuBois, L.J. [Commonwealth Edison, Zion, IL (United States); Fleming, K.M. [NCS Corporation, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Recently tracer gas techniques have been applied to the problem of measuring the leakage across an installed bubble-tight damper. A significant advantage of using a tracer gas technique is that quantitative leakage data are obtained under actual operating differential pressure conditions. Another advantage is that leakage data can be obtained using relatively simple test setups that utilize inexpensive materials without the need to tear ducts apart, fabricate expensive blank-off plates, and install test connections. Also, a tracer gas technique can be used to provide an accurate field evaluation of the performance of installed bubble-tight dampers on a periodic basis. Actual leakage flowrates were obtained at Zion Generating Station on four installed bubble-tight dampers using a tracer gas technique. Measured leakage rates ranged from 0.01 CFM to 21 CFM. After adjustment and subsequent retesting, the 21 CFM damper leakage was reduced to a leakage of 3.8 CFM. In light of the current regulatory climate and the interest in Control Room Habitability issues, imprecise estimates of critical air boundary leakage rates--such as through bubble-tight dampers--are not acceptable. These imprecise estimates can skew radioactive dose assessments as well as chemical contaminant exposure calculations. Using a tracer gas technique, the actual leakage rate can be determined. This knowledge eliminates a significant source of uncertainty in both radioactive dose and/or chemical exposure assessments.

  17. Evaluation of deformation and fracture characteristics of nuclear reactor materials using ball indentation test technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, T. S.; Hong, J. H.; Lee, B. S.; Park, D. G.; Kim, J. H.; Oh, Y. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Chi, S. H.; Kuk, I. H.; Kwon, D. I.; Lee, J. H.

    1998-05-01

    The present report describes the automated ball indentation test techniques and the results of their applications. The ball indentation test technique is an innovative method for evaluating the key mechanical properties from the indentation load-depth data. In the 1st chapter, the existing technique for evaluating basic deformation (tensile) properties is described in detail, and also the application result of the technique is presented. The through-thickness variations of mechanical properties in SA 508 C1.3 reactor pressure vessel steels were measured using an automated ball indentation (ABI) technique. In the 2nd chapter, a method under development, which is similar to that in the 1st chapter, is new method is based on the theoretical solutions rather than experimental relationships. The result of the application showed that the stress-strain curves of various metals were successfully determined with the method. In the 3rd chapter, a new theoretical model was proposed to estimate the fracture toughness of ferritic steels in the transition temperature region. The key concept of the model is that the indention energy to a critical load is related to the fracture energy of the material. The theory was applied to the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) base and weld metals. (author). 24 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  18. [The quantitative testing of V617F mutation in gen JAK2 using pyrosequencing technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaeva, E A; Mironov, K O; Dribnokhodova, T E; Subbotina, E E; Bashmakova; Ol'hovskiĭ, I A; Shipulin, G A

    2014-11-01

    The somatic mutation V617F in gen JAK2 is a frequent cause of chronic myeloprolific diseases not conditioned by BCR/ABL mutation. The quantitative testing of relative percentage of mutant allele can be used in establishing severity of disease and its prognosis and in prescription of remedy inhibiting activity of JAK2. To quantitatively test mutation the pyrosequencing technique was applied. The developed technique permits detecting and quantitatively, testing percentage of mutation fraction since 7%. The "gray zone" is presented by samples with percentage of mutant allele from 4% to 7%. The dependence of expected percentage of mutant fraction in analyzed sample from observed value of signal is described by equation of line with regression coefficients y = - 0.97, x = -1.32 and at that measurement uncertainty consists ± 0.7. The developed technique is approved officially on clinical material from 192 patients with main forms of myeloprolific diseases not conditioned by BCR/ABL mutation. It was detected 64 samples with mautant fraction percentage from 13% to 91%. The developed technique permits implementing monitoring of therapy of myeloprolific diseases and facilitates to optimize tactics of treatment.

  19. Anticorrosive coating of SixOyCz on metallic substrates applied with the plasma CVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P; Lasorsa, C; Versaci, R

    2006-01-01

    This work deals with the production of anticorrosive coatings of Si x O y C z on metallic substrates by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition) in a two layer coating, with a gaseous mixture using methyltrimethoxysilane (Z6070) with the contribution of O 2 and methane as reactive gases. The process involves two steps, the first with the substrate thermalized to 500 o C and the second step with the substrate at room temperature. In the first step the process is carried out with the mixture of O 2 and Z6070, in the second step methane is added to the mixture of the plasma forming gases. The coatings were carried out on AISI 410 stainless steel, AISI M2 steel, titanium and AA6061 aluminum substrates. This work presents the preliminary results of the electrochemical evaluation and the mechanical properties of the coating. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA ), and scanning electron microscopy were used for this study. Electrochemical techniques were used to study the reaction to the corrosion of the coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were prepared in a solution of 5% H 2 SO 4 and in NaCl 0,1M. The tests were undertaken at room temperature. This process is presented as an alternative to the conventional immersion processes by the sol-gel method, which produces the polymerization of the reagent as a result of the effect of the oxygen from the environment, while the plasma process produces very different chemical reactions in the center of the plasma itself with coatings also different (CW)

  20. Ultrafast Optical Techniques for High-Speed Devices and Mm-Wave Circuit Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joungho

    The recent development of ultrafast short pulse lasers, especially the Ti-sapphire laser, has engendered dramatic advances in pulsewidth and average power of femtosecond laser oscillators and amplifiers. In addition the femtosecond short pulse lasers have led to many applications, such as electro-optic sampling, photoconductive sampling, and time-resolved spectroscopy. In effort to apply the ultrafast optical techniques to high speed electronics, I proposed and developed a new photoconductive probe sampling technique, which can be applied to a millimeter wave circuit testing and a VLSI internal circuit testing. The measurement technique relies on the capability of the generation and the sampling of picosecond electrical pulses, using short pulse laser sources and the picosecond photoconductor of the probe. The sampling probe consists of a submicron metal contact tip and a picosecond photoconductor on low-temperature MBE grown GaAs or damaged silicon-on-sapphire. To develop these picosecond photoconductors with mu V sensitivity, I studied several different kinds of photodetectors including LT-GaAs photodiode, lateral p-i-n LT-GaAs diode and lateral p-i-n diode on strained InAlAs and InGaAs channel. I have fabricated the probes and demonstrated the measurement of a 2.1-ps pulse width, corresponding to a 130-GHz 3-dB frequency bandwidth, 4-mu V/surdHz sensitivity, linearity from 40 muV to 20 V, and non-invasiveness. Also, the probe can measure pulse waveforms at cryogenic temperatures and can work as a pulse generator. A 30 ps delay time of an E/D-Mode InAlAs/InGaAs HIGFET inverter was measured using the probe. Also the probe sampling technique was applied to millimeter wave device and circuit testing, including the characterization of millimeter wave filters and S-parameter measurements of a short circuit. The probe technology has demonstrated measurements exceeding 120 GHz and permits reduction of interconnection discontinuities and errors by de-embedding procedures

  1. Element selective detection of molecular species applying chromatographic techniques and diode laser atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, K; Zybin, A; Koch, J; Franzke, J; Miclea, M; Niemax, K

    2004-12-01

    Tunable diode laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (DLAAS) combined with separation techniques and atomization in plasmas and flames is presented as a powerful method for analysis of molecular species. The analytical figures of merit of the technique are demonstrated by the measurement of Cr(VI) and Mn compounds, as well as molecular species including halogen atoms, hydrogen, carbon and sulfur.

  2. GNSS/NTRIP service and technique: accuracy tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pimentel Cintra

    Full Text Available Experiments conducted at the School of Engineering of the University of São Paulo, Brazil, using GNSS/NTRIP technology are described and analyzed in terms of accuracy. The method consists in using the data of a reference station, the IBGE RBMC-IP stations, collected in a remote station, by means of the Internet and a mobile phone, to obtain more accurate real time coordinates than those of the navigation method. The experiments consist in surveying the known coordinate points and of the error analysis (accuracy. Firstly with short distances (in the USP Base for Equipment Calibration, and then over increasing distances up to about 30 km, in terms of the limits foreseen for the RTK method, and for other greater distances by using the DGPS method, up to 2,700 km. The following were tested and analyzed: the use of different reference stations, the variation in accuracy over distance, the use of a L1 receiver and a L1/L2 one, as well as the use of the RTK and DGPS techniques, in terms of accuracy reached, that is, the difference between these coordinates and others considered as standard, besides checking if the equipment reaches or not the accuracy stated in the manual.

  3. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques. 2002 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a dynamic technology and progresses with time. Since the issuance of IAEA-TECDOC-628 in 1991, the technology has experienced numerous changes. Advancements in knowledge about the behaviour of materials have led to changes in the applicable NDT codes, standards and specifications. In addition, over the last ten years, as a result of extensive research and development activities worldwide, new NDT techniques and equipment have been developed which are accepted by engineering community. To accommodate the latest developments, modifications are required to training materials. The present publication is an updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-628. The modifications were made during an Advisory Group Meeting, held in Vienna from 25-29 June 2001. The content of the first edition of IAEA-TECDOC-628 has been revised based on the experience of the experts, as well as comments of the end-user industries. The time allotment for different topics has been changed without changing the total duration. The details of the topics on each subject have been expanded to include the latest developments in the individual fields. The incorporated changes will help end-the user industries to update their NDT qualification and certification schemes, and course material

  4. Personality Testing with Visually Impaired Adults in Applied Occupational Settings: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Juliet

    2000-01-01

    This article describes controversies over the use of personality tests with adults with visual impairments in applied occupational testing. It reviews studies of personality profiles of sighted individuals and individuals with visual impairments and studies in which the content of items has been adapted for adults who are visually impaired.…

  5. Técnicas moleculares aplicadas à microbiologia de alimentos = Molecular techniques applied to food microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ávila Gandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir da década de 80, as técnicas moleculares começaram a ser utilizadas como uma alternativa aos métodos fenotípicos, tradicionalmente, utilizados em microbiologia de alimentos. Foi acelerada esta substituição com advento da descoberta da reação em cadeia da polimerase (polymerase chain reaction – PCR. Este artigo tem por objetivo revisar as principais técnicas moleculares utilizadas como ferramentas na microbiologia de alimentos, desde as, inicialmente, desenvolvidas, como a análise do perfil plasmidial, até as mais contemporâneas como o PCR em tempo real, discutindo as características, vantagens e desvantagens destas técnicas, avaliando a potencialidade destas para suprir as limitações das técnicas tradicionais.Beginning in the 1980s, molecular techniques became an alternative to the traditionally used phenotypic methods in food microbiology. With the advent of the polymerase chain reaction technique, this substitution was speed up. This article had as objective to review the main molecular techniques used as tools in food microbiology, from plasmidial profile analysis to contemporary techniques such as the real-time PCR. The characteristics, advantages anddisadvantages of these techniques are discussed, by evaluating the potential of these techniques to overcome the limitations of traditional techniques.

  6. Photothermal techniques applied to the study of thermal properties in biodegradable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín-Martínez, E.; Aguilar-Méndez, M. A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; García-Quiroz, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to determine the thermal diffusivity and effusivity of biodegradable films by using photothermal techniques. The thermal diffusivity was studied by using the open photoacoustic cell technique. On the other hand the thermal effusivity was obtained by the photopyroelectric technique in a front detection configuration. The films were elaborated from mixtures of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and corn starch. The results showed that at high moisture values, the thermal diffusivity increased as the starch concentration was higher in the film. However at low moisture conditions (low extrusion moisture conditions (6.55%). As the moisture and starch concentration in the films were increased, the thermal effusivity diminished.

  7. Neutron Filter Technique and its use for Fundamental and applied Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzay, V.; Kolotyi, V.

    2008-01-01

    At Kyiv Research Reactor (KRR) the neutron filtered beam technique is used for more than 30 years and its development continues, the new and updated facilities for neutron cross section measurements provide the receipt of neutron cross sections with rather high accuracy: total neutron cross sections with accuracy 1% and better, neutron scattering cross sections with 3-6% accuracy. The main purpose of this paper is presentation of the neutron measurement techniques, developed at KRR, and demonstration some experimental results, obtained using these techniques

  8. Calorimetric techniques applied to the thermodynamic study of interactions between proteins and polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Barreto Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The interactions between biological macromolecules have been important for biotechnology, but further understanding is needed to maximize the utility of these interactions. Calorimetric techniques provide information regarding these interactions through the thermal energy that is produced or consumed during interactions. Notable techniques include differential scanning calorimetry, which generates a thermodynamic profile from temperature scanning, and isothermal titration calorimetry that provide the thermodynamic parameters directly related to the interaction. This review described how calorimetric techniques can be used to study interactions between proteins and polysaccharides, and provided valuable insight into the thermodynamics of their interaction.

  9. Putting it to the test : alternative exploration techniques seek recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2005-06-01

    In the past, remote sensing techniques such as magnetic surveying, geochemical sampling and radiometric surveys, were efficient in hard rock mining exploration but were limited in hydrocarbon detection due to problems such as diurnal and weather variations. This article discussed some of the recent advances in technology that have been developed to overcome many of the drawbacks of older systems. Two Calgary-based companies are currently offering innovative and viable exploration alternatives. The Gore-Sorber module is the most accurate and comprehensive surface geochemical sampling technology currently available to the oil and gas industry. The testing module consists of 2 portions of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene polymer material sealed into a GORE-TEX sheath to prevent water and particle contamination. The module is then inserted into a shallow hole to a depth of 50 centimetres and left there for up to 2 weeks. The sample position is marked and surveyed. Over the course of the 2 weeks, volatile and semi-volatile soil gases in the C2-C15 range are absorbed into the material. The modules are analysed in mass spectrometers and gas chromatographs to determine zone and phase information. Advantages of the system include a reduction in soil contamination; the elimination of day-to-day fluctuations; and the fact that lab analysis allows for higher sensitivity. Costs are approximately $60,000 to $70,000 for an area of 16 square kilometres. Disadvantages include the inability to define the amount of hydrocarbons in place or their depth and the fact that proper field operation and collection of data by trained personnel is critical to the analysis process. The technique has been gaining in popularity in Canada as more exploration is directed towards environmentally sensitive frontier areas. Radiometric surveys record the gamma ray emissions of potassium, uranium and thorium as they decay radioactively. As hydrocarbons leak to the surface, they cause geochemical changes

  10. Applying of Reliability Techniques and Expert Systems in Management of Radioactive Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldaihan, S.; Alhbaib, A.; Alrushudi, S.; Karazaitri, C.

    1998-01-01

    Accidents including radioactive exposure have variety of nature and size. This makes such accidents complex situations to be handled by radiation protection agencies or any responsible authority. The situations becomes worse with introducing advanced technology with high complexity that provide operator huge information about system working on. This paper discusses the application of reliability techniques in radioactive risk management. Event tree technique from nuclear field is described as well as two other techniques from nonnuclear fields, Hazard and Operability and Quality Function Deployment. The objective is to show the importance and the applicability of these techniques in radiation risk management. Finally, Expert Systems in the field of accidents management are explored and classified upon their applications

  11. Applying lean techniques in the delivery of transportation infrastructure construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    It is well documented that construction productivity has been declining since the 1960s. Additionally, studies have shown that only : 40% of construction workers time is considered to be value-added work. Interest in the use of Lean techniques ...

  12. Error analysis of the phase-shifting technique when applied to shadow moire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Changwoon; Han Bongtae

    2006-01-01

    An exact solution for the intensity distribution of shadow moire fringes produced by a broad spectrum light is presented. A mathematical study quantifies errors in fractional fringe orders determined by the phase-shifting technique, and its validity is corroborated experimentally. The errors vary cyclically as the distance between the reference grating and the specimen increases. The amplitude of the maximum error is approximately 0.017 fringe, which defines the theoretical limit of resolution enhancement offered by the phase-shifting technique

  13. Applying machine learning and image feature extraction techniques to the problem of cerebral aneurysm rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steren Chabert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aneurysm is a cerebrovascular disorder characterized by a bulging in a weak area in the wall of an artery that supplies blood to the brain. It is relevant to understand the mechanisms leading to the apparition of aneurysms, their growth and, more important, leading to their rupture. The purpose of this study is to study the impact on aneurysm rupture of the combination of different parameters, instead of focusing on only one factor at a time as is frequently found in the literature, using machine learning and feature extraction techniques. This discussion takes relevance in the context of the complex decision that the physicians have to take to decide which therapy to apply, as each intervention bares its own risks, and implies to use a complex ensemble of resources (human resources, OR, etc. in hospitals always under very high work load. This project has been raised in our actual working team, composed of interventional neuroradiologist, radiologic technologist, informatics engineers and biomedical engineers, from Valparaiso public Hospital, Hospital Carlos van Buren, and from Universidad de Valparaíso – Facultad de Ingeniería and Facultad de Medicina. This team has been working together in the last few years, and is now participating in the implementation of an “interdisciplinary platform for innovation in health”, as part of a bigger project leaded by Universidad de Valparaiso (PMI UVA1402. It is relevant to emphasize that this project is made feasible by the existence of this network between physicians and engineers, and by the existence of data already registered in an orderly manner, structured and recorded in digital format. The present proposal arises from the description in nowadays literature that the actual indicators, whether based on morphological description of the aneurysm, or based on characterization of biomechanical factor or others, these indicators were shown not to provide sufficient information in order

  14. 3D-QSPR Method of Computational Technique Applied on Red Reactive Dyes by Using CoMFA Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Perveen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are “reactive dyes” because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the charachteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber.

  15. 3D-QSPR method of computational technique applied on red reactive dyes by using CoMFA strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Uzma; Rashid, Sitara; Ali, S Ishrat; Parveen, Rasheeda; Zaheer-Ul-Haq; Ambreen, Nida; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Perveen, Shahnaz; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are "reactive dyes" because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR) technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps) help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the characteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber.

  16. Intersession reliability of the interpolated twitch technique applied during isometric, concentric, and eccentric actions of the human knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Martin; Husmann, Florian; Gube, Martin; Felser, Sabine; Weippert, Matthias; Bruhn, Sven; Zschorlich, Volker; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2017-08-01

    Although it has been shown that voluntary activation (%VA) of the knee extensors during isometric contractions can be reliably assessed with the interpolated twitch technique, little is known about the reliability of %VA during concentric and eccentric muscle actions. Therefore, relative and absolute intersession reliability of quadriceps muscle's %VA during different contraction modes was determined. After a familiarization session, 21 participants (17 males, 25 ± 2 yrs) completed two testing sessions. Paired supramaximal electrical stimuli were administered to the femoral nerve during isometric, concentric, eccentric MVCs, and at rest to assess %VA (stimuli were applied at 70° knee flexion). Data indicate that %VA of the knee extensors can be reliably measured during isometric [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.89, coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.1%], concentric (ICC = 0.87, CV = 6.6%), and eccentric muscle actions (ICC = 0.86, CV = 7.0%). Muscle Nerve 56: 324-327, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 3D-QSPR Method of Computational Technique Applied on Red Reactive Dyes by Using CoMFA Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Uzma; Rashid, Sitara; Ali, S. Ishrat; Parveen, Rasheeda; Zaheer-ul-Haq; Ambreen, Nida; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Perveen, Shahnaz; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose fiber is a tremendous natural resource that has broad application in various productions including the textile industry. The dyes, which are commonly used for cellulose printing, are “reactive dyes” because of their high wet fastness and brilliant colors. The interaction of various dyes with the cellulose fiber depends upon the physiochemical properties that are governed by specific features of the dye molecule. The binding pattern of the reactive dye with cellulose fiber is called the ligand-receptor concept. In the current study, the three dimensional quantitative structure property relationship (3D-QSPR) technique was applied to understand the red reactive dyes interactions with the cellulose by the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) method. This method was successfully utilized to predict a reliable model. The predicted model gives satisfactory statistical results and in the light of these, it was further analyzed. Additionally, the graphical outcomes (contour maps) help us to understand the modification pattern and to correlate the structural changes with respect to the absorptivity. Furthermore, the final selected model has potential to assist in understanding the charachteristics of the external test set. The study could be helpful to design new reactive dyes with better affinity and selectivity for the cellulose fiber. PMID:22272108

  18. Evaluation of the potential of applying composting/bioremediation techniques to wastes generated within the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, V; Garg, A; Aldred, D; Hobbs, G; Smith, R; Tothill, I E

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the viability of reducing landfill requirements to satisfy EC Landfill Directive requirements by applying composting/bioremediation techniques to the construction and demolition (C&D) industry waste stream at laboratory scale. The experimental study was carried out in nine test rigs to examine different wood mixtures; untreated timber, creosote treated timber and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated timber. Several experimental variables affecting the process were characterised and optimised. These include the best nitrogen additive and optimum moisture content required for composting. Poultry manure was found to be the best nitrogen additive. The optimum moisture content was decreased after the addition of poultry manure. The composting/bioremediation process was evaluated through monitoring the microbial activity, carbon dioxide emissions and toxicity examination of the composted product. A typical temperature profile suggested that untreated and CCA treated mix could be classified as hot composting whereas creosote treated mix could be classified as cold composting. The paper reports on the results obtained during this investigation.

  19. Applications of Advanced, Waveform Based AE Techniques for Testing Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, William H.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced, waveform based acoustic emission (AE) techniques have been previously used to evaluate damage progression in laboratory tests of composite coupons. In these tests, broad band, high fidelity acoustic sensors were used to detect signals which were then digitized and stored for analysis. Analysis techniques were based on plate mode wave propagation characteristics. This approach, more recently referred to as Modal AE, provides an enhanced capability to discriminate and eliminate noise signals from those generated by damage mechanisms. This technique also allows much more precise source location than conventional, threshold crossing arrival time determination techniques. To apply Modal AE concepts to the interpretation of AE on larger composite structures, the effects of wave propagation over larger distances and through structural complexities must be well characterized and understood. In this research, measurements were made of the attenuation of the extensional and flexural plate mode components of broad band simulated AE signals in large composite panels. As these materials have applications in a cryogenic environment, the effects of cryogenic insulation on the attenuation of plate mode AE signals were also documented.

  20. Strain measurement technique for elevated temperature tensile and creep testing of foil-gage metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a strain measurement technique suitable for elevated-temperature tensile and creep testing of foil-gage metals, using a modified commonly available mechanical extensometer in conjunction with a displacement transducer. The extensometer was modified by attaching to it a counterbalance (to reduce the effect of the extensometer weight on the total maximum test load) and by incorporating a conical tip/flat-edge design (to minimize induced stresses in the specimen resulting from extensometer attachment). Creep tests were performed on 0.102-mm-thick specimens of Ti-6Al-4V at temperatures of 427 and 538 C, at nominal applied stresses of 310.3 and 172.4 MPa, respectively. Examination of the resulting creep curves suggested that the strain measurement system provided actual creep strain values with good accuracy.

  1. Program of in-pile IASCC testing under the simulated actual plant condition. Development of technique for in-pile IASCC initiation test in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugachi, Hirokazu; Tsukada, Takashi; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Nagata, Nobuaki; Dozaki, Koji; Takiguchi, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is caused by the synergistic effects of neutron irradiation, stress and corrosion by high temperature water. It is, therefore, essential to perform in-pile SCC tests, which are material tests under the conditions simulating those of actual LWR operation, in order to clarify the precise mechanism of the phenomenon, though mainly out-of-pile SCC tests for irradiated materials have been carried out in this research field. There are, however, many difficulties to perform in-pile SCC tests. Performing in-pile SCC tests, essential key techniques must be developed. Hence as a part of development of the key techniques for in-pile SCC tests, we have embarked on development of the test technique which enables us to obtain the information concerning the effect of such parameters as applied stress level, water chemistry, irradiation conditions, etc. on the crack initiation behavior. Although it is difficult to detect the crack initiation in in-pile SCC tests, the crack initiation can be evaluated by the detection of specimen rupture if the cross section area of the specimen is small enough. Therefore, we adopted the uniaxial constant loading (UCL) test with small tensile specimens. This paper will describe the current status of the development of several techniques for in-pile SCC initiation tests in JMTR and the results of the performance tests of the designed testing unit using the out-of-pile loop facility. (author)

  2. Statistical learning techniques applied to epidemiology: a simulated case-control comparison study with logistic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Land Walker H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When investigating covariate interactions and group associations with standard regression analyses, the relationship between the response variable and exposure may be difficult to characterize. When the relationship is nonlinear, linear modeling techniques do not capture the nonlinear information content. Statistical learning (SL techniques with kernels are capable of addressing nonlinear problems without making parametric assumptions. However, these techniques do not produce findings relevant for epidemiologic interpretations. A simulated case-control study was used to contrast the information embedding characteristics and separation boundaries produced by a specific SL technique with logistic regression (LR modeling representing a parametric approach. The SL technique was comprised of a kernel mapping in combination with a perceptron neural network. Because the LR model has an important epidemiologic interpretation, the SL method was modified to produce the analogous interpretation and generate odds ratios for comparison. Results The SL approach is capable of generating odds ratios for main effects and risk factor interactions that better capture nonlinear relationships between exposure variables and outcome in comparison with LR. Conclusions The integration of SL methods in epidemiology may improve both the understanding and interpretation of complex exposure/disease relationships.

  3. Statistical learning techniques applied to epidemiology: a simulated case-control comparison study with logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, John J; Land, Walker H; Egan, Kathleen M

    2011-01-27

    When investigating covariate interactions and group associations with standard regression analyses, the relationship between the response variable and exposure may be difficult to characterize. When the relationship is nonlinear, linear modeling techniques do not capture the nonlinear information content. Statistical learning (SL) techniques with kernels are capable of addressing nonlinear problems without making parametric assumptions. However, these techniques do not produce findings relevant for epidemiologic interpretations. A simulated case-control study was used to contrast the information embedding characteristics and separation boundaries produced by a specific SL technique with logistic regression (LR) modeling representing a parametric approach. The SL technique was comprised of a kernel mapping in combination with a perceptron neural network. Because the LR model has an important epidemiologic interpretation, the SL method was modified to produce the analogous interpretation and generate odds ratios for comparison. The SL approach is capable of generating odds ratios for main effects and risk factor interactions that better capture nonlinear relationships between exposure variables and outcome in comparison with LR. The integration of SL methods in epidemiology may improve both the understanding and interpretation of complex exposure/disease relationships.

  4. Synchrotron and Simulations Techniques Applied to Problems in Materials Science: Catalysts and Azul Maya Pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chianelli, R.

    2005-01-01

    Development of synchrotron techniques for the determination of the structure of disordered, amorphous and surface materials has exploded over the past twenty years due to the increasing availability of high flux synchrotron radiation and the continuing development of increasingly powerful synchrotron techniques. These techniques are available to materials scientists who are not necessarily synchrotron scientists through interaction with effective user communities that exist at synchrotrons such as the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). In this article we review the application of multiple synchrotron characterization techniques to two classes of materials defined as ''surface compounds.'' One class of surface compounds are materials like MoS 2-x C x that are widely used petroleum catalysts used to improve the environmental properties of transportation fuels. These compounds may be viewed as ''sulfide supported carbides'' in their catalytically active states. The second class of ''surface compounds'' is the ''Maya Blue'' pigments that are based on technology created by the ancient Maya. These compounds are organic/inorganic ''surface complexes'' consisting of the dye indigo and palygorskite, a common clay. The identification of both surface compounds relies on the application of synchrotron techniques as described in this report

  5. Synchroton and Simulations Techniques Applied to Problems in Materials Science: Catalysts and Azul Maya Pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianelli, R.

    2005-01-12

    Development of synchrotron techniques for the determination of the structure of disordered, amorphous and surface materials has exploded over the past twenty years due to the increasing availability of high flux synchrotron radiation and the continuing development of increasingly powerful synchrotron techniques. These techniques are available to materials scientists who are not necessarily synchrotron scientists through interaction with effective user communities that exist at synchrotrons such as the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). In this article we review the application of multiple synchrotron characterization techniques to two classes of materials defined as ''surface compounds.'' One class of surface compounds are materials like MoS{sub 2-x}C{sub x} that are widely used petroleum catalysts used to improve the environmental properties of transportation fuels. These compounds may be viewed as ''sulfide supported carbides'' in their catalytically active states. The second class of ''surface compounds'' is the ''Maya Blue'' pigments that are based on technology created by the ancient Maya. These compounds are organic/inorganic ''surface complexes'' consisting of the dye indigo and palygorskite, a common clay. The identification of both surface compounds relies on the application of synchrotron techniques as described in this report.

  6. Destructive testing of transport packaging. Quality assurance applied to transport packaging in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses several aspects of quality assurance as applied to packaging, including such requirements for an adequate quality assurance program as assignment of responsibilities, inspections, and audits. In certain cases, we have determined the margin of safety inherent in specific package designs. Testing of packaging to destruction, by subjecting it to conditions far beyond the present accident criteria, was carried out to establish the levels of impact, puncture, crush, and fire at which present designs would fail. A second area in which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has applied quality assurance is qualification testing. The standards for testing prototypes require essentially no loss of contents under the specified accident test conditions. Qualifying a design with an acceptable degree of reliability by testing it at the specified stress levels with no measurable effect requires large numbers of samples to be tested. Testing the prototype under conditions well above the criteria is shown to offer one of the most effective means of demonstrating the adequacy of a design. Scenario tests, i.e., staged accidents or full-scale tests in which vehicles with samples of packages on board are crashed under specified conditions, in most cases present singular points on a curve. One-point tests in most cases will disprove a package design if it fails but may not confirm that a design will not fail. At the same time, much information and some public assurances can be obtained from such tests. (author)

  7. Containment integrity and leak testing. Procedures applied and experiences gained in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Containment systems are the ultimate safety barrier for preventing the escape of gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive materials produced in normal operation, not retained in process systems, and for keeping back radioactive materials released by system malfunction or equipment failure. A primary element of the containment shell is therefore its leak-tight design. The report describes the present containment concepts mostly used in European countries. The leak-testing procedures applied and the experiences gained in their application are also discussed. The report refers more particularly to pre-operational testing, periodic testing and extrapolation methods of leak rates measured at test conditions to expected leak rates at calculated accident conditions. The actual problems in periodic containment leak rate testing are critically reviewed. In the appendix to the report a summary is given of the regulations and specifications applied in different member countries

  8. Assessment of Random Assignment in Training and Test Sets using Generalized Cluster Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The properness of random assignment of compounds in training and validation sets was assessed using the generalized cluster technique. Material and Method: A quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship model using Molecular Descriptors Family on Vertices was evaluated in terms of assignment of carboquinone derivatives in training and test sets during the leave-many-out analysis. Assignment of compounds was investigated using five variables: observed anticancer activity and four structure descriptors. Generalized cluster analysis with K-means algorithm was applied in order to investigate if the assignment of compounds was or not proper. The Euclidian distance and maximization of the initial distance using a cross-validation with a v-fold of 10 was applied. Results: All five variables included in analysis proved to have statistically significant contribution in identification of clusters. Three clusters were identified, each of them containing both carboquinone derivatives belonging to training as well as to test sets. The observed activity of carboquinone derivatives proved to be normal distributed on every. The presence of training and test sets in all clusters identified using generalized cluster analysis with K-means algorithm and the distribution of observed activity within clusters sustain a proper assignment of compounds in training and test set. Conclusion: Generalized cluster analysis using the K-means algorithm proved to be a valid method in assessment of random assignment of carboquinone derivatives in training and test sets.

  9. Applied techniques for high bandwidth data transfers across wide area networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jason; Gunter, Dan; Tierney, Brian; Allcock, Bill; Bester, Joe; Bresnahan, John; Tuecke, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Large distributed systems such as Computational/Data Grids require large amounts of data to be co-located with the computing facilities for processing. Ensuring that the data is there in time for the computation in today's Internet is a massive problem. From our work developing a scalable distributed network cache, we have gained experience with techniques necessary to achieve high data throughput over high bandwidth Wide Area Networks (WAN). In this paper, we discuss several hardware and software design techniques and issues, and then describe their application to an implementation of an enhanced FTP protocol called GridFTP. We also describe results from two applications using these techniques, which were obtained at the Supercomputing 2000 conference

  10. A Survey on Data Mining Techniques Applied to Electricity-Related Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martínez-Álvarez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining has become an essential tool during the last decade to analyze large sets of data. The variety of techniques it includes and the successful results obtained in many application fields, make this family of approaches powerful and widely used. In particular, this work explores the application of these techniques to time series forecasting. Although classical statistical-based methods provides reasonably good results, the result of the application of data mining outperforms those of classical ones. Hence, this work faces two main challenges: (i to provide a compact mathematical formulation of the mainly used techniques; (ii to review the latest works of time series forecasting and, as case study, those related to electricity price and demand markets.

  11. Spherical harmonics based intrasubject 3-D kidney modeling/registration technique applied on partial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenseger, Jean-Louis; Guillaume, Hélène; Patard, Jean-Jacques

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a 3D shape reconstruction/intra-patient rigid registration technique used to establish a Nephron-Sparing Surgery preoperative planning. The usual preoperative imaging system is the Spiral CT Urography, which provides successive 3D acquisitions of complementary information on kidney anatomy. Because the kidney is difficult to demarcate from the liver or from the spleen only limited information on its volume or surface is available. In our paper we propose a methodology allowing a global kidney spatial representation on a spherical harmonics basis. The spherical harmonics are exploited to recover the kidney 3D shape and also to perform intra-patient 3D rigid registration. An evaluation performed on synthetic data showed that this technique presented lower performance then expected for the 3D shape recovering but exhibited registration results slightly more accurate as the ICP technique with faster computation time. PMID:17073323

  12. Reformulation linearization technique based branch-and-reduce approach applied to regional water supply system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Fujun; Bayraksan, Güzin; Lansey, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    A regional water supply system design problem that determines pipe and pump design parameters and water flows over a multi-year planning horizon is considered. A non-convex nonlinear model is formulated and solved by a branch-and-reduce global optimization approach. The lower bounding problem is constructed via a three-pronged effort that involves transforming the space of certain decision variables, polyhedral outer approximations, and the Reformulation Linearization Technique (RLT). Range reduction techniques are employed systematically to speed up convergence. Computational results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm; in particular, the critical role range reduction techniques could play in RLT based branch-and-bound methods. Results also indicate using reclaimed water not only saves freshwater sources but is also a cost-effective non-potable water source in arid regions. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305215X.2015.1016508.

  13. Effect of the reinforcement bar arrangement on the efficiency of electrochemical chloride removal technique applied to reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, P.; Sanchez de Rojas, M.J.; Climent, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the research done to find out the effect that different bar arrangements may have on the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride removal (ECR) technique when applied to a reinforced concrete structural member. Five different types of bar arrangements were considered, corresponding to typical structural members such as columns (with single and double bar reinforcing), slabs, beams and footings. ECR was applied in several steps. We observe that the extraction efficiency depends on the reinforcing bar arrangement. A uniform layer set-up favours chloride extraction. Electrochemical techniques were also used to estimate the reinforcing bar corrosion states, as well as measure the corrosion potential, and instant corrosion rate based on the polarization resistance technique. After ECR treatment, a reduction in the corrosion levels is observed falling short of the depassivation threshold

  14. Applied predictive analytics principles and techniques for the professional data analyst

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Learn the art and science of predictive analytics - techniques that get results Predictive analytics is what translates big data into meaningful, usable business information. Written by a leading expert in the field, this guide examines the science of the underlying algorithms as well as the principles and best practices that govern the art of predictive analytics. It clearly explains the theory behind predictive analytics, teaches the methods, principles, and techniques for conducting predictive analytics projects, and offers tips and tricks that are essential for successful predictive mode

  15. Applied techniques for high bandwidth data transfers across wide area networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Gunter, D.; Tierney, B.; Allcock, B.; Bester, J.; Bresnahan, J.; Tuecke, S.

    2001-01-01

    Large distributed systems such as Computational/Data Grids require large amounts of data to be co-located with the computing facilities for processing. From their work developing a scalable distributed network cache, the authors have gained experience with techniques necessary to achieve high data throughput over high bandwidth Wide Area Networks (WAN). The authors discuss several hardware and software design techniques, and then describe their application to an implementation of an enhanced FTP protocol called GridFTP. The authors describe results from the Supercomputing 2000 conference

  16. Monitoring gypsy moth defoliation by applying change detection techniques to Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. L.; Stauffer, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    The overall objective of a research effort at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is to develop and evaluate digital image processing techniques that will facilitate the assessment of the intensity and spatial distribution of forest insect damage in Northeastern U.S. forests using remotely sensed data from Landsats 1, 2 and C. Automated change detection techniques are presently being investigated as a method of isolating the areas of change in the forest canopy resulting from pest outbreaks. In order to follow the change detection approach, Landsat scene correction and overlay capabilities are utilized to provide multispectral/multitemporal image files of 'defoliation' and 'nondefoliation' forest stand conditions.

  17. People Recognition for Loja ECU911 applying artificial vision techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cale

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a technological proposal based on artificial vision which aims to search people in an intelligent way by using IP video cameras. Currently, manual searching process is time and resource demanding in contrast to automated searching one, which means that it could be replaced. In order to obtain optimal results, three different techniques of artificial vision were analyzed (Eigenfaces, Fisherfaces, Local Binary Patterns Histograms. The selection process considered factors like lighting changes, image quality and changes in the angle of focus of the camera. Besides, a literature review was conducted to evaluate several points of view regarding artificial vision techniques.

  18. U P1, an example for advanced techniques applied to high level activity dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel-Noel, M.; Calixte, O.; Blanchard, S.; Bani, J.; Girones, P.; Moitrier, C.; Terry, G.; Bourdy, R.

    2014-01-01

    The U P1 plant on the CEA Marcoule site was dedicated to the processing of spend fuels from the G1, G2 and G3 plutonium-producing reactors. This plant represents 20.000 m 2 of workshops housing about 1000 hot cells. In 1998, a huge program for the dismantling and cleaning-up of the UP1 plant was launched. CEA has developed new techniques to face the complexity of the dismantling operations. These techniques include immersive virtual reality, laser cutting, a specific manipulator arm called MAESTRO and remote handling. (A.C.)

  19. Improvement of ISI techniques by multi-frequency eddy current testing method for steam generator tube in PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Takashi; Kamimura, Takeo; Nishihara, Masatoshi; Araki, Yasuo; Fukui, Shigetaka.

    1982-05-01

    Eddy current flaw detection techniques are applied to the in-service inspection (ISI) of steam generator tubes in pressurized water reactors (PWR) plant. To improve the reliability and operating efficiency of the plants, efforts are being made to develop eddy current testing methods of various kinds. Multi-frequency eddy current testing method, one of new method, has recently been applied to actual heat exchanger tubes, contributing to the improvement of the detectability and signal evaluation of the ISI. The outline of multi-frequency eddy current testing method and its effects on the improvement of flaw detecting and signal evaluation accuracy are described. (author)

  20. RELIABILITY OF CERTAIN TESTS FOR EVALUATION OF JUDO TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Obadov

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 106 judokas. Assessment of the level of mastership of judo techniques was carried out by evaluation of fi ve competent studies. Each subject performed a technique three times and each performance was evaluated by the judges. In order to evaluate measurement of each technique, Cronbach’s coeffi cient of reliability  was calculated. During the procedure the subjects's results were also transformed to factor scores i.e. the results of each performer at the main component of evaluation in the fi ve studies. These factor scores could be used in the subsequent procedure of multivariant statistical analysis.

  1. A Technical Review of Electrochemical Techniques Applied to Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    in the literature for the study of MIC phenomena. Videla65 has used this technique in a study of the action of Cladosporium resinae growth on the...ROSALES, Corrosion 44, 638 (1988). 65. H. A. VIDs, The action of Clado.sporiuo resinae growth on the electrochemical behavior of aluminum. Proc. bit. Conf

  2. Reduced order modelling techniques for mesh movement strategies as applied to fluid structure interactions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred EJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we implement the method of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to generate a reduced order model (ROM) of an optimization based mesh movement technique. In the study it is shown that POD can be used effectively to generate a ROM...

  3. MSC/NASTRAN ''expert'' techniques developed and applied to the TFTR poloidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The TFTR poloidal field (PF) coils are being analyzed by PPPL and Grumman using MSC/NASTRAN as a part of an overall effort to establish the absolute limiting conditions of operation for TFTR. Each of the PF coils will be analyzed in depth, using a detailed set of finite element models. Several of the models developed are quite large because each copper turn, as well as its surrounding insulation, was modeled using solid elements. Several of the finite element models proved large enough to tax the capabilities of the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC), specifically disk storage space. To allow the use of substructuring techniques with their associated data bases for the larger models, it became necessary to employ certain infrequently used MSC/NASTRAN ''expert'' techniques. The techniques developed used multiple data bases and data base sets to divide each problem into a series of computer runs. For each run, only the data required was kept on active disk space, the remainder being placed in inactive ''FILEM'' storage, thus, minimizing active disk space required at any time and permitting problem solution using the NMFECC. A representative problem using the TFTR OH-1 coil global model provides an example of the techniques developed. The special considerations necessary to obtain proper results are discussed

  4. Nuclear and conventional techniques applied to the analysis of Purhepecha metals of the Pareyon collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, U.; Tenorio C, D.; Ruvalcaba, J.L.; Lopez, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to determine the composition and microstructure of 13 metallic devices by means of the nuclear techniques of PIXE, RBS and conventional; which were elaborated starting from copper and gold, and they were in the offering of a tarasc personage located in the 'Matamoros' porch in Uruapan, Michoacan, Mexico. (Author)

  5. Urban field guide: applying social forestry observation techniques to the east coast megalopolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Svendsen; V. Marshall; M.F. Ufer

    2006-01-01

    A changing economy and different lifestyles have altered the meaning of the forest in the northeastern United States, prompting scientists to reconsider the spatial form, stewardship and function of the urban forest. The Authors describe how social observation techniques and the employment of a novel, locally based, participatory hand-held monitoring system could aid...

  6. Practising What We Teach: Vocational Teachers Learn to Research through Applying Action Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Barbara; Tempone, Irene

    2004-01-01

    Action learning techniques are well suited to the teaching of organisation behaviour students because of their flexibility, inclusiveness, openness, and respect for individuals. They are no less useful as a tool for change for vocational teachers, learning, of necessity, to become researchers. Whereas traditional universities have always had a…

  7. Do trained practice nurses apply motivational interviewing techniques in primary care consultations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Lee, I. van der; Nielen, M.; Vlek, H.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing the prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviour could positively influence health. Motivational interviewing (MI) is used to promote change in unhealthy lifestyle behaviour as part of primary or secondary prevention. Whether MI is actually applied as taught is unknown. Practice

  8. Do trained practice nurses apply motivational interviewing techniques in primary care consultations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; van Lee, I.; Nielen, M.; Vlek, H.; van Weijden, T.; Dulmen, A.M. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reducing the prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle behaviour could positively influence health. Motivational interviewing (MI) is used to promote change in unhealthy lifestyle behaviour as part of primary or secondary prevention. Whether MI is actually applied as taught is unknown. Practice

  9. Sensing Applied Load and Damage Effects in Composites with Nondestructive Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ray absorption to illuminate damage on the images.27,30 2.4 Testing Procedure Testing on all coupons begins with static loading, which progresses...composite structures: a review. J Sound Vib. 2006;295(3–5):753–780. 31. Williams WB, Michaels TE, Michaels JE. Characterization of guided wave velocity

  10. [Vision test device: possibilities and limits of LCD technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt; Brandl, H; Zrenner, E; Lund, O E

    1991-01-01

    An automatic visual acuity test examining visual acuity at 5 m distance is presented. An LCD screen with 400 x 640 pixel is used for graphic display. The Landolt rings are selected randomly. The test presented here complies well with the criteria of DIN 58220. Accuracy estimates for representation of the Landolt rings in raster graphics are discussed. With the method suggested, the testing of visual acuity, one of the most important tests in ophthalmological practice, is simplified and its reliability and results are improved. The method allows tests at short time intervals to trace the time dependency of visual acuity. Furthermore, the test may be delegated to support personnel.

  11. Magnetic resonance techniques applied to the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito eDe Celis Alonso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease affects at least 10 million people worldwide. It is a neurodegenerative disease which is currently diagnosed by neurological examination. No neuroimaging investigation or blood biomarker is available to aid diagnosis and prognosis. Most effort toward diagnosis using magnetic resonance has been focused on the use of structural/anatomical neuroimaging and diffusion tensor imaging. However, deep brain stimulation, a current strategy for treating Parkinson’s disease, is guided by magnetic resonance imaging. For clinical prognosis, diagnosis and follow-up investigations, blood oxygen level–dependent magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, spectroscopy and transcranial magnetic stimulation have been used. These techniques represent the state of the art in the last five years. Here, we focus on magnetic resonance techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

  12. The photoluminescence technique applied to the investigation of structural imperfections in quantum wells of semiconducting material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliermes Arraes Meneses

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoluminescence is one of the most used spectroscopy techniques for the study of the optical properties of semiconducting materials and heterostructures. In this work the potentiality of this technique is explored through the investigation and characterization of structural imperfections originated from fluctuations in the chemical composition of ternary and quaternary alloys, from interface roughnesses, and from unintentional compounds formed by the chemical elements intermixing at the interfaces. Samples of GaAs/AlGaAs, GaAsSb/GaAs, GaAsSbN/GaAs and GaAs/GaInP quantum well structures are analyzed to verify the influence of the structural imperfections on the PL spectra

  13. Artificial intelligence techniques applied to hourly global irradiance estimation from satellite-derived cloud index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzalejo, L.F.; Ramirez, L.; Polo, J. [DER-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Renewable Energy Dept.

    2005-07-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques, such as fuzzy logic and neural networks, have been used for estimating hourly global radiation from satellite images. The models have been fitted to measured global irradiance data from 15 Spanish terrestrial stations. Both satellite imaging data and terrestrial information from the years 1994, 1995 and 1996 were used. The results of these artificial intelligence models were compared to a multivariate regression based upon Heliosat I model. A general better behaviour was observed for the artificial intelligence models. (author)

  14. Artificial intelligence techniques applied to hourly global irradiance estimation from satellite-derived cloud index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Ramirez, Lourdes; Polo, Jesus

    2005-01-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques, such as fuzzy logic and neural networks, have been used for estimating hourly global radiation from satellite images. The models have been fitted to measured global irradiance data from 15 Spanish terrestrial stations. Both satellite imaging data and terrestrial information from the years 1994, 1995 and 1996 were used. The results of these artificial intelligence models were compared to a multivariate regression based upon Heliosat I model. A general better behaviour was observed for the artificial intelligence models

  15. The Ecological Profiles Technique applied to data from Lichtenburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Morris

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available The method of ecological profiles and information shared between species and ecological variables, developed in France, is described for the first time in English. Preliminary results, using the technique on Bankenveld quadrat data from Lichtenburg, Western Transvaal, are given. It is concluded that the method has great potential value for the understanding of the autecology of South African species provided that the sampling method is appropriate.

  16. Improving throughput and user experience for information intensive websites by applying HTTP compression technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Ratnakar

    2008-11-06

    HTTP compression is a technique specified as part of the W3C HTTP 1.0 standard. It allows HTTP servers to take advantage of GZIP compression technology that is built into latest browsers. A brief survey of medical informatics websites show that compression is not enabled. With compression enabled, downloaded files sizes are reduced by more than 50% and typical transaction time is also reduced from 20 to 8 minutes, thus providing a better user experience.

  17. Acoustic Emission and Echo Signal Compensation Techniques Applied to an Ultrasonic Logging-While-Drilling Caliper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongchao; Ju, Xiaodong; Lu, Junqiang; Men, Baiyong

    2017-06-10

    A logging-while-drilling (LWD) caliper is a tool used for the real-time measurement of a borehole diameter in oil drilling engineering. This study introduces the mechanical structure and working principle of a new LWD caliper based on ultrasonic distance measurement (UDM). The detection range is a major performance index of a UDM system. This index is determined by the blind zone length and remote reflecting interface detection capability of the system. To reduce the blind zone length and detect near the reflecting interface, a full bridge acoustic emission technique based on bootstrap gate driver (BGD) and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is designed by analyzing the working principle and impedance characteristics of a given piezoelectric transducer. To detect the remote reflecting interface and reduce the dynamic range of the received echo signals, the relationships between the echo amplitude and propagation distance of ultrasonic waves are determined. A signal compensation technique based on time-varying amplification theory, which can automatically change the gain according to the echo arrival time is designed. Lastly, the aforementioned techniques and corresponding circuits are experimentally verified. Results show that the blind zone length in the UDM system of the LWD caliper is significantly reduced and the capability to detect the remote reflecting interface is considerably improved.

  18. Metal oxide collectors for storing matter technique applied in secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miśnik, Maciej [Institute of Tele and Radio Technology, ul. Ratuszowa 11, 03-450 Warszawa (Poland); Gdańsk University of Technology (Poland); Konarski, Piotr [Institute of Tele and Radio Technology, ul. Ratuszowa 11, 03-450 Warszawa (Poland); Zawada, Aleksander [Institute of Tele and Radio Technology, ul. Ratuszowa 11, 03-450 Warszawa (Poland); Military University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-03-15

    We present results of the use of metal and metal oxide substrates that serve as collectors in ‘storing matter’, the quantitative technique of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). This technique allows separating the two base processes of secondary ion formation in SIMS. Namely, the process of ion sputtering is separated from the process of ionisation. The technique allows sputtering of the analysed sample and storing the sputtered material, with sub-monolayer coverage, onto a collector surface. Such deposits can be then analysed by SIMS, and as a result, the so called ‘matrix effects’ are significantly reduced. We perform deposition of the sputtered material onto Ti and Cu substrates and also onto metal oxide substrates as molybdenum, titanium, tin and indium oxides. The process of sputtering is carried within the same vacuum chamber where the SIMS analysis of the collected material is performed. For sputtering and SIMS analysis of the deposited material we use 5 keV Ar{sup +} beam of 500 nA. The presented results are obtained with the use of stationary collectors. Here we present a case study of chromium. The obtained results show that the molybdenum and titanium oxide substrates used as collectors increase useful yield by two orders, with respect to such pure elemental collectors as Cu and Ti. Here we define useful yield as a ratio of the number of detected secondary ions during SIMS analysis and the number of atoms sputtered during the deposition process.

  19. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, L.E.; Klassen, W.

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique involves the mass-rearing of insects, which are sterilized by gamma rays from a 60 Co source before being released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produce no progeny, and so if enough of these matings occur the pest population can be controlled or even eradicated. A modification of the technique, especially suitable for the suppression of the moths and butterflies, is called the F, or inherited sterility method. In this, lower radiation doses are used such that the released males are only partially sterile (30-60%) and the females are fully sterile. When released males mate with native females some progeny are produced, but they are completely sterile. Thus, full expression of the sterility is delayed by one generation. This article describes the use of the sterile insect technique in controlling the screwworm fly, the tsetse fly, the medfly, the pink bollworm and the melon fly, and of the F 1 sterility method in the eradication of local gypsy moth infestations. 18 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  20. Applying Data-mining techniques to study drought periods in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, F.; Penades, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    Data-mining is a technique that it can be used to interact with large databases and to help in the discovery relations between parameters by extracting information from massive and multiple data archives. Drought affects many economic and social sectors, from agricultural to transportation, going through urban water deficit and the development of modern industries. With these problems and drought geographical and temporal distribution it's difficult to find a single definition of drought. Improving the understanding of the knowledge of climatic index is necessary to reduce the impacts of drought and to facilitate quick decisions regarding this problem. The main objective is to analyze drought periods from 1950 to 2009 in Spain. We use several kinds of information, different formats, sources and transmission mode. We use satellite-based Vegetation Index, dryness index for several temporal periods. We use daily and monthly precipitation and temperature data and soil moisture data from numerical weather model. We calculate mainly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) that it has been used amply in the bibliography. We use OLAP-Mining techniques to discovery of association rules between remote-sensing, numerical weather model and climatic index. Time series Data- Mining techniques organize data as a sequence of events, with each event having a time of recurrence, to cluster the data into groups of records or cluster with similar characteristics. Prior climatological classification is necessary if we want to study drought periods over all Spain.

  1. Applying the Wizard-of-Oz Technique to Multimodal Human-Robot Dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Marge, Matthew; Bonial, Claire; Byrne, Brendan; Cassidy, Taylor; Evans, A. William; Hill, Susan G.; Voss, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Our overall program objective is to provide more natural ways for soldiers to interact and communicate with robots, much like how soldiers communicate with other soldiers today. We describe how the Wizard-of-Oz (WOz) method can be applied to multimodal human-robot dialogue in a collaborative exploration task. While the WOz method can help design robot behaviors, traditional approaches place the burden of decisions on a single wizard. In this work, we consider two wizards to stand in for robot...

  2. Assessment of ground-based monitoring techniques applied to landslide investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Smith, A.; Chambers, J.; Dixon, N.; Dijkstra, T.; Haslam, E.; Meldrum, P.; Merritt, A.; Gunn, D.; Mackay, J.

    2016-01-01

    A landslide complex in the Whitby Mudstone Formation at Hollin Hill, North Yorkshire, UK is periodically re-activated in response to rainfall-induced pore-water pressure fluctuations. This paper compares long-term measurements (i.e., 2009-2014) obtained from a combination of monitoring techniques that have been employed together for the first time on an active landslide. The results highlight the relative performance of the different techniques, and can provide guidance for researchers and practitioners for selecting and installing appropriate monitoring techniques to assess unstable slopes. Particular attention is given to the spatial and temporal resolutions offered by the different approaches that include: Real Time Kinematic-GPS (RTK-GPS) monitoring of a ground surface marker array, conventional inclinometers, Shape Acceleration Arrays (SAA), tilt meters, active waveguides with Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring, and piezometers. High spatial resolution information has allowed locating areas of stability and instability across a large slope. This has enabled identification of areas where further monitoring efforts should be focused. High temporal resolution information allowed the capture of 'S'-shaped slope displacement-time behaviour (i.e. phases of slope acceleration, deceleration and stability) in response to elevations in pore-water pressures. This study shows that a well-balanced suite of monitoring techniques that provides high temporal and spatial resolutions on both measurement and slope scale is necessary to fully understand failure and movement mechanisms of slopes. In the case of the Hollin Hill landslide it enabled detailed interpretation of the geomorphological processes governing landslide activity. It highlights the benefit of regularly surveying a network of GPS markers to determine areas for installation of movement monitoring techniques that offer higher resolution both temporally and spatially. The small sensitivity of tilt meter measurements

  3. Engineering of centrifugal dust-collectors based on parallel comparing tests applying computer modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygin, Y. I.; Koronchik, D. A.; Abuzyarov, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    Currently researchers are giving serious consideration to studying questions, related to issues of atmosphere protection, in particular, studying of new construction of gas-cleaning SPM cyclonic devices effectivity. Engineering new devices is impossible without applying mathematical model methods, computer modeling and making physical models of studying processes due nature tests.

  4. 21 CFR 111.320 - What requirements apply to laboratory methods for testing and examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to laboratory methods for testing and examination? 111.320 Section 111.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...

  5. The differential dieaway technique applied to the measurement of the fissile content of drums of cement encapsulated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinhoe, M.T.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes calculations of the differential dieaway technique as applied to cement encapsulated waste. The main difference from previous applications of the technique are that only one detector position is used (diametrically opposite the neutron source) and the chamber walls are made of concrete. The results show that by rotating the drum the response to fissile material across the central plane of the drum can be made relatively uniform. The absolute size of the response is about 0.4. counts per minute per gram fissile for a neutron source of 10 8 neutrons per second. Problems of neutron and gamma background and water content are considered. (author)

  6. Enhanced nonlinear iterative techniques applied to a non-equilibrium plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, D.A.; McHugh, P.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study the application of enhanced nonlinear iterative methods to the steady-state solution of a system of two-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equations that describe the partially-ionized plasma flow in the boundary layer of a tokamak fusion reactor. This system of equations is characterized by multiple time and spatial scales, and contains highly anisotropic transport coefficients due to a strong imposed magnetic field. We use Newton`s method to linearize the nonlinear system of equations resulting from an implicit, finite volume discretization of the governing partial differential equations, on a staggered Cartesian mesh. The resulting linear systems are neither symmetric nor positive definite, and are poorly conditioned. Preconditioned Krylov iterative techniques are employed to solve these linear systems. We investigate both a modified and a matrix-free Newton-Krylov implementation, with the goal of reducing CPU cost associated with the numerical formation of the Jacobian. A combination of a damped iteration, one-way multigrid and a pseudo-transient continuation technique are used to enhance global nonlinear convergence and CPU efficiency. GMRES is employed as the Krylov method with Incomplete Lower-Upper(ILU) factorization preconditioning. The goal is to construct a combination of nonlinear and linear iterative techniques for this complex physical problem that optimizes trade-offs between robustness, CPU time, memory requirements, and code complexity. It is shown that a one-way multigrid implementation provides significant CPU savings for fine grid calculations. Performance comparisons of the modified Newton-Krylov and matrix-free Newton-Krylov algorithms will be presented.

  7. Sensitivity analysis techniques applied to a system of hyperbolic conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirs, V. Gregory; Kamm, James R.; Swiler, Laura P.; Tarantola, Stefano; Ratto, Marco; Adams, Brian M.; Rider, William J.; Eldred, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is comprised of techniques to quantify the effects of the input variables on a set of outputs. In particular, sensitivity indices can be used to infer which input parameters most significantly affect the results of a computational model. With continually increasing computing power, sensitivity analysis has become an important technique by which to understand the behavior of large-scale computer simulations. Many sensitivity analysis methods rely on sampling from distributions of the inputs. Such sampling-based methods can be computationally expensive, requiring many evaluations of the simulation; in this case, the Sobol' method provides an easy and accurate way to compute variance-based measures, provided a sufficient number of model evaluations are available. As an alternative, meta-modeling approaches have been devised to approximate the response surface and estimate various measures of sensitivity. In this work, we consider a variety of sensitivity analysis methods, including different sampling strategies, different meta-models, and different ways of evaluating variance-based sensitivity indices. The problem we consider is the 1-D Riemann problem. By a careful choice of inputs, discontinuous solutions are obtained, leading to discontinuous response surfaces; such surfaces can be particularly problematic for meta-modeling approaches. The goal of this study is to compare the estimated sensitivity indices with exact values and to evaluate the convergence of these estimates with increasing samples sizes and under an increasing number of meta-model evaluations. - Highlights: ► Sensitivity analysis techniques for a model shock physics problem are compared. ► The model problem and the sensitivity analysis problem have exact solutions. ► Subtle details of the method for computing sensitivity indices can affect the results.

  8. Applying Squeezing Technique to Clayrocks: Lessons Learned from Experiments at Mont Terri Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A. M.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D. M.; Tournassat, C.; Melon, A.; Gaucher, E.; Astudillo, E.; Vinsot, A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the pore water chemistry in clay rock formations plays an important role in determining radionuclide migration in the context of nuclear waste disposal. Among the different in situ and ex-situ techniques for pore water sampling in clay sediments and soils, squeezing technique dates back 115 years. Although different studies have been performed about the reliability and representativeness of squeezed pore waters, more of them were achieved on high porosity, high water content and unconsolidated clay sediments. A very few of them tackled the analysis of squeezed pore water from low-porosity, low water content and highly consolidated clay rocks. In this work, a specially designed and fabricated one-dimensional compression cell two directional fluid flow was used to extract and analyse the pore water composition of Opalinus Clay core samples from Mont Terri (Switzerland). The reproducibility of the technique is good and no ionic ultrafiltration, chemical fractionation or anion exclusion was found in the range of pressures analysed: 70-200 MPa. Pore waters extracted in this range of pressures do not decrease in concentration, which would indicate a dilution of water by mixing of the free pore water and the outer layers of double layer water (Donnan water). A threshold (safety) squeezing pressure of 175 MPa was established for avoiding membrane effects (ion filtering, anion exclusion, etc.) from clay particles induced by increasing pressures. Besides, the pore waters extracted at these pressures are representative of the Opalinus Clay formation from a direct comparison against in situ collected borehole waters. (Author)

  9. Applied Protein and Molecular Techniques for Characterization of B Cell Neoplasms in Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badial, Peres R.; Tallmadge, Rebecca L.; Miller, Steven; Stokol, Tracy; Richards, Kristy; Borges, Alexandre S.

    2015-01-01

    Mature B cell neoplasms cover a spectrum of diseases involving lymphoid tissues (lymphoma) or blood (leukemia), with an overlap between these two presentations. Previous studies describing equine lymphoid neoplasias have not included analyses of clonality using molecular techniques. The objective of this study was to use molecular techniques to advance the classification of B cell lymphoproliferative diseases in five adult equine patients with a rare condition of monoclonal gammopathy, B cell leukemia, and concurrent lymphadenopathy (lymphoma/leukemia). The B cell neoplasms were phenotypically characterized by gene and cell surface molecule expression, secreted immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype concentrations, Ig heavy-chain variable (IGHV) region domain sequencing, and spectratyping. All five patients had hyperglobulinemia due to IgG1 or IgG4/7 monoclonal gammopathy. Peripheral blood leukocyte immunophenotyping revealed high proportions of IgG1- or IgG4/7-positive cells and relative T cell lymphopenia. Most leukemic cells lacked the surface B cell markers CD19 and CD21. IGHG1 or IGHG4/7 gene expression was consistent with surface protein expression, and secreted isotype and Ig spectratyping revealed one dominant monoclonal peak. The mRNA expression of the B cell-associated developmental genes EBF1, PAX5, and CD19 was high compared to that of the plasma cell-associated marker CD38. Sequence analysis of the IGHV domain of leukemic cells revealed mutated Igs. In conclusion, the protein and molecular techniques used in this study identified neoplastic cells compatible with a developmental transition between B cell and plasma cell stages, and they can be used for the classification of equine B cell lymphoproliferative disease. PMID:26311245

  10. Applying Squeezing Technique to Clayrocks: Lessons Learned from Experiments at Mont Terri Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A. M.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D. M.; Tournassat, C.; Melon, A.; Gaucher, E.; Astudillo, E.; Vinsot, A.

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the pore water chemistry in clay rock formations plays an important role in determining radionuclide migration in the context of nuclear waste disposal. Among the different in situ and ex-situ techniques for pore water sampling in clay sediments and soils, squeezing technique dates back 115 years. Although different studies have been performed about the reliability and representativeness of squeezed pore waters, more of them were achieved on high porosity, high water content and unconsolidated clay sediments. A very few of them tackled the analysis of squeezed pore water from low-porosity, low water content and highly consolidated clay rocks. In this work, a specially designed and fabricated one-dimensional compression cell two directional fluid flow was used to extract and analyse the pore water composition of Opalinus Clay core samples from Mont Terri (Switzerland). The reproducibility of the technique is good and no ionic ultrafiltration, chemical fractionation or anion exclusion was found in the range of pressures analysed: 70-200 MPa. Pore waters extracted in this range of pressures do not decrease in concentration, which would indicate a dilution of water by mixing of the free pore water and the outer layers of double layer water (Donnan water). A threshold (safety) squeezing pressure of 175 MPa was established for avoiding membrane effects (ion filtering, anion exclusion, etc.) from clay particles induced by increasing pressures. Besides, the pore waters extracted at these pressures are representative of the Opalinus Clay formation from a direct comparison against in situ collected borehole waters. (Author)

  11. X-ray Computed Microtomography technique applied for cementitious materials: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ítalo Batista

    2018-04-01

    The main objective of this article is to present a bibliographical review about the use of the X-ray microtomography method in 3D images processing of cementitious materials microstructure, analyzing the pores microstructure and connectivity network, enabling tthe possibility of building a relationship between permeability and porosity. The use of this technique enables the understanding of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cementitious materials by publishing good results, considering that the quality and quantity of accessible information were significant and may contribute to the study of cementitious materials development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. TESTING THE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT SPATIAL INTERPOLATION TECHNIQUES ON MAPPING SHORT DATASERIES OF PRECIPITATION PROPRETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COJOCARU ŞTEFANA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available patial interpolation, in the context of spatial analysis, can be defined as the derivation of new data from already known information, a technique frequently used to predict and quantify spatial variation of a certain property or parameter. In this study we compared the performance of Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW, Ordinary Kriging and Natural Neighbor techniques, applied in spatial interpolation of precipitation parameters (pH, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. These techniques are often used when the area of interest is relatively small and the sampled locations are regularly spaced. The methods were tested on data collected in Iasi city (Romania between March – May 2013. Spatial modeling was performed on a small dataset, consisting of 7 sample locations and 13 different known values of each analyzed parameter. The precision of the techniques used is directly dependent on sample density as well as data variation, greater fluctuations in values between locations causing a decrease in the accuracy of the methods used. To validate the results and reveal the best method of interpolating rainfall characteristics, leave-one – out cross-validation approach was used. Comparing residues between the known values and the estimated values of pH, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids, it was revealed that Natural Neighbor stands out as generating the smallest residues for pH and electrical conductivity, whereas IDW presents the smallest error in interpolating total dissolved solids (the parameter with the highest fluctuations in value.

  13. A review of post-modern management techniques as currently applied to Turkish forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölarslan, Emre Sahin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of six post-modern management concepts as applied to Turkish forestry. Up to now, Turkish forestry has been constrained, both in terms of its operations and internal organization, by a highly bureaucratic system. The application of new thinking in forestry management, however, has recently resulted in new organizational and production concepts that promise to address problems specific to this Turkish industry and bring about positive changes. This paper will elucidate these specific issues and demonstrate how post-modern management thinking is influencing the administration and operational capacity of Turkish forestry within its current structure.

  14. Applying stakeholder Delphi techniques for planning sustainable use of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren; Banta, Gary Thomas; Bunting, Stuart W

    2015-01-01

    The HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development) project was a participatory research effort to map and better understand the patterns of resource use and livelihoods of communities who utilize highland aquatic resources in five sites across China, India...... and Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to give an account of how the stakeholder Delphi method was adapted and applied to support the participatory integrated action planning for sustainable use of aquatic resources facilitated within the HighARCS project. An account of the steps taken and results recorded...

  15. Neutron radiography applied to qualitative and quantitative non-destructive testing of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laporte, A.; Bayon, G.; Thierry, D.

    1981-01-01

    The radiation-material interaction between X-rays, gamma rays and neutrons is compared. The different possibilities of image detection are enumerated. The industrial testing installations associated with the Triton experimental reactor of the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre is described. A high performance testing unit is presented -the use of an intense flux of cold neutrons in a special building designed for neutrons radiographic testing- which will enter service in the second half of 1980, in association with the Orphee basic physics reactor of the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre. Concrete examples of manufacturing control on metal parts are given such as: testing of bonds between two metals of comparable density, testing of the homogeneity of high density alloys, testing of the homogeneity of low density alloys, testing of materials with high neutron contrast. Neutron radiographic testing not only achieves qualitative but also quantitative analysis of the films, on two levels, dimensional measurement and homogeneity and/or concentration measurement, by densitometry. Testing methods used for complete quantitative analysis of boronated aluminium plates used in the nuclear industry are examined. Perspectives concerning routine tests, by dealing with fundamental aspects of standardization and the knowledge of the phenomena involved in this testing technique are given [fr

  16. Comparative analysis on thermal non-destructive testing imagery applying Candid Covariance-Free Incremental Principal Component Thermography (CCIPCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Bardia; Sfarra, Stefano; Ibarra Castanedo, Clemente; Maldague, Xavier P. V.

    2017-09-01

    Thermal and infrared imagery creates considerable developments in Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) area. Here, a thermography method for NDT specimens inspection is addressed by applying a technique for computation of eigen-decomposition which refers as Candid Covariance-Free Incremental Principal Component Thermography (CCIPCT). The proposed approach uses a shorter computational alternative to estimate covariance matrix and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to obtain the result of Principal Component Thermography (PCT) and ultimately segments the defects in the specimens applying color based K-medoids clustering approach. The problem of computational expenses for high-dimensional thermal image acquisition is also investigated. Three types of specimens (CFRP, Plexiglas and Aluminium) have been used for comparative benchmarking. The results conclusively indicate the promising performance and demonstrate a confirmation for the outlined properties.

  17. Novel technique for reliability testing of silicon integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Minh, P.; Wallinga, Hans; Woerlee, P.H.; van den Berg, Albert; Holleman, J.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a simple, inexpensive technique with high resolution to identify the weak spots in integrated circuits by means of a non-destructive photochemical process in which photoresist is used as the photon detection tool. The experiment was done to localize the breakdown link of thin silicon

  18. Microbiological evaluation of sludge during an improvement process applying the washing technique (selective pressure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina P, Francisco; Gonzalez, Maria Elena; Gonzalez, Luz Catalina

    2001-01-01

    In this investigation, the microbial consortiums were evaluated by using characterization by trophic groups and related groups by their sensibility to oxygen, as well as the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of an acclimated sludge, starting from an aerobium sludge corning from a residual water treatment plant. Later, the technique of improvement by washing was applicated to this sludge, getting inoculum for the starting of an anaerobic reactor of the kind UASB (treatment reactor). At the same time, a control reactor was operated, inoculated with acclimated sludge. Both reactors were operated during 120 days, using brown sugar as substrate, the experimental phase included dates up to 70 operation days, characterizing the sludge at the end of this period. The SMA was analysed using acetic and formic acids as substrates. The results showed activities between 0,45 and 1,39 g DQO-CH 4 /SSV -d. for both substrates. At the end of the experimental phase of the UASB reactor, the sulphate reducer bacteria from the acetate and the lactate were observed as predominant group, followed by the methanogenic hydrogenophilic bacteria. It is important to notice that, with the application of the sludge washing technique, all the tropic groups were increased, with the exception of the lactate fermentative bacteria

  19. Fragrance composition of Dendrophylax lindenii (Orchidaceae using a novel technique applied in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Sadler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ghost orchid, Dendrophylax lindenii (Lindley Bentham ex Rolfe (Orchidaceae, is one of North America’s rarest and well-known orchids. Native to Cuba and SW Florida where it frequents shaded swamps as an epiphyte, the species has experienced steady decline. Little information exists on D. lindenii’s biology in situ, raising conservation concerns. During the summer of 2009 at an undisclosed population in Collier County, FL, a substantial number (ca. 13 of plants initiated anthesis offering a unique opportunity to study this species in situ. We report a new technique aimed at capturing floral headspace of D. lindenii in situ, and identified volatile compounds using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS. All components of the floral scent were identified as terpenoids with the exception of methyl salicylate. The most abundant compound was the sesquiterpene (E,E-α-farnesene (71% followed by (E-β-ocimene (9% and methyl salicylate (8%. Other compounds were: linalool (5%, sabinene (4%, (E-α-bergamotene (2%, α-pinene (1%, and 3-carene (1%. Interestingly, (E,E-α-farnesene has previously been associated with pestiferous insects (e.g., Hemiptera. The other compounds are common floral scent constituents in other angiosperms suggesting that our in situ technique was effective. Volatile capture was, therefore, possible without imposing physical harm (e.g., inflorescence detachment to this rare orchid.

  20. New tools, technology and techniques applied in geological sciences: current situation and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, Andres

    2014-01-01

    Technological tools and work methodologies most used in the area of geological sciences are reviewed and described. The various electronic devices such as laptops, palmtops or PDA (personal digital assistant), tablets and smartphones have allowed to take field geological data and store them efficiently. Tablets and smartphones have been convenient for data collection of scientific data by the diversity of sensors that present, portability, autonomy and the possibility to install specific applications. High precision GPS in conjunction with LIDAR technology and sonar technology have been more accessible and used for geological research, generating high resolution three-dimensional models to complement geological studies. Remote sensing techniques such as high penetration radar are used to perform models of the ice thickness and topography in Antarctic. Modern three-dimensional scanning and printing techniques are used in geological science research and teaching. Currently, the advance in the computer technology has allowed to handle three-dimensional models on personal computers efficiently way and with different display options. Some, of the new areas of geology, emerged recently, are mentioned to generate a broad panorama toward where can direct geological researches in the next years [es

  1. Appraising and applying evidence about a diagnostic test during a performance-based assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Ellen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of Evidence-based Medicine requires that clinicians assess the validity of published research and then apply the results to patient care. We wanted to assess whether our soon-to-graduate medical students could appraise and apply research about a diagnostic test within a clinical context and to compare our students with peers trained at other institutions. Methods 4th year medical students who previously had demonstrated competency at probability revision and just starting first-year Internal Medicine residents were used for this research. Following an encounter with a simulated patient, subjects critically appraised a paper about an applicable diagnostic test and revised the patient's pretest probability given the test result. Results The medical students and residents demonstrated similar skills at critical appraisal, correctly answering 4.7 and 4.9, respectively, of 6 questions (p = 0.67. Only one out of 28 (3% medical students and none of the 15 residents were able to correctly complete the probability revision task (p = 1.00. Conclusions This study found that most students completing medical school are able to appraise an article about a diagnostic test but few are able to apply the information from the article to a patient. These findings raise questions about the clinical usefulness of the EBM skills possessed by graduating medical students within the area of diagnostic testing.

  2. The modification of generalized uncertainty principle applied in the detection technique of femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyi

    2017-12-01

    Generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), also known as the generalized uncertainty relationship, is the modified form of the classical Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle in special cases. When we apply quantum gravity theories such as the string theory, the theoretical results suggested that there should be a “minimum length of observation”, which is about the size of the Planck-scale (10-35m). Taking into account the basic scale of existence, we need to fix a new common form of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle in the thermodynamic system and make effective corrections to statistical physical questions concerning about the quantum density of states. Especially for the condition at high temperature and high energy levels, generalized uncertainty calculations have a disruptive impact on classical statistical physical theories but the present theory of Femtosecond laser is still established on the classical Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. In order to improve the detective accuracy and temporal resolution of the Femtosecond laser, we applied the modified form of generalized uncertainty principle to the wavelength, energy and pulse time of Femtosecond laser in our work. And we designed three typical systems from micro to macro size to estimate the feasibility of our theoretical model and method, respectively in the chemical solution condition, crystal lattice condition and nuclear fission reactor condition.

  3. Low-dimensional and Data Fusion Techniques Applied to a Rectangular Supersonic Multi-stream Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Matthew; Stack, Cory; Magstadt, Andrew; Ali, Mohd; Gaitonde, Datta; Glauser, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Low-dimensional models of experimental and simulation data for a complex supersonic jet were fused to reconstruct time-dependent proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) coefficients. The jet consists of a multi-stream rectangular single expansion ramp nozzle, containing a core stream operating at Mj , 1 = 1.6 , and bypass stream at Mj , 3 = 1.0 with an underlying deck. POD was applied to schlieren and PIV data to acquire the spatial basis functions. These eigenfunctions were projected onto their corresponding time-dependent large eddy simulation (LES) fields to reconstruct the temporal POD coefficients. This reconstruction was able to resolve spectral peaks that were previously aliased due to the slower sampling rates of the experiments. Additionally, dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) was applied to the experimental and LES datasets, and the spatio-temporal characteristics were compared to POD. The authors would like to acknowledge AFOSR, program manager Dr. Doug Smith, for funding this research, Grant No. FA9550-15-1-0435.

  4. A Systematic Approach to Applying Lean Techniques to Optimize an Office Process at the Y-12 National Security Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Credille, Jennifer [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Owens, Elizabeth [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-10-11

    This capstone offers the introduction of Lean concepts to an office activity to demonstrate the versatility of Lean. Traditionally Lean has been associated with process improvements as applied to an industrial atmosphere. However, this paper will demonstrate that implementing Lean concepts within an office activity can result in significant process improvements. Lean first emerged with the conception of the Toyota Production System. This innovative concept was designed to improve productivity in the automotive industry by eliminating waste and variation. Lean has also been applied to office environments, however the limited literature reveals most Lean techniques within an office are restricted to one or two techniques. Our capstone confronts these restrictions by introducing a systematic approach that utilizes multiple Lean concepts. The approach incorporates: system analysis, system reliability, system requirements, and system feasibility. The methodical Lean outline provides tools for a successful outcome, which ensures the process is thoroughly dissected and can be achieved for any process in any work environment.

  5. Multidimensional test assembly based on Lagrangian relaxation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical programming approach is presented for the assembly of ability tests measuring multiple traits. The values of the variance functions of the estimators of the traits are minimized, while test specifications are met. The approach is based on Lagrangian relaxation

  6. European wind turbine procedure development blade test methods and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulder, B.H.; Dam, J.J.D. van; Delft, D.R.V. van [and others

    1999-03-01

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by performing the second task of the `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development` project are presented. This project is performed within and with financial support of the Standards, Measurements and Testing programme of the European Commission. (au)

  7. How do gloves affect cutaneous sensibility in medical practice? Two new applied tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylon, Peter; Carré, Matt J; Martin, Nicolas; Lewis, Roger

    2017-01-01

    In order to quantify the effect of medical gloves on tactile performance, two new Simulated Medical Examination Tactile Tests (SMETT) have been developed to replicate the tactile and haptic ability required in medical examinations: the 'Bumps' test and the 'Princess and the Pea' (P&P) test. A pilot study was carried out using 30-40 subjects for each test in order to investigate the suitability of the tests for medical glove evaluation. Tests were performed with latex and nitrile examination gloves and without gloves. Following the tests, small-scale studies were carried out to investigate the effect of various design parameters, such as material stiffness and tactile exploration method. In the 'Bumps' test, subjects performed significantly better in the ungloved condition, and there were 'almost significant' differences between the gloves, with the thinner latex gloves performing better than the thicker nitrile gloves. Both finger orientation and surface lubrication were found to have a significant effect on results, indicating that these need to be clearly defined in the test procedure. In the 'P&P' test, no significant effect of hand condition was found, suggesting that haptic sensing is less affected by medical gloves than cutaneous sensibility. Other factors such as material stiffness, technique and test orientation had a more significant effect. The SMETT 'Bumps' test has potential as a clinical manual performance evaluation tool and may be used to evaluate the relative effects of different gloves. The SMETT 'P&P' test is a valid measure of haptic or tactile performance, but should not be used in glove evaluation. Both tests could have further applications, such as in the assessment of neurological impairment or aptitude testing for potential surgeons.

  8. Mass Movement Hazards in the Mediterranean; A review on applied techniques and methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziade, R.; Abdallah, C.; Baghdadi, N.

    2012-04-01

    Emergent population and expansions of settlements and life-lines over hazardous areas in the Mediterranean region have largely increased the impact of Mass Movements (MM) both in industrialized and developing countries. This trend is expected to continue in the next decades due to increased urbanization and development, continued deforestation and increased regional precipitation in MM-prone areas due to changing climatic patterns. Consequently, and over the past few years, monitoring of MM has acquired great importance from the scientific community as well as the civilian one. This article begins with a discussion of the MM classification, and the different topographic, geologic, hydrologic and environmental impacting factors. The intrinsic (preconditioning) variables determine the susceptibility of MM and extrinsic factors (triggering) can induce the probability of MM occurrence. The evolution of slope instability studies is charted from geodetic or observational techniques, to geotechnical field-based origins to recent higher levels of data acquisition through Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Since MM detection and zoning is difficult in remote areas, RS and GIS have enabled regional studies to predominate over site-based ones where they provide multi-temporal images hence facilitate greatly MM monitoring. The unusual extent of the spectrum of MM makes it difficult to define a single methodology to establish MM hazard. Since the probability of occurrence of MM is one of the key components in making rational decisions for management of MM risk, scientists and engineers have developed physical parameters, equations and environmental process models that can be used as assessment tools for management, education, planning and legislative purposes. Assessment of MM is attained through various modeling approaches mainly divided into three main sections: quantitative/Heuristic (1:2.000-1:10.000), semi-quantitative/Statistical (1

  9. A comparison of new, old and future densiometic techniques as applied to volcanologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, Matthew; Moreland, William; Dobson, Kate; Þórðarson, Þorvaldur; Fitton, Godfrey; Lee, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The density of any material imposes a primary control upon its potential or actual physical behaviour in relation to its surrounds. It follows that a thorough understanding of the physical behaviour of dynamic, multi-component systems, such as active volcanoes, requires knowledge of the density of each component. If we are to accurately predict the physical behaviour of synthesized or natural volcanic systems, quantitative densiometric measurements are vital. The theoretical density of melt, crystals and bubble phases may be calculated using composition, structure, temperature and pressure inputs. However, measuring the density of natural, non-ideal, poly-phase materials remains problematic, especially if phase specific measurement is important. Here we compare three methods; Archimedes principle, He-displacement pycnometry and X-ray micro computed tomography (XMT) and discuss the utility and drawbacks of each in the context of modern volcanologic study. We have measured tephra, ash and lava from the 934 AD Eldgjá eruption (Iceland), and the 2010 AD Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland), using each technique. These samples exhibit a range of particle sizes, phases and textures. We find that while the Archimedes method remains a useful, low-cost technique to generate whole-rock density data, relative precision is problematic at small particles sizes. Pycnometry offers a more precise whole-rock density value, at a comparable cost-per-sample. However, this technique is based upon the assumption pore spaces within the sample are equally available for gas exchange, which may or may not be the case. XMT produces 3D images, at resolutions from nm to tens of µm per voxel where X-ray attenuation is a qualitative measure of relative electron density, expressed as greyscale number/brightness (usually 16-bit). Phases and individual particles can be digitally segmented according to their greyscale and other characteristics. This represents a distinct advantage over both

  10. Automatic diameter control system applied to the laser heated pedestal growth technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeta M.R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We described an automatic diameter control system (ADC, for the laser heated pedestal growth technique, that reduces the diameter fluctuations in oxide fibers grown from unreacted and non-sinterized pedestals, to less than 2% of the average fiber diameter, and diminishes the average diameter fluctuation, over the entire length of the fiber, to less than 1%. The ADC apparatus is based on an artificial vision system that controls the pulling speed and the height of the molten zone within a precision of 30 mum. We also show that this system can be used for periodic in situ axial doping the fiber. Pure and Cr3+ doped LaAlO3 and pure LiNbO3 were usedas model materials.

  11. Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction techniques applied in hydrogen storage materials - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation is an advanced collimated light source with high intensity. It has particular advantages in structural characterization of materials on the atomic or molecular scale. Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (SR-XRPD has been successfully exploited to various areas of hydrogen storage materials. In the paper, we will give a brief introduction on hydrogen storage materials, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, and synchrotron radiation light source. The applications of ex situ and in situ time-resolved SR-XRPD in hydrogen storage materials, are reviewed in detail. Future trends and proposals in the applications of the advanced XRPD techniques in hydrogen storage materials are also discussed.

  12. Applying machine learning techniques for forecasting flexibility of virtual power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDougall, Pamela; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    Previous and existing evaluations of available flexibility using small device demand response have typically been done with detailed information of end-user systems. With these large numbers, having lower level information has both privacy and computational limitations. We propose a black box...... hidden layer artificial neural network (ANN). Both techniques are used to model a relationship between the aggregator portfolio state and requested ramp power to the longevity of the delivered flexibility. Using validated individual household models, a smart controlled aggregated virtual power plant...... is simulated. A hierarchical market-based supply-demand matching control mechanism is used to steer the heating devices in the virtual power plant. For both the training and validation set of clusters, a random number of households, between 200 and 2000, is generated with day ahead profile scaled accordingly...

  13. Polymer Aging Techniques Applied to Degradation of a Polyurethane Propellant Binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assink, R.A.; Celina, M.; Graham, A.C.; Minier, L.M.

    1999-07-27

    The oxidative thermal aging of a crosslinked hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)/isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) polyurethane rubber, commonly used as the polymeric binder matrix in solid rocket propellants, was studied at temperatures of RT to 125 C. We investigate changes in tensile elongation, mechanical hardening, polymer network properties, density, O{sub 2} permeation and molecular chain dynamics using a range of techniques including solvent swelling, detailed modulus profiling and NMR relaxation measurements. Using extensive data superposition and highly sensitive oxygen consumption measurements, we critically evaluate the Arrhenius methodology, which normally assumes a linear extrapolation of high temperature aging data. Significant curvature in the Arrhenius diagram of these oxidation rates was observed similar to previous results found for other rubber materials. Preliminary gel/network properties suggest that crosslinking is the dominant process at higher temperatures. We also assess the importance of other constituents such as ammonium perchlorate or aluminum powder in the propellant formulation.

  14. Hysteresis compensation technique applied to polymer optical fiber curvature sensor for lower limb exoskeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Leal-Junior, Arnaldo; Frizera-Neto, Anselmo; José Pontes, Maria; Rodrigues Botelho, Thomaz

    2017-12-01

    Polymer optical fiber (POF) curvature sensors present some advantages over conventional techniques for angle measurements, such as their light weight, compactness and immunity to electromagnetic fields. However, high hysteresis can occur in POF curvature sensors due to the polymer viscoelastic response. In order to overcome this limitation, this paper shows how the hysteresis sensor can be compensated by a calibration equation relating the measured output signal to the sensor’s angular velocity. The proposed method is validated using an exoskeleton with an active joint on the knee for flexion and extension rehabilitation exercises. The results show a decrease in sensor hysteresis and a decrease by more than two times in the error between the POF sensor and the potentiometer, which is employed for the angle measurement of the exoskeleton knee joint.

  15. Emerging and Innovative Techniques for Arsenic Removal Applied to a Small Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. Alçada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of arsenic on human health has led its drinking water MCL to be drastically reduced from 50 to 10 ppb. Consequently, arsenic levels in many water supply sources have become critical. This has resulted in technical and operational impacts on many drinking water treatment plants that have required onerous upgrading to meet the new standard. This becomes a very sensitive issue in the context of water scarcity and climate change, given the expected increasing demand on groundwater sources. This work presents a case study that describes the development of low-cost techniques for efficient arsenic control in drinking water. The results obtained at the Manteigas WTP (Portugal demonstrate the successful implementation of an effective and flexible process of reactive filtration using iron oxide. At real-scale, very high removal efficiencies of over 95% were obtained.

  16. Study of different filtering techniques applied to spectra from airborne gamma spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Emilien; Gutierrez, Sébastien; Arbor, Nicolas; Ménard, Stéphanie; Nourreddine, Abdel-Mjid

    2016-11-01

    One of the features of the spectra obtained by airborne gamma spectrometry is the low counting statistics due to a short acquisition time (1 s) and a large source-detector distance (40 m) which leads to large statistical fluctuations. These fluctuations bring large uncertainty in radionuclide identification and determination of their respective activities from the window method recommended by the IAEA, especially for low-level radioactivity. Different types of filter could be used on spectra in order to remove these statistical fluctuations. The present work compares the results obtained with filters in terms of errors over the whole gamma energy range of the filtered spectra with the window method. These results are used to determine which filtering technique is the most suitable in combination with some method for total stripping of the spectrum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applying inversion techniques to derive source currents and geoelectric fields for geomagnetically induced current calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. de Villiers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the inversion of geomagnetic variation field measurement to obtain source currents in the ionosphere. During a geomagnetic disturbance, the ionospheric currents create magnetic field variations that induce geoelectric fields, which drive geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in power systems. These GIC may disturb the operation of power systems and cause damage to grounded power transformers. The geoelectric fields at any location of interest can be determined from the source currents in the ionosphere through a solution of the forward problem. Line currents running east–west along given surface position are postulated to exist at a certain height above the Earth's surface. This physical arrangement results in the fields on the ground having the magnetic north and down components, and the electric east component. Ionospheric currents are modelled by inverting Fourier integrals (over the wavenumber of elementary geomagnetic fields using the Levenberg–Marquardt technique. The output parameters of the inversion model are the current strength, height and surface position of the ionospheric current system. A ground conductivity structure with five layers from Quebec, Canada, based on the Layered-Earth model is used to obtain the complex skin depth at a given angular frequency. This paper presents preliminary and inversion results based on these structures and simulated geomagnetic fields. The results show some interesting features in the frequency domain. Model parameters obtained through inversion are within 2% of simulated values. This technique has applications for modelling the currents of electrojets at the equator and auroral regions, as well as currents in the magnetosphere.

  18. Applied anatomy of a new approach of endoscopic technique in thyroid gland surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Xie, Yong-jun; Xu, Yi-quan; Li, Chao; Liu, Xing-guo

    2012-10-01

    To explore the feasibility and safety of transtracheal assisted sublingual approach to totally endoscopic thyroidectomy by studying the anatomical approach and adjacent structures. A total of 5 embalmed adult cadavers from Chengdu Medical College were dissected layer by layer in the cervical region, pharyngeal region, and mandible region, according to transtracheal assisted sublingual approach that was verified from the anatomical approach and planes. A total of 15 embalmed adult cadavers were dissected by arterial vascular casting technique, imaging scanning technique, and thin layer cryotomy. Then the vessel and anatomical structures of thyroid surgical region were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Three-dimensional visualization of larynx artery was reconstructed by Autodesk 3ds Max 2010(32). Transtracheal assisted sublingual approach for totally endoscopic thyroidectomy was simulated on 5 embalmed adult cadavers. The sublingual observed access was located in the middle of sublingual region. The geniohyoid muscle, mylohyoid seam, and submental triangle were divided in turn in the middle to reach the plane under the plastima muscles. Superficial cervical fascia, anterior body of hyoid bone, and infrahyoid muscles were passed in sequence to reach thyroid gland surgical region. The transtracheal operational access was placed from the cavitas oris propria, isthmus faucium, subepiglottic region, laryngeal pharynx, and intermediate laryngeal cavit, and then passed from the top down in order to reach pars cervicalis tracheae where a sagittal incision was made in the anterior wall of cartilagines tracheales to reach a ascertained surgical region. Transtracheal assisted sublingual approach to totally endoscopic thyroidectomy is anatomically feasible and safe and can be useful in thyroid gland surgery.

  19. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, L.E.; Klassen, W.

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is basically a novel twentieth century approach to insect birth control. It is species specific and exploits the mate seeking behaviour of the insect. The basic principle is simple. Insects are mass reared in 'factories' and sexually sterilized by gamma rays from a 60 Co source. The sterile insects are then released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produced no progeny. If enough of these matings take place, reproduction of the pest population decreases. With continued release, the pest population can be controlled and in some cases eradicated. In the light of the many important applications of the SIT worldwide and the great potential that SIT concepts hold for insect and pest control in developing countries, two special benefits should be stressed. Of greatest significance is the fact that the SIT permits suppression and eradication of insect pests in an environmentally harmless manner. It combines nuclear techniques with genetic approaches and, in effect, replaces intensive use of chemicals in pest control. Although chemicals are used sparingly at the outset in some SIT programmes to reduce the size of the pest population before releases of sterilized insects are started, the total amount of chemicals used in an SIT programme is a mere fraction of what would be used without the SIT. It is also of great importance that the SIT is not designed strictly for the eradication of pest species but can readily be used in the suppression of insect populations. In fact, the SIT is ideally suited for use in conjunction with other agricultural pest control practices such as the use of parasites and predators, attractants and cultural controls (e.g. ploughing under or destruction of crop residues) in integrated pest management programmes to achieve control at the lowest possible price and with a minimum of chemical contamination of the environment

  20. Study on structural design technique of silicon carbide applied for thermochemical hydrogen production IS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takegami, Hiroaki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Ishikura, Syuichi

    2011-03-01

    The IS process is the hydrogen production method which used the thermochemical reaction cycle of sulfuric acid and iodyne. Therefore, the design to endure the high temperature and moreover corrode-able environment is required to the equipment. Specifically, the sulfuric acid decomposer which is one of the main equipment of the IS process is the equipment to heat with hot helium and for the sulfuric acid of 90 wt% to evaporate. Moreover, it is the important equipment to supply the SO 3 decomposer which is the following process, resolving the part of sulfuric acid vapor into SO 3 with. The heat exchanger that sulfuric acid evaporates must be made pressure-resistant structure because it has the high-pressure helium of 4 MPa and the material that the high temperature and the corrosion environment of equal to or more than 700degC can be endured must be used. As the material, it is selected from the corrosion experiment and so on when SiC which is carbonization silicone ceramics is the most excellent material. However, even if it damages the ceramic block which is a heat exchanger because it becomes the structure which is stored in pressure-resistant metallic container, fluid such as sulfuric acid becomes the structure which doesn't leak out outside. However, the structure design technique to have been unified when using ceramics as the structure part isn't serviced as the standard. This report is the one which was studied about the structural design technique to have taken the material strength characteristic of the ceramics into consideration, refer to existing structural design standard. (author)

  1. Discrimination and classification techniques applied on Mallotus and Phyllanthus high performance liquid chromatography fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, J; Goodarzi, M; Dejaegher, B; Tistaert, C; Hoang Le Tuan, A; Nguyen Hoai, N; Chau Van, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Vander Heyden, Y

    2015-06-02

    Mallotus and Phyllanthus genera, both containing several species commonly used as traditional medicines around the world, are the subjects of this discrimination and classification study. The objective of this study was to compare different discrimination and classification techniques to distinguish the two genera (Mallotus and Phyllanthus) on the one hand, and the six species (Mallotus apelta, Mallotus paniculatus, Phyllanthus emblica, Phyllanthus reticulatus, Phyllanthus urinaria L. and Phyllanthus amarus), on the other. Fingerprints of 36 samples from the 6 species were developed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (RP-HPLC-UV). After fingerprint data pretreatment, first an exploratory data analysis was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), revealing two outlying samples, which were excluded from the calibration set used to develop the discrimination and classification models. Models were built by means of Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). Application of the models on the total data set (outliers included) confirmed a possible labeling issue for the outliers. LDA, QDA and CART, independently of the pretreatment, or SIMCA after "normalization and column centering (N_CC)" or after "Standard Normal Variate transformation and column centering (SNV_CC)" were found best to discriminate the two genera, while LDA after column centering (CC), N_CC or SNV_CC; QDA after SNV_CC; and SIMCA after N_CC or after SNV_CC best distinguished between the 6 species. As classification technique, SIMCA after N_CC or after SNV_CC results in the best overall sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to the large scale measurements of atmospheric aerosols in the amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerab, Fabio

    1996-03-01

    This work presents the characterization of the atmosphere aerosol collected in different places of the Amazon Basin. We studied both the biogenic emission from the forest and the particulate material which is emitted to the atmosphere due to the large scale man-made burning during the dry season. The samples were collected during a three year period at two different locations in the Amazon, namely the Alta Floresta (MT) and Serra do Navio (AP) regions, using stacked unit filters. These regions represent two different atmospheric compositions: the aerosol is dominated by the forest natural biogenic emission at Serra do Navio, while at Alta Floresta it presents an important contribution from the man-made burning during the dry season. At Alta Floresta we took samples in gold in order to characterize mercury emission to the atmosphere related to the gold prospection activity in Amazon. Airplanes were used for aerosol sampling during the 1992 and 1993 dry seasons to characterize the atmospheric aerosol contents from man-made burning in large Amazonian areas. The samples were analyzed using several nuclear analytic techniques: Particle Induced X-ray Emission for the quantitative analysis of trace elements with atomic number above 11; Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission for the quantitative analysis of Na; and Proton Microprobe was used for the characterization of individual particles of the aerosol. Reflectancy technique was used in the black carbon quantification, gravimetric analysis to determine the total atmospheric aerosol concentration and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of mercury in the particulate from the Alta Floresta gold shops. Ionic chromatography was used to quantify ionic contents of aerosols from the fine mode particulate samples from Serra do Navio. Multivariate statistical analysis was used in order to identify and characterize the sources of the atmospheric aerosol present in the sampled regions. (author)

  3. Flux-corrected transport techniques applied to the radiation transport equation discretized with continuous finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Joshua E.; Ragusa, Jean C.

    2018-02-01

    The Flux-Corrected Transport (FCT) algorithm is applied to the unsteady and steady-state particle transport equation. The proposed FCT method employs the following: (1) a low-order, positivity-preserving scheme, based on the application of M-matrix properties, (2) a high-order scheme based on the entropy viscosity method introduced by Guermond [1], and (3) local, discrete solution bounds derived from the integral transport equation. The resulting scheme is second-order accurate in space, enforces an entropy inequality, mitigates the formation of spurious oscillations, and guarantees the absence of negativities. Space discretization is achieved using continuous finite elements. Time discretizations for unsteady problems include theta schemes such as explicit and implicit Euler, and strong-stability preserving Runge-Kutta (SSPRK) methods. The developed FCT scheme is shown to be robust with explicit time discretizations but may require damping in the nonlinear iterations for steady-state and implicit time discretizations.

  4. Possibility of choosing development investment programs of a production company by applying discounted investment appraisal technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić-Vasović Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of development investment programs is one of the most important decisions in industrial production. The paper sets out the possibilities of applying dynamic criteria for investment decision making. It presents a practical numerical example for the value calculation of investment criteria Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return for the reviewed investment project solutions. In this manner it is possible to make an orderly set of alternatives with clear preferences for the most suitable alternative in comparison with other ones. Such rating of project solutions will enable the decision maker to emphasize advantages with more arguments and select the most suitable project solution in accordance with the established criteria, conditions and limitations.

  5. Inverting travel times with a triplication. [spline fitting technique applied to lunar seismic data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosch, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    A method based on the use of constrained spline fits is used to overcome the difficulties arising when body-wave data in the form of T-delta are reduced to the tau-p form in the presence of cusps. In comparison with unconstrained spline fits, the method proposed here tends to produce much smoother models which lie approximately in the middle of the bounds produced by the extremal method. The method is noniterative and, therefore, computationally efficient. The method is applied to the lunar seismic data, where at least one triplication is presumed to occur in the P-wave travel-time curve. It is shown, however, that because of an insufficient number of data points for events close to the antipode of the center of the lunar network, the present analysis is not accurate enough to resolve the problem of a possible lunar core.

  6. Linear and Non-Linear Control Techniques Applied to Actively Lubricated Journal Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2003-01-01

    The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can count with the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication....... For further reduction of shaft vibrations one can count with the active lubrication action, which is based on injecting pressurised oil into the bearing gap through orifices machined in the bearing sliding surface. The design and efficiency of some linear (PD, PI and PID) and non-linear controllers, applied...... to a tilting-pad journal bearing, are analysed and discussed. Important conclusions about the application of integral controllers, responsible for changing the rotor-bearing equilibrium position and consequently the "passive" oil film damping coefficients, are achieved. Numerical results show an effective...

  7. Multivariate Cross-Classification: Applying machine learning techniques to characterize abstraction in neural representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eKaplan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we highlight an emerging trend in the use of machine learning classifiers to test for abstraction across patterns of neural activity. When a classifier algorithm is trained on data from one cognitive context, and tested on data from another, conclusions can be drawn about the role of a given brain region in representing information that abstracts across those cognitive contexts. We call this kind of analysis Multivariate Cross-Classification (MVCC, and review several domains where it has recently made an impact. MVCC has been important in establishing correspondences among neural patterns across cognitive domains, including motor-perception matching and cross-sensory matching. It has been used to test for similarity between neural patterns evoked by perception and those generated from memory. Other work has used MVCC to investigate the similarity of representations for semantic categories across different kinds of stimulus presentation, and in the presence of different cognitive demands. We use these examples to demonstrate the power of MVCC as a tool for investigating neural abstraction and discuss some important methodological issues related to its application.

  8. Study on corrosion test techniques in lead bismuth eutectic flow. Joint research report in JFY2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    The evaluation of corrosion behaviors of core and structural materials in lead bismuth eutectic is one of the key issues for the utilization of lead bismuth eutectic as a coolant of the primary loops of lead bismuth cooled fast breeder reactors (FBRs) and the intermediate heat transport media of new-type steam generators of the sodium cooled FBRs. The purpose of the present study is to establish corrosion test techniques in lead bismuth eutectic flow. The techniques of steel corrosion test and oxygen control in flowing lead bismuth eutectic, and the technologies of a lead bismuth flow test at high temperature and high velocity were developed through corrosion test using a lead bismuth flow test loop of the Tokyo Institute of Technology in JFY2002. The major results are summarized as follows: (1) Techniques of fabrication, mount and rinse of corrosion specimens, measurement method of weight loss, and SEM/EDX analysis method have been established through lead bismuth corrosion test. (2) Weight losses were measured, corrosion and lead bismuth-adhered layers and eroded parts were observed in two 1000 hr-corrosion tests, and the results were compared with each other for twelve existing steels including ODS, F82H and SUH-3. (3) An oxygen sensor made of zirconia electrolyte structurally resistant to thermal stress and thermal shock was developed and tested in the lead bismuth flow loop. Good performance has been obtained. (4) An oxygen control method by injecting argon and hydrogen mixture gas containing steam into lead bismuth was applied to the lead bismuth flow loop, and technical issues for the development of the oxygen control method were extracted. (5) Technical measures for freezing and leakage of lead bismuth in the flow loop were accumulated. (6) Technical measures for flow rate decrease/blockage due to precipitation of oxide and corrosion products in a low temperature section of the lead bismuth flow loop were accumulated. (7) Electromagnetic flow meters with MI

  9. Gating techniques for ultrasonic thickness testing using flaw detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, P., E-mail: paul@hollowayndt.com [Holloway NDT & Engineering Inc., Georgetown, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this article is to provide guidance on settings and methods, in particular the careful use of gating, to ensure accuracy of thickness testing on corroded steel and other metallic components. Specific applications include boiler tubes, tank floors, piping and vessels where the testing is performed from the OD or top surfaces, inspecting for metal loss due to corrosion on the opposite side. (author)

  10. Shopping For Danger: E-commerce techniques applied to collaboration in cyber security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, Joseph R.; Fink, Glenn A.

    2012-05-24

    Collaboration among cyber security analysts is essential to a successful protection strategy on the Internet today, but it is uncommonly practiced or encouraged in operating environments. Barriers to productive collaboration often include data sensitivity, time and effort to communicate, institutional policy, and protection of domain knowledge. We propose an ambient collaboration framework, Vulcan, designed to remove the barriers of time and effort and mitigate the others. Vulcan automated data collection, collaborative filtering, and asynchronous dissemination, eliminating the effort implied by explicit collaboration among peers. We instrumented two analytic applications and performed a mock analysis session to build a dataset and test the output of the system.

  11. Laser granulometry: A comparative study the techniques of sieving and elutriation applied to pozzoianic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías, M.

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser granulometry is a rapid method for determination of particle size distribution in both dry and wet phases. The present paper, diffraction technique by laser beams is an application to the granulometric studies of pozzolanic materials in suspension. Theses granulometric analysis are compared to those obtained with the Alpine pneumatic-siever and Bahco elutriator-centrifuge.

    La granulometria laser es un método rápido para determinar distribuciones de tamaños de partícula tanto en vía seca como en húmeda. En este trabajo la técnica de difracción por rayos laser se aplica al estudio granulométrico de materiales puzolánicos en suspensión. Estos análisis granulométricos se cotejan con los obtenidos con la técnica tamizador-neumático Alpine y elutriador-centrifugador Bahco.

  12. Image restoration techniques as applied to Landsat MSS and TM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, David

    1987-01-01

    Two factors are primarily responsible for the loss of image sharpness in processing digital Landsat images. The first factor is inherent in the data because the sensor's optics and electronics, along with other sensor elements, blur and smear the data. Digital image restoration can be used to reduce this degradation. The second factor, which further degrades by blurring or aliasing, is the resampling performed during geometric correction. An image restoration procedure, when used in place of typical resampled techniques, reduces sensor degradation without introducing the artifacts associated with resampling. The EROS Data Center (EDC) has implemented the restoration proceed for Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) data. This capability, developed at the University of Arizona by Dr. Robert Schowengerdt and Lynette Wood, combines restoration and resampling in a single step to produce geometrically corrected MSS and TM imagery. As with resampling, restoration demands a tradeoff be made between aliasing, which occurs when attempting to extract maximum sharpness from an image, and blurring, which reduces the aliasing problem but sacrifices image sharpness. The restoration procedure used at EDC minimizes these artifacts by being adaptive, tailoring the tradeoff to be optimal for individual images.

  13. Super-ensemble techniques applied to wave forecast: performance and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lenartz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, several operational ocean wave forecasts are available for a same region. These predictions may considerably differ, and to choose the best one is generally a difficult task. The super-ensemble approach, which consists in merging different forecasts and past observations into a single multi-model prediction system, is evaluated in this study. During the DART06 campaigns organized by the NATO Undersea Research Centre, four wave forecasting systems were simultaneously run in the Adriatic Sea, and significant wave height was measured at six stations as well as along the tracks of two remote sensors. This effort provided the necessary data set to compare the skills of various multi-model combination techniques. Our results indicate that a super-ensemble based on the Kalman Filter improves the forecast skills: The bias during both the hindcast and forecast periods is reduced, and the correlation coefficient is similar to that of the best individual model. The spatial extrapolation of local results is not straightforward and requires further investigation to be properly implemented.

  14. New technology of dry benefication of fly ash from coal power plants using applied mineralogy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Арсентьев

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of environmental and strategic need to process dumps and slagheaps of coal mining enterprises of Russia and foreign countries results in reviewing the potential of using fly ash as a technogenic mineral resource. Comprehensive studies of substance composition of fly ash from coal power plants make it possible to define rational further ways of utilizing that mineral resource substantiating the scheme of its technological secondary processing. In view of the numerous environmental problems stemming from the techniques of wet benefication and processing of that mineral resource, a technology is suggested of dry cleaning of fly ash from thermal coal power plants. Studies were carried out using a number of samples of fly ash from various power plants. The suggested criteria are used to discriminate the compounds of fly ash and quantitative and qualitative composition of particulate matter is assessed. Studies of substance composition of fly ash samples has demonstrated that the concentration of non-combusted carbon in them varies from 5 to 20 %. The principal technological procedure of cleansing in our studies was a combination of magnetic and electric separation of ash in the state of vibrational pseudo-liquefaction. It enables one to increase the throughput capacity and selectivity of the cleansing process significantly. In the result of such cleansing a stable mineral fraction is produced that contains 0.5-2.5 % of carbon, so that the purified mineral fraction can be used as a construction binding agent.

  15. Applying Lean Techniques to Reduce Intravenous Waste Through Premixed Solutions and Increasing Production Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alex C; Penm, Jonathan; Ivey, Marianne F; Deng, Yihong; Commins, Monica

    This study aims to use lean techniques and evaluate the impact of increasing the use of premixed IV solutions and increased IV production frequency on IV waste. Study was conducted at a tertiary hospital pharmacy department in three phases. Phase I included evaluation of IV waste when IV production occurred three times a day and eight premixed IV products were used. Phase II increased the number of premixed IV products to 16. Phase III then increased IV production to five times a day. During Phase I, an estimate of 2,673 IV doses were wasted monthly, accounting for 6.14% of overall IV doses. This accounted for 688 L that cost $60,135. During Phase II, the average monthly IV wastage reduced significantly to 1,069 doses (2.84%), accounting for 447 L and $34,003. During Phase III, the average monthly IV wastage was further decreased to 675 doses (1.69%), accounting for 78 L and $3,431. Hence, a potential annual saving of $449,208 could result from these changes. IV waste was reduced through the increased use of premixed solutions and increasing IV production frequency.

  16. A Morphing Technique Applied to Lung Motions in Radiotherapy: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ motion leads to dosimetric uncertainties during a patient’s treatment. Much work has been done to quantify the dosimetric effects of lung movement during radiation treatment. There is a particular need for a good description and prediction of organ motion. To describe lung motion more precisely, we have examined the possibility of using a computer technique: a morphing algorithm. Morphing is an iterative method which consists of blending one image into another image. To evaluate the use of morphing, Four Dimensions Computed Tomography (4DCT acquisition of a patient was performed. The lungs were automatically segmented for different phases, and morphing was performed using the end-inspiration and the end-expiration phase scans only. Intermediate morphing files were compared with 4DCT intermediate images. The results showed good agreement between morphing images and 4DCT images: fewer than 2 % of the 512 by 256 voxels were wrongly classified as belonging/not belonging to a lung section. This paper presents preliminary results, and our morphing algorithm needs improvement. We can infer that morphing offers considerable advantages in terms of radiation protection of the patient during the diagnosis phase, handling of artifacts, definition of organ contours and description of organ motion.

  17. Dosimetric properties of bio minerals applied to high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, G. B.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2014-08-01

    The study of the dosimetric properties such as reproducibility, the residual signal, lower detection dose, dose-response curve and fading of the thermally stimulated emission exo electronic (TSEE) signal of Brazilian bio minerals has shown that these materials present a potential use as radiation dosimeters. The reproducibility within ± 10% for oyster shell, mother-of-pearl and coral reef samples showed that the signal dispersion is small when compared with the mean value of the measurements. The study showed that the residual signal can be eliminated with a thermal treatment at 300 grades C/1 h. The lower detection dose of 9.8 Gy determined for the oyster shell samples when exposed to beta radiation and 1.6 Gy for oyster shell and mother-of-pearl samples when exposed to gamma radiation can be considered good, taking into account the high doses of this study. The materials presented linearity at the dose response curves in some ranges, but the lack of linearity in other cases presents no problem since a good mathematical description is possible. The fading study showed that the loss of TSEE signal can be minimized if the samples are protected from interferences such as light, heat and humidity. Taking into account the useful linearity range as the main dosimetric characteristic, the tiger shell and oyster shell samples are the most suitable for high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique. (Author)

  18. Dosimetric properties of bio minerals applied to high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, G. B.; Caldas, L. V. E., E-mail: gbvila@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The study of the dosimetric properties such as reproducibility, the residual signal, lower detection dose, dose-response curve and fading of the thermally stimulated emission exo electronic (TSEE) signal of Brazilian bio minerals has shown that these materials present a potential use as radiation dosimeters. The reproducibility within ± 10% for oyster shell, mother-of-pearl and coral reef samples showed that the signal dispersion is small when compared with the mean value of the measurements. The study showed that the residual signal can be eliminated with a thermal treatment at 300 grades C/1 h. The lower detection dose of 9.8 Gy determined for the oyster shell samples when exposed to beta radiation and 1.6 Gy for oyster shell and mother-of-pearl samples when exposed to gamma radiation can be considered good, taking into account the high doses of this study. The materials presented linearity at the dose response curves in some ranges, but the lack of linearity in other cases presents no problem since a good mathematical description is possible. The fading study showed that the loss of TSEE signal can be minimized if the samples are protected from interferences such as light, heat and humidity. Taking into account the useful linearity range as the main dosimetric characteristic, the tiger shell and oyster shell samples are the most suitable for high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique. (Author)

  19. Applied Focused Ion Beam Techniques for Sample Preparation of Astromaterials for Integrated Nano-Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G A; Teslich, N E; Kearsley, A T; Stadermann, F J; Stroud, R M; Dai, Z R; Ishii, H A; Hutcheon, I D; Bajt, S; Snead, C J; Weber, P K; Bradley, J P

    2007-02-20

    Sample preparation is always a critical step in study of micrometer sized astromaterials available for study in the laboratory, whether their subsequent analysis is by electron microscopy or secondary ion mass spectrometry. A focused beam of gallium ions has been used to prepare electron transparent sections from an interplanetary dust particle, as part of an integrated analysis protocol to maximize the mineralogical, elemental, isotopic and spectroscopic information extracted from one individual particle. In addition, focused ion beam techniques have been employed to extract cometary residue preserved on the rims and walls of micro-craters in 1100 series aluminum foils that were wrapped around the sample tray assembly on the Stardust cometary sample collector. Non-ideal surface geometries and inconveniently located regions of interest required creative solutions. These include support pillar construction and relocation of a significant portion of sample to access a region of interest. Serial sectioning, in a manner similar to ultramicrotomy, is a significant development and further demonstrates the unique capabilities of focused ion beam microscopy for sample preparation of astromaterials.

  20. Data smoothing techniques applied to proton microprobe scans of teleost hard parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, I.F.; Gauldie, R.W.; Coote, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    We use a proton microprobe to examine the distribution of elements in otoliths and scales of teleost (bony) fish. The elements of principal interest are calcium and strontium in otoliths and calcium and fluorine in scales. Changes in the distribution of these elements across hard structures may allow inferences about the life histories of fish. Otoliths and scales of interest are up to a centimeter in linear dimension and to reveal the structures of interest up to 200 sampling points are required in each dimension. The time needed to accumulate high X-ray counts at each sampling point can be large, particularly for strontium. To reduce microprobe usage we use data smoothing techniques to reveal changing patterns with modest X-ray count accumulations at individual data points. In this paper we review performance for revealing pattern at modest levels of X-ray count accumulations of a selection of digital filters (moving average smoothers), running median filters, robust locally weighted regression filters and adaptive spline filters. (author)

  1. Techniques for applying subatmospheric pressure dressing to wounds in difficult regions of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, S E; Duthie, E; Cartolano, B; Koehler, K M; Maydick-Youngberg, D; Longaker, M T

    1999-09-01

    Subatmospheric pressure dressing (SPD) has been commercially available in the United States since 1995 as the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device. SPD increases local blood flow, decreases edema and bacterial count, and promotes the formation of granulation tissue. Despite recent clinical successes with the use of SPD in a variety of wound types, problems may occur with application of VAC system in certain areas of the body. The main limitation occurs when attempting to maintain an airtight seal over irregular surfaces surrounding a wound. For example, application of the adhesive drape and creation of a seal are particularly difficulty in the hip and perineum. In addition, wounds of the lower extremity can occur in multiple sites, posing the problem of providing a vacuum dressing to more than one wound from one suction pump machine. To address these challenging clinical wounds, we have developed techniques to allow the successful application of SPD to sacral pressure ulcers near the anus, and to multiple large lower extremity ulcers.

  2. Applying spectral data analysis techniques to aquifer monitoring data in Belvoir Ranch, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; He, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses spectral data analysis techniques to estimate the hydraulic parameters from water level fluctuation due to tide effect and barometric effect. All water level data used in this study are collected in Belvoir Ranch, Wyoming. Tide effect can be not only observed in coastal areas, but also in inland confined aquifers. The force caused by changing positions of sun and moon affects not only ocean but also solid earth. The tide effect has an oscillatory pumping or injection sequence to the aquifer, and can be observed from dense water level monitoring. Belvoir Ranch data are collected once per hour, thus is dense enough to capture the tide effect. First, transforming de-trended data from temporal domain to frequency domain with Fourier transform method. Then, the storage coefficient can be estimated using Bredehoeft-Jacob model. After this, analyze the gain function, which expresses the amplification and attenuation of the output signal, and derive barometric efficiency. Next, find effective porosity with storage coefficient and barometric efficiency with Jacob's model. Finally, estimate aquifer transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity using Paul Hsieh's method. The estimated hydraulic parameters are compared with those from traditional pumping data estimation. This study proves that hydraulic parameter can be estimated by only analyze water level data in frequency domain. It has the advantages of low cost and environmental friendly, thus should be considered for future use of hydraulic parameter estimations.

  3. Case Studies for the Statistical Design of Experiments Applied to Powered Rotor Wind Tunnel Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmeyer, Austin D.; Tanner, Philip E.; Martin, Preston B.; Commo, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The application of statistical Design of Experiments (DOE) to helicopter wind tunnel testing was explored during two powered rotor wind tunnel entries during the summers of 2012 and 2013. These tests were performed jointly by the U.S. Army Aviation Development Directorate Joint Research Program Office and NASA Rotary Wing Project Office, currently the Revolutionary Vertical Lift Project, at NASA Langley Research Center located in Hampton, Virginia. Both entries were conducted in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with a small portion of the overall tests devoted to developing case studies of the DOE approach as it applies to powered rotor testing. A 16-47 times reduction in the number of data points required was estimated by comparing the DOE approach to conventional testing methods. The average error for the DOE surface response model for the OH-58F test was 0.95 percent and 4.06 percent for drag and download, respectively. The DOE surface response model of the Active Flow Control test captured the drag within 4.1 percent of measured data. The operational differences between the two testing approaches are identified, but did not prevent the safe operation of the powered rotor model throughout the DOE test matrices.

  4. Linear and Non-Linear Control Techniques Applied to Actively Lubricated Journal Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2003-01-01

    The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can count with the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication. For furt......The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can count with the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication....... For further reduction of shaft vibrations one can count with the active lubrication action, which is based on injecting pressurised oil into the bearing gap through orifices machined in the bearing sliding surface. The design and efficiency of some linear (PD, PI and PID) and non-linear controllers, applied...... vibration reduction of unbalance response of a rigid rotor, where the PD and the non-linear P controllers show better performance for the frequency range of study (0 to 80 Hz). The feasibility of eliminating rotor-bearing instabilities (phenomena of whirl) by using active lubrication is also investigated...

  5. Direct comparison of unloading compliance and potential drop techniques in J-integral testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.J.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    Single-specimen J-integral testing is performed commonly with the unloading compliance technique. Use of modern instrumentation techniques and powerful desktop computers have made this technique a standard. However, this testing technique is slow and tedious, with the loading rate fixed at a slow quasi-static rate. For these reasons the dc potential drop technique was investigated for crack length measurement during a J-integral test. For direct comparison, both unloading compliance and potential drop were used simultaneously during a J-integral test. The results showed good agreement between the techniques. However, the potential drop technique showed an offset in crack length due to plastic blunting processes. Taking this offset into account, J/sub Ic/ values calculated by both techniques compared well.

  6. Testing and Measurement Techniques in Heat Transfer and Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    temp ~rature de l’sir A Ilentrfie du moteur . La rechauffe periust avee un taux dea rechaufte de 20 % de r~aliser au d~collage une pouss~e tris ilev~e...die mesure A partir tie Is temp ~rature A Pentrie diu moteur et la valeurs des concentrations meaurees. On suppose que in pression totale A Ia sortie du...iosrit rr ’es nents A temp ~rature 6levte. Ces deux techniques expdrimentales sont pr~sent~es et les r~sultats obtenus sur des remen.n turbulents chauds

  7. Applying industrial process improvement techniques to increase efficiency in a surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznick, David; Niazov, Lora; Holizna, Eric; Siperstein, Allan

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how industrial process improvement techniques could help streamline the preoperative workup. Lean process improvement was used to streamline patient workup at an endocrine surgery service at a tertiary medical center utilizing multidisciplinary collaboration. The program consisted of several major changes in how patients are processed in the department. The goal was to shorten the wait time between initial call and consult visit and between consult and surgery. We enrolled 1,438 patients enrolled in the program. The wait time from the initial call until consult was reduced from 18.3 ± 0.7 to 15.4 ± 0.9 days. Wait time from consult until operation was reduced from 39.9 ± 1.5 to 33.9 ± 1.3 days for the overall practice and to 15.0 ± 4.8 days for low-risk patients. Patient cancellations were reduced from 27.9 ± 2.4% to 17.3 ± 2.5%. Overall patient flow increased from 30.9 ± 5.1 to 52.4 ± 5.8 consults per month (all P process improvement methodology, surgery patients can benefit from an improved, streamlined process with significant reduction in wait time from call to initial consult and initial consult to surgery, with reduced cancellations. This generalized process has resulted in increased practice throughput and efficiency and is applicable to any surgery practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Applying a novel combination of techniques to develop a predictive model for diabetes complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangi, Mohsen; Win, Khin Than; Shirvani, Farid; Namazi-Rad, Mohammad-Reza; Shukla, Nagesh

    2015-01-01

    Among the many related issues of diabetes management, its complications constitute the main part of the heavy burden of this disease. The aim of this paper is to develop a risk advisor model to predict the chances of diabetes complications according to the changes in risk factors. As the starting point, an inclusive list of (k) diabetes complications and (n) their correlated predisposing factors are derived from the existing endocrinology text books. A type of data meta-analysis has been done to extract and combine the numeric value of the relationships between these two. The whole n (risk factors) - k (complications) model was broken down into k different (n-1) relationships and these (n-1) dependencies were broken into n (1-1) models. Applying regression analysis (seven patterns) and artificial neural networks (ANN), we created models to show the (1-1) correspondence between factors and complications. Then all 1-1 models related to an individual complication were integrated using the naïve Bayes theorem. Finally, a Bayesian belief network was developed to show the influence of all risk factors and complications on each other. We assessed the predictive power of the 1-1 models by R2, F-ratio and adjusted R2 equations; sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated to evaluate the final model using real patient data. The results suggest that the best fitted regression models outperform the predictive ability of an ANN model, as well as six other regression patterns for all 1-1 models.

  9. Applying a novel combination of techniques to develop a predictive model for diabetes complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sangi

    Full Text Available Among the many related issues of diabetes management, its complications constitute the main part of the heavy burden of this disease. The aim of this paper is to develop a risk advisor model to predict the chances of diabetes complications according to the changes in risk factors. As the starting point, an inclusive list of (k diabetes complications and (n their correlated predisposing factors are derived from the existing endocrinology text books. A type of data meta-analysis has been done to extract and combine the numeric value of the relationships between these two. The whole n (risk factors - k (complications model was broken down into k different (n-1 relationships and these (n-1 dependencies were broken into n (1-1 models. Applying regression analysis (seven patterns and artificial neural networks (ANN, we created models to show the (1-1 correspondence between factors and complications. Then all 1-1 models related to an individual complication were integrated using the naïve Bayes theorem. Finally, a Bayesian belief network was developed to show the influence of all risk factors and complications on each other. We assessed the predictive power of the 1-1 models by R2, F-ratio and adjusted R2 equations; sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated to evaluate the final model using real patient data. The results suggest that the best fitted regression models outperform the predictive ability of an ANN model, as well as six other regression patterns for all 1-1 models.

  10. An Iterative Learning Control Technique for Point-to-Point Maneuvers Applied on an Overhead Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. Alhazza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An iterative learning control (ILC strategy is proposed, and implemented on simple pendulum and double pendulum models of an overhead crane undergoing simultaneous traveling and hoisting maneuvers. The approach is based on generating shaped commands using the full nonlinear equations of motion combined with the iterative learning control, to use as acceleration commands to the jib of the crane. These acceleration commands are tuned to eliminate residual oscillations in rest-to-rest maneuvers. The performance of the proposed strategy is tested using an experimental scaled model of an overhead crane with hoisting. The shaped command is derived analytically and validated experimentally. Results obtained showed that the proposed ILC control strategy is capable of eliminating travel and residual oscillations in simple and double pendulum models with hoisting. It is also shown, in all cases, that the proposed approach has a low sensitivity to the initial cable lengths.

  11. Applying Closing Phase-Angle Control Technique in Bounce Reduction of AC Permanent Magnet Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Tsung Chi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new low-cost electronic control circuit actuator is proposed for minimizing the bouncing times of an AC permanent magnet (PM contactor after two contacts closing. The proposed new actuator overcomes the bouncing problem of an uncontrollable restrictions imposed by previously conventional AC electromagnetic (EM contactor based on the minimization of kinetic energy prior to two contacts impact. By choosing the closing phase angle of coil voltage on purpose, the bouncing problems of the movable contact during the closing process are then overcome. The using life of contacts is then prolonged and their operating reliability is improved as well. In order to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method here, several simulation and experimental procedures were performed on a prototype of AC PM contactor in the laboratory. Testing results actually showed that bouncing problem of contactor's contacts during the closing process was to be controlled by using the proposed technology.

  12. ANALYSIS DATA SETS USING HYBRID TECHNIQUES APPLIED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE BASED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS INTEGRATED DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Petru GHENCEA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a prediction model of behavior spindle from the point of view of the thermal deformations and the level of the vibrations by highlighting and processing the characteristic equations. This is a model analysis for the shaft with similar electro-mechanical characteristics can be achieved using a hybrid analysis based on artificial intelligence (genetic algorithms - artificial neural networks - fuzzy logic. The paper presents a prediction mode obtaining valid range of values for spindles with similar characteristics based on measured data sets from a few spindles test without additional measures being required. Extracting polynomial functions of graphs resulting from simultaneous measurements and predict the dynamics of the two features with multi-objective criterion is the main advantage of this method.

  13. Applying a Machine Learning Technique to Classification of Japanese Pressure Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kimura

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In climate research, pressure patterns are often very important. When a climatologists need to know the days of a specific pressure pattern, for example "low pressure in Western areas of Japan and high pressure in Eastern areas of Japan (Japanese winter-type weather," they have to visually check a huge number of surface weather charts. To overcome this problem, we propose an automatic classification system using a support vector machine (SVM, which is a machine-learning method. We attempted to classify pressure patterns into two classes: "winter type" and "non-winter type". For both training datasets and test datasets, we used the JRA-25 dataset from 1981 to 2000. An experimental evaluation showed that our method obtained a greater than 0.8 F-measure. We noted that variations in results were based on differences in training datasets.

  14. Multi-image screening technique applied to a general orientation training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Campbell, T.O.; Evans, A.D.; Hickey, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A general orientation and training program is a prerequisite for personnel to have unescorted access to various site locations at a nuclear power plant. A new general orientation and training program is being developed for the Toledo Edison Company to be used at the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station. The program is presented in a multi-image and stereo sound format that has the unique capability to present the magnitude and scale of the plant, to arouse and maintain the interest of the viewer, and to instill in him a feeling of importance and pride about his job. Satisfactory completion of the program by individuals is assessed and certified by a machine scored test that is administered as an integral part of the presentation

  15. Fixed Wing Performance. Theory and Flight Test Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    muay he chbtdined within 1,000 ft of the desired test altitude. e. Some airplanes (mainly propeller driven) exhibit d 4 fferent tdrning charam-teristics...aikpline ý:Rt tude at. slower- airspeeds thai ; from static cont’"ol ~s~.Teairplane will US\\alIsv 󈧮 .:OcflIC airborn( with full aft stic~k. After bernmtnj

  16. A multi-stage triaxial testing procedure for low permeable geomaterials applied to Opalinus Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin M. Wild

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In many engineering applications, it is important to determine both effective rock properties and the rock behavior which are representative for the problem's in situ conditions. For this purpose, rock samples are usually extracted from the ground and brought to the laboratory to perform laboratory experiments such as consolidated undrained (CU triaxial tests. For low permeable geomaterials such as clay shales, core extraction, handling, storage, and specimen preparation can lead to a reduction in the degree of saturation and the effective stress state in the specimen prior to testing remains uncertain. Related changes in structure and the effect of capillary pressure can alter the properties of the specimen and affect the reliability of the test results. A careful testing procedure including back-saturation, consolidation and adequate shearing of the specimen, however, can overcome these issues. Although substantial effort has been devoted during the past decades to the establishment of a testing procedure for low permeable geomaterials, no consistent protocol can be found. With a special focus on CU tests on Opalinus Clay, this study gives a review of the theoretical concepts necessary for planning and validating the results during the individual testing stages (saturation, consolidation, and shearing. The discussed tests protocol is further applied to a series of specimens of Opalinus Clay to illustrate its applicability and highlight the key aspects.

  17. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques: 2008 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    This publication is a revision of IAEA-TECDOC-628/Rev.1 and provides the basic syllabus for systems for training and certification programmes of non-destructive testing (NDT) personnel in accordance with the requirements of international standard ISO 9712 (2005). The training guidelines developed to date have been used by Member States in formulating their national NDT programmes and to provide local end user industries with a skilled workforce. The present publication accommodates the latest advancements in technology and will continue to play an important role towards international harmonization in the field of NDT. This publication contains a body of knowledge for non-destructive testing. It was developed to provide guidelines for trainers, training organizations and certification bodies, detailing the subject matter and the content for each level of certification. It is general in nature but the contents of the training should be adapted to the needs, procedures, materials and products of the customer. The recommended training hours are consistent with the edition of the standard ISO 9712 in effect at the time of preparation. All formal training described in this publication contains a theoretical portion and a practical portion. Guidance is included on the range of equipment and materials needed for instruction in each method. There is a common core of material that is required by level 3 personnel in every method. This common material has been removed from the content for the particular method and included as a separate section. All training should end with an examination and can lead to a certification. Examination and certification are not covered by this publication, but detailed information about this can be found in ISO 9712. This publication is applicable for the following methods: eddy current testing, magnetic particle testing, liquid penetrant testing, radiographic testing, and ultrasonic testing. NDT methods are now widely used in civil engineering

  18. APPLIED PHYTO-REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES USING HALOPHYTES FOR OIL AND BRINE SPILL SCARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Korphage; Bruce G. Langhus; Scott Campbell

    2003-03-01

    Produced salt water from historical oil and gas production was often managed with inadequate care and unfortunate consequences. In Kansas, the production practices in the 1930's and 1940's--before statewide anti-pollution laws--were such that fluids were often produced to surface impoundments where the oil would segregate from the salt water. The oil was pumped off the pits and the salt water was able to infiltrate into the subsurface soil zones and underlying bedrock. Over the years, oil producing practices were changed so that segregation of fluids was accomplished in steel tanks and salt water was isolated from the natural environment. But before that could happen, significant areas of the state were scarred by salt water. These areas are now in need of economical remediation. Remediation of salt scarred land can be facilitated with soil amendments, land management, and selection of appropriate salt tolerant plants. Current research on the salt scars around the old Leon Waterflood, in Butler County, Kansas show the relative efficiency of remediation options. Based upon these research findings, it is possible to recommend cost efficient remediation techniques for slight, medium, and heavy salt water damaged soil. Slight salt damage includes soils with Electrical Conductivity (EC) values of 4.0 mS/cm or less. Operators can treat these soils with sufficient amounts of gypsum, install irrigation systems, and till the soil. Appropriate plants can be introduced via transplants or seeded. Medium salt damage includes soils with EC values between 4.0 and 16 mS/cm. Operators will add amendments of gypsum, till the soil, and arrange for irrigation. Some particularly salt tolerant plants can be added but most planting ought to be reserved until the second season of remediation. Severe salt damage includes soil with EC values in excess of 16 mS/cm. Operators will add at least part of the gypsum required, till the soil, and arrange for irrigation. The following

  19. Improving building energy modelling by applying advanced 3D surveying techniques on agri-food facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Barreca

    2017-09-01

    advanced surveying techniques, such as a terrestrial laser scanner and an infrared camera, it is possible to create a three-dimensional parametric model, while, thanks to the heat flow meter measurement method, it is also possible to obtain a thermophysical model. This model allows assessing the energy performance of agri-food buildings in order to improve the indoor microclimate control and the conditions of food processing and conservation.

  20. Lipase immobilized by different techniques on various support materials applied in oil hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VILMA MINOVSKA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Batch hydrolysis of olive oil was performed by Candida rugosa lipase immobilized on Amberlite IRC-50 and Al2O3. These two supports were selected out of 16 carriers: inorganic materials (sand, silica gel, infusorial earth, Al2O3, inorganic salts (CaCO3, CaSO4, ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-50 and IR-4B, Dowex 2X8, a natural resin (colophony, a natural biopolymer (sodium alginate, synthetic polymers (polypropylene, polyethylene and zeolites. Lipase immobilization was carried out by simple adsorption, adsorption followed by cross-linking, adsorption on ion-exchange resins, combined adsorption and precipitation, pure precipitation and gel entrapment. The suitability of the supports and techniques for the immobilization of lipase was evaluated by estimating the enzyme activity, protein loading, immobilization efficiency and reusability of the immobilizates. Most of the immobilizates exhibited either a low enzyme activity or difficulties during the hydrolytic reaction. Only those prepared by ionic adsorption on Amberlite IRC-50 and by combined adsorption and precipitation on Al2O3 showed better activity, 2000 and 430 U/g support, respectively, and demonstrated satisfactory behavior when used repeatedly. The hydrolysis was studied as a function of several parameters: surfactant concentration, enzyme concentration, pH and temperature. The immobilized preparation with Amberlite IRC-50 was stable and active in the whole range of pH (4 to 9 and temperature (20 to 50 °C, demonstrating a 99% degree of hydrolysis. In repeated usage, it was stable and active having a half-life of 16 batches, which corresponds to an operation time of 384 h. Its storage stability was remarkable too, since after 9 months it had lost only 25 % of the initial activity. The immobilizate with Al22O3 was less stable and less active. At optimal environmental conditions, the degree of hydrolysis did not exceed 79 %. In repeated usage, after the fourth batch, the degree of

  1. Comparison of NDT techniques to evaluate CFRP. Results obtained in a MAIzfp round robin test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Christian U. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Chair of Non-destructive Testing; Goldammer, Matthias; Grager, Jan-Carl [Siemens AG Corporate Technology, Muenchen (Germany); and others

    2016-10-01

    Fiber reinforced polymeric materials are used for lightweight constructions and are an integral part of cars, airplanes or rotor blades of wind turbines. Nondestructive testing (NDT) methods play an increasing role concerning the manufacturing process and the inspection during lifetime. The selection of the best NDT technique for a certain application depends - of course - on many factors including the type, position and size of the defect to be detected but also on secondary issues like accessibility, automation, testing costs, reliability and resolution to mention only some. For the more technical-scientific part of these issues, the determination of the probability of detection (PoD) plays a significant role. Early in the design process questions should be raised concerning the probability with which certain attribute of interest (a defect that has an effect on the structural behavior) can be detected (and localized) in a certain construction. Several defect types have been identified to be critical like impact damages, undulations and porosity. Test samples out of differently processed Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) as used in the automotive or aeronautical industry have been produced including defects of different type and size. In order to determine the PoD and to check whether a technique is applicable the different partners applied a broad variety of selected NDT techniques including Micro CT, Ultrasound (including phased-array and air-coupled UT), Active Thermography, Eddy Current, Vibration and Visual Analysis and Local Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (LARS). The presentation will summarize some of the results of the experiments and ongoing data analysis.

  2. Comparison of NDT techniques to evaluate CFRP. Results obtained in a MAIzfp round robin test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, Christian U.

    2016-01-01

    Fiber reinforced polymeric materials are used for lightweight constructions and are an integral part of cars, airplanes or rotor blades of wind turbines. Nondestructive testing (NDT) methods play an increasing role concerning the manufacturing process and the inspection during lifetime. The selection of the best NDT technique for a certain application depends - of course - on many factors including the type, position and size of the defect to be detected but also on secondary issues like accessibility, automation, testing costs, reliability and resolution to mention only some. For the more technical-scientific part of these issues, the determination of the probability of detection (PoD) plays a significant role. Early in the design process questions should be raised concerning the probability with which certain attribute of interest (a defect that has an effect on the structural behavior) can be detected (and localized) in a certain construction. Several defect types have been identified to be critical like impact damages, undulations and porosity. Test samples out of differently processed Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) as used in the automotive or aeronautical industry have been produced including defects of different type and size. In order to determine the PoD and to check whether a technique is applicable the different partners applied a broad variety of selected NDT techniques including Micro CT, Ultrasound (including phased-array and air-coupled UT), Active Thermography, Eddy Current, Vibration and Visual Analysis and Local Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (LARS). The presentation will summarize some of the results of the experiments and ongoing data analysis.

  3. LeRC rail accelerators: test designs and diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zana, L.M.; Kerslake, W.R.; Sturman, J.C.; Wang, S.Y.; Terdan, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using rail accelerators for various in-space and to-space propulsion applications was investigated. A 1 meter, 24 sq mm bore accelerator was designed with the goal of demonstrating projectile velocities of 15 km/sec using a peak current of 200 kA. A second rail accelerator, 1 meter long with a 156.25 sq mm bore, was designed with clear polycarbonate sidewalls to permit visual observation of the plasma arc. A study of available diagnostic techniques and their application to the rail accelerator is presented. Specific topics of discussion include the use of interferometry and spectroscopy to examine the plasma armature as well as the use of optical sensors to measure rail displacement during acceleration. Standard diagnostics such as current and voltage measurements are also discussed. 15 references

  4. Techniques of Global analysis applied to gravitation theories: A cosmological black hole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debney, G.

    1977-01-01

    An elementary model of freely falling observers and emitters within a black hole's radius is examined to determine the redshift spectrum reaching a typical observer. The model is independent of scale, the fundamental unit being the radius (mass) of the black hole. The observers/emitters all follow the same kinds of trajectories: radially inward and starting from rest at spatial infinity. The test-particle role is assumed throughout; i.e., the observers/emitters do not themselves contribute to the gravitational field of the system. By means of redshift formulas and luminosity distance to the emitters, a picture of actual redshifts and blueshifts, with their intensities, emerges for an observer within the black hole's radius. No luminosity distances greater than approximately one-half the radius are considered in this particular study; nevertheless, redshifts and blueshifts up to approximately 0.6 are seen in portions of the observer's celestial sphere. An exotic application can be made, as a curiosity, to a black hole the size of the universe, resulting in a particular anisotropic "cosmology."

  5. Demonstration of acoustic resonances in a cylindrical cavity applying the photoacoustic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, N. L.; Vallespi, A. S.; Zajarevich, N. M.; Peuriot, A. L.; Slezak, V. B.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present some experiments which can be performed in college or on the first courses of university to acquire knowledge about resonant acoustical phenomena in closed cavities in a tangible way, through experiments based on the photoacoustic effect in gases. This phenomenon consists in the generation of acoustic waves after optical excitation of an absorbing gas and further local heating of the non-absorbing surrounding gas by energy exchange through collisions between molecules of both species. Simple experiments, performed with daily live elements, can be very useful for teachers and students to get in touch with the phenomenon of acoustic resonances with the addition of concepts about light-matter interaction. The setups consist of the resonant cavity, the illumination source and the signal detection-acquisition scheme. In this paper a closed glass test tube is used as the resonant cavity and is filled with a mixture of nitrogen dioxide and air. The illumination is performed by a pulsed power LED modulated at different resonant frequencies of the cavity. A microphone inside the tube is connected to an oscilloscope which displays the photoacoustic signal. The LED is moved along the tube showing how different resonant modes can be excited.

  6. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to the research on biokinetics of incorporated radionuclides for internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantone, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The presentation intends to discuss the contribution that techniques of analysis, based on activation analysis or mass spectrometry, can give to a very selected item of the protection against ionizing radiation: the biokinetics of relevant elements. The assessment of radiation dose to body tissues, following intakes of radionuclides in occupational, accidental exposures and environmental exposure in case of dispersion in the environment of radio contaminants of potential concerns, is essential to evaluate and manage the the related radiological risk, including the decisions and actions to be undertake. Internal dose is not directly measurable and the International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP has developed models which describes the behavior of the substances in the human body, following their entry ways by inhalation or ingestion. Generally, all the available sources of information contribute in the modeling process, including studies on animals, use of chemical analogues and, obviously direct information on humans, which is definitely the preferred source on which a biokinetic model can be based. Biokinetic data on human are available for most of the biological essential elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se) and for some elements the metabolic behavior is well know due to their use in clinical application (I, Sr, Tc), moreover research is in progress for non-essential alpha emitters. However, for a number of element, including elements with radionuclide of radiological significance in case of environmental contamination (Ru, Zr, Ce, Te and Mo), human data are poor or missing and biokinetic parameters are essentially extrapolated from data on animals. The use of stable isotopes is a publicly well acceptable and ethically justifiable method, compared to the use of radioisotopes, when volunteer subjects are considered in the investigations. The design of the investigation is based on the double tracer approach: one isotope is given orally and a second

  7. Artificial intelligence techniques for ground test monitoring of rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moonis; Gupta, U. K.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system is being developed which can detect anomalies in Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) sensor data significantly earlier than the redline algorithm currently in use. The training of such an expert system focuses on two approaches which are based on low frequency and high frequency analyses of sensor data. Both approaches are being tested on data from SSME tests and their results compared with the findings of NASA and Rocketdyne experts. Prototype implementations have detected the presence of anomalies earlier than the redline algorithms that are in use currently. It therefore appears that these approaches have the potential of detecting anomalies early eneough to shut down the engine or take other corrective action before severe damage to the engine occurs.

  8. Fielding the magnetically applied pressure-shear technique on the Z accelerator (completion report for MRT 4519).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, C. Scott; Haill, Thomas A.; Dalton, Devon Gardner; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Lamppa, Derek C.

    2013-09-01

    The recently developed Magnetically Applied Pressure-Shear (MAPS) experimental technique to measure material shear strength at high pressures on magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) drive pulsed power platforms was fielded on August 16, 2013 on shot Z2544 utilizing hardware set A0283A. Several technical and engineering challenges were overcome in the process leading to the attempt to measure the dynamic strength of NNSA Ta at 50 GPa. The MAPS technique relies on the ability to apply an external magnetic field properly aligned and time correlated with the MHD pulse. The load design had to be modified to accommodate the external field coils and additional support was required to manage stresses from the pulsed magnets. Further, this represents the first time transverse velocity interferometry has been applied to diagnose a shot at Z. All subsystems performed well with only minor issues related to the new feed design which can be easily addressed by modifying the current pulse shape. Despite the success of each new component, the experiment failed to measure strength in the samples due to spallation failure, most likely in the diamond anvils. To address this issue, hydrocode simulations are being used to evaluate a modified design using LiF windows to minimize tension in the diamond and prevent spall. Another option to eliminate the diamond material from the experiment is also being investigated.

  9. Free-Piston Shock Tunnel Test Technique Development: An AEDC/DLR Cooperative Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stallings, D

    2003-01-01

    Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) and the German Aerospace Institute (DLR) have conducted a cooperative program on operation and test technique development for high enthalpy shock tunnels...

  10. Microwave digestion techniques applied to determination of boron by ICP-AES in BNCT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Silvia S.; Di Santo, Norberto R.; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Pucci, Gladys N.; Batistoni, Daniel A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has merged as an interesting option for the treatment of some kind of tumors where established therapies show no success. A molecular boronated species, enriched in 10 B is administrated to the subject; it localizes in malignant tissues depending the kind of tumor and localization. Therefore, a very important fact in BNCT research is the detection of boron at trace or ultra trace levels precisely and accurately. This is extremely necessary as boronated species do localize in tumoral tissue and also localize in liver, kidney, spleen, skin, membranes. By this way, before testing a boronated species, it is mandatory to determine its biodistribution in a statistically meaning population, that is related with managing of a great number of samples. In the other hand, it is necessary to exactly predict when to begin the irradiation and to determine the magnitude of radiation to obtain the desired radiological dose for a specified mean boron concentration. This involves the determination of boron in whole blood, which is related with boron concentration in the tumor object of treatment. The methodology selected for the analysis of boron in whole blood and tissues must join certain characteristics: it must not be dependant of the chemical form of boron, it has to be fast and capable to determine boron accurately and precisely in a wide range of concentrations. The design and validation of experimental models involving animals in BNCT studies and the determination of boron in blood of animals and subjects upon treatment require reliable analytical procedures to determine boron quantitatively in those biologic materials. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using pneumatic nebulization is one of the most promising methods for boron analysis, but the sample must be liquid and have low solid concentration. In our case, biological tissues and blood, it is mandatory to mineralize and/or dilute samples

  11. Application of numerical analysis techniques to eddy current testing for steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Kazuo; Satake, Koji; Araki, Yasui; Morimura, Koichi; Tanaka, Michio; Shimizu, Naoya; Iwahashi, Yoichi

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the application of numerical analysis to eddy current testing (ECT) for steam generator tubes. A symmetrical and three-dimensional sinusoidal steady state eddy current analysis code was developed. This code is formulated by future element method-boundary element method coupling techniques, in order not to regenerate the mesh data in the tube domain at every movement of the probe. The calculations were carried out under various conditions including those for various probe types, defect orientations and so on. Compared with the experimental data, it was shown that it is feasible to apply this code to actual use. Furthermore, we have developed a total eddy current analysis system which consists of an ECT calculation code, an automatic mesh generator for analysis, a database and display software for calculated results. ((orig.))

  12. Development of structural health monitoring techniques using dynamics testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.H. III [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1996-03-01

    Today`s society depends upon many structures (such as aircraft, bridges, wind turbines, offshore platforms, buildings, and nuclear weapons) which are nearing the end of their design lifetime. Since these structures cannot be economically replaced, techniques for structural health monitoring must be developed and implemented. Modal and structural dynamics measurements hold promise for the global non-destructive inspection of a variety of structures since surface measurements of a vibrating structure can provide information about the health of the internal members without costly (or impossible) dismantling of the structure. In order to develop structural health monitoring for application to operational structures, developments in four areas have been undertaken within this project: operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage identification. The developments in each of these four aspects of structural health monitoring have been exercised on a broad range of experimental data. This experimental data has been extracted from structures from several application areas which include aging aircraft, wind energy, aging bridges, offshore structures, structural supports, and mechanical parts. As a result of these advances, Sandia National Laboratories is in a position to perform further advanced development, operational implementation, and technical consulting for a broad class of the nation`s aging infrastructure problems.

  13. A new membrane-based crystallization technique: tests on lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Efrem; Profio, Gianluca Di; Drioli, Enrico

    2003-01-01

    The great importance of protein science both in industrial and scientific fields, in conjunction with the intrinsic difficulty to grow macromolecular crystals, stimulates the development of new observations and ideas that can be useful in initiating more systematic studies using novel approaches. In this regard, an innovative technique, based on the employment of microporous hydrophobic membranes in order to promote the formation of lysozyme crystals from supersaturated solutions, is introduced in this work. Operational principles and possible advantages, both in terms of controlled extraction of solvent by acting on the concentration of the stripping solution and reduced induction times, are outlined. Theoretical developments and experimental results concerning the mass transfer, in vapour phase, through the membrane are presented, as well as the results from X-ray diffraction to 1.7 Å resolution of obtained lysozyme crystals using NaCl as the crystallizing agent and sodium acetate as the buffer. Crystals were found to be tetragonal with unit cell dimensions of a= b=79.1 Å and c=37.9 Å; the overall Rmerge on intensities in the resolution range from 25 to 1.7 Å was, in the best case, 4.4%.

  14. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    With the conclusion in 1979 of a successful Agency executed UNDP project in Argentina, whose aim was the establishment of a national non-destructive testing centre, the Agency was asked by other countries in the Latin American and Caribbean Region to evaluate the possibility of transferring this success to the whole region. In 1982, with the financial cooperation of UNFSSTD and UNIDO, a regional project was started with the principal objective of assisting the countries in the region to reinforce autonomous NDT capability through regional cooperation. One essential component of this project has been the harmonization of training through the development and use of course syllabi by the 17 countries now participating in the project. To this end, a Regional Working Group was formed and one of its tasks is the development of these syllabi for the more common NDT methods. This publication is a collection of the training programmes elaborated to date which have so far been followed by some 10,000 persons in the region who have received training in NDT as a direct result of the project. These syllabi take into account the development work done by the International Committee for Non-destructive Testing and many national training programmes, and are meant to be an objective guide to assist in the formation of NDT personnel

  15. Computer aided instrumented Charpy test applied dynamic fracture toughness evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshiro; Niinomi, Mitsuo

    1986-01-01

    Micro computer aided data treatment system and personal computer aided data analysis system were applied to the traditional instrumented Charpy impact test system. The analysis of Charpy absorbed energy (E i , E p , E t ) and load (P y , P m ), and the evaluation of dynamic toughness through whole fracture process, i.e. J Id , J R curve and T mat was examined using newly developed computer aided instrumented Charpy impact test system. E i , E p , E t , P y and P m were effectively analyzed using moving average method and printed out automatically by micro computer aided data treatment system. J Id , J R curve and T mat could be measured by stop block test method. Then, J Id , J R curve and T mat were effectively estimated using compliance changing rate method and key curve method on the load-load point displacement curve of single fatigue cracked specimen by personal computer aided data analysis system. (author)

  16. Pattern-recognition techniques applied to performance monitoring of the DSS 13 34-meter antenna control assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellstrom, J. A.; Smyth, P.

    1991-01-01

    The results of applying pattern recognition techniques to diagnose fault conditions in the pointing system of one of the Deep Space network's large antennas, the DSS 13 34-meter structure, are discussed. A previous article described an experiment whereby a neural network technique was used to identify fault classes by using data obtained from a simulation model of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-meter antenna system. Described here is the extension of these classification techniques to the analysis of real data from the field. The general architecture and philosophy of an autonomous monitoring paradigm is described and classification results are discussed and analyzed in this context. Key features of this approach include a probabilistic time-varying context model, the effective integration of signal processing and system identification techniques with pattern recognition algorithms, and the ability to calibrate the system given limited amounts of training data. Reported here are recognition accuracies in the 97 to 98 percent range for the particular fault classes included in the experiments.

  17. Integrating knowledge-based techniques into well-test interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, I.W.; Fraser, J.L. [Artificial Intelligence Applications Inst., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Spirit Project was to develop a prototype of next-generation well-test-interpretation (WTI) software that would include knowledge-based decision support for the WTI model selection task. This paper describes how Spirit makes use of several different types of information (pressure, seismic, petrophysical, geological, and engineering) to support the user in identifying the most appropriate WTI model. Spirit`s knowledge-based approach to type-curve matching is to generate several different feasible interpretations by making assumptions about the possible presence of both wellbore storage and late-time boundary effects. Spirit fuses information from type-curve matching and other data sources by use of a knowledge-based decision model developed in collaboration with a WTI expert. The sponsors of the work have judged the resulting prototype system a success.

  18. CR-Calculus and adaptive array theory applied to MIMO random vibration control tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musella, U.; Manzato, S.; Peeters, B.; Guillaume, P.

    2016-09-01

    Performing Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) tests to reproduce the vibration environment in a user-defined number of control points of a unit under test is necessary in applications where a realistic environment replication has to be achieved. MIMO tests require vibration control strategies to calculate the required drive signal vector that gives an acceptable replication of the target. This target is a (complex) vector with magnitude and phase information at the control points for MIMO Sine Control tests while in MIMO Random Control tests, in the most general case, the target is a complete spectral density matrix. The idea behind this work is to tailor a MIMO random vibration control approach that can be generalized to other MIMO tests, e.g. MIMO Sine and MIMO Time Waveform Replication. In this work the approach is to use gradient-based procedures over the complex space, applying the so called CR-Calculus and the adaptive array theory. With this approach it is possible to better control the process performances allowing the step-by-step Jacobian Matrix update. The theoretical bases behind the work are followed by an application of the developed method to a two-exciter two-axis system and by performance comparisons with standard methods.

  19. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  20. Impact of gene patents on diagnostic testing: a new patent landscaping method applied to spinocerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthels, Nele; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

    2011-11-01

    Recent reports in Europe and the United States raise concern about the potential negative impact of gene patents on the freedom to operate of diagnosticians and on the access of patients to genetic diagnostic services. Patents, historically seen as legal instruments to trigger innovation, could cause undesired side effects in the public health domain. Clear empirical evidence on the alleged hindering effect of gene patents is still scarce. We therefore developed a patent categorization method to determine which gene patents could indeed be problematic. The method is applied to patents relevant for genetic testing of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). The SCA test is probably the most widely used DNA test in (adult) neurology, as well as one of the most challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. Typically tested as a gene panel covering the five common SCA subtypes, we show that the patenting of SCA genes and testing methods and the associated licensing conditions could have far-reaching consequences on legitimate access to this gene panel. Moreover, with genetic testing being increasingly standardized, simply ignoring patents is unlikely to hold out indefinitely. This paper aims to differentiate among so-called 'gene patents' by lifting out the truly problematic ones. In doing so, awareness is raised among all stakeholders in the genetic diagnostics field who are not necessarily familiar with the ins and outs of patenting and licensing.

  1. Inspection of radiant heating floor applying non-destructive testing techniques: GPR and IRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Lagüela-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La inspección de suelos radiantes requiere el uso de técnicas no destructivas, tratando de minimizar el impacto de la inspección, así como el tiempo y el coste, además de maximizar la información adquirida de cara al mejor diagnóstico posible. Con este objetivo, la aplicación de termografía infrarroja (IRT y georradar (GPR se propone para la inspección de suelos radiantes con cobertura de diferentes materiales, para evaluar las capacidades y la información adquirible con cada técnica. Los resultados muestran que cada técnica proporciona diferentes tipos de información: estado de las tuberías (IRT, geometría y configuración (GPR; concluyendo que la inspección óptima está formada por la combinación de ambas técnicas.

  2. Applying Behavioural Science Techniques to the Test and Evaluation of Complex Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sproles, Noel

    2000-01-01

    .... A minor case study illustrating the application of qualitative data analysis methods to the evaluation of the Australian Army's Battlefield Command Support System (BCSS) is discussed in order to illustrate the merit of behavioural science methods for T&E.

  3. Further studies to extend and test the area-time-integral technique applied to satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul L.; Vonderhaar, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    The principal goal of this project is to establish relationships that would allow application of area-time integral (ATI) calculations based upon satellite data to estimate rainfall volumes. The research has been pursued using two different approaches, which for convenience can be designated as the 'fixed-threshold approach' and the 'variable-threshold approach'. In the former approach, an attempt is made to determine a single temperature threshold in the satellite infrared data that would yield ATI values for identifiable cloud clusters which are most closely related to the corresponding rainfall amounts. Results thus far have indicated that a strong correlation exists between the rain volumes and the satellite ATI values, but the optimum threshold for this relationship seems to differ from one geographic location to another. The difference is probably related to differences in the basic precipitation mechanisms that dominate in the different regions. The average rainfall rate associated with each cloudy pixel is also found to vary across the spectrum of ATI values. Work on the second, or 'variable-threshold', approach for determining the satellite ATI values was essentially suspended during this period due to exhaustion of project funds. Most of the ATI work thus far has dealt with cloud clusters from the Lagrangian or 'floating-target' point of view. For many purposes, however, the Eulerian or 'fixed-target' perspective is more appropriate. For a very large target area encompassing entire cluster life histories, the rain volume-ATI relationship would obviously be the same in either case. The important question for the Eulerian perspective is how small the fixed area can be made while maintaining consistency in that relationship.

  4. Applying Standard Independent Verification and Validation (IVV) Techniques Within an Agile Framework: Is There a Compatibility Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, James B.; Arthur, James Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Agile methods have gained wide acceptance over the past several years, to the point that they are now a standard management and execution approach for small-scale software development projects. While conventional Agile methods are not generally applicable to large multi-year and mission-critical systems, Agile hybrids are now being developed (such as SAFe) to exploit the productivity improvements of Agile while retaining the necessary process rigor and coordination needs of these projects. From the perspective of Independent Verification and Validation (IVV), however, the adoption of these hybrid Agile frameworks is becoming somewhat problematic. Hence, we find it prudent to question the compatibility of conventional IVV techniques with (hybrid) Agile practices.This paper documents our investigation of (a) relevant literature, (b) the modification and adoption of Agile frameworks to accommodate the development of large scale, mission critical systems, and (c) the compatibility of standard IVV techniques within hybrid Agile development frameworks. Specific to the latter, we found that the IVV methods employed within a hybrid Agile process can be divided into three groups: (1) early lifecycle IVV techniques that are fully compatible with the hybrid lifecycles, (2) IVV techniques that focus on tracing requirements, test objectives, etc. are somewhat incompatible, but can be tailored with a modest effort, and (3) IVV techniques involving an assessment requiring artifact completeness that are simply not compatible with hybrid Agile processes, e.g., those that assume complete requirement specification early in the development lifecycle.

  5. Method-independent, Computationally Frugal Convergence Testing for Sensitivity Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, J.; Tolson, B.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing complexity and runtime of environmental models lead to the current situation that the calibration of all model parameters or the estimation of all of their uncertainty is often computationally infeasible. Hence, techniques to determine the sensitivity of model parameters are used to identify most important parameters. All subsequent model calibrations or uncertainty estimation procedures focus then only on these subsets of parameters and are hence less computational demanding. While the examination of the convergence of calibration and uncertainty methods is state-of-the-art, the convergence of the sensitivity methods is usually not checked. If any, bootstrapping of the sensitivity results is used to determine the reliability of the estimated indexes. Bootstrapping, however, might as well become computationally expensive in case of large model outputs and a high number of bootstraps. We, therefore, present a Model Variable Augmentation (MVA) approach to check the convergence of sensitivity indexes without performing any additional model run. This technique is method- and model-independent. It can be applied either during the sensitivity analysis (SA) or afterwards. The latter case enables the checking of already processed sensitivity indexes. To demonstrate the method's independency of the convergence testing method, we applied it to two widely used, global SA methods: the screening method known as Morris method or Elementary Effects (Morris 1991) and the variance-based Sobol' method (Solbol' 1993). The new convergence testing method is first scrutinized using 12 analytical benchmark functions (Cuntz & Mai et al. 2015) where the true indexes of aforementioned three methods are known. This proof of principle shows that the method reliably determines the uncertainty of the SA results when different budgets are used for the SA. The results show that the new frugal method is able to test the convergence and therefore the reliability of SA results in an

  6. Tank Applied Testing of Load-Bearing Multilayer Insulation (LB-MLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Valenzuela, Juan G.; Feller, Jerr; Plachta, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The development of long duration orbital cryogenic storage systems will require the reduction of heat loads into the storage tank. In the case of liquid hydrogen, complete elimination of the heat load at 20 K is currently impractical due to the limitations in lift available on flight cryocoolers. In order to reduce the heat load, without having to remove heat at 20 K, the concept of Reduced Boil-Off uses cooled shields within the insulation system at approximately 90 K. The development of Load-Bearing Multilayer Insulation (LB-MLI) allowed the 90 K shield with tubing and cryocooler attachments to be suspended within the MLI and still be structurally stable. Coupon testing both thermally and structurally were performed to verify that the LB-MLI should work at the tank applied level. Then tank applied thermal and structural (acoustic) testing was performed to demonstrate the functionality of the LB-MLI as a structural insulation system. The LB-MLI showed no degradation of thermal performance due to the acoustic testing and showed excellent thermal performance when integrated with a 90 K class cryocooler on a liquid hydrogen tank.

  7. Interrelationship of Nondestructive Evaluation Methodologies Applied to Testing of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifeste, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are commonly used in spacecraft for containment of pressurized gases and fluids, incorporating strength and weight savings. The energy stored is capable of extensive spacecraft damage and personal injury in the event of sudden failure. These apparently simple structures, composed of a metallic media impermeable liner and fiber/resin composite overwrap are really complex structures with numerous material and structural phenomena interacting during pressurized use which requires multiple, interrelated monitoring methodologies to monitor and understand subtle changes critical to safe use. Testing of COPVs at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands T est Facility (WSTF) has employed multiple in-situ, real-time nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methodologies as well as pre- and post-test comparative techniques to monitor changes in material and structural parameters during advanced pressurized testing. The use of NDE methodologies and their relationship to monitoring changes is discussed based on testing of real-world spacecraft COPVs. Lessons learned are used to present recommendations for use in testing, as well as a discussion of potential applications to vessel health monitoring in future applications.

  8. Field tests applying multi-agent technology for distributed control. Virtual power plants and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-agent technology is state of the art ICT. It is not yet widely applied in power control systems. However, it has a large potential for bottom-up, distributed control of a network with large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER) in future power systems. At least two major European R and D projects (MicroGrids and CRISP) have investigated its potential. Both grid-related as well as market-related applications have been studied. This paper will focus on two field tests, performed in the Netherlands, applying multi-agent control by means of the PowerMatcher concept. The first field test focuses on the application of multi-agent technology in a commercial setting, i.e. by reducing the need for balancing power in the case of intermittent energy sources, such as wind energy. In this case the flexibility is used of demand and supply of industrial and residential consumers and producers. Imbalance reduction rates of over 40% have been achieved applying the PowerMatcher, and with a proper portfolio even larger rates are expected. In the second field test the multi-agent technology is used in the design and implementation of a virtual power plant (VPP). This VPP digitally connects a number of micro-CHP units, installed in residential dwellings, into a cluster that is controlled to reduce the local peak demand of the common low-voltage grid segment the micro-CHP units are connected to. In this way the VPP supports the local distribution system operator (DSO) to defer reinforcements in the grid infrastructure (substations and cables)

  9. Applying a nonlinear, pitch-catch, ultrasonic technique for the detection of kissing bonds in friction stir welds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrue, Steven; Tabatabaeipour, Morteza; Hettler, Jan; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a promising technology for the joining of aluminum alloys and other metallic admixtures that are hard to weld by conventional fusion welding. Although FSW generally provides better fatigue properties than traditional fusion welding methods, fatigue properties are still significantly lower than for the base material. Apart from voids, kissing bonds for instance, in the form of closed cracks propagating along the interface of the stirred and heat affected zone, are inherent features of the weld and can be considered as one of the main causes of a reduced fatigue life of FSW in comparison to the base material. The main problem with kissing bond defects in FSW, is that they currently are very difficult to detect using existing NDT methods. Besides, in most cases, the defects are not directly accessible from the exposed surface. Therefore, new techniques capable of detecting small kissing bond flaws need to be introduced. In the present paper, a novel and practical approach is introduced based on a nonlinear, single-sided, ultrasonic technique. The proposed inspection technique uses two single element transducers, with the first transducer transmitting an ultrasonic signal that focuses the ultrasonic waves at the bottom side of the sample where cracks are most likely to occur. The large amount of energy at the focus activates the kissing bond, resulting in the generation of nonlinear features in the wave propagation. These nonlinear features are then captured by the second transducer operating in pitch-catch mode, and are analyzed, using pulse inversion, to reveal the presence of a defect. The performance of the proposed nonlinear, pitch-catch technique, is first illustrated using a numerical study of an aluminum sample containing simple, vertically oriented, incipient cracks. Later, the proposed technique is also applied experimentally on a real-life friction stir welded butt joint containing a kissing bond flaw. Copyright © 2016

  10. A study of penetration test for applying a remote monitoring system for virtual private network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. S.; Park, I. J.; Min, K. S.; Choi, Y. M.; Jo, D. K.

    2003-01-01

    A penetration test has been performed to verify the vulnerability of Virtual Private Network that is substitute for communication method of an existing remote monitoring system. An existing RMS was used for the private telephone and the RMS was applied of all PWR in Korea. But, due to communication fee, IAEA wanted to replace current telephone line to the internet line to reduce transmission cost in operating remote monitoring system. The communication cost of telephone line was estimated about $66,000/yr. Internet technology would reduce the operating cost up to 1/5. The purpose of the penetration test was to demonstrate the security of the data and system against both various external and internal hacking scenarios. In most cases, hacker could not even identify the VPN system. In any cases, the system did not allow the access of the hacker to the system needless to say the data alteration or system shutdown. Two kinds of test method is chosen; one is external attack and another is internal attack. During the test, the hacking tool was used. The result of test was proved that VPN was secure against internal/external attack

  11. Clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying rasch analysis in predicting of cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Doo Han; Lee, Jae Shin

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying Rasch analysis for predicting the level of cognitive impairment. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 187 stroke patients with cognitive impairment were enrolled in this study. The 187 patients were evaluated by the clock drawing test developed through Rasch analysis along with the mini-mental state examination of cognitive evaluation tool. An analysis of the variance was performed to examine the significance of the mini-mental state examination and the clock drawing test according to the general characteristics of the subjects. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the cutoff point for cognitive impairment and to calculate the sensitivity and specificity values. [Results] The results of comparison of the clock drawing test with the mini-mental state showed significant differences in according to gender, age, education, and affected side. A total CDT of 10.5, which was selected as the cutoff point to identify cognitive impairement, showed a sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, positive predictive, and negative predicive values of 86.4%, 91.5%, 0.8, 95%, and 88.2%. [Conclusion] The clock drawing test is believed to be useful in assessments and interventions based on its excellent ability to identify cognitive disorders.

  12. 2D and 3D optical diagnostic techniques applied to Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Gambino, M. C.; Greco, M.; Marras, L.; Materazzi, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pelagotti, A.; Pezzati, L.; Poggi, P.; Sanapo, C.

    2005-06-01

    3D measurement and modelling have been traditionally applied to statues, buildings, archeological sites or similar large structures, but rarely to paintings. Recently, however, 3D measurements have been performed successfully also on easel paintings, allowing to detect and document the painting's surface. We used 3D models to integrate the results of various 2D imaging techniques on a common reference frame. These applications show how the 3D shape information, complemented with 2D colour maps as well as with other types of sensory data, provide the most interesting information. The 3D data acquisition was carried out by means of two devices: a high-resolution laser micro-profilometer, composed of a commercial distance meter mounted on a scanning device, and a laser-line scanner. The 2D data acquisitions were carried out using a scanning device for simultaneous RGB colour imaging and IR reflectography, and a UV fluorescence multispectral image acquisition system. We present here the results of the techniques described, applied to the analysis of an important painting of the Italian Reinassance: `Madonna dei Fusi', attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

  13. Beyond Astro 101: A First Report on Applying Interactive Education Techniques to an Astronphysics Class for Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Ghez, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    Learner-centered interactive instruction methods now have a proven track record in improving learning in "Astro 101" courses for non-majors, but have rarely been applied to higher-level astronomy courses. Can we hope for similar gains in classes aimed at astrophysics majors, or is the subject matter too fundamentally different for those techniques to apply? We present here an initial report on an updated calculus-based Introduction to Astrophysics class at UCLA that suggests such techniques can indeed result in increased learning for major students. We augmented the traditional blackboard-derivation lectures and challenging weekly problem sets by adding online questions on pre-reading assignments (''just-in-time teaching'') and frequent multiple-choice questions in class ("Think-Pair-Share''). We describe our approach, and present examples of the new Think-Pair-Share questions developed for this more sophisticated material. Our informal observations after one term are that with this approach, students are more engaged and alert, and score higher on exams than typical in previous years. This is anecdotal evidence, not hard data yet, and there is clearly a vast amount of work to be done in this area. But our first impressions strongly encourage us that interactive methods should be able improve the astrophysics major just as they have improved Astro 101.

  14. Mechanistic study of the accelerated crucible rotation technique applied to vertical Bridgman growth of cadmium zinc telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divecha, Mia S.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2017-08-01

    With cadmium zinc telluride's (CZT) success as a gamma and x-ray detector material, there is need for high-quality, monocrystalline CZT in large volumes. Bridgman and gradient freeze growth methods have consistently produced material containing significant amounts of micron-sized, tellurium-rich inclusions, which are detrimental to device performance. These inclusions are believed to arise from a morphological instability of the growth interface driven by constitutional undercooling. Repeatedly rotating the crucible back and forth via the accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT) has been shown to reduce the size and number of inclusions. Via numerical techniques, we analyze the impact of two different applied temperature gradients, 10 K/cm and 30 K/cm, on the flow, temperature, tellurium distribution, and undercooling during growth with and without applied ACRT. Under growth without rotation, a higher axial thermal gradient results in stronger thermal-buoyancy driven flows, faster interface growth velocity, greater tellurium segregation, and stronger undercooling. ACRT improves the stability of the growth interfaces for both systems; however, contrary to conventional wisdom, the case of the shallow thermal gradient is predicted to exhibit a more stable growth interface, which may result in fewer inclusions and higher quality material.

  15. Developing Reading and Listening Comprehension Tests Based on the Sentence Verification Technique (SVT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, James M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a team-based approach for creating Sentence Verification Technique (SVT) tests, a development procedure that allows teachers and other school personnel to develop comprehension tests from curriculum materials in use in their schools. Finds that if tests are based on materials that are appropriate for the population to be tested, the…

  16. Test of large-scale specimens and models as applied to NPP equipment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, B.T.; Karzov, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the test results on low-cycle fatigue, crack growth rate and fracture toughness of large-scale specimens and structures, manufactured from steel, widely applied in power engineering industry and used for the production of NPP equipment with VVER-440 and VVER-1000 reactors. The obtained results are compared with available test results of standard specimens and calculation relations, accepted in open-quotes Calculation Norms on Strength.close quotes At the fatigue crack initiation stage the experiments were performed on large-scale specimens of various geometry and configuration, which permitted to define 15X2MFA steel fracture initiation resistance by elastic-plastic deformation of large material volume by homogeneous and inhomogeneous state. Besides the above mentioned specimen tests in the regime of low-cycle loading, the test of models with nozzles were performed and a good correlation of the results on fatigue crack initiation criterium was obtained both with calculated data and standard low-cycle fatigue tests. It was noted that on the Paris part of the fatigue fracture diagram a specimen thickness increase does not influence fatigue crack growth resistance by tests in air both at 20 and 350 degrees C. The estimation of the comparability of the results, obtained on specimens and models was also carried out for this stage of fracture. At the stage of unstable crack growth by static loading the experiments were conducted on specimens of various thickness for 15X2MFA and 15X2NMFA steels and their welded joints, produced by submerged arc welding, in as-produced state (the beginning of service) and after embrittling heat treatment, simulating neutron fluence attack (the end of service). The obtained results give evidence of the possibility of the reliable prediction of structure elements brittle fracture using fracture toughness test results on relatively small standard specimens. 35 refs., 23 figs

  17. A Study of Applying Pulsed Remote Field Eddy Current in Ferromagnetic Pipes Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingwang; Shi, Yibing; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yanjun

    2017-05-05

    Pulsed Remote Field Eddy Current Testing (PRFECT) attracts the attention in the testing of ferromagnetic pipes because of its continuous spectrum. This paper simulated the practical PRFECT of pipes by using ANSYS software and employed Least Squares Support Vector Regression (LSSVR) to extract the zero-crossing time to analyze the pipe thickness. As a result, a secondary peak is found in zero-crossing time when transmitter passed by a defect. The secondary peak will lead to wrong quantification and the localization of defects, especially when defects are found only at the transmitter location. Aiming to eliminate the secondary peaks, double sensing coils are set in the transition zone and Wiener deconvolution filter is applied. In the proposed method, position dependent response of the differential signals from the double sensing coils is calibrated by employing zero-mean normalization. The methods proposed in this paper are validated by analyzing the simulation signals and can improve the practicality of PRFECT of ferromagnetic pipes.

  18. Control Method for Electromagnetic Unmanned Robot Applied to Automotive Test Based on Improved Smith Predictor Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new control method for an electromagnetic unmanned robot applied to automotive testing (URAT and based on improved Smith predictor compensator, and considering a time delay, is proposed. The mechanical system structure and the control system structure are presented. The electromagnetic URAT adopts pulse width modulation (PWM control, while the displacement and the current doubles as a closed-loop control strategy. The coordinated control method of multiple manipulators for the electromagnetic URAT, e.g., a skilled human driver with intelligent decision-making ability is provided, and the improved Smith predictor compensator controller for the electromagnetic URAT considering a time delay is designed. Experiments are conducted using a Ford FOCUS automobile. Comparisons between the PID control method and the proposed method are conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve the accurate tracking of the target vehicle's speed and reduce the mileage derivation of autonomous driving, which meets the requirements of national test standards.

  19. [Estimation of a nationwide statistics of hernia operation applying data mining technique to the National Health Insurance Database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sunghong; Seon, Seok Kyung; Yang, Yeong-Ja; Lee, Aekyung; Bae, Jong-Myon

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a methodology for estimating a nationwide statistic for hernia operations with using the claim database of the Korea Health Insurance Cooperation (KHIC). According to the insurance claim procedures, the claim database was divided into the electronic data interchange database (EDI_DB) and the sheet database (Paper_DB). Although the EDI_DB has operation and management codes showing the facts and kinds of operations, the Paper_DB doesn't. Using the hernia matched management code in the EDI_DB, the cases of hernia surgery were extracted. For drawing the potential cases from the Paper_DB, which doesn't have the code, the predictive model was developed using the data mining technique called SEMMA. The claim sheets of the cases that showed a predictive probability of an operation over the threshold, as was decided by the ROC curve, were identified in order to get the positive predictive value as an index of usefulness for the predictive model. Of the claim databases in 2004, 14,386 cases had hernia related management codes with using the EDI system. For fitting the models with applying the data mining technique, logistic regression was chosen rather than the neural network method or the decision tree method. From the Paper_DB, 1,019 cases were extracted as potential cases. Direct review of the sheets of the extracted cases showed that the positive predictive value was 95.3%. The results suggested that applying the data mining technique to the claim database in the KHIC for estimating the nationwide surgical statistics would be useful from the aspect of execution and cost-effectiveness.

  20. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which started in 1992, and is scheduled to run until early 1997. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XRF, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in air particulate matter. The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution, ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural area). This document reports the discussions held during the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at ANSTO in Menai, Australia. (author)

  1. Design and commission of an experimental test rig to apply a full-scale pressure load on composite sandwich panels representative of an aircraft secondary structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, D A; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Savage, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a test rig, which is used to apply a representative pressure load to a full-scale composite sandwich secondary aircraft structure. A generic panel was designed with features to represent those in the composite sandwich secondary aircraft structure. To provide full-field strain data from the panels, the test rig was designed for use with optical measurement techniques such as thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and digital image correlation (DIC). TSA requires a cyclic load to be applied to a structure for the measurement of the strain state; therefore, the test rig has been designed to be mounted on a standard servo-hydraulic test machine. As both TSA and DIC require an uninterrupted view of the surface of the test panel, an important consideration in the design is facilitating the optical access for the two techniques. To aid the test rig design a finite element (FE) model was produced. The model provides information on the deflections that must be accommodated by the test rig, and ensures that the stress and strain levels developed in the panel when loaded in the test rig would be sufficient for measurement using TSA and DIC. Finally, initial tests using the test rig have shown it to be capable of achieving the required pressure and maintaining a cyclic load. It was also demonstrated that both TSA and DIC data can be collected from the panels under load, which are used to validate the stress and deflection derived from the FE model

  2. A technique for estimating activity in whole nerve trunks applied to the cervical sympathetic trunk, in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, F; Roatta, S; Johansson, H; Passatore, M

    1999-12-24

    The changes in sympathetic outflow may be evaluated from the amplitude of the antidromic compound action potential (ACAP) according to the collision technique described by Douglas and Ritchie (Douglas, W.W. and Ritchie J.M., A technique for recording functional activity in specific groups of medullated and non-medullated fibers in whole nerve trunks. J. Physiol., 138(1957) 19-30). This technique was revised, taking into account the depressant action exerted by antidromic stimulation on sympathetic preganglionic neurones (SPNs). Cervical sympathetic nerve (CSN) of rabbits was used as experimental model. Stimulation frequencies of 0.2-0.5 Hz were found to be sufficiently low to avoid depressant actions on CSN spontaneous activity; they were employed to test the sensitivity of the technique during different experimental manoeuvres, such as changes in pulmonary-ventilation, baroreceptor unloading and arousal stimuli. In addition a procedure was devised to calibrate the ACAP amplitude: high frequency antidromic stimulation was used to induce a complete and transient inhibition of SPNs which allows to record the ACAP maximum amplitude. ACAPs recorded in various experimental conditions can then be expressed as percentage of this value.

  3. Evaluation of Accelerated Ageing Tests for Metallic and Non-Metallic Graffiti Paints Applied to Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sanmartín

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Graffiti are increasingly observed on urban and peri-urban buildings and their removal requires a huge financial outlay by local governments and agencies. Graffiti are not usually removed immediately, but rather over the passage of time, viz. months or even years. In this study, which forms part of a wider research project on graffiti removal, different methods (gravimetric analysis, examination of digital images, colour and infrared measurements were used to evaluate the performance of accelerated ageing tests (involving exposure to humidity, freeze-thawing cycles and NaCl and Na2SO4 salts for graffiti painted on stone. Silver (metallic and black (non-metallic graffiti spray paints were applied to two types of igneous rock (granite and rhyolitic ignimbrite and one sedimentary rock (fossiliferous limestone, i.e., biocalcarenite. The metallic and non-metallic graffiti spray paints acted differently on the stone surfaces, both chemically and physically. Older graffiti were found to be more vulnerable to weathering agents. The ageing test with NaCl and particularly Na2SO4, both applied to granite, proved the most severe on the paints, yielding more detrimental and faster artificial ageing of the type of material under study.

  4. Analysis of Gamma-camera test images using the noise power spectrum analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangelova, I.; Georgiev, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose and Tasks: The purpose of this study is to apply the Noise Power Spectrum Analysis (NPSA) to images from a gamma-camera in the process of quality control and to evaluate the results. Materials and methods: Test images for uniformity of the field from the weekly quality control of Diacam-Siemens gamma-camera were used as input resource. Differential and integral uniformity of the field of view were calculated during the tests. The same images were processed further with NPSA algorithms, implemented as software codes using Matlab 7.1. The percentage deviations of the image uniformity parameters were compared quantitatively with the results obtained from the NPSA. Then, mathematical relationship between these data was sought for. Results and discussion: We observed five parameters (integral and differential uniformity of the UFOV and CFOV, and the quantitative estimate of the power noise spectrum), and we evaluated the system behavior for 16 weeks period of time. The graphical representation of all results clearly shows the uniformity behavior, where after the initial adjustment, it slowly starts to deviate from the original value and after the 8th measurement it reaches values above the 10% limit for non-uniformity. Followed by service maintenance, within the next measurements three of the parameters reach again this non-uniformity limit. The peek maximum in the graph is due to technical defect in the detector. At the end of the studied period, the gamma-camera has functioned with acceptable uniformity parameters. It was determined that the graph that represents the change in uniformity was similar to the one that showed the noise power spectrum, and they both show quadratic dependence. This is mostly due to the fact that the noise power spectrum is determined by the square of the complex function modulus, which is obtained after Fourier Transformation of the images. The condition that the changes in x-value (uniformity) cannot go beyond 100% is the reason of

  5. Evaluation of feasibility of static tests applied to Küre VMS ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Çelik Balci, Nurgül; Şeref Sönmez, M.

    2015-04-01

    Küre volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) ore deposits have been mined for its copper content for over centuries. However, there is no published data on AMD around Küre VMS ore deposits. This study investigates the sources of acid producing mechanisms in Küre, using field and laboratorial approaches. Geochemical static tests to predict AMD generation are widely applied to mining sites for assessing potential environmental consequences. However, there are well known limitations of these methods particularly resulting from assumptions used for calculations. To test the feasibility of the methods to predict potential of AMD generation of Küre (VMS) copper deposits, for the first time, acid production and neutralization potential of various mine wastes of Küre (VMS) copper deposits were determined. To test our static test results, in situ and laboratory geochemical data were also obtained from the groundwater discharges from Bakibaba underground mining tunnels. Feasibility study showed that, despite a few inconsistencies, static tests were suitable for predicting generation of AMD around Küre copper mining site and reflected well the site conditions. The current study revealed that pulp density, defined as solid/liquid ratio and used for static tests, is an important limiting factor to predict reliable data for AMD generation. In this study, we also determined surface waters affected by AMD are predicted to have a pH value between 3 and 5, with an average of pH 4. Excessive concentrations of manganese, copper, cobalt and sulfate are also noted with considerable amounts of iron and zinc, which can reach to toxic levels. Moreover, iron and zinc were found to be the controlling the fate of metals by precipitation and co-precipitation, due to their relatively depleted concentrations at redox shifting zones. Key words: Küre pyritic copper ore, Bakibaba mining tunnels, volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits, acid production potential, neutralization potential

  6. The history, development and application of a uniformly applied load wide plate testing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, A.; Bevitt, E.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes early attempts to use a rigid end wide plate testing machine to investigate the behaviour of centre cracked flat plates. Confusing and inconsistent results arising from the above tests lead to a detailed investigation of the loading characteristics of rigid end machines in general and the difficulties which can arise in the interpretation of data obtained by the use of such machines. In order to overcome the above difficulties which stem largely from uneven load distribution, a versatile testing machine was designed which by use of cheap and easily obtainable components allows the application of a uniformly distributed applied load to a centre cracked test plate. The machine which was commissioned in its original form in 1975 was initially capable of testing plate of 820 mm width and 25 or 48 mm thickness up to maximum stress levels of 488 or 254 MPa respectively. The ease of adaptability of the machine has since permitted its capacity to be increased to handle plate up to 2032 mm wide and 76 mm thickness and by use of double-banked hydraulic jacks stress levels up to 350 MPa can be achieved on plate of these dimensions. The configuration of the machine allows adequate access for strain gauging, crack tip observation and measurements, and temperature control, tests having been conducted in the temperature range -40 0 C to 290 0 C. Advantages and potential for further development of the machine are given together with details of two of a number of fracture studies which have been conducted since its commissioning. (orig.)

  7. Applying CFD in the Analysis of Heavy-Oil Transportation in Curved Pipes Using Core-Flow Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Conceição

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase flow of oil, gas and water occurs in the petroleum industry from the reservoir to the processing units. The occurrence of heavy oils in the world is increasing significantly and points to the need for greater investment in the reservoirs exploitation and, consequently, to the development of new technologies for the production and transport of this oil. Therefore, it is interesting improve techniques to ensure an increase in energy efficiency in the transport of this oil. The core-flow technique is one of the most advantageous methods of lifting and transporting of oil. The core-flow technique does not alter the oil viscosity, but change the flow pattern and thus, reducing friction during heavy oil transportation. This flow pattern is characterized by a fine water pellicle that is formed close to the inner wall of the pipe, aging as lubricant of the oil flowing in the core of the pipe. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to study the isothermal flow of heavy oil in curved pipelines, employing the core-flow technique. A three-dimensional, transient and isothermal mathematical model that considers the mixture and k-e  turbulence models to address the gas-water-heavy oil three-phase flow in the pipe was applied for analysis. Simulations with different flow patterns of the involved phases (oil-gas-water have been done, in order to optimize the transport of heavy oils. Results of pressure and volumetric fraction distribution of the involved phases are presented and analyzed. It was verified that the oil core lubricated by a fine water layer flowing in the pipe considerably decreases pressure drop.

  8. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerabl......). There was no significant association between foot size and FLT values. CONCLUSION: The FLT is a reproducible technique to assess foot posture....

  9. The in vitro use of the hair follicle closure technique to study the follicular and percutaneous permeation of topically applied drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jessica; Niedorf, Frank; Wohlert, Mareike; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2012-03-01

    Recent studies on follicular permeation emphasise the importance of hair follicles as diffusion pathways, but only a limited amount of data are available about the follicular permeation of topically applied drugs. This study examines the use of a hair follicle closure technique in vitro, to determine the participation of hair follicles in transdermal drug penetration. Various substances, with different lipophilicities, were tested: caffeine, diclofenac, flufenamic acid, ibuprofen, paracetamol, salicylic acid and testosterone. Diffusion experiments were conducted with porcine skin, the most common replacement material for human skin, in Franz-type diffusion cells over 28 hours. Different experimental settings allowed the differentiation between interfollicular and follicular permeation after topical application of the test compounds. A comparison of the apparent permeability coefficients of the drugs demonstrates that the percutaneous permeations of caffeine and flufenamic acid were significantly higher along the hair follicles. In the cases of paracetamol and testosterone, the follicular pathway appears to be of importance, while no difference was found between interfollicular and follicular permeation for diclofenac, ibuprofen and salicylic acid. Thus, the hair follicle closure technique represents an adequate in vitro method for gaining information about follicular or percutaneous permeation, and can replace in vivo testing in animals or humans. 2012 FRAME.

  10. Applied research for profilometric testing of the state of interior surfaces in heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, Tiberiu; Panaitescu, Valeriu Nicolae

    2009-01-01

    Generally, the surface flaws identified at heat exchangers tubing are characteristic for the heat secondary systems, located on the external surfaces of the heat exchanger tubes and are mostly the results of the ageing phenomena in systems operation. The tests performed, with the impressing replicating device confirmed the applicability of the technique, functionality of the device and resulted in replicas on metal support, these being the hard copy of the negative of the test tube surface, allowing the profile measurement. The visual inspection of the replicas on the metallic support gives information about the surface geometry replicated, pointing out the marks, which belong to the same area under observation. The minimum and maximum values for the depth of the channel worked out in the inner test tube wall have been determined by profile graphic measurement on the replicas. The paper presents the structural and functional description of the experimental devices. The first results and some conclusions are also included. Two patent applications were submitted at State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (OSIM) covering the original data to protect royalty: 'The local pit flaws, scratches, incipient micro-cracks replicating device on inner cylindrical surfaces', under no. A/00299/17.04.2008 and 'The annular local flaw, incipient micro-cracks replicating device on inner cylindrical surface' under no. A/00300/17.04.2008

  11. Analysis of Arbitrary Reflector Antennas Applying the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction Together with the Master Points Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Algar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach for the analysis of surface conformed reflector antennas fed arbitrarily is presented. The near field in a large number of sampling points in the aperture of the reflector is obtained applying the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD. A new technique named Master Points has been developed to reduce the complexity of the ray-tracing computations. The combination of both GTD and Master Points reduces the time requirements of this kind of analysis. To validate the new approach, several reflectors and the effects on the radiation pattern caused by shifting the feed and introducing different obstacles have been considered concerning both simple and complex geometries. The results of these analyses have been compared with the Method of Moments (MoM results.

  12. Resolution enhancement for ultrasonic echographic technique in non destructive testing with an adaptive deconvolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivet, L.

    1989-01-01

    The ultrasonic echographic technique has specific advantages which makes it essential in a lot of Non Destructive Testing (NDT) investigations. However, the high acoustic power necessary to propagate through highly attenuating media can only be transmitted by resonant transducers, which induces severe limitations of the resolution on the received echograms. This resolution may be improved with deconvolution methods. But one-dimensional deconvolution methods come up against problems in non destructive testing when the investigated medium is highly anisotropic and inhomogeneous (i.e. austenitic steel). Numerous deconvolution techniques are well documented in the NDT literature. But they often come from other application fields (biomedical engineering, geophysics) and we show they do not apply well to specific NDT problems: frequency-dependent attenuation and non-minimum phase of the emitted wavelet. We therefore introduce a new time-domain approach which takes into account the wavelet features. Our method solves the deconvolution problem as an estimation one and is performed in two steps: (i) A phase correction step which takes into account the phase of the wavelet and estimates a phase-corrected echogram. The phase of the wavelet is only due to the transducer and is assumed time-invariant during the propagation. (ii) A band equalization step which restores the spectral content of the ideal reflectivity. The two steps of the method are performed using fast Kalman filters which allow a significant reduction of the computational effort. Synthetic and actual results are given to prove that this is a good approach for resolution improvement in attenuating media [fr

  13. Module Testing Techniques for Nuclear Safety Critical Software Using LDRA Testing Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kwon-Ki; Kim, Do-Yeon; Chang, Hoon-Seon; Chang, Young-Woo; Yun, Jae-Hee; Park, Jee-Duck; Kim, Jae-Hack

    2006-01-01

    The safety critical software in the I and C systems of nuclear power plants requires high functional integrity and reliability. To achieve those requirement goals, the safety critical software should be verified and tested according to related codes and standards through verification and validation (V and V) activities. The safety critical software testing is performed at various stages during the development of the software, and is generally classified as three major activities: module testing, system integration testing, and system validation testing. Module testing involves the evaluation of module level functions of hardware and software. System integration testing investigates the characteristics of a collection of modules and aims at establishing their correct interactions. System validation testing demonstrates that the complete system satisfies its functional requirements. In order to generate reliable software and reduce high maintenance cost, it is important that software testing is carried out at module level. Module testing for the nuclear safety critical software has rarely been performed by formal and proven testing tools because of its various constraints. LDRA testing tool is a widely used and proven tool set that provides powerful source code testing and analysis facilities for the V and V of general purpose software and safety critical software. Use of the tool set is indispensable where software is required to be reliable and as error-free as possible, and its use brings in substantial time and cost savings, and efficiency

  14. Dual redundant sensor FDI techniques applied to the NASA F8C DFBW aircraft. [Failure Detection and Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M. N.; Deckert, J. C.; Deyst, J. J.; Willsky, A. S.; Chow, E. Y.

    1976-01-01

    An onboard failure detection and identification (FDI) technique for dual redundant sensors on the NASA F8C digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) aircraft is presented. The failure of one of a pair of sensors of the same type is detected by a direct redundancy trigger which observes the difference between the outputs of these two sensors. Identification of the failed sensor is accomplished utilizing the analytic redundancy that exists as kinematic and functional relationships among the variables being measured by dissimilar instruments. In addition, identification of generic failures, common to both instruments of a given type, is accomplished by using a time trigger to periodically initiate analytic redundancy failure identification tests for individual sensors. The basic form of these tests is the comparison of the measurement of a variable using the suspect instrument with another measurement of the same variable obtained using other instrument types.

  15. Utilization of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to Reduce Test Anxiety in High Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Marie Elaine

    2013-01-01

    There are many reasons a person may fail a high stakes test such as the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®). Sleep deprivation, illness, life stressors, knowledge deficit, and test anxiety are some of the common explanations. A student with test anxiety may feel threatened by this evaluation process. This…

  16. OPTIMIZATION METHOD APPLIED IN CONSTRUCTION OF AN OIL TESTING BENCH PART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCURTU Liviu Iacob

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, CAD and FEM software are widely used in optimal production of the parts in the automotive industry. The paper presents the topology optimization of an engine control arm used in building of a new oil properties testing bench. After a brief introduction regarding the CAD modelling and topology optimization are presented the graphical design techniques in order to draw the tridimensional model of engine control arm using SolidWorks software. The second part of the paper shows the topology optimization methodology, including the load case creation, objective function, design parameters and the generation of the optimized model of the engine arm. The results of this study give an optimal design of the engine control arm; it will have a lower weight compared to the initial model.

  17. Imaging techniques applied to quality control of civil manufactured goods obtained starting from ready-to-use mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Federica

    2003-05-01

    Concrete materials obtained from the utilization of pre-mixed and ready to use products (central mix-concrete) are more and more used. They represent a big portion of the civil construction market. Such products are used at different scale, ranging from small scale works, as those commonly realized inside and house, an apartment, etc. or at big civil or industrial scale works. In both cases the problem to control the mixtures and the final work is usually realized through the analysis of properly collected samples. Through appropriate sampling it can be derived objective parameters, as size class distribution and composition of the constituting particulate matter, or mechanical characteristics of the sample itself. An important parameter not considered by the previous mentioned approach is "segregation", that is the possibility that some particulate materials migrate preferentially in some zones of the mixtures and/or of the final product. Such a behavior dramatically influences the quality of the product and of the final manufactured good. Actually this behavior is only studied adopting a human based visual approach. Not repeatable analytical procedures or quantitative data processing exist. In this paper a procedure fully based on image processing techniques is described and applied. Results are presented and analyzed with reference to industrial products. A comparison is also made between the new proposed digital imaging based techniques and the analyses usually carried out at industrial laboratory scale for standard quality control.

  18. Applying value stream mapping techniques to eliminate non-value-added waste for the procurement of endovascular stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichgräber, Ulf K.; Bucourt, Maximilian de

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To eliminate non-value-adding (NVA) waste for the procurement of endovascular stents in interventional radiology services by applying value stream mapping (VSM). Materials and methods: The Lean manufacturing technique was used to analyze the process of material and information flow currently required to direct endovascular stents from external suppliers to patients. Based on a decision point analysis for the procurement of stents in the hospital, a present state VSM was drawn. After assessment of the current status VSM and progressive elimination of unnecessary NVA waste, a future state VSM was drawn. Results: The current state VSM demonstrated that out of 13 processes for the procurement of stents only 2 processes were value-adding. Out of the NVA processes 5 processes were unnecessary NVA activities, which could be eliminated. The decision point analysis demonstrated that the procurement of stents was mainly a forecast driven push system. The future state VSM applies a pull inventory control system to trigger the movement of a unit after withdrawal by using a consignment stock. Conclusion: VSM is a visualization tool for the supply chain and value stream, based on the Toyota Production System and greatly assists in successfully implementing a Lean system.

  19. Applying value stream mapping techniques to eliminate non-value-added waste for the procurement of endovascular stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichgräber, Ulf K; de Bucourt, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    OJECTIVES: To eliminate non-value-adding (NVA) waste for the procurement of endovascular stents in interventional radiology services by applying value stream mapping (VSM). The Lean manufacturing technique was used to analyze the process of material and information flow currently required to direct endovascular stents from external suppliers to patients. Based on a decision point analysis for the procurement of stents in the hospital, a present state VSM was drawn. After assessment of the current status VSM and progressive elimination of unnecessary NVA waste, a future state VSM was drawn. The current state VSM demonstrated that out of 13 processes for the procurement of stents only 2 processes were value-adding. Out of the NVA processes 5 processes were unnecessary NVA activities, which could be eliminated. The decision point analysis demonstrated that the procurement of stents was mainly a forecast driven push system. The future state VSM applies a pull inventory control system to trigger the movement of a unit after withdrawal by using a consignment stock. VSM is a visualization tool for the supply chain and value stream, based on the Toyota Production System and greatly assists in successfully implementing a Lean system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Empirical radio propagation model for DTV applied to non-homogeneous paths and different climates using machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Igor Ruiz; Gomes, Cristiane Ruiz; Gomes, Herminio Simões; Cavalcante, Gervásio Protásio Dos Santos

    2018-01-01

    The establishment and improvement of transmission systems rely on models that take into account, (among other factors), the geographical features of the region, as these can lead to signal degradation. This is particularly important in Brazil, where there is a great diversity of scenery and climates. This article proposes an outdoor empirical radio propagation model for Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band, that estimates received power values that can be applied to non-homogeneous paths and different climates, this last being of an innovative character for the UHF band. Different artificial intelligence techniques were chosen on a theoretical and computational basis and made it possible to introduce, organize and describe quantitative and qualitative data quickly and efficiently, and thus determine the received power in a wide range of settings and climates. The proposed model was applied to a city in the Amazon region with heterogeneous paths, wooded urban areas and fractions of freshwater among other factors. Measurement campaigns were conducted to obtain data signals from two digital TV stations in the metropolitan area of the city of Belém, in the State of Pará, to design, compare and validate the model. The results are consistent since the model shows a clear difference between the two seasons of the studied year and small RMS errors in all the cases studied.

  1. Managing the Testing Process Practical Tools and Techniques for Managing Hardware and Software Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Black, Rex

    2011-01-01

    New edition of one of the most influential books on managing software and hardware testing In this new edition of his top-selling book, Rex Black walks you through the steps necessary to manage rigorous testing programs of hardware and software. The preeminent expert in his field, Mr. Black draws upon years of experience as president of both the International and American Software Testing Qualifications boards to offer this extensive resource of all the standards, methods, and tools you'll need. The book covers core testing concepts and thoroughly examines the best test management practices

  2. Applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Sherman J; Barbey, Natalie; Lenahan, Kathy; Silber, David Z

    2013-12-01

    Reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. In addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. Collaborations were established to apply human fertility techniques to the captive population. Reversible vasectomy might be one solution for reversible contraception that does not alter behavior. Reversible approaches to vasectomy, avoiding secondary epididymal disruption, were attempted in South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalski poliakov), and Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a variety of zoos around the world. These techniques were first perfected in > 4,000 humans before attempting them in zoo animals. In vitro fertilization with gestational surrogacy was used to attempt to break the vicious cycle of hand rearing of purebred orangutans, and egg and ovary vitrification in humans have led to successful gamete banking for Mexican wolves and disappearing amphibians. The study of the human Y chromosome has even explained a mechanism of extinction related to global climate change. The best results with vasectomy reversal (normal sperm counts, pregnancy, and live offspring) were obtained when the original vasectomy was performed "open-ended," so as to avoid pressure-induced epididymal disruption. The attempt at gestational surrogacy for orangutans failed because of severe male infertility and the lack of success with human ovarian hyperstimulation protocols. Vitrification of oocytes is already being employed for the Amphibian Ark Project and for Mexican wolves. Vasectomy can be a reversible contraception

  3. Full-thickness human skin explants for testing the toxicity of topically applied chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, M.; Rikimaru, T.; Yano, T.; Moore, K.G.; Pula, P.J.; Schofield, B.H.; Dannenberg, A.M. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a model organ-culture system for testing the toxicity of chemical substances that are topically applied to human skin. In this system, the viable keratinocytes in the full-thickness skin explants are protected by the same keratinized layer as skin remaining on the donor, and toxicity can be assessed microscopically and/or biochemically. The human skin specimens were discards from a variety of surgical procedures. They were cut into full-thickness 1.0-cm2 explants, and briefly exposed to the military vesicant sulfur mustard (SM), which was used as a model toxicant. The explants were then organ cultured in small Petri dishes for 24 h at 36 degrees C. In the 0.03-1.0% dosage range, a straight-line dose-response relationship occurred between the concentration of SM applied and the number of paranuclear vacuoles seen histologically in the epidermis. Within the same SM dosage range, there was also a proportional decrease in 14C-leucine incorporation by the explants. Thus, the number of paranuclear vacuoles reflected decreases in protein synthesis by the injured epidermal cells. The epidermis of full-thickness untreated (control) human skin explants usually remained viable for 7 d when stored at 4 degrees C in culture medium. During storage, a relatively small number of paranuclear vacuoles developed within the epidermis, but the explants were still quite satisfactory for testing SM toxicity. Incubation (for 4 or 24 h at 36 degrees C) of such control skin explants reduced (often by 50%) the small number of paranuclear vacuoles produced during 4-7 d of storage. This reduction was probably caused by autolysis of many of the vacuolated cells. Two types of paranuclear vacuoles could be identified by both light and electron microscopy: a storage type and a toxicant type. The storage type seemed to be caused by autolysis of cell components

  4. Full-thickness human skin explants for testing the toxicity of topically applied chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M.; Rikimaru, T.; Yano, T.; Moore, K.G.; Pula, P.J.; Schofield, B.H.; Dannenberg, A.M. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report describes a model organ-culture system for testing the toxicity of chemical substances that are topically applied to human skin. In this system, the viable keratinocytes in the full-thickness skin explants are protected by the same keratinized layer as skin remaining on the donor, and toxicity can be assessed microscopically and/or biochemically. The human skin specimens were discards from a variety of surgical procedures. They were cut into full-thickness 1.0-cm2 explants, and briefly exposed to the military vesicant sulfur mustard (SM), which was used as a model toxicant. The explants were then organ cultured in small Petri dishes for 24 h at 36 degrees C. In the 0.03-1.0% dosage range, a straight-line dose-response relationship occurred between the concentration of SM applied and the number of paranuclear vacuoles seen histologically in the epidermis. Within the same SM dosage range, there was also a proportional decrease in 14C-leucine incorporation by the explants. Thus, the number of paranuclear vacuoles reflected decreases in protein synthesis by the injured epidermal cells. The epidermis of full-thickness untreated (control) human skin explants usually remained viable for 7 d when stored at 4 degrees C in culture medium. During storage, a relatively small number of paranuclear vacuoles developed within the epidermis, but the explants were still quite satisfactory for testing SM toxicity. Incubation (for 4 or 24 h at 36{degrees}C) of such control skin explants reduced (often by 50%) the small number of paranuclear vacuoles produced during 4-7 d of storage. This reduction was probably caused by autolysis of many of the vacuolated cells. Two types of paranuclear vacuoles could be identified by both light and electron microscopy: a storage type and a toxicant type. The storage type seemed to be caused by autolysis of cell components.

  5. Functional reasoning, explanation and analysis: Part 1: a survey on theories, techniques and applied systems. Part 2: qualitative function formation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Far, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    Functional Reasoning (FR) enables people to derive the purpose of objects and explain their functions, JAERI's 'Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP)', started from 1987, has the goal of developing programs of the underlying technologies for intelligent robots by imitating the intelligent behavior of humans. FR is considered a useful reasoning method in HASP and applied to understand function of tools and objects in the Toolbox Project. In this report, first, the results of the diverse FR researches within a variety of disciplines are reviewed and the common core and basic problems are identified. Then the qualitative function formation (QFF) technique is introduced. Some novel points are: extending the common qualitative models to include interactions and timing of events by defining temporal and dependency constraints, and binding it with the conventional qualitative simulation. Function concepts are defined as interpretations of either a persistence or an order in the sequence of states, using the trace of the qualitative state vector derived by qualitative simulation on the extended qualitative model. This offers solution to some of the FR problems and leads to a method for generalization and comparison of functions of different objects. (author) 85 refs

  6. Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, G.T.; Sliemers, F.A.; Deringer, G.C.; Wood, V.E.; Wilkes, K.E.; Gaines, G.B.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1978-01-15

    The validation of a service life of 20 years for low-cost photovoltaic arrays must be accomplished through accelerated life-prediction tests. A methodology for such tests has been developed in a preceding study. The results discussed consist of the initial identification and assessment of all known measurement techniques and instruments that might be used in these life-prediction tests. Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories--chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and ''other physicals''. Using specified evaluation criteria, the most promising techniques and instruments for use in life-prediction tests of arrays are then selected. These recommended techniques and their characteristics are described. Recommendations are made regarding establishment of the adequacy, particularly with respect to precision, of the more fully developed techniques for this application, and regarding the experimental evaluation of promising developmental techniques. Measurement needs not satisfied by presently available techniques/instruments are also identified.

  7. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica G.; ReVollo, Rhiannon C.; Borch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone -1 and androstenedione -1) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L-1). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (-1), androgens (-1), and progesterone (-1) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  8. EUCAST recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing applied to the three main Campylobacter species isolated in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifré, Elodie; Salha, Ben Amor; Ducournau, Astrid; Floch, Pauline; Chardon, Hubert; Mégraud, Francis; Lehours, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter isolates is of great importance for treatment options especially in systemic diseases. The European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) recently proposed epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFFs) for a limited number of antimicrobial compounds and for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli only. In the present study, the EUCAST method was used after minor modifications to define antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for, 1997 C. jejuni, 419 C. coli and 100 Campylobacter fetus strains received at the French National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters. Our results show that the ECOFFs defined by EUCAST for tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can be used for C. jejuni and C. coli. The same ECOFF can be used for erythromycin for the three species. The C. jejuni and C. coli ECOFFs for ciprofloxacin however cannot be applied to C. fetus. We also provide data to categorise two 2 β-lactams of interest for systemic diseases, ampicillin and amoxicillin+clavulanate, for the three species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-test navigation data analysis techniques for the shuttle ALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Postflight test analysis data processing techniques for shuttle approach and landing tests (ALT) navigation data are defined. Postfight test processor requirements are described along with operational and design requirements, data input requirements, and software test requirements. The postflight test data processing is described based on the natural test sequence: quick-look analysis, postflight navigation processing, and error isolation processing. Emphasis is placed on the tradeoffs that must remain open and subject to analysis until final definition is achieved in the shuttle data processing system and the overall ALT plan. A development plan for the implementation of the ALT postflight test navigation data processing system is presented. Conclusions are presented.

  10. Analysis using formal method and testing technique for the processor module for safety-critical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J. Y.; Choi, B. J.; Song, H. J.; Hwang, D. Y.; Song, G. H.; Lee, H.

    2008-06-01

    This research is on help develop nuclear power plant control system, through the requirement specification and verification method development. As the result of applying the test method, a test standard was obtain through test documentation writing support and a test document reflecting the standard test activities based on the test standard. The specification and verification of the pCOS system and the unified testing documentation and execution helps the entire project to progress and enable us to achieve necessary documents and technology to develop a safety critical system

  11. Analysis using formal method and testing technique for the processor module for safety-critical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. Y.; Choi, B. J.; Song, H. J.; Hwang, D. Y.; Song, G. H.; Lee, H. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    This research is on help develop nuclear power plant control system, through the requirement specification and verification method development. As the result of applying the test method, a test standard was obtain through test documentation writing support and a test document reflecting the standard test activities based on the test standard. The specification and verification of the pCOS system and the unified testing documentation and execution helps the entire project to progress and enable us to achieve necessary documents and technology to develop a safety critical system.

  12. Testing photogrammetry-based techniques for three-dimensional surface documentation in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr; Jurda, Mikoláš

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional surface technologies particularly close range photogrammetry and optical surface scanning have recently advanced into affordable, flexible and accurate techniques. Forensic postmortem investigation as performed on a daily basis, however, has not yet fully benefited from their potentials. In the present paper, we tested two approaches to 3D external body documentation - digital camera-based photogrammetry combined with commercial Agisoft PhotoScan(®) software and stereophotogrammetry-based Vectra H1(®), a portable handheld surface scanner. In order to conduct the study three human subjects were selected, a living person, a 25-year-old female, and two forensic cases admitted for postmortem examination at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic (both 63-year-old males), one dead to traumatic, self-inflicted, injuries (suicide by hanging), the other diagnosed with the heart failure. All three cases were photographed in 360° manner with a Nikon 7000 digital camera and simultaneously documented with the handheld scanner. In addition to having recorded the pre-autopsy phase of the forensic cases, both techniques were employed in various stages of autopsy. The sets of collected digital images (approximately 100 per case) were further processed to generate point clouds and 3D meshes. Final 3D models (a pair per individual) were counted for numbers of points and polygons, then assessed visually and compared quantitatively using ICP alignment algorithm and a cloud point comparison technique based on closest point to point distances. Both techniques were proven to be easy to handle and equally laborious. While collecting the images at autopsy took around 20min, the post-processing was much more time-demanding and required up to 10h of computation time. Moreover, for the full-body scanning the post-processing of the handheld scanner required rather time-consuming manual image alignment. In all instances the applied approaches

  13. A progress report on the development of the COSMOS International Guidelines for Applying Noninvasive Geophysical Techniques to Characterize Seismic Site Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, A.; Facilitation Committee, C. O. S. M. O. S.

    2016-12-01

    Site effects associated with near-surface geological conditions are an important part of any seismic hazard assessment. Traditional invasive downhole methods directly measure shear-wave velocity (Vs); however, these methods are often cost- and/or environmentally-prohibitive and their results do not always reflect the lateral variability of seismic conditions beyond the immediate vicinity of the test site. In comparison, noninvasive methods record active- or passive-source data consisting of surface or body waves and are less prohibitive to employ. Moreover, these methods use multiple horizontally-spaced surface receivers, thus lateral subsurface variability beneath the array is accounted for in their results. Most noninvasive methods, however, indirectly measure Vs, and thus have inherent uncertainties. Despite this issue, the use of noninvasive methods continues to gain popularity. As developers and practitioners work to improve and understand uncertainties in noninvasive methods, an expert group has come together to develop guidelines (best practices) for applying noninvasive techniques to characterize seismic site conditions. The Consortium of Organizations for Strong Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) established the COSMOS Facilitation Committee and hosted two workshops to facilitate progress in the development of the guidelines, one workshop prior to the 2015 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting and another after the 2016 Seismological Society of America Annual Meeting. Workshops are planned as part of the programs for the 2016 35th European Seismic Commission General Assembly and the 2017 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. The project, thus far, has developed a table of contents and is establishing subcommittees, to be led by key developers of each noninvasive technique, to draft chapters outlining best practices for applying the respective techniques.

  14. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have... PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who... other entity relies on drug and alcohol tests that were conducted before the individual applied for...

  15. Estimation of water quality parameters applying satellite data fusion and mining techniques in the lake Albufera de Valencia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doña, Carolina; Chang, Ni-Bin; Vannah, Benjamin W.; Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Delegido, Jesús; Camacho, Antonio; Caselles, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Linked to the enforcement of the European Water Framework Directive (2000) (WFD), which establishes that all countries of the European Union have to avoid deterioration, improve and retrieve the status of the water bodies, and maintain their good ecological status, several remote sensing studies have been carried out to monitor and understand the water quality variables trend. Lake Albufera de Valencia (Spain) is a hypereutrophic system that can present chrorophyll a concentrations over 200 mg·m-3 and transparency (Secchi disk) values below 20 cm, needing to retrieve and improve its water quality. The principal aim of our work was to develop algorithms to estimate water quality parameters such as chlorophyll a concentration and water transparency, which are informative of the eutrophication and ecological status, using remote sensing data. Remote sensing data from Terra/MODIS, Landsat 5-TM and Landsat 7-ETM+ images were used to carry out this study. Landsat images are useful to analyze the spatial variability of the water quality variables, as well as to monitor small to medium size water bodies due to its 30-m spatial resolution. But, the poor temporal resolution of Landsat, with a 16-day revisit time, is an issue. In this work we tried to solve this data gap by applying fusion techniques between Landsat and MODIS images. Although the lower spatial resolution of MODIS is 250/500-m, one image per day is available. Thus, synthetic Landsat images were created using data fusion for no data acquisition dates. Good correlation values were obtained when comparing original and synthetic Landsat images. Genetic programming was used to develop models for predicting water quality. Using the reflectance bands of the synthetic Landsat images as inputs to the model, values of R2 = 0.94 and RMSE = 8 mg·m-3 were obtained when comparing modeled and observed values of chlorophyll a, and values of R2= 0.91 and RMSE = 4 cm for the transparency (Secchi disk). Finally, concentration

  16. Feasibility to apply the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technique in the country's heavy crude-oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Edwin; Orjuela, Jaime

    2004-01-01

    The steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes are one of the most efficient and profitable technologies for the production of heavy crude oils and oil sands. These processes involve the drilling of a couple of parallel horizontal wells, separated by a vertical distance and located near the oil field base. The upper well is used to continuously inject steam into the zone of interest, while the lower well collects all resulting fluids (oil, condensate and formation water) and takes them to the surface (Butler, 1994). This technology has been successfully implemented in countries such as Canada, Venezuela and United States, reaching recovery factors in excess of 50%. This article provides an overview of the technique's operation mechanism and the process most relevant characteristics, as well as the various categories this technology is divided into, including all its advantages and limitations. Furthermore, the article sets the oil field's minimal conditions under which the SAGD process is efficient, which conditions, as integrated to a series of mathematical models, allow to make forecasts on production, thermal efficiency (ODR) and oil to be recovered, as long as it is feasible (from a technical point of view) to apply this technique to a defined oil field. The information and concepts compiled during this research prompted the development of software, which may be used as an information, analysis and interpretation tool to predict and quantify this technology's performance. Based on the article, preliminary studies were started for the country's heavy crude-oil fields, identifying which provide the minimum conditions for the successful development of a pilot project

  17. Fate of nitrogen in soil-crop system by nuclear techniques. Effects of applied rate of ammonium bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qing

    1996-11-01

    The experiment was conducted with 15 N tracing techniques in Shijiazhuang from 1994 to 1995. Three nitrogen rates, including optimum rate (150 kg/hm 2 ) based on the recommendation of local farmers, above 50% of optimum rate (225 kg/hm 2 ) and below 50% of optimum rate (75 kg/hm 2 ), were selected to study the effect of application rates of ammonium bicarbonate on yield of winter wheat and fate of applied nitrogen under local management and irrigated condition. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and grain yield of wheat under fertilized treatments were higher than those in unfertilized treatment (except 225 kg/hm 2 treatment). The highest yield and top dry mater weight (grain 6.80 t/hm 2 , top 14.70 t/hm 2 ) were obtained in optimum N applied treatment (150 kg/hm 2 ), while the highest nitrogen recovery efficiency (38.5%) of ammonium bicarbonate by winter wheat was found in below 50% of optimum rate treatment (75 kg/hm 2 ) due to the relatively high basic fertility of the field. However, nitrogen recovery efficiency of ammonium bicarbonate decreased with the increasing N application rate. The highest residue of fertilizer N was found in 225 kg/hm 2 treatment, and 46% of the residue existed in the top layer of the soil (0∼50 cm). The unaccounted N from fertilizer were 30.20%, 36.56%, 31.25% in 75 kg/hm 2 , 150 kg/hm 2 , 225 kg/hm 2 treatments respectively according to 15 N balance calculation in soil-plant system. The effect of residue N in soil on the next crop, maize, in 225 kg/hm 2 treatment was best in three fertilized treatments, suggesting the possibilities of nitrate leaching down in 225 kg/hm 2 treatment. (15 tabs.)

  18. Proposal of a simplified technique for staining bacterial spores without applying heat--successful modification of Moeller's method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, M; Oana, K; Kozakai, T; Umeda, S; Fujimoto, J; Ota, H; Kawakami, Y

    2007-08-16

    As the bacterial spores are difficult to stain, a number of staining techniques including their modifications have been proposed to date. Most of the conventional staining procedures unexceptionally contain the step of staining with steamed dye reagent in order to increase the stainability of the spores. We made an attempt to improve the conventional Moeller's methods for staining bacterial spores. Spores of Bacillus species were stained with our modified Moeller's spore stain and evaluated for its staining properties. We investigated the stainability of both of the conventional and the modified Moeller's methods and the evaluation was made whether or not the step of steaming of Kinyoun's carbol-fuchsine dye reagent could be omitted by adding to aliquots of Tergitol 7, in place of the conventional dye solution steamed for some interval over hot blue flame of a Bunsen burner. We successfully omitted the heating step of steaming the Kinyoun's carbol fuchsine dye solution in the Moeller's method of bacterial spore stain, by the replacement of Kinyoun's carbol-fuchsine dye solution involving 2 drops of Tergitol 7, nonionic polyglycol ether surfactants type NP-7 (Sigma-Aldrich Japan, Tokyo, Japan) per 10 ml of Kinyoun's carbol-fuchsine dye solution. Bacillus spores stained pink to red and vegetative bacterial cells stained blue, although without applying any heating step during the whole course of staining processes including the fixation process. The novel staining method of our proposal resulted in far better satisfactory stainability in comparison with the conventional Moeller's method with the steaming dye solution. The modified spore stain without applying any heating step using the Kinyoun's carbol-fuchsine dye solution with an addition of Tergitol 7 aliquots was demonstrated to be reproducible and yielded consistent and satisfactory stainability. This simplified staining procedure is rapid to perform and found to be applicable to detect the bacterial spores in

  19. An improved tree height measurement technique tested on mature southern pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2008-01-01

    Virtually all techniques for tree height determination follow one of two principles: similar triangles or the tangent method. Most people apply the latter approach, which uses the tangents of the angles to the top and bottom and a true horizontal distance to the subject tree. However, few adjust this method for ground slope, tree lean, crown shape, and crown...

  20. Improvement in post test accident analysis results prediction for the test no. 2 in PSB test facility by applying UMAE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, S.K.; Petruzzi, A.; Giannotti, W.; D'Auria, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with the improvement in the post test accident analysis results prediction for the test no. 2, 'Total loss of feed water with failure of HPIS pumps and operator actions on primary and secondary circuit depressurization', carried-out on PSB integral test facility in May 2005. This is one the most complicated test conducted in PSB test facility. The prime objective of this test is to provide support for the verification of the accident management strategies for NPPs and also to verify the correctness of some safety systems operating only during accident. The objective of this analysis is to assess the capability to reproduce the phenomena occurring during the selected tests and to quantify the accuracy of the code calculation qualitatively and quantitatively for the best estimate code Relap5/mod3.3 by systematically applying all the procedures lead by Uncertainty Methodology based on Accuracy Extrapolation (UMAE), developed at University of Pisa. In order to achieve these objectives test facility nodalisation qualification for both 'steady state level' and 'on transient level' are demonstrated. For the 'steady state level' qualification compliance to acceptance criteria established in UMAE has been checked for geometrical details and thermal hydraulic parameters. The following steps have been performed for evaluation of qualitative qualification of 'on transient level': visual comparisons between experimental and calculated relevant parameters time trends; list of comparison between experimental and code calculation resulting time sequence of significant events; identification/verification of CSNI phenomena validation matrix; use of the Phenomenological Windows (PhW), identification of Key Phenomena and Relevant Thermal-hydraulic Aspects (RTA). A successful application of the qualitative process constitutes a prerequisite to the application of the quantitative analysis. For quantitative accuracy of code prediction Fast Fourier Transform Based