WorldWideScience

Sample records for testing stellar cusp

  1. The Dynamics of White Dwarfs, Black Holes and Stellar Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegg, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    This thesis contains topics related mostly to the dynamics of white dwarfs (chapter 2), the dynamics of stars around binary super massive black holes (chapters 4, 5 and 6) and dynamics in the singular isothermal sphere (chapter 7). In chapter 2 the kinematics of young (white dwarfs are investigated. A relationship between the mass and kinematics of white dwarfs is demonstrated, whereby high-mass white dwarfs have low velocity dispersion. This is the result of less scattering during the shorter lifetime of their more massive precursors. The kinematics of the highest-mass white dwarfs (> 0.95 M⊙ ) are also investigated, and it is shown that they are consistent with the majority being formed via single-star evolution from massive progenitor stars. In chapter 3 it is shown that the coolest, oldest white dwarfs can be identified photometrically from their unique colors, and five new ultracool white dwarfs are spectroscopically confirmed. In chapter 4 it is shown that close binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) should produce a burst of tidal disruptions of up to 0.1 yr-1 as they form. The quiescent rate is ˜ 10-5 yr-1 per galaxy, and it is therefore shown that binary SMBHs can potentially be identified via multiple tidal disruptions from the same system. In chapter 5 we perform more extensive simulations of the dynamics of stars around binary SMBHs to better quantify and understand the stellar dynamics. By incorporating general relativistic corrections, we also investigate the processes undergone by compact remnants orbiting the binary SMBHs, analyzing both objects that plunge directly into the SMBHs, and those that undergo extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs). The potential used to mimic general relativistic precession in these simulations is novel, and more accurate for the type of nearly parabolic orbits considered in this work: It is described in chapter 6. In chapter 7 an analytic solution to the manner in which stars diffuse in the background of a singular

  2. Planar biaxial testing of heart valve cusp replacement biomaterials: Experiments, theory and material constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Michel R; Jafar, Reza; Ngu, Janet; Boodhwani, Munir

    2016-11-01

    Aortic valve (AV) repair has become an attractive option to correct aortic insufficiency. Yet, cusp reconstruction with various cusp replacement materials has been associated with greater long-term repair failures, and it is still unknown how such materials mechanically compare with native leaflets. We used planar biaxial testing to characterize six clinically relevant cusp replacement materials, along with native porcine AV leaflets, to ascertain which materials would be best suited for valve repair. We tested at least six samples of: 1) fresh autologous porcine pericardium (APP), 2) glutaraldehyde fixed porcine pericardium (GPP), 3) St Jude Medical pericardial patch (SJM), 4) CardioCel patch (CC), 5) PeriGuard (PG), 6) Supple PeriGuard (SPG) and 7) fresh porcine AV leaflets (PC). We introduced efficient displacement-controlled testing protocols and processing, as well as advanced convexity requirements on the strain energy functions used to describe the mechanical response of the materials under loading. The proposed experimental and data processing pipeline allowed for a robust in-plane characterization of all the materials tested, with constants determined for two Fung-like hyperelastic, anisotropic strain energy models. Overall, CC and SPG (respectively PG) patches ranked as the closest mechanical equivalents to young (respectively aged) AV leaflets. Because the native leaflets as well as CC, PG and SPG patches exhibit significant anisotropic behaviors, it is suggested that the fiber and cross-fiber directions of these replacement biomaterials be matched with those of the host AV leaflets. The long-term performance of cusp replacement materials would ideally be evaluated in large animal models for AV disease and cusp repair, and over several months or more. Given the unavailability and impracticality of such models, detailed information on stress-strain behavior, as studied herein, and investigations of durability and valve dynamics will be the best surrogates

  3. Numerical Analysis of Flattened Brazilian Disc Test Based on the Cusp Catastrophe Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian disc test is a simple and useful technique to determine the tensile strength of rock materials. By using FLAC3D, 63 numerical simulations in total were performed when flattened Brazilian disc coefficient and Poisson’s ratio were different. Based on Griffith theory, the corresponding FISH language was compiled to record the Griffith equivalent stress. Through analysis of numerical simulation results, it is indicated that fracture plane was not the plane going through center of the Brazilian disc, which was in good agreement with the references. In addition, the flattened Brazilian disc coefficients had greater influence on tensile strength than Poisson’s ratio. Based on cusp catastrophe theory, the flattened Brazilian disc coefficient should not exceed 0.035 for the flattened Brazilian disc tests. Consequently, a tensile strength empirical formula considering flattened Brazilian disc coefficient by utilizing the flattened Brazilian disc test was established, which was σt=0.9993 exp (-11.65ε2p/πDt, ε≤0.035.

  4. Proton Testing of Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta; Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, Finn E

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.......The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland....

  5. Antihydrogen synthesis in a double-CUSP trap towards test of the CPT-symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radics, B., E-mail: balint.radics@cern.ch [ETH Zürich, Institute for Particle Physics (Switzerland); Ishikawa, S.; Kuroda, N. [University of Tokyo, Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Murtagh, D. J.; Nagata, Y. [RIKEN, Atomic Physics Laboratory (Japan); Tajima, M. [University of Tokyo, Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Gorp, S. Van [RIKEN, Atomic Physics Laboratory (Japan); Abo, Y. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter (Japan); Dupre, P. [RIKEN, Atomic Physics Laboratory (Japan); Higashi, Y. [University of Tokyo, Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Kaga, C. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter (Japan); Leali, M.; Mascagna, V.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N. [Universita di Brescia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell Informazione (Italy); Breuker, H. [CERN (Switzerland); Higaki, H. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter (Japan); Kanai, Y. [RIKEN, Atomic Physics Laboratory (Japan); Rizzini, E. Lodi [Universita di Brescia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell Informazione (Italy); Matsuda, Y. [University of Tokyo, Institute of Physics, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); and others

    2016-12-15

    The aim of the ASACUSA-CUSP experiment at CERN is to produce a cold, polarised antihydrogen beam and perform a high precision measurement of the ground-state hyperfine transition frequency of the antihydrogen atom and compare it with that of the hydrogen atom using the same spectroscopic beam line. Towards this goal a significant step was successfully accomplished: synthesised antihydrogen atoms have been produced in a CUSP magnetic configuration and detected at the end of our spectrometer beam line in 2012 [1]. During a long shut down at CERN the ASACUSA-CUSP experiment had been renewed by introducing a new double-CUSP magnetic configuration and a new semi-cylindrical tracking detector (AMT) [2], and by improving the transport feature of low energy antiproton beams. The new tracking detector monitors the antihydrogen synthesis during the mixing cycle of antiprotons and positrons. In this work the latest results and improvements of the antihydrogen synthesis will be presented including highlights from the last beam time.

  6. Facial talon cusps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1997-12-01

    This is a report of two patients with isolated facial talon cusps. One occurred on a permanent mandibular central incisor; the other on a permanent maxillary canine. The locations of these talon cusps suggests that the definition of a talon cusp include teeth in addition to the incisor group and be extended to include the facial aspect of teeth.

  7. Synthetic clusters of massive stars to test stellar evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Cyril; Ekström, Sylvia

    2017-03-01

    During the last few years, the Geneva stellar evolution group has released new grids of stellar models, including the effect of rotation and with updated physical inputs (Ekström et al. 2012; Georgy et al. 2013a, b). To ease the comparison between the outputs of the stellar evolution computations and the observations, a dedicated tool was developed: the Syclist toolbox (Georgy et al. 2014). It allows to compute interpolated stellar models, isochrones, synthetic clusters, and to simulate the time-evolution of stellar populations.

  8. Adhesive restorations replacing cusps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, W.M.M.; Kuijs, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    This study addressed a clinical problem in dentistry. The problem concerns the occurrence of complete fracture of a cusp of premolars with an existing Class II restoration, and the required treatment after this cusp fracture. The traditional treatment in these cases is the making of a crown. Crown

  9. Tooth cusp sharpness as a dietary correlate in great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaume, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Mammalian molars have undergone heavy scrutiny to determine correlates between morphology and diet. Here, the relationship between one aspect of occlusal morphology, tooth cusp radius of curvature (RoC), and two broad dietary categories, folivory and frugivory, is analyzed in apes. The author hypothesizes that there is a relationship between tooth cusp RoC and diet, and that folivores have sharper teeth than frugivores, and further test the correlation between tooth cusp RoC and tooth cusp size. Eight measures of tooth cusp RoC (two RoCs per cusp) were taken from 53 M(2) s from four species and subspecies of frugivorous apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Pan troglodytes troglodytes, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, and Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and two subspecies of folivorous apes (Gorilla beringei beringei, and Gorilla beringei graueri). Phylogenetically corrected ANOVAs were run on the full dataset and several subsets of the full dataset, revealing that, when buccolingual RoCs are taken into account, tooth cusp RoCs can successfully differentiate folivores and frugivores. PCAs revealed that folivores consistently had duller teeth than frugivores. In addition, a weak, statistically significant positive correlation exists between tooth cusp size and tooth cusp RoC. The author hypothesizes differences in tooth cusp RoC are correlated with wear rates, where, per vertical unit of wear, duller cusps will have a longer length of exposed enamel ridge than sharper cusps. More data need to be gathered to determine if the correlation between tooth cusp RoC and tooth cusp size holds true when small primates are considered. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Testing Mass Determinations of Supermassive Black Holes via Stellar Kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappellari, Michele; M. McDermid, Richard; Bacon, R.; L. Davies, Roger; T. de Zeeuw, P.; Emsellem, Eric; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Peletier, R.F.; Sarzi, Marc; C. E. van den Bosch, Remco; van de Ven, Glenn; Debattista, Victor P.; Popescu, Cristina C.

    We investigate the accuracy of mass determinations MBH of supermassive black holes in galaxies using dynamical models of the stellar kinematics. We compare 10 of our MBH measurements, using integral-field OASIS kinematics, to published values. For a sample of 25 galaxies we confront our new MBH

  11. Multiple cusp bifurcations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhikevich, Eugene M.

    1998-04-01

    The cusp bifurcation provides one of the simplest routes leading to bistability and hysteresis in neuron dynamics. We show that weakly connected networks of neurons near cusp bifurcations that satisfy a certain adaptation condition have quite interesting and complicated dynamics. First, we prove that any such network can be transformed into a canonical model by an appropriate continuous change of variables. Then we show that the canonical model can operate as a multiple attractor neural network or as a globally asymptotically stable neural network depending on the choice of parameters.

  12. Double cusp encounter by Cluster: double cusp or motion of the cusp?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Escoubet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Modelling plasma entry in the polar cusp has been successful in reproducing ion dispersions observed in the cusp at low and mid-altitudes. The use of a realistic convection pattern, when the IMF-By is large and stable, allowed Wing et al. (2001 to predict double cusp signatures that were subsequently observed by the DMSP spacecraft. In this paper we present a cusp crossing where two cusp populations are observed, separated by a gap around 1° Invariant Latitude (ILAT wide. Cluster 1 (C1 and Cluster 2 (C2 observed these two cusp populations with a time delay of 3 min, and about 15 and 42 min later Cluster 4 (C4 and Cluster 3 (C3 observed, respectively, a single cusp population. A peculiarity of this event is the fact that the second cusp population seen on C1 and C2 was observed at the same time as the first cusp population on C4. This would tend to suggest that the two cusp populations had spatial features similar to the double cusp. Due to the nested crossing of C1 and C2 through the gap between the two cusp populations, C2 being first to leave the cusp and last to re-enter it, these observations are difficult to be explained by two distinct cusps with a gap in between. However, since we observe the cusp in a narrow area of local time post-noon, a second cusp may have been present in the pre-noon sector but could not be observed. On the other hand, these observations are in agreement with a motion of the cusp first dawnward and then back duskward due to the effect of the IMF-By component.

  13. Magnetosheath-cusp interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Savin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We advance the achievements of Interball-1 and other contemporary missions in exploration of the magnetosheath-cusp interface. Extensive discussion of published results is accompanied by presentation of new data from a case study and a comparison of those data within the broader context of three-year magnetopause (MP crossings by Interball-1. Multi-spacecraft boundary layer studies reveal that in ∼80% of the cases the interaction of the magnetosheath (MSH flow with the high latitude MP produces a layer containing strong nonlinear turbulence, called the turbulent boundary layer (TBL. The TBL contains wave trains with flows at approximately the Alfvén speed along field lines and "diamagnetic bubbles" with small magnetic fields inside. A comparison of the multi-point measurements obtained on 29 May 1996 with a global MHD model indicates that three types of populating processes should be operative: large-scale (∼few RE anti-parallel merging at sites remote from the cusp; medium-scale (few thousandkm local TBL-merging of fields that are anti-parallel on average; small-scale (few hundredkm bursty reconnection of fluctuating magnetic fields, representing a continuous mechanism for MSH plasma inflow into the magnetosphere, which could dominate in quasi-steady cases. The lowest frequency (∼1–2mHz TBL fluctuations are traced throughout the magnetosheath from the post-bow shock region up to the inner magnetopause border. The resonance of these fluctuations with dayside flux tubes might provide an effective correlative link for the entire dayside region of the solar wind interaction with the magnetopause and cusp ionosphere. The TBL disturbances are characterized by kinked, double-sloped wave power spectra and, most probably, three-wave cascading. Both elliptical polarization and nearly Alfvénic phase velocities with characteristic dispersion indicate the kinetic Alfvénic nature of the TBL waves. The three-wave phase coupling could effectively

  14. The core-cusp problem: a matter of perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, Anna; Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Frenk, Carlos S.; Cole, Shaun; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Oman, Kyle A.; Sawala, Till; Theuns, Tom

    2018-02-01

    The existence of two kinematically and chemically distinct stellar subpopulations in the Sculptor and Fornax dwarf galaxies offers the opportunity to constrain the density profile of their matter haloes by measuring the mass contained within the well-separated half-light radii of the two metallicity subpopulations. Walker and Peñarrubia have used this approach to argue that data for these galaxies are consistent with constant-density `cores' in their inner regions and rule out `cuspy' Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profiles with high statistical significance, particularly in the case of Sculptor. We test the validity of these claims using dwarf galaxies in the APOSTLE (A Project Of Simulating The Local Environment) Λ cold dark matter cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of analogues of the Local Group. These galaxies all have NFW dark matter density profiles and a subset of them develop two distinct metallicity subpopulations reminiscent of Sculptor and Fornax. We apply a method analogous to that of Walker and Peñarrubia to a sample of 50 simulated dwarfs and find that this procedure often leads to a statistically significant detection of a core in the profile when in reality there is a cusp. Although multiple factors contribute to these failures, the main cause is a violation of the assumption of spherical symmetry upon which the mass estimators are based. The stellar populations of the simulated dwarfs tend to be significantly elongated and, in several cases, the two metallicity populations have different asphericity and are misaligned. As a result, a wide range of slopes of the density profile are inferred depending on the angle from which the galaxy is viewed.

  15. Simple Stellar Population Modeling of Quasar Host Galaxies with Diffusion K-Means Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Gregory; Moravec, E. A.; Tremonti, C. A.; Wolf, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the correlation of the masses of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxy stellar spheroid velocity dispersions (the M-sigma relation) was greeted as clear evidence for the co-evolution of host galaxies and their SMBHs. However, studies in the last five years have posited that this relation could arise from central-limit properties of hierarchical formation alone. To address the question of whether and how often the SMBHs evolve with their host galaxies, it is necessary to look at galaxies whose SMBHs are actively growing—quasars—and determine the host galaxy properties. The central nuclei of quasar host galaxies complicate this type of study because their high luminosity tends to wash out their host galaxies. But, by using 3-D spectroscopy with the integral field unit (IFU) Sparsepak on the WIYN telescope, we have shown that the quasar light can be mostly isolated to one fiber in order to obtain the spectra of the quasar and the host galaxy concurrently. We can then model simultaneously the scattered quasar light and the stellar populations in the host galaxy fiber using a new simple stellar population (SSP) modeling method called diffusion k-means (DFK). The objectives of the research presented in this poster are to model synthetic quasar host galaxies using a DFK basis and a more traditional basis, compare the accuracy of both modeling methods, and test the affects of various prescriptions for masking the quasar lines in the host galaxy fiber. We present results from our SSP modeling and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) results for DFK and traditional modeling schemes using synthetic data. By determining and then using the more robust stellar population modeling method, we can more confidently study quasar host galaxies to answer remaining questions in galaxy evolution. This work was partially supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship (NSF Grant DGE-0718123) and through the NSF's REU program (NSF Award

  16. Determining the mechanism of cusp proton aurora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Qiugang; Su, Zhenpeng; Yang, Chang; He, Zhaoguo; Wang, Yongfu; Gao, Zhonglei

    2013-01-01

    Earth's cusp proton aurora occurs near the prenoon and is primarily produced by the precipitation of solar energetic (2-10 keV) protons. Cusp auroral precipitation provides a direct source of energy for the high-latitude dayside upper atmosphere, contributing to chemical composition change and global climate variability. Previous studies have indicated that magnetic reconnection allows solar energetic protons to cross the magnetopause and enter the cusp region, producing cusp auroral precipitation. However, energetic protons are easily trapped in the cusp region due to a minimum magnetic field existing there. Hence, the mechanism of cusp proton aurora has remained a significant challenge for tens of years. Based on the satellite data and calculations of diffusion equation, we demonstrate that EMIC waves can yield the trapped proton scattering that causes cusp proton aurora. This moves forward a step toward identifying the generation mechanism of cusp proton aurora.

  17. Li-7 abundances in halo stars: Testing stellar evolution models and the primordial Li-7 abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaboyer, Brian; Demarque, P.

    1994-01-01

    A large number of stellar evolution models with (Fe/H) = -2.3 and -3.3 have been calculated in order to determine the primordial Li-7 abundance and to test current stellar evolution models by a comparison to the extensive database of accurate Li abundances in extremely metal-poor halo stars observed by Thorburn (1994). Standard models with gray atmospheres do a very good job of fitting the observed Li abundances in stars hotter than approximately 5600 K. They predict a primordial. Li-7 abundance of log N(Li) = 2.24 +/- 0.03. Models which include microscopic diffusion predict a downward curvature in the Li-7 destruction isochrones at hot temperatures which is not present in the observations. Thus, the observations clearly rule out models which include uninhibited microscopic diffusion of Li-7 from the surface of the star. Rotational mixing inhibits the microscopic diffusion and the (Fe/H) = -2.28 stellar models which include both diffusion and rotational mixing provide an excellent match to the mean trend in T(sub eff) which is present in the observations. Both the plateau stars and the heavily depleted cool stars are well fit by these models. The rotational mixing leads to considerable Li-7 depletion in these models and the primordial Li-7 abundance inferred from these models is log N(Li) = 3.08 +/- 0.1. However, the (Fe/H) = -3.28 isochrones reveal problems with the combined models. These isochrones predict a trend of decreasing log N(Li) with increasing T(sub eff) which is not present in the observations. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  18. Talon cusp on palatally erupted mesiodens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashalata Gannepalli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Talon cusp is an accessory cusp-like structure or an extra cusp on an anterior tooth arising as a result of evagination on the surface of the crown before calcification has occurred. The cusp is composed of normal enamel and dentin containing varying extensions of pulp tissue. It is associated with few developmental anomalies such as peg laterals, dens invaginatus, and mesiodens. Mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth located in the premaxillary central incisor region which is supplemental or rudimentary type. Association of mesiodens with talon cusp is a rare occurrence with 25 cases reported. The presence of Talon cusp or a supernumerary tooth – mesiodens – leads to clinical implications such as poor esthetics, crowding, rotations, and also occlusal discrepancies. In this report, we present a case report of an 18-year-old male having a talon cusp on palatally erupted mesiodens.

  19. The SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. 1. Description and Initial Validation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; /Michigan State U. /Michigan State U., JINA; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Koesterke, Lars; /Texas U., Astron. Dept.; Wilhelm, Ronald; /Texas Tech.; Norris, John e.; /Res. Sch. Astron. Astrophys., Weston Creek; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A.L.; Re Fiorentin, Paola; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.; Rockosi, Constance M.; /Lick Observ.; Yanny, Brian; /Fermilab /Rensselaer Poly. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2007-10-01

    The authors describe the development and implementation of the SEGUE (Sloan Extension for Galactic Exploration and Understanding) Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP). The SSPP derives, using multiple techniques, radial velocities and the fundamental stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity) for AFGK-type stars, based on medium-resolution spectroscopy and ugriz photometry obtained during the course of the original Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I) and its Galactic extension (SDSS-II/SEGUE). the SSPP also provides spectral classification for a much wider range of stars, including stars with temperatures outside of the window where atmospheric parameters can be estimated with the current approaches. This is Paper I in a series of papers on the SSPP; it provides an overview of the SSPP, and initial tests of its performance using multiple data sets. Random and systematic errors are critically examined for the current version of the SSPP, which has been used for the sixth public data release of the SDSS (DR-6).

  20. Synthesis of Cold Antihydrogen in a Cusp Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Enomoto, Y; Michishio, K; Kim, C H; Higaki,H; Nagata, Y; Kanai, Y; Torii, H A; Corradini, M; Leali, M; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Mascagna, V; Venturelli, L; Zurlo, N; Fujii, K; Ohtsuka, M; Tanaka, K; Imao, H; Nagashima, Y; Matsuda, Y; Juhász, B; Mohri, A; Yamazaki, Y

    2010-01-01

    We report here the first successful synthesis of cold antihydrogen atoms employing a cusp trap, which consists of a superconducting anti-Helmholtz coil and a stack of multiple ring electrodes. This success opens a new path to make a stringent test of the CPT symmetry via high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atoms.

  1. Mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy: An ideal treatment option for management of talon cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To use mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA in prophylactic management of talon cusp. Talon cusp is an endodontic oddity that possesses a treatment challenge to the clinician, especially when it causes esthetic and functional problems. Management ranges from periodic gradual reduction to radical removal followed by vital pulp/endodontic therapy. MTA has replaced calcium hydroxide as pulp capping material because of its superior properties. A 12-year-old boy reported with a complaint of irregular teeth. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed talon cusp on maxillary left central incisor. Radical removal of talon cusp and MTA pulpotomy was performed. The 4-year follow-up showed the positive pulp vitality test without any radiographic changes, emphasizing the use of MTA pulpotomy in successful management of talon cusp.

  2. Testing the Formation Mechanism of Sub-Stellar Objects in Lupus (A SOLA Team Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Lopez, C.; Takahashi, S.; Santamaria-Miranda

    2017-06-01

    The international SOLA team (Soul of Lupus with ALMA) has identified a set of pre- and proto-stellar candidates in Lupus 1 and 3 of substellar nature using 1.1mm ASTE/AzTEC maps and our optical to submillimeter database. We have observed with ALMA the most promising pre- and proto-brown dwarfs candidates. Our aims are to provide insights on how substellar objects form and evolve, from the equivalent to the pre-stellar cores to the Class II stage in the low mass regime of star formation. Our sample comprises 33 pre-stellar objects, 7 Class 0 and I objects, and 22 Class II objects.

  3. Observational measurement of open stellar clusters: A test of Kaniadakis and Tsallis statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J. C.; Silva, R.; do Nascimento, J. D., Jr.; Soares, B. B.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2010-09-01

    Stellar-residual-radial-velocity data of 14 stellar open clusters with ages in a range spanning two decades (108 to 1010 yr) allows us to show that the Kaniadakis and Tsallis statistics are in agreement with observational measurements. In this work we present clear evidences that the non-Gaussian parameters (κ, q) associated with power law distributions have a strong dependence on stellar-cluster ages. Further, in the context of this analyses we discuss how closely these parameters are related to each other.

  4. A new methodology to test galaxy formation models using the dependence of clustering on stellar mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David J. R.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Mitchell, Peter D.; Helly, John C.; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Simha, Vimal; Farrow, Daniel J.

    2015-09-01

    We present predictions for the two-point correlation function of galaxy clustering as a function of stellar mass, computed using two new versions of the GALFORM semi-analytic galaxy formation model. These models make use of a high resolution, large volume N-body simulation, set in the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmology. One model uses a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF), while the other assumes different IMFs for quiescent star formation and bursts. Particular consideration is given to how the assumptions required to estimate the stellar masses of observed galaxies (such as the choice of IMF, stellar population synthesis model, and dust extinction) influence the perceived dependence of galaxy clustering on stellar mass. Broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting is carried out to estimate stellar masses for the model galaxies in the same manner as in observational studies. We show clear differences between the clustering signals computed using the true and estimated model stellar masses. As such, we highlight the importance of applying our methodology to compare theoretical models to observations. We introduce an alternative scheme for the calculation of the merger time-scales for satellite galaxies in GALFORM, which takes into account the dark matter subhalo information from the simulation. This reduces the amplitude of small-scale clustering. The new merger scheme offers improved or similar agreement with observational clustering measurements, over the redshift range 0 < z < 0.7. We find reasonable agreement with clustering measurements from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly Survey, but find larger discrepancies for some stellar mass ranges and separation scales with respect to measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey, depending on the GALFORM model used.

  5. Cassini plasma observations of Saturn's magnetospheric cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Jamie M.; Arridge, Christopher S.; Coates, Andrew J.; Jones, Geraint H.; Sergis, Nick; Thomsen, Michelle F.; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.; Krupp, Norbert; Waite, J. Hunter

    2016-12-01

    The magnetospheric cusp is a funnel-shaped region where shocked solar wind plasma is able to enter the high-latitude magnetosphere via the process of magnetic reconnection. The plasma observations include various cusp signatures such as ion energy dispersions and diamagnetic effects. We present an overview analysis of cusp plasma observations at the Saturnian magnetosphere from the Cassini spacecraft era. A comparison of the observations is made as well as classification into groups due to varying characteristics. The locations of the reconnection site are calculated and shown to vary along the subsolar magnetopause. We show the first in situ evidence for lobe reconnection that occurred at nearly the same time as dayside reconnection for one of the cusp crossings. Evidence for "bursty" and more "continuous" reconnection signatures is observed at different cusp events. The events are compared to solar wind propagation models, and it is shown that magnetic reconnection and plasma injection into the cusp can occur for a variety of upstream conditions. These are important results because they show that Saturn's magnetospheric interaction with the solar wind and the resulting cusp signatures are dynamic and that plasma injection in the cusp occurs due to a variety of solar wind conditions. Furthermore, reconnection can proceed at a variety of locations along the magnetopause.

  6. Cassini observations of Saturn's southern polar cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arridge, C. S.; Jasinski, J. M.; Achilleos, N.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Khurana, K. K.; Lamy, L.; Leisner, J. S.; Roussos, E.; Russell, C. T.; Zarka, P.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Jones, G. H.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetospheric cusps are important sites of the coupling of a magnetosphere with the solar wind. The combination of both ground- and space-based observations at Earth has enabled considerable progress to be made in understanding the terrestrial cusp and its role in the coupling of the magnetosphere to the solar wind via the polar magnetosphere. Voyager 2 fully explored Neptune's cusp in 1989, but highly inclined orbits of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn present the most recent opportunity to repeatedly study the polar magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet. In this paper we discuss observations made by Cassini during two passes through Saturn's southern polar magnetosphere. Our main findings are that (i) Cassini directly encounters the southern polar cusp with evidence for the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp via magnetopause reconnection, (ii) magnetopause reconnection and entry of plasma into the cusp can occur over a range of solar wind conditions, and (iii) double cusp morphologies are consistent with the position of the cusp oscillating in phase with Saturn's global magnetospheric periodicities.

  7. Thermospheric winds around the cusp region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Cheng; Deng, Yue; Wu, Qian; Ridley, Aaron; Häggström, Ingemar

    2015-02-01

    An equatorward wind has been observed first by the balloon-borne Fabry-Perot interferometer called High-Altitude Interferometer Wind Observation on the equatorward side of the cusp near the local noon, which is opposite to the typical direction of neutral wind driven by the day-night pressure gradient. However, this dayside equatorward wind was not reproduced by the standard Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model under the resolution of 5° longitude by 5° latitude (5°×5°). In this study, the Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model has been run in different cases and under different resolutions to investigate the neutral dynamics around the cusp region. First, we compare the simulations with and without additional cusp energy inputs to identify the influence of cusp heating. Both runs have a resolution of 5°×1° (longitude × latitude) in order to better resolve the cusp region. After adding in the cusp energy, the meridional wind in simulation turns to be equatorward on the dayside, which is consistent with the observation. It indicates that strong heating in the cusp region causes changes in the pressure gradient around the cusp and subsequent variations in the neutral winds. The simulations with the same cusp heating specifications are repeated, but with different horizontal resolutions to examine the influence of resolution on the simulation results. The comparisons show that the resolution of 5°×1° can resolve the cusp region much more stably and consistently than the 5°×5° resolution.

  8. Stellar Coronagraphy: Study and Test of a Hybrid Interfero-Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoz, P.; Boccaletti, A.; Rabbia, Y.; Gay, J.

    2005-09-01

    We present a device for high dynamic range imaging of faint structures in the close angular vicinity of stars. An advantage of this device is the capacity to explore the field of view both uniformly and as close (or near) to the parent star as allowed by the diffraction limit of the telescope. The design is adapted from the Achromatic Interfero-Coronagraph (AIC), which suppresses the light scattered by diffraction from an on-axis unresolved source, but yields two twin images of the stellar environment, displayed symmetrically in the focal plane (Gay & Rabbia 1996; Baudoz et al. 2000a). Our Hybrid Interfero-Coronagraph (HIC) avoids the 180° ambiguity and is therefore well suited for the study of extended objects distributed all around the star. Like the AIC, the on-axis extinction with HIC is based on destructive interference after amplitude division of the incident field from a single telescope. An achromatic π-dephasing and a spatial filtering of the wave front are performed on one arm of the interferometer. The interferometric process occurs between the wave front from the star and a spatially filtered wave front. Because of this spatial filtering, the destructive process no longer remains achromatic. However, the residual chromaticity is compatible with astrophysical applications on ground-based telescopes. Numerical simulations show that HIC performance does not suffer from telescope central obscuration. An appropriate size of the spatial filtering mask and a suitable apodization allow the nulling of an on-axis unresolved star at the level of 10-6, with a spectral resolution R=λ0/Δλ=15 and in the absence of wave-front phase or intensity errors. Preliminary laboratory tests with a HIC prototype are reported, and as a first step, an extinction of the source by a factor of 200 was obtained, with a resolution R=6 in the visible, using a simple setup.

  9. Turbulence in a cusp Q device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.; Pécseli, Hans; Petersen, P. I.

    1974-01-01

    Spectral measurements are reported of plasma turbulence in the Cs plasma of a Q device, modified to a magnetic cusp geometry. The excitation mechanism for the fluctuations appears to be the centrifugal instability discussed by Chen. A transition from an f−5 to an f−3 power spectrum is observed...... as one moves from the hot plates to the midplane of the cusp. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  10. Cusped Bubbles Rising through Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Andrew; Sostarecz, Michael

    2000-11-01

    It is well known that a bubble rising in a polymer fluid can have a cusp-like tail. We report on an experimental study of bubbles rising through solutions of glycerol/water with the addition of the polymer xanthan gum, a polyelectrolyte which becomes more rigid as the free ion concentration is increased. The addition of salt also decreases the elasticity of the xanthan gum solutions, and we observe its effects on the velocity and shape of the cusped bubble.

  11. Cusp singularity in mean field Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yayoi; Ishida, Muneyuki; Nozawa, Erika; Ootsuka, Takayoshi; Yahagi, Ryoko

    2017-11-01

    The entropy of the Ising model in the mean field approximation is derived by the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. We consider a grand canonical ensemble with respect to the temperature and the external magnetic field. A cusp arises at the critical point, which shows a simple and new geometrical aspect of this model. In an educational sense, this curve with a cusp helps students acquire a more intuitive view of statistical phase transitions.

  12. Density Variations in the Earth's Magnetospheric Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. M.; Niehof, J.; Collier, M. R.; Welling, D. T.; Sibeck, D. G.; Mozer, F. S.; Fritz, T. A.; Kuntz, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Seven years of measurements from the Polar spacecraft are surveyed to monitor the variations of plasma density within the magnetospheric cusps. The spacecraft's orbital precession from 1998 through 2005 allows for coverage of both the northern and southern cusps from low altitude out to the magnetopause. In the mid- and high- altitude cusps, plasma density scales well with the solar wind density (n(sub cusp)/n(sub sw) approximately 0.8). This trend is fairly steady for radial distances greater then 4 R(sub E). At low altitudes (r less than 4R(sub E)) the density increases with decreasing altitude and even exceeds the solar wind density due to contributions from the ionosphere. The density of high charge state oxygen (O(greater +2) also displays a positive trend with solar wind density within the cusp. A multifluid simulation with the Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar Wind Roe-Type Upwind Scheme MHD model was run to monitor the relative contributions of the ionosphere and solar wind plasma within the cusp. The simulation provides similar results to the statistical measurements from Polar and confirms the presence of ionospheric plasma at low altitudes.

  13. Influence of Cusp Inclination and Type of Retention on Fracture Load of Implant-Supported Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cibele Oliveira de Melo; Longhini, Diogo; Pereira, Rodrigo de Paula; Arioli, João Neudenir

    2017-01-01

    There are few informations about the influence of cusp inclination on the fracture strength of implant-supported crowns. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of cusp inclination and retention type on fracture load in implant-supported metal-ceramic single crowns. Sixty crowns were made, classified as cemented and screw-retained with screw access hole (SAH) sealed or not. Standard (33°) and reduced (20°) cusp inclinations were tested for each group (n=10). To support crowns of a mandibular second molar, analogs of external hexagon implants 5.0 were used. The fracture load was measured in a universal testing machine EMIC DL2000 (10 kN load cell; 0.5 mm/min). Two-way ANOVA (retention and cusp inclination) followed by post hoc Tukey's honest significant difference test was used for the statistical analyses (a=0.05). Crowns with reduced cusp inclination exhibited significantly higher fracture load (p0.05) for the fracture load. The sealing of SAH did not influence the fracture load of screw-retained crowns (p>0.05). In conclusion, fracture load of implant-supported metal-ceramic crowns was influenced by retention and cusp inclination, and there was no influence of the sealing of SAH.

  14. Solar wind controls on Mercury's magnetospheric cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Maosheng; Vogt, Joachim; Heyner, Daniel; Zhong, Jun

    2017-06-01

    This study assesses the response of the cusp to solar wind changes comprehensively, using 2848 orbits of MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) observation. The assessment entails four steps: (1) propose and validate an approach to estimate the solar wind magnetic field (interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)) for MESSENGER's cusp transit; (2) define an index σ measuring the intensity of the magnetic disturbance which significantly peaks within the cusp and serves as an indicator of the cusp activity level; (3) construct an empirical model of σ as a function of IMF and Mercury's heliocentric distance rsun, through linear regression; and (4) use the model to estimate and compare the polar distribution of the disturbance σ under different conditions for a systematic comparison. The comparison illustrates that the disturbance peak over the cusp is strongest and widest extending in local time for negative IMF Bx and negative IMF Bz, and when Mercury is around the perihelion. Azimuthal shifts are associated with both IMF By and rsun: the cusp moves toward dawn when IMF By or rsun decrease. These dependences are explained in terms of the IMF Bx-controlled dayside magnetospheric topology, the component reconnection model applied to IMF By and Bz, and the variability of solar wind ram pressure associated with heliocentric distance rsun. The applicability of the component reconnection model on IMF By indicates that at Mercury reconnection occurs at lower shear angles than at Earth.Plain Language SummaryMercury's magnetosphere was suggested to be particularly sensitive to solar wind conditions. This study investigates the response of the magnetospheric cusp to solar wind conditions systematically. For this purpose, we analyze the statistical predictability of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at Mercury, develop an approach for estimating the solar wind magnetic field (IMF) for MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging

  15. Cluster observations of a structured magnetospheric cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Balan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available On 18 April 2002 the Cluster spacecraft crossed through the northern outer magnetospheric cusp region during 16:25-17:55 UT when the solar wind dynamic pressure was rather low (<2 nPa and IMF Bz was more negative than IMF By. The Cluster data from the FGM, CIS, PEACE, EFW, WHISPER and STAFF instruments reveal that the cusp is structured with three anti-sunward ion flow events of durations ≈1.5, 17.5 and 19.0 min, with bulk plasma flow roughly parallel to the magnetopause toward north. The ion and electron densities within the events are much greater than those outside. The zonal electric field in the ion flow events turns eastward as expected from V×B effect. The sharp inward boundaries of the ion flow events cross the four spacecraft in one time sequence, and the outward boundaries of the events cross the spacecraft in the reverse time sequence. The observations studied using magnetosphere and magnetopause models suggest that the structured cusp is a temporal feature that arises due to three inward and outward movements of the magnetopause by about 1.5RE so that Cluster, while crossing through the cusp, happened to be in the magnetosheath (ion flow event and cusp alternately. The magnetopause moved due to the changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure by up to 100%.

  16. Properties of a cusp diamagnetic cavity boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Walsh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available While crossing through the high-altitude dayside cusp on 29 September 1978 and again on 30 October 1978, the ISEE-1 spacecraft observed enhanced energetic particle flux and a depressed and turbulent magnetic field, the signature characteristics of a cusp diamagnetic cavity. As ISEE-1 approached the cavity during each event, a boundary sounding technique was used to measure properties of an emitting boundary. Sounding over multiple energy channels reveals an energy dependent boundary with lower energy particles filling a larger cavity than higher energy particles. Relative motion of the boundary as well as boundary orientation are also measured. The two cusp events were measured at different locations and during different geomagnetic and solar wind conditions; however, they show similar results.

  17. Properties of a cusp diamagnetic cavity boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. M.; Fritz, T. A.; Chen, J.

    2008-11-01

    While crossing through the high-altitude dayside cusp on 29 September 1978 and again on 30 October 1978, the ISEE-1 spacecraft observed enhanced energetic particle flux and a depressed and turbulent magnetic field, the signature characteristics of a cusp diamagnetic cavity. As ISEE-1 approached the cavity during each event, a boundary sounding technique was used to measure properties of an emitting boundary. Sounding over multiple energy channels reveals an energy dependent boundary with lower energy particles filling a larger cavity than higher energy particles. Relative motion of the boundary as well as boundary orientation are also measured. The two cusp events were measured at different locations and during different geomagnetic and solar wind conditions; however, they show similar results.

  18. Advanced Stellar Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    This document describes all interface properties for the Advanced Stellar Compass, developed for the German Research Satellite "CHAMP". Basic operations, modes, software protocol, calibration methods and closed loop test strategies are described.......This document describes all interface properties for the Advanced Stellar Compass, developed for the German Research Satellite "CHAMP". Basic operations, modes, software protocol, calibration methods and closed loop test strategies are described....

  19. Opening the cusp. [using magnetic field topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooker, N. U.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Gussenhoven, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the magnetic field topology (determined by the superposition of dipole, image, and uniform fields) for mapping the cusp to the ionosphere. The model results are compared to both new and published observations and are then used to map the footprint of a flux transfer event caused by a time variation in the merging rate. It is shown that the cusp geometry distorts the field lines mapped from the magnetopause to yield footprints with dawn and dusk protrusions into the region of closed magnetic flux.

  20. BEYOND THE MAIN SEQUENCE: TESTING THE ACCURACY OF STELLAR MASSES PREDICTED BY THE PARSEC EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezzi, Luan; Johnson, John Asher, E-mail: lghezzi@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Characterizing the physical properties of exoplanets and understanding their formation and orbital evolution requires precise and accurate knowledge of their host stars. Accurately measuring stellar masses is particularly important because they likely influence planet occurrence and the architectures of planetary systems. Single main-sequence stars typically have masses estimated from evolutionary tracks, which generally provide accurate results due to their extensive empirical calibration. However, the validity of this method for subgiants and giants has been called into question by recent studies, with suggestions that the masses of these evolved stars could have been overestimated. We investigate these concerns using a sample of 59 benchmark evolved stars with model-independent masses (from binary systems or asteroseismology) obtained from the literature. We find very good agreement between these benchmark masses and the ones estimated using evolutionary tracks. The average fractional difference in the mass interval ∼0.7–4.5 M{sub ⊙} is consistent with zero (−1.30 ± 2.42%), with no significant trends in the residuals relative to the input parameters. A good agreement between model-dependent and -independent radii (−4.81 ± 1.32%) and surface gravities (0.71 ± 0.51%) is also found. The consistency between independently determined ages for members of binary systems adds further support for the accuracy of the method employed to derive the stellar masses. Taken together, our results indicate that determination of masses of evolved stars using grids of evolutionary tracks is not significantly affected by systematic errors, and is thus valid for estimating the masses of isolated stars beyond the main sequence.

  1. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or alloys...

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of talon cusps in Turkish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Guven

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This is the most comprehensive study of the prevalence of talon cusps in Turkish population using the largest sample size to date. Also, taurodontism associated with a talon cusp has been reported here for the 1 st time. Clinical complications associated with talon cusps need more investigations.

  3. ANALYSIS OF TRANSONIC FLOW PAST CUSPED AIRFOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Stodůlka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transonic flow past two cusped airfoils is numerically solved and achieved results are analyzed by means of flow behavior and oblique shocks formation.Regions around sharp trailing edges are studied in detail and parameters of shock waves are solved and compared using classical shock polar approach and verified by reduction parameters for symmetric configurations.

  4. On the cusp anomalous dimension in the ladder limit of N=4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Fachechi, Alberto; Macorini, Guido [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the cusp anomalous dimension in the (leading) ladder limit of N=4 SYM and present new results for its higher-order perturbative expansion. We study two different limits with respect to the cusp angle ϕ. The first is the light-like regime where x=e{sup i} {sup ϕ}→0. This limit is characterised by a non-trivial expansion of the cusp anomaly as a sum of powers of log x, where the maximum exponent increases with the loop order. The coefficients of this expansion have remarkable transcendentality features and can be expressed by products of single zeta values. We show that the whole logarithmic expansion is fully captured by a solvable Woods-Saxon like one-dimensional potential. From the exact solution, we extract generating functions for the cusp anomaly as well as for the various specific transcendental structures appearing therein. The second limit that we discuss is the regime of small cusp angle. In this somewhat simpler case, we show how to organise the quantum mechanical perturbation theory in a novel efficient way by means of a suitable all-order Ansatz for the ground state of the associated Schrödinger problem. Our perturbative setup allows to systematically derive higher-order perturbative corrections in powers of the cusp angle as explicit non-perturbative functions of the effective coupling. This series approximation is compared with the numerical solution of the Schrödinger equation to show that we can achieve very good accuracy over the whole range of coupling and cusp angle. Our results have been obtained by relatively simple techniques. Nevertheless, they provide several non-trivial tests useful to check the application of Quantum Spectral Curve methods to the ladder approximation at non zero ϕ, in the two limits we studied.

  5. Model of tooth morphogenesis predicts carabelli cusp expression, size, and symmetry in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Hunter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The patterning cascade model of tooth morphogenesis accounts for shape development through the interaction of a small number of genes. In the model, gene expression both directs development and is controlled by the shape of developing teeth. Enamel knots (zones of nonproliferating epithelium mark the future sites of cusps. In order to form, a new enamel knot must escape the inhibitory fields surrounding other enamel knots before crown components become spatially fixed as morphogenesis ceases. Because cusp location on a fully formed tooth reflects enamel knot placement and tooth size is limited by the cessation of morphogenesis, the model predicts that cusp expression varies with intercusp spacing relative to tooth size. Although previous studies in humans have supported the model's implications, here we directly test the model's predictions for the expression, size, and symmetry of Carabelli cusp, a variation present in many human populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a dental cast sample of upper first molars (M1s (187 rights, 189 lefts, and 185 antimeric pairs, we measured tooth area and intercusp distances with a Hirox digital microscope. We assessed Carabelli expression quantitatively as an area in a subsample and qualitatively using two typological schemes in the full sample. As predicted, low relative intercusp distance is associated with Carabelli expression in both right and left samples using either qualitative or quantitative measures. Furthermore, asymmetry in Carabelli area is associated with asymmetry in relative intercusp spacing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the model's predictions for Carabelli cusp expression both across and within individuals. By comparing right-left pairs of the same individual, our data show that small variations in developmental timing or spacing of enamel knots can influence cusp pattern independently of genotype. Our findings suggest that during evolution new cusps

  6. Migrating songbirds tested in computer-controlled Emlen funnels use stellar cuesfor a time-independent compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Henrik Østergaard; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2001-01-01

    detailed temporal analyses. First, we showed that the birds use a star compass. Then, we tested the birds under a stationary planetarium sky, which simulated the star pattern of the local sky at 02:35 h for 11 consecutive hours of the night, and compared the birds' directional choices as a function of time...... with the predictions from five alternative stellar orientation hypotheses. The results supported the hypothesis suggesting that birds use a time-independent star compass based on learned geometrical star configurations to pinpoint the rotational point of the starry sky (north). In contrast, neither hypotheses...... suggesting that birds use the stars for establishing their global position and then perform true star navigation nor those suggesting the use of a time-compensated star compass were supported....

  7. Can internal stresses explain the fracture resistance of cusp-replacing composite restorations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, W.M.M.; Kuijs, R.H.; Barink, M.; Kreulen, C.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and compare the results of occlusal load application to cusp-replacing composite restorations, studied by means of finite element (FE) analysis and in vitro load tests. A three-dimensional (3D) FE model was created with a set up similar to an in vitro load test

  8. Talon Cusp Type I: Restorative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alberto dos Santos Maia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The teeth are formed during intrauterine life (i.e., gestation during the odontogenesis stage. During this period, the teeth move until they enter the oral cavity. This course covers various stages of dental development, namely, initiation, proliferation, histodifferentiation, morphodifferentiation, and apposition. The talon cusp is an anomaly that occurs during morphodifferentiation, and this anomaly may have numerous adverse clinical effects on oral health. The objective of this study was to report a case of “Talon Cusp Type I” and to discuss diagnostic methods, treatment options for this anomaly, and the importance of knowledge of this morphological change among dental professionals so that it is not confused with other morphological changes; such knowledge is required to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures, to perform treatments that prevent caries and malocclusions as well as enhancing aesthetics, and to improve the oral health and quality of life of the patient.

  9. Testing the recovery of stellar rotation signals from Kepler light curves using a blind hare-and-hounds exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigrain, S.; Llama, J.; Ceillier, T.; Chagas, M. L. das; Davenport, J. R. A.; García, R. A.; Hay, K. L.; Lanza, A. F.; McQuillan, A.; Mazeh, T.; de Medeiros, J. R.; Nielsen, M. B.; Reinhold, T.

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of a blind exercise to test the recoverability of stellar rotation and differential rotation in Kepler light curves. The simulated light curves lasted 1000 d and included activity cycles, Sun-like butterfly patterns, differential rotation and spot evolution. The range of rotation periods, activity levels and spot lifetime were chosen to be representative of the Kepler data of solar-like stars. Of the 1000 simulated light curves, 770 were injected into actual quiescent Kepler light curves to simulate Kepler noise. The test also included five 1000-d segments of the Sun's total irradiance variations at different points in the Sun's activity cycle. Five teams took part in the blind exercise, plus two teams who participated after the content of the light curves had been released. The methods used included Lomb-Scargle periodograms and variants thereof, autocorrelation function and wavelet-based analyses, plus spot modelling to search for differential rotation. The results show that the `overall' period is well recovered for stars exhibiting low and moderate activity levels. Most teams reported values within 10 per cent of the true value in 70 per cent of the cases. There was, however, little correlation between the reported and simulated values of the differential rotation shear, suggesting that differential rotation studies based on full-disc light curves alone need to be treated with caution, at least for solar-type stars. The simulated light curves and associated parameters are available online for the community to test their own methods.

  10. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  11. Stellar remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaler, S D; Srinivasan, G

    1997-01-01

    This volume examines the internal structure, origin and evolution of white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, all objects at the final stage of stellar evolution. It covers topics such as: pulsation of white dwarfs; millisecond pulsars; and the dynamics around black holes.

  12. Testing General Relativity with Stellar Orbits around the Supermassive Black Hole in Our Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hees, A.; Do, T.; Ghez, A. M.; Martinez, G. D.; Naoz, S.; Becklin, E. E.; Boehle, A.; Chappell, S.; Chu, D.; Dehghanfar, A.; Kosmo, K.; Lu, J. R.; Matthews, K.; Morris, M. R.; Sakai, S.; Schödel, R.; Witzel, G.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate that short-period stars orbiting around the supermassive black hole in our Galactic center can successfully be used to probe the gravitational theory in a strong regime. We use 19 years of observations of the two best measured short-period stars orbiting our Galactic center to constrain a hypothetical fifth force that arises in various scenarios motivated by the development of a unification theory or in some models of dark matter and dark energy. No deviation from general relativity is reported and the fifth force strength is restricted to an upper 95% confidence limit of |α | confidence upper limit on a linear drift of the argument of periastron of the short-period star S0-2 of |ω˙ S0-2| self-consistent test of the gravitational theory using orbital dynamic in a strong gravitational regime, that of a supermassive black hole. A sensitivity analysis for future measurements is also presented.

  13. The core mass-radius relation for giants - A new test of stellar evolution theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joss, P. C.; Rappaport, S.; Lewis, W.

    1987-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that the measurable properties of systems containing degenerate dwarfs can be used as a direct test of the core mass-radius relation for moderate-mass giants if the final stages of the loss of the envelope of the progenitor giant occurred via stable critical lobe overflow. This relation directly probes the internal structure of stars at a relatively advanced evolutionary state and is only modestly influenced by adjustable parameters. The measured properties of six binary systems, including such diverse systems as Sirius and Procyon and two millisecond pulsars, are utilized to derive constraints on the empirical core mass-radius relation, and the constraints are compared to the theoretical relation. The possibility that the final stages of envelope ejection of the giant progenitor of Sirius B occurred via critical lobe overflow in historical times is considered.

  14. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.; Tao, Louis

    2017-11-01

    Line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyze system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.

  15. A talon cusp mistaken for a mesiodens: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Marie-Lyne; Doyle, Tracy; MacLellan, Jennifer; Anderson, Ross D; Dyment, Heather

    2012-01-01

    We present the case of an 8-year-old boy with a talon cusp associated with a permanent maxillary central incisor that was mistaken for a supernumerary tooth. The importance of early and correct diagnosis of a talon cusp is stressed. Diagnosis and treatment planning strategies are discussed.

  16. Prevalence of talon cusps in a Portuguese population: Forensic identification significance of a rare trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jorge Simões

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental techniques are frequently used in human identification; some of those include comparative analyses of dental features that, being rare or unique to an individual, can establish a positive identification. The usefulness of each feature depends on its population, frequency, and uniqueness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of talon cusps in a Portuguese population. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was performed. Three hundred and two patients were studied, and talon cusps presence was assessed. Statistical tests were carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 17 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Statistical analysis relied primarily on descriptive statistics and crosstabs, with Chi-square analysis. Results: Results showed that talon cusps were observed in only 6.3% of patients. The maxillary lateral incisors were the most common teeth showing this feature (82.1% of all teeth. Conclusion: It can be concluded that talon cusps are an uncommon trait in these Portuguese population, and therefore, it is a feature that can be potentially very useful in forensic human identification, when antemortem dental records are available.

  17. Prevalence of talon cusps in a Portuguese population: Forensic identification significance of a rare trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Ricardo Jorge; Cardoso, Hugo F.V.; Caldas, Inês Morais

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental techniques are frequently used in human identification; some of those include comparative analyses of dental features that, being rare or unique to an individual, can establish a positive identification. The usefulness of each feature depends on its population, frequency, and uniqueness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of talon cusps in a Portuguese population. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was performed. Three hundred and two patients were studied, and talon cusps presence was assessed. Statistical tests were carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 17 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analysis relied primarily on descriptive statistics and crosstabs, with Chi-square analysis. Results: Results showed that talon cusps were observed in only 6.3% of patients. The maxillary lateral incisors were the most common teeth showing this feature (82.1% of all teeth). Conclusion: It can be concluded that talon cusps are an uncommon trait in these Portuguese population, and therefore, it is a feature that can be potentially very useful in forensic human identification, when antemortem dental records are available. PMID:24688559

  18. Prevalence of talon cusps in a Portuguese population: Forensic identification significance of a rare trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Ricardo Jorge; Cardoso, Hugo F V; Caldas, Inês Morais

    2014-01-01

    Dental techniques are frequently used in human identification; some of those include comparative analyses of dental features that, being rare or unique to an individual, can establish a positive identification. The usefulness of each feature depends on its population, frequency, and uniqueness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of talon cusps in a Portuguese population. A prospective study was performed. Three hundred and two patients were studied, and talon cusps presence was assessed. Statistical tests were carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 17 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical analysis relied primarily on descriptive statistics and crosstabs, with Chi-square analysis. Results showed that talon cusps were observed in only 6.3% of patients. The maxillary lateral incisors were the most common teeth showing this feature (82.1% of all teeth). It can be concluded that talon cusps are an uncommon trait in these Portuguese population, and therefore, it is a feature that can be potentially very useful in forensic human identification, when antemortem dental records are available.

  19. The tests at Saclay of the stellarator W7X superconducting magnets; Les essais a Saclay des aimants supraconducteurs du stellarator W7X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemet, M

    2000-05-01

    The tests on the superconducting magnets should allow to check at ambient or cryogenic temperature, the mechanical behaviour and the lack of leak from the conductor, the correct configuration of the cable in the pipe, the electric insulation, the magnet behaviour during a transition, the buckling and mechanical constraints on the whole. (N.C.)

  20. Talon′s cusp: Report of four unusual cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulunoglu O

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Talon cusp is a developmental dental anomaly thought to arise as a result of evagination on the surface of a tooth crown before calcification has occurred. The etiology remains unknown. The incidence is 0.04-10%. Any tooth may have a talon cusp but most of the cases involve maxillary lateral incisors, with some instances of bilateral involvement. The anomaly has been reported to be rare in the mandible. This article reports four cases of talon cusp. The first and the second cases describe bilateral involvement of talon cusp on palatal surfaces of maxillary primary centrals; in the third case talon tubercle occurs on palatal surfaces of both maxillary permanent lateral incisors and the maxillary left central incisor and in the last case a talon cusp in the lingual surface of mandibular permanent lateral incisor.

  1. Multiple talon cusps on maxillary central incisor: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh KV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental anomalies affecting the teeth are relatively common. Simultaneous occurrence of multiple dental abnormalities in a single tooth is uncommon and relatively rare. One such abnormality routinely encountered in dental clinics is the talon cusp. It is also referred to as dens evaginatus, characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp-like structure projecting from the cingulum of anterior teeth. It has an increased predilection for maxillary teeth and permanent dentition. Although numerous cases of talon cusp have been reported in the literature, occurrence of multiple talon cusps in maxillary central incisors has not been found in the literature. This case report highlights the presence of talon cusps in maxillary anterior teeth with multiple impacted supernumerary teeth.

  2. Stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    2013-01-01

    Stellar Evolution, Second Edition covers the significant advances in the understanding of birth, life, and death of stars.This book is divided into nine chapters and begins with a description of the characteristics of stars according to their brightness, distance, size, mass, age, and chemical composition. The next chapters deal with the families, structure, and birth of stars. These topics are followed by discussions of the chemical composition and the evolution of main-sequence stars. A chapter focuses on the unique features of the sun as a star, including its evolution, magnetic fields, act

  3. The Two Components of the Evolved Massive Binary LZ Cephei: Testing the Effects of Binarity on Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, L.; Martins, F.; Donati, J.-F.; Bouret, J.-C.

    2011-01-01

    We present an in-dep(h study of the two components of the binary system LZ Cep to constrain the effects of binarity on the evolution of massive stars. Methods. We analyzed a set of high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra obtained over the orbital period of the system to perform a spectroscopic disentangling and derive an orbital solution. We subsequently determine the stellar properties of each component by means of an analysis with the CMFGEN atmosphere code. Finally, with the derived stellar parameters, we model the Hipparcos photometric light curve using the program NIGHTFALL to obtain the orbit inclination and the stellar masses. Results.LZ Cep is a O9III+ON9.7V binary. It is as a semi-detailed system in which either the primary or the secondary star almost fills up its Roche lobe. The dynamical masses are about 16.0 Stellar Mass (primary) and 6.5 Stellar Mass (secondary). The latter is lower than the typical mass of late-type O stars. The secondary component is chemically more evolved than the primary (which barely shows any sign of CNO processing), with strong helium and nitrogen enhancements as well as carbon and oxygen depletions. These properties (surface abundances and mass) are typical of Wolf-Rayet stars, although the spectral type is ON9.7V. The luminosity of the secondary is consistent with that of core He-burning objects. The preferred, tentative evolutionary scenario to explain abe observed properties involves mass transfer from the secondary - which was initially more massive- towards the primary. The secondary is now almost a core He-burning object, probably with only a thin envelope of H-rich and CNO processed material. A very inefficient mass transfer is necessary to explain the chemical appearance of the primary. Alternative scenarios are discussed but they are affected by greater uncertainties.

  4. Modeling transverse heating and outflow of ionospheric ions from the dayside cusp/cleft. 2 Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bouhram

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider major ion energization mechanisms in the dayside cusp/cleft region. This includes transverse ion heating by ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, ion energization through structures of field-aligned electric potential drops, and transverse heating by lower hybrid (LH waves. First, we present and discuss three typical cusp/cleft crossings associated with one of the first two mechanisms mentioned above. Then, we develop a procedure for finding the altitude dependence of ICR heating for any data set in the high-altitude cusp/cleft under the absence of field-aligned potential drops. This has been accomplished using a large set of numerical simulations from a two-dimensional, steady-state, Monte Carlo, trajectory-based code, as discussed in detail in the first companion paper (Bouhram et al., 2003. The procedure is applied and tested successfully for the first two events, by using patterns of ion moments along the satellite track as constraints. Then, we present a statistical study that uses 25 cusp/cleft crossings associated with steady IMF conditions, where ICR heating is expected to occur alone. It is pointed out that the ICR heating increases gradually versus geocentric distance as s 3.3 ± 1.8 . The inferred values of the wave power and the spectral index associated with the component responsible for ICR heating are lower than those characterizing the broad-band, extremely low-frequency (BBELF turbulence usually observed in the cusp/cleft. This strengthens the idea that more than one wave-mode is contained in the BBELF turbulence, and only a small fraction of the observed turbulence is responsible for ICR heating. Then, we study the occurrence versus magnetic local time (MLT of field-aligned potential drops. According to previous statistical studies, such structures are not common in the cusp and tend to be associated with the cleft region. We also discuss the effects of LH heating in the cusp on the observed ion distributions

  5. Modeling transverse heating and outflow of ionospheric ions from the dayside cusp/cleft. 2 Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bouhram

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider major ion energization mechanisms in the dayside cusp/cleft region. This includes transverse ion heating by ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, ion energization through structures of field-aligned electric potential drops, and transverse heating by lower hybrid (LH waves. First, we present and discuss three typical cusp/cleft crossings associated with one of the first two mechanisms mentioned above. Then, we develop a procedure for finding the altitude dependence of ICR heating for any data set in the high-altitude cusp/cleft under the absence of field-aligned potential drops. This has been accomplished using a large set of numerical simulations from a two-dimensional, steady-state, Monte Carlo, trajectory-based code, as discussed in detail in the first companion paper (Bouhram et al., 2003. The procedure is applied and tested successfully for the first two events, by using patterns of ion moments along the satellite track as constraints. Then, we present a statistical study that uses 25 cusp/cleft crossings associated with steady IMF conditions, where ICR heating is expected to occur alone. It is pointed out that the ICR heating increases gradually versus geocentric distance as s 3.3 ± 1.8 . The inferred values of the wave power and the spectral index associated with the component responsible for ICR heating are lower than those characterizing the broad-band, extremely low-frequency (BBELF turbulence usually observed in the cusp/cleft. This strengthens the idea that more than one wave-mode is contained in the BBELF turbulence, and only a small fraction of the observed turbulence is responsible for ICR heating. Then, we study the occurrence versus magnetic local time (MLT of field-aligned potential drops. According to previous statistical studies, such structures are not common in the cusp and tend to be associated with the cleft region. We also discuss the effects of LH heating in the cusp on the observed ion distributions

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of plasma dynamics in the magnetospheric cusp region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Eric T.

    The Earth's magnetospheric cusp regions are rich in interesting plasma physics. The geomagnetic cusps offer solar wind plasma a relatively easy entry point into the magnetosphere through magnetic reconnection with the interplanetary magnetic field. The cusp regions are characterized by various interesting and important observations such as low energy particle precipitation, significant outflow of ionospheric material, and the frequent presence of energetic particles in regions of depressed magnetic field strength. The physical mechanisms that lead to these observations is often unresolved, for instance the acceleration mechanism for energetic cusp populations is not understood, nor is it known what implications they may have on magnetospheric dynamics. It is however, well accepted that magnetic reconnection plays a critical role in the vicinity of the cusps and is likely responsible for much of the dynamics in the region. Modeling of the geomagnetic cusps is notoriously challenging. Global magnetospheric models have proven indispensable in the study of the interaction of the solar wind plasma with the Earth's magnetosphere, however, the exterior cusp region poses a significant challenge for these models due to their relatively small scale. I have developed a mesoscale cusp-like magnetic field model in order to provide a better resolution (up to 300 km) of the entire cusp region than is possible in these global models. Typical observational features of the high-altitude cusps are well reproduced by the simulation. Results for both strongly northward and strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field indicate extended regions of depressed magnetic field and strongly enhanced plasma beta (cusp diamagnetic cavities). The Alfvenic nature of the outer boundary between the cusp and magnetosheath, in addition to the flow characteristics in the region, indicate that magnetic reconnection plays an important role in structuring the high-altitude cusp region. The inner

  7. Progress Toward Attractive Stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, G H; Brown, T G; Gates, D A; Lu, K P; Zarnstorff, M C; Boozer, A H; Harris, J H; Meneghini, O; Mynick, H E; Pomphrey, N; Reiman, A H

    2011-01-05

    The quasi-axisymmetric stellarator (QAS) concept offers a promising path to a more compact stellarator reactor, closer in linear dimensions to tokamak reactors than previous stellarator designs. Concept improvements are needed, however, to make it more maintainable and more compatible with high plant availability. Using the ARIES-CS design as a starting point, compact stellarator designs with improved maintenance characteristics have been developed. While the ARIES-CS features a through-the-port maintenance scheme, we have investigated configuration changes to enable a sector-maintenance approach, as envisioned for example in ARIES AT. Three approaches are reported. The first is to make tradeoffs within the QAS design space, giving greater emphasis to maintainability criteria. The second approach is to improve the optimization tools to more accurately and efficiently target the physics properties of importance. The third is to employ a hybrid coil topology, so that the plasma shaping functions of the main coils are shared more optimally, either with passive conductors made of high-temperature superconductor or with local compensation coils, allowing the main coils to become simpler. Optimization tools are being improved to test these approaches.

  8. High-Energy Electron Confinement in a Magnetic Cusp Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report experimental results validating the concept that plasma confinement is enhanced in a magnetic cusp configuration when β (plasma pressure/magnetic field pressure is of order unity. This enhancement is required for a fusion power reactor based on cusp confinement to be feasible. The magnetic cusp configuration possesses a critical advantage: the plasma is stable to large scale perturbations. However, early work indicated that plasma loss rates in a reactor based on a cusp configuration were too large for net power production. Grad and others theorized that at high β a sharp boundary would form between the plasma and the magnetic field, leading to substantially smaller loss rates. While not able to confirm the details of Grad’s work, the current experiment does validate, for the first time, the conjecture that confinement is substantially improved at high β. This represents critical progress toward an understanding of the plasma dynamics in a high-β cusp system. We hope that these results will stimulate a renewed interest in the cusp configuration as a fusion confinement candidate. In addition, the enhanced high-energy electron confinement resolves a key impediment to progress of the Polywell fusion concept, which combines a high-β cusp configuration with electrostatic fusion for a compact, power-producing nuclear fusion reactor.

  9. STELLARATOR INJECTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R.F.

    1962-09-01

    A method and means are described for injecting energetic neutral atoms or molecular ions into dense magnetically collimated plasma columns of stellarators and the like in such a manner that the atoms or ions are able to significantly penetrate the column before being ionized by collision with the plasma constituent particles. Penetration of the plasma column by the neutral atoms or molecular ions is facilitated by superposition of two closely spaced magnetic mirrors on the plasma confinement field. The mirrors are moved apart to magnetically sweep plasma from a region between the mirrors and establish a relatively low plasma density therein. By virture of the low density, neutral atoms or molecular ions injected into the region significantly penetrate the plasma column before being ionized. Thereafter, the mirrors are diminished to permit the injected material to admix with the plasma in the remainder of the column. (AEC)

  10. Cusp Alfven and Plasma Electrodynamics Rocket (CAPER) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launch a single rocket from Andoya Rocket Range into an active cusp event. Observe electric and magnetic fields, HF waves, electron and ion distributions and...

  11. Log-Sobolev inequalities and regions with exterior exponential cusps

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, C.

    2003-01-01

    We begin by studying semigroup estimates that are more singular than those implied by a Sobolev embedding theorem but which are equivalent to certain logarithmic Sobolev inequalities. We then give a method for showing such log--Sobolev inequalities hold for Euclidean regions that satisfy a certain Hardy-type inequality. Our main application is to show that domains with exterior exponential cusps, and hence no Sobolev embedding theorem, satisfy such heat kernel bounds provided the cusp is not ...

  12. Dispersing billiards with cusps slow decay of correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, N

    2006-01-01

    Dispersing billiards introduced by Sinai are uniformly hyperbolic and have strong statistical properties (exponential decay of correlations and various limit theorems). However, if the billiard table has cusps (corner points with zero interior angles), then its hyperbolicity is nonuniform and statistical properties deteriorate. Until now only heuristic and experiments results existed predicting the decay of correlations as $\\cO(1/n)$. We present a first rigorous analysis of correlations for dispersing billiards with cusps.

  13. GPS scintillations associated with cusp dynamics and polar cap patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yaqi; Moen, Jøran I.; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Spicher, Andres; Clausen, Lasse B. N.; Miloch, Wojciech J.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the relative scintillation level associated with cusp dynamics (including precipitation, flow shears, etc.) with and without the formation of polar cap patches around the cusp inflow region by the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR) and two GPS scintillation receivers. A series of polar cap patches were observed by the ESR between 8:40 and 10:20 UT on December 3, 2011. The polar cap patches combined with the auroral dynamics were associated with a significantly higher GPS phase scintillation level (up to 0.6 rad) than those observed for the other two alternatives, i.e., cusp dynamics without polar cap patches, and polar cap patches without cusp aurora. The cusp auroral dynamics without plasma patches were indeed related to GPS phase scintillations at a moderate level (up to 0.3 rad). The polar cap patches away from the active cusp were associated with sporadic and moderate GPS phase scintillations (up to 0.2 rad). The main conclusion is that the worst global navigation satellite system space weather events on the dayside occur when polar cap patches enter the polar cap and are subject to particle precipitation and flow shears, which is analogous to the nightside when polar cap patches exit the polar cap and enter the auroral oval.

  14. Stellar Astrophysics with Arcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Wolk, Scott; Schulz, Norbert; Foster, Adam; Brenneman, Laura; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Arcus Team

    2018-01-01

    The Arcus mission is now in Phase A of the NASA Medium-Class Explorer competition. We present here the Arcus science case for stellar astrophysics. With spectral resolving power of at least 2500 and effective area greater than 400 cm^2, Arcus will measure new diagnostic lines, e.g. for H- and He-like ions of oxygen and other elements. Weak dielectronic recombination lines will provide sensitive measurements of temperature to test stellar coronal heating models. Arcus will also resolve the coronal and accretion line components in young accreting stars, allowing detailed studies of accretion shocks and their post-shock behavior. Arcus can resolve line shapes and variability in hot star winds to study inhomogeneities and dynamics of wind structure. Such profiles will provide an independent measure of mass loss rates, for which theoretical and observational discrepancies can reach an order of magnitude. Arcus will also study exoplanet atmospheres through X-ray absorption, determing their extent and composition.

  15. An isolated, bright cusp aurora at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinrade, J.; Badman, S. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Tao, C.; Provan, G.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Grocott, A.; Gray, R. L.; Grodent, D.; Kimura, T.; Nichols, J. D.; Arridge, C. S.; Radioti, A.; Clarke, J. T.; Crary, F. J.; Pryor, W. R.; Melin, H.; Baines, K. H.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    Saturn's dayside aurora displays a number of morphological features poleward of the main emission region. We present an unusual morphology captured by the Hubble Space Telescope on 14 June 2014 (day 165), where for 2 h, Saturn's FUV aurora faded almost entirely, with the exception of a distinct emission spot at high latitude. The spot remained fixed in local time between 10 and 15 LT and moved poleward to a minimum colatitude of 4°. It was bright and persistent, displaying intensities of up to 49 kR over a lifetime of 2 h. Interestingly, the spot constituted the entirety of the northern auroral emission, with no emissions present at any other local time—including Saturn's characteristic dawn arc, the complete absence of which is rarely observed. Solar wind parameters from propagation models, together with a Cassini magnetopause crossing and solar wind encounter, indicate that Saturn's magnetosphere was likely to have been embedded in a rarefaction region, resulting in an expanded magnetosphere configuration during the interval. We infer that the spot was sustained by reconnection either poleward of the cusp or at low latitudes under a strong component of interplanetary magnetic field transverse to the solar wind flow. The subsequent poleward motion could then arise from either reconfiguration of successive open field lines across the polar cap or convection of newly opened field lines. We also consider the possible modulation of the feature by planetary period rotating current systems.

  16. Black Holes and Galactic Density Cusps II Spherically Symmetric Anisotropic Cusps

    CERN Document Server

    Henriksen, Richard N; Macmillan, Joseph D

    2010-01-01

    Aims. In this paper we study density cusps that may contain central black holes. The actual co-eval self-similar growth would not distinguish between the central object and the surroundings. Methods. To study the environment of a growing black hole we seek descriptions of steady 'cusps' that may contain a black hole and that retain at least a memory of self-similarity. We refer to the environment in brief as the 'bulge' and on smaller scales, the 'halo'. Results. We find simple descriptions of the simulations of collisionless matter by comparing predicted densities, velocity dispersions and distribution functions with the simulations. In some cases central point masses may be included by iteration. We emphasize that the co-eval self-similar growth allows an explanation of the black hole bulge mass correlation between approximately similar collisionless systems. Conclusions. We have derived our results from first principles assuming adiabatic self-similarity and either self-similar virialisation or normal stea...

  17. Selective Angiography Using the Radiofrequency Catheter: An Alternative Technique for Mapping and Ablation in the Aortic Cusps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Ivo; Rivas, Nuria; Francisco, Jaume; Perez, Jordi; Acosta, Gabriel; Oristrell, Gerard; Terricabres, Maria; Garcia-Dorado, David; Moya, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Ablation in aortic cusps could be necessary in up to 15% of the patients, especially in para-Hisian atrial tachycardia and ventricular arrhythmias arising from outflow tracts. Risk of coronary damage has led to recommendation of systematic coronary angiography (CA) during the procedure. Other image tests as intravascular (ICE) or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) have been proposed. Both methods have limitations: additional vascular access for ICE and need for additional CA in some patients in case of TEE. We describe an alternative method to assess relation of catheter tip and coronary ostia during ablation in aortic cusps without additional vascular accesses by performing selective angiography with the ablation catheter. We prospectively evaluated 12 consecutive patients (69.3 ± 8.5, 6 female) who underwent ablation in right (1), left (5), and noncoronary cusps (6). We performed angiography through the ablation cooled tip radiofrequency catheter at the ablation site. Ablation was effective in 91.6% of the patients (3 patients needed additional ablation out of coronary cusps: pulmonary cusp, right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), and coronary sinus and 1 patient underwent a second procedure because recurrence). No complications occurred neither during procedure nor follow-up (6.2 ± 3.8 months). No technical problems occurred with the ablation catheter after contrast injection. Selective angiography through a cooled-tip radiofrequency ablation catheter is feasible to assess relation of coronary ostia and ablation site when ablation in aortic cusps. It allows continuous real-time assessment of this relation, avoids the need for additional vascular accesses and no complications occurred in our series. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Stellar Metamorphosis:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    [TOP LEFT AND RIGHT] The Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 has captured images of the birth of two planetary nebulae as they emerge from wrappings of gas and dust, like butterflies breaking out of their cocoons. These images highlight a fleeting phase in the stellar burnout process, occurring just before dying stars are transformed into planetary nebulae. The left-hand image is the Cotton Candy nebula, IRAS 17150-3224; the right-hand image, the Silkworm nebula, IRAS 17441-2411. Called proto-planetary nebulae, these dying stars have been caught in a transition phase between a red giant and a planetary nebula. This phase is only about 1,000 years long, very short in comparison to the 1 billion-year lifetime of a star. These images provide the earliest snapshots of the transition process. Studying images of proto-planetary nebulae is important to understanding the process of star death. A star begins to die when it has exhausted its thermonuclear fuel - hydrogen and helium. The star then becomes bright and cool (red giant phase) and swells to several tens of times its normal size. It begins puffing thin shells of gas off into space. These shells become the star's cocoon. In the Hubble images, the shells are the concentric rings seen around each nebula. But the images also reveal the nebulae breaking out from those shells. The butterfly-like wings of gas and dust are a common shape of planetary nebulae. Such butterfly shapes are created by the 'interacting winds' process, in which a more recent 'fast wind' - material propelled by radiation from the hot central star - punches a hole in the cocoon, allowing the nebula to emerge. (This 'interacting wind' theory was first proposed by Dr. Sun Kwok to explain the origin of planetary nebulae, and has been subsequently proven successful in explaining their shapes.) The nebulae are being illuminated by light from the invisible central star, which is then reflected toward us. We are viewing the nebulae

  19. The DEMO Quasisymmetric Stellarator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey B. McFadden

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The NSTAB nonlinear stability code solves differential equations in conservation form, and the TRAN Monte Carlo test particle code tracks guiding center orbits in a fixed background, to provide simulations of equilibrium, stability, and transport in tokamaks and stellarators. These codes are well correlated with experimental observations and have been validated by convergence studies. Bifurcated 3D solutions of the 2D tokamak problem have been calculated that model persistent disruptions, neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs and edge localized modes (ELMs occurring in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER, which does not pass the NSTAB simulation test for nonlinear stability. So we have designed a quasiaxially symmetric (QAS stellarator with similar proportions as a candidate for the demonstration (DEMO fusion reactor that does pass the test [1]. The configuration has two field periods and an exceptionally accurate 2D symmetry that furnishes excellent thermal confinement and good control of the prompt loss of alpha particles. Robust coils are found from a filtered form of the Biot-Savart law based on a distribution of current over a control surface for the coils and the current in the plasma defined by the equilibrium calculation. Computational science has addressed the issues of equilibrium, stability, and transport, so it remains to develop an effective plan to construct the coils and build a diverter.

  20. Cryoablation of ventricular tachycardia arising from the left-coronary sinus cusp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppu, Santosh C; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2013-03-01

    Ventricular tachycardia (VT) arising from the coronary sinus cusps and mimicking right-ventricular morphology is a rare entity. In this report, we report the successful cryoablation of left-coronary sinus cusp VT.

  1. Cusps in the center of galaxies: a real conflict with observations or a numerical artefact of cosmological simulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baushev, A. N.; del Valle, L.; Campusano, L. E.; Escala, A.; Muñoz, R. R.; Palma, G. A.

    2017-05-01

    Galaxy observations and N-body cosmological simulations produce conflicting dark matter halo density profiles for galaxy central regions. While simulations suggest a cuspy and universal density profile (UDP) of this region, the majority of observations favor variable profiles with a core in the center. In this paper, we investigate the convergency of standard N-body simulations, especially in the cusp region, following the approach proposed by [1]. We simulate the well known Hernquist model using the SPH code Gadget-3 and consider the full array of dynamical parameters of the particles. We find that, although the cuspy profile is stable, all integrals of motion characterizing individual particles suffer strong unphysical variations along the whole halo, revealing an effective interaction between the test bodies. This result casts doubts on the reliability of the velocity distribution function obtained in the simulations. Moreover, we find unphysical Fokker-Planck streams of particles in the cusp region. The same streams should appear in cosmological N-body simulations, being strong enough to change the shape of the cusp or even to create it. Our analysis, based on the Hernquist model and the standard SPH code, strongly suggests that the UDPs generally found by the cosmological N-body simulations may be a consequence of numerical effects. A much better understanding of the N-body simulation convergency is necessary before a `core-cusp problem' can properly be used to question the validity of the CDM model.

  2. Cusp deflection, infraction and fracture in endodontically treated teeth filled with three temporary filling materials (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eskandarizade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the aim of this study was to compare cusp deflection, infraction and fracture in teeth filled with three temporary filling materials. Materials & method: Forty five extracted human premolar teeth were chosen. After root canal therapy and mesio-occluso-distal cavity preparation, samples were randomly divided into three groups , each contained 15 teeth and filled with three temporary filling materials: Cavisol (Golchai-Iran, Coltosol F (Coltene,Swiss and Coltene (Ariadent,Iran. Teeth were kept in normal saline at room temperature and every day the intercuspal distance was measured under stereomicroscope for 20 days. Infractions as well as fractures were also noted. Data were analyzed in SPSS 17 using Repeated measurement ANOVA test to evaluate the intercuspal distance and expansion of each sample every day. Results: Intercuspal distance increased in all three groups but was significantly more in Coltosol F group. On the days 10 and 16 two teeth filled with Coltosol F had cusp fracture. Conclusion: Temporary filling materials have hygroscopic expansion and cause cusp deflection which may lead to cusp fracture, so it is recommended to use them in short period of time.

  3. The optimally sampled galaxy-wide stellar initial mass function. Observational tests and the publicly available GalIMF code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Jerabkova, Tereza; Kroupa, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Here we present a full description of the integrated galaxy-wide initial mass function (IGIMF) theory in terms of the optimal sampling and compare it with available observations. Optimal sampling is the method we use to discretize the IMF deterministically into stellar masses. Evidence indicates that nature may be closer to deterministic sampling as observations suggest a smaller scatter of various relevant observables than random sampling would give, which may result from a high level of self-regulation during the star formation process. We document the variation of IGIMFs under various assumptions. The results of the IGIMF theory are consistent with the empirical relation between the total mass of a star cluster and the mass of its most massive star, and the empirical relation between the star formation rate (SFR) of a galaxy and the mass of its most massive cluster. Particularly, we note a natural agreement with the empirical relation between the IMF power-law index and the SFR of a galaxy. The IGIMF also results in a relation between the SFR of a galaxy and the mass of its most massive star such that, if there were no binaries, galaxies with SFR Python module, GalIMF, is provided allowing the calculation of the IGIMF and OSGIMF dependent on the galaxy-wide SFR and metallicity. A copy of the python code model is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/607/A126

  4. Elimination of cusps in dimension 4 and its applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380140217; Hayano, Kenta

    2016-01-01

    We study a class of homotopies between maps from 4-manifolds to surfaces which we call cusp merges. These homotopies naturally appear in the uniqueness problems for certain pictorial descriptions of 4-manifolds derived from maps to the 2-sphere (for example, broken Lefschetz fibrations, wrinkled

  5. Mandibular Facial Talon Cusp: A Rare Case Report | Prabhu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talon cusp (TC) is a relatively uncommon developmental anomaly characterized by cusp‑like projections from the cemento‑enamel junction to a variable distance toward the incisal edge of an anterior tooth. It usually presents on palatal/lingual surface of the anterior teeth. Studies have revealed that it consists of enamel, ...

  6. Oxygen Ion Heat Rate within Alfvenic Turbulence in the Cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Singh, Nagendra; Chandler, Michael O.

    2009-01-01

    The role that the cleft/cusp has in ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling makes it a dynamic and important region. It is directly exposed to the solar wind, making it possible for the entry of electromagnetic energy and precipitating electrons and ions from dayside reconnection and other dayside events. It is also a significant source of ionospheric plasma, contributing largely to the mass loading of the magnetosphere with large fluxes of outflowing ions. Crossing the cusp/cleft near 5100 km, the Polar instruments observe the common correlation of downward Poynting flux, ion energization, soft electron precipitation, broadband extremely low-frequency (BB-ELF) emissions, and density depletions. The dominant power in the BB-ELF emissions is now identified to be from spatially broad, low frequency Alfv nic structures. For a cusp crossing, we determine using the Electric Field Investigation (EFI), that the electric and magnetic field fluctuations are Alfv nic and the electric field gradients satisfy the inequality for stochastic acceleration. With all the Polar 1996 horizontal crossings of the cusp, we determine the O+ heating rate using the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) and Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI). We then compare this heating rate to other heating rates assuming the electric field gradient criteria exceeds the limit for stochastic acceleration for the remaining crossings. The comparison suggests that a stochastic acceleration mechanism is operational and the heating is controlled by the transverse spatial scale of the Alfvenic waves.

  7. The cusps of Carabelli: frequency, distribution, size and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a population of 2,604 Nigerians, 454 (17.43%) showed the presence of the cusp of carabelli in maxillary molars. Bilateralism in the upper first molars accounted for 70.71% of the total, while bilateralism involving the upper first and second molars simultaneously accounted for only 1.98% of the total. Unilateralism in the ...

  8. Black Holes and Galactic Density Cusps I Radial Orbit Cusps and Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Henriksen, Richard N; Macmillan, Joseph D

    2011-01-01

    Aims. In this paper we study density cusps made from radial orbits that may contain central black holes. The actual co-eval self-similar growth would not distinguish between the central object and the surroundings. Methods. To study the environment of an existing black hole we seek distribution functions that may contain a black hole and that retain at least a memory of self-similarity. We refer to the environment in brief as the 'bulge' or sometimes the 'halo'. This depends on whether the black hole is a true singularity dominating its halo or rather a core mass concentration that dominates a larger bulge. The hierarchy might extend to include galactic bulge and halo. Results.We find simple descriptions of simulated collisionless matter in the process of examining the presence of central masses. The Fridmann & Polyachenko distribution function describes co-eval growth of a bulge and black hole that might explain the observed mass correlation. Conclusions. We derive our results from first principles assum...

  9. Unusual Case of a Talon Cusp on a Supernumerary Tooth in Association with a Mesiodens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Babaji

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Talon cusp is an accessory cusp similar to a projection, extending from the cingulum or cemento-enamel junction to the incisal edge. It occurs on labial or palatal surfaces of primary or permanent anterior teeth in both arches. This accessory cusp can occur as an isolated entity or in association with other dental anomalies. Occurrence of a talon cusp on supernumerary teeth is rare and uncommon. This paper reports an unusual case of a talon cusp on a supernumerary tooth in association with mesiodens.

  10. Unusual case of a talon cusp on a supernumerary tooth in association with a mesiodens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaji, Prashant; Sanadi, Firoza; Melkundi, Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    Talon cusp is an accessory cusp similar to a projection, extending from the cingulum or cemento-enamel junction to the incisal edge. It occurs on labial or palatal surfaces of primary or permanent anterior teeth in both arches. This accessory cusp can occur as an isolated entity or in association with other dental anomalies. Occurrence of a talon cusp on supernu-merary teeth is rare and uncommon. This paper reports an unusual case of a talon cusp on a supernumerary tooth in association with mesiodens.

  11. Four-loop planar amplitude and cusp anomalous dimension in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Zvi; Czakon, Michael; Dixon, Lance J.; Kosower, David A.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.

    2007-04-01

    We present an expression for the leading-color (planar) four-loop four-point amplitude of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in 4-2γ dimensions, in terms of eight separate integrals. The expression is based on consistency of unitarity cuts and infrared divergences. We expand the integrals around γ=0, and obtain analytic expressions for the poles from 1/γ8 through 1/γ4. We give numerical results for the coefficients of the 1/γ3 and 1/γ2 poles. These results all match the known exponentiated structure of the infrared divergences, at four separate kinematic points. The value of the 1/γ2 coefficient allows us to test a conjecture of Eden and Staudacher for the four-loop cusp (soft) anomalous dimension. We find that the conjecture is incorrect, although our numerical results suggest that a simple modification of the expression, flipping the sign of the term containing ζ32, may yield the correct answer. Our numerical value can be used, in a scheme proposed by Kotikov, Lipatov, and Velizhanin, to estimate the two constants in the strong-coupling expansion of the cusp anomalous dimension that are known from string theory. The estimate works to 2.6% and 5% accuracy, providing nontrivial evidence in support of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also use the known constants in the strong-coupling expansion as additional input to provide approximations to the cusp anomalous dimension which should be accurate to under 1% for all values of the coupling. When the evaluations of the integrals are completed through the finite terms, it will be possible to test the iterative, exponentiated structure of the finite terms in the four-loop four-point amplitude, which was uncovered earlier at two and three loops.

  12. Stellar Physics 2: Stellar Evolution and Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennady S

    2011-01-01

    "Stellar Physics" is a an outstanding book in the growing body of literature on star formation and evolution. Not only does the author, a leading expert in the field, very thoroughly present the current state of knowledge on stellar physics, but he handles with equal care the many problems that this field of research still faces. A bibliography with well over 1000 entries makes this book an unparalleled reference source. "Stellar Evolution and Stability" is the second of two volumes and can be read, as can the first volume "Fundamental Concepts and Stellar Equilibrium," as a largely independent work. It traces in great detail the evolution of protostars towards the main sequence and beyond this to the last stage of stellar evolution, with the corresponding vast range from white dwarfs to supernovae explosions, gamma-ray bursts and black hole formation. The book concludes with special chapters on the dynamical, thermal and pulsing stability of stars. This second edition is carefully updated in the areas of pre...

  13. Building an astrometric reference frame for tests of General Relativity with stellar orbits at the Galactic center with HST and GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuan

    2017-08-01

    The short-period star S0-2 will reach its closest approach to the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center in 2018 at a separation of event will offer the first of a series of tests of General Relativity with stellar orbits around a supermassive black hole, an unexplored regime for tests of gravity. While S0-2 has been monitored for over 20 years with high angular resolution measurements from the ground, the astrometric reference frame is currently not stable enough for GR tests. The current reference frame is constructed using observations of 7 radio masers with narrow-field adaptive optics imaging from the ground. While this method provides a reference frame that is stable enough to measure the Keplerian orbits, it does not meet the more stringent requirements needed to measure post-Newtonian effects such as the precession of the periapse of the orbit. The small number of reference stars and the systematic errors associated with using large mosaics to observe these stars limit the accuracy of this method. We propose to construct a new reference frame for tests of gravity with WFC3-IR observations in Cycles 25, 26, & 27. When combined with absolute positions and proper motions from GAIA, these observations will provide the required precision in the reference frame. The WFC3-IR field of view has over 1000 times greater areal coverage than the narrow-field AO observations, providing 3 times the number of absolute reference sources from GAIA. The proposed observations build on a legacy of HST, GAIA, and adaptive optics data to open an era of gravitational science with orbits at the Galactic center.

  14. Plasma waves in the polar cusp - Observations from Hawkeye 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Frank, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    Based on data from the Hawkeye 1 spacecraft in the polar-cusp vicinity, the characteristics of plasma waves are studied. Four types of plasma waves are identified: (1) a band of ULF-ELF magnetic noise, (2) broadband electrostatic emissions with maximum intensities at 10-50 Hz, (3) electrostatic electron cyclotron waves near electron gyrofrequency, and (4) whistler mode auroral hiss emissions. Only ULF-ELF noise is a reliable index of the polar cusp region. Since ULF-ELF magnetic noise extends only to the local electron gyrofrequency, it is suggested that the noise consists of whistler-mode electromagnetic waves. Possible mechanisms for this noise include the whistler-mode cyclotron-resonance, Kelvin-Helmholtz, and drift-wave instabilities. It is felt that a current-driven electrostatic instability causes the broadband electrostatic noise.

  15. Multifractal structure of turbulence in the magnetospheric cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yordanova

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetospheric cusps are regions which are characterized by highly turbulent plasma. We have used Polar magnetic field data to study the structure of turbulence in the cusp region. The wavelet transform modulus maxima method (WTMM has been applied to estimate the scaling exponent of the partition function and singularity spectra. Their features are similar to those found in the nonlinear multifractal systems. We have found that the scaling exponent does not allow one to conclude which intermittency model fits the experiment better. However, the singularity spectra reveal that different models can be ascribed to turbulence observed under various IMF conditions. For northward IMF conditions the turbulence is consistent with the multifractal p-model of fully developed fluid turbulence. For southward IMF experimental data agree with the model of non-fully developed Kolmogorov-like fluid turbulence.

  16. Multifractal structure of turbulence in the magnetospheric cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yordanova

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetospheric cusps are regions which are characterized by highly turbulent plasma. We have used Polar magnetic field data to study the structure of turbulence in the cusp region. The wavelet transform modulus maxima method (WTMM has been applied to estimate the scaling exponent of the partition function and singularity spectra. Their features are similar to those found in the nonlinear multifractal systems. We have found that the scaling exponent does not allow one to conclude which intermittency model fits the experiment better. However, the singularity spectra reveal that different models can be ascribed to turbulence observed under various IMF conditions. For northward IMF conditions the turbulence is consistent with the multifractal p-model of fully developed fluid turbulence. For southward IMF experimental data agree with the model of non-fully developed Kolmogorov-like fluid turbulence.

  17. A Cusp Density Enhancement Study using CHAMP / EISCAT conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, B.; Lessard, M.; Oksavik, K.; Luhr, H.; Kervalishvili, G.; Otto, A.

    2016-12-01

    CHAMP satellite observations have identified small-scale neutral density enhancements which are localized to the high latitude polar cusp region. A number of possible drivers for this small-scale density enhancement have been proposed, including large and small-scale joule heating, soft electron precipitation, and ion-outflow related processes. We investigate this phenomenon from the perspective of EISCAT ground radar observations. Selected CHAMP cusp enhancement events are presented with corresponding EISCAT data in conjunction below. EISCAT electron and ion measurements provide additional data for determining the actual drivers of the density enhancement. Numerical simulation predictions are also discussed which relate soft electron precipitation and ion-upflow with neutral density increase.

  18. TIDE Observations of Cusp and Cleft Multiple Ion Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Chandler, Michael O.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    The southern pole pass of Polar/TIDe at 5000 km allows a study of the distributions of the cusp and cleft. We discuss observations of TIDE (Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment) as it passes the southern pole on March 29, 1999. A mixture of several cold outflowing ions (0.3-10 eV) are measured simultaneously with magnetospheric precipitation (greater than 100 eV). We will show a study of these multiple plasma distributions, their source, and their interaction.

  19. Dayside and Cusp Plasma Dynamics at Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriver, D.; Travnicek, P. M.; Hellinger, P.; Richard, R. L.; Perkins, D. J.; Berchem, J.; Raines, J. M.; Ho, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    When the solar wind with its interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) interacts with a planetary magnetosphere, a foreshock forms upstream of the bow shock, an upstream magnetosheath consisting of thermalized plasma is created between the bow shock and the magnetopause, and a funnel shaped magnetic cusp extending down to the planet forms at high northern and southern latitudes on the dayside. The foreshock location, thickness of the magnetosheath and location of the northern and southern cusps depends on the solar wind pressure, IMF orientation and properties of the planet's internal magnetic field. Global kinetic simulations of the solar wind interaction with Mercury's intrinsic magnetic field have been carried out in close coordination with data from the MESSENGER spacecraft during its 4 year orbital mission to examine the formation and dynamics of the various dayside structures for different solar wind conditions. Unique aspects of Mercury's magnetosphere that affect dayside dynamics include the intrinsic planetary magnetic dipole being shifted directly to the north by 450 km (with no tilt), the lack of an atmosphere or ionosphere, and the presence of heavy ions (primarily sodium ions) of planetary origin that mass load the plasma. Ion and electron transport, acceleration and loss will be examined in the dayside and cusp regions in Mercury's magnetosphere and broad comparisons will be made with the same features found at Earth's magnetosphere.

  20. On a new process for cusp irregularity production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Carlson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two plasma instability mechanisms were thought until 2007 to dominate the formation of plasma irregularities in the F region high latitude and polar ionosphere; the gradient-drift driven instability, and the velocity-shear driven instability. The former mechanism was accepted as accounting for plasma structuring in polar cap patches, the latter for plasma structuring in polar cap sun aligned arcs. Recent work has established the need to replace this view of the past two decades with a new patch plasma structuring process (not a new mechanism, whereby shear-driven instabilities first rapidly structure the entering plasma, after which gradient drift instabilities build on these large "seed" irregularities. Correct modeling of cusp and early polar cap patch structuring will not be accomplished without allowing for this compound process. This compound process explains several previously unexplained characteristics of cusp and early polar cap patch irregularities. Here we introduce additional data, coincident in time and space, to extend that work to smaller irregularity scale sizes and relate it to the structured cusp current system.

  1. Clues from stellar catastrophes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rimoldi, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This thesis uses catastrophic stellar events (supernovae and stellar collisions) to investigate different aspects of their environment. The first part of the thesis examines what happens to supernova remnants near supermassive black holes like the one in the Milky Way Galaxy. To do so, a technique

  2. Ceramic inlays and partial ceramic crowns: influence of remaining cusp wall thickness on the marginal integrity and enamel crack formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krifka, Stephanie; Anthofer, Thomas; Fritzsch, Marcus; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schmalz, Gottfried; Federlin, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    No information is currently available about what the critical cavity wall thickness is and its influence upon 1) the marginal integrity of ceramic inlays (CI) and partial ceramic crowns (PCC) and 2) the crack formation of dental tissues. This in vitro study of CI and PCC tested the effects of different remaining cusp wall thicknesses on marginal integrity and enamel crack formation. CI (n = 25) and PCC (n = 26) preparations were performed in extracted human molars. Functional cusps of CI and PCC were adjusted to a 2.5 mm thickness; for PCC, the functional cusps were reduced to a thickness of 2.0 mm. Non-functional cusps were adjusted to wall thicknesses of 1) 1.0 mm and 2) 2.0 mm. Ceramic restorations (Vita Mark II, Cerec3 System) were fabricated and adhesively luted to the cavities with Excite/Variolink II. The specimens were exposed to thermocycling and central mechanical loading (TCML: 5000 x 5 degrees C-55 degrees C; 30 seconds/cycle; 500000 x 72.5N, 1.6Hz). Marginal integrity was assessed by evaluating a) dye penetration (fuchsin) on multiple sections after TCML and by using b) quantitative margin analysis in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after TCML. Ceramic- and tooth-luting agent interfaces (LA) were evaluated separately. Enamel cracks were documented under a reflective light microscope. The data were statistically analyzed with the Mann Whitney U-test (alpha = 0.05) and the Error Rates Method (ERM). Crack formation was analyzed with the Chi-Square-test (alpha = 0.05) and ERM. In general, the remaining cusp wall thickness, interface, cavity design and TCML had no statistically significant influence on marginal integrity for both CI and PCC (ERM). Single pairwise comparisons showed that the CI and PCC of Group 2 had a tendency towards less microleakage along the dentin/LA interface than Group 1. Cavity design and location had no statistically significant influence on crack formation, but the specimens with 1.0 mm of remaining wall

  3. Wave intensifications near the electron cyclotron frequency within the polar cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Gurnett, D. A.; Menietti, J. D.; Wong, H. K.; Lin, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    As DE 1 flew through the polar cusp, enhanced narrowband electrostatic waves were sometimes observed just above the electron cyclotron frequency. Here, wave and particle measurements from three representative cusp transits are presented in order to characterize these signals and understand the conditions that favor their generation. It was found that the form of the local cusp electron velocity distribution had a direct influence on the wave spectral character. A preliminary study indicates that electron beams in the cusp can generate the enhanced signals, although generation by an anisotropic warm component cannot be ruled out.

  4. Laser-Collisional Induced Fluorescence Measurements of a Magnetosheath in a Biasable Ring Cusp Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Neil; Foster, John

    2016-09-01

    This work involves exploring active control of the plasma potential and density spatial distribution in a mulitpole ion source through the active biasing of individual magnetic cusps. Cusp bias can be achieved by applying voltage to the magnetic surface generating the cusp. By controlling the current flow through the cusps, active altering of the primary electron containment length, at least at low voltages, is possible. Electrostatic probes do not work well in the presence of magnetic field and within sheaths. The Laser-Collisional Induced Fluorescence (LCIF) diagnostic is enabling in that it allows for imaging of the electron distribution in the magnetosheath. LCIF is used to quantify the response of electron density to active cusp biasing. We hope to gain insight into the physical processes occurring at the magnetic cusps and elucidate how those processes impact not only the plasma conditions in the bulk plasma, but also source efficiency and stability. The goal is to determine how bulk plasma properties change in response to modifications to current collection at the cusp magnetosheath. If the plasma properties vary with electric field in the cusp, then magnetic cusps must be considered as active rather than passive collectors.

  5. Management of Talons Cusp associated with Primary Central Incisor: A Rare Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadure, Rakesh N; Jain, Eesha S

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The talon cusp is a relatively rare dental developmental anomaly characterized by cusp-like projections, usually observed on the lingual surface of the affected tooth. Normal enamel covers the cusp and fuses with the lingual aspect of the tooth. The cusp may or may not contain an extension of the pulp. The condition can occur in both the primary and permanent dentitions. However, the occurrence of anomalous cusp is rather infrequent in the primary dentition. Little data is available about the treatment of talon cusps in the primary dentition as compared with the permanent dentition. A case of talon cusp in the primary maxillary left central incisor is reported. This dental anomaly was not associated with any other somatic or dental abnormality. The tooth was carious. Pulpal extension into the cusp was detected radiographically. Pulpectomy of the tooth was carried out and restored with composite restoration. How to cite this article: Bahadure RN, Thosar N, Jain ES. Management of Talons Cusp associated with Primary Central Incisor: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2): 142-144. PMID:25206155

  6. Cusp Catastrophe Regression and Its Application in Public Health and Behavioral Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Geng Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cusp catastrophe model is an innovative approach for investigating a phenomenon that consists of both continuous and discrete changes in one modeling framework. However, its application to empirical health and behavior data has been hindered by the complexity in data-model fit. In this study, we reported our work in the development of a new modeling method—cusp catastrophe regression (RegCusp in short by casting the cusp catastrophe into a statistical regression. With the RegCusp approach, unbiased model parameters can be estimated with the maximum likelihood estimation method. To validate the RegCusp method, a series of simulations were conducted to demonstrate the unbiasedness of parameter estimation. Since the estimated residual variance with the Fisher information matrix method was over-dispersed, a bootstrap re-sampling procedure was developed and used as a remedy. We also demonstrate the practical applicability of the RegCusp with empirical data from an NIH-funded project to evaluate an HIV prevention intervention program to educate adolescents in the Bahamas for condom use. Study findings indicated that the model parameters estimated with RegCusp were practically more meaningful than those estimated with comparable methods, especially the estimated cusp point.

  7. Stellar Chromospheric Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Jeffrey C.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sun, stars similar to it, and many rather dissimilar to it, have chromospheres, regions classically viewed as lying above the brilliant photosphere and characterized by a positive temperature gradient and a marked departure from radiative equilibrium. Stellar chromospheres exhibit a wide range of phenomena collectively called activity, stemming largely from the time evolution of their magnetic fields and the mass flux and transfer of radiation through the complex magnetic topology and the increasingly optically thin plasma of the outer stellar atmosphere. In this review, I will (1 outline the development of our understanding of chromospheric structure from 1960 to the present, (2 discuss the major observational programs and theoretical lines of inquiry, (3 review the origin and nature of both solar and stellar chromospheric activity and its relationship to, and effect on, stellar parameters including total energy output, and (4 summarize the outstanding problems today.

  8. Ion cyclotron waves observed in the polar cusp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, R. W.; Russell, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    During the penetration by Ogo 5 of the low-latitude disturbed polar cusp region on Nov. 1, 1968, while a major magnetic storm was in progress, a variety of plasma wave activity was observed. Observations of waves with amplitudes less than 2% of the background magnetic field intensity and having frequencies between approximately 0.67 and 0.87 times the local proton gyrofrequency are described. The polarization of these waves indicates that they are propagating at an appreciable angle to the local geomagnetic field line direction. The source of these waves has not been determined, but currents and gradient drifts are suggested as possible agents.

  9. Magneto Inertial Fusion Based on a Cusp Field Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhkov, S V

    2009-01-01

    We study the cusp configuration of pre-seeded magnetic field for laser-driven flux-compression. The proposed configuration provides better particle confinement than that in Ref. [O.V. Gotchev et al., Journal of Fusion Energy 27 (2008) 25-31.] thereby leading to better magnetic insulation of hot fusion plasma. We develop the model that takes into account (i) magnetized target implosion, (ii) magnetic flux compression; (iii) particle losses from magnetic trap. The key parameter governing the process is the ratio of the implosion time to the particle loss time.

  10. Aortic cusp extension valvuloplasty: repair with an extracellular patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Roman; Pawlak, Szymon; Śliwka, Joanna; Urlik, Maciej; Maruszewski, Marcin; Kukulski, Tomasz; Nożyński, Jerzy; Zembala, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The proportion of valve repair procedures is increasing in experienced centers. The aim of the study was to assess the clinical and echocardiographic outcomes after aortic valve reconstruction with a novel surgical technique. The study group consisted of 30 patients (23 male and 7 female) at a mean age of 35 ± 14 years. In patients with aortic root aneurysm the reimplantation or Florida sleeve technique was used. A sub-commissural annuloplasty, plication of the free edge of the cusp, shaving, and commissurotomy were performed. At this stage of surgery aortic repair was then attempted by cusp extension. Since 2013 the strips have been tailored from extracellular matrix. The mean aortic cross-clamp time was 90 ± 32 min. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 126 ± 38 min. There was no in-hospital death. Re-exploration for bleeding was required in 1 patient. During follow-up, 1 patient needed reoperation at 1 year due to endocarditis. All patients remained alive in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I. The echocardiographic findings remained unchanged in all cases during follow-up. Our modification of aortic valve repair results in a good outcome.

  11. Conjugate observations of ENA signals in the high-altitude cusp and proton auroral spot in the low-altitude cusp with IMAGE spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S.; Taguchi, S.; Hosokawa, K.; Collier, M. R.; Moore, T. E.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.

    2008-07-01

    On 28 April 2001, significant enhancements of neutral atom signals were detected in the direction of a high-altitude cusp by the Low-Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager onboard the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE). Simultaneously, proton auroral emission was observed in the low-altitude cusp by the Far-Ultraviolet Instrument (FUV) on the IMAGE spacecraft. The temporal variations of their intensities showed a good correlation, suggesting they had a common source. During a brief period, the proton auroral spot moved antisunward and dawnward in conjunction with the motion of the ionospheric footprint of the LENA cusp signal. The Tsyganenko-96 model shows that the possible source location of the LENA cusp signals maps to the FUV spot. Considering the solar wind variations, we have attributed this ``moving proton auroral spot'' to a moving flux tube that was created by transient reconnection on the dayside magnetopause and contained relatively high proton densities.

  12. In vitro fracture resistance of fiber reinforced cusp-replacing composite restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, W.M.M.; Tezvergil, A.; Kuijs, R.H.; Lassila, L.V.; Kreulen, C.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Vallittu, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the fracture resistance and failure mode of fiber reinforced composite (FRC) cusp-replacing restorations in premolars. METHODS: Forty-five extracted sound upper premolars were randomly divided into three groups. Identical MOD cavities with simulated buccal cusp fracture and

  13. A comparison of fatigue resistance of three materials for cusp-replacing adhesive restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijs, R.H.; Fennis, W.M.M.; Kreulen, C.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the fatigue resistance and failure behaviour of cusp-replacing restorations in premolars using different types of adhesive restorative materials. METHODS: A class 2 cavity was prepared and the buccal cusp was removed in an extracted sound human upper premolar. By using a

  14. Hippo pathway/Yap regulates primary enamel knot and dental cusp patterning in tooth morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jae Edward; Li, Liwen; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-11-01

    The shape of an individual tooth crown is primarily determined by the number and arrangement of its cusps, i.e., cusp patterning. Enamel knots that appear in the enamel organ during tooth morphogenesis have been suggested to play important roles in cusp patterning. Animal model studies have shown that the Hippo pathway effector Yap has a critical function in tooth morphogenesis. However, the role of the Hippo pathway/Yap in cusp patterning has not been well documented and its specific roles in tooth morphogenesis remain unclear. Here, we provide evidence that Yap is a key mediator in tooth cusp patterning. We demonstrate a correlation between Yap localization and cell proliferation in developing tooth germs. We also show that, between the cap stage and bell stage, Yap is crucial for the suppression of the primary enamel knot and for the patterning of secondary enamel knots, which are the future cusp regions. When Yap expression is stage-specifically knocked down during the cap stage, the activity of the primary enamel knot persists into the bell-stage tooth germ, leading to ectopic cusp formation. Our data reveal the importance of the Hippo pathway/Yap in enamel knots and in the proper patterning of tooth cusps.

  15. PREFACE: A Stellar Journey A Stellar Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, M.

    2008-10-01

    The conference A Stellar Journey was held in Uppsala, Sweden, 23 27June 2008, in honour of Professor Bengt Gustafsson's 65th birthday. The choice of Uppsala as the location for this event was obvious given Bengt's long-standing association with the city stemming back to his school days. With the exception of a two-year postdoc stint in Copenhagen, five years as professor at Stockholm University and two years as director of the Sigtuna foundation, Bengt has forged his illustrious professional career at Uppsala University. The symposium venue was Museum Gustavianum, once the main building of the oldest university in Scandinavia. The title of the symposium is a paraphrasing of Bengt's popular astronomy book Kosmisk Resa (in English: Cosmic Journey) written in the early eighties. I think this aptly symbolizes his career that has been an astronomical voyage from near to far, from the distant past to the present. The original book title was modified slightly to reflect that most of his work to date has dealt with stars in one way or another. In addition it also gives credit to Bengt's important role as a guiding light for a very large number of students, colleagues and collaborators, indeed for several generations of astronomers. For me personally, the book Kosmisk Resa bears particular significance as it has shaped my life rather profoundly. Although I had already decided to become an astronomer, when I first read the book as a 14-year-old I made up my mind then and there that I would study under Bengt Gustafsson and work on stars. Indeed I have remained true to this somewhat audacious resolution. I suspect that a great number of us have similar stories how Bengt has had a major influence on our lives, whether on the professional or personal level. Perhaps Bengt's most outstanding characteristic is his enthralling enthusiasm. This is equally true whether he is pondering some scientific conundrum, supervising students or performing in front of an audience, be it an

  16. Countering the stray magnetic field of the CUSP trap by using additional coils

    CERN Document Server

    Thole, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    The ASACUSA experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN tries to measure the Hyperfine Structure (HFS) of Antihydrogen (H ̄) using a Rabi spectroscopy set-up. In measuring this HFS it will yield a very precise test of CPT-symmetry. For this set-up to work a homogeneous magnetic field is needed in the cavity where the Hyperfine transition of H ̄ occurs. Due to the stray fields from the CUSP trap, where H ̄ is produced, additional coils are needed to counter these fields. It is found, using COMSOL simulations, that two coils are suitable for this. Leading to a relative standard deviation of the magnetic field of σB/B = 1.06%.

  17. Influence of occlusal contact area on cusp defection and stress distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna Karina Figueiredo; Xavier, Thaty Aparecida; Paes-Junior, Tarcisio José Arruda; Andreatta-Filho, Oswaldo Daniel; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of occlusal contact area for loading on the cuspal defection and stress distribution in a first premolar restored with a high elastic modulus restorative material. The Rhinoceros 4.0 software was used for modeling the three-dimensional geometries of dental and periodontal structures and the inlay restoration. Thus, two different models, intact and restored teeth with three occlusal contact areas, 0.1, 0.5 and 0.75 mm(2), on enamel at the occlusal surface of buccal and lingual cusps. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed with the program ANSYS (Workbench 13.0), which generated a mesh with tetrahedral elements with greater refinement in the regions of interest, and was constrained at the bases of cortical and trabecular bone in all axis and loaded with 100 N normal to each contact area. To analysis of maximum principal stress, the smaller occlusal contact area showed greater compressive stress in region of load application for both the intact and inlay restored tooth. However, tensile stresses at the occlusal isthmus were similar for all three tested occlusal contact areas (60 MPa). To displacement of the cusps was higher for teeth with inlay (0.46-0.48 mm). For intact teeth, the smaller contact area showed greater displacement (0.10 mm). For teeth with inlays, the displacement of the cusps were similar in all types of occlusal area. Cuspal displacement was higher in the restored tooth when compared to the intact tooth, but there were no significant variations even with changes in the occlusal contact area. RELEVANCE CLINICAL: Occlusal contacts have a great influence on the positioning of teeth being able to maintain the position and stability of the mandible. Axial loads would be able to generate more uniform stress at the root presenting a greater concentration of load application in the point and the occlusal surface. Thus, is necessary to analyze the relationship between these occlusal contacts as dental

  18. Double-cusp simulation during northward IMF using 3D PIC global code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Amin; Kalaee, Mohammad Javad

    2017-07-01

    The cusp has important effects on the transportation of particles and their energy from the solar wind to the magnetosphere, and ionosphere, and high-altitude atmosphere. The cusp can be considered to be a part of the magnetospheric boundary layer with weaker magnetic fields. It has been studied since 1971 by different satellite observations. Despite many years of investigation, some problems, such as the boundaries, shapes, and method of construction, remain to be solved. The double cusp was first reported by Wing using the observation of the DMSP satellite. He also compared the results of observations with the results of a 2D MHD simulation. In this study, by performing simulations and analyzing the results, we report the observation of a V-shaped double-cusp structure under the northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). In our simulation, the double cusp was seen only for electrons, although a weak double cusp was observed for ions as well. We showed that this double cusp occurred because of electron precipitation from different sources of solar wind and magnetosphere with different magnetic field strengths. In previous studies of the double cusp, there were debates on its spatial structure or on its temporal behavior due to the cusp movement caused by the sharp solar wind effects on the magnetosphere shape. Here we report the spatial detection of the double cusp similar to the one observed by the DMSP satellite, but for the northward IMF case. Also, we investigate the asymmetry along the dawn-dusk side of the magnetosphere using our 3D PIC simulation code.

  19. Introduction to stellar structure

    CERN Document Server

    Maciel, Walter J

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of this book, the author presents the basic properties of the stellar interior and describes them thoroughly, along with deriving the main stellar structure equations of temperature, density, pressure and luminosity, among others. The process and application of solving these equations is explained, as well as linking these results with actual observations.  The second part of the text describes what happens to a star over time, and how to determine this by solving the same equations at different points during a star’s lifetime. The fate of various stars is quite different depending on their masses, and this is described in the final parts of the book. This text can be used for an upper level undergraduate course or an introductory graduate course on stellar physics.

  20. Estimating precise metallicity and stellar mass evolution of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of galaxies can be conveniently broken down into the evolution of their contents. The changing dust, gas, and stellar content in addition to the changing dark matter potential and periodic feedback from a super-massive blackhole are some of the key ingredients. We focus on the stellar content that can be observed, as the stars reflect information about the galaxy when they were formed. We approximate the stellar content and star formation histories of unresolved galaxies using stellar population modeling. Though simplistic, this approach allows us to reconstruct the star formation histories of galaxies that can be used to test models of galaxy formation and evolution. These models, however, suffer from degeneracies at large lookback times (t > 1 Gyr) as red, low luminosity stars begin to dominate a galaxy’s spectrum. Additionally, degeneracies between stellar populations at different ages and metallicities often make stellar population modeling less precise. The machine learning technique diffusion k-means has been shown to increase the precision in stellar population modeling using a mono-metallicity basis set. However, as galaxies evolve, we expect the metallicity of stellar populations to vary. We use diffusion k-means to generate a multi-metallicity basis set to estimate the stellar mass and chemical evolution of unresolved galaxies. Two basis sets are formed from the Bruzual & Charlot 2003 and MILES stellar population models. We then compare the accuracy and precision of these models in recovering complete (stellar mass and metallicity) histories of mock data. Similarities in the groupings of stellar population spectra in the diffusion maps for each metallicity hint at fundamental age transitions common to both basis sets that can be used to identify stellar populations in a given age range.

  1. 3D Global PIC simulation of Cusp Dynamics and Alfvenic transition layers at cusp outer boundary during IMF rotations from north to south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, DongSheng; Lembege, Bertrand; Esmaeili, Amin; Nishikawa, Ken-ichi

    2014-05-01

    The first 3D global full electro-magnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in the global view of solar-wind-magnetosphere interaction are performed, and compared with the statistical surveys of the plasma flows measured by the CLUSTER satellites in the high-altitude cusp region of the Northern Hemisphere. he magnetospheric polar cusp regions are considered to be key regions to transfer mass, and energy from the solar-wind to the plasma sheet. Using the global PIC simulation, we try to understand these key regions and the dynamical interactions that occur there. Statistical experimental observations of the cusp boundaries from CLUSTER mission made by Lavraud et al. (2005) have clearly evidenced the presence of a transition layer inside the magnetosheath near the outer boundary of the cusp. This layer characterized by Log(MA) ~ 1 allows a transition from super-Alfvenic to sub-Alfvenic bulk flow from the exterior to the interior side of the outer cusp and has been mainly observed experimentally under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The role of this layer is important in order to understand the flow variations (and later the entry and precipitation of particles) when penetrating the outer boundary of the cusp. In order to analyze this layer, a large 3D PIC simulation of the global solar wind-terrestrial magnetosphere interaction have been performed, and the attention has been focused on the cusp region and its nearby surrounding during IMF rotation from north to south. Present results retrieve quite well the presence of this layer within the meridian plane for exactly northward IMF, but its location differs in the sense that it is located slightly below the X reconnection region associated to the nearby magnetopause (above the outer boundary of the cusp). In order to clarify this question, an extensive study has been performed as follows: (i) a 3D mapping of this transition layer in order to analyze more precisely the thickness, the location and the

  2. Antiparallel magnetic merging signatures during IMF BY>>0: longitudinal and latitudinal cusp aurora bifurcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Massetti

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A prominent dayside auroral event, occurred during an IMF BY-dominated time interval, and characterized by the contemporaneous longitudinal and latitudinal cusp bifurcations, is reported. The event was recorded the 19 December 2002, between about 09:30–10:45 UT, by the ITACA2 twin auroral monitors system, in the Greenland-Svalbard zone. The splitting of the ionospheric footprint of the geomagnetic cusp, traced by the dayside auroral activity, was recently identified with the signatures of antiparallel reconnection episodes ongoing at different magnetopause locations, during large IMF BY periods. The first part of the event showed a broad longitudinal bifurcation of the red-dominated cusp aurora, displaced in the prenoon and postnoon, with a separation up to ~1800 km, during northeast directed IMF (clock-angle rotating from 45° to 90°. This observation widens the range of IMF regimes that are known to drive a longitudinal bifurcation of the cusp, since previous case-studies reported these events to occur during southeast/southwest oriented IMF (clock-angle ≈135°. The second part of the event, developed when the IMF turned to a nearly horizontal orientation (BY>>0, BZ~0, clock-angle ~90°, and exhibited the simultaneous activation of the cusp auroras in three distinct areas: i two of them associated to the above-mentioned longitudinally bifurcated cusp (~73°–75° CGM latitude, type 1 cusp aurora, and linked to (nearantiparallel magnetic reconnection patches equatorward the northern and the southern cusp, ii the other one characterized by isolated high-latitude (~76°–77° CGM latitude, type 2 cusp aurora rayed arc(s with intense green emission, and triggered by (nearantiparallel merging at the northern lobe (usually observed during positive IMF BZ, poleward the local cusp. During this phase, the longitudinal separation of the low-latitude type~1 cusp aurora was about 1000 km wide, with a 500 km gap, while the latitudinal separation

  3. Perspectives gained from a combination of Polar, Cluster, and ISEE measurements in the dayside cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    Energetic particles are a consistent and common feature of the high-altitude dayside cusp. Observing these particles in a region where they cannot be stably trapped is one the most striking findings of the Polar and Cluster satellites. The source of these cusp energetic particles (CEP) has centered on the possible role of the bow shock, leakage from the magnetosphere, and local acceleration within the cusp itself. The Polar satellite has documented that the shocked solar wind plasma enters the weak geomagnetic field of the polar region and produces cusp diamagnetic cavities (CDC) of apparent tremendous size (~6 Re) well within the traditional magnetosphere. Within these cavities the local magnetic field is depressed and very turbulent. The intensities of the energetic ions are observed to increase by many orders of the magnitudes during the CDC encounters. The four Cluster spacecraft have typically not observed such a large cusp and extended diamagnetic cavity. The search for evidence to resolve this inconsistency led to a revisiting of ISEE 1 and 2 satellite measurements during two encounters with the high altitude cusp. In each of these cases the very good energy and angular resolution of the ISEE energetic particle experiment revealed that energetic ions within the cusp located at GSMZ ranging from 4 Re to 6 Re appeared from below the satellites and streamed outward in very close association with the diamagnetic cavities in the measured magnetic field. Energetic electrons demonstrated a peaked at 90 degree pitch angle distribution indicative of being confined within a cusp minimum field trap. In one of these cases the electron fluxes peak near the cusp boundary and in the other case they sharply define the CDC boundaries varying in a strictly anti-correlated manner during a large geomagnetic storm. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions is indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles in

  4. Pentaquark, cusp and rescattering in single kaon photoproduction off deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Laget

    2006-02-28

    In very well defined part of the phase space, K N and {Lambda} N rescattering depend on on-shell elementary matrix elements and on the low momentum components of the deuteron wave function. This provides us with the unique opportunity to study details in the scattering amplitudes that may have escaped the analysis of reactions induced on a nucleon target by Kaon and Hyperon beams at low energies. When folded with a typical experimental mass resolution, a narrow state with a width of 1 {approx} MeV would contribute by no more than 10% to the KN mass spectrum. On the contrary, a cusp would be easily detected near the {Sigma} production threshold in the {Lambda} N mass spectrum.

  5. Recent advances in stellarator optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, D. A.; Boozer, A. H.; Brown, T.; Breslau, J.; Curreli, D.; Landreman, M.; Lazerson, S. A.; Lore, J.; Mynick, H.; Neilson, G. H.; Pomphrey, N.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Zolfaghari, A.

    2017-12-01

    Computational optimization has revolutionized the field of stellarator design. To date, optimizations have focused primarily on optimization of neoclassical confinement and ideal MHD stability, although limited optimization of other parameters has also been performed. The purpose of this paper is to outline a select set of new concepts for stellarator optimization that, when taken as a group, present a significant step forward in the stellarator concept. One of the criticisms that has been leveled at existing methods of design is the complexity of the resultant field coils. Recently, a new coil optimization code—COILOPT++, which uses a spline instead of a Fourier representation of the coils,—was written and included in the STELLOPT suite of codes. The advantage of this method is that it allows the addition of real space constraints on the locations of the coils. The code has been tested by generating coil designs for optimized quasi-axisymmetric stellarator plasma configurations of different aspect ratios. As an initial exercise, a constraint that the windings be vertical was placed on large major radius half of the non-planar coils. Further constraints were also imposed that guaranteed that sector blanket modules could be removed from between the coils, enabling a sector maintenance scheme. Results of this exercise will be presented. New ideas on methods for the optimization of turbulent transport have garnered much attention since these methods have led to design concepts that are calculated to have reduced turbulent heat loss. We have explored possibilities for generating an experimental database to test whether the reduction in transport that is predicted is consistent with experimental observations. To this end, a series of equilibria that can be made in the now latent QUASAR experiment have been identified that will test the predicted transport scalings. Fast particle confinement studies aimed at developing a generalized optimization algorithm are also

  6. Stellar Structure and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf; Weiss, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This long-awaited second edition of the classical textbook on Stellar Structure and Evolution by Kippenhahn and Weigert is a thoroughly revised version of the original text. Taking into account modern observational constraints as well as additional physical effects such as mass loss and diffusion, Achim Weiss and Rudolf Kippenhahn have succeeded in bringing the book up to the state-of-the-art with respect to both the presentation of stellar physics and the presentation and interpretation of current sophisticated stellar models. The well-received and proven pedagogical approach of the first edition has been retained. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of the physics of the stellar interior and the underlying fundamental processes and parameters. The models developed to explain the stability, dynamics and evolution of the stars are presented and great care is taken to detail the various stages in a star’s life. Just as the first edition, which remained a standard work for more than 20 years after its...

  7. Relativistic stellar models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 77; Issue 3. Relativistic stellar models ... Upon specifying particular forms for one of the gravitational potentials and the electric field intensity, the condition for pressure isotropy is transformed into a hypergeometric equation with two free parameters. For particular ...

  8. Commission 35: Stellar Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, Francesca; Charbonnel, Corinne; Dziembowski, Wojciech; Fontaine, Gilles; Larson, Richard B.; Lattanzio, John; Liebert, Jim W.; Müller, Ewald; Weiss, Achim; Yungelson, Lev R.

    The Commission home page is maintained by Claus Leitherer and contains general information on the Commission structure and activities, including links to stellar structure resources that were made available by the owners. The resources contain evolutionary tracks and isochrones from various groups, nuclear reaction, EOS, and opacity data as well as links to main astronomical journals. As a routine activity, the Organizing Committee has commented on and ranked proposals for several IAU sponsored meetings. Our Commission acted as one of the coordinating bodies of a Symposium held at the IAU XXVI General Assembly in Prague, August 2006, (IAU Symposium No. 239 Convection in Astrophysics, and participated in the organization of the following Joint Discussions: JD05 Calibrating the Top of the Stellar Mass-Luminosity Relation, JD06 Neutron Stars and Black Holes in Star Clusters, JD08 Solar and Stellar Activity Cycles, JD11 Pre-Solar Grains as Astrophysical Tools; JD14 Modelling Dense Stellar Systems; and JD17 Highlights of Recent Progress in the Seismology of the Sun and Sun-like Stars.

  9. A Stellar Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the stellar demonstrator is to help explain the movement of stars. In particular, students have difficulties understanding why, if they are living in the Northern Hemisphere, they may observe starts in the Southern Hemisphere, or why circumpolar stars are not the same in different parts of Europe. Using the demonstrator, these…

  10. Advanced Stellar Compass FMECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    This documents describes the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) failure modes, effects and criticality analyses (FMECA).The objectives of the FMECA are:1)To identify the possible failure;2)To identify the effects of the possible failures including the identification of potential hazards to determine...

  11. THE ADVANCED STELLAR COMPASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1997-01-01

    this demand the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), a fully autonomous miniature star tracker, was developed. This ASC is capable of both solving the "lost in space" problem and determine the attitude with arcseconds precision. The development, principles of operation and instrument autonomy of the ASC...

  12. Stellar ages from asteroseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Yveline; Montalbán, Josefina

    2009-06-01

    Asteroseismology has been recognized for a long time as a very powerful mean to probe stellar interiors. The oscillations frequencies are closely related to stellar internal structure properties via the density and the sound speed profiles. Since these properties are in turn tightly linked with the mass and evolutionary state, we can expect to determine the age and mass of a star from the comparison of its oscillation spectrum with the predictions of stellar models. Such a comparison will of course suffer both from the problems we face when modeling a particular star (for instance the uncertainties on its global parameters and chemical composition) and from our general misunderstanding of the physical processes at work in stellar interiors (for instance the various transport processes that may lead to core mixing and affect the ages predicted by models). However for stars where observations have provided very precise and numerous oscillation frequencies together with accurate global parameters and additional information (as the radius or the mass of the star if it is member of a binary system, the radius if it observable in interferometry or the mean density if the star is an exoplanet host), we can also expect to better constrain the physical description of the stellar structure and transport processes and to finally get a more reliable age estimation. After a brief survey of stellar pulsations, we present some general seismic diagnostics that can be used to infer the age of a pulsating star as well as their limitations. We then illustrate the ability of asteroseismology to scrutinize stellar interiors on the basis of a few examples. In the years to come, extended very precise asteroseismic observations are expected, either in photometry or in spectroscopy, from present and future ground-based (HARPS, CORALIE, ELODIE, UVES, UCLES, SIAMOIS, SONG) or spatial devices (MOST, CoRoT, WIRE, Kepler, PLATO). This will considerably enlarge the sample of stars eligible to

  13. Effects of magnetic field strength in the discharge channel on the performance of a multi-cusped field thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance characteristics of a Multi-cusped Field Thruster depending on the magnetic field strength in the discharge channel were investigated. Four thrusters with different outer diameters of the magnet rings were designed to change the magnetic field strength in the discharge channel. It is found that increasing the magnetic field strength could restrain the radial cross-field electron current and decrease the radial width of main ionization region, which gives rise to the reduction of propellant utilization and thruster performance. The test results in different anode voltage conditions indicate that both the thrust and anode efficiency are higher for the weaker magnetic field in the discharge channel.

  14. Cusp observation at Saturn's high-latitude magnetosphere by the Cassini spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, J M; Arridge, C S; Lamy, L; Leisner, J S; Thomsen, M F; Mitchell, D G; Coates, A J; Radioti, A; Jones, G H; Roussos, E; Krupp, N; Grodent, D; Dougherty, M K; Waite, J H

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first analysis of magnetospheric cusp observations at Saturn by multiple in situ instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft. Using this we infer the process of reconnection was occurring at Saturn's magnetopause. This agrees with remote observations that showed the associated auroral signatures of reconnection. Cassini crossed the northern cusp around noon local time along a poleward trajectory. The spacecraft observed ion energy-latitude dispersions—a characteristic signature of the terrestrial cusp. This ion dispersion is “stepped,” which shows that the reconnection is pulsed. The ion energy-pitch angle dispersions suggest that the field-aligned distance from the cusp to the reconnection site varies between ∼27 and 51 RS. An intensification of lower frequencies of the Saturn kilometric radiation emissions suggests the prior arrival of a solar wind shock front, compressing the magnetosphere and providing more favorable conditions for magnetopause reconnection. Key Points We observe evidence for reconnection in the cusp plasma at Saturn We present evidence that the reconnection process can be pulsed at Saturn Saturn's cusp shows similar characteristics to the terrestrial cusp PMID:25821276

  15. Statistical survey of the diamagnetic pressure in the mid-altitude cusp region: Cluster observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianguang; Shi, Jiankui; Zhang, Tielong; Liu, Zhenxing

    The narrow funnel-shaped cusp stems from the interaction of the solar wind with the geomagnetic field in Earth's dayside magnetosphere. Many space missions, such as Hawkeye, IMP, HEOS and Polar, confirmed that a strong magnetic depression was a characteristic feature of the cusp. That results from the incoming magnetosheath particles, which both decrease total magnetic field as well as increase the ambient plasma density in the cusp region. Here, we present the results of a statistical study of the diamagnetic pressure as observed by Cluster in the cusp region from 4-8 Re. We identify the cusp region with Cluster magnetic field data and plasma data. The peak diamagnetic pressure is calculated by the change of magnetic pressure in the cusp, which involves calculating a boxcar average of the background field and subtracting the magnetic pressure of the background from the total pressure. The diamagnetic pressure shows strong dependence on the solar wind dynamic pressure as expected. The IMF Bz component also has influence on the value of the diamagnetic pressure. So the diamagnetic pressure of the cusp region is controlled by the fluid dynamics and electromagnetic dynamics of the solar wind.

  16. Cusp observation at Saturn's high-latitude magnetosphere by the Cassini spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, J M; Arridge, C S; Lamy, L; Leisner, J S; Thomsen, M F; Mitchell, D G; Coates, A J; Radioti, A; Jones, G H; Roussos, E; Krupp, N; Grodent, D; Dougherty, M K; Waite, J H

    2014-03-16

    We report on the first analysis of magnetospheric cusp observations at Saturn by multiple in situ instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft. Using this we infer the process of reconnection was occurring at Saturn's magnetopause. This agrees with remote observations that showed the associated auroral signatures of reconnection. Cassini crossed the northern cusp around noon local time along a poleward trajectory. The spacecraft observed ion energy-latitude dispersions-a characteristic signature of the terrestrial cusp. This ion dispersion is "stepped," which shows that the reconnection is pulsed. The ion energy-pitch angle dispersions suggest that the field-aligned distance from the cusp to the reconnection site varies between ∼27 and 51 R S . An intensification of lower frequencies of the Saturn kilometric radiation emissions suggests the prior arrival of a solar wind shock front, compressing the magnetosphere and providing more favorable conditions for magnetopause reconnection. We observe evidence for reconnection in the cusp plasma at SaturnWe present evidence that the reconnection process can be pulsed at SaturnSaturn's cusp shows similar characteristics to the terrestrial cusp.

  17. Cusp currents from ionospheric vorticity generated by gasdynamic and merging flow fields at the magnetopause

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mie, Y. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Crooker, N.U.; Siscoe, G.L. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Cusp currents that arise from ionospheric vorticity generated by the combined merging outflow and gasdynamic flow fields at the magnetopause are quantified and compared with those calculated from vorticity generated by mapping the solar wind electric field into a limited cusp region of the polar cap, as proposed in the synthesis view of Banks. The results are essentially identical for strong interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B{sub Y}, thus demonstrating equivalence between mechanical and electrical descriptions of reconnection-driven convection. For southward IMF, however, the mechanical description yields weak cusp currents with dawn-dusk bipolarity, as deduced from early observations by Iijima and Potemra, whereas the electrical description yields none. The bipolar currents arise from the diverging pattern of gasdynamic flow. The currents become unipolar as B{sub Y} increases and the asymmetry of the merging outflow dominates. Additional cusp currents in both models arise at kinks in the flow contours (additional ionospheric vorticity) around the border of the cusp region, owing to limiting the area of mapping from the magnetopause. The border currents form a bipolar pair that rotates around the circumference of the cusp as the IMF rotates in clock angle. They dominate the currents arising from vorticity within the cusp. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  18. The Four-Loop Planar Amplitude and Cusp Anomalous Dimension in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Zvi; Czakon, Michael; Dixon, Lance J.; Kosower, David A.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.

    2006-11-15

    We present an expression for the leading-color (planar) four-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in 4-2{epsilon} dimensions, in terms of eight separate integrals. The expression is based on consistency of unitarity cuts and infrared divergences. We expand the integrals around {epsilon} = 0, and obtain analytic expressions for the poles from 1/{epsilon}{sup 8} through 1/{epsilon}{sup 4}. We give numerical results for the coefficients of the 1/{epsilon}{sup 3} and 1/e{sup 2} poles. These results all match the known exponentiated structure of the infrared divergences, at four separate kinematic points. The value of the 1/{epsilon}{sup 2} coefficient allows us to test a conjecture of Eden and Staudacher for the four-loop cusp (soft) anomalous dimension. We find that the conjecture is incorrect, although our numerical results suggest that a simple modification of the expression, flipping the sign of the term containing {zeta}{sub 3}{sup 2}, may yield the correct answer. Our numerical value can be used, in a scheme proposed by Kotikov, Lipatov and Velizhanin, to estimate the two constants in the strong-coupling expansion of the cusp anomalous dimension that are known from string theory. The estimate works to 2.6% and 5% accuracy, providing non-trivial evidence in support of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also use the known constants in the strong-coupling expansion as additional input to provide approximations to the cusp anomalous dimension which should be accurate to under one percent for all values of the coupling. When the evaluations of the integrals are completed through the finite terms, it will be possible to test the iterative, exponentiated structure of the finite terms in the four-loop four-point amplitude, which was uncovered earlier at two and three loops.

  19. Variation of galactic cold gas reservoirs with stellar mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddox, Natasha; Hess, Kelley M.; Obreschkow, Danail; Blyth, S.-L.; Jarvis, Matt J.

    The stellar and neutral hydrogen (H I) mass functions at z ˜ 0 are fundamental benchmarks for current models of galaxy evolution. A natural extension of these benchmarks is the two-dimensional distribution of galaxies in the plane spanned by stellar and H I mass, which provides a more stringent test

  20. On the Casimir scaling violation in the cusp anomalous dimension at small angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozin, Andrey; Henn, Johannes; Stahlhofen, Maximilian

    2017-10-01

    We compute the four-loop n f contribution proportional to the quartic Casimir of the QCD cusp anomalous dimension as an expansion for small cusp angle ϕ. This piece is gauge invariant, violates Casimir scaling, and first appears at four loops. It requires the evaluation of genuine non-planar four-loop Feynman integrals. We present results up to O({φ}^4) . One motivation for our calculation is to probe a recent conjecture on the all-order structure of the cusp anomalous dimension. As a byproduct we obtain the four-loop HQET wave function anomalous dimension for this color structure.

  1. Experimental investigation of plasma sheaths in magnetic mirror and cusp configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengqi; Wei, Zi-an; Ma, J. X.

    2017-11-01

    Sheath structures near a metal plate in a magnetized plasma were experimentally investigated in magnetic mirror and cusp configurations. Plasma parameters and the sheath potential distributions were probed by a planar and an emissive probe, respectively. The measured sheath profiles in the mirror configuration show that the sheath thickness first decreases and then increases when the magnetic strength is raised. A magnetic flux-tube model was used to explain this result. In the cusp configuration, the measured sheath thickness decreases with the increase of the coil current creating the magnetic cusp. However, when normalized by the electron Debye length, the dependence of the sheath thickness on the coil current is reversed.

  2. Benchmarking the Multidimensional Stellar Implicit Code MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffrey, T.; Pratt, J.; Viallet, M.; Baraffe, I.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.; Folini, D.; Geroux, C.; Constantino, T.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of a numerical benchmark study for the MUltidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC) based on widely applicable two- and three-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics problems relevant to stellar interiors. MUSIC is an implicit large eddy simulation code that uses implicit time integration, implemented as a Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method. A physics based preconditioning technique which can be adjusted to target varying physics is used to improve the performance of the solver. The problems used for this benchmark study include the Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, and the decay of the Taylor-Green vortex. Additionally we show a test of hydrostatic equilibrium, in a stellar environment which is dominated by radiative effects. In this setting the flexibility of the preconditioning technique is demonstrated. This work aims to bridge the gap between the hydrodynamic test problems typically used during development of numerical methods and the complex flows of stellar interiors. A series of multidimensional tests were performed and analysed. Each of these test cases was analysed with a simple, scalar diagnostic, with the aim of enabling direct code comparisons. As the tests performed do not have analytic solutions, we verify MUSIC by comparing it to established codes including ATHENA and the PENCIL code. MUSIC is able to both reproduce behaviour from established and widely-used codes as well as results expected from theoretical predictions. This benchmarking study concludes a series of papers describing the development of the MUSIC code and provides confidence in future applications.

  3. Facial talon cusp: A rarity, report of a case with one year follow up and flashback on reported cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya Kumar Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Talon cusp is a relatively uncommon developmental anomaly characterized by cusp-like projections, usually presenting on palatal/lingual surface of the anterior teeth. This cusp resembles an eagle′s talon, and hence the name. Normal enamel and dentin covers the cusp, which may or may not contain an extension of pulp. Presence of this anomalous cusp on the facial surface of an anterior tooth is a rare finding and very few cases have been reported in the literature. In most instances, such cusps are associated with clinical problems such as poor esthetics and caries susceptibility. Management of such cases requires a comprehensive knowledge of the clinical entity as well as the problems associated with it. This case report presents a facial talon cusp on the maxillary left central incisor of a 10 year old boy, which was conservatively treated. Vitality of the affected tooth was maintained and followed up for a period of 1 year.

  4. Summary of the Advanced Stellar Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif

    1997-01-01

    The current version of the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) is an improved implementation of the instrument developed for the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite Ørsted. The Ørsted version was successfully tested in space on the NASA sounding rocket "Thunderstorm III", that was launched September 2...

  5. Evolution and seismic tools for stellar astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro, Mario JPFG

    2008-01-01

    A collection of articles published by the journal "Astrophysics and Space Science, Volume 316, Number 1-4", August 2008. This work covers 10 evolution codes and 9 oscillation codes. It is suitable for researchers and research students working on the modeling of stars and on the implementation of seismic test of stellar models.

  6. Local Stellarator Equilibrium Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Stuart R.; Hegna, Chris C.; Lewandowski, Jerome W.

    2000-10-01

    Extensive calculations of ballooning and drift waves spectrums in asymmetric toroidal configurations (e.g. stellarators) to appreciate the role of magnetic geometry and profile variations are usually are usually prohibitive as the evaluation of the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium is in itself a non-trivial problem. Although simple analytical MHD model equilibria do exist for tokamak configurations, their stellarator counterparts are usually crude or very approximate. In order to make more extensive stability calculations (of both ideal ballooning and drift-type modes), a technique for generating three-dimensional magneto-static equilibria, localized to a magnetic surface, has been developed. The technique allows one to easily manipulate various 3-D shaping and profile effects on a magnetic surface avoiding the need to recompute an entire three dimensional solution of the equilibrium. The model equilibrium has been implemented into existing ideal MHD ballooning and drift wave numerical codes. Marginal ballooning stability diagrams and drift wave calculations will be reported.

  7. Convection and stellar oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarslev, Magnus Johan

    2017-01-01

    of stars. For stars like the sun, energy transport in the outer layers occurs mainly through turbulent convection. Here, pressure mode oscillations are essentially propagating sound waves, whose properties can be altered by interaction with the turbulent motion of the gas. This has always been a problem...... for asteroseismology, because of the challenges inherent in modelling turbulent convection in 1D stellar models. As a result of oversimplifying the physics near the surface, theoretical calculations systematically overestimate the oscillation frequencies. This has become known as the asteroseismic surface effect. Due...... to lacking better options, this frequency difference is typically corrected for with ad-hoc formulae. The topic of this thesis is the improvement of 1D stellar convection models and the effects this has on asteroseismic properties. The source of improvements is 3D simulations of radiation...

  8. Pulsed Flows Along a Cusp Structure Observed with SOO/AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barbara; Demoulin, P.; Mandrini, C. H.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Driel-Gesztelyi, L. Van; Viall, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of a cusp-shaped structure that formed after a flare and coronal mass ejection on 14 February 2011. Throughout the evolution of the cusp structure, blob features up to a few Mm in size were observed flowing along the legs and stalk of the cusp at projected speeds ranging from 50 to 150 km/sec. Around two dozen blob features, on order of 1 - 3 minutes apart, were tracked in multiple AlA EUV wavelengths. The blobs flowed outward (away from the Sun) along the cusp stalk, and most of the observed speeds were either constant or decelerating. We attempt to reconstruct the 3-D magnetic field of the evolving structure, discuss the possible drivers of the flows (including pulsed reconnect ion and tearing mode instability), and compare the observations to studies of pulsed reconnect ion and blob flows in the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere.

  9. Plasma waves in the dayside polar cusp. II - Magnetopause and polar magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarf, F. L.; Fredricks, R. W.; Neugebauer, M.; Russell, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    During the outbound pass of Nov. 1, 1968, Ogo 5 sporadically encountered the low-altitude polar cusp at low magnetic latitudes. The spacecraft remained in the cusp beyond six earth radii, and it then traversed the interface region between the magnetospheric cusp and the magnetosheath. Two large scale discontinuities were detected in this sheath-cusp transition region, and several possible interpretations are evaluated here. At 1427 UT, local changes in magnetic field orientation and the variation in ULF magnetic power spectral density were typical of shifts detected at the magnetopause, although the spacecraft did not traverse a true boundary of warm plasma at this point. The second discontinuity, detected at 1456 UT, resembled a collisionless shock, and it was characterized by observations of intense, impulsive VLF electric field bursts and rapid local variations in both total ion flux and differential electron flux. The simplest interpretation is that Ogo 5 had traversed a standing shock within the sheath.

  10. Scattering Study of a Modified Cusp Potential in Conformable Fractional Formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Sang [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Zarrinkamar, Saber [Islamic Azad University, Garmsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, Soroush [Islamic Azad University North Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hassanabadi, Hassan [Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The fractional Schr¨odinger equation is considered with a cusp interaction. Exact analytical solutions are obtained and thereby the scattering states as well as transmission and reflection coefficients are determined.

  11. Scattering study of a modified cusp potential in conformable fractional formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won Sang; Zarrinkamar, Saber; Zare, Soroush; Hassanabadi, Hassan

    2017-02-01

    The fractional Schrödinger equation is considered with a cusp interaction. Exact analytical solutions are obtained and thereby the scattering states as well as transmission and reflection coefficients are determined.

  12. Muscle activity and masticatory efficiency with bilateral extension base removable partial dentures with different cusp angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K

    2017-06-20

    Whether masticatory efficiency and electromyographic activity are influenced by type of artificial teeth and food is unclear. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the influence of extension base removable partial dentures (RPDs) with different cusp angles: anatomic (33 degrees), semianatomic (20 degrees), and nonanatomic (0 degrees) teeth on masticatory efficiency and muscle activity during the mastication of test foods with different textures. Twelve participants with RPDs were selected to perform masticatory efficiency and electromyographic tests. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were used to record the activities of the masseter and temporalis muscles during the mastication of different types of test foods. The maximal voltage and duration were measured on the integrated EMG signal in each muscle during food mastication, and the mean reading of both sides was then recorded. Analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test were used to perform statistical analyses (α=.05). The masticatory efficiency of RPDs with nonanatomic teeth was significantly inferior to that of RPDs with anatomic and semianatomic teeth (P.05). Also, muscle activity (according to EMG) with RPDs with NA teeth was significantly higher than that with anatomic and semianatomic teeth (PEMG muscle activity and reduced masticatory efficiency than anatomic or semianatomic teeth. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multi-lobed mesiodens with a palatal talon cusp: a rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaveni, Nayaka Basavanthappa; Umashankara, Kagathur Veerbadrappa; Sreedevi,; Reddy, Bokka Praveen; Radhika, Nayaka Basavanthappa; Satisha, Tirumala Suryaprakash

    2010-01-01

    Mesiodens is a midline supernumerary tooth commonly seen in the maxillary arch and the talon cusp is a rare dental developmental anomaly seen on the lingual surface of anterior teeth. This paper presents a rare clinical case of development of talon cusp in a mesiodens with multiple lobes, which interfered with both occlusion and appearance of an 11-year-old patient. During clinical interview, the patient reported difficulty on mastication. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed that a...

  14. Mandibular Talon Cusp in Primary Lateral Incisor: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaminathan Kavitha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A talon cusp is a dental anomaly commonly occurring in the permanent dentition compared to the primary dentition. It commonly affects the maxillary anterior teeth. In primary dentition, the most commonly affected tooth is the maxillary central incisors. This is a rare case report of a 5-year-old male patient with a talon cusp affecting the mandibular primary lateral incisor. Recognition and treatment of this anomaly at early stages is important to avoid complications.

  15. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High-Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow-band waves at frequencies approx. 0.2-3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both left-handed and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle, and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  16. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the High Altitude Cusp: Polar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan; Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Zhou, X.-W.; Mozer, F.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic field data from the Polar Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) show that narrow band waves at frequencies approximately 0.2 to 3 Hz are a permanent feature in the vicinity of the polar cusp. The waves have been found in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp (both poleward and equatorward of the cusp) and in the cusp itself. The occurrence of waves is coincident with depression of magnetic field strength associated with enhanced plasma density, indicating the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp region. The wave frequencies are generally scaled by the local proton cyclotron frequency, and vary between 0.2 and 1.7 times local proton cyclotron frequency. This suggests that the waves are generated in the cusp region by the precipitating magnetosheath plasma. The properties of the waves are highly variable. The waves exhibit both lefthanded and right-handed polarization in the spacecraft frame. The propagation angles vary from nearly parallel to nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. We find no correlation among wave frequency, propagation angle and polarization. Combined magnetic field and electric field data for the waves indicate that the energy flux of the waves is guided by the background magnetic field and points downward toward the ionosphere.

  17. Reconnection and energetic particles at the edge of the exterior cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Asikainen

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study flux transfer events (FTE observed at the post-noon edge of the exterior cusp region by Cluster satellites. During the outbound dayside orbit on 2 February 2003, intense bursts of energetic particles were observed in close conjuction with magnetic field FTE signatures by the RAPID instrument onboard the Cluster 4. The pitch-angle distribution of the particles showed that the enhancements consist of particles flowing antiparallel to the magnetosheath field lines away from the expected reconnection site to the exterior cusp. At the same time Cluster 3 observed enhancements of energetic particles deeper in the exterior cusp with a delay of about 40 s to the Cluster 4 enhancements. The estimated maximum energy gain per particle by reconnection remains below 1 keV, thus clearly below the tens to hundreds of keV energy range observed by the RAPID instrument. These observations support the earlier statistical result of the magnetospheric origin of energetic particles in the exterior cusp. Reconnection near the exterior cusp partly releases the particles in the closed field lines of the adjacent HLPS region into the exterior cusp.

  18. Short-term variations of Mercury's cusps Na emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, S.; Mangano, V.; Milillo, A.; Mura, A.; Orsini, S.; Plainaki, C.

    2017-09-01

    We illustrate the analysis of short-term ground-based observations of the exospheric Na emission (D1 and D2 lines) from Mercury, which was characterized by two high-latitude peaks confined near the magnetospheric cusp footprints. During a series of scheduled observations from THEMIS solar telescope, achieved by scanning the whole planet, we implemented a series of extra measurements by recording the Na emission from a narrow north-south strip only, centered above the two emission peaks. Our aim was to inspect the existence of short-term variations, which were never analyzed before from ground-based observations, and their possible correlation with interplanetary magnetic field variations. Though Mercury possesses a miniature magnetosphere, characterized by fast reconnection events that develop on a timescale of few minutes, ground-based observations show that the exospheric Na emission pattern can be globally stable for a prolonged period (some days) and can exhibits fluctuations in the time range of tens of minutes.

  19. Modeling Rip Channel and Mega-Cusp Migration With XBeach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzech, M.; Thornton, E.; Reniers, A.; Macmahan, J.; O'Reilly, B.

    2008-12-01

    The relationship between alongshore rip channel migration and sediment transport is investigated using XBeach, a recently developed 2DH coastal erosion model. XBeach solves the nonlinear shallow water equations and accounts for the effects of breaking waves, wind, turbulent dispersion, and nonlinear bottom friction. It is similar to the more widely used Delft3D but focuses on morphological change to the beach and dune and includes the action of swash on a moving shoreline. Numerics have been simplified to increase model speed and ensure stability in shallow water. XBeach is first validated by recreating a three-year time series of alongshore rip migration patterns measured with video at Fort Ord, near Monterey, CA. The model is initialized with wave spectral data at 15m depth, provided by the Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP). Flow fields and transport patterns are then examined in detail over a single rip channel and mega-cusp to better understand the small scale processes associated with migration, and a range of simulations are conducted to quantify the effects on migration rates of varying wave height, incident angle, or tidal elevation. Results are presented from a four-month period of carefully monitored, accelerated shoreline erosion at the Fort Ord site, which followed the removal of a longstanding riprap barrier that had created a sand dune peninsula extending to the water's edge. Model-predicted erosion rates along the 300m stretch of shoreline are compared with dune retreat measurements for the period.

  20. X-ray emission from relativistically moving electron density cusps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kando, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Nakamura, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Kawase, K.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Fukuda, Y.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Daito, I.; Kameshima, T.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Daido, H.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.; Ma, J.; Chen, L.-M.; Ragozin, E. N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Osaka University (Japan); Joint Institute for High Temperature of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries (Japan); Ludwig-Maximilians-University (Germany); and others

    2012-07-11

    We report on novel methods to generate ultra-short, coherent, X-rays using a laserplasma interaction. Nonlinear interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma creates stable, specific structures such as electron cusps. For example, wake waves excited in an underdense plasma by an intense, short-pulse laser become dense and propagate along with the laser pulse. This is called a relativistic flying mirror. The flying mirror can reflect a counter-propagating laser pulse and directly convert it into high-frequency radiation, with a frequency multiplication factor of {approx} 4{gamma}{sup 2} and pulse shortening with the same factor. After the proof-of-principle experiments, we observed that the photon number generated in the flying mirror is close to the theoretical estimate. We present the details of the experiment in which a 9 TW laser pulse focused into a He gas jet generated the Flying Mirror, which partly reflected a 1 TW pulse, giving up to {approx} 10{sup 10} photons, 60 nJ (1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} photons/sr) in the XUV spectral region (12.8-22 nm).

  1. Formation of stellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilgys, Romas; Bonnell, Ian A.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the triggering of star formation and the formation of stellar clusters in molecular clouds which form as the interstellar medium passes through spiral shocks. The spiral shock compresses gas into an ∼100 pc long main star formation ridge, where clusters form every 5-10 pc along the merger ridge. We use a gravitational potential-based cluster finding algorithm, which extracts individual clusters, calculates their physical properties and traces cluster evolution over multiple time-steps. Final cluster masses at the end of simulation range between 1000 and 30 000 M⊙ with their characteristic half-mass radii between 0.1 and 2 pc. These clusters form by gathering material from 10-20 pc size scales. Clusters also show a mass-specific angular momentum relation, where more massive clusters have larger specific angular momentum due to the larger size scales, and hence angular momentum from which they gather their mass. The evolution shows that more massive clusters experience hierarchical merging process, which increases stellar age spreads up to 2-3 Myr. Less massive clusters appear to grow by gathering nearby recently formed sinks, while more massive clusters with their large global gravitational potentials are increasing their mass growth from gas accretion.

  2. Interplanetary magnetic field control of Saturn's polar cusp aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Bunce

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dayside UV emissions in Saturn's polar ionosphere have been suggested to be the first observational evidence of the kronian "cusp" (Gérard et al., 2004. The emission has two distinct states. The first is a bright arc-like feature located in the pre-noon sector, and the second is a more diffuse "spot" of aurora which lies poleward of the general location of the main auroral oval, which may be related to different upstream interplanetary magnetic field (IMF orientations. Here we take up the suggestion that these emissions correspond to the cusp. However, direct precipitation of electrons in the cusp regions is not capable of producing significant UV aurora. We have therefore investigated the possibility that the observed UV emissions are associated with reconnection occurring at the dayside magnetopause, possibly pulsed, akin to flux transfer events seen at the Earth. We devise a conceptual model of pulsed reconnection at the low-latitude dayside magnetopause for the case of northwards IMF which will give rise to pulsed twin-vortical flows in the magnetosphere and ionosphere in the vicinity of the open-closed field-line boundary, and hence to bi-polar field-aligned currents centred in the vortical flows. During intervals of high-latitude lobe reconnection for southward IMF, we also expect to have pulsed twin-vortical flows and corresponding bi-polar field-aligned currents. The vortical flows in this case, however, are displaced poleward of the open-closed field line boundary, and are reversed in sense, such that the field-aligned currents are also reversed. For both cases of northward and southward IMF we have also for the first time included the effects associated with the IMF By effect. We also include the modulation introduced by the structured nature of the solar wind and IMF at Saturn's orbit by developing "slow" and "fast" flow models corresponding to intermediate and high strength IMF respectively. We then

  3. Observations of beach cusp evolution using a stationary, shore-based lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, A.; Whitesides, E. T.; Brodie, K.; Spore, N.

    2016-12-01

    Although beach cusps are common features on beaches around the world, questions still remain regarding the range of conditions in which they form, the initial forcing conditions under which they form, and the erosive or accretionary nature of cusp events. While many prior studies have focused on the formation and morphology of beach cusps, many of these are limited in the spatial extent of observations, in their spatial or temporal resolution, or in the availability of accompanying hydrodynamic data. In this study, beach cusp formation and evolution is investigated using an automated lidar system that provides hourly three-dimensional scans of subaerial beach topography with high spatial resolution ([O(1 cm)]). The stationary lidar scanner is mounted on a 4-m tower located on the crest of a shore-backing dune on an Atlantic Ocean beach near Duck, North Carolina. The device measures a 237°-framescan of the nearshore region over a 15 minute period each hour. Individual scans are coregistered to a baseline scan using an iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm and then filtered to remove noise, dune vegetation, and water. To assess the accuracy of the coregistration algorithm, the 3-dimensional location of five permanent reflectors near the device are found for each scan and compared to their measured GPS location. Precisely coregistered scans allow for an assessment of elevation change across cuspate features in addition to traditional measurements of cusp wavelength. Beach cusp events are assessed over a three month period from September through November 2015. Wave and current data from a cross-shore array of sensors deployed continuously throughout the three month period as well as from two alongshore arrays of ADV sensors deployed from October 13 through November 1 are used to determine the forcing conditions under which the cusps formed and evolved. Funded by the USACE Coastal Field Data Collection Program.

  4. SCOPE - Stellar Classification Online Public Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harenberg, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) has been established to be the primary North American archive for the collections of astronomical photographic plates. Located at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) in Rosman, NC, the archive contains hundreds of thousands stellar spectra, many of which have never before been classified. To help classify the vast number of stars, the public is invited to participate in a distributed computing online environment called Stellar Classification Online - Public Exploration (SCOPE). Through a website, the participants will have a tutorial on stellar spectra and practice classifying. After practice, the participants classify spectra on photographic plates uploaded online from APDA. These classifications will be recorded in a database where the results from many users will be statistically analyzed. Stars with known spectral types will be included to test the reliability of classifications. The process of building the database of stars from APDA, which the citizen scientist will be able to classify, includes: scanning the photographic plates, orienting the plate to correct for the change in right ascension/declination using Aladin, stellar HD catalog identification using Simbad, marking the boundaries for each spectrum, and setting up the image for use on the website. We will describe the details of this process.

  5. Robust Modeling of Stellar Triples in PHOEBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Kyle E.; Prsa, Andrej; Horvat, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-01-01

    The number of known mutually-eclipsing stellar triple and multiple systems has increased greatly during the Kepler era. These systems provide significant opportunities to both determine fundamental stellar parameters of benchmark systems to unprecedented precision as well as to study the dynamical interaction and formation mechanisms of stellar and planetary systems. Modeling these systems to their full potential, however, has not been feasible until recently. Most existing available codes are restricted to the two-body binary case and those that do provide N-body support for more components make sacrifices in precision by assuming no stellar surface distortion. We have completely redesigned and rewritten the PHOEBE binary modeling code to incorporate support for triple and higher-order systems while also robustly modeling data with Kepler precision. Here we present our approach, demonstrate several test cases based on real data, and discuss the current status of PHOEBE's support for modeling these types of systems. PHOEBE is funded in part by NSF grant #1517474.

  6. A catalog of stellar spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, S. J.; Pyper, D. M.; Shore, S. N.; White, R. E.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A machine-readable catalog of stellar spectrophotometric measurements made with rotating grating scanner is introduced. Consideration is given to the processes by which the stellar data were collected and calibrated with the fluxes of Vega (Hayes and Latham, 1975). A sample page from the spectrophotometric catalog is presented.

  7. Tidal effects on stellar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenhaeger, K.

    2017-10-01

    The architecture of many exoplanetary systems is different from the solar system, with exoplanets being in close orbits around their host stars and having orbital periods of only a few days. We can expect interactions between the star and the exoplanet for such systems that are similar to the tidal interactions observed in close stellar binary systems. For the exoplanet, tidal interaction can lead to circularization of its orbit and the synchronization of its rotational and orbital period. For the host star, it has long been speculated if significant angular momentum transfer can take place between the planetary orbit and the stellar rotation. In the case of the Earth-Moon system, such tidal interaction has led to an increasing distance between Earth and Moon. For stars with Hot Jupiters, where the orbital period of the exoplanet is typically shorter than the stellar rotation period, one expects a decreasing semimajor axis for the planet and enhanced stellar rotation, leading to increased stellar activity. Also excess turbulence in the stellar convective zone due to rising and subsiding tidal bulges may change the magnetic activity we observe for the host star. I will review recent observational results on stellar activity and tidal interaction in the presence of close-in exoplanets, and discuss the effects of enhanced stellar activity on the exoplanets in such systems.

  8. Three-dimensional stellarator codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, P R

    2002-08-06

    Three-dimensional computer codes have been used to develop quasisymmetric stellarators with modular coils that are promising candidates for a magnetic fusion reactor. The mathematics of plasma confinement raises serious questions about the numerical calculations. Convergence studies have been performed to assess the best configurations. Comparisons with recent data from large stellarator experiments serve to validate the theory.

  9. Three-dimensional stellarator codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer codes have been used to develop quasisymmetric stellarators with modular coils that are promising candidates for a magnetic fusion reactor. The mathematics of plasma confinement raises serious questions about the numerical calculations. Convergence studies have been performed to assess the best configurations. Comparisons with recent data from large stellarator experiments serve to validate the theory. PMID:12140367

  10. ESR and EISCAT observations of the response of the cusp and cleft to IMF orientation changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. McCrea

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We report observations of the cusp/cleft ionosphere made on December 16th 1998 by the EISCAT (European incoherent scatter VHF radar at Tromsø and the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR. We compare them with observations of the dayside auroral luminosity, as seen by meridian scanning photometers at Ny Ålesund and of HF radar backscatter, as observed by the CUTLASS radar. We study the response to an interval of about one hour when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, monitored by the WIND and ACE spacecraft, was southward. The cusp/cleft aurora is shown to correspond to a spatially extended region of elevated electron temperatures in the VHF radar data. Initial conditions were characterised by a northward-directed IMF and cusp/cleft aurora poleward of the ESR. A strong southward turning then occurred, causing an equatorward motion of the cusp/cleft aurora. Within the equatorward expanding, southward-IMF cusp/cleft, the ESR observed structured and elevated plasma densities and ion and electron temperatures. Cleft ion fountain upflows were seen in association with elevated ion temperatures and rapid eastward convection, consistent with the magnetic curvature force on newly opened field lines for the observed negative IMF By. Subsequently, the ESR beam remained immediately poleward of the main cusp/cleft and a sequence of poleward-moving auroral transients passed over it. After the last of these, the ESR was in the polar cap and the radar observations were characterised by extremely low ionospheric densities and downward field-aligned flows. The IMF then turned northward again and the auroral oval contracted such that the ESR moved back into the cusp/cleft region. For the poleward-retreating, northward-IMF cusp/cleft, the convection flows were slower, upflows were weaker and the electron density and temperature enhancements were less structured. Following the northward turning, the bands of high electron temperature and cusp/cleft aurora bifurcated

  11. ESR and EISCAT observations of the response of the cusp and cleft to IMF orientation changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. McCrea

    Full Text Available We report observations of the cusp/cleft ionosphere made on December 16th 1998 by the EISCAT (European incoherent scatter VHF radar at Tromsø and the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR. We compare them with observations of the dayside auroral luminosity, as seen by meridian scanning photometers at Ny Ålesund and of HF radar backscatter, as observed by the CUTLASS radar. We study the response to an interval of about one hour when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, monitored by the WIND and ACE spacecraft, was southward. The cusp/cleft aurora is shown to correspond to a spatially extended region of elevated electron temperatures in the VHF radar data. Initial conditions were characterised by a northward-directed IMF and cusp/cleft aurora poleward of the ESR. A strong southward turning then occurred, causing an equatorward motion of the cusp/cleft aurora. Within the equatorward expanding, southward-IMF cusp/cleft, the ESR observed structured and elevated plasma densities and ion and electron temperatures. Cleft ion fountain upflows were seen in association with elevated ion temperatures and rapid eastward convection, consistent with the magnetic curvature force on newly opened field lines for the observed negative IMF By. Subsequently, the ESR beam remained immediately poleward of the main cusp/cleft and a sequence of poleward-moving auroral transients passed over it. After the last of these, the ESR was in the polar cap and the radar observations were characterised by extremely low ionospheric densities and downward field-aligned flows. The IMF then turned northward again and the auroral oval contracted such that the ESR moved back into the cusp/cleft region. For the poleward-retreating, northward-IMF cusp/cleft, the convection flows were slower, upflows were weaker and the electron density and temperature enhancements were less structured. Following the northward turning, the bands of high electron temperature and cusp

  12. Inferring probabilistic stellar rotation periods using Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Ruth; Morton, Timothy; Aigrain, Suzanne; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Rajpaul, Vinesh

    2018-02-01

    Variability in the light curves of spotted, rotating stars is often non-sinusoidal and quasi-periodic - spots move on the stellar surface and have finite lifetimes, causing stellar flux variations to slowly shift in phase. A strictly periodic sinusoid therefore cannot accurately model a rotationally modulated stellar light curve. Physical models of stellar surfaces have many drawbacks preventing effective inference, such as highly degenerate or high-dimensional parameter spaces. In this work, we test an appropriate effective model: a Gaussian Process with a quasi-periodic covariance kernel function. This highly flexible model allows sampling of the posterior probability density function of the periodic parameter, marginalizing over the other kernel hyperparameters using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach. To test the effectiveness of this method, we infer rotation periods from 333 simulated stellar light curves, demonstrating that the Gaussian process method produces periods that are more accurate than both a sine-fitting periodogram and an autocorrelation function method. We also demonstrate that it works well on real data, by inferring rotation periods for 275 Kepler stars with previously measured periods. We provide a table of rotation periods for these and many more, altogether 1102 Kepler objects of interest, and their posterior probability density function samples. Because this method delivers posterior probability density functions, it will enable hierarchical studies involving stellar rotation, particularly those involving population modelling, such as inferring stellar ages, obliquities in exoplanet systems, or characterizing star-planet interactions. The code used to implement this method is available online.

  13. A Collaborative Learning Network Approach to Improvement: The CUSP Learning Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Sallie J; Lofthus, Jennifer; Sawyer, Melinda; Greer, Lee; Opett, Kristin; Reynolds, Catherine; Wyskiel, Rhonda; Peditto, Stephanie; Pronovost, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Collaborative improvement networks draw on the science of collaborative organizational learning and communities of practice to facilitate peer-to-peer learning, coaching, and local adaption. Although significant improvements in patient safety and quality have been achieved through collaborative methods, insight regarding how collaborative networks are used by members is needed. Improvement Strategy: The Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) Learning Network is a multi-institutional collaborative network that is designed to facilitate peer-to-peer learning and coaching specifically related to CUSP. Member organizations implement all or part of the CUSP methodology to improve organizational safety culture, patient safety, and care quality. Qualitative case studies developed by participating members examine the impact of network participation across three levels of analysis (unit, hospital, health system). In addition, results of a satisfaction survey designed to evaluate member experiences were collected to inform network development. Common themes across case studies suggest that members found value in collaborative learning and sharing strategies across organizational boundaries related to a specific improvement strategy. The CUSP Learning Network is an example of network-based collaborative learning in action. Although this learning network focuses on a particular improvement methodology-CUSP-there is clear potential for member-driven learning networks to grow around other methods or topic areas. Such collaborative learning networks may offer a way to develop an infrastructure for longer-term support of improvement efforts and to more quickly diffuse creative sustainment strategies.

  14. Optimizing stellarators for turbulent transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynick, H E; Pomphrey, N; Xanthopoulos, P

    2010-08-27

    Up to now, the term "transport-optimized" stellarators has meant optimized to minimize neoclassical transport, while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. Here, we demonstrate that stellarators can also be designed to mitigate their turbulent transport, by making use of two powerful numerical tools not available until recently, namely, gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D nonlinear simulations and stellarator optimization codes. Two initial proof-of-principle configurations are obtained, reducing the level of ion temperature gradient turbulent transport from the National Compact Stellarator Experiment baseline design by a factor of 2-2.5.

  15. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  16. Studying stellar rotation and convection theoretical background and seismic diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Belkacem, Kévin; Neiner, Coralie; Lignières, Francois; Green, John

    2013-01-01

    This volume synthesizes the results of work carried out by several international teams of the SIROCO (Seismology for Rotation and Convection) collaboration. It provides the theoretical background required to interpret the huge quantity of high-quality observational data recently provided by space experiments such as CoRoT and Kepler. Asteroseismology allows astrophysicists to test, to model and to understand stellar structure and evolution as never before. The chapters in this book address the two groups of topics summarized as "Stellar Rotation and Associated Seismology" as well as "Stellar Convection and Associated Seismology". The book offers the reader solid theoretical background knowledge and adapted seismic diagnostic techniques.

  17. Modelling of stellar convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupka, Friedrich; Muthsam, Herbert J.

    2017-07-01

    The review considers the modelling process for stellar convection rather than specific astrophysical results. For achieving reasonable depth and length we deal with hydrodynamics only, omitting MHD. A historically oriented introduction offers first glimpses on the physics of stellar convection. Examination of its basic properties shows that two very different kinds of modelling keep being needed: low dimensional models (mixing length, Reynolds stress, etc.) and "full" 3D simulations. A list of affordable and not affordable tasks for the latter is given. Various low dimensional modelling approaches are put in a hierarchy and basic principles which they should respect are formulated. In 3D simulations of low Mach number convection the inclusion of then unimportant sound waves with their rapid time variation is numerically impossible. We describe a number of approaches where the Navier-Stokes equations are modified for their elimination (anelastic approximation, etc.). We then turn to working with the full Navier-Stokes equations and deal with numerical principles for faithful and efficient numerics. Spatial differentiation as well as time marching aspects are considered. A list of codes allows assessing the state of the art. An important recent development is the treatment of even the low Mach number problem without prior modification of the basic equation (obviating side effects) by specifically designed numerical methods. Finally, we review a number of important trends such as how to further develop low-dimensional models, how to use 3D models for that purpose, what effect recent hardware developments may have on 3D modelling, and others.

  18. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Bill; Bildsten, Lars; Dotter, Aaron; Herwig, Falk; Lesaffre, Pierre; Timmes, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Stellar physics and evolution calculations enable a broad range of research in astrophysics. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) is a suite of open source, robust, efficient, thread-safe libraries for a wide range of applications in computational stellar astrophysics. A one-dimensional stellar evolution module, MESAstar, combines many of the numerical and physics modules for simulations of a wide range of stellar evolution scenarios ranging from very low mass to massive stars, including advanced evolutionary phases. MESAstar solves the fully coupled structure and composition equations simultaneously. It uses adaptive mesh refinement and sophisticated timestep controls, and supports shared memory parallelism based on OpenMP. State-of-the-art modules provide equation of state, opacity, nuclear reaction rates, element diffusion data, and atmosphere boundary conditions. Each module is constructed as a separate Fortran 95 library with its own explicitly defined public interface to facilitate independent development. Several detailed examples indicate the extensive verification and testing that is continuously performed and demonstrate the wide range of capabilities that MESA possesses. These examples include evolutionary tracks of very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and gas giant planets to very old ages; the complete evolutionary track of a 1 M sun star from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to a cooling white dwarf; the solar sound speed profile; the evolution of intermediate-mass stars through the He-core burning phase and thermal pulses on the He-shell burning asymptotic giant branch phase; the interior structure of slowly pulsating B Stars and Beta Cepheids; the complete evolutionary tracks of massive stars from the PMS to the onset of core collapse; mass transfer from stars undergoing Roche lobe overflow; and the evolution of helium accretion onto a neutron star. MESA can be downloaded from the project Web site (http://mesa.sourceforge.net/).

  19. Stellarator optimization under several criteria using metaheuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, F.; Gómez-Iglesias, A.; Vega-Rodríguez, M. A.; Jiménez, J. A.; Velasco, J. L.; Romero, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    A new algorithm based on metaheuristics has been developed to perform stellarator optimization. This algorithm, which is inspired by the behaviour of bees and is called distributed asynchronous bees, has been used for the optimization under three criteria: minimization of B × grad(B) drift, Mercier and ballooning stability. This algorithm is tested by partially optimizing TJ-II and, afterwards, a three-period optimized configuration is found by performing a full optimization that starts from a three-period heliac.

  20. Multi-lobed mesiodens with a palatal talon cusp: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaveni, Nayaka Basavanthappa; Umashankara, Kagathur Veerbadrappa; Sreedevi; Reddy, Bokka Praveen; Radhika, Nayaka Basavanthappa; Satisha, Tirumala Suryaprakash

    2010-01-01

    Mesiodens is a midline supernumerary tooth commonly seen in the maxillary arch and the talon cusp is a rare dental developmental anomaly seen on the lingual surface of anterior teeth. This paper presents a rare clinical case of development of talon cusp in a mesiodens with multiple lobes, which interfered with both occlusion and appearance of an 11-year-old patient. During clinical interview, the patient reported difficulty on mastication. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed that a supernumerary tooth with completely formed root was causing an occlusal interference. The supernumerary tooth was diagnosed as multi-lobed mesiodens associated with a palatal talon cusp. The treatment plan consisted in the extraction of the supernumerary tooth followed by orthodontic treatment for diastema closure and tooth alignment.

  1. Detecting inter-cusp and inter-tooth wear patterns in rhinocerotids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy A Taylor

    Full Text Available Extant rhinos are the largest extant herbivores exhibiting dietary specialisations for both browse and grass. However, the adaptive value of the wear-induced tooth morphology in rhinos has not been widely studied, and data on individual cusp and tooth positions have rarely been published. We evaluated upper cheek dentition of browsing Diceros bicornis and Rhinoceros sondaicus, mixed-feeding R. unicornis and grazing Ceratotherium simum using an extended mesowear method adapted for rhinos. We included single cusp scoring (EM(R-S to investigate inter-cusp and inter-tooth wear patterns. In accordance with previous reports, general mesowear patterns in D. bicornis and R. sondaicus were attrition-dominated and C. simum abrasion-dominated, reflecting their respective diets. Mesowear patterns for R. unicornis were more attrition-dominated than anticipated by the grass-dominated diet, which may indicate a low intake of environmental abrasives. EM(R-S increased differentiation power compared to classical mesowear, with significant inter-cusp and inter-tooth differences detected. In D. bicornis, the anterior cusp was consistently more abrasion-dominated than the posterior. Wear differences in cusp position may relate to morphological adaptations to dietary regimes. Heterogeneous occlusal surfaces may facilitate the comminution of heterogeneous browse, whereas uniform, broad grinding surfaces may enhance the comminution of physically more homogeneous grass. A negative tooth wear gradient was found in D. bicornis, R. sondaicus and R. unicornis, with wear patterns becoming less abrasion-dominated from premolars to molars. No such gradients were evident in C. simum which displayed a uniform wear pattern. In browsers, premolars may be exposed to higher relative grit loads, which may result in the development of wear gradients. The second premolar may also have a role in food cropping. In grazers, high absolute amounts of ingested abrasives may override other

  2. First Cluster results of the magnetic field structure of the mid- and high-altitude cusps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Cargill

    Full Text Available Magnetic field measurements from the four Cluster spacecraft from the mid- and high-altitude cusp are presented. Cluster underwent two encounters with the mid-altitude cusp during its commissioning phase (24 August 2000. Evidence for field-aligned currents (FACs was seen in the data from all three operating spacecraft from northern and southern cusps. The extent of the FACs was of the order of 1 RE in the X-direction, and at least 300 km in the Y-direction. However, fine-scale field structures with scales of the order of the spacecraft separation (300 km were observed within the FACs. In the northern crossing, two of the spacecraft appeared to lie along the same magnetic field line, and observed very well matched signals. However, the third spacecraft showed evidence for structuring transverse to the field on scales of a few hundred km. A crossing of the high-altitude cusp from 13 February 2001 is presented. It is revealed to be a highly dynamic structure with the boundaries moving with velocities ranging from a few km/s to tens of km/s, and having structure on timescales ranging from less than one minute up to several minutes. The cusp proper is associated with the presence of a very disordered magnetic field, which is entirely different from the magnetosheath turbulence.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers – Space plasma physics (discontinuities

  3. Stellarator Research Opportunities: A report of the National Stellarator Coordinating Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, David A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Anderson, David [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2017-06-01

    This document is the product of a stellarator community workshop, organized by the National Stellarator Coordinating Committee and referred to as Stellcon, that was held in Cambridge, Massachusetts in February 2016, hosted by MIT. The workshop was widely advertised, and was attended by 40 scientists from 12 different institutions including national labs, universities and private industry, as well as a representative from the Department of Energy. The final section of this document describes areas of community wide consensus that were developed as a result of the discussions held at that workshop. Areas where further study would be helpful to generate a consensus path forward for the US stellarator program are also discussed. The program outlined in this document is directly responsive to many of the strategic priorities of FES as articulated in “Fusion Energy Sciences: A Ten-Year Perspective (2015-2025)” [2]. The natural disruption immunity of the stellarator directly addresses “Elimination of transient events that can be deleterious to toroidal fusion plasma confinement devices” an area of critical importance for the U.S. fusion energy sciences enterprise over the next decade. Another critical area of research “Strengthening our partnerships with international research facilities,” is being significantly advanced on the W7-X stellarator in Germany and serves as a test-bed for development of successful international collaboration on ITER. This report also outlines how materials science as it relates to plasma and fusion sciences, another critical research area, can be carried out effectively in a stellarator. Additionally, significant advances along two of the Research Directions outlined in the report; “Burning Plasma Science: Foundations - Next-generation research capabilities”, and “Burning Plasma Science: Long pulse - Sustainment of Long-Pulse Plasma Equilibria” are proposed.

  4. A randomized clinical trial of cusp-replacing resin composite restorations: efficiency and short-term effectiveness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijs, R.H.; Fennis, W.M.M.; Kreulen, C.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Burgersdijk, R.C.W.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the efficacy and short-term effectiveness of the morphology and function of direct and indirect cusp-replacing resin composite restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 94 patients, 106 cusp-replacing restorations for maxillary premolars were fabricated to restore

  5. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  6. Optimizing Stellarators for Turbulent Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.E. Mynick, N.Pomphrey, and P. Xanthopoulos

    2010-05-27

    Up to now, the term "transport-optimized" stellarators has meant optimized to minimize neoclassical transport, while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. Here, we demonstrate that stellarators can also be designed to mitigate their turbulent transport, by making use of two powerful numerical tools not available until recently, namely gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D nonlinear simulations, and stellarator optimization codes. A first proof-of-principle configuration is obtained, reducing the level of ion temperature gradient turbulent transport from the NCSX baseline design by a factor of about 2.5.

  7. Stellar magnetic activity and exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidotto A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that magnetic activity could be enhanced due to interactions between close-in massive planets and their host stars. In this article, I present a brief overview of the connection between stellar magnetic activity and exoplanets. Stellar activity can be probed in chromospheric lines, coronal emission, surface spot coverage, etc. Since these are manifestations of stellar magnetism, these measurements are often used as proxies for the magnetic field of stars. Here, instead of focusing on the magnetic proxies, I overview some recent results of magnetic field measurements using spectropolarimetric observations. Firstly, I discuss the general trends found between large-scale magnetism, stellar rotation, and coronal emission and show that magnetism seems to be correlated to the internal structure of the star. Secondly, I overview some works that show evidence that exoplanets could (or not act as to enhance the activity of their host stars.

  8. Stellar magnetic activity and exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    It has been proposed that magnetic activity could be enhanced due to interactions between close-in massive planets and their host stars. In this article, I present a brief overview of the connection between stellar magnetic activity and exoplanets. Stellar activity can be probed in chromospheric lines, coronal emission, surface spot coverage, etc. Since these are manifestations of stellar magnetism, these measurements are often used as proxies for the magnetic field of stars. Here, instead of focusing on the magnetic proxies, I overview some recent results of magnetic field measurements using spectropolarimetric observations. Firstly, I discuss the general trends found between large-scale magnetism, stellar rotation, and coronal emission and show that magnetism seems to be correlated to the internal structure of the star. Secondly, I overview some works that show evidence that exoplanets could (or not) act as to enhance the activity of their host stars.

  9. Stellar atmospheres behind transiting exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravins, D.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Dahlén, E.; Gustavsson, M.; Pazira, H.

    2017-09-01

    Stellar surfaces are covered with brighter and darker structures, just like on the Sun. While solar surface details can be easily studied with telescopes, stellar surfaces cannot thus be resolved. However, one can use planets that happen to pass in front of distant stars as "shades" that successively block out small portions of the stellar surface behind. By measuring how the light from the star changes during such a transit, one can deduce stellar surface properties. Knowing those is required not only to study the star as such, but also to deduce the chemical composition of the planet that is passing in front of it, where some of the detected starlight has been filtered through the planet's atmosphere.

  10. In Vivo Comparison of the Masticatory Efficiency of Artificial Teeth with Two Different Cusp Heights in Complete Dentures: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Wallace Ferreira; Iegami, Carolina Mayumi; Uehara, Priscila Nakasone; Furuyama, Ricardo Jun; Tamaki, Regina

    2017-04-01

    The goal of complete denture rehabilitation is to restore facial esthetics and masticatory function to edentulous patients. Several types of artificial teeth with different occlusal anatomy are available. Theoretically, teeth with a higher cusp height provide improved masticatory efficiency. The aim of this study was to compare the masticatory efficiency of complete denture wearers using artificial teeth with two cusp heights. Sixteen complete denture wearers were given complete dentures with Heraeus Premium teeth. Fifteen days after denture installation, a first masticatory efficiency test was performed with Optocal. A new pair of complete dentures with Dentsply Biotone teeth was then given to each participant to replace the first set. This second set was fabricated by duplicating the same models used to fabricate the first set of dentures. Fifteen days after installation of the dentures with Biotone teeth, a second masticatory efficiency test was performed with Optocal. On both tests, the comminuted material was treated and sieved through a stack of sieves under vibration. The content of each sieve was weighed, and the obtained data were tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Wilcoxon tests. Mean and standard deviation of participants' masticatory efficiency, as measured by X50 particle size (mm), were 8.39 and 5.59 for dentures with Premium teeth, and 8.56 and 5.84 for dentures with Biotone teeth. According to the results, there were no differences (p masticatory efficiency of the complete denture sets using teeth with the two cusp heights. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. Design, construction and validation of the UST-1 modular stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, V., E-mail: vicentemanuel.queral@ciemat.es

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A small and simple low cost two period modular stellarator is reviewed. • It is defined as a monolithic circular surface torus with carved grooves. • The grooves are accurately mechanised by a new toroidal milling machine. • A very simple e-beam field mapping system has been built and utilized. - Abstract: Stellarator advancement is hindered, among others, by the requirement of geometric complexity at high accuracy and the still scarce universities and research centres following the stellarator line. In this framework, the objectives of the small UST-1 stellarator development were to: (i) explore and test the performance of one possible accurate construction method for stellarators (ii) encourage universities and small fusion research centres to build simple and economical stellarators (iii) educative purpose. Therefore, UST-1 was properly designed to be easily built by a milling machine working on toroidal coordinates, being the winding surface circular poloidally and toroidally. The coil frame is a sole monolithic toroidal thick surface equipped with grooves mechanised by the toroidal milling machine. Only one double pancake is wound in each groove so as to compress the conductor on the laterals of the groove in order to speed up and simplify the winding process. The physics design, the conceptual engineering design and the construction process of UST-1 is presented. The toroidal milling machine is described. The e-beam field line mapping experiments carried out to validate the resulting magnetic configuration are reported. The developed construction method has been proved for the small UST-1 stellarator. Small stellarators are valuable for quick tests of diagnostics, educative purposes, assessment of new confinement concepts, turbulence studies and other applications.

  12. A Cusp-Like Free-Surface Flow due to a Submerged Source or Sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    iterations at a higher value of N. Convergence is very rapid at any fixed N, no more thum S iterations being ever needed to reduce the maximum value of P(O...failure to achieve solutions at general input bo values) and positive (success to high accuracy with bo as an unknown) numerical evidence that a cusp

  13. Diamagnetic depression observations at Saturn's magnetospheric cusp by the Cassini spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Jamie M.; Arridge, Christopher S.; Coates, Andrew J.; Jones, Geraint H.; Sergis, Nick; Thomsen, Michelle F.; Krupp, Norbert

    2017-06-01

    The magnetospheric cusp is a region where shocked solar wind plasma can enter a planetary magnetosphere, after magnetic reconnection has occurred at the dayside magnetopause or in the lobes. The dense plasma that enters the high-latitude magnetosphere creates diamagnetic effects whereby a depression is observed in the magnetic field. We present observations of the cusp events at Saturn's magnetosphere where these diamagnetic depressions are found. The data are subtracted from a magnetic field model, and the calculated magnetic pressure deficits are compared to the particle pressures. A high plasma pressure layer in the magnetosphere adjacent to the cusp is discovered to also depress the magnetic field, outside of the cusp. This layer is observed to contain energetic He++ (up to ˜100 keV) from the solar wind as well as heavy water group ions (W+) originating from the moon Enceladus. We also find a modest correlation of diamagnetic depression strength to solar wind dynamic pressure and velocity; however, unlike at Earth, there is no correlation found with He++ counts.

  14. Analysis of a slow-fast system near a cusp singularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jardon-Kojakhmetov, H.; Broer, Henk W.; Roussarie, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a slow fast system whose principal characteristic is that the slow manifold is given by the critical set of the cusp catastrophe. Our analysis consists of two main parts: first, we recall a formal normal form suitable for systems as the one studied here; afterwards, taking

  15. The effect of extra dimensions on gravity wave bursts from cosmic string cusps

    CERN Document Server

    O'Callaghan, Eimear; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Gregory, Ruth; Zavala, Ivonne

    2010-01-01

    We explore the kinematical effect of having extra dimensions on the gravity wave emission from cosmic strings. Additional dimensions both round off cusps, and reduce the probability of their formation. We recompute the gravity wave burst, taking into account these two factors, and find a potentially significant damping on the gravity waves of the strings.

  16. Spindle-cusp confinement properties of laser-produced plasma in a low-beta regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, R.; Sekiguchi, T. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sato, K.

    1981-06-01

    Behavior of a spindle-cusp plasma produced at its central null-field point from a thin wire target by laser pulse is experimentally studied, mainly in a low plasma-beta regime, by means of many different plasma diagnostics. As the results, somewhat queer confinement properties have been found, and some considerations are given for the observed results.

  17. Taurodontism in association with the cusp of carabelli: a report of 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taurodontism is a malformation of multirooted teeth characterized by abnormally large pulp chamber and abnormally short roots. It is diagnosed by the use of radiographs. The cusp of Carabelli is a morphological anomaly of the crown usually seen clinically on the mesiopalatal surface of the maxillary first permanent molars ...

  18. Cusp catastrophe models for cognitive workload and fatigue in a verbally cued pictorial memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Boeh, Henry; Schimmels, Michael; Gorin, Hillary; Huschen, Samuel; Davis, Erin; Peters, Natalie E; Fabisch, Megan; Poston, Kirsten

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two cusp catastrophe models for cognitive workload and fatigue. They share similar cubic polynomial structures but derive from different underlying processes and contain variables that contribute to flexibility with respect to load and the ability to compensate for fatigue. Cognitive workload and fatigue both have a negative impact on performance and have been difficult to separate. Extended time on task can produce fatigue, but it can also produce a positive effect from learning or automaticity. In this two-part experiment, 129 undergraduates performed tasks involving spelling, arithmetic, memory, and visual search. The fatigue cusp for the central memory task was supported with the quantity of work performed and performance on an episodic memory task acting as the control parameters. There was a strong linear effect, however. The load manipulations for the central task were competition with another participant for rewards, incentive conditions, and time pressure. Results supported the workload cusp in which trait anxiety and the incentive manipulation acted as the control parameters. The cusps are generally better than linear models for analyzing workload and fatigue phenomena; practice effects can override fatigue. Future research should investigate multitasking and task sequencing issues, physical-cognitive task combinations, and a broader range of variables that contribute to flexibility with respect to load or compensate for fatigue. The new experimental medium and analytic strategy can be generalized to virtually any real-world cognitively demanding tasks. The particular results are generalizable to tasks involving visual search.

  19. IMF By-Related Cusp Currents Observed from the Ørsted Satellite and from Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, P.; Primdahl, Fritz; Watermann, J.

    2001-01-01

    Orsted is the first satellite to conduct high-precision magnetometer observations from low-altitude noonmidnight orbits passing through the polar cusp regions. Field-aligned currents (FAC) derived from Orsted magnetic field measurements have been combined with ionospheric current patterns inferred...... lines. High-energy electron measurements from the satellite confirm this result....

  20. Perspectives Gained from a Combination of Polar, Cluster and ISEE Energetic Particle Measurements in the Dayside Cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, T. A.

    Energetic particles are a consistent and common feature of the high-altitude dayside cusp. Observing these particles in a region where they cannot be stably trapped is one of the most striking findings of the Polar and Cluster satellites. The source of these cusp energetic particles (CEP) has centered on the possible role of the bow shock, leakage from the magnetosphere, and local acceleration within the cusp itself. The Polar satellite has documented that the shocked solar wind plasma enters the weak geomagnetic field of the polar region and produces cusp diamagnetic cavities (CDC) of apparent tremendous size ( ˜6 RE) well within the traditional magnetosphere. Within these cavities the local magnetic field is depressed and very turbulent. The intensities of the energetic ions are observed to increase by many orders of the magnitudes during the CDC encounters. The four Cluster spacecraft have typically not observed such a large cusp and extended diamagnetic cavity. The search for evidence to resolve this inconsistency led to a revisiting of ISEE 1 and 2 satellite measurements during two encounters with the high altitude cusp. In each of these cases the very good energy and angular resolution of the ISEE energetic particle experiment revealed that energetic ions within the cusp located at GSM Z ranging from 4 RE to 5 RE appeared from closer to the Earth and streamed outward in very close association with the diamagnetic cavities in the measured magnetic field. The electrons demonstrated a peaked at 90° pitch angle distribution indicative of being confined within a cusp minimum field trap. In one of these cases the electron fluxes peak near the cusp boundary and in the other case they sharply define the CDC boundaries varying in a strictly anti-correlated manner during a large geomagnetic storm. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions is indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of ionospheric and solar wind particles in many cases. Taken

  1. An unusual geometry of the ionospheric signature of the cusp: implications for magnetopause merging sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chisham

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The HF radar Doppler spectral width boundary (SWB in the cusp represents a very good proxy for the equatorward edge of cusp ion precipitation in the dayside ionosphere. For intervals where the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF has a southward component (Bz < 0, the SWB is typically displaced poleward of the actual location of the open-closed field line boundary (or polar cap boundary, PCB. This is due to the poleward motion of newly-reconnected magnetic field lines during the cusp ion travel time from the reconnection X-line to the ionosphere. This paper presents observations of the dayside ionosphere from SuperDARN HF radars in Antarctica during an extended interval ( ~ 12 h of quasi-steady IMF conditions (By ~ Bz < 0. The observations show a quasi-stationary feature in the SWB in the morning sector close to magnetic local noon which takes the form of a 2° poleward distortion of the boundary. We suggest that two separate reconnection sites exist on the magnetopause at this time, as predicted by the anti-parallel merging hypothesis for these IMF conditions. The observed cusp geometry is a consequence of different ion travel times from the reconnection X-lines to the southern ionosphere on either side of magnetic local noon. These observations provide strong evidence to support the anti-parallel merging hypothesis. This work also shows that mesoscale and small-scale structure in the SWB cannot always be interpreted as reflecting structure in the dayside PCB. Localised variations in the convection flow across the merging gap, or in the ion travel time from the reconnection X-line to the ionosphere, can lead to localised variations in the offset of the SWB from the PCB. These caveats should also be considered when working with other proxies for the dayside PCB which are associated with cusp particle precipitation, such as the 630 nm cusp auroral emission.Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and

  2. The Stellar Imager (SI) - A Mission to Resolve Stellar Surfaces, Interiors, and Magnetic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University (Denmark); Carpenter, Kenneth G [Code 667 NASA-GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schrijver, Carolus J [LMATC 3251 Hanover St., Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Karovska, Margarita, E-mail: jcd@phys.au.d, E-mail: Kenneth.G.Carpenter@nasa.gov, E-mail: schryver@lmsal.com, E-mail: karovska@head.cfa.harvard.edu [60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a space-based, UV/Optical Interferometer (UVOI) designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general. It will also probe via asteroseismology flows and structures in stellar interiors. SI will enable the development and testing of a predictive dynamo model for the Sun, by observing patterns of surface activity and imaging of the structure and differential rotation of stellar interiors in a population study of Sun-like stars to determine the dependence of dynamo action on mass, internal structure and flows, and time. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe and will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. SI is a 'Landmark/Discovery Mission' in the 2005 Heliophysics Roadmap, an implementation of the UVOI in the 2006 Astrophysics Strategic Plan, and a NASA Vision Mission ('NASA Space Science Vision Missions' (2008), ed. M. Allen). We present here the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technology development needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.

  3. Deep venous thrombosis: The valve cusp hypoxia thesis and its incompatibility with modern orthodoxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P Colm; Agutter, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    The valve cusp hypoxia thesis (VCHT) of the aetiology of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was adumbrated in this journal in 1977 and fully articulated in 2008, the original hypothesis having been strongly corroborated by experiments published in 1981 and 1984. It presents a unitary account of the pathogenesis of venous thrombosis and embolism that is rooted in the pathophysiological tradition of Hunter, Virchow, Lister, Welch and Aschoff, a tradition traceable back to Harvey. In this paper we summarise the thesis in its mature form, consider its compatibility with recent advances in the DVT field, and ask why it has not yet been assimilated into the mainstream literature, which during the past half century has been dominated by a haematology-orientated 'consensus model'. We identify and discuss seven ways in which the VCHT is incompatible with these mainstream beliefs about the aetiology of venous thrombosis, drawing attention to: (1) the spurious nature of 'Virchow's triad'; (2) the crucial differences between 'venous thrombus' and 'clot'; the facts that (3) venous thrombi form in the valve pockets (VVPs), (4) DVT is not a primarily haematological condition, (5) the so-called 'thrombophilias' are not thrombogenic per se; (6) the conflict between the single unitary aetiology of DVT and the tacit assumption that the condition is 'multicausal'; (7) the inability of anticoagulants to prevent the initiation of venous thrombogenesis, though they do prevent the growth of thrombi to clinically significant size. In discussing point (7), we show that the VCHT indicates new approaches to mechanical prophylaxis against DVT. These approaches are then formulated as experimentally testable hypotheses, and we suggest methods for testing them preclinically using animal trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Under the sword of Damocles: plausible regeneration of dark matter cusps at the smallest galactic scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Chervin F. P.; Peñarrubia, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    We study the evolution of the dark matter (DM) halo profiles of dwarf galaxies driven by the accretion of DM substructures through controlled N-body experiments. Our initial conditions assume that early supernova feedback erases the primordial DM cusps of haloes with z = 0 masses of 109 - 1010 M⊙. The orbits and masses of the infalling substructures are borrowed from the Aquarius cosmological simulations. Our experiments show that a fraction of haloes that undergo 1:3 down to 1:30 mergers are susceptible to reform a DM cusp by z ≈ 0. Cusp regrowth is driven by the accretion of DM substructures that are dense enough to reach the central regions of the main halo before being tidally disrupted. The infall of substructures on the mean of the reported mass-concentration relation and a mass ratio above 1:6 systematically leads to cusp regrowth. Substructures with 1:6-1:8, and 1:8-1:30 only reform DM cusps if their densities are 1σ and 2σ above the mean, respectively. The merging time-scales of these dense, low-mass substructures is relatively long (5 - 11 Gyr), which may pose a time-scale problem for the longevity of DM cores in dwarfs galaxies and possibly explain the existence of dense dwarfs-like Draco. These results suggest that within cold dark matter a non-negligible level of scatter in the mass profiles of galactic haloes acted on by feedback is to be expected given the stochastic mass accretion histories of low-mass haloes and the diverse star formation histories observed in the Local Group dwarfs.

  5. Bonnsai: a Bayesian tool for comparing stars with stellar evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Langer, N.; de Koter, A.; Brott, I.; Izzard, R. G.; Lau, H. H. B.

    2014-10-01

    Powerful telescopes equipped with multi-fibre or integral field spectrographs combined with detailed models of stellar atmospheres and automated fitting techniques allow for the analysis of large number of stars. These datasets contain a wealth of information that require new analysis techniques to bridge the gap between observations and stellar evolution models. To that end, we develop Bonnsai (BONN Stellar Astrophysics Interface), a Bayesian statistical method, that is capable of comparing all available observables simultaneously to stellar models while taking observed uncertainties and prior knowledge such as initial mass functions and distributions of stellar rotational velocities into account. Bonnsai can be used to (1) determine probability distributions of fundamental stellar parameters such as initial masses and stellar ages from complex datasets; (2) predict stellar parameters that were not yet observationally determined; and (3) test stellar models to further advance our understanding of stellar evolution. An important aspect of Bonnsai is that it singles out stars that cannot be reproduced by stellar models through χ2 hypothesis tests and posterior predictive checks. Bonnsai can be used with any set of stellar models and currently supports massive main-sequence single star models of Milky Way and Large and Small Magellanic Cloud composition. We apply our new method to mock stars to demonstrate its functionality and capabilities. In a first application, we use Bonnsai to test the stellar models of Brott et al. (2011, A&A, 530, A115) by comparing the stellar ages inferred for the primary and secondary stars of eclipsing Milky Way binaries of which the components range in mass between 4.5 and 28 M⊙. Ages are determined from dynamical masses and radii that are known to better than 3%. We show that the stellar models must include rotation because stellar radii can be increased by several percent via centrifugal forces. We find that the average age

  6. Planets, stars and stellar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Howard; McLean, Ian; Barstow, Martin; Gilmore, Gerard; Keel, William; French, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This is volume 3 of Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems, a six-volume compendium of modern astronomical research covering subjects of key interest to the main fields of contemporary astronomy. This volume on “Solar and Stellar Planetary Systems” edited by Linda French and Paul Kalas presents accessible review chapters From Disks to Planets, Dynamical Evolution of Planetary Systems, The Terrestrial Planets, Gas and Ice Giant Interiors, Atmospheres of Jovian Planets, Planetary Magnetospheres, Planetary Rings, An Overview of the Asteroids and Meteorites, Dusty Planetary Systems and Exoplanet Detection Methods. All chapters of the handbook were written by practicing professionals. They include sufficient background material and references to the current literature to allow readers to learn enough about a specialty within astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology to get started on their own practical research projects. In the spirit of the series Stars and Stellar Systems published by Chicago University Press in...

  7. TEM turbulence optimisation in stellarators

    CERN Document Server

    Proll, J H E; Xanthopoulos, P; Lazerson, S A; Faber, B J

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of neoclassically optimised stellarators, optimising stellarators for turbulent transport is an important next step. The reduction of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence has been achieved via shaping of the magnetic field, and the reduction of trapped-electron mode (TEM) turbulence is adressed in the present paper. Recent analytical and numerical findings suggest TEMs are stabilised when a large fraction of trapped particles experiences favourable bounce-averaged curvature. This is the case for example in Wendelstein 7-X [C.D. Beidler $\\textit{et al}$ Fusion Technology $\\bf{17}$, 148 (1990)] and other Helias-type stellarators. Using this knowledge, a proxy function was designed to estimate the TEM dynamics, allowing optimal configurations for TEM stability to be determined with the STELLOPT [D.A. Spong $\\textit{et al}$ Nucl. Fusion $\\bf{41}$, 711 (2001)] code without extensive turbulence simulations. A first proof-of-principle optimised equilibrium stemming from the TEM-dominated stella...

  8. Parameterizing Stellar Spectra Using Deep Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Ru; Pan, Ru-Yang; Duan, Fu-Qing

    2017-03-01

    Large-scale sky surveys are observing massive amounts of stellar spectra. The large number of stellar spectra makes it necessary to automatically parameterize spectral data, which in turn helps in statistically exploring properties related to the atmospheric parameters. This work focuses on designing an automatic scheme to estimate effective temperature ({T}{eff}), surface gravity ({log}g) and metallicity [Fe/H] from stellar spectra. A scheme based on three deep neural networks (DNNs) is proposed. This scheme consists of the following three procedures: first, the configuration of a DNN is initialized using a series of autoencoder neural networks; second, the DNN is fine-tuned using a gradient descent scheme; third, three atmospheric parameters {T}{eff}, {log}g and [Fe/H] are estimated using the computed DNNs. The constructed DNN is a neural network with six layers (one input layer, one output layer and four hidden layers), for which the number of nodes in the six layers are 3821, 1000, 500, 100, 30 and 1, respectively. This proposed scheme was tested on both real spectra and theoretical spectra from Kurucz’s new opacity distribution function models. Test errors are measured with mean absolute errors (MAEs). The errors on real spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are 0.1477, 0.0048 and 0.1129 dex for {log}g, {log}{T}{eff} and [Fe/H] (64.85 K for {T}{eff}), respectively. Regarding theoretical spectra from Kurucz’s new opacity distribution function models, the MAE of the test errors are 0.0182, 0.0011 and 0.0112 dex for {log}g, {log}{T}{eff} and [Fe/H] (14.90 K for {T}{eff}), respectively.

  9. Fundamental stellar properties from asteroseismology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Casagrande, L.; Miglio, A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate characterization of stellar populations is of prime importance to correctly understand the formation and evolution process of our Galaxy. The field of asteroseismology has been particularly successful in such an endeavor providing fundamental parameters for large samples of stars...... in different evolutionary phases. We present our results on determinations of masses, radii, and distances of stars in the CoRoT and Kepler fields, showing that we can map and date different regions of the galactic disk and distinguish gradients in the distribution of stellar properties at different heights...

  10. On Testing the Kerr Metric of the Massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center via Stellar Orbital Motion: Full General Relativistic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fupeng; Lu, Youjun; Yu, Qingjuan

    2015-08-01

    future facilities like GRAVITY on the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, the thirty meter telescope, and the European extremely large telescope. If {σ }{{p}} and {σ }Z can be further improved by a factor of several, the MBH spin can be well constrained by monitoring S0-2/S2 over a period of ˜15 years. In the mean time, the distance from the sun to the GC and the MBH mass can also be constrained to an unprecedented accuracy (0.01%-0.1%). If there exists a star with a semimajor axis that is a few times smaller, and eccentricity larger, than those of S0-2/S2, the MBH spin and its direction can be constrained with high accuracy over a period of ≲ 10 years by future facilities, even if the spin is only moderately large. Our results suggest that long-term monitoring of the motions of stars in the vicinity of the GC MBH by the next generation facilities is likely to provide a dynamical test, for the first time, to the spin and metric of the GC MBH.

  11. Identification of Stellar Sequences in Various Stellar Systems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The spatial morphological study of stellar clusters has been carried out through their identified probable members. The field stars decontamination is performed by the statistical cleaning approach (depends on the magnitude and colour of stars within the field and cluster regions). The colour magnitude ratio diagram ...

  12. MHD simulations of oscillating cusp-filling tori around neutron stars - missing upper kHz QPO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Varadarajan; Kluźniak, Włodzimierz; Čemeljić, Miljenko

    2017-09-01

    We performed axisymmetric, grid-based, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of oscillating cusp-filling tori orbiting a non-rotating neutron star. A pseudo-Newtonian potential was used to construct the constant angular momentum tori in equilibrium. The inner edge of the torus is terminated by a 'cusp' in the effective potential. The initial motion of the model tori was perturbed with uniform sub-sonic vertical and diagonal velocity fields. As the configuration evolved in time, we measured the mass accretion rate on the neutron star surface and obtained the power spectrum. The prominent mode of oscillation in the cusp torus is the radial epicyclic mode. It would appear that vertical oscillations are suppressed by the presence of the cusp. From our analysis, it follows that the mass accretion rate carries a modulation imprint of the oscillating torus, and hence so does the boundary layer luminosity.

  13. Statistical properties of rectangular cusped random beams propagating in oceanic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chuanyi; Zhao, Daomu

    2017-08-10

    The analytical formula for the cross-spectral density function of the rectangular cusped random beams, also known as fractional multi-Gaussian Schell-model beams, propagating in oceanic turbulence, is derived. The statistical properties incorporating the spectral density and the spectral degree of coherence of the beams on propagation are investigated. It is found that the beams maintain a rectangular-shaped cusped profile in weak turbulence just as in free space, whereas in strong turbulence or at sufficiently long propagation distances, the beams profile would be destroyed little by little, turning out to be Gaussian profile eventually. Moreover, the beams with smaller coherence length exhibit a more obvious rectangular outline. In addition, the spectral density and the spectral degree of coherence are both affected by various turbulence parameters.

  14. Surprises from the resummation of ladders in the ABJ(M) cusp anomalous dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonini, Marisa; Griguolo, Luca; Preti, Michelangelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Parma andINFN - Gruppo Collegato di Parma,Viale G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Seminara, Domenico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze andINFN - Sezione di Firenze,via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2016-05-31

    We study the cusp anomalous dimension in N=6 ABJ(M) theory, identifying a scaling limit in which the ladder diagrams dominate. The resummation is encoded into a Bethe-Salpeter equation that is mapped to a Schroedinger problem, exactly solvable due to the surprising supersymmetry of the effective Hamiltonian. In the ABJ case the solution implies the diagonalization of the U(N) and U(M) building blocks, suggesting the existence of two independent cusp anomalous dimensions and an unexpected exponentiation structure for the related Wilson loops. While consistent with previous perturbative analysis, the strong coupling limit of our result does not agree with the string theory computation, emphasizing a difference with the analogous resummation in the N=4 case.

  15. The surface microstructure of cusps and leaflets in rabbit and mouse heart valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Ye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructure on the surfaces of animal heart valve cusps/leaflets. The results showed that though these surfaces appear smooth to the naked eye, they are actually comprised of a double hierarchical structure consisting of a cobblestone-like microstructure and nano-cilia along with mastoids with a directional arrangement. Such nanostructures could play a very important role in the hemocompatibility characteristics of heart valves. On this basis, the model of the microstructure was constructed and theoretical analysis was used to obtain optimal geometric parameters for the rough surface of artificial valve cusps/leaflets. This model may help improve reconstructive techniques and it may be beneficial in the design and fabrication of valve substitutes or partial substitutes. Namely, the model may help ameliorate heart valve replacement surgery.

  16. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  17. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is .... approximately as an ideal gas, the mean kinetic energies of the free electrons and atomic nuclei will be equal. .... whose density varies from a maximum at the core's center to a minimum at its 'surface'. The dimensional ...

  18. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly ...

  19. Stellar model fits and inversions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2012-01-01

    The recent asteroseismic data from the CoRoT and Kepler missions have provided an entirely new basis for investigating stellar properties. This has led to a rapid development in techniques for analysing such data, although it is probably fair to say that we are still far from having the tools req...

  20. Stellar dynamics and black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chandrasekhar's most important contribution to stellar dynamics was the concept of dynamical friction. I briefly review that work, then discuss some implications of Chandrasekhar's theory of gravitational encounters for motion in galactic nuclei. Author Affiliations. David Merritt1. Department of Physics, Rochester Institute ...

  1. Successful catheter ablation of a left anterior accessory pathway from the non-coronary cusp of the aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Sérgio; Oliveira, Mário; Trigo, Conceição

    2015-08-01

    Left anterior accessory pathways are considered to be rare findings. Catheter ablation of accessory pathways in this location remains a challenging target, and few reports about successful ablation of these accessory pathways are available. We describe our experience regarding a case of a manifest left anterior accessory pathway ablation using radiofrequency energy at the junction of the left coronary cusp with the non-coronary cusp.

  2. Magnetic field and electric currents in the vicinity of polar cusps as inferred from Polar and Cluster data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tsyganenko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed statistical study of the magnetic structure of the dayside polar cusps is presented, based on multi-year sets of magnetometer data of Polar and Cluster spacecraft, taken in 1996–2006 and 2001–2007, respectively. Thanks to the dense data coverage in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the analysis spanned nearly the entire length of the cusps, from low altitudes to the cusp "throat" and the magnetosheath. Subsets of data falling inside the polar cusp "funnels" were selected with the help of TS05 and IGRF magnetic field models, taking into account the dipole tilt and the solar wind/IMF conditions. The selection funnels were shifted within ±10° of SM latitude around the model cusp location, and linear regression parameters were calculated for each sliding subset, further divided into 10 bins of distance in the range 2≤R≤12 RE, with the following results. (1 Diamagnetic depression, caused by the penetrated magnetosheath plasma, becomes first visible at R~4–5 RE, rapidly deepens with growing R, peaks at R~6–9 RE, and then partially subsides and widens in latitude at the cusp's outer end. (2 The depression peak is systematically shifted poleward (by ~2° of the footpoint latitude with respect to the model cusp field line, passing through the min{|B|} point at the magnetopause. (3 At all radial distances, clear and distinct peaks of the correlation between the local By and By(IMF and of the corresponding proportionality coefficient are observed. A remarkably regular variation of that coefficient with R quantitatively confirms the field-aligned geometry of the cusp currents associated with the IMF By, found in earlier observations.

  3. The Stellar-Solar Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, T. R.

    2004-05-01

    Many solar-stellar astronomers believe that the solar-stellar connection primarily is a one-way street: the exquisitely detailed studies of the solar surface, interior, and heliosphere strongly mold our views of the distant, unresolved stars. Perhaps many solar physicists have gone so far as to adopt the myopic view that stellar astronomy, by and large, is merely sponging up the fabulous insights from ever deeper examinations of our local star, but the ``dark side'' is not really capable of returning the favor. What could we possibly learn from the stars, that we don't already know from much better observations of the Sun? In my Introduction to this Topical Session, I will discuss two broad issues: (1) the present divergence between solar and stellar physics (driven by the different goals and tools of the two disciplines); and (2) the diversity of stars in the H-R diagram, to help inform our understanding of solar processes. Today, there are observations of stars that greatly exceed the quality of analogous solar measurements: e.g., HST/STIS UV echelle spectra of Alpha Cen A; Chandra transmission grating spectra of solar-type stars; and only recently have we obtained a definitive understanding of the Sun's soft X-ray luminosity in the key ROSAT/PSPC band. The lack of equivalent solar observations hinders practical applications of the solar-stellar connection. On the more informative side, the evolutionary paths of other stars can be quite different from the Sun's, with potentially dramatic influences on phenomena such as magnetic activity. Equally important, examples of Sun-like stars can be found at all stages of evolution, from proplyds to red giants, in the volume of nearby space out to 500 pc. In short, the solar-stellar connection need not be a one-way street, but rather a powerful tool to explore solar processes within the broader context of stars and stellar evolution. This work was supported by NASA grant NAG5-13058.

  4. Concommitant occurance of dens invaginatus and talon cusp: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Monica; S.M, Meghana; Kulkarni, Sandip R.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Morphological dental anomalies of the maxillary lateral incisors are relatively common. However, their simultaneous occurrence is a relatively rare event. We report a case of dens invaginatus and talon cusp concurrently affecting maxillary lateral incisors. The etiology, pathophysiology, association with other dental anomalies, as well as various treatment modalities of these anomalies are discussed. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 18-year-old male patient reported with a complaint of crowding ...

  5. Two Azimuthally Separated Regions of Cusp Ion Injection Observed via Energetic Neutral Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M.; Taguchi, S.; Collier, M. R.; Moore, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    The low-energy neutral atom (LENA) imager on the IMAGE spacecraft can detect energetic neutral atoms produced by ion injection into the cusp through a charge exchange with the Earth's hydrogen exosphere. We examined the occurrence of the LENA cusp signal during positive IMF B(sub z) in terms of the arrival direction and the IMF clock angle theta(sub CA). Results of statistical analyses show that the occurrence frequency is high on the postnoon side when theta(sub CA) is between approximately 20 degrees and approximately 50 degrees. This is ascribed to ion injection caused by cusp reconnection typical of positive IMF B(sub z). Our results also show that there is another situation of high occurrence frequency, which can be identified with theta(sub CA) of approximately 30 degrees to approximately 80 degrees. When theta(sub CA) is relatively large (60 degrees - 80 degrees), occurrence frequencies are high at relatively low latitudes over a wide extent spanning both prenoon and postnoon sectors. This feature suggests that the ion injection is caused by reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. Its postnoon side boundary shifts toward the prenoon as theta(sub CA) decreases. When theta(sub CA) is less than approximately 50 degrees, the high occurrence frequency exists well inside the prenoon sector, which is azimuthally separated from the postnoon region ascribed to cusp reconnection. The prenoon region, which is thought due to ion injection caused by dayside reconnection, may explain the recent report that proton aurora brightening occurs in the unanticipated prenoon sector of the northern high-latitude ionosphere for IMF B(sub y) greater than 0 and B(sub z) greater than 0.

  6. His-Purkinje system-related incessant ventricular tachycardia arising from the left coronary cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Sato, MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 23-year-old woman who had His-Purkinje system-related incessant ventricular tachycardia with a narrow QRS configuration. The ventricular tachycardia was ablated successfully in the left coronary cusp where the earliest endocardial activation had been recorded. We hypothesize that a remnant of the subaortic conducting tissue was the source of the ventricular arrhythmias.

  7. Statistical study of ICME effects on Mercury's magnetospheric boundaries and northern cusp region from MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Reka M.; Philpott, Lydia; Paty, Carol S.; Lugaz, Noé; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Korth, Haje

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic investigation of the large-scale processes in Mercury's magnetosphere during interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using observations from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. We study the motion of the bow shock and magnetopause boundaries, quantify the magnetospheric compression, and characterize the size, extent, and plasma pressure of the northern cusp region and the plasma precipitation to the surface. During ICMEs, the magnetopause was substantially compressed, as the subsolar standoff distance from the center of the planet was reduced by ˜15% compared with the value during nominal solar wind conditions, and the magnetopause reached the surface of the planet ˜30% of the time. On the other hand, the bow shock under ICME conditions was located farther from the planet than for nominal solar wind conditions. The cusp was observed to extend ˜10° farther equatorward and 2 h wider in local time. In addition, the average plasma pressure in the cusp was more than double that determined under nominal conditions. For the most extreme cases, the particle precipitation to the surface was an order of magnitude higher than on average. The solar wind ram pressure and the Alfvén Mach number are found to be the dominant factors affecting these changes in the magnetosphere, with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction and the IMF magnetic pressure playing a small but likely nonnegligible role.

  8. Cardiomyopathy Due to Nonsustained Ventricular Tachycardia Originating from the Aortic Sinus Cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Bonakdar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of idiopathic nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT originating from the aortic sinus cusp referred for presyncope and LV dysfunction and frequent premature ventricular complex with no response to 3 months anti-arrhythmic medication for heart failure and arrhythmia. She was then referred to us for frequent PVC's and runs of nonsustained VT. ECG recorded during the nonsustained VT showed a left bundle branch block pattern in the precordial leads and an inferior axis and early transition in precordial leads in V3-V4. QS morphology in lead V1 was noticed with notching on the downward deflection. Electrophysiologic study was conducted to map ventricular outflow tract as a classic method, although pace map failed to find any matched QRS with the spontaneous PVCs. The mapping of aortic cusps was also performed. The best potential was recorded in a region located at the commissure of left-right aortic cusps. A single radiofrequency energy was delivered which resulted in immediate elimination of PVCs. The patient was discharged the day after ablation without any PVC recorded on monitor. Left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF improved to normal level two months later. There was no PVC detected at serial holter monitoring. It seems logical not to overlook even an isolated or nonsustained ventricular arrhythmia considering the available and effective treatments such as ablation rather than congestive heart failure(CHF therapy especially in a young patient.

  9. INTENTION TO USE CONDOM, CUSP MODELING, AND EVALUATION OF AN HIV PREVENTION INTERVNETION TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Chen, Ding-Geng; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents are at particularly high risk to acquire HIV infection; increasing the likelihood of condom use is an effective measure to reduce the risk of such infections. Challenges in assessing actual condom use behavior among early adolescents render the precursor measure, intention to use condoms, an appealing alternative. While analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a theory-based intervention program to promote condom use among early adolescents, we observed a modest effect with regard to condom use intention when the linear analytical approach was used. If intention, as a measure of the readiness to perform a behavior, also contains a nonlinear discrete component, it would be more appropriately modeled using a non-linear approach. In this study, data from a randomized controlled trial (N=1360) were analyzed using the cusp catastrophe method with HIV knowledge and condom skills as the asymmetry variables and condom use self-efficacy as the bifurcation variables. Findings from concurrent and longitudinal modeling analyses indicated a much better fit of the cusp model (R2 = 0.85 and 4+ times smaller AIC and BIC) than the linear (R2 intention but did not as a bifurcation variable. In conclusion, adolescent intentions to use a condom contain both a continuous process and a discrete process and can better be modeled with cusp methods. A much greater program effect is likely from the same prevention intervention if additional measures are taken to foster sudden changes in condom intention. PMID:23735493

  10. Four point measurements of electrons using PEACE in the high-altitude cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. G. T. Taylor

    Full Text Available We present examples of electron measurements from the PEACE instruments on the Cluster spacecraft in the high-latitude, high-altitude region of the Earth’s magnetosphere. Using electron density and energy spectra measurements, we examine two cases where the orbit of the Cluster tetrahedron is outbound over the northern hemisphere, in the afternoon sector approaching the magnetopause. Data from the magnetometer is also used to pinpoint the position of the spacecraft with respect to magnetospheric boundaries. This preliminary work specifically highlights the benefit of the multipoint measurement capability of the Cluster mission. In the first case, we observe a small-scale spatial structure within the magnetopause boundary layer. The Cluster spacecraft initially straddle a boundary, characterised by a discontinuous change in the plasma population, with a pair of spacecraft on either side. This is followed by a complete crossing of the boundary by all four spacecraft. In the second case, Cluster encounters an isolated region of higher energy electrons within the cusp. The characteristics of this region are consistent with a trapped boundary layer plasma sheet population on closed magnetospheric field lines. However, a boundary motion study indicates that this region convects past Cluster, a characteristic more consistent with open field lines. An interpretation of this event in terms of the motion of the cusp boundary region is presented.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  11. Four point measurements of electrons using PEACE in the high-altitude cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. G. T. Taylor

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available We present examples of electron measurements from the PEACE instruments on the Cluster spacecraft in the high-latitude, high-altitude region of the Earth’s magnetosphere. Using electron density and energy spectra measurements, we examine two cases where the orbit of the Cluster tetrahedron is outbound over the northern hemisphere, in the afternoon sector approaching the magnetopause. Data from the magnetometer is also used to pinpoint the position of the spacecraft with respect to magnetospheric boundaries. This preliminary work specifically highlights the benefit of the multipoint measurement capability of the Cluster mission. In the first case, we observe a small-scale spatial structure within the magnetopause boundary layer. The Cluster spacecraft initially straddle a boundary, characterised by a discontinuous change in the plasma population, with a pair of spacecraft on either side. This is followed by a complete crossing of the boundary by all four spacecraft. In the second case, Cluster encounters an isolated region of higher energy electrons within the cusp. The characteristics of this region are consistent with a trapped boundary layer plasma sheet population on closed magnetospheric field lines. However, a boundary motion study indicates that this region convects past Cluster, a characteristic more consistent with open field lines. An interpretation of this event in terms of the motion of the cusp boundary region is presented.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  12. Targeted Optimization of Quasi-Symmetric Stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegna, Chris C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Anderson, D. T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Talmadge, J. N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-10-06

    The proposed research focuses on targeted areas of plasma physics dedicated to improving the stellarator concept. Research was pursued in the technical areas of edge/divertor physics in 3D configurations, magnetic island physics in stellarators, the role of 3D shaping on microinstabilities and turbulent transport and energetic ion confinement in stellarators.

  13. Stellar pulsations in beyond Horndeski gravity theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy; Kenna-Allison, Michael; Koyama, Kazuya

    2017-03-01

    Theories of gravity in the beyond Horndeski class recover the predictions of general relativity in the solar system whilst admitting novel cosmologies, including late-time de Sitter solutions in the absence of a cosmological constant. Deviations from Newton's law are predicted inside astrophysical bodies, which allow for falsifiable, smoking-gun tests of the theory. In this work we study the pulsations of stars by deriving and solving the wave equation governing linear adiabatic oscillations to find the modified period of pulsation. Using both semi-analytic and numerical models, we perform a preliminary survey of the stellar zoo in an attempt to identify the best candidate objects for testing the theory. Brown dwarfs and Cepheid stars are found to be particularly sensitive objects and we discuss the possibility of using both to test the theory.

  14. Stellar Pulsations in Beyond Horndeski Gravity Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Sakstein, Jeremy; Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    Theories of gravity in the beyond Horndeski class recover the predictions of general relativity in the solar system whilst admitting novel cosmologies, including late-time de Sitter solutions in the absence of a cosmological constant. Deviations from Newton's law are predicted inside astrophysical bodies, which allow for falsifiable, smoking-gun tests of the theory. In this work we study the pulsations of stars by deriving and solving the wave equation governing linear adiabatic oscillations to find the modified period of pulsation. Using both semi-analytic and numerical models, we perform a preliminary survey of the stellar zoo in an attempt to identify the best candidate objects for testing the theory. Brown dwarfs and Cepheid stars are found to be particularly sensitive objects and we discuss the possibility of using both to test the theory.

  15. Characterizing stellar and exoplanetary environments

    CERN Document Server

    Khodachenko, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    In this book an international group of specialists discusses studies of exoplanets subjected to extreme stellar radiation and plasma conditions. It is shown that such studies will help us to understand how terrestrial planets and their atmospheres, including the early Venus, Earth and Mars, evolved during the host star’s active early phase. The book presents an analysis of findings from Hubble Space Telescope observations of transiting exoplanets, as well as applications of advanced numerical models for characterizing the upper atmosphere structure and stellar environments of exoplanets. The authors also address detections of atoms and molecules in the atmosphere of “hot Jupiters” by NASA’s Spitzer telescope. The observational and theoretical investigations and discoveries presented are both timely and important in the context of the next generation of space telescopes. 
 The book is divided into four main parts, grouping chapters on exoplanet host star radiation and plasma environments, exoplanet u...

  16. Quasi-axially symmetric stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, Paul R.

    1998-01-01

    Confinement of a plasma for controlled thermonuclear fusion is studied numerically. Toroidal equilibria are considered, with an emphasis on the Modular Helias-like Heliac 2 (MHH2), which is a stellarator of low aspect ratio with just two field periods surrounded by 16 modular coils. The geometry is fully three-dimensional, but there is an axial symmetry of the magnetic structure that is calculated to give confinement competitive with that in circular tokamaks. Additional vertical and toroidal field coils, together with a current drive, provide the flexibility and the control of rotational transform necessary for a successful experiment. An MHH3 device with three field periods and comparable quasi-axial symmetry is presented, too, and because of reversed shear, its physical properties may be better. Variational analysis of equilibrium and stability is shown to give a more reliable prediction of performance for these stellarators than linearized or local theories that suffer from a failure of differentiability and convergence. PMID:9707544

  17. Geometry Dependence of Stellarator Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.E. Mynick, P. Xanthopoulos and A.H. Boozer

    2009-08-10

    Using the nonlinear gyrokinetic code package GENE/GIST, we study the turbulent transport in a broad family of stellarator designs, to understand the geometry-dependence of the microturbulence. By using a set of flux tubes on a given flux surface, we construct a picture of the 2D structure of the microturbulence over that surface, and relate this to relevant geometric quantities, such as the curvature, local shear, and effective potential in the Schrodinger-like equation governing linear drift modes.

  18. Stellar populations of shell galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, S. G.; Hau, G. K. T.; Zenteno, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a study of the inner (out to ∼1 Reff) stellar populations of nine shell galaxies. We derive stellar population parameters from long-slit spectra by both analysing the Lick indices of the galaxies and by fitting single stellar population model spectra to the full galaxy spectra. The results from the two methods agree reasonably well. A few of the shell galaxies appear to have lower central Mg2 index values than the general population of galaxies of the same central velocity dispersion, which is possibly due to a past interaction event. Our sample shows a relation between central metallicity and velocity dispersion that is consistent with previous samples of non-shell galaxies. Analysing the metallicity gradients in our sample, we find an average gradient of -0.16 ± 0.10 dex decade-1 in radius. We compare this with formation models to constrain the merging history of shell galaxies. We argue that our galaxies likely have undergone major mergers but it is unclear whether the shells formed from these events or from separate minor mergers. Additionally, we find evidence for young stellar populations ranging in age from 500 Myr to 4-5 Gyr in four of the galaxies, allowing us to speculate on the age of the shells. For NGC 5670, we use a simple dynamical model to find the time required to produce the observed distribution of shells to be roughly consistent with the age of the young subpopulation, suggesting that the shells and subpopulation possibly formed from the same event.

  19. Semi-analytic stellar structure in scalar-tensor gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbatsch, M. W.; Burgess, C. P.

    2011-08-01

    Precision tests of gravity can be used to constrain the properties of hypothetical very light scalar fields, but these tests depend crucially on how macroscopic astrophysical objects couple to the new scalar field. We study the equations of stellar structure using scalar-tensor gravity, with the goal of seeing how stellar properties depend on assumptions made about the scalar coupling at a microscopic level. In order to make the study relatively easy for different assumptions about microscopic couplings, we develop quasi-analytic approximate methods for solving the stellar-structure equations rather than simply integrating them numerically. (The approximation involved assumes the dimensionless scalar coupling at the stellar center is weak, and we compare our results with numerical integration in order to establish its domain of validity.) We illustrate these methods by applying them to Brans-Dicke scalars, and their generalization in which the scalar-matter coupling slowly runs — or `walks' — as a function of the scalar field: a(phi) simeq as+bsphi. (Such couplings can arise in extra-dimensional applications, for instance.) The four observable parameters that characterize the fields external to a spherically symmetric star are the stellar radius, R, mass, M, scalar `charge', Q, and the scalar's asymptotic value, phi∞. These are subject to two relations because of the matching to the interior solution, generalizing the usual mass-radius, M(R), relation of General Relativity. Since phi∞ is common to different stars in a given region (such as a binary pulsar), all quantities can be computed locally in terms of the stellar masses. We identify how these relations depend on the microscopic scalar couplings, agreeing with earlier workers when comparisons are possible. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained for the instructive toy model of constant-density stars, whose properties we compare to more realistic equations of state for neutron star models.

  20. Stellar Echo Imaging of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Chris; Lerch, Kieran; Lucente, Mark; Meza-Galvan, Jesus; Mitchell, Dan; Ruedin, Josh; Williams, Spencer; Zollars, Byron

    2016-01-01

    All stars exhibit intensity fluctuations over several timescales, from nanoseconds to years. These intensity fluctuations echo off bodies and structures in the star system. We posit that it is possible to take advantage of these echoes to detect, and possibly image, Earth-scale exoplanets. Unlike direct imaging techniques, temporal measurements do not require fringe tracking, maintaining an optically-perfect baseline, or utilizing ultra-contrast coronagraphs. Unlike transit or radial velocity techniques, stellar echo detection is not constrained to any specific orbital inclination. Current results suggest that existing and emerging technology can already enable stellar echo techniques at flare stars, such as Proxima Centauri, including detection, spectroscopic interrogation, and possibly even continent-level imaging of exoplanets in a variety of orbits. Detection of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars appears to be extremely challenging, but cannot be fully quantified without additional data on micro- and millisecond-scale intensity fluctuations of the Sun. We consider survey missions in the mold of Kepler and place preliminary constraints on the feasibility of producing 3D tomographic maps of other structures in star systems, such as accretion disks. In this report we discuss the theory, limitations, models, and future opportunities for stellar echo imaging.

  1. The MEDIDO Survey: Dark Matter in Low Dispersion Stellar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola, Eva; Bustamante, Maria Jose

    2017-06-01

    We will present preliminary results of the Medido Survey. The Survey focuses on dwarf galaxies of various types, as well as Milky Way globular clusters. We have been gathering data at the McDonald Observatory using the VIRUS-W spectrograph, which is capable of resolving velocity dispersions slightly above 10 km/s. For the galaxies, our focus is to improve kinematics in the central regions in order to tackle the cusp/core discrepancy between observations and models. In the case of the globular clusters, we map kinematics out to about 2 half-light radii with the goal of testing if any dark matter content can be detected or if dark matter can be confidently ruled out for these systems.

  2. Results of Compact Stellarator Eengineering Trade Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Brown, L. Bromberg, and M. Cole

    2009-09-25

    A number of technical requirements and performance criteria can drive stellarator costs, e.g., tight tolerances, accurate coil positioning, low aspect ratio (compactness), choice of assembly strategy, metrology, and complexity of the stellarator coil geometry. With the completion of a seven-year design and construction effort of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) it is useful to interject the NCSX experience along with the collective experiences of the NCSX stellarator community to improving the stellarator configuration. Can improvements in maintenance be achieved by altering the stellarator magnet configuration with changes in the coil shape or with the combination of trim coils? Can a mechanical configuration be identified that incorporates a partial set of shaped fixed stellarator coils along with some removable coil set to enhance the overall machine maintenance? Are there other approaches that will simplify the concepts, improve access for maintenance, reduce overall cost and improve the reliability of a stellarator based power plant? Using ARIES-CS and NCSX as reference cases, alternative approaches have been studied and developed to show how these modifications would favorably impact the stellarator power plant and experimental projects. The current status of the alternate stellarator configurations being developed will be described and a comparison made to the recently designed and partially built NCSX device and the ARIES-CS reactor design study.

  3. Results of Compact Stellarator Engineering Trade Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Brown, L. Bromberg, M. Cole

    2009-05-27

    number of technical requirements and performance criteria can drive stellarator costs, e.g., tight tolerances, accurate coil positioning, low aspect ratio (compactness), choice of assembly strategy, metrology, and complexity of the stellarator coil geometry. With the completion of a seven-year design and construction effort of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) it is useful to interject the NCSX experience along with the collective experiences of the NCSX stellarator community to improving the stellarator configuration. Can improvements in maintenance be achieved by altering the stellarator magnet configuration with changes in the coil shape or with the combination of trim coils? Can a mechanical configuration be identified that incorporates a partial set of shaped fixed stellarator coils along with some removable coil set to enhance the overall machine maintenance? Are there other approaches that will simplify the concepts, improve access for maintenance, reduce overall cost and improve the reliability of a stellarator based power plant? Using ARIES-CS and NCSX as reference cases, alternative approaches have been studied and developed to show how these modifications would favorably impact the stellarator power plant and experimental projects. The current status of the alternate stellarator configurations being developed will be described and a comparison made to the recently designed and partially built NCSX device and the ARIES-CS reactor design study.

  4. A technique for accurately determining the cusp-region polar cap boundary using SuperDARN HF radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chisham

    Full Text Available Accurately measuring the location and motion of the polar cap boundary (PCB in the high-latitude ionosphere can be crucial for studies concerned with the dynamics of the polar cap, e.g. the measurement of reconnection rates. The Doppler spectral width characteristics of backscatter received by the SuperDARN HF radars have been previously used for locating and tracking the PCB in the cusp region. The boundary is generally observed in meridional beams of the SuperDARN radars and appears as a distinct change between low spectral width values observed equatorward of the cusp region, and high, but variable spectral width values observed within the cusp region. To identify the spectral width boundary (SWB between these two regions, a simple algorithm employing a spectral width threshold has often been applied to the data. However, there is not, as yet, a standard algorithm, or spectral width threshold, which is universally applied. Nor has there been any rigorous assessment of the accuracy of this method of boundary determination. This study applies a series of threshold algorithms to a simulated cusp-region spectral width data set, to assess the accuracy of different algorithms. This shows that simple threshold algorithms correctly identify the boundary location in, at the most, 50% of the cases and that the average boundary error is at least ~ 1–2 range gates (~ 1° latitude. It transpires that spatial and temporal smoothing of the spectral width data (e.g. by median filtering, before application of a threshold algorithm can increase the boundary determination accuracy to over 95% and the average boundary error to much less than a range gate. However, this is sometimes at the cost of temporal resolution in the motion of the boundary location. The algorithms are also applied to a year’s worth of spectral width data from the cusp ionosphere, measured by the Halley SuperDARN radar in Antarctica. This analysis highlights the increased accuracy of

  5. A technique for accurately determining the cusp-region polar cap boundary using SuperDARN HF radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chisham

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurately measuring the location and motion of the polar cap boundary (PCB in the high-latitude ionosphere can be crucial for studies concerned with the dynamics of the polar cap, e.g. the measurement of reconnection rates. The Doppler spectral width characteristics of backscatter received by the SuperDARN HF radars have been previously used for locating and tracking the PCB in the cusp region. The boundary is generally observed in meridional beams of the SuperDARN radars and appears as a distinct change between low spectral width values observed equatorward of the cusp region, and high, but variable spectral width values observed within the cusp region. To identify the spectral width boundary (SWB between these two regions, a simple algorithm employing a spectral width threshold has often been applied to the data. However, there is not, as yet, a standard algorithm, or spectral width threshold, which is universally applied. Nor has there been any rigorous assessment of the accuracy of this method of boundary determination. This study applies a series of threshold algorithms to a simulated cusp-region spectral width data set, to assess the accuracy of different algorithms. This shows that simple threshold algorithms correctly identify the boundary location in, at the most, 50% of the cases and that the average boundary error is at least ~ 1–2 range gates (~ 1° latitude. It transpires that spatial and temporal smoothing of the spectral width data (e.g. by median filtering, before application of a threshold algorithm can increase the boundary determination accuracy to over 95% and the average boundary error to much less than a range gate. However, this is sometimes at the cost of temporal resolution in the motion of the boundary location. The algorithms are also applied to a year’s worth of spectral width data from the cusp ionosphere, measured by the Halley SuperDARN radar in Antarctica. This analysis highlights the increased accuracy of

  6. The Resolved Stellar Populations Early Release Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Daniel; Anderson, J.; Boyer, M.; Cole, A.; Dolphin, A.; Geha, M.; Kalirai, J.; Kallivayalil, N.; McQuinn, K.; Sandstrom, K.; Williams, B.

    2017-11-01

    We propose to obtain deep multi-band NIRCam and NIRISS imaging of three resolved stellar systems within 1 Mpc (NOI 104). We will use this broad science program to optimize observational setups and to develop data reduction techniques that will be common to JWST studies of resolved stellar populations. We will combine our expertise in HST resolved star studies with these observations to design, test, and release point spread function (PSF) fitting software specific to JWST. PSF photometry is at the heart of resolved stellar populations studies, but is not part of the standard JWST reduction pipeline. Our program will establish JWST-optimized methodologies in six scientific areas: star formation histories, measurement of the sub-Solar mass stellar IMF, extinction maps, evolved stars, proper motions, and globular clusters, all of which will be common pursuits for JWST in the local Universe. Our observations of globular cluster M92, ultra-faint dwarf Draco II, and star-forming dwarf WLM, will be of high archival value for other science such as calibrating stellar evolution models, measuring properties of variable stars, and searching for metal-poor stars. We will release the results of our program, including PSF fitting software, matched HST and JWST catalogs, clear documentation, and step-by-step tutorials (e.g., Jupyter notebooks) for data reduction and science application, to the community prior to the Cycle 2 Call for Proposals. We will host a workshop to help community members plan their Cycle 2 observations of resolved stars. Our program will provide blueprints for the community to efficiently reduce and analyze JWST observations of resolved stellar populations.

  7. The Effect of Composite Thickness on the Stress Distribution Pattern of Restored Premolar Teeth with Cusp Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahandeh, Narges; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Ziaee, Nargess; Mahdian, Mina; Tootiaee, Bahman; Ghasemi, Amir

    2017-07-01

    Different thicknesses of restorative material can alter the stress distribution pattern in remaining tooth structure. The assumption is that a thicker composite restoration will induce a higher fracture resistance. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effect of composite thickness on stress distribution in a restored premolar with cusp reduction. A 3D solid model of a maxillary second premolar was prepared and meshed. MOD cavities were designed with different cusp reduction thicknesses (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.5 mm). Cavities were restored with Valux Plus composite. They were loaded with 200 N force on the occlusal surface in the direction of the long axis. Von Mises stresses were evaluated with Abaqus software. Stress increased from occlusal to gingival and was maximum in the cervical region. The stressed area in the palatal cusp was more than that of the buccal cusp. Increasing the thickness of composite altered the shear stress to compressive stress in the occlusal area of the teeth. The model with 2.5 mm cusp reduction exhibited the most even stress distribution. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. On the occurrence of magnetic reconnection equatorward of the cusps at the Earth's magnetopause during northward IMF conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, K. J.; Thresher, S.; Trenchi, L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Petrinec, S. M.; Peterson, W. K.; Marcucci, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection changes the topology of magnetic field lines. This process is most readily observable with in situ instrumentation at the Earth's magnetopause as it creates open magnetic field lines to allow energy and momentum flux to flow from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. Most models use the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) to determine the location of these magnetopause entry points, known as reconnection lines. Dayside locations of magnetic reconnection equatorward of the cusps are generally found during sustained intervals of southward IMF, while high-latitude region regions poleward of the cusps are observed for northward IMF conditions. In this study we discuss Double Star magnetopause crossings and a conjunction with a Polar cusp crossing during northward IMF conditions with a dominant IMF BY component. During all seven dayside magnetopause crossings, Double Star detected switching ion beams, a known signature for the presence of reconnection lines. In addition, Polar observed a cusp ion-energy dispersion profile typical for a dayside equatorial reconnection line. Using the cutoff velocities for the precipitating and mirrored ion beams in the cusp, the distance to the reconnection site is calculated, and this distance is traced back to the magnetopause, to the vicinity of the Double Star satellite locations. Our analysis shows that, for this case, the predicted line of maximum magnetic shear also coincides with that dayside reconnection location.

  9. Plasma Wave and Electron Density Structure Observed in the Cusp with a Dual-Rocket Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, C. A.; Labelle, J. W.; Kletzing, C.; Bounds, S.; Cairns, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Twin Rockets to Investigate Cusp Electrodynamics (TRICE) were launched on December 10, 2007, from Andoya Research Range in Andenes, Norway, into the active cusp. Both payloads traveled north over Svalbard, with one payload reaching an apogee of ~1100 km, and the other reaching ~600 km. The payloads were separated by 100-400 km during the main portion of the flight. Both payloads included waveform receivers with 5 MHz bandwidth. These recorded several distinct types of auroral waves including whistler mode waves below ~1000 kHz and Langmuir-upper hybrid waves at 300-3000 kHz for several hundred km. Both payloads concurrently encountered a distinct period of Langmuir turbulence. Clearly defined wave cutoffs provide measurements of electron density and reveal significant density structure with density enhancements having amplitudes up to 100 percent and scale sizes from meters to tens of kilometers. Analysis of the inferred density profiles using windowed Fourier Transforms or Lomb-Scargle periodograms generates dynamic spectra of the density, which provide estimates of the spectral composition of the density irregularities for time intervals sufficiently short that the stationarity of the spectra can be investigated. The large-scale structures through which the two payloads propagated were measured by both the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars as well as by all-sky cameras operated at Longyearbyen and Ny-Alesund on Svalbard. Using this data when available, comparison of the density irregularity waveforms and spectra from the two flights is studied in relation to spatial and altitude variations of the turbulence. This examination of wave and density structures and the large scale formations with which they are associated will add to the understanding of the large scale electrodynamics of the cusp region.

  10. Localized structure in the cusp and high-latitude ionosphere: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Balmforth

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric signature of a flux transfer event (FTE seen in EISCAT radar data has been used as the basis for a modelling study using a new numerical model of the high-latitude ionosphere developed at the University of Sheffield, UK. The evolution of structure in the high-latitude ionosphere is investigated and examined with respect to the current views of polar patch formation and development. A localized velocity enhancement, of the type associated with FTEs, is added to the plasma as it passes through the cusp. This is found to produce a region of greatly enhanced ion temperature. The new model can provide greater detail during this event as it includes anisotropic temperature calculations for the O+ ions. This illustrates the uneven partitioning of the energy during an event of this type. O+ ion temperatures are found to become increasingly anisotropic, with the perpendicular temperature being substantially larger than the parallel component during the velocity enhancement. The enhanced temperatures lead to an increase in the recombination rate, which results in an alteration of the ion concentrations. A region of decreased O+ and increased molecular ion concentration develops in the cusp. The electron temperature is less enhanced than the ions. As the new model has an upper boundary of 10 000 km the topside can also be studied in great detail. Large upward fluxes are seen to transport plasma to higher altitudes, contributing to the alteration of the ion densities. Plasma is stored in the topside ionosphere and released several hours after the FTE has finished as the flux tube convects across the polar cap. This mechanism illustrates how concentration patches can be created on the dayside and be maintained into the nightside polar cap.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; polar ionosphere. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp and boundary layers

  11. Field-aligned currents, plasma waves, and anomalous resistivity in the disturbed polar cusp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, R. W.; Scarf, F. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    During the magnetic storm of November 1, 1968, the Ogo 5 spacecraft encountered the polar cusp region at low magnetic latitudes. We show that the region just outside the last closed field lines contained a warm magnetosheath plasma, magnetic field perturbations interpretable as field-aligned current layers, and electrostatic waves possibly due to plasma instabilities driven by these currents. Estimates of anomalous resistivity extrapolated along the field lines due to these electrostatic waves lead to estimates of field-aligned potential drops between Ogo 5 and the ionosphere on the order of 2 kV.

  12. Root abnormalities, talon cusps, dentes invaginati with reduced alveolar bone levels: case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1998-03-01

    This is a case report of a Caucasian female who presented with an unusual combination of dental anomalies: short roots on the maxillary central incisors and premolars, talon cusps, dentes invaginati, low alveolar bone heights, tubercles of Carabelli on the maxillary first and second permanent molars, with pyramidal root morphology in three of the second permanent molars. None of the anomalies alone are particularly uncommon but they have not previously been reported together. The occurrence of the anomalies is probably incidental as the conditions are aetiologically unrelated.

  13. Coulomb scatter of diamagnetic dust particles in a cusp magnetic trap under microgravity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasnikov, M. I., E-mail: miasnikovmi@mail.ru; D’yachkov, L. G.; Petrov, O. F.; Vasiliev, M. M., E-mail: mixxy@mail.ru; Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Savin, S. F.; Serova, E. O. [Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, ul. Lenina 4A (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The effect of a dc electric field on strongly nonideal Coulomb systems consisting of a large number (~10{sup 4}) of charged diamagnetic dust particles in a cusp magnetic trap are carried out aboard the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS) within the Coulomb Crystal experiment. Graphite particles of 100–400 μm in size are used in the experiments. Coulomb scatter of a dust cluster and the formation of threadlike chains of dust particles are observed experimentally. The processes observed are simulated by the molecular dynamics (MD) method.

  14. Inadvertent puncture of the aortic noncoronary cusp during postoperative left atrial tachycardia ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Aras, MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transseptal catheterization has become part of the interventional electrophysiologist׳s technical armamentarium since the development of left atrial catheter ablation and percutaneous technologies for treating mitral and aortic valve disease. Although frequently performed, the procedure׳s most feared complication is aortic root penetration. Focal atrial tachycardia has been described as the most common late sequela of surgical valve replacements. We present a complicated case involving the inadvertent delivery of an 8 French sheath across the noncoronary cusp during radiofrequency catheter ablation for left atrial tachycardia originating from the mitral annulus in a patient with prior mitral valve replacement.

  15. The dynamic cusp aurora on 30 November 1997: response to southward turning of the IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    Full Text Available We document the detailed dynamics of the dayside aurora in the sim1200-1600 MLT sector in response to a sharp southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF under negative IMF By conditions. Features not documented in previous work are elucidated by using two meridan scanning photometers (separated by 2 h and an all-sky auroral imager in Ny Ålesund, Svalbard (75.5°MLAT in combination with magnetograms from stations on Svalbard, covering the latitude range 71°75°MLAT. The initial auroral response may be divided into three phases consisting of: (1 intensification of both the red (630.0 nm and green (557.7 nm line emissions in the cusp aurora near 1200 MLT and ~100 km equatorward shift of its equatorward boundary, at ~75°MLAT, (2 eastward and poleward expansions of the cusp aurora, reaching the 1430 MLT meridian after 5-6 min, and (3 east-west expansion of the higher-latitude aurora (at ~77°78°MLAT in the postnoon sector. The associated magnetic disturbance is characterized by an initial positive deflection of the X-component at stations located 100-400 km south of the aurora, corresponding to enhanced Sunward return flow associated with the merging convection cell in the post-noon sector. The sequence of partly overlapping poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs during the first 15 min, accompanied by corresponding pulsations in the convection current, was followed by a strong westward contraction of the cusp aurora when the ground magnetograms indicated a temporary return to the pre-onset level. These observations are discussed in relation to the Cowley-Lockwood model of ionospheric response to pulsed magnetopause reconnection.

    Key words. Mangetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp and boundary layers; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions; auroral phenomena

  16. Stellarator fusion neutronics research in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimin, S.; Cross, R.C. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Physics; Dewar, R.L.; Gardner, H.J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The new status of the H-INF Heliac Stellaralor as a National Facility and the signed international Implementing Agreement on `Collaboration in the Development of the Stellarator Concept` represents a significant encouragement for further fusion research in Australia. In this report the future of fusion research in Australia is discussed with special attention being paid to the importance of Stellarator power plant studies and in particular stellarator fusion neutronics. The main differences between tokamak and stellarator neutronics analyses are identified, namely the neutron wall loading, geometrical modelling and total heating in in-vessel reactor components including toroidal field (TF) coils. Due to the more complicated nature of stellarator neutronics analyses, simplified approaches to fusion neutronics already developed for tokamaks are expected to be even more important and widely used for designing a Conceptual Stellarator Power Plant. 15 refs.

  17. Stellar Feedback from Galactic Bulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shikui; Wang, D. Q.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that feedback from galactic bulges can play an essential role in the halo gas dynamics and the evolution of their host galaxies by conducting a series of 1-D and 3-D simulations. In our 1-D models we approximately divide the the bulge stellar feedback into two phases: 1) a starbusrt-induced blastwave from the formation of bulge built up through frequent major mergers at high redshift and 2) a gradual feedback in forms of stellar wind and Type Ia SNe from low mass stars. Our simulations show that the combination of the two-phase feedback can heat the surrounding gas beyond the virial radius and stop further gas accretion, which naturally produces a baryon deficit around MW-like galaxies and explains the lack of large-scale X-ray halos, consistent with observations. The hot gas dynamics depends sensitively on the environment and bulge formation history. This dependency may account for the large dispersion in the X-ray luminosities of the galaxies with similar L_B. In the 3-D simulations, we examine the spatial, thermal, and chemical substructures and their effects on X-ray measurements. The sporadic SN explosion creates wealth of filamentary and shell-like structures in the hot gas and produces a broad lognormal-like emission-measure distribution, which enhances the X-ray emission at a low and high temperatures. The luminosity at 0.3-2.0 keV band is nearly tripled due to the gas structures. We find that the SN Ia ejecta are not well-mixed with the ambient medium within the bulge scale, and the X-ray emission is primarily from shocked stellar wind materials which in general has low metallicity.

  18. Controlling turbulence in present and future stellarators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulos, P; Mynick, H E; Helander, P; Turkin, Y; Plunk, G G; Jenko, F; Görler, T; Told, D; Bird, T; Proll, J H E

    2014-10-10

    Turbulence is widely expected to limit the confinement and, thus, the overall performance of modern neoclassically optimized stellarators. We employ novel petaflop-scale gyrokinetic simulations to predict the distribution of turbulence fluctuations and the related transport scaling on entire stellarator magnetic surfaces and reveal striking differences to tokamaks. Using a stochastic global-search optimization method, we derive the first turbulence-optimized stellarator configuration stemming from an existing quasiomnigenous design.

  19. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-01

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  20. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, F. [Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  1. Direct determination of IMF B-Y-related cusp current systems, using SuperDARN radar and multiple ground magnetometer data: A link to theory on cusp current origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amm, O.; Engebretson, M.J.; Greenwald, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    We analyze an ionospheric "enhanced convection event" in the cusp on November 13, 1996, at 1900 UT, by using data of the SuperDARN radar, and of the IMAGE, Greenland, MACCS and CANOPUS magnetometer arrays; and from other magnetometer stations. The event occurs similar to 20 minutes after a transi......We analyze an ionospheric "enhanced convection event" in the cusp on November 13, 1996, at 1900 UT, by using data of the SuperDARN radar, and of the IMAGE, Greenland, MACCS and CANOPUS magnetometer arrays; and from other magnetometer stations. The event occurs similar to 20 minutes after...

  2. Stellar Streams in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Nora; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Balbinot, Eduardo; DES Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We present a search for Galactic stellar streams in the Dark Energy Survey (DES), using three years of optical data taken across 5000 sq. degrees of the southern sky. The wide-field, uniform DES photometry provides unprecedented sensitivity to the stellar density field in the southern hemisphere, allowing for the detection of faint stellar populations. We follow the “Field of Streams” procedure developed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Belokurov et al., 2006) to identify stellar density features such as dwarf galaxies, globular clusters, and the stellar streams resulting from the tidal disruption of these objects. Improved analysis techniques applied to the DES data enable the discovery of new stellar streams, and provide added insight into the origin and stellar populations of previously identified objects. An increased sample size together with detailed characterization of individual stellar streams and their progenitors can inform our understanding of the formation of the Milky Way stellar halo, as well as the large and small scale distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way.

  3. Helical axis stellarator with noninterlocking planar coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Allan; Boozer, Allen H.

    1987-01-01

    A helical axis stellarator using only noninterlocking planar, non-circular coils, generates magnetic fields having a magnetic well and large rotational transform with resultant large equilibrium beta.

  4. Spatial and temporal variations of the high-altitude cusp precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Němeček

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Structured dispersion patterns of the ion precipitation in low- and mid-altitude cusp regions have been reported by many authors. These patterns are interpreted either as temporal features in terms of the pulsed reconnection model or as spatial changes caused by a combination of the particle velocity with the convection of magnetic field lines. It is generally expected that the spatial dispersion is predominantly observed in lower altitudes where the spacecraft crosses a wide range of geomagnetic coordinates in a short time, whereas the high-altitude spacecraft observes temporal changes because it stays nearly on the same field line for a long time. We have analyzed one pass of the INTERBALL-1/MAGION-4 satellite pair through the high-altitude cusp and found that both temporal and spatial dispersion effects are important even in the magnetopause vicinity. The analysis of the present event shows a spatial nature of the observed dispersion in the LLBL and in the plasma mantle. We have identified two sources of a mantle precipitation operating simultaneously. Our investigations suggest that besides already reported latitudinal dispersion, the longitudinal dispersion can be observed during intervals of sufficiently high east-west interplanetary magnetic field component.

  5. Optimal design of earth-moving machine elements with cusp catastrophe theory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitukhin, A. V.; Skobtsov, I. G.

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the optimal design problem solution for the operator of an earth-moving machine with a roll-over protective structure (ROPS) in terms of the catastrophe theory. A brief description of the catastrophe theory is presented, the cusp catastrophe is considered, control parameters are viewed as Gaussian stochastic quantities in the first part of the paper. The statement of optimal design problem is given in the second part of the paper. It includes the choice of the objective function and independent design variables, establishment of system limits. The objective function is determined as mean total cost that includes initial cost and cost of failure according to the cusp catastrophe probability. Algorithm of random search method with an interval reduction subject to side and functional constraints is given in the last part of the paper. The way of optimal design problem solution can be applied to choose rational ROPS parameters, which will increase safety and reduce production and exploitation expenses.

  6. Cluster observations of magnetic field fluctuations in the high-altitude cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nykyri

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution (22 vector/s magnetic field data from Cluster FGM instrument are presented for the high-altitude cusp crossing on 17 March 2001. Despite the quiet solar wind conditions, the cusp was filled with magnetic field turbulence for much of the crossing. Large-scale fluctuations show some correlation between spacecraft but the higher frequency fluctuations show no correlation, indicating that the length scales of these waves are smaller than the spacecraft separation (500km. In many intervals, there are clear peaks in the wave power around the ion cyclotron frequency (~1Hz, and there is some evidence for waves at the first harmonic of this frequency. Both left- and right-hand polarised waves are found, with angles of propagation with respect to the ambient magnetic field that range from parallel to perpendicular. The regions of enhanced magnetic field fluctuations appear to be associated with plasma flows possibly originating from a lobe reconnection site. The most coherent, long lasting wave trains with frequencies close to local ion cyclotron frequency occur at a boundary between a sheared flow and a stagnant plasma.

  7. New solar cell and clean unit system platform (CUSP) for earth and environmental science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, A.; Matsuoka, T.; Enomoto, R.; Yasutake, M.

    2017-11-01

    We have investigated InGaN-based multi-striped orthogonal photon-photocarrier propagation solar cell (MOP3SC) in which sunlight propagates in a direction being orthogonal to that of photocarriers generated by the sunlight. Thanks to the orthogonality, in MOP3SC, absorption of the sunlight and collection of the photocarriers can be simultaneously and independently optimized with no trade-off. Furthermore, by exploiting the degree of freedom along the photon propagation and using multi-semiconductor stripes in which the incoming photons first encounter the widest gap semiconductor, and the narrowest at last, we can convert the whole solar spectrum into electricity resulting in the high conversion efficiency. For processing MOP3SC, we have developed Clean Unit System Platform (CUSP), which turns out to be able to serve as clean versatile environment having low power-consumption and high cost-performance. CUSP is suitable not only for processing devices, but also for cross-disciplinary fields, including medical/hygienic applications.

  8. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Morphology and Dynamics of the Polar Cusp

    CERN Document Server

    Egeland, Alv

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings are based upon introductory talks, research reports and discussions from the NATO Advanced Workshop on the "Morphology and Dynamics of the Polar Cusp", held at Lillehammer, Norway, 7-12 May, 1984. The upper atmosphere at high latitudes is called the "Earth's win­ dow to outer space". Through various electrodynamic coupling process­ es as well as through direct transfer of particles many geophysical effects displayed there are direct manifestations of phenomena occurring in the deep space. The high latitude ionosphere will also exert a feedback on the regions of the magnetosphere and atmosphere to which it is coupled, acting as a momentum and energy source and sink, and a source of particles. Of particular interest are the sections of the near space known as the Polar Cusp. A vast portion of the earth's magnetic field envelope is electrically connected to these regions. This geometry results in a spatial mapping of the magnetospheric pro­ cesses and a focusing on to the ionosphere. In the ...

  9. LS1 Report: A brand new set-up for ASACUSA-CUSP

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    ASACUSA is running for the first time with a totally new set-up. Three new vital instruments have been designed, produced and installed during LS1 in addition to several other major modifications. The collaboration is now ready to perform the first high-precision measurement of the hyperfine structure of antihydrogen – a study that aims at comparing the inner properties of matter and antimatter.   The ASACUSA set-up. The ASACUSA-CUSP collaboration comprises about 30 scientists from various institutes in Europe and Japan. Because of the Japanese contribution, the experiment is often known by its Japanese pronunciation, the experiment’s logo is in Japanese, and the logbook uses Japanese time! This year, for the first time, the experiment is running with a completely new set-up, which now includes a new superconducting double cusp magnet, a new tracking detector and a new final antihydrogen detector. “The magnet is the heart of the ASACUSA experiment,” expl...

  10. Cross-cultural generalizability of a cusp catastrophe model for binge drinking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Aruka, Yuji; Doyle, Meghan; Smerz, Kelly E

    2008-10-01

    We examined whether a cusp catastrophe model for binge alcohol consumption by college students that was reported earlier (Smerz & Guastello, 2008) could generalize to another culture. Participants were 130 undergraduates enrolled in economics courses at a private urban Japanese university. They completed the same questionnaire items that were used in the previous US study. For some analyses, a stratified random subsample was taken from the earlier US data that was comparable in number, age, and gender proportions (N = 132). Results for the combined sample showed essentially the same results that were obtained from the US sample: Binge drinking can be modeled as a cusp catastrophe with two stable states of behavior - low to moderate consumption and binge level consumption. The two control parameters were peer influence (bifurcation) and attitude toward alcohol use (asymmetry). The nonlinear models (average R2 = .74) accounted for considerably more variance in binge drinking and other alcohol consumption indices than the comparison linear models (average r2 = .18 ). There were some subtle differences between the two samples of students, however.

  11. Cusp catastrophe models for cognitive workload and fatigue: a comparison of seven task types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Boeh, Henry; Gorin, Hillary; Huschen, Samuel; Peters, Natalie E; Fabisch, Megan; Poston, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    The study introduces a nonlinear paradigm that addresses several unresolved problems concerning cognitive workload and fatigue: (a) how to separate the effects of workload versus fatigue, (b) whether the upper boundaries of cognitive channel capacity are fixed or variable, and how multitasking produces a bottleneck phenomenon, (c) that prolonged time on task can produce performance decrements but also produce improvements in task performance associated with practice and automaticity, and that (d) task switching can alleviate fatigue but could be mentally costly. This study describes two cusp catastrophe models that have become useful for separating the workload and fatigue performance phenomena and explores the role of task switching and multitasking in both performance phenomena. In the experiment, 105 undergraduates completed seven computer-based tasks seven times under one of four experimental conditions: tasks fully alternated, tasks aggregated with the multitask module performed first, aggregated with the multitask module performed last, and where the participants chose the task order themselves. Results supported both the cusp models such that fatigue effects were stronger for tasks with higher memory or attentional demand, and were often counteracted by practice effects; spelling ability acted as a compensation variable in most cases, and the intervening amount of work done acted as the bifurcation variable. For cognitive workload, catastrophic shifts in performance were noted between the single tasks and the multitask, with relative difficulty of the single task acting as the load (asymmetry) variable and the flexible task ordering condition as the bifurcation variable.

  12. Flexible helical-axis stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey H.; Hender, Timothy C.; Carreras, Benjamin A.; Cantrell, Jack L.; Morris, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    An 1=1 helical winding which spirals about a conventional planar, circular central conductor of a helical-axis stellarator adds a significant degree of flexibility by making it possible to control the rotational transform profile and shear of the magnetic fields confining the plasma in a helical-axis stellarator. The toroidal central conductor links a plurality of toroidal field coils which are separately disposed to follow a helical path around the central conductor in phase with the helical path of the 1=1 winding. This coil configuration produces bean-shaped magnetic flux surfaces which rotate around the central circular conductor in the same manner as the toroidal field generating coils. The additional 1=1 winding provides flexible control of the magnetic field generated by the central conductor to prevent the formation of low-order resonances in the rotational transform profile which can produce break-up of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. Further, this additional winding can deepen the magnetic well which together with the flexible control provides increased stability.

  13. Compact stellarators with modular coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2000-01-01

    Compact stellarator designs with modular coils and only two or three field periods are now available; these designs have both good stability and quasiaxial symmetry providing adequate transport for a magnetic fusion reactor. If the bootstrap current assumes theoretically predicted values a three field period configuration is optimal, but if that net current turns out to be lower, a device with two periods and just 12 modular coils might be better. There are also attractive designs with quasihelical symmetry and four or five periods whose properties depend less on the bootstrap current. Good performance requires that there be a satisfactory magnetic well in the vacuum field, which is a property lacking in a stellarator-tokamak hybrid that has been proposed for a proof of principle experiment. In this paper, we present an analysis of stability for these configurations that is based on a mountain pass theorem asserting that, if two solutions of the problem of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium can be found, then there has to be an unstable solution. We compare results of our theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport with recently announced measurements from the large LHD experiment in Japan. PMID:10899993

  14. A Rare Bilateral Presentation of Multiple Dens Invaginatus, Shovel-Shaped Incisor and Talon Cusp With Mesiodens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, S; Jain, M; Shubha, A B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a unique and unusual case of concomitant appearance of morphological dental anomalies in the maxillary anterior region, along with its management in a patient with no systemic abnormality. This case report describes the clinical and radiographic features of talon cusp, dens invaginatus, shovel-shaped incisors and a supernumerary tooth occurring in a single patient, which is a rare presentation. All 4 permanent maxillary incisors had dens invaginatus, the permanent maxillary canines showed the presence of talon cusps, the permanent maxillary central incisors were shovel-shaped and an erupted mesiodens was also observed. Treatment included restorative, surgical and orthodontic approaches.

  15. Validation of LAMOST stellar parameters with the PASTEL catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hua; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Luo, A.-Li; Zhang, Hao-Tong; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Yong; Li, Guang-Wei; Du, Bing

    2015-12-01

    The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) published its first data release (DR1) in 2013, which is currently the largest dataset of stellar spectra in the world. We combine the PASTEL catalog and SIMBAD radial velocities as a testing standard to validate stellar parameters (effective temperature Teff, surface gravity log g, metallicity [Fe/H] and radial velocity Vr) derived from DR1. Through cross-identification of the DR1 catalogs and the PASTEL catalog, we obtain a preliminary sample of 422 stars. After removal of stellar parameter measurements from problematic spectra and applying effective temperature constraints to the sample, we compare the stellar parameters from DR1 with those from PASTEL and SIMBAD to demonstrate that the DR1 results are reliable in restricted ranges of Teff. We derive standard deviations of 110 K, 0.19 dex and 0.11 dex for Teff, log g and [Fe/H] respectively when Teff PASTEL, in the range of PASTEL [Fe/H] < -1.5.

  16. Asymmetric Drift and the Stellar Velocity Ellipsoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the decomposition of the stellar velocity ellipsoid using stellar velocity dispersions within a 40° wedge about the major-axis (smaj), the epicycle approximation, and the asymmetric drift equation. Thus, we employ no fitted forms for smaj and escape interpolation errors resulting from

  17. The Kinematics of Galactic Stellar Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merrifield, M. R.; Kuijken, K.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract: The disks of galaxies are primarily stellar systems, and fundamentally dynamical entities. Thus, to fully understand galactic disks, we must study their stellar kinematics as well as their morphologies. Observational techniques have now advanced to a point where quite detailed

  18. Stellar Spectral Classification with Locality Preserving Projections ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the help of computer tools and algorithms, automatic stellar spectral classification has become an area of current interest. The process of stellar spectral classification mainly includes two steps: dimension reduction and classification. As a popular dimensionality reduction technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) ...

  19. Stark broadening data for stellar plasma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.

    Results of an effort to provide to astrophysicists and physicists an as much as possible complete set of Stark broadening parameters needed for stellar opacity calculations, stellar atmosphere modelling, abundance determinations and diagnostics of different plasmas in astrophysics, physics and plasma technology, are presented. Stark broadening has been considered within the semiclassical perturbation, and the modified semiempirical approaches.

  20. Synthetic Stellar Photometry. II-Testing the bolometric flux scale, and tables of bolometric corrections for the Hipparcos/Tycho, Pan-STARRS1, SkyMapper and JWST systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, L.; VandenBerg, Don A.

    2018-01-01

    We use MARCS model atmosphere fluxes to compute synthetic colours, bolometric corrections and reddening coefficients for the Hipparcos/Tycho, Pan-STARRS1, SkyMapper and JWST systems. Tables and interpolation subroutines are provided to transform isochrones from the theoretical to various observational planes, to derive bolometric corrections, synthetic colours and colour-temperature relations at nearly any given point of the HR diagram for 2600 {K} ≤ T_{eff}≤ 8000 {K}, and different values of reddening in 85 photometric filters. We use absolute spectrophotometry from the CALSPEC library to show that bolometric fluxes can be recovered to ˜2 percent from bolometric corrections in a single band, when input stellar parameters are well known for FG dwarfs at various metallicities. This sole source of uncertainty impacts interferometric Teff to ≃ 0.5 percent (or 30 K at the solar temperature). Uncertainties are halved when combining bolometric corrections in more bands, and limited by the fundamental uncertainty of the current absolute flux scale at 1 percent. Stars in the RAVE DR5 catalogue are used to validate the quality of our MARCS synthetic photometry in selected filters across the optical and infrared range. This investigation shows that extant MARCS synthetic fluxes are able to reproduce the main features observed in stellar populations across the Galactic disc.

  1. On stellar X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.; Golub, L.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    Stellar X-ray astronomy represents an entirely new astronomical discipline which has emerged during the past five years. It lies at the crossroads of solar physics, stellar physics, and general astrophysics. The present review is concerned with the main physical problems which arise in connection with a study of the stellar X-ray data. A central issue is the extent to which the extrapolation from solar physics is justified and the definition (if possible) of the limits to such extrapolation. The observational properties of X-ray emission from stars are considered along with the solar analogy and the modeling of X-ray emission from late-type stars, the modeling of X-ray emission from early-type stars, the physics of stellar X-ray emission, stellar X-ray emission in the more general astrophysical context, and future prospects.

  2. Astrospheres and Solar-like Stellar Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Brian E.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Stellar analogs for the solar wind have proven to be frustratingly difficult to detect directly. However, these stellar winds can be studied indirectly by observing the interaction regions carved out by the collisions between these winds and the interstellar medium (ISM. These interaction regions are called "astrospheres", analogous to the "heliosphere" surrounding the Sun. The heliosphere and astrospheres contain a population of hydrogen heated by charge exchange processes that can produce enough H I Ly alpha absorption to be detectable in UV spectra of nearby stars from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST. The amount of astrospheric absorption is a diagnostic for the strength of the stellar wind, so these observations have provided the first measurements of solar-like stellar winds. Results from these stellar wind studies and their implications for our understanding of the solar wind are reviewed here. Of particular interest are results concerning the past history of the solar wind and its impact on planetary atmospheres.

  3. Stellar Structure and Evolution: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, C. Simon

    The synthesis of new elements takes place inside stars. How do stars evolve and distribute this creation to the universe at large? This article starts with the observables that the theory of stellar evolution aims to reproduce, and gives a quick overview of what that theory predicts (Sects. 2-3). It presents the equations governing stellar structure and evolution (Sects. 4-6) and the physics of stellar interiors (Sects. 7-9). Approximate and numerical methods for their solution are outlined (Sects. 10-11) and the general results of stellar structure and evolution are discussed (Sects. 12-13). The structure and evolution of horizontal-branch stars, hydrogen-deficient stars and other stellar remnants are also considered (Sects. 14-15).

  4. Impact of stellar activity on the determination of stellar parameters with interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligi, R.; Mourard, D.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Perraut, K.; Chiavassa, A.

    2014-12-01

    With the new space missions dedicated to exoplanet detection and characterization, like PLATO, CHEOPS, TESS, the determination of stellar parameters with high accuracy becomes more and more essential. However, direct or indirect estimations of stellar parameters are affected by stellar activity (magnetic spots, bright plages, granulation) that introduces bias that lower those parameters accuracy. Improving the sensitivity and resolution of future interferometers will allow enlarging the number of common targets of space and ground instruments, and accessing the accuracy needed to distinguish between planetary signals and stellar activity signals. After presenting how visible interferometry contributes to the direct and accurate determination of stellar parameters and thus planetary ones, the impact of stellar activity on interferometric observables and stellar parameters will be presented. Finally, solutions to distinguish between exoplanet and spot signals will be discussed.

  5. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Allende Prieto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  6. Parametrizing the stellar haloes of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Richard; Kauffman, Guinevere; Wang, Jing; Vegetti, Simona

    2014-09-01

    We study the stellar haloes of galaxies out to 70-100 kpc as a function of stellar mass and galaxy type by stacking aligned r- and g-band images from a sample of 45 508 galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 9 in the redshift range 0.06 ≤ z ≤ 0.1 and in the mass range 1010.0 M⊙ < M* < 1011.4 M⊙. We derive surface brightness profiles to a depth of almost μr ˜ 32 mag arcsec-2. We find that the ellipticity of the stellar halo is a function of galaxy stellar mass and that the haloes of high-concentration galaxies are more elliptical than those of low-concentration galaxies. Where the g - r colour of the stellar halo can be measured, we find that the stellar light is always bluer than in the main galaxy. The colour of the stellar halo is redder for more massive galaxies. We further demonstrate that the full two-dimensional surface intensity distribution of our galaxy stacks can only be fit through multicomponent Sérsic models. Using the fraction of light in the outer component of the models as a proxy for the fraction of accreted stellar light, we show that this fraction is a function of stellar mass and galaxy type. The fraction of accreted stellar light rises from 30 to 70 per cent and from 2 to 25 per cent for high- and low-concentration galaxies, respectively, over the mass range 1010.0-1011.4 M⊙.

  7. Ionospheric cusp flows pulsed by solar wind Alfvén waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prikryl

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed ionospheric flows (PIFs in the cusp foot-print have been observed by the SuperDARN radars with periods between a few minutes and several tens of minutes. PIFs are believed to be a consequence of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF reconnection with the magnetospheric magnetic field on the dayside magnetopause, ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events (FTEs. The quasiperiodic PIFs are correlated with Alfvénic fluctuations observed in the upstream solar wind. It is concluded that on these occasions, the FTEs were driven by Alfvén waves coupling to the day-side magnetosphere. Case studies are presented in which the dawn-dusk component of the Alfvén wave electric field modulates the reconnection rate as evidenced by the radar observations of the ionospheric cusp flows. The arrival of the IMF southward turning at the magnetopause is determined from multipoint solar wind magnetic field and/or plasma measurements, assuming plane phase fronts in solar wind. The cross-correlation lag between the solar wind data and ground magnetograms that were obtained near the cusp footprint exceeded the estimated spacecraft-to-magnetopause propagation time by up to several minutes. The difference can account for and/or exceeds the Alfvén propagation time between the magnetopause and ionosphere. For the case of short period ( < 13 min PIFs, the onset times of the flow transients appear to be further delayed by at most a few more minutes after the IMF southward turning arrived at the magnetopause. For the case of long period (30 – 40 min PIFs, the observed additional delays were 10–20 min. We interpret the excess delay in terms of an intrinsic time scale for reconnection (Russell et al., 1997 which can be explained by the surface-wave induced magnetic reconnection mechanism (Uberoi et al., 1999. Here, surface waves with wavelengths larger than the thickness of the neutral layer induce a tearing-mode instability whose rise time explains the

  8. Cusp-latitude Pc3 spectra: band-limited and power-law components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Ponomarenko

    Full Text Available This work attempts to fill a gap in comparative studies of upstream-generated Pc3–4 waves and broad band ULF noise observed at cusp latitudes. We performed a statistical analysis of the spectral properties of three years of cusp-latitude ground magnetometer data, finding that the average daytime Pc3–4 spectra are characterized by two principal components: an upstream-related band-limited enhancement (‘signal’ and a power-law background (‘noise’ with S(f a  f -4 . Based on this information we developed an algorithm allowing for the deconvolution of these two components in the spectral domain. The frequency of the signal enhancement increases linearly with IMF magnitude as f [mHz] ~ 4.4 | BIMF | [nT], and its power maximizes around IMF cone angles qxB ~ 20 and 160° and at 10:30–11:00 MLT. Both spectral components exhibit similar semiannual variations with equinoctial maxima. The back-ground noise power grows with increasing southward Bz and remains nearly constant for northward Bz . Its diurnal variation resembles that of Pc5 field-line resonance power, with a maximum near 09:00 MLT. Both the band-limited signal and broad band noise components show power-law growth with solar wind velocity a V 5.71sw and a V 4.12sw, respectively. Thus, the effective signal-to-noise ratio increases with in-creasing Vsw. The observations suggest that the noise generation is associated with reconnection processes.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind magnetosphere interactions

  9. The Environmental Dependence of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function in the ECO Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstein, Hannah; Berlind, Andreas A.; Calderon, Victor; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila; Moffett, Amanda J.; Stark, David

    2017-01-01

    We study the environmental dependence of the galaxy stellar mass function in the ECO survey and compare it with models that associate galaxies with dark matter halos. Specifically, we quantify the environment of each galaxy in the ECO survey using an Nth nearest neighbor distance metric, and we measure how the galaxy stellar mass distribution varies from low density to high density environments. As expected, we find that massive galaxies preferentially populate high density regions, while low mass galaxies preferentially populate lower density environments. We investigate whether this trend can be explained simply by the stellar-to-halo mass relation combined with the environmental dependence of the halo mass function. In other words, we test the hypothesis that the stellar mass of a galaxy depends solely on the mass of its dark matter halo and does not exhibit a residual dependence on the halo’s larger environment. To test this hypothesis, we first construct mock ECO catalogs by populating dark matter halos in an N-body simulation with galaxies using a model that preserves the overall clustering strength of the galaxy population. We then assign stellar masses to the mock galaxies using physically motivated models that connect stellar mass to halo mass and are constrained to match the global ECO stellar mass function. Finally, we impose the radial and angular selection functions of the ECO survey and repeat our environmental analysis on the mock catalogs. We find that the environmental dependence of stellar mass in the mock catalogs is in agreement with that observed in the ECO survey. Our results are thus consistent with the simple hypothesis that galaxy stellar mass only depends on halo mass. The RESOLVE/ECO surveys were supported by NSF award AST-0955368.

  10. Concept, production and validation of a 3D-printed coil frame for the UST{sub 2} modular stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, V., E-mail: vicentemanuel.queral@ciemat.es

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •A construction method for stellarator modular coils is developed and validated. •3D printed truss structure filled and moulded with a material able to solidify. •The structure capability for forces in small stellarators has been estimated. •A light bare truss frame and a covered rigid double hull frame have been tested. -- Abstract: Geometric complexity of stellarators hampers a straightforward production of conceived optimised magnetic configurations. Integration of the engineering design with new fabrication methods may reduce the production cost and accelerate the production process. A fast cycle production of experimental fusion devices also might result in a faster advance in fusion plasma science. Several different stellarators could be used to test configurations for improved turbulent transport or to validate new divertor configurations. In this framework, and based on the results from the previously built UST{sub 1} stellarator, the present work try to study and validate the feasibility of 3D printing methods (additive manufacturing) for small experimental stellarators. The paper summarises the engineering development, fabrication and validation of a coil frame test sector for the UST{sub 2} stellarator. The definition of the Last Closed Flux Surface and winding surface for the test sector is based on an optimised quasi-isodynamic poloidal stellarator, modified for enhanced in-vessel remote handling manipulation and wide space for divertors. A Filled-sparse coil frame concept is developed to still keep low the cost in spite of the present expensive 3D printing materials and printers.

  11. New results on structure of low beta confinement Polywell cusps simulated by comsol multiphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahdavipour

    Full Text Available The Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC is one of the ways for fusion approaches. It is one of the various methods which can be used to confine hot fusion plasma. The advantage of IEC is that the IEC experiments could be done in smaller size facilities than ITER or NIF, costing less money and moving forward faster. In IEC fusion, we need to trap adequate electrons to confine the desired ion density which is needed for a fusion reactor. Polywell is a device which uses the magnetic cusp system and traps the required amount of electrons for fusion reactions. The purpose of this device is to create a virtual cathode in order to achieve nuclear fusion using inertial electrostatic confinement (Miley and Krupakar Murali, 2014. In this paper, we have simulated the low beta Polywell. Then, we examined the effects of coil spacing, coils current, electron injection energy on confinement time. Keywords: Low beta confinement, Polywell, IEC, Comsol multiphysics

  12. Quantum Spectral Curve for a cusped Wilson line in N=4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Nikolay [King’s College London, Department of Mathematics, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); St. Petersburg INP,Gatchina, 188 300, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levkovich-Maslyuk, Fedor [King’s College London, Department of Mathematics, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-20

    We show that the Quantum Spectral Curve (QSC) formalism, initially formulated for the spectrum of anomalous dimensions of all local single trace operators in N=4 SYM, can be extended to the generalized cusp anomalous dimension for all values of the parameters. We find that the large spectral parameter asymptotics and some analyticity properties have to be modified, but the functional relations are unchanged. As a demonstration, we find an all-loop analytic expression for the first two nontrivial terms in the small |ϕ±θ| expansion. We also present nonperturbative numerical results at generic angles which match perfectly 4-loop perturbation theory and the classical string prediction. The reformulation of the problem in terms of the QSC opens the possibility to explore many open questions. We attach to this paper several Mathematica notebooks which should facilitate future studies.

  13. Stellar coronae from Einstein - Observations and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Einstein Observatory observations of stellar X-ray emission are presented and their implications for the formation of stellar coronae and the problem of stellar angular momentum loss are discussed. Solar coronal X-ray observations and observations of stellar coronae made prior to Einstein are reviewed, and it is noted that they already suggest that the standard theory of acoustic coronal heating is inadequate. The principal results of the Einstein/CfA stellar survey are summarized, with attention given to variations of the level of X-ray flux detected along the main sequence, the decline of X-ray flux with increasing age of giants and supergiants, and indications of a large range of X-ray emission levels within a given type, which are clearly incompatible with models for acoustic flux generation. A new theory to explain stellar coronae and hence X-ray emission from them is then proposed in which stellar magnetic fields play the key role in determining the level of coronal emission, and the modulation of the surface magnetic flux level and the level of stressing of surface magnetic fields essentially determine the variation of mean coronal activity in the H-R diagram.

  14. Multi-station Scintillation Observations at Spitzbergen During the NASA Cusp Rocket Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Kuenzler, H.; Ning, P.; Basu, S.

    2003-12-01

    The plasma density irregularities and their turbulent motion in the cusp following the launch of the NASA Cusp Rocket on December 14, 2002, were studied by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) from ionospheric scintillation observations by using transmissions from a quasi-stationary satellite at 250 MHz and GPS at 1.5 GHz. The multi-instrumented rocket was launched from Ny Alesund at 11h 16m 48s and the rocket attained 300 km altitude after 2m 27s into the flight and reached its apogee at 760 km after 8m 8s. At this time the 300 km sub-ionospheric locations of UHF scintillation measurements from Ny Alesund (75 MLAT) and from Longyearbyen (74.1 MLAT) on Spitzbergen corresponded closely to the rocket flight path. Scintillations were in a quiescent phase earlier that day, becoming suddenly enhanced to saturation levels prior to 1100 UT and maintaining this increase up to 1250 UT. The rocket was launched during this active phase when a burst of GPS phase fluctuations was also observed. The most significant result was the broadening of the scintillation spectrum at 250 MHz that exceeded 2 Hz indicating at least a 5-fold increase in the turbulent motion of plasma density irregularities compared to that prior to the scintillation enhancement. The enhancement of scintillation was coincident with the enhanced plasma convection and radar backscatter recorded by the SuperDARN radars at Iceland and Finland. The increased spectral width of the backscatter return from these two radars indicating turbulent electric fields agreed very well with that obtained from the broadening of the power spectrum of scintillations. The rocket in-situ observations of electric field fluctuations and plasma density irregularities are being studied in relation to the magnitude of scintillations and their spectra.

  15. The primary enamel knot determines the position of the first buccal cusp in developing mice molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Won; Lee, Hyun-A; Cai, Jinglei; Lee, Min-Jung; Kim, Jae-Young; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2007-06-01

    The enamel knot (EK), which is located in the center of bud and cap stage tooth germs, is a transitory cluster of non-dividing epithelial cells. The EK acts as a signaling center that provides positional information for tooth morphogenesis and regulates the growth of tooth cusps by inducing secondary EKs. The morphological, cellular, and molecular events leading to the relationship between the primary and secondary EKs have not been described clearly. This study investigated the relationship between the primary and secondary EKs in the maxillary and mandibular first molars of mice. The location of the primary EK and secondary EKs was investigated by chasing Fgf4 expression patterns in tooth germ at some intervals of in vitro culture, and the relationship between the primary EK and secondary EK was examined by tracing the primary EK cells in the E13.5 tooth germs which were frontally half sliced to expose the primary EK. After 48 hr, the primary EK cells in the sliced tooth germs were located on the buccal secondary EKs, which correspond to the future paracone in maxilla and protoconid in mandible. The Bmp4 expression in buccal part of the dental mesenchyme might be related with the lower growth in buccal epithelium than in lingual epithelium, and the Msx2 expressing area in epithelium was overlapped with the enamel cord (or septum) and cell dense area. The enamel cord might connect the primary EK with enamel navel to fix the location of the primary EK in the buccal side during the cap to bell stages. Overall, these results suggest that primary EK cells strictly contribute to form the paracone or protoconid, which are the main cusps of the tooth in the maxilla or mandible.

  16. Meridian-scanning photometer, coherent HF radar, and magnetometer observations of the cusp: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the cusp region and post-noon sector for an interval of predominantly IMF By, Bz < 0 nT are studied with the CUTLASS Finland coherent HF radar, a meridian-scanning photometer located at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, and a meridional network of magnetometers. The scanning mode of the radar is such that one beam is sampled every 14 s, and a 30° azimuthal sweep is completed every 2 minutes, all at 15 km range resolution. Both the radar backscatter and red line (630 nm optical observations are closely co-located, especially at their equatorward boundary. The optical and radar aurora reveal three different behaviours which can interchange on the scale of minutes, and which are believed to be related to the dynamic nature of energy and momentum transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere through transient dayside reconnection. Two interpretations of the observations are presented, based upon the assumed location of the open/closed field line boundary (OCFLB. In the first, the OCFLB is co-located with equatorward boundary of the optical and radar aurora, placing most of the observations on open field lines. In the second, the observed aurora are interpreted as the ionospheric footprint of the region 1 current system, and the OCFLB is placed near the poleward edge of the radar backscatter and visible aurora; in this interpretation, most of the observations are placed on closed field lines, though transient brightenings of the optical aurora occur on open field lines. The observations reveal several transient features, including poleward and equatorward steps in the observed boundaries, "braiding" of the backscatter power, and 2 minute quasi-periodic enhancements of the plasma drift and optical intensity, predominantly on closed field lines.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; plasma convection · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers

  17. Maintaining and sustaining the On the CUSP: stop BSI model in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Della M; Weeks, Kristina; Holzmueller, Christine G; Pronovost, Peter J; Pham, Julius Cuong

    2013-02-01

    Hawaii joined the On the CUSP: Stop BSI national effort in the United States in 2009 (CUSP stands for Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program). In the initial 18-month study evaluation, adult ICUs decreased central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates by 61%. The impact of a series of novel strategies/tools in reducing infections and sustaining the collaborative in ICUs and non-ICUs in Hawaii was assessed. This cohort collaborative consisted of 20 adult ICUs and 18 nonadult ICUs in 16 hospitals. Hawaii developed and implemented six tools between July 2010 and August 2011: a tool to investigate CLABSIs, a video to address cultural barriers, a standardized dressing change kit, a map of the cohort's journey, a 12-strategies leadership dashboard, and a geometric plot of consecutive infection-free days. The primary outcome measure was overall CLABSI rates (mean infections per 1,000 catheter-days). A comparison of baseline data from 28 ICUs with 12-quarter (36-month) postimplementation data indicated that the CLABSI rate decreased across the entire state: overall, 1.57 to 0.29 infections/1,000 catheter-days; adult ICUs, 1.49 to 0.25 infections/1,000 catheter-days; nonadult ICUs, 2.54 to 0.33 infections/1,000 catheter-days, non-ICUs (N= 14), 4.52 to 0.25 infections/1,000 catheter-days, and PICU/NICU (N = 4), 2.05 to 0.53 infections/1,000 catheter-days. Days between CLABSIs in the adult ICUs statewide increased from a median of 5 days in 2009 to 70 days in 2011. Hawaii successfully spread the program beyond adult ICUs and implemented a series of tools for maintenance and sustainment. Use of the tools shaped a culture around the continued belief that CLABSIs can be eradicated, and infections further reduced.

  18. Dark-matter halo profiles of a general cusp/core with analytic velocity and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Avishai; Ishai, Guy; Dutton, Aaron A.; Maccio, Andrea V.

    2017-06-01

    We present useful functions for the profiles of dark-matter (DM) haloes with a free inner slope, from cusps to cores, where the profiles of density, mass-velocity and potential are simple analytic expressions. Analytic velocity is obtained by expressing the mean density as a simple functional form, and deriving the local density by differentiation. The function involves four shape parameters, with only two or three free: a concentration parameter c, inner and outer asymptotic slopes α and \\bar{γ }, and a middle shape parameter β. Analytic expressions for the potential and velocity dispersion exist for \\bar{γ }=3 and for β a natural number. We match the models to the DM haloes in cosmological simulations, with and without baryons, ranging from steep cusps to flat cores. Excellent fits are obtained with three free parameters (c, α, \\bar{γ }) and β = 2. For an analytic potential, similar fits are obtained for \\bar{γ }=3 and β = 2 with only two free parameters (c, α); this is our favourite model. A linear combination of two such profiles, with an additional free concentration parameter, provides excellent fits also for β = 1, where the expressions are simpler. The fit quality is comparable to non-analytic popular models. An analytic potential is useful for modelling the inner-halo evolution due to gas inflows and outflows, studying environmental effects on the outer halo, and generating halo potentials or initial conditions for simulations. The analytic velocity can quantify simulated and observed rotation curves without numerical integrations.

  19. Cluster observations of a cusp diamagnetic cavity: Structure, size, and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykyri, K.; Otto, A.; Adamson, E.; Dougal, E.; Mumme, J.

    2011-03-01

    We have analyzed Cluster magnetic field and plasma data during high-altitude cusp crossing and compared them with high-resolution MHD simulations. Cluster encountered a diamagnetic cavity (DMC) during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, and as the IMF rotated southward, the spacecraft reencountered the cavity more at the sunward side of the cusp because the reconnection site had changed location. We found evidence of magnetic reconnection both during northward and southward IMF conditions. The Cluster separation was ˜5000 km, enabling for the first time measurements both inside the DMC and surrounding boundaries that allowed us to construct the structure of the DMC and put the observations of ion pitch angle distributions in context of local reconnection topology and gradients of the boundaries. The cavity is characterized by strong magnetic field fluctuations and high-energy particles. At the magnetosheath boundary the high-energy particle fluxes reduced by several orders of magnitude. Throughout the magnetosheath, the high-energy proton fluxes remained low except during brief intervals when sc4 and sc1 dropped back into the cavity due to changes in solar wind dynamic pressure. However, the high-energy O+ fluxes did not drop as much in the magnetosheath and were mostly at 60°-120° pitch angles, indicative of a trapped population in the DMC which is observed in the magnetosheath due to a large gyroradius. Significant fluxes of protons and ionized oxygen were also observed escaping from the diamagnetic cavity antiparallel to the magnetic field in a time scale more consistent with the local DMC source than with a reflected bow shock source.

  20. Inverse ion-cyclotron damping and excitation of multiharmonic ion-cyclotron waves in the northern magnetospheric cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapak, Rikard; Gunell, Herbert; Hamrin, Maria

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated a case of inverse ion-cyclotron damping taking place in the northern terrestrial magnetospheric cusp, exciting waves at the ion-cyclotron frequency and its harmonics. Magnetosheath influx in the cusps and the effect of convection and magnetic mirroring give rise to parallel velocity shears, dvallel/dx\\perp, often associated with instabilities in the plasma and corresponding ion-cyclotron waves, whose evolution is described by a damping factor. This damping factor depends on, for example, the wave numbers and the velocity shear itself and can under certain conditions be negative, hence describing inverse damping (or wave growth). However, an additional required condition for inverse ion-cyclotron damping is a velocity shear in the magnetic field-aligned ion-bulk flow, and this condition is only met for magnetosheath influx in the northern cusp, as oppose to the southern cusp. The ion-cyclotron waves are primarily seen as peaks in the magnetic-field spectral densities, as presented by Slapak et al., [GRL (2016), doi:10.1002/2016GL071680]. The corresponding peaks in the electric-field spectral densities are not as profound, suggesting a background electric field noise or other processes of wave generation causing the electric spectral densities to smoothen out more compared to the magnetic counterpart. We note that some ion-cyclotron wave activity is present in a few similar shear events in the southern cusp, which indicates that other mechanisms generating ion-cyclotron waves may also be present during such conditions.

  1. When the Jeans Do Not Fit: How Stellar Feedback Drives Stellar Kinematics and Complicates Dynamical Modeling in Low-mass Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Quataert, Eliot [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wetzel, Andrew R.; Hopkins, Philip F. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Geha, Marla [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Kereš, Dusan; Chan, T. K. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André, E-mail: kelbadry@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and CIERA, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In low-mass galaxies, stellar feedback can drive gas outflows that generate non-equilibrium fluctuations in the gravitational potential. Using cosmological zoom-in baryonic simulations from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project, we investigate how these fluctuations affect stellar kinematics and the reliability of Jeans dynamical modeling in low-mass galaxies. We find that stellar velocity dispersion and anisotropy profiles fluctuate significantly over the course of galaxies’ starburst cycles. We therefore predict an observable correlation between star formation rate and stellar kinematics: dwarf galaxies with higher recent star formation rates should have systemically higher stellar velocity dispersions. This prediction provides an observational test of the role of stellar feedback in regulating both stellar and dark-matter densities in dwarf galaxies. We find that Jeans modeling, which treats galaxies as virialized systems in dynamical equilibrium, overestimates a galaxy’s dynamical mass during periods of post-starburst gas outflow and underestimates it during periods of net inflow. Short-timescale potential fluctuations lead to typical errors of ∼20% in dynamical mass estimates, even if full three-dimensional stellar kinematics—including the orbital anisotropy—are known exactly. When orbital anisotropy is not known a priori, typical mass errors arising from non-equilibrium fluctuations in the potential are larger than those arising from the mass-anisotropy degeneracy. However, Jeans modeling alone cannot reliably constrain the orbital anisotropy, and problematically, it often favors anisotropy models that do not reflect the true profile. If galaxies completely lose their gas and cease forming stars, fluctuations in the potential subside, and Jeans modeling becomes much more reliable.

  2. Hydrodynamics and stellar winds an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Maciel, Walter J

    2014-01-01

    Stellar winds are a common phenomenon in the life of stars, from the dwarfs like the Sun to the red giants and hot supergiants, constituting one of the basic aspects of modern astrophysics. Stellar winds are a hydrodynamic phenomenon in which circumstellar gases expand towards the interstellar medium. This book presents an elementary introduction to the fundamentals of hydrodynamics with an application to the study of stellar winds. The principles of hydrodynamics have many other applications, so that the book can be used as an introduction to hydrodynamics for students of physics, astrophysics and other related areas.

  3. Stellarator Turbulence: Subdominant Eigenmodes and Quasilinear Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, M J; Faber, B J; Citrin, J; Hegna, C C; Terry, P W; Hatch, D R

    2016-02-26

    Owing to complex geometry, gyrokinetic simulations in stellarator geometry produce large numbers of subdominant unstable and stable, near-orthogonal eigenmodes. Here, results based on the full eigenmode spectrum in stellarator geometry are presented for the first time. In the nonlinear state of a low-magnetic-shear ion-temperature-gradient-driven case, a multitude of these modes are active and imprint the system. Turbulent frequency spectra are broadband as a consequence, in addition to a nonlinear, narrow signature at electron frequencies. It is shown that successful quasilinear, mixing-length transport modeling is possible in stellarators, where it is essential to account for all subdominant unstable modes.

  4. Stellar matter with pseudoscalar condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, A.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICCUB), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Andrianov, V.A.; Kolevatov, S.S. [Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Espriu, D. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICCUB), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    In this work we consider how the appearance of gradients of pseudoscalar condensates in dense systems may possibly influence the transport properties of photons in such a medium as well as other thermodynamic characteristics. We adopt the hypothesis that in regions where the pseudoscalar density gradient is large the properties of photons and fermions are governed by the usual lagrangian extended with a Chern-Simons interaction for photons and a constant axial field for fermions. We find that these new pieces in the lagrangian produce non-trivial reflection coefficients both for photons and fermions when entering or leaving a region where the pseudoscalar has a non-zero gradient. A varying pseudoscalar density may also lead to instability of some fermion and boson modes and modify some properties of the Fermi sea. We speculate that some of these modifications could influence the cooling rate of stellar matter (for instance in compact stars) and have other observable consequences. While quantitative results may depend on the precise astrophysical details most of the consequences are quite universal and consideration should be given to this possibility. (orig.)

  5. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  6. Stellar recipes for axion hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor G.; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Saikawa, Ken'ichi

    2017-10-01

    There are a number of observational hints from astrophysics which point to the existence of stellar energy losses beyond the ones accounted for by neutrino emission. These excessive energy losses may be explained by the existence of a new sub-keV mass pseudoscalar Nambu-Goldstone boson with tiny couplings to photons, electrons, and nucleons. An attractive possibility is to identify this particle with the axion—the hypothetical pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson predicted by the Peccei-Quinn solution to the strong CP problem. We explore this possibility in terms of a DFSZ-type axion and of a KSVZ-type axion/majoron, respectively. Both models allow a good global fit to the data, prefering an axion mass around 10 meV. We show that future axion experiments—the fifth force experiment ARIADNE and the helioscope IAXO—can attack the preferred mass range from the lower and higher end, respectively. An axion in this mass range can also be the main constituent of dark matter.

  7. Collisionless microinstabilities in stellarators II - numerical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Proll, Josefine Henriette Elise; Helander, Per

    2013-01-01

    Microinstabilities exhibit a rich variety of behavior in stellarators due to the many degrees of freedom in the magnetic geometry. It has recently been found that certain stellarators (quasi-isodynamic ones with maximum-$J$ geometry) are partly resilient to trapped-particle instabilities, because fast-bouncing particles tend to extract energy from these modes near marginal stability. In reality, stellarators are never perfectly quasi-isodynamic, and the question thus arises whether they still benefit from enhanced stability. Here the stability properties of Wendelstein 7-X and a more quasi-isodynamic configuration, QIPC, are investigated numerically and compared with the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) and the DIII-D tokamak. In gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the gyrokinetic code GENE in the electrostatic and collisionless approximation, ion-temperature-gradient modes, trapped-electron modes and mixed-type instabilities are studied. Wendelstein 7-X and QIPC exhibit significantly reduce...

  8. Starspots: A Key to the Stellar Dynamo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdyugina Svetlana V.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic activity similar to that of the Sun is observed on a variety of cool stars with external convection envelopes. Stellar rotation coupled with convective motions generate strong magnetic fields in the stellar interior and produce a multitude of magnetic phenomena including starspots in the photosphere, chromospheric plages, coronal loops, UV, X-ray, and radio emission and flares. Here I review the phenomenon of starspots on different types of cool stars, observational tools and diagnostic techniques for studying starspots as well as starspot properties including their temperatures, areas, magnetic field strengths, lifetimes, active latitudes and longitudes, etc. Evolution of starspots on various time scales allows us to investigate stellar differential rotation, activity cycles, and global magnetic fields. Together these constitute the basis for our understanding of stellar and solar dynamos and provide valuable constraints for theoretical models.

  9. Mass outflows from young stellar objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, S. E.; Strom, K. M.

    1985-01-01

    The process of mass loss from young stellar objects is examined in a review of recent observational investigations and theoretical models. Consideration is given to the interaction of the stellar wind with surrounding molecular clouds, the high degree of collimation seen in some embedded objects, alignment of outflows from stars embedded in the same cloud complex, initially isotropic and intrinsically anisotropic models of mass outflow, and the kinds of observations needed to determine the actual mechanisms involved.

  10. NH3 (10-00) in the pre-stellar core L1544

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caselli, P.; Bizzocchi, L.; Keto, E.

    2017-01-01

    Pre-stellar cores represent the initial conditions in the process of star and planet formation, therefore it is important to study their physical and chemical structure. Because of their volatility, nitrogen-bearing molecules are key to study the dense and cold gas present in pre-stellar cores....... The NH3 rotational transition detected with Herschel-HIFI provides a unique combination of sensitivity and spectral resolution to further investigate physical and chemical processes in pre-stellar cores. Here we present the velocity-resolved Herschel-HIFI observations of the ortho-NH3(10-00) line at 572...... GHz and study the abundance profile of ammonia across the pre-stellar core L1544 to test current theories of its physical and chemical structure. Recently calculated collisional coefficients have been included in our non-LTE radiative transfer code to reproduce Herschel observations. A gas...

  11. Minimizing stellarator turbulent transport by geometric optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynick, H. E.

    2010-11-01

    Up to now, a transport optimized stellarator has meant one optimized to minimize neoclassical transport,ootnotetextH.E. Mynick, Phys. Plasmas 13, 058102 (2006). while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. However, with the advent of gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D geometries such as GENE,ootnotetextF. Jenko, W. Dorland, M. Kotschenreuther, B.N. Rogers, Phys. Plasmas 7, 1904 (2000). and stellarator optimization codes such as STELLOPT,ootnotetextA. Reiman, G. Fu, S. Hirshman, L. Ku, et al, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41 B273 (1999). designing stellarators to also reduce turbulent transport has become a realistic possibility. We have been using GENE to characterize the dependence of turbulent transport on stellarator geometry,ootnotetextH.E Mynick, P.A. Xanthopoulos, A.H. Boozer, Phys.Plasmas 16 110702 (2009). and to identify key geometric quantities which control the transport level. From the information obtained from these GENE studies, we are developing proxy functions which approximate the level of turbulent transport one may expect in a machine of a given geometry, and have extended STELLOPT to use these in its cost function, obtaining stellarator configurations with turbulent transport levels substantially lower than those in the original designs.

  12. Ubiquitous time variability of integrated stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Charlie; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Choi, Jieun

    2015-11-01

    Long-period variable stars arise in the final stages of the asymptotic giant branch phase of stellar evolution. They have periods of up to about 1,000 days and amplitudes that can exceed a factor of three in the I-band flux. These stars pulsate predominantly in their fundamental mode, which is a function of mass and radius, and so the pulsation periods are sensitive to the age of the underlying stellar population. The overall number of long-period variables in a population is directly related to their lifetimes, which is difficult to predict from first principles because of uncertainties associated with stellar mass-loss and convective mixing. The time variability of these stars has not previously been taken into account when modelling the spectral energy distributions of galaxies. Here we construct time-dependent stellar population models that include the effects of long-period variable stars, and report the ubiquitous detection of this expected ‘pixel shimmer’ in the massive metal-rich galaxy M87. The pixel light curves display a variety of behaviours. The observed variation of 0.1 to 1 per cent is very well matched to the predictions of our models. The data provide a strong constraint on the properties of variable stars in an old and metal-rich stellar population, and we infer that the lifetime of long-period variables in M87 is shorter by approximately 30 per cent compared to predictions from the latest stellar evolution models.

  13. Modeling nonthermal emission from stellar bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, V.; López-Santiago, J.; Miceli, M.; Bonito, R.; de Castro, E.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Runaway O- and early B-type stars passing through the interstellar medium at supersonic velocities and characterized by strong stellar winds may produce bow shocks that can serve as particle acceleration sites. Previous theoretical models predict the production of high-energy photons by nonthermal radiative processes, but their efficiency is still debated. Aims: We aim to test and explain the possibility of emission from the bow shocks formed by runaway stars traveling through the interstellar medium by using previous theoretical models. Methods: We applied our model to AE Aurigae, the first reported star with an X-ray detected bow shock, to BD+43 3654, in which the observations failed in detecting high-energy emission, and to the transition phase of a supergiant star in the late stages of its life. Results: From our analysis, we confirm that the X-ray emission from the bow shock produced by AE Aurigae can be explained by inverse Compton processes involving the infrared photons of the heated dust. We also predict low high-energy flux emission from the bow shock produced by BD+43 3654, and the possibility of high-energy emission from the bow shock formed by a supergiant star during the transition phase from blue to red supergiant. Conclusions: Bow shocks formed by different types of runaway stars are revealed as a new possible source of high-energy photons in our neighborhood.

  14. Multi-spacecraft determination of wave characteristics near the proton gyrofrequency in high-altitude cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sundkvist

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed study of waves with frequencies near the proton gyrofrequency in the high-altitude cusp for northward IMF as observed by the Cluster spacecraft. Waves in this regime can be important for energization of ions and electrons and for energy transfer between different plasma populations. These waves are present in the entire cusp with the highest amplitudes being associated with localized regions of downward precipitating ions, most probably originating from the reconnection site at the magnetopause. The Poynting flux carried by these waves is downward/upward at frequencies below/above the proton gyrofrequency, which is consistent with the waves being generated near the local proton gyrofrequency in an extended region along the flux tube. We suggest that the waves can be generated by the precipitating ions that show shell-like distributions. There is no clear polarization of the perpendicular wave components with respect to the background magnetic field, while the waves are polarized in a parallel-perpendicular plane. The coherence length is of the order of one ion-gyroradius in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field and a few times larger or more in the parallel direction. The perpendicular phase velocity was found to be of the order of 100km/s, an order of magnitude lower than the local Alfvén speed. The perpendicular wavelength is of the order of a few proton gyroradius or less. Based on our multi-spacecraft observations we conclude that the waves cannot be ion-whistlers, while we suggest that the waves can belong to the kinetic Alfvén branch below the proton gyrofrequency fcp and be described as non-potential ion-cyclotron waves (electromagnetic ion-Bernstein waves above. Linear wave growth calculations using kinetic code show considerable wave growth of non-potential ion cyclotron waves at wavelengths agreeing with observations. Inhomogeneities in the plasma on the order of the ion

  15. Analysis of the dental morphology of Plio-Pleistocene hominids. II. Mandibular molars--study of cusp areas, fissure pattern and cross sectional shape of the crown.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, B A; Abbott, S A; Graham, S H

    1983-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the absolute and relative size of individual cusps, the arrangement of the primary fissure system and the shape of coronal cross sections of the tooth crown have been used to investigate the pattern of variation in Plio-Pleistocene hominid mandibular molar teeth. Teeth were either grouped into one of six taxonomic categories or considered as individual cases. Univariate analysis of relative cusp areas shows that the two taxonomic categories of 'robust' hominids from E...

  16. Extended cusp-like regions and their dependence on the Polar orbit, seasonal variations, and interplanetary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, T. J.; Cargill, P. J.; Lockwood, Mike; Grande, M.; Kellett, B. J.; Perry, C. H.

    2004-01-01

    Extended cusp-like regions (ECRs) are surveyed, as observed by the Magnetospheric Ion Composition Sensor (MICS) of the Charge and Mass Magnetospheric Ion Composition Experiment (CAMMICE) instrument aboard Polar between 1996 and 1999. The first of these ECR events was observed on 29 May 1996, an event widely discussed in the literature and initially thought to be caused by tail lobe reconnection due to the coinciding prolonged interval of strong northward IMF. ECRs are characterized here by in...

  17. Effects of magnetic field strength in the discharge channel on the performance of a multi-cusped field thruster

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Hu; Hui Liu; Yuanyuan Gao; Daren Yu

    2016-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a Multi-cusped Field Thruster depending on the magnetic field strength in the discharge channel were investigated. Four thrusters with different outer diameters of the magnet rings were designed to change the magnetic field strength in the discharge channel. It is found that increasing the magnetic field strength could restrain the radial cross-field electron current and decrease the radial width of main ionization region, which gives rise to the reduction o...

  18. Stellar Firework in a Whirlwind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    VLT Image of Supernova in Beautiful Spiral Galaxy NGC 1288 Stars do not like to be alone. Indeed, most stars are members of a binary system, in which two stars circle around each other in an apparently never-ending cosmic ballet. But sometimes, things can go wrong. When the dancing stars are too close to each other, one of them can start devouring its partner. If the vampire star is a white dwarf - a burned-out star that was once like our Sun - this greed can lead to a cosmic catastrophe: the white dwarf explodes as a Type Ia supernova. In July 2006, ESO's Very Large Telescope took images of such a stellar firework in the galaxy NGC 1288. The supernova - designated SN 2006dr - was at its peak brightness, shining as bright as the entire galaxy itself, bearing witness to the amount of energy released. ESO PR Photo 39/07 ESO PR Photo 39/07 SN 2006dr in NGC 1288 NGC 1288 is a rather spectacular spiral galaxy, seen almost face-on and showing multiple spiral arms pirouetting around the centre. Bearing a strong resemblance to the beautiful spiral galaxy NGC 1232, it is located 200 million light-years away from our home Galaxy, the Milky Way. Two main arms emerge from the central regions and then progressively split into other arms when moving further away. A small bar of stars and gas runs across the centre of the galaxy. The first images of NGC 1288, obtained during the commissioning period of the FORS instrument on ESO's VLT in 1998, were of such high quality that they have allowed astronomers [1] to carry out a quantitative analysis of the morphology of the galaxy. They found that NGC 1288 is most probably surrounded by a large dark matter halo. The appearance and number of spiral arms are indeed directly related to the amount of dark matter in the galaxy's halo. The supernova was first spotted by amateur astronomer Berto Monard. On the night of 17 July 2006, Monard used his 30-cm telescope in the suburbs of Pretoria in South Africa and discovered the supernova as an

  19. Generation of high charge state metal ion beams by electron cyclotron resonance heating of vacuum arc plasma in cusp trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A G; Savkin, K P; Oks, E M; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu; Vodopyanov, A V; Izotov, I V; Mansfeld, D A

    2012-02-01

    A method for generating high charge state heavy metal ion beams based on high power microwave heating of vacuum arc plasma confined in a magnetic trap under electron cyclotron resonance conditions has been developed. A feature of the work described here is the use of a cusp magnetic field with inherent "minimum-B" structure as the confinement geometry, as opposed to a simple mirror device as we have reported on previously. The cusp configuration has been successfully used for microwave heating of gas discharge plasma and extraction from the plasma of highly charged, high current, gaseous ion beams. Now we use the trap for heavy metal ion beam generation. Two different approaches were used for injecting the vacuum arc metal plasma into the trap--axial injection from a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and radial injection from sources mounted radially at the midplane of the trap. Here, we describe preliminary results of heating vacuum arc plasma in a cusp magnetic trap by pulsed (400 μs) high power (up to 100 kW) microwave radiation at 37.5 GHz for the generation of highly charged heavy metal ion beams.

  20. Overlapping ion structures in the mid-altitude cusp under northward IMF: signature of dual lobe reconnection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pitout

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available On some rare occasions, data from the Cluster Ion Spectrometer (CIS in the mid-altitude cusp reveal overlapping ion populations under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. While the poleward part of the cusp exhibits the expected reverse dispersion due to lobe reconnection, its equatorward part shows a second ion population at higher-energy that coexists with the low energy tail of the dispersion. This second population is either dispersionless or slightly dispersed with energies increasing with increasing latitudes, indicative of lobe reconnection as well. Our analysis of a case that occurred 3 September 2002 when the IMF stayed northward for more than two hours suggests that the second population comes from the opposite hemisphere and is very likely on newly-closed field lines. We interpret this overlap of cusp populations as a clear mid-altitude signature of re-closed magnetic field lines by double lobe reconnection (reconnection in both hemispheres under northward IMF. This interpretation is supported by modelling performed with the Cooling model and an MHD model.

  1. Microstructural alterations owing to handling of bovine pericardium to manufacture bioprosthetic heart valves: A potential risk for cusp dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J; Wang, Y; Philippe, E; Cianciulli, T; Vesely, I; How, D; Bourget, J-M; Germain, L; Zhang, Z; Guidoin, R

    2017-06-01

    Cross-linking and anti-calcification of prosthetic heart valves have been continuously improved to prevent degeneration and calcification. However, non-calcific structural deteriorations such as cuspal dehiscences along the stent still require further analysis. Based upon the previous analysis of an explanted valve after 7 years, a fresh commercial aortic valve was embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and cut into slices to ensure the detailed observation of the assembly and material structures. A pericardial patch embossed to provide the adequate shape of the cusps was investigated after paraffin embedding and appropriate staining. The microstructural damages that occurred during manufacturing process were identified and evaluated by light microscopy, polarized microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The wavy collagen bundles, the key structure of the pericardium patch, were damaged to a great extent at suture sites along the stent and in the compressed areas around the stent post. The fixation of the embossed pericardium patch along the plots of the stent aggravated the microstructural modifications. The damages mainly appeared as the elimination of collagen bundle waviness and delamination between the bundles. Considering the modes of failure of the explant, the damages to the collagen bundles may identify the vulnerable sites that play an important role in the cusp dehiscence of heart valve implants. Such information is important to the manufacturers. Recommendations to prevent in vivo cusp dehiscence can therefore be formulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Particle-in-cell simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar crustal magnetic anomalies: Magnetic cusp regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, A. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.

    2012-09-01

    As the solar wind is incident upon the lunar surface, it will occasionally encounter lunar crustal remanent magnetic fields. These magnetic fields are small-scale, highly non-dipolar, have strengths up to hundreds of nanotesla, and typically interact with the solar wind in a kinetic fashion. Simulations, theoretical analyses, and spacecraft observations have shown that crustal fields can reflect solar wind protons via a combination of magnetic and electrostatic reflection; however, analyses of surface properties have suggested that protons may still access the lunar surface in the cusp regions of crustal magnetic fields. In this first report from a planned series of studies, we use a 11/2-dimensional, electrostatic particle-in-cell code to model the self-consistent interaction between the solar wind, the cusp regions of lunar crustal remanent magnetic fields, and the lunar surface. We describe the self-consistent electrostatic environment within crustal cusp regions and discuss the implications of this work for the role that crustal fields may play regulating space weathering of the lunar surface via proton bombardment.

  3. Magnetic Field Effects on the Plume of a Diverging Cusped-Field Thruster

    KAUST Repository

    Matlock, Taylor

    2010-07-25

    The Diverging Cusped-Field Thruster (DCFT) uses three permanent ring magnets of alternating polarity to create a unique magnetic topology intended to reduce plasma losses to the discharge chamber surfaces. The magnetic field strength within the DCFT discharge chamber (up to 4 kG on axis) is much higher than in thrusters of similar geometry, which is believed to be a driving factor in the high measured anode efficiencies. The field strength in the near plume region is large as well, which may bear on the high beam divergences measured, with peaks in ion current found at angles of around 30-35 from the thruster axis. Characterization of the DCFT has heretofore involved only one magnetic topology. It is then the purpose of this study to investigate changes to the near-field plume caused by altering the shape and strength of the magnetic field. A thick magnetic collar, encircling the thruster body, is used to lower the field strength outside of the discharge chamber and thus lessen any effects caused by the external field. Changes in the thruster plume with field topology are monitored by the use of normal Langmuir and emissive probes interrogating the near-field plasma. Results are related to other observations that suggest a unified conceptual framework for the important near-exit region of the thruster.

  4. Isolated bursts of irregular geomagnetic pulsations in the region of the dayside cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazhkovskaya, N. A.; Klain, B. I.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the results of comparative analysis of morphological regularities of right-polarized ( R type) and left-polarized ( L type) isolated bursts of ipcl pulsations (irregular pulsations continuous long period) with an anomalously large amplitude in the region of the daytime polar cusp, as well as conditions of their excitation, are presented. It has been found that R and L bursts are similar in the maximum amplitude level, wave packet duration, spectral composition, magnitude of ellipticity, diurnal variation shape, and other characteristics. At the same time, bursts of the R and L type are excited at different degrees of plasma turbulence in the generation region, at different IMF orientations in the plane of ecliptic, as well as in the plane perpendicular to it, and at different dynamics of the parameter β (characterizing the ratio of the thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure) and Alfvén Mach number Ma. It is supposed that the generation of isolated bursts of the R and L types can be related to the amplification of the plasma turbulence level due to the development of wind instability at the front boundary of the magnetosphere, and features of their polarization can be interpreted in the scope of the model of nonlinear propagation of Alfvén waves.

  5. Wave particle interactions in the high-altitude polar cusp: a Cluster case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grison

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available On 23 March 2002, the four Cluster spacecraft crossed in close configuration (~100 km separation the high-altitude (10 RE cusp region. During a large part of the crossing, the STAFF and EFW instruments have detected strong electromagnetic wave activity at low frequencies, especially when intense field-aligned proton fluxes were detected by the CIS/HIA instrument. In all likelihood, such fluxes correspond to newly-reconnected field lines. A focus on one of these ion injection periods highlights the interaction between waves and protons. The wave activity has been investigated using the k-filtering technique. Experimental dispersion relations have been built in the plasma frame for the two most energetic wave modes. Results show that kinetic Alfvén waves dominate the electromagnetic wave spectrum up to 1 Hz (in the spacecraft frame. Above 0.8 Hz, intense Bernstein waves are also observed. The close simultaneity observed between the wave and particle events is discussed as an evidence for local wave generation. A mechanism based on current instabilities is consistent with the observations of the kinetic Alfvén waves. A weak ion heating along the recently-opened field lines is also suggested from the examination of the ion distribution functions. During an injection event, a large plasma convection motion, indicative of a reconnection site location, is shown to be consistent with the velocity perturbation induced by the large-scale Alfvén wave simultaneously detected.

  6. Automation and control system for the PUPR Mirror/Cusp plasma machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, O.; Morales, E.; Gonzalez-Lizardo, A.; Leal-Quirós, E.

    2008-10-01

    The automation of the PUPR Mirror/Cusp (M/C) plasma machine is the result of a collaboration between the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico, NASA and Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory for the NASA Solar Probe mission. The PUPR M/C plasma machine is the only machine of its type in the Caribbean that has been set up for automatic operation. It valves and pumps together with a current source and microwave generator to create plasma. This process requires the operator to do a series of strict steps while constantly monitoring the pressure and temperature. This process was automated using a programmable logic controller (PLC). The PLC manages all the equipment used to make plasma, and communicates with the vacuum-measuring system and the cooling temperature control system to acquire the state of the system and determine the next step in the process of making plasma. The machine operation can be switched between manual and automatic mode, allowing the operator to take control of the operation at any moment. The system has improved the speed and precision of the operations at the Plasma Engineering Laboratory of the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico, by eliminating most of the possible human errors in the operation of the plasma device.

  7. Polar spacecraft observations of the turbulent outer cusp/magnetopause boundary layer of Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pickett

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The orbit of the Polar spacecraft has been ideally suited for studying the turbulent region of the cusp that is located near or just outside the magnetopause current sheet at 7-9 RE. The wave data obtained in this region show that electromagnetic turbulence is dominant in the frequency range 1-10 Hz. The waves responsible for this turbulence usually propagate perpendicular to the local magnetic field and have an index of refraction that generally falls between the estimated cold plasma theoretical values of the electromagnetic lower hybrid and whistler modes and may be composed of both modes in concert with kinetic Alfvén waves and/or fast magnetosonic waves. Fourier spectra of the higher frequency wave data also show the electromagnetic turbulence at frequencies up to and near the electron cyclotron frequency. This higher frequency electromagnetic turbulence is most likely associated with whistler mode waves. The lower hybrid drift and current gradient instabilities are suggested as possible mechanisms for producing the turbulence. The plasma and field environment of this turbulent region is examined and found to be extremely complex. Some of the wave activity is associated with processes occurring locally, such as changes in the DC magnetic field, while others are associated with solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field changes.

  8. Simulation of RF power and multi-cusp magnetic field requirement for H- ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Manish; Senecha, V. K.; Kumar, Rajnish; Ghodke, Dharmraj. V.

    2016-12-01

    A computer simulation study for multi-cusp RF based H- ion source has been carried out using energy and particle balance equation for inductively coupled uniformly dense plasma considering sheath formation near the boundary wall of the plasma chamber for RF ion source used as high current injector for 1 Gev H- Linac project for SNS applications. The average reaction rates for different reactions responsible for H- ion production and destruction have been considered in the simulation model. The RF power requirement for the caesium free H- ion source for a maximum possible H- ion beam current has been derived by evaluating the required current and RF voltage fed to the coil antenna using transformer model for Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP). Different parameters of RF based H- ion source like excited hydrogen molecular density, H- ion density, RF voltage and current of RF antenna have been calculated through simulations in the presence and absence of multicusp magnetic field to distinctly observe the effect of multicusp field. The RF power evaluated for different H- ion current values have been compared with the experimental reported results showing reasonably good agreement considering the fact that some RF power will be reflected from the plasma medium. The results obtained have helped in understanding the optimum field strength and field free regions suitable for volume emission based H- ion sources. The compact RF ion source exhibits nearly 6 times better efficiency compare to large diameter ion source.

  9. Cluster observations of high-frequency waves in the exterior cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Khotyaintsev

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We study wave emissions, in the frequency range from above the lower hybrid frequency up to the plasma frequency, observed during one of the Cluster crossings of a high-beta exterior cusp region on 4 March 2003. Waves are localized near narrow current sheets with a thickness a few times the ion inertial length; currents are strong, of the order of 0.1-0.5μA/m2 (0.1-0.5mA/m2 when mapped to ionosphere. The high frequency part of the waves, frequencies above the electron-cyclotron frequency, is analyzed in more detail. These high frequency waves can be broad-band, can have spectral peaks at the plasma frequency or spectral peaks at frequencies below the plasma frequency. The strongest wave emissions usually have a spectral peak near the plasma frequency. The wave emission intensity and spectral character change on a very short time scale, of the order of 1s. The wave emissions with strong spectral peaks near the plasma frequency are usually seen on the edges of the narrow current sheets. The most probable generation mechanism of high frequency waves are electron beams via bump-on-tail or electron two-stream instability. Buneman and ion-acoustic instability can be excluded as a possible generation mechanism of waves. We suggest that high frequency waves are generated by electron beams propagating along the separatrices of the reconnection region.

  10. Black Holes and Galactic Density Cusps III From Black Hole to Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Henriksen, Richard N; Macmillan, Joseph D

    2011-01-01

    Aims. In this paper we continue our study of density cusps that may contain central black holes. Methods. We recall our attempts to use distribution functions with a memory of self-similar relaxation, but mostly they apply only in restricted regions of the global system. We are forced to consider related distribution functions that are steady but not self-similar. Results. One remarkably simple distribution function that has a filled loss cone describes a bulge that transits from a near black hole domain to an outer 'zero flux' regime where$\\rho\\propto r^{-7/4}$. The transition passes from an initial inverse square profile through a region having a 1/r density profile. The structure is likely to be developed at an early stage in the growth of a galaxy. A central black hole is shown to grow exponentially in this background with an e-folding time of a few million years. Conclusions. We derive our results from first principles, using only the angular momentum integral in spherical symmetry. The initial relaxatio...

  11. Cusping, transport and variance of solutions to generalized Fokker-Planck equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaffan, Sean; Kawai, Reiichiro

    2017-06-01

    We study properties of solutions to generalized Fokker-Planck equations through the lens of the probability density functions of anomalous diffusion processes. In particular, we examine solutions in terms of their cusping, travelling wave behaviours, and variance, within the framework of stochastic representations of generalized Fokker-Planck equations. We give our analysis in the cases of anomalous diffusion driven by the inverses of the stable, tempered stable and gamma subordinators, demonstrating the impact of changing the distribution of waiting times in the underlying anomalous diffusion model. We also analyse the cases where the underlying anomalous diffusion contains a Lévy jump component in the parent process, and when a diffusion process is time changed by an uninverted Lévy subordinator. On the whole, we present a combination of four criteria which serve as a theoretical basis for model selection, statistical inference and predictions for physical experiments on anomalously diffusing systems. We discuss possible applications in physical experiments, including, with reference to specific examples, the potential for model misclassification and how combinations of our four criteria may be used to overcome this issue.

  12. High Fidelity Multi-Objective Design Optimization of a Downscaled Cusped Field Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fahey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cusped Field Thruster (CFT concept has demonstrated significantly improved performance over the Hall Effect Thruster and the Gridded Ion Thruster; however, little is understood about the complexities of the interactions and interdependencies of the geometrical, magnetic and ion beam properties of the thruster. This study applies an advanced design methodology combining a modified power distribution calculation and evolutionary algorithms assisted by surrogate modeling to a multi-objective design optimization for the performance optimization and characterization of the CFT. Optimization is performed for maximization of performance defined by five design parameters (i.e., anode voltage, anode current, mass flow rate, and magnet radii, simultaneously aiming to maximize three objectives; that is, thrust, efficiency and specific impulse. Statistical methods based on global sensitivity analysis are employed to assess the optimization results in conjunction with surrogate models to identify key design factors with respect to the three design objectives and additional performance measures. The research indicates that the anode current and the Outer Magnet Radius have the greatest effect on the performance parameters. An optimal value for the anode current is determined, and a trend towards maximizing anode potential and mass flow rate is observed.

  13. An Isolated, Bright Cusp Aurora Associated with Dayside Reconnection at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinrade, J.; Badman, S. V.; Arridge, C. S.; Tao, C.; Provan, G.; Dougherty, M. K.; Grocott, A.

    2016-12-01

    Saturn's dayside aurorae display a number of morphological features polewards of the main emission region. We present an unusual morphology captured by the Hubble Space Telescope on 14 June 2014, where, for two hours, Saturn's FUV aurorae disappeared almost entirely, with the exception of a distinct emission spot at high latitude. The spot remained fixed in local time between 11-15 LT, and moved polewards to a maximum latitude of 85°, close to the magnetic dipole and planetary rotation axis. It was bright and persistent, displaying intensities of up to 49 kR over a lifetime of two hours. The formation of the spot coincided with the decay of Saturn's characteristic dawn arc, the complete absence of which is rarely observed. Solar wind parameters from propagation models, together with a Cassini magnetopause crossing, indicated a period of rarefaction and an uncompressed magnetosphere. We infer that the spot was sustained by repeated reconnection either poleward of the cusp, or at low-latitudes under a strong transverse component in the IMF. The poleward motion could then arise from either reconfiguration of successive open field lines across the polar cap, or convection of newly opened field lines. We also consider the influence of planetary period modulation of the feature by rotating current systems. This case study poses interesting questions about the driving of Saturn's aurorae ahead of the upcoming proximal Cassini orbits.

  14. Probabilistic stellar rotation periods with Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Ruth; Aigrain, Suzanne; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Stellar rotation has many applications in the field of exoplanets. High-precision photometry from space-based missions like Kepler and K2 allows us to measure stellar rotation periods directly from light curves. Stellar variability produced by rotation is usually not sinusoidal or perfectly periodic, therefore sine-fitting periodograms are not well suited to rotation period measurement. Autocorrelation functions are often used to extract periodic information from light curves, however uncertainties on rotation periods measured by autocorrelation are difficult to define. A ‘by eye’ check, or a set of heuristic criteria are used to validate measurements and rotation periods are only reported for stars that pass this vetting process. A probabilistic rotation period measurement method, with a suitable generative model bypasses the need for a validation stage and can produce realistic uncertainties. The physics driving the production of variability in stellar light curves is still poorly understood and difficult to model. We therefore use an effective model for stellar variability: a Gaussian process with a quasi-periodic covariance function. By injecting fake signals into Kepler light curves we show that the GP model is well suited to quasi-periodic, non-sinusoidal signals, is capable of modelling noise and physical signals simultaneously and provides probabilistic rotation period measurements with realistic uncertainties.

  15. Stellarator Coil Design and Plasma Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long-Poe Ku and Allen H. Boozer

    2010-11-03

    The rich information contained in the plasma response to external magnetic perturbations can be used to help design stellarator coils more effectively. We demonstrate the feasibility by first devel- oping a simple, direct method to study perturbations in stellarators that do not break stellarator symmetry and periodicity. The method applies a small perturbation to the plasma boundary and evaluates the resulting perturbed free-boundary equilibrium to build up a sensitivity matrix for the important physics attributes of the underlying configuration. Using this sensitivity information, design methods for better stellarator coils are then developed. The procedure and a proof-of-principle application are given that (1) determine the spatial distributions of external normal magnetic field at the location of the unperturbed plasma boundary to which the plasma properties are most sen- sitive, (2) determine the distributions of external normal magnetic field that can be produced most efficiently by distant coils, (3) choose the ratios of the magnitudes of the the efficiently produced magnetic distributions so the sensitive plasma properties can be controlled. Using these methods, sets of modular coils are found for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) that are either smoother or can be located much farther from the plasma boundary than those of the present design.

  16. Weird Stellar Pair Puzzles Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers have discovered a speedy spinning pulsar in an elongated orbit around an apparent Sun-like star, a combination never seen before, and one that has them puzzled about how the strange system developed. Orbital Comparison Comparing Orbits of Pulsar and Its Companion to our Solar System. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for full caption information and available graphics. "Our ideas about how the fastest-spinning pulsars are produced do not predict either the kind of orbit or the type of companion star this one has," said David Champion of the Australia Telescope National Facility. "We have to come up with some new scenarios to explain this weird pair," he added. Astronomers first detected the pulsar, called J1903+0327, as part of a long-term survey using the National Science Foundation's Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico. They made the discovery in 2006 doing data analysis at McGill University, where Champion worked at the time. They followed up the discovery with detailed studies using the Arecibo telescope, the NSF's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, the Westerbork radio telescope in the Netherlands, and the Gemini North optical telescope in Hawaii. The pulsar, a city-sized superdense stellar corpse left over after a massive star exploded as a supernova, is spinning on its axis 465 times every second. Nearly 21,000 light-years from Earth, it is in a highly-elongated orbit that takes it around its companion star once every 95 days. An infrared image made with the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii shows a Sun-like star at the pulsar's position. If this is an orbital companion to the pulsar, it is unlike any companions of other rapidly rotating pulsars. The pulsar, a neutron star, also is unusually massive for its type. "This combination of properties is unprecedented. Not only does it require us to figure out how this system was produced, but the large mass may help us understand how matter behaves at extremely

  17. Cluster observations of the high-latitude magnetopause and cusp: initial results from the CIS ion instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Bosqued

    Full Text Available Launched on an elliptical high inclination orbit (apogee: 19.6 RE since January 2001 the Cluster satellites have been conducting the first detailed three-dimensional studies of the high-latitude dayside magnetosphere, including the exterior cusp, neighbouring boundary layers and magnetopause regions. Cluster satellites carry the CIS ion spectrometers that provide high-precision, 3D distributions of low-energy (<35 keV/e ions every 4 s. This paper presents the first two observations of the cusp and/or magnetopause behaviour made under different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions. Flow directions, 3D distribution functions, density profiles and ion composition profiles are analyzed to demonstrate the high variability of high-latitude regions. In the first crossing analyzed (26 January 2001, dusk side, IMF-BZ < 0, multiple, isolated boundary layer, magnetopause and magnetosheath encounters clearly occurred on a quasi-steady basis for ~ 2 hours. CIS ion instruments show systematic accelerated flows in the current layer and adjacent boundary layers on the Earthward side of the magnetopause. Multi-point analysis of the magnetopause, combining magnetic and plasma data from the four Cluster spacecraft, demonstrates that oscillatory outward-inward motions occur with a normal speed of the order of ± 40 km/s; the thickness of the high-latitude current layer is evaluated to be of the order of 900–1000 km. Alfvénic accelerated flows and D-shaped distributions are convincing signatures of a magnetic reconnection occurring equatorward of the Cluster satellites. Moreover, the internal magnetic and plasma structure of a flux transfer event (FTE is analyzed in detail; its size along the magnetopause surface is ~ 12 000 km and it convects with a velocity of ~ 200 km/s. The second event analyzed (2 February 2001 corresponds to the first Cluster pass within the cusp when the IMF-BZ component was northward directed. The analysis of

  18. Recent advances in modeling stellar interiors (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Advances in stellar interior modeling are being driven by new data from large-scale surveys and high-precision photometric and spectroscopic observations. Here we focus on single stars in normal evolutionary phases; we will not discuss the many advances in modeling star formation, interacting binaries, supernovae, or neutron stars. We review briefly: (1) updates to input physics of stellar models; (2) progress in two and three-dimensional evolution and hydrodynamic models; (3) insights from oscillation data used to infer stellar interior structure and validate model predictions (asteroseismology). We close by highlighting a few outstanding problems, e.g., the driving mechanisms for hybrid {gamma} Dor/{delta} Sct star pulsations, the cause of giant eruptions seen in luminous blue variables such as {eta} Car and P Cyg, and the solar abundance problem.

  19. Electron Capture Cross Sections for Stellar Nucleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Giannaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the abovementioned e--capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the 66Zn isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  20. Magnetospheric outflows in young stellar objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Different classes of outflows are associated with the magnetospheric activity of accreting T Tauri protostars. Stellar winds are accelerated along the open field lines anchored in the stellar surface; disk winds (extended or X-type) can be launched along the open magnetic surfaces threading the accretion disk; another type of ejection can arise from the region of interaction of the closed magnetosphere with the accretion disk (magnetospheric ejections, conical winds), where the magnetic surfaces undergo quasiperiodic episodes of inflation and reconnection. In this chapter I will present the main dynamical properties of these different types of outflow. Two main issues will be addressed. First, I will try to understand if these ejection phenomena can account for the origin of the jets often observed in young forming stellar systems. Second, I will evaluate the impact of these outflows on the angular momentum evolution of the central protostar.

  1. Magnetospheric outflows in young stellar objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanni Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different classes of outflows are associated with the magnetospheric activity of accreting T Tauri protostars. Stellar winds are accelerated along the open field lines anchored in the stellar surface; disk winds (extended or X-type can be launched along the open magnetic surfaces threading the accretion disk; another type of ejection can arise from the region of interaction of the closed magnetosphere with the accretion disk (magnetospheric ejections, conical winds, where the magnetic surfaces undergo quasiperiodic episodes of inflation and reconnection. In this chapter I will present the main dynamical properties of these different types of outflow. Two main issues will be addressed. First, I will try to understand if these ejection phenomena can account for the origin of the jets often observed in young forming stellar systems. Second, I will evaluate the impact of these outflows on the angular momentum evolution of the central protostar.

  2. Solar and stellar coronae and winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Moira

    2017-10-01

    Solar-like stars influence their environments through their coronal emis- sion and winds. These processes are linked through the physics of the stellar magnetic field, whose strength and geometry has now been explored for a large number of stars through spectropolarimetric observations. We have now detected trends with mass and rotation rate in the distribution of magnetic energies in different geometries and on also different length scales. This has implications both for the dynamo processes that generate the fields and also for the dynamics and evolution of the coronae and winds. Modelling of the surface driving processes on stars of various masses and rotation rates has revealed tantalising clues about the dynamics of stellar coronae and their ejecta. These new observations have also prompted a resurgence in the modelling of stellar winds, which is now uncovering the range of different interplanetary conditions that exoplanets might experience as they evolve.

  3. PREFACE: Stellar Atmospheres in the Gaia Era - Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Alex; De Greve, Jean-Pierre; Van Rensbergen, Walter

    2011-12-01

    abundance of various chemical elements from stellar spectra. The presented methods utilize spectra observed with large spectral dispersion, for example for accurately measuring iron, carbon, and nitrogen abundances. These methods are important for ongoing development and testing of automated and supervised algorithms for determining detailed chemical composition in tagging studies of large (chemo-dynamical) spectroscopic surveys planned to complement the Gaia (astrometric and kinematic) census of the Galaxy. The complete scientific programme is available here. The workshop website also offers the presentation viewgraphs (in PDF format) and some nice photographs of the talks and poster breaks http://great-esf.oma.be/program.php.

  4. Students Excited by Stellar Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    In the constellation of Ophiuchus, above the disk of our Milky Way Galaxy, there lurks a stellar corpse spinning 30 times per second -- an exotic star known as a radio pulsar. This object was unknown until it was discovered last week by three high school students. These students are part of the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) project, run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, and West Virginia University (WVU). The pulsar, which may be a rare kind of neutron star called a recycled pulsar, was discovered independently by Virginia students Alexander Snider and Casey Thompson, on January 20, and a day later by Kentucky student Hannah Mabry. "Every day, I told myself, 'I have to find a pulsar. I better find a pulsar before this class ends,'" said Mabry. When she actually made the discovery, she could barely contain her excitement. "I started screaming and jumping up and down." Thompson was similarly expressive. "After three years of searching, I hadn't found a single thing," he said, "but when I did, I threw my hands up in the air and said, 'Yes!'." Snider said, "It actually feels really neat to be the first person to ever see something like that. It's an uplifting feeling." As part of the PSC, the students analyze real data from NRAO's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to find pulsars. The students' teachers -- Debra Edwards of Sherando High School, Leah Lorton of James River High School, and Jennifer Carter of Rowan County Senior High School -- all introduced the PSC in their classes, and interested students formed teams to continue the work. Even before the discovery, Mabry simply enjoyed the search. "It just feels like you're actually doing something," she said. "It's a good feeling." Once the pulsar candidate was reported to NRAO, Project Director Rachel Rosen took a look and agreed with the young scientists. A followup observing session was scheduled on the GBT. Snider and Mabry traveled to West Virginia to assist in the

  5. Stellar Astrophysics for the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, A.; Herrero, A.; Sánchez, F.

    2011-06-01

    1. Fundamentals of stellar evolution theory: understanding the HRD C. Chiosi; 2. Observations of the most luminous stars in local group galaxies P. Massey; 3. Quantitative spectroscopy of the brightest blue supergiant stars in galaxies R. P. Kudritzki; 4. Calibration of the extragalactic distance scale B. F. Madore and W. L. Freedman; 5. Dwarf galaxies G. S. Da Costa; 6. Resolved stellar populations of the luminous galaxies in the local group M. Mateo; 7. Chemical evolution of the ISM in nearby galaxies E. D. Skillman; 8. Populations of massive stars and the interstellar medium C. Leitherer.

  6. Colliding Stellar Wind Models with Orbital Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Francis P.; O'Connor, Brendan

    2018-01-01

    We present thin-shell models for the collision between two ballistic stellar winds, including orbital motion.The stellar orbits are assumed circular, so that steady-state solutions exist in the rotating frame, where we include centrifugal and Coriolis forces. Exact solutions for the pre-shock winds are incorporated. Here we discuss 2-D model results for equal wind momentum-loss rates, although we allow for the winds to have distinct speeds and mass loss rates. For these unequal wind conditions, we obtain a clear violation of skew-symmetry, despite equal momentum loss rates, due to the Coriolis force.

  7. Stellar compass for the Clementine Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    A CCD sensor with 42 x 28 degrees FOV and 576 x 384 pixels was built by the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) in the Physics Department at LLNL. That sensor, called the StarTracker camera, is used on the Clementine Lunar Mapping mission between January and May, 1994. Together with the Stellar Compass software, the StarTracker camera provided a way of identifying its orientation to within about 150 microradians in camera body pitch and yaw. This presentation will be an overview of basically how the Stellar Compass software works, along with showing some of its performance results.

  8. Early Hydrodynamic Evolution of a Stellar Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Doron; Katz, Boaz

    2014-04-01

    The early phase of the hydrodynamic evolution following the collision of two stars is analyzed. Two strong shocks propagate from the contact surface and move toward the center of each star at a velocity that is a small fraction of the velocity of the approaching stars. The shocked region near the contact surface has a planar symmetry and a uniform pressure. The density vanishes at the (Lagrangian) surface of contact, and the speed of sound diverges there. The temperature, however, reaches a finite value, since as the density vanishes, the finite pressure is radiation dominated. For carbon-oxygen white dwarf (CO WD) collisions, this temperature is too low for any appreciable nuclear burning shortly after the collision, which allows for a significant fraction of the mass to be highly compressed to the density required for efficient 56Ni production in the detonation wave that follows. This property is crucial for the viability of collisions of typical CO WD as progenitors of type Ia supernovae, since otherwise only massive (>0.9 M ⊙) CO WDs would have led to such explosions (as required by all other progenitor models). The divergence of the speed of sound limits numerical studies of stellar collisions, as it makes convergence tests exceedingly expensive unless dedicated schemes are used. We provide a new one-dimensional Lagrangian numerical scheme to achieve this. A self-similar planar solution is derived for zero-impact parameter collisions between two identical stars, under some simplifying assumptions (including a power-law density profile), which is the planar version of previous piston problems that were studied in cylindrical and spherical symmetries.

  9. Aortic cusp extension valvuloplasty with or without tricuspidization in children and adolescents: long-term results and freedom from aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimenakos, Anastasios C; Sathanandam, Shyam; Elzein, Chawki; Barth, Mary J; Higgins, Robert S D; Ilbawi, Michel N

    2010-04-01

    Aortic cusp extension valvuloplasty is increasingly used in the management of children and adolescents with aortic stenosis or regurgitation. The durability of this approach and the freedom from valve replacement are not well defined. A study was undertaken to investigate outcomes. From July 1987 to November 2008, 142 patients aged less than 19 years underwent aortic cusp extension valvuloplasty in the form of pericardial cusp extension and tricuspidization (when needed). Three patients with truncus arteriosus and severe truncal valve insufficiency were excluded. From the available follow-up data of 139 patients, 50 had bicuspid aortic valves, 40 had congenital aortic valve stenosis, 41 had combined congenital aortic valve stenosis/insufficiency, and 8 had other diagnoses. Median follow-up was 14.4 years (0.1-21.4). Long-term mortality and freedom from aortic valve replacement were studied. There were no early, intermediate, or late deaths. Z-values of left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, aortic annulus, aortic sinus diameter, and sinotubular junction diameter before aortic valve replacement were 4.2 +/- 3.11, 2.3 +/- 1.25, 4.4 +/- 1.23, and 1.84 +/- 1.28, respectively. During the follow-up period, 64 patients underwent aortic valve reinterventions. The Ross procedure was performed in 32 of 139 patients (23%) undergoing aortic cusp extension valvuloplasty. Other aortic valve replacements were undertaken after 16 aortic cusp extension valvuloplasties (11.5%). Freedom from a second aortic cusp extension valvuloplasty or aortic valve replacement at 18 years was 82.1% +/- 4.2% and 60.0% +/- 7.2%, respectively. Aortic cusp extension valvuloplasty is a safe and effective surgical option with excellent survival and good long-term outcomes in children and adolescents. The procedure provides acceptable durability and satisfactory freedom from aortic valve replacement. Copyright 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  10. What is the most appropriate energy source for aortic cusp ablation? A comparison of standard RF, cooled-tip RF and cryothermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avila, Andre; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Holmvang, Godtfred; Houghtaling, Christopher; Ruskin, Jeremy N; Reddy, Vivek Y

    2006-06-01

    Certain tachycardias can be eliminated by catheter ablation from within the base of the aortic valve (AV) cusps but the high blood flow and proximity to the coronary arteries create unique challenges. Standard radiofrequency (RF) energy, cooled-tip RF energy or cryothermal energy were compared to determine the optimal ablation modality. Experiments were conducted using adult swine or goats (15 animals). Ablation lesions were placed using either: temperature-controlled RF (4 mm-tip catheter; 60 degrees C/60 s), cooled-tip RF (4 mm-tip catheter with internal saline circulation at 0.6 ml/s; 40 degrees C/60 s), or cryoablation (6 mm-tip spot cryocatheter; <-75 degrees C/4 min). Animals were sacrificed 1 h after the last application and lesions were subject to pathological analysis. Standard RF and cryoablation created similar depth lesions in the right coronary cusp (4.2+/-1.3 and 3.4+/-0.5 mm, respectively) but cryoablation was unable to create any visible lesions in the non-coronary cusp. Cooled tip ablation created larger ablation lesions in the right coronary cusp (5.25+/-0.5) and fully transmural left atrial ablation lesions after ablation in the noncoronary cusp. Acute damage to the cusps was not noted with any ablation modality. Disruption of elastic fibers in the aortic media was seen after standard and cooled tip radiofrequency ablation but not cryoablation. Cryoablation within the AV cusps created similar sized lesions to standard RF ablation without evidence of elastic fibre disruption and may therefore be an appropriate first line ablation modality. Cooled-tip ablation created larger ablation lesions and therefore may be required if cryoablation is ineffective.

  11. Descriptive Analysis of In Vitro Cutting of Swine Mitral Cusps: Comparison of High-Power Laser and Scalpel Blade Cutting Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Nathali Cordeiro; Pomerantzeff, Pablo Maria Alberto; Deana, Alessandro; Zezell, Denise; Benetti, Carolina; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; Lopes, Luciana Almeida; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli; Chavantes, M Cristina

    2017-02-01

    The most common injury to the heart valve with rheumatic involvement is mitral stenosis, which is the reason for a big number of cardiac operations in Brazil. Commissurotomy is the traditional technique that is still widely used for this condition, although late postoperative restenosis is concerning. This study's purpose was to compare the histological findings of porcine cusp mitral valves treated in vitro with commissurotomy with a scalpel blade to those treated with high-power laser (HPL) cutting, using appropriate staining techniques. Five mitral valves from healthy swine were randomly divided into two groups: Cusp group (G1), cut with a scalpel blade (n = 5), and Cusp group (G2), cut with a laser (n = 5). G2 cusps were treated using a diode laser (λ = 980 nm, power = 9.0 W, time = 12 sec, irradiance = 5625 W/cm2, and energy = 108 J). In G1, no histological change was observed in tissue. A hyaline basophilic aspect was focally observed in G2, along with a dark red color on the edges and areas of lower birefringence, when stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Sirius red. Further, the mean distances from the cutting edge in cusps submitted to laser application and stained with Masson's trichrome and Sirius red were 416.7 and 778.6 μm, respectively, never overcoming 1 mm in length. Thermal changes were unique in the group submitted to HPL and not observed in the cusp group cut with a scalpel blade. The mean distance of the cusps' collagen injury from the cutting edge was less than 1 mm with laser treatment. Additional studies are needed to establish the histological evolution of the laser cutting and to answer whether laser cutting may avoid valvular restenosis better than blade cutting.

  12. Influence of overlay restorative materials and load cusps on the fatigue resistance of endodontically treated molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Pascal; Knezevic, Alena

    2009-10-01

    To assess the influence of restorative materials and load cusps on the fatigue resistance of endodontically treated molars. Thirty extracted molars received root canal treatment followed by a standardized tooth preparation (3-mm cuspal reduction and immediate dentin sealing). Twenty Cerec 3 overlays (Sirona Dental Systems) were milled in the ceramic Vita MKII block (Vident; groups MKIIGL and MKIIGL-Z, oven-glazed), and 10 restorations were duplicated with a composite resin (Miris 2, Coltane/Whaledent; group M2). The fitting surfaces of the restorations were hydrofluoric acid etched (porcelain only) and silanated. Preparations were airborne-particle abraded and etched. All restorations were luted with preheated Filtek Z100 (3M ESPE) and subjected to cyclic isometric chewing (5 Hz) starting at 200 N (5,000 cycles), followed by stages of 400, 600, 800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 N at a maximum of 30,000 cycles each. A stainless steel load sphere was used for groups MKIIGL and M2, while a composite resin load sphere was used in group MKIIGL-Z. All samples were loaded until fracture or to a maximum of 185,000 cycles. Groups were compared using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves (P = .05). None of the molars restored with porcelain withstood all 185,000 loading cycles (survival = 0%). The mean fracture load for MKIIGL was 1,060 N and for MKIIGL-Z, 1,280 N. In group M2, the survival rate was 50%. The rate of fracture below the CEJ was 40%, 30%, and 20% for MKIIGL, MKIIGL-Z, and M2, respectively. Miris 2 overlays showed higher fatigue resistance than MKII porcelain (P = .01) when loaded with a stainless steel antagonist.

  13. Cluster observation of continuous reconnection at dayside magnetopause in the vicinity of cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zheng

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a case study of continuous reconnection at the dayside magnetopause observed by the Cluster spacecraft. On 1 April 2003, the four Cluster spacecraft experienced multiple encounters with the Earth's dayside magnetopause under a fairly stable southwestward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. Accelerated plasma flows, whose magnitude and direction are consistent with the predictions of the reconnection theory (the Walén relation, were observed at and around the magnetopause current layer for a prolonged interval of ~3 h at two types of magnetopause crossings, one with small magnetic shears and the other one with large magnetic shears. Reversals in the Y component of ion bulk flow between the magnetosheath and magnetopause current layer and acceleration of magnetosheath electrons were also observed. Kinetic signatures using electron and ion velocity distributions corroborate the interpretation of continuous magnetic reconnection. This event provides strong in-situ evidence that magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause can be continuous for many hours. However, the reconnection process appeared to be very dynamic rather than steady, despite the steady nature of the IMF. Detailed analysis using multi-spacecraft magnetic field and plasma measurements shows that the dynamics and structure of the magnetopause current layer/boundary can be very complex. For example, highly variable magnetic and electric fields were observed in the magnetopause current layer. Minimum variance analysis shows that the magnetopause normal deviates from the model normal. Surface waves resulting from the reconnection process may be involved in the oscillation of the magnetopause.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; Solar wind-magnetosphere interactions – Space plasma physics (magnetic reconnection

  14. Cluster observation of continuous reconnection at dayside magnetopause in the vicinity of cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zheng

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a case study of continuous reconnection at the dayside magnetopause observed by the Cluster spacecraft. On 1 April 2003, the four Cluster spacecraft experienced multiple encounters with the Earth's dayside magnetopause under a fairly stable southwestward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. Accelerated plasma flows, whose magnitude and direction are consistent with the predictions of the reconnection theory (the Walén relation, were observed at and around the magnetopause current layer for a prolonged interval of ~3 h at two types of magnetopause crossings, one with small magnetic shears and the other one with large magnetic shears. Reversals in the Y component of ion bulk flow between the magnetosheath and magnetopause current layer and acceleration of magnetosheath electrons were also observed. Kinetic signatures using electron and ion velocity distributions corroborate the interpretation of continuous magnetic reconnection. This event provides strong in-situ evidence that magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause can be continuous for many hours. However, the reconnection process appeared to be very dynamic rather than steady, despite the steady nature of the IMF. Detailed analysis using multi-spacecraft magnetic field and plasma measurements shows that the dynamics and structure of the magnetopause current layer/boundary can be very complex. For example, highly variable magnetic and electric fields were observed in the magnetopause current layer. Minimum variance analysis shows that the magnetopause normal deviates from the model normal. Surface waves resulting from the reconnection process may be involved in the oscillation of the magnetopause. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; Solar wind-magnetosphere interactions – Space plasma physics (magnetic reconnection

  15. Ambitious Survey Spots Stellar Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    -dimensional geometry of the Magellanic system. Chris Evans from the VMC team adds: "The VISTA images will allow us to extend our studies beyond the inner regions of the Tarantula into the multitude of smaller stellar nurseries nearby, which also harbour a rich population of young and massive stars. Armed with the new, exquisite infrared images, we will be able to probe the cocoons in which massive stars are still forming today, while also looking at their interaction with older stars in the wider region." The wide-field image shows a host of different objects. The bright area above the centre is the Tarantula Nebula itself, with the RMC 136 cluster of massive stars in its core. To the left is the NGC 2100 star cluster. To the right is the tiny remnant of the supernova SN1987A (eso1032). Below the centre are a series of star-forming regions including NGC 2080 - nicknamed the "Ghost Head Nebula" - and the NGC 2083 star cluster. The VISTA Magellanic Cloud Survey is one of six huge near-infrared surveys of the southern sky that will take up most of the first five years of operations of VISTA. Notes [1] VISTA ― the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy ― is the newest telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile. VISTA is a survey telescope working at near-infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest survey telescope. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. The telescope is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 m across. In photographic terms it can be thought of as a 67-megapixel digital camera with a 13 000 mm f/3.25 mirror lens. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries

  16. Clementine Star Tracker Stellar Compass: Final report part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, R.E.; Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T. [and others

    1995-07-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. Two star stracker stellar compasses (star tracker camera + stellar compass software) were included on the spacecraft, serving a primary function of providing angle updates to the guidance and navigation system. These cameras served a secondary function by providing a wide field of view imaging capability for lunar horizon glow and other dark-side imaging data. This 290 g camera using a 576 x 384 focal plane array and a 17 mm entrance pupil, detected and centroided stars as dim and dimmer than 4.5 m{sub v}, providing rms pointing accuracy of better than 100 {mu}rad pitch and yaw and 450 {mu}rad roll. A description of this light-weight, low power star tracker camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights. Documentation generated during the design, analysis, build, test and characterization of the star tracker cameras are presented. Collectively, this documentation represents a small library of information for this camera, and may be used as a framework for producing copy units by commercial enterprises, and therefore satisfies a Department of Defense and Department of Energy goal to transfer technology to industry. However, the considerable knowledge gained from the experience of the individuals involved in the system trades, design, analysis, production, testing and characterization of the star tracker stellar compass is not contained in this documentation.

  17. Proxima Centauri reloaded: Unravelling the stellar noise in radial velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasso, M.; Del Sordo, F.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The detection and characterisation of Earth-like planets with Doppler signals of the order of 1 m s-1 currently represent one of the greatest challenge for extrasolar-planet hunters. As results for such findings are often controversial, it is desirable to provide independent confirmations of the discoveries. Testing different models for the suppression of non-Keplerian stellar signals usually plaguing radial velocity data is essential to ensuring findings are robust and reproducible. Aims: Using an alternative treatment of the stellar noise to that discussed in the discovery paper, we re-analyse the radial velocity dataset that led to the detection of a candidate terrestrial planet orbiting the star Proxima Centauri. We aim to confirm the existence of this outstanding planet, and test the existence of a second planetary signal. Methods: Our technique jointly modelled Keplerian signals and residual correlated signals in radial velocities using Gaussian processes. We analysed only radial velocity measurements without including other ancillary data in the fitting procedure. In a second step, we have compared our outputs with results coming from photometry, to provide a consistent physical interpretation. Our analysis was performed in a Bayesian framework to quantify the robustness of our findings. Results: We show that the correlated noise can be successfully modelled as a Gaussian process regression, and contains a periodic term modulated on the stellar rotation period and characterised by an evolutionary timescale of the order of one year. Both findings appear to be robust when compared with results obtained from archival photometry, thus providing a reliable description of the noise properties. We confirm the existence of a coherent signal described by a Keplerian orbit equation that can be attributed to the planet Proxima b, and provide an independent estimate of the planetary parameters. Our Bayesian analysis dismisses the existence of a second planetary

  18. The “Building Blocks” of Stellar Halos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A. Oman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The stellar halos of galaxies encode their accretion histories. In particular, the median metallicity of a halo is determined primarily by the mass of the most massive accreted object. We use hydrodynamical cosmological simulations from the apostle project to study the connection between the stellar mass, the metallicity distribution, and the stellar age distribution of a halo and the identity of its most massive progenitor. We find that the stellar populations in an accreted halo typically resemble the old stellar populations in a present-day dwarf galaxy with a stellar mass ∼0.2–0.5 dex greater than that of the stellar halo. This suggests that had they not been accreted, the primary progenitors of stellar halos would have evolved to resemble typical nearby dwarf irregulars.

  19. Advanced Stellar Compass - Alenia Mars Express

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilsgaard, Søren; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1998-01-01

    This document, submitted in reply to an Alenia R.f.P., is a proposal to implement the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) in the Mars Express mission.The Mars Express is an ESA dedicated mission to Mars scientific investigation.The ASC is a very advanced instrument designed by the Space Instrumentation...

  20. The Ancient stellar population of Leo A.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, Abhijit; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Tolstoy, Eline; Cole, Andrew

    The primary goal of our proposal is the characterisation of the oldest stellar populations in Leo A using the properties of ancient RR Lyrae variable stars as tracers. Well known and long established correlations exist between the periods and luminosities of RR Lyrae variable stars and their ages

  1. The resolved stellar population of Leo A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E

    1996-01-01

    New observations of the resolved stellar population of the extremely metal-poor Magellanic dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A in Thuan-Gunn r, g, i, and narrowband Ha filters are presented. Using the recent Cepheid variable star distance determination to Leo A by Hoessel et al., we are able to create an

  2. The evolution of runaway stellar collision products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glebbeek, E.; Gaburov, E.; de Mink, S.E.; Pols, O.R.; Portegies Zwart, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    In the cores of young dense star clusters, repeated stellar collisions involving the same object can occur. It has been suggested that this leads to the formation of an intermediate-mass black hole. To verify this scenario we compute the detailed evolution of the merger remnant of three sequences,

  3. Exploring the Morphology of RAVE Stellar Spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matijevic, G.; Zwitter, T.; Bienayme, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    The RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) is a medium-resolution (R similar to 7500) spectroscopic survey of the Milky Way that has already obtained over half a million stellar spectra. They present a randomly selected magnitude-limited sample, so it is important to use a reliable and automated

  4. Galactic stellar haloes in the CDM model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, A. P.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; White, S. D. M.; Helly, J.; Benson, A. J.; De Lucia, G.; Helmi, A.; Jenkins, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Springel, V.; Wang, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present six simulations of galactic stellar haloes formed by the tidal disruption of accreted dwarf galaxies in a fully cosmological setting. Our model is based on the Aquarius project, a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of individual dark matter haloes. We tag subsets of particles in

  5. THE STELLAR KINEMATICS OF GALACTIC DISKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOTTEMA, R

    Stellar velocity dispersion measurements of a sample of 12 galactic disks are summarized. The observed radial functionality is parameterized such that one dispersion value is assigned to each galaxy. Comparison of the galaxy dispersion with absolute magnitude and maximum rotation reveals that the

  6. Stellar Relics from the Early Galaxy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Galactic halo; chemical evolution; metal poor stars; chemical abundances; inner halo; outer halo; globular clusters; ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. Abstract. We reviewed the recent progress in the field of stellar/galactic archeology, which is a study of the relics from the early galaxy. The oldest and most pristine ...

  7. Stellar chemical signatures and hierarchical galaxy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venn, KA; Irwin, M; Shetrone, MD; Tout, CA; Hill, [No Value; Tolstoy, E

    To compare the chemistries of stars in the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite galaxies with stars in the Galaxy, we have compiled a large sample of Galactic stellar abundances from the literature. When kinematic information is available, we have assigned the stars to standard Galactic

  8. Measuring Stellar Rotation Periods with Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. B.; Gizon, L.; Schunker, H.

    2013-01-01

    We measure rotation periods for 12151 stars in the Kepler field, based on photometric variability caused by stellar activity. Our analysis returns stable rotation periods over at least six out of eight quarters of Kepler data. This large sample of stars enables us to study rotation periods...

  9. The Advanced Stellar Compass, Development and Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    this demand the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), a fully autonomous miniature star tracker, was developed. This ASC is capable of both solving the "lost in space" problem and determine the attitude with arcseconds precision. The development, principles of operation and instrument autonomy of the ASC...

  10. The impact of pollution on stellar evolution models

    OpenAIRE

    Dotter, Aaron; Chaboyer, Brian

    2003-01-01

    An approach is introduced for incorporating the concept of stellar pollution into stellar evolution models. The approach involves enhancing the metal content of the surface layers of stellar models. In addition, the surface layers of stars in the mass range of 0.5-2.0 Solar masses are mixed to an artificial depth motivated by observations of lithium abundance. The behavior of polluted stellar evolution models is explored assuming the pollution occurs after the star has left the fully convecti...

  11. Stellar spectral classification of previously unclassified stars GSC 4461-698 and GSC 4466-870

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Darren Moser

    Stellar spectral classification is one of the first efforts undertaken to begin defining the physical characteristics of stars. However, many stars lack even this basic information, which is the foundation for later research to constrain stellar effective temperatures, masses, radial velocities, the number of stars in the system, and age. This research obtained visible-λ stellar spectra via the testing and commissioning of a Santa Barbara Instruments Group (SBIG) Self-Guiding Spectrograph (SGS) at the UND Observatory. Utilizing a 16-inch-aperture telescope on Internet Observatory #3, the SGS obtained spectra of GSC 4461-698 and GSC 4466-870 in the low-resolution mode using an 18-µm wide slit with dispersion of 4.3 Å/pixel, resolution of 8 Å, and a spectral range from 3800-7500 Å. Observational protocols include automatic bias/dark frame subtraction for each stellar spectrum obtained. This was followed by spectral averaging to obtain a combined spectrum for each star observed. Image calibration and spectral averaging was performed using the software programs, Maxim DL, Image J, Microsoft Excel, and Winmk. A wavelength calibration process was used to obtain spectra of an Hg/Ne source that allowed the conversion of spectrograph channels into wavelengths. Stellar emission and absorption lines, such as those for hydrogen (H) and helium (He), were identified, extracted, and rectified. Each average spectrum was compared to the MK stellar spectral standards to determine an initial spectral classification for each star. The hope is that successful completion of this project will allow long-term stellar spectral observations to begin at the UND Observatory.

  12. IMF shape constraints from stellar populations and dynamics from CALIFA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyubenova, M.; Martín-Navarro, I.; van de Ven, G.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Benito, R.; González Delgado, R.; Husemann, B.; La Barbera, F.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Peletier, R. F. P.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sánchez, S. F.; Trager, S. C.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; Vazdekis, A.; Walcher, C. J.; Zhu, L.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Collaboration, CALIFA

    2016-01-01

    In this Paper, we describe how we use stellar dynamics information to constrain the shape of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in a sample of 27 early-type galaxies from the CALIFA survey. We obtain dynamical and stellar mass-to-light ratios, Υdyn and Υ*, over a homogenous aperture of 0.5 Re.

  13. The effects of self-efficacy in bifurcating the relationship of perceived benefit and cost with condom use among adolescents: A cusp catastrophe modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunan; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Joseph, Verlin; Stanton, Bonita

    2017-09-22

    This study tested the complex relationship among the perceived benefit from and cost of condom use, self-efficacy and condom use among adolescents as a nonlinear dynamic process. Participants were 12th graders in public Bahamian high schools who reported having had sex and frequency of condom use. Results revealed that the perceived benefit and perceived cost as asymmetry variables were significantly associated with condom use (p < 0.001) after controlling for covariates. The association was bifurcated by the variable self-efficacy (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the cusp model was better than linear and logistic regression models in predicting the dynamic changes in condom use behavior, judged by the AIC and BIC, and R(2) criteria. These results suggest that adolescent condom use may follow a nonlinear rather than linear dynamic process. Emphasizing bifurcation variables such as self-efficacy that promote sudden change could be essential to strengthen current evidence-based intervention programs in encouraging condom use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The dynamic cusp at low altitudes: a case study utilizing Viking, DMSP-F7, and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Watermann

    Full Text Available Coincident multi-instrument magnetospheric and ionospheric observations have made it possible to determine the position of the ionospheric footprint of the magnetospheric cusp and to monitor its evolution over time. The data used include charged particle and magnetic field measurements from the Earth-orbiting Viking and DMSP-F7 satellites, electric field measurements from Viking, interplanetary magnetic field and plasma data from IMP-8, and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar observations of the ionospheric plasma density, temperature, and convection. Viking detected cusp precipitation poleward of 75.5° invariant latitude. The ionospheric response to the observed electron precipitation was simulated using an auroral model. It predicts enhanced plasma density and elevated electron temperature in the upper E- and F-regions. Sondrestrom radar observations are in agreement with the predictions. The radar detected a cusp signature on each of five consecutive antenna elevation scans covering 1.2 h local time. The cusp appeared to be about 2° invariant latitude wide, and its ionospheric footprint shifted equatorward by nearly 2° during this time, possibly influenced by an overall decrease in the IMF Bz component. The radar plasma drift data and the Viking magnetic and electric field data suggest that the cusp was associated with a continuous, rather than a patchy, merging between the IMF and the geomagnetic field.

  15. Excitation of transient lobe cell convection and auroral arc at the cusp poleward boundary during a transition of the interplanetary magnetic field from south to north

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available We document the activation of transient polar arcs emanating from the cusp within a 15 min long intermediate phase during the transition from a standard two-cell convection pattern, representative of a strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, to a "reverse" two-cell pattern, representative of strongly northward IMF conditions. During the 2–3 min lifetime of the arc, its base in the cusp, appearing as a bright spot, moved eastward toward noon by ~ 300 km. As the arc moved, it left in its "wake" enhanced cusp precipitation. The polar arc is a tracer of the activation of a lobe convection cell with clockwise vorticity, intruding into the previously established large-scale distorted two-cell pattern, due to an episode of localized lobe reconnection. The lobe cell gives rise to strong flow shear (converging electric field and an associated sheet of outflowing field-aligned current, which is manifested by the polar arc. The enhanced cusp precipitation represents, in our view, the ionospheric footprint of the lobe reconnection process.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; plasma convection

  16. SP_Ace: a new code to derive stellar parameters and elemental abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Ongoing and future massive spectroscopic surveys will collect large numbers (106-107) of stellar spectra that need to be analyzed. Highly automated software is needed to derive stellar parameters and chemical abundances from these spectra. Aims: We developed a new method of estimating the stellar parameters Teff, log g, [M/H], and elemental abundances. This method was implemented in a new code, SP_Ace (Stellar Parameters And Chemical abundances Estimator). This is a highly automated code suitable for analyzing the spectra of large spectroscopic surveys with low or medium spectral resolution (R = 2000-20 000). Methods: After the astrophysical calibration of the oscillator strengths of 4643 absorption lines covering the wavelength ranges 5212-6860 Å and 8400-8924 Å, we constructed a library that contains the equivalent widths (EW) of these lines for a grid of stellar parameters. The EWs of each line are fit by a polynomial function that describes the EW of the line as a function of the stellar parameters. The coefficients of these polynomial functions are stored in a library called the "GCOG library". SP_Ace, a code written in FORTRAN95, uses the GCOG library to compute the EWs of the lines, constructs models of spectra as a function of the stellar parameters and abundances, and searches for the model that minimizes the χ2 deviation when compared to the observed spectrum. The code has been tested on synthetic and real spectra for a wide range of signal-to-noise and spectral resolutions. Results: SP_Ace derives stellar parameters such as Teff, log g, [M/H], and chemical abundances of up to ten elements for low to medium resolution spectra of FGK-type stars with precision comparable to the one usually obtained with spectra of higher resolution. Systematic errors in stellar parameters and chemical abundances are presented and identified with tests on synthetic and real spectra. Stochastic errors are automatically estimated by the code for all the parameters

  17. Bifurcation of Limit Cycles in a Near-Hamiltonian System with a Cusp of Order Two and a Saddle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshalizadeh, Ali; Zangeneh, Hamid R. Z.; Kazemi, Rasool

    In this paper, the asymptotic expansion of first-order Melnikov function of a heteroclinic loop connecting a cusp of order two and a hyperbolic saddle for a planar near-Hamiltonian system is given. Next, we consider the limit cycle bifurcations of a hyper-elliptic Liénard system with this kind of heteroclinic loop and study the least upper bound of limit cycles bifurcated from the period annulus inside the heteroclinic loop, from the heteroclinic loop itself and the center. We find that at most three limit cycles can be bifurcated from the period annulus, also we present different distributions of bifurcated limit cycles.

  18. Stellar population synthesis models between 2.5 and 5 mu m based on the empirical IRTF stellar library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeck, B.; Vazdekis, A.; Peletier, R. F.; Knapen, J. H.; Falcon-Barroso, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first single-burst stellar population models in the infrared wavelength range between 2.5 and 5 mu m which are exclusively based on empirical stellar spectra. Our models take as input 180 spectra from the stellar IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) library. Our final single-burst

  19. Study of Stellar Clusters Containing Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costado, Teresa; Alfaro, E. J.; Delgado, A. J.; Djupvik, A. A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.

    2013-06-01

    Most stars form in clusters, but the percentage of stars born in dense stellar systems is currently matter of controversy and depends very much on the own definition of cluster. The cluster definition and hence the morphologies of individual clusters appear to vary significantly from region to region, as well as with age, which suggests that either, star formation in clusters is not universal and may depend on the local environment, or that all clusters form with the same morphology but early dynamical evolution quickly modifies the structure of the phase space distribution. In addition, young populated clusters containing massive stars are excellent labs for the study of the formation of the massive stellar component of the Galactic disk. Three main scenarios have been proposed for the formation of high-mass stars (M > 7-8 M_{⊙}): a) monolithic collapse of proto-stellar nuclei; b) competitive accretion inside the proto-cluster molecular cloud; and c) coalescence of proto-stellar nuclei and low-mass stars in very dense atmospheres. Both scientific questions: a) cluster formation and b) formation of high mass stars in clusters are intimately connected via the structural description of the phase space distribution of cluster stars and their Mass Function (MF). Models of static clusters with different initial spatial and kinematic distributions show how the spatial distribution dynamically evolves with time, allowing a characterization of their dynamical state from snapshots of their spatial distribution. Four are the main variables (and their distribution with mass and position) needed for a reliable characterization of the cluster dynamical state: a) Mass segregation parameter; b) Mapping of surface density for different ranges of masses; c) Q morphological parameter based on the minimum spanning tree graph and its variation with mass and cluster age, and d) MF of the cluster members. Two years ago, the Stellar System Group of IAA has begun an observational

  20. BONNSAI: correlated stellar observables in Bayesian methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Castro, N.; Fossati, L.; Langer, N.; de Koter, A.

    2017-02-01

    In an era of large spectroscopic surveys of stars and big data, sophisticated statistical methods become more and more important in order to infer fundamental stellar parameters such as mass and age. Bayesian techniques are powerful methods because they can match all available observables simultaneously to stellar models while taking prior knowledge properly into account. However, in most cases it is assumed that observables are uncorrelated which is generally not the case. Here, we include correlations in the Bayesian code Bonnsai by incorporating the covariance matrix in the likelihood function. We derive a parametrisation of the covariance matrix that, in addition to classical uncertainties, only requires the specification of a correlation parameter that describes how observables co-vary. Our correlation parameter depends purely on the method with which observables have been determined and can be analytically derived in some cases. This approach therefore has the advantage that correlations can be accounted for even if information for them are not available in specific cases but are known in general. Because the new likelihood model is a better approximation of the data, the reliability and robustness of the inferred parameters are improved. We find that neglecting correlations biases the most likely values of inferred stellar parameters and affects the precision with which these parameters can be determined. The importance of these biases depends on the strength of the correlations and the uncertainties. For example, we apply our technique to massive OB stars, but emphasise that it is valid for any type of stars. For effective temperatures and surface gravities determined from atmosphere modelling, we find that masses can be underestimated on average by 0.5σ and mass uncertainties overestimated by a factor of about 2 when neglecting correlations. At the same time, the age precisions are underestimated over a wide range of stellar parameters. We conclude that

  1. The Search for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadsen, Jacqueline Rose

    2017-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may dramatically impact habitability and atmospheric composition of planets around magnetically active stars, including young solar analogs and many M dwarfs. Theoretical predictions of such effects are limited by the lack of observations of stellar CMEs. This thesis addresses this gap through a search for the spectral and spatial radio signatures of CMEs on active M dwarfs. Solar CMEs produce radio bursts with a distinctive spectral signature, narrow-band plasma emission that drifts to lower frequency as a CME expands outward. To search for analogous events on nearby stars, I worked on system design, software, and commissioning for the Starburst project, a wideband single-baseline radio interferometry backend dedicated to stellar observations. In addition, I led a survey of nearby active M dwarfs with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), detecting coherent radio bursts in 13 out of 23 epochs, over a total of 58 hours. This survey's ultra-wide bandwidth (0.23-6.0 GHz) dynamic spectroscopy, unprecedented for stellar observations, revealed diverse behavior in the time-frequency plane. Flare star UV Ceti produced complex, luminous events reminiscent of brown dwarf aurorae; AD Leo sustained long-duration, intense, narrow-band "storms"; and YZ CMi emitted a burst with substructure with rapid frequency drift, resembling solar Type III bursts, which are attributed to electrons moving at speeds of order 10% of the speed of light. To search for the spatial signature of CMEs, I led 8.5-GHz observations with the Very Long Baseline Array simultaneous to 24 hours of the VLA survey. This program detected non-thermal continuum emission from the stars in all epochs, as well as continuum flares on AD Leo and coherent bursts on UV Ceti, enabling measurement of the spatial offset between flaring and quiescent emission. These observations demonstrate the diversity of stellar transients that can be expected in time-domain radio surveys, especially

  2. Extension of the XGC code for global gyrokinetic simulations in stellarator geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael; Moritaka, Toseo; White, Roscoe; Hager, Robert; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Chang, Choong-Seock

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the total-f, gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code XGC is extended to treat stellarator geometries. Improvements to meshing tools and the code itself have enabled the first physics studies, including single particle tracing and flux surface mapping in the magnetic geometry of the heliotron LHD and quasi-isodynamic stellarator Wendelstein 7-X. These have provided the first successful test cases for our approach. XGC is uniquely placed to model the complex edge physics of stellarators. A roadmap to such a global confinement modeling capability will be presented. Single particle studies will include the physics of energetic particles' global stochastic motions and their effect on confinement. Good confinement of energetic particles is vital for a successful stellarator reactor design. These results can be compared in the core region with those of other codes, such as ORBIT3d. In subsequent work, neoclassical transport and turbulence can then be considered and compared to results from codes such as EUTERPE and GENE. After sufficient verification in the core region, XGC will move into the stellarator edge region including the material wall and neutral particle recycling.

  3. Constraining stellar physics from red-giant stars in binaries - stellar rotation, mixing processes and stellar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P. G.; Kallinger, T.; Pavlovski, K.; Palacios, A.; Tkachenko, A.; García, R. A.; Mathis, S.; Corsaro, E.; Johnston, C.; Mosser, B.; Ceillier, T.; do Nascimento, J.-D.; Raskin, G.

    2017-10-01

    The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA's Kepler Space Telescope has led to an improved understanding of stellar structure and evolution - in particular for solar-like oscillators in this context. Binary stars are fascinating objects. Because they were formed together, binary systems provide a set of two stars with very well constrained parameters. Those can be used to study properties and physical processes, such as the stellar rotation, dynamics and rotational mixing of elements and allows us to learn from the differences we find between the two components. In this work, we discussed a detailed study of the binary system KIC 9163796, discovered through Kepler photometry. The ground-based follow-up spectroscopy showed that this system is a double-lined spectroscopic binary, with a mass ratio close to unity. However, the fundamental parameters of the components of this system as well as their lithium abundances differ substantially. Kepler photometry of this system allows to perform a detailed seismic analysis as well as to derive the orbital period and the surface rotation rate of the primary component of the system. Indications of the seismic signature of the secondary are found. The differing parameters are best explained with both components located in the early and the late phase of the first dredge up at the bottom of the red-giant branch. Observed lithium abundances in both components are in good agreement with prediction of stellar models including rotational mixing. By combining observations and theory, a comprehensive picture of the system can be drawn.

  4. The hexagonal lattice marks in the muroids rodent explain molar-cusp enamel line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Bustos, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crown enamel line of muroids rodent has geometric traces that coincide exactly with an equilateral triangular lattice. This finding helps to explain the muroids dental pattern from a novel perspective in molar morphology that it is based on hexagonal structures. The adult traces imply that the morphology of the teeth mammals is consequence of a morphogenetic process. This is the study of the hexagonal lattice marks observed in the enamel line, and therefore called odontohexasymmetry. The particular dental pattern, which it is passed down from parents to offspring, it start with a genetic algorithm coded in DNA. This includes a system of intelligent self-control, which during the morphogenesis coordinates the morphology of the all teeth of a specimen to get the best occlusion. The hypothesis of mitosis area loop-development (Ruiz Bustos, 2004a, 2005, 2006 and 2007 explains that in early morphogenesis stage, the initial mass-cell (basal mitosis area, it is repeated in a loop, thereby forming all other mitosis areas of the tooth. At the end of the morphogenesis, the biomineralization processes transform the mitosis areas in the cusps crown.

    La línea de esmalte observada en la corona de los roedores muroideos tiene formas geométricas que coinciden exactamente con una red plana triangular equilateral. Esta conclusión ayuda a explicar el modelo dental de los muroideos con una nueva perspectiva denominada odontohexasimetria, fundamentada en las formas hexagonales observadas en la línea de esmalte. La morfología de la corona del diente de los mamíferos es heredada de padres a hijos. Esto infiere la existencia en cada espécimen de un autocontrol inteligente codificado en el genoma, que coordina la morfología de los dientes durante el desarrollo embriológico y su oclusión. La hipótesis del desarrollo el bucle de las áreas de mitosis (Ruiz Bustos, 2004a, 2005, 2006 y 2007 propone, que en los momentos iniciales de la morfog

  5. Resolved Stellar Populations with MAD: Preparing for the Era of Extremely Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, G.; Tolstoy, E.; Diolaiti, E.; Valenti, E.; Cignoni, M.; Mackey, A. D.

    2012-03-01

    Deep images in J, H and Ks filters using the Multi-conjugate Adaptive optics Demonstrator (MAD) on the VLT have been made of a region of the Large Magellanic Cloud near the globular cluster NGC 1928. Our aim was to assess if accurate photometry could be carried out down to faint limits over the whole MAD field of view. In addition we tested how accurate a basic analysis of the properties of the stellar population could be made using the near-infrared MAD photometry, compared to the Hubble Space Telescope optical photometry. This study has implications for understanding the issues involved in Extremely Large Telescope imaging of resolved stellar populations.

  6. Stellar surface as low-rank modification in iterative methods for binary neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephen R.

    2017-11-01

    We present a new multidomain spectral method for the treatment of non-spherical stellar surfaces in iterative methods for binary neutron stars. A stellar surface changes throughout the course of an iterative solution, potentially stalling the convergence. Our method affords low-complexity updates of the relevant subdomain preconditioners, thereby avoiding such stalling. Unlike current collocation (or nodal) approaches for treating surfaces (which rely on coordinate transformations to ensure that stellar surfaces arise at subdomain boundaries), our approach requires no regridding or nontrivial Jacobians. For polytropes with an equation of state specified by an integer polytropic index, our method delivers exponential accuracy with increased truncation, although for "stiff" equations of state (e.g. fractional) it suffers from the same accuracy loss as current methods. We have presented an outline of our approach before, but here present details with numerical tests.

  7. Stellar Streams Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipp, N.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    We perform a search for stellar streams around the Milky Way using the first three years of multi-band optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We use DES data covering $\\sim 5000$ sq. deg. to a depth of $g > 23.5$ with a relative photometric calibration uncertainty of $< 1 \\%$. This data set yields unprecedented sensitivity to the stellar density field in the southern celestial hemisphere, enabling the detection of faint stellar streams to a heliocentric distance of $\\sim 50$ kpc. We search for stellar streams using a matched-filter in color-magnitude space derived from a synthetic isochrone of an old, metal-poor stellar population. Our detection technique recovers four previously known thin stellar streams: Phoenix, ATLAS, Tucana III, and a possible extension of Molonglo. In addition, we report the discovery of eleven new stellar streams. In general, the new streams detected by DES are fainter, more distant, and lower surface brightness than streams detected by similar techniques in previous photometric surveys. As a by-product of our stellar stream search, we find evidence for extra-tidal stellar structure associated with four globular clusters: NGC 288, NGC 1261, NGC 1851, and NGC 1904. The ever-growing sample of stellar streams will provide insight into the formation of the Galactic stellar halo, the Milky Way gravitational potential, as well as the large- and small-scale distribution of dark matter around the Milky Way.

  8. THE LOW-MASS STELLAR POPULATION IN L1641: EVIDENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Allen, Lori [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hernandez, Jesus [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomia, Apdo. Postal 264, Merida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Megeath, S. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Mosby, Gregory [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Tobin, John J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Espaillat, Catherine [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    We present results from an optical photometric and spectroscopic survey of the young stellar population in L1641, the low-density star-forming region of the Orion A cloud south of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Our goal is to determine whether L1641 has a large enough low-mass population to make the known lack of high-mass stars a statistically significant demonstration of environmental dependence of the upper mass stellar initial mass function (IMF). Our spectroscopic sample consists of IR-excess objects selected from the Spitzer/IRAC survey and non-excess objects selected from optical photometry. We have spectral confirmation of 864 members, with another 98 probable members; of the confirmed members, 406 have infrared excesses and 458 do not. Assuming the same ratio of stars with and without IR excesses in the highly extincted regions, L1641 may contain as many as {approx}1600 stars down to {approx}0.1 M{sub Sun }, comparable within a factor of two to the ONC. Compared to the standard models of the IMF, L1641 is deficient in O and early B stars to a 3{sigma}-4{sigma} significance level, assuming that we know of all the massive stars in L1641. With a forthcoming survey of the intermediate-mass stars, we will be in a better position to make a direct comparison with the neighboring, dense ONC, which should yield a stronger test of the dependence of the high-mass end of the stellar IMF on environment.

  9. Onion-peeling inversion of stellarator images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K. C.; Diaz-Pacheco, R. R.; Kornbluth, Y.; Volpe, F. A.; Wei, Y.

    2016-11-01

    An onion-peeling technique is developed for inferring the emissivity profile of a stellarator plasma from a two-dimensional image acquired through a CCD or CMOS camera. Each pixel in the image is treated as an integral of emission along a particular line-of-sight. Additionally, the flux surfaces in the plasma are partitioned into discrete layers, each of which is assumed to have uniform emissivity. If the topology of the flux surfaces is known, this construction permits the development of a system of linear equations that can be solved for the emissivity of each layer. We present initial results of this method applied to wide-angle visible images of the Columbia Neutral Torus (CNT) stellarator plasma.

  10. Mass outflows associated with young stellar objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Stephen E.; Strom, Karen M.

    1987-01-01

    Properties of optical and molecular outflows associated with young stellar objects are discussed with emphasis placed on new results concerning outflow energetics, collimating structures, and the relationship between the outflow properties and the magnetic field geometry characterizing the host molecular clouds. Particular consideration is given to the IRAS observations of YSO mass outflows, which reveal extended far-IR emission associated with high-velocity molecular gas and in which a number of disk-like structures associated with YSO outflow sources were resolved. The disk axes appeared to lie along the direction of molecular outflows or stellar jets. The mass outflows showed a remarkable tendency to align along the direction of the magnetic fields which thread their host molecular clouds, suggesting that the cloud magnetic field must play an important role in determining the flattening (and perhaps the rotation) of protostellar structures.

  11. Simulating Stellar Cluster Formation and Early Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Joshua; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Ibañez-Mejia, Juan; Portegies Zwart, Simon; Pellegrino, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    We present our current development of a model of stellar cluster formation and evolution in the presence of stellar feedback. We have integrated the MHD code Flash into the Astrophysical Multi-Use Software Environment (AMUSE) and coupled the gas dynamics to an N-body code using a Fujii gravity bridge. Further we have integrated feedback from radiation using the FERVENT module for Flash, supernovae by thermal and kinetic energy injection, and winds by kinetic energy injection. Finally we have developed a method of implementing star formation using the Jeans criterion of the gas. We present initial results from our cluster formation model in a cloud using self-consistent boundary conditions drawn from a model of supernova-driven interstellar turbulence.

  12. Resolving Multiple Stellar Populations in G1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The most luminous and massive compact stellar system in the Local Group is G1, a satellite of M31. It has been speculated that G1 is the remnant nucleus of a tidally stripped dwarf elliptical galaxy. As such, G1 is key to understanding both the evolution of dwarf galaxies and the hierarchical assembly of bright spirals. Recently, new U-B-V-I broad band imaging techniques have revealed multiple stellar populations in Milky Way globular clusters. We propose to obtain new deep WFC3/UVIS F336W and F814W images, to be combined with archival WFC3 data, to probe the star formation and enrichment history of G1. This study will yield new and definitive insights into the origin and evolution of G1, the relationship of globular clusters to dwarf galaxies, and the formation of luminous spirals like M31 and the Milky Way.

  13. Energetic Particle Estimates for Stellar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Allison; Chamberlin, Phil; Woods, Tom

    2018-01-01

    In the heliosphere, energetic particles are accelerated away from the Sun during solar flares and/or coronal mass ejections where they frequently impact the Earth and other solar system bodies. Solar (or stellar) energetic particles (SEPs) not only affect technological assets, but also influence mass loss and chemistry in planetary atmospheres (e.g., depletion of ozone). SEPs are increasingly recognized as an important factor in assessing exoplanet habitability, but we do not yet have constraints on SEP emission from any stars other than the Sun. Until indirect measurements are available, we must assume solar-like particle production and apply correlations between solar flares and SEPs detected near Earth to stellar flares. We present improved scaling relations between solar far-UV flare flux and >10 MeV proton flux near Earth. We apply these solar scaling relations to far-UV flares from exoplanet host stars and discuss the implications for modeling chemistry and mass loss in exoplanet atmospheres.

  14. Stellar evolution as seen by mixed modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosser Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of mixed modes in subgiants and red giants allows us to monitor stellar evolution from the main sequence to the asymptotic giant branch and draw seismic evolutionary tracks. Quantified asteroseismic definitions that characterize the change in the evolutionary stages have been defined. This seismic information can now be used for stellar modelling, especially for studying the energy transport in the helium burning core or for specifying the inner properties of stars all along their evolution. Modelling will also allow us to study stars identified in the helium subflash stage, high-mass stars either arriving or quitting the secondary clump, or stars that could be in the blue-loop stage.

  15. Onion-peeling inversion of stellarator images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K C; Diaz-Pacheco, R R; Kornbluth, Y; Volpe, F A; Wei, Y

    2016-11-01

    An onion-peeling technique is developed for inferring the emissivity profile of a stellarator plasma from a two-dimensional image acquired through a CCD or CMOS camera. Each pixel in the image is treated as an integral of emission along a particular line-of-sight. Additionally, the flux surfaces in the plasma are partitioned into discrete layers, each of which is assumed to have uniform emissivity. If the topology of the flux surfaces is known, this construction permits the development of a system of linear equations that can be solved for the emissivity of each layer. We present initial results of this method applied to wide-angle visible images of the Columbia Neutral Torus (CNT) stellarator plasma.

  16. Determining the stellar masses of submillimetre galaxies: the critical importance of star formation histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowski, Michał J.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Dunlop, James S.; Bruce, Victoria A.; Cirasuolo, Michele; Cullen, Fergus; Hernquist, Lars

    2014-11-01

    Submillimetre (submm) galaxies are among the most rapidly star-forming and most massive high-redshift galaxies; thus, their properties provide important constraints on galaxy evolution models. However, there is still a debate about their stellar masses and their nature in the context of the general galaxy population. To test the reliability of their stellar mass determinations, we used a sample of simulated submm galaxies for which we created synthetic photometry. The photometry were used to derived their stellar masses via spectral energy distribution (SED) modelling, as is generally done with real observations. We used various SED codes (Grasil, Magphys, Hyperz, and LePhare) and various alternative assumed star formation histories (SFHs). We found that the assumption of SFHs with two independent components enables the SED modelling codes to most accurately recover the true stellar masses of the simulated submm galaxies. Exponentially declining SFHs (tau models) lead to lower masses (albeit still formally consistent with the true stellar masses), while the assumption of single-burst SFHs results in a significant underestimation of the stellar masses. Thus, we conclude that studies based on the higher masses inferred from fitting the SEDs of real submm galaxies with double SFHs are most likely to be correct, implying that submm galaxies lie on the high-mass end of the main sequence of star-forming galaxies. This conclusion appears robust to assumptions of whether submm galaxies are driven by major mergers, since the suite of simulated galaxies modelled here contains examples of both merging and isolated galaxies. We identified discrepancies between the true and inferred stellar ages (rather than the dust attenuation) as the primary determinant of the success or failure of the mass recovery. Regardless of the choice of SFH, the SED-derived stellar masses exhibit a factor of ~2 scatter around the true value, and this scatter is an inherent limitation of the SED

  17. SMASH: Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidever, David L.; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Blum, Robert D.; Kaleida, Catherine; Choi, Yumi; Conn, Blair C.; Gruendl, Robert A.; Bell, Eric F.; Besla, Gurtina; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Gallart, Carme; Martin, Nicolas F.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Saha, Abhijit; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; de Boer, Thomas J. L.; Johnson, L. Clifton; Zaritsky, Dennis; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Jin, Shoko; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Kunder, Andrea; Chu, You-Hua; Bell, Cameron P. M.; Santana, Felipe; Frechem, Joshua; Medina, Gustavo E.; Parkash, Vaishali; Serón Navarrete, J. C.; Hayes, Christian

    2017-11-01

    The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are unique local laboratories for studying the formation and evolution of small galaxies in exquisite detail. The Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH) is an NOAO community Dark Energy Camera (DECam) survey of the Clouds mapping 480 deg2 (distributed over ˜2400 square degrees at ˜20% filling factor) to ˜24th mag in ugriz. The primary goals of SMASH are to identify low surface brightness stellar populations associated with the stellar halos and tidal debris of the Clouds, and to derive spatially resolved star formation histories. Here, we present a summary of the survey, its data reduction, and a description of the first public Data Release (DR1). The SMASH DECam data have been reduced with a combination of the NOAO Community Pipeline, the PHOTRED automated point-spread-function photometry pipeline, and custom calibration software. The astrometric precision is ˜15 mas and the accuracy is ˜2 mas with respect to the Gaia reference frame. The photometric precision is ˜0.5%-0.7% in griz and ˜1% in u with a calibration accuracy of ˜1.3% in all bands. The median 5σ point source depths in ugriz are 23.9, 24.8, 24.5, 24.2, and 23.5 mag. The SMASH data have already been used to discover the Hydra II Milky Way satellite, the SMASH 1 old globular cluster likely associated with the LMC, and extended stellar populations around the LMC out to R ˜ 18.4 kpc. SMASH DR1 contains measurements of ˜100 million objects distributed in 61 fields. A prototype version of the NOAO Data Lab provides data access and exploration tools.

  18. A Golden Decade for Stellar Populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Roberto G.

    2010-04-01

    People working on stellar populations can look forward to an exciting decade ahead. Investigations of stellar populations lie at the heart of the science cases being used to justify the development of upcoming telescopes and emerging instrumentation technologies. Examples abound, but I will focus on three case studies: (1) Wide field astronomy with upcoming ground-based and space-based survey facilities; (2) Adaptive optics, which has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of stellar populations in both nearby and distant galaxies; (3) The James Webb Space Telescope, which may well extend the reach of stellar population work to encompass the full range of the star-forming history of the Universe. However, most of these developments will require extensive advance preparation in order to be used effectively. The time to start that preparation is now (if not yesterday). Three areas which need urgent development are highlighted in these proceedings: (1) We need a wide-field high-resolution spectroscopic capability to augment wide-area imaging surveys; (2) We need a set of AO-friendly extragalactic deep fields in order to exploit upcoming AO-fed instrumentation; and (3) Existing tools for population synthesis modeling need to be extended in order to incorporate the effects of dust. Because the physics of dust creation and destruction is so complicated and uncertain, the latter capability sounds almost impossibly hard to develop, but in this talk I will argue that some simple approaches already exist that allow dust to be injected rather naturally into population synthesis models. I will show a concrete example where incorporation of dust into spectral synthesis models allows one to detect and characterize rate of formation of circumstellar disks at high redshifts.

  19. Clustering in the stellar abundance space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesso, R.; Rocha-Pinto, H. J.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied the chemical enrichment history of the interstellar medium through an analysis of the n-dimensional stellar abundance space. This work is a non-parametric analysis of the stellar chemical abundance space. The main goal is to study the stars from their organization within this abundance space. Within this space, we seek to find clusters (in a statistical sense), that is, stars likely to share similar chemo-evolutionary history, using two methods: the hierarchical clustering and the principal component analysis. We analysed some selected abundance surveys available in the literature. For each sample, we labelled the group of stars according to its average abundance curve. In all samples, we identify the existence of a main enrichment pattern of the stars, which we call chemical enrichment flow. This flow is set by the structured and well-defined mean rate at which the abundances of the interstellar medium increase, resulting from the mixture of the material ejected from the stars and stellar mass-loss and interstellar medium gas. One of the main results of our analysis is the identification of subgroups of stars with peculiar chemistry. These stars are situated in regions outside of the enrichment flow in the abundance space. These peculiar stars show a mismatch in the enrichment rate of a few elements, such as Mg, Si, Sc and V, when compared to the mean enrichment rate of the other elements of the same stars. We believe that the existence of these groups of stars with peculiar chemistry may be related to the accretion of planetary material on to stellar surfaces or may be due to production of the same chemical element by different nucleosynthetic sites.

  20. SMASH: Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nidever, David L.; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert D.; Saha, Abhijit [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kaleida, Catherine [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Choi, Yumi; Besla, Gurtina; Olszewski, Edward W. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson AZ, 85721 (United States); Conn, Blair C. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Gruendl, Robert A. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Muñoz, Ricardo R. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin, Nicolas F. [Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Monachesi, Antonela [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); De Boer, Thomas J. L. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Johnson, L. Clifton, E-mail: dnidever@noao.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, UC San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0424 (United States); and others

    2017-11-01

    The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are unique local laboratories for studying the formation and evolution of small galaxies in exquisite detail. The Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH) is an NOAO community Dark Energy Camera (DECam) survey of the Clouds mapping 480 deg{sup 2} (distributed over ∼2400 square degrees at ∼20% filling factor) to ∼24th mag in ugriz . The primary goals of SMASH are to identify low surface brightness stellar populations associated with the stellar halos and tidal debris of the Clouds, and to derive spatially resolved star formation histories. Here, we present a summary of the survey, its data reduction, and a description of the first public Data Release (DR1). The SMASH DECam data have been reduced with a combination of the NOAO Community Pipeline, the PHOTRED automated point-spread-function photometry pipeline, and custom calibration software. The astrometric precision is ∼15 mas and the accuracy is ∼2 mas with respect to the Gaia reference frame. The photometric precision is ∼0.5%–0.7% in griz and ∼1% in u with a calibration accuracy of ∼1.3% in all bands. The median 5 σ point source depths in ugriz are 23.9, 24.8, 24.5, 24.2, and 23.5 mag. The SMASH data have already been used to discover the Hydra II Milky Way satellite, the SMASH 1 old globular cluster likely associated with the LMC, and extended stellar populations around the LMC out to R  ∼ 18.4 kpc. SMASH DR1 contains measurements of ∼100 million objects distributed in 61 fields. A prototype version of the NOAO Data Lab provides data access and exploration tools.

  1. Solar and stellar flare observations using WATCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels; Rao, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    The Danish experiment WATCH (Wide Angle Telescope for Cosmic Hard X-rays) is to be flown on board the Soviet satellite GRANAT in middle of 1989. The performance characteristics of the WATCH instrument is described. It is estimated that WATCH can detect about 100 solar hard X-ray bursts per day....... WATCH can also detect about 40 energetic stellar soft X-ray flares, similar to the fast transient X-ray emissions detected by the Ariel V satellite....

  2. Young stellar objects close to Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, B.; Pelupessy, F. I.; Eckart, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.; Sabha, N.; Borkar, A.; Moultaka, J.; Mužić, K.; Moser, L.

    2014-05-01

    We aim at modeling small groups of young stars such as IRS 13N, 0.1 pc away from Sgr A*, which is suggested to contain a few embedded massive young stellar objects. We perform hydrodynamical simulations to follow the evolution of molecular clumps orbiting around a 4 × 106 M⊙ black hole, to constrain the formation and the physical conditions of such groups.

  3. The Stellar Imager (SI) Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth S.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is envisioned as a space-based, UV-optical interferometer composed of 10 or more one-meter class elements distributed with a maximum baseline of 0.5 approximately km. It will image stars and binaries with one hundred to one thousand resolution elements on their surface and enable long-term studies of stellar magnetic activity patterns and their evolution with time, for comparison with those on the sun. It will also sound their interiors through asteroseismology to image internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations. SI will enable us to understand the various effects of magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate these fields, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which these dynamos operate. The ultimate goal of the mission is to achieve the best possible forecasting of solar activity as a driver of climate and space weather on times scales ranging from months to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on astrobiology and life in the Universe. The road to that goal will revolutionize our understanding of stars and stellar systems, the building blocks of the Universe. Fitting naturally within the NASA and ESA long-term time lines, SI complements defined missions, and with them will show us entire other solar systems, from the central star to their orbiting planets. In this paper we will describe the scientific goals of the mission, the performance requirements needed to address those goals, and the design concepts now under study.

  4. Numerical studies of new stellarator concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Betancourt, O.; Garabedian, P.

    1980-01-01

    A three-dimensional computer code has been developed to study the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and stability of a diffuse or sharp boundary plasma in toroidal geometry. It is shown how equilibria with net toroidal current identically zero can be determined and how growth rates of instabilities can be calculated. Applications are made to an l = 2, 3 stellarator configuration that offers the possibility of achieving a critical value as high as 10% for the plasma parameter

  5. Electric Field Observations of Plasma Convection, Shear, Alfven Waves, and other Phenomena Observed on Sounding Rockets in the Cusp and Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R. F.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14,2002, a NASA Black Brant X sounding rocket was launched equatorward from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen (79 N) into the dayside cusp and subsequently cut across the open/closed field line boundary, reaching an apogee of771 km. The launch occurred during Bz negative conditions with strong By negative that was changing during the flight. SuperDarn (CUTLASS) radar and subsequent model patterns reveal a strong westward/poleward convection, indicating that the rocket traversed a rotational reversal in the afternoon merging cell. The payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particle, suprathermal electron and ion, and thermal plasma data. We provide an overview of the main observations and focus on the DC electric field results, comparing the measured E x B plasma drifts in detail with the CUTLASS radar observations of plasma drifts gathered simultaneously in the same volume. The in situ DC electric fields reveal steady poleward flows within the cusp with strong shears at the interface of the closed/open field lines and within the boundary layer. We use the observations to discuss ionospheric signatures of the open/closed character of the cusp/low latitude boundary layer as a function of the IMF. The electric field and plasma density data also reveal the presence of very strong plasma irregularities with a large range of scales (10 m to 10 km) that exist within the open field line cusp region yet disappear when the payload was equatorward of the cusp on closed field lines. These intense low frequency wave observations are consistent with strong scintillations observed on the ground at Ny Alesund during the flight. We present detailed wave characteristics and discuss them in terms of Alfven waves and static irregularities that pervade the cusp region at all altitudes.

  6. Influence of buccal cusp reduction when using porcelain laminate veneers in premolars. A comparative study using 3-D finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archangelo, Carlos Marcelo; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Martin, Manoel; Freitas, Amilcar Chagas; Ko, Ching-Chang; Cattaneo, Paolo M

    2011-10-01

    Based on a maxillary premolar restored with laminate veneer and using the 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) and μCT data, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different types of buccal cusp reduction on the stress distribution in the porcelain laminate veneer and in the resin luting cement layer. Two 3-D FEA models (M) of a maxillary premolar were built from μCT data. The buccal cusp reduction followed two configurations: Mt - buccal cusp completely covered by porcelain laminate veneer; and Mp - buccal cusp partially covered by porcelain laminate veneer. The loading (150 N in 45°) was performed on the top of the buccal cusp. The finite element software (Ansys Workbench 10.0) was used to obtain the maximum shear stress (τ(max)) and maximum principal stress (σ(max)). The Mp showed reduced the stress (σ(max)) in porcelain laminate veneer (from -2.3 to 24.5 MPa) in comparison with Mt (from -5.3 to 27.4 MPa). The difference between the peak and lower stress values of σ(max) in Mp (-6.8 to 26.7 MPa) and Mt (-5.3 to 27.4 MPa) was similar for the resin luting cement layer. The structures not exceeded the ultimate tensile strength or the shear bond strength. Cusp reduction did not affect significant increase in σ(max) and τ(max). The Mt showed better stress distribution (τ(max)) than Mp. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Stellar Cosmic Rays in a Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struminsky, A.; Sadovski, A.

    2017-06-01

    According to recent observations, relative number of flare stars does not change very much from cool dwarfs to hot A stars. Flare energies are strongly correlated with stellar luminosity and radius. Whence it follows that the typical magnetic field associated with a flare is several tens of gauss and the typical flare loop length-scales are parts of the stellar radius. Flares on O-B stars were not observed, but they are possible, since strong magnetic fields are detected on O-B stars. Therefore, stars of O-M spectral classes are potential sources of cosmic rays. Energy estimates of a magnetic field strength in a tube in photospheres of O-M stars are performed. Basing on their values possible flare energies and numbers of accelerated protons are estimated. The values obtained for the Sun correspond to observations by order of magnitude that justify estimates for other stars. Values of magnetic field strength in a tube differ less than five times for O and M flares (700 and 3500 G), but corresponding flare energies and numbers of accelerated protons for O stars are greater by five orders. Contrary fluencies of stellar protons appear to be five orders less.

  8. STELLAR: fast and exact local alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weese David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale comparison of genomic sequences requires reliable tools for the search of local alignments. Practical local aligners are in general fast, but heuristic, and hence sometimes miss significant matches. Results We present here the local pairwise aligner STELLAR that has full sensitivity for ε-alignments, i.e. guarantees to report all local alignments of a given minimal length and maximal error rate. The aligner is composed of two steps, filtering and verification. We apply the SWIFT algorithm for lossless filtering, and have developed a new verification strategy that we prove to be exact. Our results on simulated and real genomic data confirm and quantify the conjecture that heuristic tools like BLAST or BLAT miss a large percentage of significant local alignments. Conclusions STELLAR is very practical and fast on very long sequences which makes it a suitable new tool for finding local alignments between genomic sequences under the edit distance model. Binaries are freely available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X at http://www.seqan.de/projects/stellar. The source code is freely distributed with the SeqAn C++ library version 1.3 and later at http://www.seqan.de.

  9. Intrinsic Turbulence Stabilization in a Stellarator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xanthopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic surfaces of modern stellarators are characterized by complex, carefully optimized shaping and exhibit locally compressed regions of strong turbulence drive. Massively parallel computer simulations of plasma turbulence reveal, however, that stellarators also possess two intrinsic mechanisms to mitigate the effect of this drive. In the regime where the length scale of the turbulence is very small compared to the equilibrium scale set by the variation of the magnetic field, the strongest fluctuations form narrow bandlike structures on the magnetic surfaces. Thanks to this localization, the average transport through the surface is significantly smaller than that predicted at locations of peak turbulence. This feature results in a numerically observed upshift of the onset of turbulence on the surface towards higher ion temperature gradients as compared with the prediction from the most unstable regions. In a second regime lacking scale separation, the localization is lost and the fluctuations spread out on the magnetic surface. Nonetheless, stabilization persists through the suppression of the large eddies (relative to the equilibrium scale, leading to a reduced stiffness for the heat flux dependence on the ion temperature gradient. These fundamental differences with tokamak turbulence are exemplified for the QUASAR stellarator [G. H. Neilson et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42, 489 (2014].

  10. A method to deconvolve stellar rotational velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curé, Michel; Rial, Diego F.; Christen, Alejandra; Cassetti, Julia

    2014-05-01

    Aims: Rotational speed is an important physical parameter of stars, and knowing the distribution of stellar rotational velocities is essential for understanding stellar evolution. However, rotational speed cannot be measured directly and is instead the convolution between the rotational speed and the sine of the inclination angle v sin i. Methods: We developed a method to deconvolve this inverse problem and obtain the cumulative distribution function for stellar rotational velocities extending the work of Chandrasekhar & Münch (1950, ApJ, 111, 142) Results: This method is applied: a) to theoretical synthetic data recovering the original velocity distribution with a very small error; and b) to a sample of about 12.000 field main-sequence stars, corroborating that the velocity distribution function is non-Maxwellian, but is better described by distributions based on the concept of maximum entropy, such as Tsallis or Kaniadakis distribution functions. Conclusions: This is a very robust and novel method that deconvolves the rotational velocity cumulative distribution function from a sample of v sin i data in a single step without needing any convergence criteria.

  11. Non-resonant divertors for stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Allen; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2017-10-01

    The outermost confining magnetic surface in optimized stellarators has sharp edges, which resemble tokamak X-points. The plasma cross section has an even number of edges at the beginning but an odd number half way through the period. Magnetic field lines cannot cross sharp edges, but stellarator edges have a finite length and do not determine the rotational transform on the outermost confining surface. Just outside the last confining surface, surfaces formed by magnetic field lines have splits containing two adjacent magnetic flux tubes: one with entering and the other with an equal existing flux to the walls. The splits become wider with distance outside the outermost confining surface. These flux tubes form natural non-resonant stellarator divertors, which we are studying using maps. This work is supported by the US DOE Grants DE-FG02-95ER54333 to Columbia University and DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793 to Hampton University and used resources of the NERSC, supported by the Office of Science, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-.

  12. Calculations of neoclassical impurity transport in stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollén, Albert; Smith, Håkan M.; Langenberg, Andreas; Turkin, Yuriy; Beidler, Craig D.; Helander, Per; Landreman, Matt; Newton, Sarah L.; García-Regaña, José M.; Nunami, Masanori

    2017-10-01

    The new stellarator Wendelstein 7-X has finished the first operational campaign and is restarting operation in the summer 2017. To demonstrate that the stellarator concept is a viable candidate for a fusion reactor and to allow for long pulse lengths of 30 min, i.e. ``quasi-stationary'' operation, it will be important to avoid central impurity accumulation typically governed by the radial neoclassical transport. The SFINCS code has been developed to calculate neoclassical quantities such as the radial collisional transport and the ambipolar radial electric field in 3D magnetic configurations. SFINCS is a cutting-edge numerical tool which combines several important features: the ability to model an arbitrary number of kinetic plasma species, the full linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator for all species, and the ability to calculate and account for the variation of the electrostatic potential on flux surfaces. In the present work we use SFINCS to study neoclassical impurity transport in stellarators. We explore how flux-surface potential variations affect the radial particle transport, and how the radial electric field is modified by non-trace impurities and flux-surface potential variations.

  13. Double talon cusps on supernumerary tooth fused to maxillary central incisor: Review of literature and report of case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Human tooth development is a continuous process begin at the sixth weeks in utero and extends to about sixth months after birth for the primary dentition and from sixteenth week in utero to late adolescence for permanent dentition. There is no other organ of the human body which takes so long to attain its ultimate morphology as dentition. Several physiologic growth processes participate in the progressive development of the teeth including: initiation, proliferation, histodifferentiation, morphodifferentiation, apposition, calcification, and eruption. Aberrations in different stages of tooth development can result in unique manifestations both in primary and permanent dentitions. The fact that premaxilla is the predilection site for the occurrence of supernumerary teeth, talon cusp, dens invaginatus, and geminated teeth may suggest that the embryological development of premaxilla differ from other sites of the jaws. The dental abnormalities presented in this review are of great concern to dentist and parents because they create clinical, pathological and esthetic problems. Dental practitioner should be aware of the clinical sign, associated problems and treatment options for a given case. Key words:Double talon cusps, fusion, supernumerary, case report. PMID:25593664

  14. Rank-ordered multifractal spectrum of intermittent fluctuations in the cusp : a case study with Cluster data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Herve; Echim, Marius; Chang, Tom

    Data from the four Cluster spacecraft on 26th of February 2001 show that the Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of B 2 in the cusp are non-Gaussian and have an intermittent behavior at scales smaller than about 1 minute. PDFs obtained at various scales cannot be collapsed onto a master curve based on a single monofractal index, except in the central regions. We present here a more geometrical approach based on the multifractal analysis of these intermittent fluctuations using both structure functions and the partition function. These traditional multifractal methods based on the statistics of the full set of fluctuations indicate that the spectrum of the scaling exponents is multifractal. However, the fractal characteristics of large amplitude fluctuations (the less frequent ones) might be masked by those with small amplitude which are by far the dominant population. Chang & Wu (2007) recently proposed a new method of multifractal analysis, based on rank-ordered fractal index of fluctuations. This method subdivides the fluctuations into groups according to the range of their scaled sizes. We show preliminary results of this new multifractal analysis applied to Cluster data in the cusp. T. Chang and C.C. Wu, Rank-Ordered Multifractal Spectrum for Intermittent Fluctuations, arXiv:0712.4256v1 [astro-ph] 27 December 2007.

  15. Fluid-Structure Interaction Models of Bicuspid Aortic Valves: The Effects of Non-Fused Cusp Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavon, Karin; Halevi, Rotem; Marom, Gil; Ben Zekry, Sagit; Hamdan, Ashraf; Schäfers, Hans Joachim; Raanani, Ehud; Haj-Ali, Rami

    2017-11-02

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common type of congenital heart disease, occurring in 0.5-2% of the population, where the valve has only two rather than the three normal cusps. Valvular pathologies, such as aortic regurgitation and aortic stenosis, are associated with BAVs, thereby increasing the need for a better understanding of BAV kinematics and geometrical characteristics. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the non-fused cusp (NFC) angle in BAV type-1 configuration on the valve's structural and hemodynamic performance. Towards that goal, a parametric fluid-structure interaction (FSI) modeling approach of BAVs is presented. Four FSI models were generated with varying NFC angles between 120° and 180°. The FSI simulations were based on fully-coupled structural and fluid dynamic solvers and corresponded to physiologic values, including the anisotropic hyper-elastic behavior of the tissue. The simulated angles led to different mechanical behavior, such as eccentric jet flow direction with a wider opening shape that was found for the smaller NFC angles, while a narrower opening orifice followed by increased jet flow velocity was observed for the larger NFC angles. Smaller NFC angles led to higher concentrated flow shear stress on the NFC during peak systole, while higher maximal principal stresses were found in the raphe region during diastole. The proposed biomechanical models could explain the early failure of BAVs with decreased NFC angles, and suggests that a larger NFC angle is preferable in suture annuloplasty BAV repair surgery.

  16. ASPCAP: THE APOGEE STELLAR PARAMETER AND CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES PIPELINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Pérez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Shane, Neville; Sobeck, Jennifer; Troup, Nicholas [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Prieto, Carlos Allende; Carrera, Ricardo; García-Hernández, D. A.; Zamora, Olga [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Holtzman, Jon A. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Mészáros, Szabolcs [ELTE Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, H-9704 Szombathely, Szent Imre Herceg St. 112 (Hungary); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Johnson, Jennifer A.; Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead, Wirral CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Smith, Verne V. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bovy, Jo, E-mail: agp@iac.es [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); and others

    2016-06-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has built the largest moderately high-resolution ( R  ≈ 22,500) spectroscopic map of the stars across the Milky Way, and including dust-obscured areas. The APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) is the software developed for the automated analysis of these spectra. ASPCAP determines atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances from observed spectra by comparing observed spectra to libraries of theoretical spectra, using χ {sup 2} minimization in a multidimensional parameter space. The package consists of a fortran90 code that does the actual minimization and a wrapper IDL code for book-keeping and data handling. This paper explains in detail the ASPCAP components and functionality, and presents results from a number of tests designed to check its performance. ASPCAP provides stellar effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities precise to 2%, 0.1 dex, and 0.05 dex, respectively, for most APOGEE stars, which are predominantly giants. It also provides abundances for up to 15 chemical elements with various levels of precision, typically under 0.1 dex. The final data release (DR12) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III contains an APOGEE database of more than 150,000 stars. ASPCAP development continues in the SDSS-IV APOGEE-2 survey.

  17. Alpha centauri unveiling the secrets of our nearest stellar neighbor

    CERN Document Server

    Beech, Martin

    2015-01-01

    As our closest stellar companion and composed of two Sun-like stars and a third small dwarf star, Alpha Centauri is an ideal testing ground of astrophysical models and has played a central role in the history and development of modern astronomy—from the first guesses at stellar distances to understanding how our own star, the Sun, might have evolved. It is also the host of the nearest known exoplanet, an ultra-hot, Earth-like planet recently discovered. Just 4.4 light years away Alpha Centauri is also the most obvious target for humanity’s first directed interstellar space probe. Such a mission could reveal the small-scale structure of a new planetary system and also represent the first step in what must surely be humanity’s greatest future adventure—exploration of the Milky Way Galaxy itself. For all of its closeness, α Centauri continues to tantalize astronomers with many unresolved mysteries, such as how did it form, how many planets does it contain and where are they, and how might we view its ex...

  18. Imaging Analysis of Collagen Fiber Networks in Cusps of Porcine Aortic Valves: Effect of their Local Distribution and Alignment on Valve Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Mor; Marom, Gil; Halevi, Rotem; Hamdan, Ashraf; Bluestein, Danny; Haj-Ali, Rami

    2015-01-01

    The cusps of native Aortic Valve (AV) are composed of collagen bundles embedded in soft tissue, creating a heterogenic tissue with asymmetric alignment in each cusp. This study compares native collagen fiber networks (CFNs) with a goal to better understand their influence on stress distribution and valve kinematics. Images of CFNs from five porcine tricuspid AVs are analyzed and fluid-structure interaction models are generated based on them. Although the valves had similar overall kinematics, the CFNs had distinctive influence on local mechanics. The regions with dilute CFN are more prone to damage since they are subjected to higher stress magnitudes. PMID:26406926

  19. The Stellar Origins of Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyk, Schulyer

    2017-08-01

    Supernovae (SNe) have a profound effect on galaxies and have been used as precise cosmological probes, resulting in the Nobel-distinguished discovery of the accelerating Universe. They are clearly very important events deserving of intense study. Yet, even with over 10000 classified SNe, we know relatively little about the stars which give rise to these powerful explosions. The main limitation has been the lack of spatial resolution in pre-SN imaging data. However, since 1999 our team has been at the vanguard of directly identifying SN progenitor stars in HST images. From this exciting line of study, the trends from 15 detections for Type II-Plateau SNe appear to be red supergiant progenitors of relatively low mass (8 to 17 Msun) - although this upper mass limit still requires testing - and warmer, envelope-stripped supergiant progenitors for 5 Type IIb SNe. Additionally, evidence is accumulating that some Type II-narrow SNe may arise from exploding stars in a luminous blue variable phase. However, the nature of the progenitors of Type Ib/c SNe, a subset of which are associated with gamma-ray bursts, still remains ambiguous. Furthermore, we continue in the embarrassing situation that we still do not yet know which progenitor systems explode as Type Ia SNe, which are being used for precision cosmology. In Cycles 16, 17, and 20 through 24 we have had great success with our approved ToO programs. As of this proposal deadline, we have already triggered on SN 2016jbu with our Cycle 24 program. We therefore propose to continue this project in Cycles 25 and 26, to determine the identities of the progenitors of 8 SNe within about 20 Mpc through ToO observations using WFC3/UVIS.

  20. Relations among stellar X-ray emission observed from Einstein, stellar rotation and bolometric luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, R.; Golub, L.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.; Ayres, T.; Linsky, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The correlation between observed stellar X-ray luminosities, bolometric luminosities, and projected rotational velocities for stars of various spectral types and luminosity classes are determined. Early type stars (O3 to A5) have X-ray luminosities independent of rotational velocities, and correlating with bolometric luminosities. Late type stars of spectral type G to M have luminosities well correlated to equatorial rotational velocities, and are independent of luminosity class. The dependence of late type stars is found to be equivalent to a relation between the X-ray surface flux and the stellar angular velocity. F stars are intermediate with X-ray luminosities higher than would be predicted on the basis of the early type star relation, although lower than expected from the late type velocity dependence. The location of RS CVn stars as a class is also discussed, and it is found that the heating of late type stellar coronas does not result from direct conversion of ratational energy.

  1. Massive stars reveal variations of the stellar initial mass function in the Milky Way stellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Sami; Schmeja, Stefan; Hony, Sacha

    2017-01-01

    We investigate whether the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is universal, or whether it varies significantly among young stellar clusters in the Milky Way. We propose a method to uncover the range of variation of the parameters that describe the shape of the IMF for the population of young Galactic clusters.These parameters are the slopes in the low and high stellar mass regimes, γ and Γ, respectively, and the characteristic mass, Mch. The method relies exclusively on the high-mass content of the clusters, but is able to yield information on the distributions of parameters that describe the IMF over the entire stellar mass range. This is achieved by comparing the fractions of single and lonely massive O stars in a recent catalogue of the Milky Way clusters with a library of simulated clusters built with various distribution functions of the IMF parameters. The synthetic clusters are corrected for the effects of the binary population, stellar evolution, sample incompleteness, and ejected O stars. Our findings indicate that broad distributions of the IMF parameters are required in order to reproduce the fractions of single and lonely O stars in Galactic clusters. They also do not lend support to the existence of a cluster mass-maximum stellar mass relation. We propose a probabilistic formulation of the IMF whereby the parameters of the IMF are described by Gaussian distribution functions centred around γ = 0.91, Γ = 1.37, and Mch = 0.41 M⊙, and with dispersions of σγ = 0.25, σΓ = 0.60, and σ _{M_{ch}}=0.27 M⊙ around these values.

  2. Habitability in different Milky Way stellar environments: a stellar interaction dynamical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Torres, Juan J; Pichardo, Bárbara; Lake, George; Segura, Antígona

    2013-05-01

    Every Galactic environment is characterized by a stellar density and a velocity dispersion. With this information from literature, we simulated flyby encounters for several Galactic regions, numerically calculating stellar trajectories as well as orbits for particles in disks; our aim was to understand the effect of typical stellar flybys on planetary (debris) disks in the Milky Way Galaxy. For the solar neighborhood, we examined nearby stars with known distance, proper motions, and radial velocities. We found occurrence of a disturbing impact to the solar planetary disk within the next 8 Myr to be highly unlikely; perturbations to the Oort cloud seem unlikely as well. Current knowledge of the full phase space of stars in the solar neighborhood, however, is rather poor; thus we cannot rule out the existence of a star that is more likely to approach than those for which we have complete kinematic information. We studied the effect of stellar encounters on planetary orbits within the habitable zones of stars in more crowded stellar environments, such as stellar clusters. We found that in open clusters habitable zones are not readily disrupted; this is true if they evaporate in less than 10(8) yr. For older clusters the results may not be the same. We specifically studied the case of Messier 67, one of the oldest open clusters known, and show the effect of this environment on debris disks. We also considered the conditions in globular clusters, the Galactic nucleus, and the Galactic bulge-bar. We calculated the probability of whether Oort clouds exist in these Galactic environments.

  3. Constraining stellar physics from red-giant stars in binaries – stellar rotation, mixing processes and stellar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck P. G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has led to an improved understanding of stellar structure and evolution - in particular for solar-like oscillators in this context. Binary stars are fascinating objects. Because they were formed together, binary systems provide a set of two stars with very well constrained parameters. Those can be used to study properties and physical processes, such as the stellar rotation, dynamics and rotational mixing of elements and allows us to learn from the differences we find between the two components. In this work, we discussed a detailed study of the binary system KIC 9163796, discovered through Kepler photometry. The ground-based follow-up spectroscopy showed that this system is a double-lined spectroscopic binary, with a mass ratio close to unity. However, the fundamental parameters of the components of this system as well as their lithium abundances differ substantially. Kepler photometry of this system allows to perform a detailed seismic analysis as well as to derive the orbital period and the surface rotation rate of the primary component of the system. Indications of the seismic signature of the secondary are found. The differing parameters are best explained with both components located in the early and the late phase of the first dredge up at the bottom of the red-giant branch. Observed lithium abundances in both components are in good agreement with prediction of stellar models including rotational mixing. By combining observations and theory, a comprehensive picture of the system can be drawn.

  4. Major results from the stellarator Wendelstein 7-AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, M; Baldzuhn, J; Beidler, C; Brakel, R; Burhenn, R; Dinklage, A; Ehmler, H; Endler, M; Erckmann, V; Feng, Y; Geiger, J; Giannone, L; Grieger, G; Grigull, P; Hartfuss, H-J; Hartmann, D; Jaenicke, R; Koenig, R; Laqua, H P; Maassberg, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)] (and others)

    2008-05-15

    Wendelstein 7-AS was the first modular stellarator device to test some basic elements of stellarator optimization: a reduced Shafranov shift and improved stability properties resulted in {beta}-values up to 3.4% (at 0.9 T). This operational limit was determined by power balance and impurity radiation without noticeable degradation of stability or a violent collapse. The partial reduction of neoclassical transport could be verified in agreement with calculations indicating the feasibility of the concept of drift optimization. A full neoclassical optimization, in particular a minimization of the bootstrap current was beyond the scope of this project. A variety of non-ohmic heating and current drive scenarios by ICRH, NBI and in particular, ECRH were tested and compared successfully with their theoretical predictions. Besides, new heating schemes of overdense plasmas were developed such as RF mode conversion heating-Ordinary mode, Extraordinary mode, Bernstein-wave (OXB) heating-or 2nd harmonic O-mode (O2) heating. The energy confinement was about a factor of 2 above ISS95 without degradation near operational boundaries. A number of improved confinement regimes such as core electron-root confinement with central T{sub e} {<=} 7 keV and regimes with strongly sheared radial electric field at the plasma edge resulting in T{sub i} {<=} 1.7 keV were obtained. As the first non-tokamak device, W7-AS achieved the H-mode and moreover developed a high density H-mode regime (HDH) with strongly reduced impurity confinement that allowed quasi-steady-state operation ({tau} {approx} 65 {center_dot} {tau}{sub E}) at densities n{sub e} {approx_equal} 4x10{sup 20}m{sup -3} (at 2.5 T). The first island divertor was tested successfully and operated with stable partial detachment in agreement with numerical simulations. With these results W7-AS laid the physics background for operation of an optimized low-shear steady-state stellarator. (review article)

  5. The Effects of Stellar Dynamics on the Evolution of Young, Dense Stellar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkus, H.; van Bever, J.; Vanbeveren, D.

    In this paper, we report on first results of a project in Brussels in which we study the effects of stellar dynamics on the evolution of young dense stellar systems using 3 decades of expertise in massive-star evolution and our population (number and spectral) synthesis code. We highlight an unconventionally formed object scenario (UFO-scenario) for Wolf Rayet binaries and study the effects of a luminous blue variable-type instability wind mass-loss formalism on the formation of intermediate-mass black holes.

  6. Testing microstructural adaptation in the earliest dental tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David; Evans, Alistair R; Rayfield, Emily J; Siu, Karen K W; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2012-12-23

    Conodont elements are the earliest vertebrate dental structures. The dental tools on elements responsible for food fracture-cusps and denticles-are usually composed of lamellar crown tissue (a putative enamel homologue) and the enigmatic tissue known as 'white matter'. White matter is unique to conodonts and has been hypothesized to be a functional adaptation for the use of elements as teeth. We test this quantitatively using finite-element analysis. Our results indicate that white matter allowed cusps and denticles to withstand greater tensile stresses than do cusps comprised solely of lamellar crown tissue. Microstructural variation is demonstrably associated with dietary and loading differences in teeth, so secondary loss of white matter through conodont phylogeny may reflect changes in diet and element occlusal kinematics. The presence, development and distribution of white matter could thus provide constraints on function in the first vertebrate dental structures.

  7. Recent Progress in Modeling Stellar Populations Near and Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzual, Gustavo

    2010-05-01

    I will present a summary of recent advances in the fields of stellar evolution, stellar model atmospheres, and stellar spectral libraries, which allow us to build more realistic stellar population synthesis models than those available up to now. Empirical and theoretical stellar libraries of increasing degree of completeness and accuracy covering from the EUV to the NIR and their usage in current models will be examined. In particular, the treatment of stars in the TP-AGB phase of stellar evolution will be discussed in detail. Understanding these stars is fundamental for the determination of the mass of distant galaxies using population synthesis models. Applications of these models to problems of current interest will be discussed. Problems that need to be understood and data sets that still need to be collected in order to solve issues present in these models will be indicated.

  8. Modeling transverse heating and outflow of ionospheric ions from the dayside cusp/cleft. 1 A parametric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bouhram

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The transport patterns of non-thermal H + and O + field-aligned flows from the dayside cusp/cleft, associated with transverse heating by means of wave-particle interactions and in combination with the poleward motion due to the magnetospheric convection are investigated. This has been accomplished by developing a steady-state, two-dimensional, trajectory-based code. The ion heating is modelled by means of a Monte Carlo technique, via the process of ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, with the electromagnetic left-hand circular polarized component of a broad-band, extremely low-frequency (BBELF turbulence. The altitude dependence of ICR heating from 1000 km to 3 Earth radii (RE is modelled by a power law spectrum, with an index a, and a parameter w0 that is proportional to the spectral density at a referenced gyrofrequency. Because of the finite latitudinal extent of the cusp/cleft, the incorporation of the horizontal convection drift leads to a maximum residence time tD of the ions when being energized. A large set of simulations has been computed so as to study the transport patterns of the H + and O + bulk parameters as a function of tD , a, and w0. Residence time effects are significant in O + density patterns while negligible for H +. When comparing the results with analytical one-dimensional theories (Chang et al., 1986; Crew et al., 1990, we find that mean ion energies and pitch angles at the poleward edge of the heating region are slightly influenced by tD and may be used as a probe of ICR parameters ( a, w0. Conversely, poleward of the heating region, upward velocity and mean energy dispersive patterns depend mainly on tD (e.g. the magnitude of the convection drift with latitudinal profiles varying versus tD . In short, the main conclusion of the paper is that any triplet (tD , a, w0 leads to a unique transport-pattern feature of ion flows associated with a cusp/cleft ionospheric source. In a companion paper, by using high-altitude (1.5–3 RE

  9. 3D-printed fusion components concepts and validation for the UST-2 stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queral, V., E-mail: vicentemanuel.queral@ciemat.es

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A fabrication method for fusion components is developed and validated. • Synergies obtained from additive manufacturing and non-metal casting. • 3D-printed polyamide hollow truss structure and casting of acrylic resin tested. • UST- 2 stellarator coil frame fabricated to validate the method performance. - Abstract: The geometric complexity and high accuracy simultaneously required in magnetic fusion devices, particularly stellarators and tokamaks, hampers the production of fusion components and devices. Rapid manufacturing construction methods, particularly enhanced for fusion, may contribute to a faster cycle and lower cost production of certain components for tokamaks and stellarators. Casting, cutting, forming, welding and mechanising are conventional production techniques for major fusion components, i.e. coil casings, coil frames, vacuum vessels and blankets. Synergies may emerge by combination of additive manufacturing (3D printing) with conventional manufacturing methods. 3D printing combined with resin moulding is tested by construction of the coil frame and the vacuum vessel of a small stellarator, UST-2. Satisfactory coil frames have been obtained by moulding acrylic resin in a special 3D printed polyamide hollow three-dimensional structure. The conceptual engineering design, construction process and validation of the components are described. The presented manufacturing method might contribute to advance the future 3D printing of larger metallic components for fusion.

  10. The Yale-Potsdam Stellar Isochrones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, F.; Demarque, P.; Kim, Y.-C.; Boyajian, T. S.; Brewer, J. M.

    2017-04-01

    We introduce the Yale-Potsdam Stellar Isochrones (YaPSI), a new grid of stellar evolution tracks and isochrones of solar-scaled composition. In an effort to improve the Yonsei-Yale database, special emphasis is placed on the construction of accurate low-mass models ({M}* < 0.6 {M}⊙ ), and in particular on their mass-luminosity and mass-radius relations, both crucial for characterizing exoplanet-host stars, and, in turn, their planetary systems. The YaPSI models cover the mass range 0.15-5.0 {M}⊙ densely enough to permit detailed interpolation in mass, and the metallicity and helium abundance ranges [Fe/H] = -1.5 to +0.3 and Y 0 = 0.25-0.37 are specified independently of each other (I.e., no fixed {{Δ }}Y/{{Δ }}Z relation is assumed). The evolutionary tracks are calculated from the pre-main sequence up to the tip of the red giant branch. The isochrones, with ages between 1 Myr and 20 Gyr, provide UBVRI colors in the Johnson-Cousins system, and JHK colors in the homogenized Bessell & Brett system, derived from two different semi-empirical {T}{eff}-color calibrations from the literature. We also provide utility codes, such as an isochrone interpolator, in age, metallicity, and helium content, and an interface of the tracks with an open-source Monte Carlo Markov-Chain tool for the analysis of individual stars. Finally, we present comparisons of the YaPSI models with the best empirical mass-luminosity and mass-radius relations available to date, as well as isochrone fitting of well-studied stellar clusters.

  11. Advanced Stellar Compass, SAC-C, Interface Control Document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Betto, Maurizio; Riis, Troels

    Interface Control Document for the Advanced Stellar Compass for the SAC-C satellite. The SAC-C is Argentine, Danish and NASA satellite. On the SAC-C satellite there are a simplified version of the Ørsted instrumentation platform. The Advanced Stellar Compass is a improved version of the Ørsted Star...... Imager. This document descibes the interface between the Advanced Stellar Compass and OBDH, the size of the DPU and the Camera etc....

  12. Imaging of Stellar Surfaces with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    Imaging of Stellar Surfaces with the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer Anders M. Jorgensena, H. R. Schmittb, G. T. van Bellec, D. J. Hutterd, J...phase observations on long baselines at shorter wavelengths in order to further increase the resolution. In this paper we describe the NPOI Stellar ...Imaging stellar surfaces requires aperture diameters of sometimes hundreds of meters. In general, the diffraction limited angular resolution of an aper

  13. Coexistence of two talon cusps and two dens invaginatus in a single tooth with associated radicular cyst-a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasat, Vikrant O; Singh, Mukund; Saluja, Harish; Ladda, Ruchi

    2014-10-01

    Talon cusp (TC) and dens invaginatus (DI) are relatively rare developmental anomalies which affect the shape of teeth. TC is an additional cusp that projects predominately from the lingual surface of anterior teeth. DI is a deep surface invagination of the crown or root which is commonly detected on routine radiographic examination. Both of these anomalies are observed more frequently in permanent maxillary lateral incisor. Isolated cases of single TC and DI are extensively reported in dental literature. Occasionally two talon cusps (TCs) in the same tooth as well as double and triple invaginations in one tooth are reported separately. Coexistence of these two anomalies in a single tooth is considered extremely rare, but still there are few reported cases. However, coexistence of two TCs and double DI in a single tooth is not reported till date. We hereby report the first case of coexistence of two TCs and double DI in a single tooth of a 23 year old female and use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in the management of associated radicular cyst. Also, literature on coexistence of these two anomalies in a single tooth is reviewed. Key words:Coexistence, dens invaginatus, radicular cyst, talon cusp.

  14. Compressive strength and failure types of cusp replacing direct resin composite restorations in previously amalgam-filled premolars versus sound teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, Johannes Durk; Zaia, John; Oezcan, Mutlu

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the fracture resistance of cusp replacing direct resin composite restorations (DCR) in premolars that had been previously filled with amalgam mesial-occlusal-distal (MOD) restorations and compared their fracture resistance with those made on sound dentin and intact teeth.

  15. IPS guidestar selection for stellar mode (ASTRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Larry; Wooten, Lewis

    1988-01-01

    This report describes how guide stars are selected for the Optical Sensor Package (OSP) for the Instrument Pointing System (IPS) when it is operating in the stellar mode on the ASTRO missions. It also describes how the objective loads are written and how the various roll angles are related; i.e., the celestial roll or position angle, the objective load roll angles, and the IPS gimbal angles. There is a brief description of how the IPS operates and its various modes of operation; i.e., IDOP, IDIN, and OSPCAL.

  16. Generating physically realizable stellar structures via embedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Govender, M. [Durban University of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Durban (South Africa)

    2017-05-15

    In this work we present an exact solution of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations describing compact charged objects within the framework of classical general relativity. Our model is constructed by embedding a four-dimensional spherically symmetric static metric into a five-dimensional flat metric. The source term for the matter field is composed of a perfect fluid distribution with charge. We show that our model obeys all the physical requirements and stability conditions necessary for a realistic stellar model. Our theoretical model approximates observations of neutron stars and pulsars to a very good degree of accuracy. (orig.)

  17. Advanced Stellar Compass - ROCSAT 2 - Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1998-01-01

    System Integration is supposed to take place at NSPO facilities.The ASC is a highly advanced and autonomous Stellar Reference Unit designed, developed and produced by the Space Instrumentation Group of the Department of Automation of the Technical University of Denmark.The document is structured...... and in section 7 the mechanical and electrical interfaces are given. In section 8 and 9 we address issues like manufacturing, transportation and storage and to conclude in section 10 the requirements imposed by the ASC on the system are given....

  18. MHD stability of the MHH2 stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, P.R. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences

    1998-12-31

    The NSTAB code provides a computer implementation of the variational principle of magnetohydrodynamics. Excellent resolution is obtained by combining a spectral representation in the toroidal and poloidal angles with a low order, but exceptionally accurate, finite difference scheme in the radial direction. Conservation form of the magnetostatics equations is used to capture islands and current sheets effectively on crude grids. This method enables one to discuss global stability by analyzing bifurcated solutions of the equilibrium problem. The author applies it to investigate the physics of the MHH2 stellarator, whose magnetic structure has a remarkable property of quasi-axial symmetry.

  19. The Stellar Observations Network Group - first results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoci, Victoria; Grundahl, Frank; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen

    SONG - the Stellar Observations Network Group is a Danish-led project set to design and build a global network of 1-m telescopes to carry out detailed studies of solar-like stars using asteroseismology and to discover and characterise exo-planets and their star system. Here we present more than 100...... nights of high-precision radial velocity measurements from 2014 of the subgiant mu Herculis. Preliminary analyses of the largest ground-based data set ever obtained for such as star clearly show the detection of stochastically excited pressure modes. The high quality of our data allows unique extraction...

  20. An updated MILES stellar library and stellar population models (Research Note)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcon-Barroso, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Vazdekis, A.; Ricciardelli, E.; Cardiel, N.; Cenarro, A. J.; Gorgas, J.; Peletier, R. F.

    Aims: We present a number of improvements to the MILES library and stellar population models. We correct some small errors in the radial velocities of the stars, measure the spectral resolution of the library and models more accurately, and give a better absolute flux calibration of the models.

  1. Identification of Stellar Sequences in Various Stellar Systems: ESO65-SC03, Teutsch 106, Turner 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gireesh C.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial morphological study of stellar clusters has been carried out through their identified probable members. The field stars decontamination is performed by the statistical cleaning approach (depends on the magnitude and colour of stars within the field and cluster regions). The colour magnitude ratio diagram (CMRD) approach is used to separate the stellar sequences of cluster systems. The age, distance and reddening of each cluster is estimated through the visual inspection of best fitted isochrone in colour magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The mean proper motion values of stellar clusters are obtained through the extracted data from PPMXL and UCAC4 catalogs. Moreover, these values vary according to the extracted data-set from these catalogues. This variation has occurred due to different estimation efficiency of proper motions. The two colour ratio (TCR) and two colour magnitude ratio (TCMR) values of each cluster is determined by utilizing the WISE and PPMXL catalogues, these values are found abnormal for Teutsch 106. In addition, the TCMR values are similar to TCR values at longer wavelength, whereas both values are far away from each other at shorter wavelength. The fraction of young stellar objects (YSOs) is also computed for each cluster.

  2. Stellar halos: a rosetta stone for galaxy formation and cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis Read, Justin

    2015-08-01

    Stellar halos make up about a percent of the total stellar mass in galaxies. Yet their old age and long phase mixing times make them living fossil records of galactic history. In this talk, I review the latest simulations of structure formation in our standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmology. I discuss the latest predictions for stellar halos and the relationship between the stellar halo light and the underlying dark matter. Finally, I discuss how these simulations compare to observations of the Milky Way and Andromeda and, ultimately, what this means for our cosmological model and the formation history of the Galaxy.

  3. Anatomia da valva atrioventricular esquerda: I. As cúspides Anatomy of the left atrio-ventricular valve: I. The cusps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio B. Prado Fortuna

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados de um estudo anatômico da valva atrioventricular esquerda, realizado em 30 corações aparentemente normais, conservados em formalina, são comparados aos dados da literatura, tendo por objetivo adequar a nomenclatura e os conceitos anatômicos clássicos aos atuais, baseados na ultra-sonografia e na prática cirúrgica corrente. O presente artigo tratará apenas das cúspides, sendo que os demais elementos anatômicos dessa valva atrioventricular esquerda fazem parte de uma "unidade aortoventricular", onde distinguimos a cúspide anterior, em continuidade com o trígono intervalvar e o anel aórtico, e um grupo de cúspides posteriores, em relação com a parede posterior do ventrículo esquerdo. A cúspide anterior está separada do grupo de cúspides posteriores, tanto no polo valvar superior como no inferior, por uma estrutura anatômica bem definida: a "lâmina juncional", superior e inferior, respectivamente. As cúspides do grupo posterior são designadas pela ordem numeral ordinal, a partir da lâmina juncional superior. Esta nomenclatura tem por objetivo destacar a cúspide como unidade funcional da valva e facilitar as referências ecocardiográficas e cirúrgicas, particularmente nos casos em que mais de 3 cúspides posteriores são encontradas.A review of the left atrio-ventricular valve anatomy is compared to a clinical oriented morphological study on 30 normal adult heart, preserved in formalin. The results will be presented in five separated sections: I. The cusps; II. The comissures; III. The chordae tendinae; IV. The papilary muscles; V. The valvar annulus. The present publication will deal with the cusps. The terms "left atrio-ventricular valve" and "cusps" are to be prefered to the more descriptive and traditional "mitral valve" and "leaflets". The anterior cusp, in continuity with the aortic annulus, and a group of posterior cusps, attached to the posterior left wall, are described. An ordinal numerical

  4. 3D Global PIC simulation of Alfvenic transition layers at the cusp outer boundary during IMF rotations from north to south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, D. S.; Lembege, B.; Esmaeili, A.; Nishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    Statistical experimental observations of the cusp boundaries from CLUSTER mission made by Lavraud et al. (2005) have clearly evidenced the presence of a transition layer inside the magnetosheath near the outer boundary of the cusp. This layer characterized by Log(MA)~ 1 allows a transition from super-Alfvenic to sub-Alfvenic bulk flow from the exterior to the interior side of the outer cusp and has been mainly observed experimentally under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The role of this layer is important in order to understand the flow variations (and later the entry and precipitation of particles) when penetrating the outer boundary of the cusp. In order to analyze this layer, a large 3D PIC simulation of the global solar wind-terrestrial magnetosphere interaction have been performed, and the attention has been focused on the cusp region and its nearby surrounding during IMF rotation from north to south. Present results retrieve quite well the presence of this layer within the meridian plane for exactly northward IMF, but its location differs in the sense that it is located slightly below the X reconnection region associated to the nearby magnetopause (above the outer boundary of the cusp). In order to clarify this question, an extensive study has been performed as follows: (i) a 3D mapping of this transition layer in order to analyze more precisely the thickness, the location and the spatial extension of this layer on the magnetosphere flanks for a fixed Northward IMF configuration; (ii) a parametric study in order to analyze the impact of the IMF rotation from north to south on the persistence and the main features of this transition layer. The locations of this transition layer slightly radially expand and shrink during the IMF rotation and the thickness of the layer increases during the rotation. We show how these transition layers render the flow from super to sub Alfvenic and allow the particles enter into the magnetic cusp region. Alfven

  5. The Origin of Stellar Species: constraining stellar evolution scenarios with Local Group galaxy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbadhicary, Sumit; Badenes, Carles; Chomiuk, Laura; Maldonado, Jessica; Caprioli, Damiano; Heger, Mairead; Huizenga, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of the progenitors of many stellar species, such as supernovae, massive and low-mass He-burning stars, is limited because of many poorly constrained aspects of stellar evolution theory. For my dissertation, I have focused on using Local Group galaxy surveys to constrain stellar evolution scenarios by measuring delay-time distributions (DTD). The DTD is the hypothetical occurrence rate of a stellar object per elapsed time after a brief burst of star formation. It is the measured distribution of timescales on which stars evolve, and therefore serves as a powerful observational constraint on theoretical progenitor models. The DTD can be measured from a survey of stellar objects and a set of star-formation histories of the host galaxy, and is particularly effective in the Local Group, where high-quality star-formation histories are available from resolved stellar populations. I am currently calculating a SN DTD with supernova remnants (SNRs) in order to provide the strongest constraints on the progenitors of thermonuclear and core-collapse supernovae. However, most SNRs do not have reliable age measurements and their evolution depends on the ambient environment. For this reason, I wrote a radio light curve model of an SNR population to extract the visibility times and rates of supernovae - crucial ingredients for the DTD - from an SNR survey. The model uses observational constraints on the local environments from multi-wavelength surveys, accounts for missing SNRs and employs the latest models of shock-driven particle acceleration. The final calculation of the SN DTD in the Local Group is awaiting completion of a systematic SNR catalog from deep radio-continuum images, now in preparation by a group led by Dr. Laura Chomiuk. I have also calculated DTDs for the LMC population of RR Lyrae and Cepheid variables, which serve as important distance calibrators and stellar population tracers. We find that Cepheids can have delay-times between 10 Myrs - 1 Gyr

  6. SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemgen, Sebastian [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5H 3H4 (Canada); Bonavita, Mariangela [The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Jayawardhana, Ray [Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario L3T 3R1 (Canada); Lafrenière, David [Department of Physics, University of Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Janson, Markus, E-mail: daemgen@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M {sub ☉} and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M {sub ☉}. We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M {sub Jup}. The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3{sub −4.9}{sup +6.6}%. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M {sub ☉} appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8{sub −1.5}{sup +4.2}% of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively.

  7. Energy and pitch-angle dispersions of LLBL/cusp ions seen at middle altitudes: predictions by the open magnetosphere model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are presented of the ion distribution functions seen by middle-altitude spacecraft in the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL and cusp regions when reconnection is, or has recently been, taking place at the equatorial magnetopause. From the evolution of the distribution function with time elapsed since the field line was opened, both the observed energy/observation-time and pitch-angle/energy dispersions are well reproduced. Distribution functions showing a mixture of magnetosheath and magnetospheric ions, often thought to be a signature of the LLBL, are found on newly opened field lines as a natural consequence of the magnetopause effects on the ions and their flight times. In addition, it is shown that the extent of the source region of the magnetosheath ions that are detected by a satellite is a function of the sensitivity of the ion instrument . If the instrument one-count level is high (and/or solar-wind densities are low, the cusp ion precipitation detected comes from a localised region of the mid-latitude magnetopause (around the magnetic cusp, even though the reconnection takes place at the equatorial magnetopause. However, if the instrument sensitivity is high enough, then ions injected from a large segment of the dayside magnetosphere (in the relevant hemisphere will be detected in the cusp. Ion precipitation classed as LLBL is shown to arise from the low-latitude magnetopause, irrespective of the instrument sensitivity. Adoption of threshold flux definitions has the same effect as instrument sensitivity in artificially restricting the apparent source regionKey words. Low-latitude boundary layer · Cusp regions · Open magnetosphere model · Mid-altitudes

  8. Energy and pitch-angle dispersions of LLBL/cusp ions seen at middle altitudes: predictions by the open magnetosphere model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are presented of the ion distribution functions seen by middle-altitude spacecraft in the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL and cusp regions when reconnection is, or has recently been, taking place at the equatorial magnetopause. From the evolution of the distribution function with time elapsed since the field line was opened, both the observed energy/observation-time and pitch-angle/energy dispersions are well reproduced. Distribution functions showing a mixture of magnetosheath and magnetospheric ions, often thought to be a signature of the LLBL, are found on newly opened field lines as a natural consequence of the magnetopause effects on the ions and their flight times. In addition, it is shown that the extent of the source region of the magnetosheath ions that are detected by a satellite is a function of the sensitivity of the ion instrument . If the instrument one-count level is high (and/or solar-wind densities are low, the cusp ion precipitation detected comes from a localised region of the mid-latitude magnetopause (around the magnetic cusp, even though the reconnection takes place at the equatorial magnetopause. However, if the instrument sensitivity is high enough, then ions injected from a large segment of the dayside magnetosphere (in the relevant hemisphere will be detected in the cusp. Ion precipitation classed as LLBL is shown to arise from the low-latitude magnetopause, irrespective of the instrument sensitivity. Adoption of threshold flux definitions has the same effect as instrument sensitivity in artificially restricting the apparent source region

    Key words. Low-latitude boundary layer · Cusp regions · Open magnetosphere model · Mid-altitudes

  9. Stellarator News, Issue 38, March 1995

    CERN Document Server

    Rome, J A

    1995-01-01

    Stellarator News, an international journal of the stellarator community, is Published by Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, James A. Rome, Editor In the March 1995 issue . . . **** Exerpts from the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assment report on TPX and Alternate Concepts. **** Edge transport and turbulence studies on U-3M The turbulent-driven particle flow is shown to be comparable with the equilibrium flow at the boundary of the configuration under Alfven-heating conditions in the U-3M torsatron. **** Topological aspects of island divertor studies on W7-AS The structure of the edge plasma in W7-AS, observed with probes, television camera, and H-alpha light agrees at low beta with vacuum field calculations: the low-valued resonances at iotabar=5/m are resolved for m = 8 to 11; external perturbations are not significant at the edge, even for iotabar = 5/10. **** 140-GHz second harmonic O-mode electron cyclotron heating at W7-AS First experimental results are presented of 140-GHz secon...

  10. Interrupted Stellar Encounters in Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Aaron M.; Leigh, Nathan W. C.

    2015-07-01

    Strong encounters between single stars and binaries play a pivotal role in the evolution of star clusters. Such encounters can also dramatically modify the orbital parameters of binaries, exchange partners in and out of binaries, and are a primary contributor to the rate of physical stellar collisions in star clusters. Often, these encounters are studied under the approximation that they happen quickly enough and within a small enough volume to be considered isolated from the rest of the cluster. In this paper, we study the validity of this assumption through the analysis of a large grid of single-binary and binary-binary scattering experiments. For each encounter we evaluate the encounter duration, and compare this with the expected time until another single or binary star will join the encounter. We find that for lower-mass clusters, similar to typical open clusters in our Galaxy, the percent of encounters that will be “interrupted” by an interloping star or binary may be 20%-40% (or higher) in the core, though for typical globular clusters we expect ≲1% of encounters to be interrupted. Thus, the assumption that strong encounters occur in relative isolation breaks down for certain clusters. Instead, many strong encounters develop into more complex “mini-clusters,” which must be accounted for in studying, for example, the internal dynamics of star clusters, and the physical stellar collision rate.

  11. INTERRUPTED STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Aaron M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Leigh, Nathan W. C., E-mail: a-geller@northwestern.edu, E-mail: nleigh@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West and 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Strong encounters between single stars and binaries play a pivotal role in the evolution of star clusters. Such encounters can also dramatically modify the orbital parameters of binaries, exchange partners in and out of binaries, and are a primary contributor to the rate of physical stellar collisions in star clusters. Often, these encounters are studied under the approximation that they happen quickly enough and within a small enough volume to be considered isolated from the rest of the cluster. In this paper, we study the validity of this assumption through the analysis of a large grid of single–binary and binary–binary scattering experiments. For each encounter we evaluate the encounter duration, and compare this with the expected time until another single or binary star will join the encounter. We find that for lower-mass clusters, similar to typical open clusters in our Galaxy, the percent of encounters that will be “interrupted” by an interloping star or binary may be 20%–40% (or higher) in the core, though for typical globular clusters we expect ≲1% of encounters to be interrupted. Thus, the assumption that strong encounters occur in relative isolation breaks down for certain clusters. Instead, many strong encounters develop into more complex “mini-clusters,” which must be accounted for in studying, for example, the internal dynamics of star clusters, and the physical stellar collision rate.

  12. Color superconductivity in compact stellar hybrid configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranea-Sandoval, Ignacio F.; Orsaria, Milva G.; Han, Sophia; Weber, Fridolin; Spinella, William M.

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of pulsars PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348+0432 with masses of around 2 M⊙ imposes strong constraints on the equations of state of cold, ultradense matter. If a phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter were to occur in the inner cores of such massive neutron stars, the energetically favorable state of quark matter would be a color superconductor. In this study, we analyze the stability and maximum mass of such neutron stars. The hadronic phase is described by nonlinear relativistic mean-field models, and the local Nambu-Jona Lasinio model is used to describe quark matter in the 2SC+s quark phase. The phase transition is treated as a Maxwell transition, assuming a sharp hadron-quark interface, and the "constant-sound-speed" (CSS) parametrization is employed to discuss the existence of stellar twin configurations. We find that massive neutron stars such as J1614-2230 and J0348+0432 can only exist on the connected stellar branch but not on the disconnected twin-star branch. The latter can only support stars with masses that are strictly below 2 M⊙ .

  13. A multi-institutional Stellarator Configuration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, David

    2017-10-01

    A multi-institutional study aimed at mapping the space of quasi-axisymmetric stellarators has begun. The goal is to gain improved understanding of the dependence of important physics and engineering parameters (e.g. bootstrap current, stability, coil complexity, etc.) on plasma shape (average elongation, aspect ratio, number of periods). In addition, the stellarator optimization code STELLOPT will be upgraded with new capabilities such as improved coil design algorithms such as COILOPT + + and REGCOIL, divertor optimization options, equilibria with islands using the SPEC code, and improved bootstrap current calculations with the SFINCS code. An effort is underway to develop metrics for divertor optimization. STELLOPT has also had numerous improvements to numerical algorithms and parallelization capabilities. Simultaneously, we also are pursuing the optimization of turbulent transport according to the method of proxy functions. Progress made to date includes an elongation scan on quasi-axisymmetric equilibria and an initial comparison between the SFINCS code and the BOOTSJ calculation of bootstrap current currently available in STELLOPT. Further progress on shape scans and subsequent physics analysis will be reported. The status of the STELLOPT upgrades will be described. The eventual goal of this exercise is to identify attractive configurations for future US experimental facilities.. This work is supported by US DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  14. Il desiderio stellare del Principe di Salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Galvagno

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available If desire originates from the stars –de sideribus- and, if we agree with this etymology, the Subject’s desire coincides with the Other’s desire, Tomasi di Lampedusa’s Il Gattopardo shows one of the most fascinating and enigmatic literary figures of stellar desire, as it can be read, furthermore, in the explicit of the seventh part of the novel: «Giunta faccia a faccia con lui sollevò il velo e così, pudica ma pronto ad esser posseduta, gli apparve più bella di come mai l’avesse intravista negli spazi stellari».            Why does this female figure descending from the stellar spaces in order to yield to Don Fabrizio who has reached the final stage of his journey, embody the object of a possessive desire which, paradoxically, corresponds to death? Indeed, death marks the entire novel since its memorable incipit: «”Nunc et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen”». What kind of desire is it precisely about? What is our unexpectedly Hamlet-like hero troubled by? The cues which the novel shows for the interpretation of this desire are few but meaningful. However we could appeal to Ricordi d’Infanzia which lead to the writer’s laboratory at the time of the Gattopardo, and, perhaps, let us know the “cause” of the prince of Salina’s desire.

  15. Advanced stellar compass deep space navigation, ground testing results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Deep space exploration is in the agenda of the major space agencies worldwide and at least the European Space Agency (SMART & Aurora Programs) and the American NASA (New Millennium Program) have set up programs to allow the development and the demonstration of technologies that can reduce the risks...

  16. Diverse stellar haloes in nearby Milky Way mass disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Benjamin; Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Holwerda, Benne W.

    2017-04-01

    We have examined the resolved stellar populations at large galactocentric distances along the minor axis (from 10 kpc up to between 40 and 75 kpc), with limited major axis coverage, of six nearby highly inclined Milky Way (MW) mass disc galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope data from the Galaxy haloes, Outer discs, Substructure, Thick discs, and Star clusters (GHOSTS) survey. We select red giant branch stars to derive stellar halo density profiles. The projected minor axis density profiles can be approximated by power laws with projected slopes of -2 to -3.7 and a diversity of stellar halo masses of 1-6 × 109 M⊙, or 2-14 per cent of the total galaxy stellar masses. The typical intrinsic scatter around a smooth power-law fit is 0.05-0.1 dex owing to substructure. By comparing the minor and major axis profiles, we infer projected axis ratios c/a at ˜25 kpc between 0.4and0.75. The GHOSTS stellar haloes are diverse, lying between the extremes charted out by the (rather atypical) haloes of the MW and M31. We find a strong correlation between the stellar halo metallicities and the stellar halo masses. We compare our results with cosmological models, finding good agreement between our observations and accretion-only models where the stellar haloes are formed by the disruption of dwarf satellites. In particular, the strong observed correlation between stellar halo metallicity and mass is naturally reproduced. Low-resolution hydrodynamical models have unrealistically high stellar halo masses. Current high-resolution hydrodynamical models appear to predict stellar halo masses somewhat higher than observed but with reasonable metallicities, metallicity gradients, and density profiles.

  17. Atmospheric stellar parameters for large surveys using FASMA, a new spectral synthesis package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsantaki, M.; Andreasen, D. T.; Teixeira, G. D. C.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Bruzual, G.

    2018-02-01

    In the era of vast spectroscopic surveys focusing on Galactic stellar populations, astronomers want to exploit the large quantity and good quality of data to derive their atmospheric parameters without losing precision from automatic procedures. In this work, we developed a new spectral package, FASMA, to estimate the stellar atmospheric parameters (namely effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity) in a fast and robust way. This method is suitable for spectra of FGK-type stars in medium and high resolution. The spectroscopic analysis is based on the spectral synthesis technique using the radiative transfer code, MOOG. The line list is comprised of mainly iron lines in the optical spectrum. The atomic data are calibrated after the Sun and Arcturus. We use two comparison samples to test our method, (i) a sample of 451 FGK-type dwarfs from the high-resolution HARPS spectrograph; and (ii) the Gaia-ESO benchmark stars using both high and medium resolution spectra. We explore biases in our method from the analysis of synthetic spectra covering the parameter space of our interest. We show that our spectral package is able to provide reliable results for a wide range of stellar parameters, different rotational velocities, different instrumental resolutions and for different spectral regions of the VLT-GIRAFFE spectrographs, used amongst others for the Gaia-ESO survey. FASMA estimates stellar parameters in less than 15 m for high-resolution and 3 m for medium-resolution spectra. The complete package is publicly available to the community.

  18. Comparison of stellar population model predictions using optical and infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, C.; McDermid, R. M.; Kuntschner, H.; Maraston, C.; Conroy, C.

    2018-02-01

    We present Gemini/GNIRS cross-dispersed near-infrared spectra of 12 nearby early-type galaxies, with the aim of testing commonly used stellar population synthesis models. We select a subset of galaxies from the ATLAS3D sample which span a wide range of ages (single stellar population equivalent ages of 1-15 Gyr) at approximately solar metallicity. We derive star formation histories using four different stellar population synthesis models, namely those of Bruzual & Charlot, Conroy, Gunn & White, Maraston & Strömbäck and Vazdekis et al. We compare star formation histories derived from near-infrared spectra with those derived from optical spectra using the same models. We find that while all models agree in the optical, the derived star formation histories vary dramatically from model to model in the near-infrared. We find that this variation is largely driven by the choice of stellar spectral library, such that models including high-quality spectral libraries provide the best fits to the data, and are the most self-consistent when comparing optically derived properties with near-infrared ones. We also find the impact of age variation in the near-infrared to be subtle, and largely encoded in the shape of the continuum, meaning that the common approach of removing continuum information with a high-order polynomial greatly reduces our ability to constrain ages in the near-infrared.

  19. Including collisions in gyrokinetic tokamak and stellarator simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffmann, Karla

    2012-04-10

    Particle and heat transport in fusion devices often exceed the neoclassical prediction. This anomalous transport is thought to be produced by turbulence caused by microinstabilities such as ion and electron-temperature-gradient (ITG/ETG) and trapped-electron-mode (TEM) instabilities, the latter ones known for being strongly influenced by collisions. Additionally, in stellarators, the neoclassical transport can be important in the core, and therefore investigation of the effects of collisions is an important field of study. Prior to this thesis, however, no gyrokinetic simulations retaining collisions had been performed in stellarator geometry. In this work, collisional effects were added to EUTERPE, a previously collisionless gyrokinetic code which utilizes the {delta}f method. To simulate the collisions, a pitch-angle scattering operator was employed, and its implementation was carried out following the methods proposed in [Takizuka and Abe 1977, Vernay Master's thesis 2008]. To test this implementation, the evolution of the distribution function in a homogeneous plasma was first simulated, where Legendre polynomials constitute eigenfunctions of the collision operator. Also, the solution of the Spitzer problem was reproduced for a cylinder and a tokamak. Both these tests showed that collisions were correctly implemented and that the code is suited for more complex simulations. As a next step, the code was used to calculate the neoclassical radial particle flux by neglecting any turbulent fluctuations in the distribution function and the electric field. Particle fluxes in the neoclassical analytical regimes were simulated for tokamak and stellarator (LHD) configurations. In addition to the comparison with analytical fluxes, a successful benchmark with the DKES code was presented for the tokamak case, which further validates the code for neoclassical simulations. In the final part of the work, the effects of collisions were investigated for slab and toroidal

  20. Recent advances in non-LTE stellar atmosphere models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Andreas A. C.

    2017-11-01

    In the last decades, stellar atmosphere models have become a key tool in understanding massive stars. Applied for spectroscopic analysis, these models provide quantitative information on stellar wind properties as well as fundamental stellar parameters. The intricate non-LTE conditions in stellar winds dictate the development of adequate sophisticated model atmosphere codes. The increase in both, the computational power and our understanding of physical processes in stellar atmospheres, led to an increasing complexity in the models. As a result, codes emerged that can tackle a wide range of stellar and wind parameters. After a brief address of the fundamentals of stellar atmosphere modeling, the current stage of clumped and line-blanketed model atmospheres will be discussed. Finally, the path for the next generation of stellar atmosphere models will be outlined. Apart from discussing multi-dimensional approaches, I will emphasize on the coupling of hydrodynamics with a sophisticated treatment of the radiative transfer. This next generation of models will be able to predict wind parameters from first principles, which could open new doors for our understanding of the various facets of massive star physics, evolution, and death.

  1. Operations of a non-stellar object tracker in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio

    1999-01-01

    The ability to detect and track non-stellar objects by utilizing a star tracker may seem rather straight forward, as any bright object, not recognized as a star by the system is a non stellar object. However, several pitfalls and errors exist, if a reliable and robust detection is required. To te...

  2. Substructure in the Stellar Halos of the Aquarius Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, Amina; Cooper, A. P.; White, S. D. M.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Navarro, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    We characterize the substructure in the simulated stellar halos of Cooper et al. which were formed by the disruption of satellite galaxies within the cosmological N-body simulations of galactic halos of the Aquarius project. These stellar halos exhibit a wealth of tidal features: broad overdensities

  3. A Stellar Reference Unit Design Study for SIRTF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    A design study for a stellar reference unit, or star tracker, for SIRTF was conducted in FY96 in conjunction with the Tracking Sensors Group of the Avionic Equipment Section of JPL. The resulting design was derived from the Oersted, autonomous, Advanced Stellar Compass, star tracker. The projecte...

  4. Spectroscopic evidence of distinct stellar populations in the counter-rotating stellar disks of NGC 3593 and NGC 4550

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccato, L.; Morelli, L.; Pizzella, A.; Corsini, E. M.; Buson, L. M.; Dalla Bontà, E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We present the results of integral-field spectroscopic observations of the two disk galaxies NGC 3593 and NGC 4550 obtained with the Visible Multi Object Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. Both galaxies are known to host two counter-rotating stellar disks, with the ionized gas corotating with one of them. We measured in each galaxy the surface brightness, kinematics, mass surface density, and the stellar populations of the two stellar components, as well as the distribution, kinematics, and metallicity of the ionized-gas component to constrain the formation scenario of these peculiar galaxies. Methods: We applied a novel spectroscopic decomposition technique to both galaxies, to disentangle at each position in the field of view the relative contribution of the two counter-rotating stellar and one ionized-gas components to the observed spectrum. We measured the kinematics and the line strengths of the Lick indices of the two counter-rotating stellar components. We modeled the data of each stellar component with single stellar population models that account for the α/Fe overabundance. Results: In both galaxies we successfully separated the main from the secondary stellar component that is less massive and rotates in the same direction as the ionized-gas component. The two stellar components have exponential surface-brightness profiles. In NGC 3593 they have different scale lengths, with the secondary one dominating the innermost 500 pc. In NGC 4550 they have the same scale lengths, but slightly different scale heights. In both galaxies, the two counter-rotating stellar components have different stellar populations. The secondary stellar disk is younger, more metal poor, and more α-enhanced than the main galaxy stellar disk. Such a difference is stronger in NGC 3593 than in NGC 4550. Conclusions: Our findings rule out an internal origin of the secondary stellar component and favor a scenario where it formed from gas accreted on retrograde orbits from

  5. Improving 1D Stellar Models with 3D Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørsted Mosumgaard, Jakob; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Weiss, Achim; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Trampedach, Regner

    2017-10-01

    Stellar evolution codes play a major role in present-day astrophysics, yet they share common issues. In this work we seek to remedy some of those by the use of results from realistic and highly detailed 3D hydrodynamical simulations of stellar atmospheres. We have implemented a new temperature stratification extracted directly from the 3D simulations into the Garching Stellar Evolution Code to replace the simplified atmosphere normally used. Secondly, we have implemented the use of a variable mixing-length parameter, which changes as a function of the stellar surface gravity and temperature - also derived from the 3D simulations. Furthermore, to make our models consistent, we have calculated new opacity tables to match the atmospheric simulations. Here, we present the modified code and initial results on stellar evolution using it.

  6. Thermonuclear inverse magnetic pumping power cycle for stellarator reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Darwin D.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1991-01-01

    The plasma column in a stellarator is compressed and expanded alternatively in minor radius. First a plasma in thermal balance is compressed adiabatically. The volume of the compressed plasma is maintained until the plasma reaches a new thermal equilibrium. The plasma is then expanded to its original volume. As a result of the way a stellarator works, the plasma pressure during compression is less than the corresponding pressure during expansion. Therefore, negative work is done on the plasma over a complete cycle. This work manifests itself as a back-voltage in the toroidal field coils. Direct electrical energy is obtained from this voltage. Alternatively, after the compression step, the plasma can be expanded at constant pressure. The cycle can be made self-sustaining by operating a system of two stellarator reactors in tandem. Part of the energy derived from the expansion phase of a first stellarator reactor is used to compress the plasma in a second stellarator reactor.

  7. Dark matter constraints from stellar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, A.; Domínguez, I.; Straniero, O.

    2016-01-01

    The study of dark matter constraints from its effect on star evolution has been discussed in recent years. We propose a star evolution simulation approach to determine those costraints from properties related to star evolutionary stages and propose globular cluster observables in order to check those constraints. My work in progress (my PhD project research) employs FRANEC code to simulate complete star evolution from pre-main sequence to AGB phase, and regards several DM candidates like axions or WIMPs, motivated by different unsolved physical problems. Detailed energy production or energy loss due to DM particles are included, taking into account the expected interaction between dark matter particles and stellar plasma within different models.

  8. On the stellar rotation-activity connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between rotation rates and surface activity in late-type dwarf stars is explored in a survey of recent theoretical and observational studies. Current theoretical models of stellar-magnetic-field production and coronal activity are examined, including linear kinematic dynamo theory, nonlinear dynamos using approximations, and full numerical simulations of the MHD equations; and some typical results are presented graphically. The limitations of the modeling procedures and the constraints imposed by the physics are indicated. The statistical techniques used in establishing correlations between various observational parameters are analyzed critically, and the methods developed for quasar luminosity functions by Avni et al. (1980) are used to evaluate the effects of upper detection bounds, incomplete samples, and missing data for the case of rotation and X-ray flux data.

  9. Molecules in Outflows from Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafalla, M.

    2013-10-01

    Bipolar outflows from young stellar objects are excellent laboratories to study shock chemistry in the interstellar medium. Observations show that a number of molecular species suffer order-of-magnitude abundance enhancements in the outflow gas, likely due to a combination of dust-mantle disruption and high-temperature gas chemistry. The study of these enhanced species is of great interest to characterize shock chemistry. It also offers a highly selective tool to trace the interaction between the outflow and the cloud, which is necessary to elucidate the still mysterious nature of the outflow driving wind. This contribution reviews some of the recent progress in the study of the molecular composition of bipolar outflows with emphasis on the tracers most relevant for shock chemistry and on the new data from the Herschel Space Observatory.

  10. Modeling Neutral Hydrogen in the HSX Stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephey, L.; Bader, A.; Anderson, D. T.; Talmadge, J. N.; Hegna, C.; Anderson, F. S. B.

    2012-10-01

    Efforts to improve the understanding of neutral hydrogen in the HSX stellarator are ongoing. The DEGAS code [1], a fully 3D Monte-Carlo neutral particle code, is used to simulate neutral particle density and synthetic H-alpha emission in HSX. DEGAS simulations are compared to EMC3-EIRENE [2] simulations in an effort to understand the similarities and differences in how each code predicts neutral physics in the unique HSX geometry and relatively low operating density. Additionally, experimentally motivated DEGAS simulations are presented of a supersonic gas injection system that will be installed on HSX. Finally, simulations of many different wall recycling scenarios are presented in an effort to develop a plasma wall interaction model that more closely matches experimental H-alpha measurements.[4pt] [1] D. B. Heifetz et al, J. Comp. Phys. Vol. 46 (1982) p. 309.[0pt] [2] Y. Feng et al, Contribution Plasma Physics, 44 1-3 (2004) p. 57-69.

  11. STRESS - STEREO TRansiting Exoplanet and Stellar Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaralingam, Vinothini; Stevens, Ian R.; Spreckley, Steve; Debosscher, Jonas

    2010-02-01

    The Heliospheric Imager (HI) instruments on board the two STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) spacecraft provides an excellent opportunity for space based stellar photometry. The HI instruments provide a wide area coverage (20° × 20° for the two HI-1 instruments and 70° × 70° for the two HI-2 instruments) and long continuous periods of observations (20 days and 70 days respectively). Using HI-1A which has a pass band of 6500Å to 7500Å and a cadence of 40 minutes, we have gathered photometric information for more than a million stars brighter than 12th magnitude for a period of two years. Here we present some early results from this study on a range of variable stars and the future prospects for the data.

  12. Carbon impurity measurements in the HSX stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohoney, J. M.; Kumar, S. T. A.; Likin, K. M.; Anderson, D. T.

    2017-10-01

    Impurity behavior in stellarators is not fully understood despite important implications on device performance, in particular, an accumulation of core impurities can lead to degradation of plasma energy due to radiative losses. Experiments are being conducted at HSX to measure the radial profiles and the time history of carbon impurity density using the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic. Measurements of fully ionized carbon have been performed on various magnetic configurations, showing a peaked profile at the core in the standard configuration. An inversion technique was also developed to calculate localized C +5 profiles. Comparisons of impurity behavior between the standard and broken-symmetry configurations are presented. Work supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-93ER54222 and the Hilldale Research Fellowship.

  13. Habitable zone dependence on stellar parameter uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Stephen R., E-mail: skane@sfsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    An important property of exoplanetary systems is the extent of the Habitable Zone (HZ), defined as that region where water can exist in a liquid state on the surface of a planet with sufficient atmospheric pressure. Both ground- and space-based observations have revealed a plethora of confirmed exoplanets and exoplanetary candidates, most notably from the Kepler mission using the transit detection technique. Many of these detected planets lie within the predicted HZ of their host star. However, as is the case with the derived properties of the planets themselves, the HZ boundaries depend on how well we understand the host star. Here we quantify the uncertainties of HZ boundaries on the parameter uncertainties of the host star. We examine the distribution of stellar parameter uncertainties from confirmed exoplanet hosts and Kepler candidate hosts and translate these into HZ boundary uncertainties. We apply this to several known systems with an HZ planet to determine the uncertainty in their HZ status.

  14. Exoplanet Transits of Stellar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampapa, Mark S.; Andretta, Vincenzo; Covino, Elvira; Reiners, Ansgar; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2018-01-01

    We report preliminary results of a program to obtain high spectral- and temporal-resolution observations of the neutral helium triplet line at 1083.0 nm in transiting exoplanet systems. The principal objective of our program is to gain insight on the properties of active regions, analogous to solar plages, on late-type dwarfs by essentially using exoplanet transits as high spatial resolution probes of the stellar surface within the transit chord. The 1083 nm helium line is a particularly appropriate diagnostic of magnetized areas since it is weak in the quiet photosphere of solar-type stars but appears strongly in absorption in active regions. Therefore, during an exoplanet transit over the stellar surface, variations in its absorption equivalent width can arise that are functions of the intrinsic strength of the feature in the active region and the known relative size of the exoplanet. We utilized the Galileo Telescope and the GIANO-B near-IR echelle spectrograph to obtain 1083 nm spectra during transits in bright, well-known systems that include HD 189733, HD 209458, and HD 147506 (HAT-P-2). We also obtained simultaneous auxiliary data on the same telescope with the HARPS-N UV-Visible echelle spectrograph. We will present preliminary results from our analysis of the observed variability of the strength of the He I 1083 nm line during transits.Acknowledgements: Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. The NSO is operated by AURA under a cooperative agreement with the NSF.

  15. Rapid mass segregation in small stellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Mario; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we focus our attention on small-to-intermediate N-body systems that are, initially, distributed uniformly in space and dynamically `cool' (virial ratios Q=2T/|Ω| below ˜0.3). In this work, we study the mass segregation that emerges after the initial violent dynamical evolution. At this scope, we ran a set of high precision N-body simulations of isolated clusters by means of HiGPUs, our direct summation N-body code. After the collapse, the system shows a clear mass segregation. This (quick) mass segregation occurs in two phases: the first shows up in clumps originated by sub-fragmentation before the deep overall collapse; this segregation is partly erased during the deep collapse to re-emerge, abruptly, during the second phase, that follows the first bounce of the system. In this second stage, the proper clock to measure the rate of segregation is the dynamical time after virialization, which (for cold and cool systems) may be significantly different from the crossing time evaluated from initial conditions. This result is obtained for isolated clusters composed of stars of two different masses (in the ratio mh/ml=2), at varying their number ratio, and is confirmed also in presence of a massive central object (simulating a black hole of stellar size). Actually, in stellar systems starting their dynamical evolution from cool conditions, the fast mass segregation adds to the following, slow, secular segregation which is collisionally induced. The violent mass segregation is an effect persistent over the whole range of N (128 ≤ N ≤1,024) investigated, and is an interesting feature on the astronomical-observational side, too. The semi-steady state reached after virialization corresponds to a mass segregated distribution function rather than that of equipartition of kinetic energy per unit mass as it should result from violent relaxation.

  16. Reconstructing the Accretion History of the Galactic Stellar Halo from Chemical Abundance Ratio Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duane M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Sen, Bodhisattva; Jessop, Will

    2015-03-01

    Observational studies of halo stars during the past two decades have placed some limits on the quantity and nature of accreted dwarf galaxy contributions to the Milky Way (MW) stellar halo by typically utilizing stellar phase-space information to identify the most recent halo accretion events. In this study we tested the prospects of using 2D chemical abundance ratio distributions (CARDs) found in stars of the stellar halo to determine its formation history. First, we used simulated data from 11 “MW-like” halos to generate satellite template sets (STSs) of 2D CARDs of accreted dwarf satellites, which are composed of accreted dwarfs from various mass regimes and epochs of accretion. Next, we randomly drew samples of ˜103-4 mock observations of stellar chemical abundance ratios ([α/Fe], [Fe/H]) from those 11 halos to generate samples of the underlying densities for our CARDs to be compared to our templates in our analysis. Finally, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm to derive accretion histories in relation to the STS used and the sample size. For certain STSs used we typically can identify the relative mass contributions of all accreted satellites to within a factor of two. We also find that this method is particularly sensitive to older accretion events involving low-luminosity dwarfs, e.g., ultra-faint dwarfs—precisely those events that are too ancient to be seen by phase-space studies of stars and too faint to be seen by high-z studies of the early universe. Since our results only exploit two chemical dimensions and near-future surveys promise to provide ˜6-9 dimensions, we conclude that these new high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stellar halo will allow us to recover its accretion history—and the luminosity function of infalling dwarf galaxies—across cosmic time.

  17. Equation of state SAHA-S meets stellar evolution code CESAM2k

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturin, V. A.; Däppen, W.; Morel, P.; Oreshina, A. V.; Thévenin, F.; Gryaznov, V. K.; Iosilevskiy, I. L.; Starostin, A. N.; Fortov, V. E.

    2017-10-01

    Context. We present an example of an interpolation code of the SAHA-S equation of state that has been adapted for use in the stellar evolution code CESAM2k. Aims: The aim is to provide the necessary data and numerical procedures for its implementation in a stellar code. A technical problem is the discrepancy between the sets of thermodynamic quantities provided by the SAHA-S equation of state and those necessary in the CESAM2k computations. Moreover, the independent variables in a practical equation of state (like SAHA-S) are temperature and density, whereas for modelling calculations the variables temperature and pressure are preferable. Specifically for the CESAM2k code, some additional quantities and their derivatives must be provided. Methods: To provide the bridge between the equation of state and stellar modelling, we prepare auxiliary tables of the quantities that are demanded in CESAM2k. Then we use cubic spline interpolation to provide both smoothness and a good approximation of the necessary derivatives. Using the B-form of spline representation provides us with an efficient algorithm for three-dimensional interpolation. Results: The table of B-spline coefficients provided can be directly used during stellar model calculations together with the module of cubic spline interpolation. This implementation of the SAHA-S equation of state in the CESAM2k stellar structure and evolution code has been tested on a solar model evolved to the present. A comparison with other equations of state is briefly discussed. Conclusions: The choice of a regular net of mesh points for specific primary quantities in the SAHA-S equation of state, together with accurate and consistently smooth tabulated values, provides an effective algorithm of interpolation in modelling calculations. The proposed module of interpolation procedures can be easily adopted in other evolution codes.

  18. RECONSTRUCTING THE ACCRETION HISTORY OF THE GALACTIC STELLAR HALO FROM CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE RATIO DISTRIBUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duane M. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Johnston, Kathryn V. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York City, NY 10027 (United States); Sen, Bodhisattva; Jessop, Will, E-mail: duane@shao.ac.cn [Department of Statistics, Columbia University, New York City, NY 10027 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Observational studies of halo stars during the past two decades have placed some limits on the quantity and nature of accreted dwarf galaxy contributions to the Milky Way (MW) stellar halo by typically utilizing stellar phase-space information to identify the most recent halo accretion events. In this study we tested the prospects of using 2D chemical abundance ratio distributions (CARDs) found in stars of the stellar halo to determine its formation history. First, we used simulated data from 11 “MW-like” halos to generate satellite template sets (STSs) of 2D CARDs of accreted dwarf satellites, which are composed of accreted dwarfs from various mass regimes and epochs of accretion. Next, we randomly drew samples of ∼10{sup 3–4} mock observations of stellar chemical abundance ratios ([α/Fe], [Fe/H]) from those 11 halos to generate samples of the underlying densities for our CARDs to be compared to our templates in our analysis. Finally, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm to derive accretion histories in relation to the STS used and the sample size. For certain STSs used we typically can identify the relative mass contributions of all accreted satellites to within a factor of two. We also find that this method is particularly sensitive to older accretion events involving low-luminosity dwarfs, e.g., ultra-faint dwarfs—precisely those events that are too ancient to be seen by phase-space studies of stars and too faint to be seen by high-z studies of the early universe. Since our results only exploit two chemical dimensions and near-future surveys promise to provide ∼6–9 dimensions, we conclude that these new high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stellar halo will allow us to recover its accretion history—and the luminosity function of infalling dwarf galaxies—across cosmic time.

  19. The Relationship between Stellar Mass and Star Formation Rate in Ultra Low-Mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kaitlyn; Ly, Chun

    2018-01-01

    Several extragalactic studies have demonstrated that there is a moderately tight (~0.3 dex) relationship between galaxy stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) that holds for star-forming galaxies at M* ~ 3x108-1011 M⊙. This relationship has often been referred to as the “star formation main sequence.” However, it has yet to be determined whether such a relationship extends to even lower mass galaxies. Here, we present new results on the stellar mass—SFR relation using observations for 1,088 Hα-emitting galaxies from the Subaru Deep Field. These galaxies were selected using optical narrowband imaging that detects redshifted Hα at z ≈ 0.05-0.5. With sensitive measurements, our study is able to identify galaxies with stellar masses between 3x105 to 1010 M⊙ (average: 107.8 M⊙). We derive SFRs using the Hα luminosity, corrected for dust attenuation from spectroscopic Balmer decrement measurements, and we derive stellar masses from modeling the optical-to-infrared spectral energy distribution. Our preliminary results demonstrate that (1) the mass-SFR relation holds for galaxies down to ~107 M⊙ (~1.5 dex below previous studies), and (2) the dispersion in the mass-SFR relation increases toward lower stellar mass. Additionally, we also discuss comparisons between UV- and Hα-derived SFRs, which allow us to examine and test theoretical predictions on how bursty star formation is for low-mass galaxies at lookback times of up to 5 Gyr.

  20. Three-dimensional photogrammetric measurement of magnetic field lines in the WEGA stellarator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewelow, Peter; Bräuer, Torsten; Otte, Matthias; Wagner, Friedrich; Werner, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    The magnetic confinement of plasmas in fusion experiments can significantly degrade due to perturbations of the magnetic field. A precise analysis of the magnetic field in a stellarator-type experiment utilizes electrons as test particles following the magnetic field line. The usual fluorescent detector for this electron beam limits the provided information to two-dimensional cut views at certain toroidal positions. However, the technique described in this article allows measuring the three-dimensional structure of the magnetic field by means of close-range photogrammetry. After testing and optimizing the main diagnostic components, measurements of the magnetic field lines were accomplished with a spatial resolution of 5 mm. The results agree with numeric calculations, qualifying this technique as an additional tool to investigate magnetic field configurations in a stellarator. For a possible future application, ways are indicated on how to reduce experimental error sources.

  1. Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    the new optical study, an estimate of the explosion's energy came from studying an echo of the original light of the explosion. Just as sound bounces off walls of a canyon, so too can light waves create an echo by bouncing off dust clouds in space. The light from these echoes travels a longer path than the light that travels straight toward us, and so can be seen hundreds of years after the supernova itself. First seen by the Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, the light echoes were observed in greater detail by Gemini Observatory in Chile. The optical spectra of the light echo were used to confirm that the supernova was a Type Ia and to unambiguously determine the particular class of explosion and therefore its energy. The Chandra data, along with XMM data obtained in 2000, were then independently used to calculate the amount of energy involved in the original explosion, using an analysis of the supernova remnant and state-of-the-art explosion models. Their conclusion confirmed the results from the optical data, namely that the explosion was an especially energetic and bright variety of Type Ia supernova. This agreement provides strong evidence that the detailed explosion models are accurate. "Having these two methods agree lets us breathe a sigh of relief," said Carlos Badenes of Princeton University who led the Chandra and XMM study. "It looks like we're on the right track with trying to understand these big explosions. Their stellar debris really can retain a memory of what created them hundreds of years earlier." Both methods estimated a similar time since the explosion of about 400 years. An extra constraint on the age comes from the lack of recorded historical evidence for a recent supernova in the LMC. Because this star appears in the Southern Hemisphere, it likely would have been seen by navigators who noted similarly bright celestial events if it had occurred less than about 400 years ago. Because Type Ia supernovas have nearly uniform

  2. Modeling transverse heating and outflow of ionospheric ions from the dayside cusp/cleft. 1 A parametric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bouhram

    Full Text Available The transport patterns of non-thermal H + and O + field-aligned flows from the dayside cusp/cleft, associated with transverse heating by means of wave-particle interactions and in combination with the poleward motion due to the magnetospheric convection are investigated. This has been accomplished by developing a steady-state, two-dimensional, trajectory-based code. The ion heating is modelled by means of a Monte Carlo technique, via the process of ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, with the electromagnetic left-hand circular polarized component of a broad-band, extremely low-frequency (BBELF turbulence. The altitude dependence of ICR heating from 1000 km to 3 Earth radii (RE is modelled by a power law spectrum, with an index a, and a parameter w0 that is proportional to the spectral density at a referenced gyrofrequency. Because of the finite latitudinal extent of the cusp/cleft, the incorporation of the horizontal convection drift leads to a maximum residence time tD of the ions when being energized. A large set of simulations has been computed so as to study the transport patterns of the H + and O + bulk parameters as a function of tD , a, and w0. Residence time effects are significant in O + density patterns while negligible for H +. When comparing the results with analytical one-dimensional theories (Chang et al., 1986; Crew et al., 1990, we find that mean ion energies and pitch angles at the poleward edge of the heating region are slightly influenced by tD and may be used as a probe of ICR parameters ( a, w0. Conversely, poleward of the heating region, upward velocity and mean energy dispersive patterns depend mainly on tD (e.g. the magnitude of the convection drift with latitudinal profiles varying versus

  3. Stellar contributions to the diffuse soft X-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookbinder, J.; Avni, Y.; Golub, L.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G.

    1981-01-01

    One of the results of the EINSTEIN/C.f.A. X-ray stellar survey was a determination of the contribution of the disk stellar population to the galactic component of the diffuse soft (0.28 - 1.0 keV) X-ray background. This analysis employed both binned and unbinned nonparametric statistical methods that have been developed by Avni, et al. (1980). These methods permitted the use of the information contained in both the 22 detections and 4 upper bounds on the luminosities of 26 dM stars in order to derive their luminosity function. Luminosity functions for earlier stellar types are not yet developed. For these earlier stellar types, the median luminosities as determined by Vaiana, et al., are used (1981), which underestimates their contribution to the background. We find that it is the M dwarfs that dominate the disk population stellar contribution to this background. To calculate the contribution of the stellar sources to the background, simple models both for the spatial distribution of the stars and for the properties of the intervening interstellar medium are used. A model is chosen in which all stellar classes have the same functional form for their spatial distribution: an exponentially decreasing distribution above the galactic equatorial plane, and a uniform distribution within the galactic plane for a region of several kiloparsecs centered on the Sun.

  4. Radial velocity planet detection biases at the stellar rotational period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Plavchan, Peter; Johnson, John Asher; Ciardi, David R.; Swift, Jonathan; Kane, Stephen R.

    2016-07-01

    Future generations of precise radial velocity (RV) surveys aim to achieve sensitivity sufficient to detect Earth mass planets orbiting in their stars' habitable zones. A major obstacle to this goal is astrophysical RV noise caused by active areas moving across the stellar limb as a star rotates. In this paper, we quantify how stellar activity impacts exoplanet detection with radial velocities as a function of orbital and stellar rotational periods. We perform data-driven simulations of how stellar rotation affects planet detectability and compile and present relations for the typical time-scale and amplitude of stellar RV noise as a function of stellar mass. We show that the characteristic time-scales of quasi-periodic RV jitter from stellar rotational modulations coincides with the orbital period of habitable-zone exoplanets around early M-dwarfs. These coincident periods underscore the importance of monitoring the targets of RV habitable-zone planet surveys through simultaneous photometric measurements for determining rotation periods and activity signals, and mitigating activity signals using spectroscopic indicators and/or RV measurements at different wavelengths.

  5. The solar corona - A testing ground for plasma astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.

    1982-01-01

    The extension of solar surface activity models to the domain of stellar activity, and the possibility of testing such extensions, are discussed. The extrapolation of three canonical solar activity indicators, sunspots, Ca II emission, and solar flares, to other stars is considered. The use of satellites to study stellar activity at wavelengths at which surface activity is most prominent is briefly reviewed. The correlation of stellar activity with intrinsic stellar parameters, especially those relating to rotation, is briefly considered, and the use of phenomenological models of stellar coronal X-ray emission to deduce the magnetic flux production rate for observed stars as a function of rotation rate is discussed.

  6. Effect of temperature and humidity on post-gel shrinkage, cusp deformation, bond strength and shrinkage stress - Construction of a chamber to simulate the oral environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicalho, Aline Aredes; de Souza, Silas Júnior Boaventura; de Rosatto, Camila Maria Peres; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis; Soares, Carlos José

    2015-12-01

    Evaluate the effect of environment on post-gel shrinkage (Shr), cuspal strains (CS), microtensile bond strength (μTBS), elastic modulus (E) and shrinkage stress in molars with large class II restorations. Sixty human molars received standardized Class II mesio-oclusal-distal cavity preparations. Restorations were made with two composites (CHA, Charisma Diamond, Heraus Kulzer and IPS Empress Direct, Ivoclar-Vivadent) using three environment conditions (22°C/50% humidity, 37°C/50% humidity and 37°C/90% humidity) simulated in custom developed chamber. Shr was measured using the strain gauge technique (n=10). CS was measured using strain gauges. Half of the teeth (n=5) were used to assess the elastic modulus (E) and Knoop hardness (KHN) at different depths using microhardness indentation. The other half (n=5) was used to measure the μTBS. The composites and environment conditions were simulated in a two-dimensional finite element analysis of a tooth restoration. Polymerization shrinkage was modeled using Shr data. The Shr, CS, μTBS, KHN and E data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (significance level: 0.05). Both composites had similar Shr, CS, μTBS and shrinkage stress. CHA had higher elastic modulus than IPS. Increasing temperature and humidity significantly increased Shr, CS and shrinkage stress. μTBS were similar for groups with lower humidity, irrespective of temperature, and higher with higher humidity. E and KHN were constant through the depth for CHA. E and KHN values were affected by environment only for IPS, mainly deeper in the cavity. Shrinkage stress at dentin/composite interface had high inverse correlation with μTBS. Shrinkage stress in enamel had high correlation with CS. Increasing temperature and humidity caused higher post-gel shrinkage and cusp deformation with higher shrinkage stresses in the tooth structure and tooth/restoration interface for both composites tested. The chamber developed for simulating the

  7. Massive Black Hole Implicated in Stellar Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Magellan telescopes suggest that a dense stellar remnant has been ripped apart by a black hole a thousand times as massive as the Sun. If confirmed, this discovery would be a cosmic double play: it would be strong evidence for an intermediate mass black hole, which has been a hotly debated topic, and would mark the first time such a black hole has been caught tearing a star apart. This scenario is based on Chandra observations, which revealed an unusually luminous source of X-rays in a dense cluster of old stars, and optical observations that showed a peculiar mix of elements associated with the X-ray emission. Taken together, a case can be made that the X-ray emission is produced by debris from a disrupted white dwarf star that is heated as it falls towards a massive black hole. The optical emission comes from debris further out that is illuminated by these X-rays. The intensity of the X-ray emission places the source in the "ultraluminous X-ray source" or ULX category, meaning that it is more luminous than any known stellar X-ray source, but less luminous than the bright X-ray sources (active galactic nuclei) associated with supermassive black holes in the nuclei of galaxies. The nature of ULXs is a mystery, but one suggestion is that some ULXs are black holes with masses between about a hundred and several thousand times that of the Sun, a range intermediate between stellar-mass black holes and supermassive black holes located in the nuclei of galaxies. This ULX is in a globular cluster, a very old and crowded conglomeration of stars. Astronomers have suspected that globular clusters could contain intermediate-mass black holes, but conclusive evidence for this has been elusive. "Astronomers have made cases for stars being torn apart by supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies before, but this is the first good evidence for such an event in a globular cluster," said Jimmy Irwin of the University

  8. Retrospective Analysis of the Correlation Between the Facial Biotype and the Inclination of the Upper Canine Cusp Axis to the Occlusal Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, L; DE Angelis, F; Orefici, A; Cielo, A; Tatullo, M

    2016-01-01

    Permanent maxillary canines are the second most frequently impacted teeth and the prevalence of this clinical condition is estimated to be 1-2% in the general population. The diagnosis of maxillary canine impaction should be based on both clinical and radiographic examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of a correlation between the facial biotype and the inclination of the upper cusp axis. A correlation between the total radicular length of the lateral incisors was also evaluated, by comparing the side of impaction with the healthy side. Twenty three patients with a diagnosis of unilateral upper cusp impaction were recruited. For each patient, dental casts and radiographic material (panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms) were examined. Statistical analyses were done with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient or Spearman's rho (ρ). X-ray examinations demonstrated that canine impaction was associated to other dental anomalies (32% of the sample). The mean α angle measurements were 22.9° ± 4.1°, and mean values of the β angle were 34.7°± 4.0°. The mean distance "d" value was 14.6 mm ± 1.2 mm. The mean values of the angle between the upper cusp axis and the perpendicular-to-Fh plane were 20.8° ± 2.6°. Among the 23 subjects recruited, 5 showed values included in the range 25°-45° and 1 an inclination > 45°. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate a significant inverse correlation between the MM angle and the inclination of the upper cusp axis to the perpendicular-to-Fh plane.

  9. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, Bruno M. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santiago, Basílio X. [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Girardi, Léo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Osservatorio Astronomica di Padova-INAF, Padova (Italy); Camargo, Julio I. B. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Balbinot, Eduardo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); da Costa, Luiz N. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Maia, Marcio A. G. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Makler, Martin [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ogando, Ricardo L. C. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pellegrini, Paulo S. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ramos, Beatriz [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); de Simoni, Fernando [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Armstrong, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Bertin, E. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Desai, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Kuropatkin, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lin, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mohr, J. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Tucker, D. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  10. Dynamics of stellar filaments in f(G) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Fatima, H. Ismat

    2017-03-01

    We discuss the dynamics of stellar filaments with cylindrical symmetry in the context of f( G) gravity. For this purpose, we consider the modified gravity coupled with a dissipative anisotropic fluid and construct scalar functions through orthogonal splitting of the Riemann tensor. We formulate the set of equations governing the evolution and structure of stellar filaments in terms of these scalars. Finally, we discuss all static solutions for cylindrical filaments with anisotropy as well as isotropy and conclude that stellar filaments are necessarily inhomogeneous in this gravity.

  11. CCFpams: Atmospheric stellar parameters from cross-correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolta, Luca; Lovis, Christophe; Pepe, Francesco; Sneden, Christopher; Udry, Stephane

    2017-07-01

    CCFpams allows the measurement of stellar temperature, metallicity and gravity within a few seconds and in a completely automated fashion. Rather than performing comparisons with spectral libraries, the technique is based on the determination of several cross-correlation functions (CCFs) obtained by including spectral features with different sensitivity to the photospheric parameters. Literature stellar parameters of high signal-to-noise (SNR) and high-resolution HARPS spectra of FGK Main Sequence stars are used to calibrate the stellar parameters as a function of CCF areas.

  12. Effects of temperature anisotropy on electrostatic ion-cyclotron (EIC) wave in multi-component plasma around polar cusp region-particle aspect approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikwar, B. D.; Varma, P.; Tiwari, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    Particle aspect analysis is used to describe electrostatic ion-cyclotron (EIC) wave with multi-ion plasma (H+, He+ and O+) around polar cusp region. Variations of resonant energy and growth rate with general loss-cone distribution function and temperature anisotropy with perpendicular wave number are studied. The whole plasma is considered to consist of resonant and non-resonant particles. The resonant particles participate in energy exchange with wave, while non-resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave. The wave is assumed to propagate obliquely to the static magnetic field. It is found that the temperature anisotropy enhances the transverse, parallel resonant energies of particles and growth rate of the wave. Distribution indices also enhance the growth rate and parallel resonant energy and reduce the perpendicular resonant energy. The study may explain the EIC waves observed in polar cusp region. The results are interpreted for the space plasma parameters appropriate to the polar cusp region in the earth's magnetosphere.

  13. Generalized rainbows and unfolded glories of oblate drops: organization for multiple internal reflections and extension of cusps into Alexander's dark band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, P L; Kaduchak, G

    1994-07-20

    Oblate drops of water can produce caustics where, unlike a simple Airy caustic, more than two rays merge. We extend previous treatments of generalized primary rainbows based on catastrophe optics [Opt. Lett. 10, 588 (1985); Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 438, 397 (1992)] to rays having (p - 1) = 2 to 5 internal reflections. The analysis is for a horizontally illuminated ellipsoid with a vertical symmetry axis. Aspect ratios causing a vanishing of the vertical curvature at the equator for the outgoing wave front are found from generalized ray tracing. In response to infinitesimal deformation, the axial caustic of real glory rays unfolds producing cusps. Laboratory observations with laser illumination demonstrate that cusps resulting from rays with five internal reflections extend into Alexander's dark band when the drop's aspect ratio is near 1.08. The evolution of this p = 6 scattering pattern as cusps meet the quinary rainbow is suggestive of an E(6) catastrophe. For ellipsoids of varying aspect ratio and refractive index N, there is an organizing singularity associated with an exceptionally flat outgoing wave front from spheres with N = p.

  14. The CuSPED Mission: CubeSat for GNSS Sounding of the Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electron Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jason N.; Keesee, Amy M.; Christian, John A.; Gu, Yu; Scime, Earl; Komjathy, Attila; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Pollock, Craig J.

    2016-01-01

    The CubeSat for GNSS Sounding of Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electron Density (CuSPED) is a 3U CubeSat mission concept that has been developed in response to the NASA Heliophysics program's decadal science goal of the determining of the dynamics and coupling of the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs. The mission was formulated through a collaboration between West Virginia University, Georgia Tech, NASA GSFC and NASA JPL, and features a 3U CubeSat that hosts both a miniaturized space capable Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver for topside atmospheric sounding, along with a Thermal Electron Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TECHS) for the purpose of in situ electron precipitation measurements. These two complimentary measurement techniques will provide data for the purpose of constraining ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling models and will also enable studies of the local plasma environment and spacecraft charging; a phenomenon which is known to lead to significant errors in the measurement of low-energy, charged species from instruments aboard spacecraft traversing the ionosphere. This paper will provide an overview of the concept including its science motivation and implementation.

  15. On the possible role of cusp/cleft precipitation in the formation of polar-cap patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Walker

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The work describes experimental observations of enhancements in the electron density of the ionospheric F-region created by cusp/cleft particle precipitation at the dayside entry to the polar-cap convection flow. Measurements by meridian scanning photometer and all-sky camera of optical red-line emissions from aurora are used to identify latitudinally narrow bands of soft-particle precipitation responsible for structured enhancements in electron density determined from images obtained by radio tomography. Two examples are discussed in which the electron density features with size scales and magnitudes commensurate with those of patches are shown to be formed by precipitation at the entry region to the anti-sunward flow. In one case the spectrum of the incoming particles results in ionisation being created, for the most part below 250 km, so that the patch will persist only for minutes after convecting away from the auroral source region. However in a second example, at a time when the plasma density of the solar wind was particularly high, a substantial part of the particle-induced enhancement formed above 250 km. It is suggested that, with the reduced recombination loss in the upper F-region, this structure will retain form as a patch during passage in the anti-sunward flow across the polar cap.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; particle precipitation; polar ionosphere

  16. Successful implantation of a second-generation aortic valve in severe aortic regurgitation secondary to a traumatic cusp lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangieri, Antonio [Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular Department, San Raffaele Institute, Milan (Italy); Latib, Azeem, E-mail: info@emocolumbus.it [Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular Department, San Raffaele Institute, Milan (Italy); EMO-GVM Centro Cuore Columbus, Milan (Italy); Aurelio, Andrea [Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular Department, San Raffaele Institute, Milan (Italy); Figini, Filippo [Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular Department, San Raffaele Institute, Milan (Italy); EMO-GVM Centro Cuore Columbus, Milan (Italy); Agricola, Eustachio; Rosa, Isabella; Stella, Stefano; Spagnolo, Pietro; Castiglioni, Alessandro [Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular Department, San Raffaele Institute, Milan (Italy); Colombo, Antonio [Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular Department, San Raffaele Institute, Milan (Italy); EMO-GVM Centro Cuore Columbus, Milan (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    A 67-year-old man with a dilated cardiomyopathy and severe aortic regurgitation (AR) secondary to a traumatic cusp lesion was referred to our institution because of progressive worsening of dyspnea. After formal discussion in the heart team, the patient was scheduled for TAVI (transcatheter aortic valve implantation). The pre procedural computed tomography scan revealed a minimum amount of calcium on the aortic valve and low position of coronary ostia. The TAVI procedure was performed with the implantation of a fully retrievable and repositionable aortic valve prosthesis (Direct Flow 29 mm, Direct Flow Medical, Santa Rosa, California) with an excellent result and no paravalvular leak. The TAVI devices designed for the treatment of calcific aortic stenosis have numerous limitations for the treatment of pure AR such as the risk of residual AR, the lack of repositionability and retrievability, and the need for valve- in-valve implantation. We believe that treatment of selected cases of pure AR with the Direct Flow valve is feasible and takes advantage of the retrievability of the prosthesis.

  17. Trans-sonic cusped shaped, periodic waves and solitary waves of the electrostatic ion-cyclotron type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available By adopting an essentially fluid dynamic viewpoint we derive the wave structure equation for stationary, fully nonlinear, electrostatic, ion-cyclotron waves. The existence of two fundamental constants of the motion, namely, conservation of momentum flux parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and energy flux parallel to the direction of wave propagation, enables the wave structure equation to be reduced to a first order differential equation, which has solutions that are physically transparent. The analysis shows that sufficiently oblique waves, propagating at sub-ion acoustic speeds, form soliton pulse-like solutions whose amplitudes are greatest for perpendicular propagation. Waves that propagate supersonically have periodic cnoidal waveforms, which are asymmetric about the compressive and rarefactive phases of the wave. It is also shown that there exist critical driver fields for which the end point of the compressive phase goes sonic (in the wave frame, with the consequence that the wave form develops a cusp. It is possible that this trans-sonic, choked flow feature provides a mechanism for the 'spiky' waveforms observed in auroral electric field measurements.

  18. Sharpening m{sub T2} cusps. The mass determination of semi-invisibly decaying particles from a resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harland-Lang, Lucian A. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Kom, Chun-Hay [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Sakurai, Kazuki [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group; Tonini, Marco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    We revisit mass determination techniques for the minimum symmetric event topology, namely X pair production followed by X{yields}lN, where X and N are unknown particles with the masses to be measured, and N is an invisible particle. We consider separate scenarios, with different initial constraints on the invisible particle momenta, and present a systematic method to identify the kinematically allowed mass regions in the (m{sub N},m{sub X}) plane. These allowed regions exhibit a cusp structure at the true mass point, which is equivalent to the one observed in the m{sub T2} endpoints in certain cases. By considering the boundary of the allowed mass region we systematically define kinematical variables which can be used in measuring the unknown masses, and find a new expression for the m{sub T2} variable as well as its inverse. We explicitly apply our method to the case that X is pair produced from a resonance, and as a case study, we consider the process pp {yields} A {yields} {chi}{sup +}{sub 1}{chi}{sup -}{sub 1}, followed by {chi}{sup {+-}}{sub 1} {yields} l{nu}, in the minimal supersymmetric standard model and show that our method provides a precise measurement of the chargino and sneutrino masses, m{sub X} and m{sub N}, at 14 TeV LHC with 300 fb{sup -1} luminosity.

  19. Hunting for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Heidi; Vida, Krisztián; Leitzinger, Martin; Odert, Petra; Kovács, Orsolya Eszter

    2017-10-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are explosive events that occur basically daily on the Sun. It is thought that these events play a crucial role in the angular momentum and mass loss of late-type stars, and also shape the environment in which planets form and live. Stellar CMEs can be detected in optical spectra in the Balmer lines, especially in Hα, as blue-shifted extra emission/absorption. To increase the detection probability one can monitor young open clusters, in which the stars are due to their youth still rapid rotators, and thus magnetically active and likely to exhibit a large number of CMEs. Using ESO facilities and the Nordic Optical Telescope we have obtained time series of multi-object spectroscopic observations of late-type stars in six open clusters with ages ranging from 15 Myrs to 300 Myrs. Additionally, we have studied archival data of numerous active stars. These observations will allow us to obtain information on the occurrence rate of CMEs in late-type stars with different ages and spectral types. Here we report on the preliminary outcome of our studies.

  20. Exploration of turbulent optimization in stellarators & tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynick, H.; Pomphrey, N.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Lucia, M.

    2012-03-01

    A methodfootnotetextH.E. Mynick, N. Pomphrey, P. Xanthopoulos, Phys. Rev. Letters, 105, 095004 (2010).^,footnotetextH.E. Mynick, N. Pomphrey, P. Xanthopoulos, Phys. Plasmas, 18, 056101 (2011). recently developed for evolving toroidal configurations to ones with reduced turbulent transport, using the STELLOPT optimization codes and the GENE gyrokinetic code, is being applied and extended. The growing body of results has found that the effectiveness of the current proxy measure Qprox used by STELLOPT to estimate transport levels depends on the class of toroidal device considered. The present proxy works well for quasi-axisymmetric stellarators and tokamaks, modestly for quasi-helically symmetric designs, but not for the W7X quasi-omnigenous/quasi-isodynamic design. We are exploring the origin of this variation, and improving the dependence of the proxy on key geometric factors, extending the proxy to apply to transport channels other than the ITG turbulence it was originally developed for, and are also examining the relative effectiveness of different search algorithms. To help in these efforts, we have adapted STELLOPT to provide a new capability for mapping the topography of the cost function in the search space.