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Sample records for testing sentinel node

  1. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for metastatic sentinel nodes: test of a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, A H; Nielsen, B S; Madsen, J

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To develop a method and obtain proof-of-principle for immunolymphoscintigraphy for identification of metastatic sentinel nodes. Methods. We selected one of four tumour-specific antibodies against human breast cancer and investigated (1), in immune-deficient (nude) mice with xenograft human...... in healthy rabbits. Results and Conclusion. Our paper suggests the theoretical possibility of a model of dual isotope immuno-lymphoscintigraphy for noninvasive, preoperative, malignant sentinel node imaging....

  2. Factors predicting non-sentinel lymph node involvement in sentinel node positive breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Merih Güray; Akansu, Bülent; Akin, Mehmet Mustafa; Sevınç, Ali Ibrahim; Koçdor, Mehmet Ali; Saydam, Serdar; Harmancioğlu, Omer; Ellıdokuz, Hülya; Bekış, Recep; Canda, Tülay

    2011-01-01

    In routine practice, axillary lymph node dissection is performed in early invasive breast cancer patients with positive sentinel node biopsy. However, sentinel node is the only involved axillary node in 40-70% of patients, and determining factors that predict axillary non-sentinel node involvement will therefore prevent unnecessary axillary lymph node dissection and decrease morbidity. In this study, 119 invasive breast cancer patients with sentinel node metastasis who underwent axillary lymph node dissection between 1998-2009 at our institution were studied. Primary tumor characteristics and features of the metastatic tumors in sentinel nodes, such as microanatomic location, size of metastasis, and the ratio of metastatic tumor area to the total sentinel node area were evaluated. Student's t-test and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. The mean age of the patients was 50.7 years (28-80). Forty-three patients (36%) had invasive ductal and 25 patients (21%) had invasive lobular carcinoma. Most of the patients had either pT1 (44%) or pT2 (54%) tumors. Fifty-four patients (45%) had no further positive nodes in the axilla. The metastatic deposits in the sentinel node were subcapsular in 16 patients (13%). The percent area of sentinel node occupied by tumor (p < 0.001), number of sentinel nodes (p=0.041), and microanatomic location of metastatic tumor (p=0.002) were significantly associated with non-sentinel node metastasis in univariate analysis. The percent area of sentinel node occupied by tumor (p < 0.001) and number of sentinel nodes (p=0.033) remained significantly associated with non-sentinel node involvement in multivariate analysis. In patients with invasive breast cancer and positive sentinel node, area percent of sentinel node occupied by tumor, and the number of sentinel nodes removed are independently predictive of non-sentinel node involvement.

  3. Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Richard; Christensen, Anders; Java, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    -ready" intraoperative diagnostic test (one step nucleic acid amplification-OSNA, sysmex). METHODS: Two cohorts were assembled: cohort 1, OSCC with stage and site that closely match cases suitable for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB); cohort 2, HNSCC with sufficient fresh tumour tissue available for the OSNA assay (>50......BACKGROUND: Intraoperative analysis of sentinel lymph nodes would enhance the care of early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We determined the frequency and extent of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) expression in OSCC primary tumours and surrounding tissues to explore the feasibility of a "clinic...

  4. Testing the feasibility of intra-operative sentinel lymph node touch imprint cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Narayanan, Sankaran; MacNeill, Fiona; Osin, Peter; Nerurkar, Ashutash; Gui, Gerald

    2009-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is emerging as the new standard for axillary staging in breast cancer. Intra-operative assessment of the sentinel lymph nodes allows immediate completion of axillary dissection during the same anaesthetic. This project was a quality assurance practice to establish feasibility, time-to-report, as well as accuracy of performing intra-operative assessment of sentinel lymph nodes using touch imprint cytology in our centre. This prospective audit included 146 sentinel lymph nodes from 74 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer. All patients underwent axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy using combined blue dye and radiocolloid technique. Results of intra-operative touch imprint cytology using haematoxylin and eosin staining were compared with the definitive histopathology results. Mean time to report touch imprint cytology was 25.7 +/- 6.4 min (range, 15-40 min). Histopathology demonstrated metastasis in 25 sentinel nodes from 17 (23%) patients. Intra-operative touch imprint cytology detected 15 nodes in 11 patients, giving a sensitivity of 60% (nodes) and 66.7% (patients) and specificity of 99.2% (nodes) and 98.2% (patients) based on the number of nodes and patients involved, respectively. Touch imprint cytology failed to show metastatic involvement in 10 nodes from 6 patients; of these, five nodes had micrometastasis (< 2 mm) and the other five had macrometastasis. One touch imprint cytology positive node contained isolated tumour cells only. Using intra-operative touch imprint cytology made a change in treatment of 11(14.9%) patients, and spared second axillary procedure in 7 (9.4%) patients. Intra-operative sentinel lymph node assessment using touch imprint cytology is feasible within a busy NHS practice. We now offer touch imprint cytology to patients following appropriate counselling.

  5. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for Metastatic Sentinel Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, A.H.; Nielsen, B.S.; Madsen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To develop a method and obtain proof-of-principle for immunolymphoscintigraphy for identification of metastatic sentinel nodes. Methods. We selected one of four tumour-specific antibodies against human breast cancer and investigated (1), in immune- deficient (nude) mice with xenograft human...... in healthy rabbits. Results and Conclusion. Our paper suggests the theoretical possibility of a model of dual isotope immuno-lymphoscintigraphy for noninvasive, preoperative, malignant sentinel node imaging....

  6. Sentinel European Node Trial (SENT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, C.; Stoeckli, S. J.; Haerle, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Optimum management of the N0 neck is unresolved in oral cancer. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) can reliably detect microscopic lymph node metastasis. The object of this study was to establish whether the technique was both reliable in staging the N0 neck and a safe oncological procedure...... in patients with early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: An European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-approved prospective, observational study commenced in 2005. Fourteen European centres recruited 415 patients with radiologically staged T1-T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma. SNB...... was undertaken with an average of 3.2 nodes removed per patient. Patients were excluded if the sentinel node (SN) could not be identified. A positive SN led to a neck dissection within 3 weeks. Analysis was performed at 3-year follow-up. Results: An SN was found in 99.5% of cases. Positive SNs were found in 23...

  7. Sentinel node detection in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, R. H.; Pijpers, R.; van Diest, P. J.; Burger, C. W.; Buist, M. R.; Kenemans, P.

    2000-01-01

    For superficial tumors such as melanoma, breast, and vulvar cancer, sentinel node detection prevents unnecessary extensive lymph node dissections. Sentinel node detection has not yet proved feasible in tumors, such as cervical cancer, that drain to deep pelvic lymph nodes. We injected technetium-99m

  8. Radiation protection for the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kanter, AY; Arends, PPAM; Eggermont, AMM; Wiggers, T

    Aims: The purpose of our study was to determine the radiation dose for those who are involved in the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer patients and testing of a theoretical model. Methods: We studied 12 consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing breast surgery, and a sentinel node

  9. The hidden sentinel node in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, P. J.; van Sandick, J. W.; Nieweg, O. E.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Rutgers, E. J. T.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Kroon, B. B. R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of non-visualisation during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in breast cancer. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 495 clinically node-negative breast cancer patients (501 sentinel node procedures)

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    AND METHODS: Forty patients (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90) with 24 T1 and 16 T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Planar lymphoscintigraphy, emission and transmission tomography were performed. Detection and excision of the sentinel nodes were guided by a gamma probe. The sentinel nodes were step...

  11. Axillary recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, B; Doting, MHE; Jager, PL; Wesseling, J; de Vries, J

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) without further axillary dissection in patients with sentinel node-negative breast carcinoma appears to be a safe procedure to ensure locoregional control. During a median follow-up of 35 months the false-negative rate was 1% in our study population of 185 patients.

  12. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    lymph node metastases.1 Regional nodal status can be accu- rately predicted by identification and examination of the sen- tinel lymph node (SLN). If the SLN shows no evidence of tumour it is over 90% certain that the remaining regional lymph nodes are negative.2. The use of sentinel lymph node direction (SLND) in early.

  13. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinWu Cui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient’s prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  14. Non-sentinel lymph node metastases associated with isolated breast cancer cells in the sentinel node.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurzen, C.H. van; Boer, M. de; Monninkhof, E.M.; Bult, P.; Wall, E. van der; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.; Diest, P.J. van

    2008-01-01

    There are many reports on the frequency of non-sentinel lymph node involvement when isolated tumor cells are found in the sentinel node, but results and recommendations for the use of an axillary lymph node dissection differ among studies. This systematic review was conducted to give an overview of

  15. SENTINEL LYMPH NODES IN ENDOMETRIAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Berishvili; O. V. Li; T. M. Kochoyan; N. V. Levkina; R. A. Kerimov; S. B. Polikarpova

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) typically is treated surgically. Because of the adjuvant treatment implications, complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy is recommended for high-risk ECs. Sentinel lymph node mapping has the potential to provide information about lymph node metastasis while avoiding potential complications of extended lymph node dissection.

  16. Sentinel lymph node identification with magnetic nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouw, Joost Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Most solid malignancies have a tendency to spread through the lymphatic system to locoregional lymph nodes. Presence of metastasis is an important prognostic factor, and is used to determine the optimal treatment of the patient. The sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) receive direct lymphatic drainage from

  17. Assessment of a new scoring system for predicting non-sentinel node positivity in sentinel node-positive melanoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, K. P.; Murali, R.; Bastiaannet, E.; Scolyer, R. A.; Suurmeijer, A. J.; Thompson, J. F.; Hoekstra, H. J.

    Background: When completion lymph node dissection (CLND) is performed in sentinel node (SN)-positive melanoma patients, a positive non-sentinel node (NSN) is found in approximately 20% of them. Recently, Murali et al. proposed a new scoring system (non-sentinel node risk score, N-SNORE) to predict

  18. Penile lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Tanis, P. J.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Jansen, L.; Nieweg, O. E.; Meinhardt, W.; Horenblas, S.

    2001-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node (SN) identification has been extensively validated in breast cancer and melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the findings of lymphoscintigraphy for SN identification in carcinoma of the penis. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 74 consecutive patients

  19. Sentinel node biopsy during thoracolaparoscopic esophagectomy for advanced esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Judith; Hobbelink, Monique G G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304816469; Schipper, Marguerite E I; Vleggaar, Frank P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/204506174; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10221350X; de Haas, Robbert J; Ruurda, Jelle P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/257561021; van Hillegersberg, Richard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110706242

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Omitting extensive lymph node dissection could reduce esophagectomy morbidity in patients without lymph node metastases. Sentinel node biopsy may identify abdominal or thoracic lymph node metastases, thereby differentiating treatment. Feasibility of this approach was investigated in

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribero, Simone; Sportoletti Baduel, Eugenio; Osella-Abate, Simona; Dika, Emi; Quaglino, Pietro; Picciotto, Franco; Macripò, Giuseppe; Bataille, Veronique

    2017-08-01

    The management of melanoma is constantly evolving. New therapies and surgical advances have changed the landscape over the last years. Since being introduced by Dr Donald Morton, the role of sentinel lymph node has been debated. In many melanoma centers, sentinel node biopsy is not a standard of care for melanoma above 1 mm in thickness. The results of the MSLT-II Trial are not available for a while and in the meantime, this procedure is offered as a prognostic indicator as it has been shown to be very useful for assessing risk of relapse. The biology of lymph node spread in melanoma is a complex field and there are many factors which influence it such as age, melanoma body site, thickness but other factors such as regression, ulceration and gender need further evaluation. In this review, we address the clinical value of sentinel lymph node biopsy and how its indication has changed over the years especially recently with the setup of many adjuvant trials which are offered to stage 3 melanomas.

  1. Sentinel node biopsy and large (≥3 cm) breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beumer, Jesse D; Gill, Grantley; Campbell, Ian; Wetzig, Neil; Ung, Owen; Farshid, Gelareh; Uren, Roger; Stockler, Martin; Gebski, Val

    2014-03-01

    Sentinel node biopsy is an accurate method for staging the axilla in early (small) breast cancers. However, data for the role of this technique for large breast cancers remain limited. From the Royal Adelaide Hospital Sentinel Node database and the SNAC trial database, 100 subjects were identified with clinically node negative, large (≥3 cm) primary breast cancer who had undergone sentinel node biopsy and immediate axillary clearance. The pathology results from the sentinel node and axillary specimens were analysed. Average tumour size was 3.91 cm (range 3-10 cm) and 65 of 100 cases had metastatic disease in the axillary nodes. A sentinel node was successfully identified in 93 out of 100 cases with an average of 1.75 sentinel nodes sampled. Sixty-two per cent (58 out of 93) were sentinel node positive and 43% (43 out of 100) had a positive non-sentinel node. The false negative rate following successful sentinel node identification was 4.9% (3 out of 61). Sentinel node biopsy was an accurate tool for staging the axilla with a false negative rate comparable to that seen in small tumours. However, given the increased incidence of metastases with larger cancers, further prospective investigation is warranted. © 2013 University of Adelaide. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in prostate cancer; Die Waechterlymphknoten-(Sentinel-Lymph-Node-) Diagnostik beim Prostatakarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holl, Gabriele [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum Augsburg (Germany); Weckermann, D.; Dorn, R.; Sciuk, J. [Urologische Klinik, Klinikum Augsburg (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Since the latest revision of the guidelines on prostate cancer of the European Society of Urology sentinel lymph node biopsy is an acknowledged means of lymph node staging. We present our data on results in respect of sensitivity and false negative rate as well as on PSA free survival after SLNB. (orig.)

  3. Sentinel Node Ratio as a Predictor of Non-sentinel Lymph Node Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Parsaei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB has replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND in early breast cancer patients as the first line surgical approach to axillary nodes. Further dissection is performed only when SLN is involved by tumor cells. However, in a significant proportion of patients, non-sentinel nodes are still not involved and axillary dissection has no additional therapeutic benefits. Selective axillary clearance has been considered to prevent unnecessary dissection. The purpose of this study was to define predictors of non-sentinel lymph node involvement in patients with positive SLNB.Methods: Patients with early stage breast cancer and positive SLNB who underwent ALNDin a referral hospital in Tehran, Iran between2010 and 2012 were recruited into the study. Relations between different clinico-pathological characteristics and involvement of non-sentinel nodes were investigated.Results: From 139 patients who had positive SLNB and underwent ALND, only in 71 cases (51% positive non-sentinel lymph nodes (NSLNs were detected. In univariate analysis, there was no association between tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, ER, PR and HER-2 expression and NSLN metastasis. In contrast, presence of more than one SLN (P = 0.016 and a sentinel node ratio (SNR more than 0.5 showed a significant association (P< 0.001. Only the latter remained as the significant predictor of NSLN involvement in mutltivariate analysis (P < 0.001, OR = 3.706.Conclusions: Based on our results, patients with a SNR more than 0.5 were more commonly diagnosed with NSLN metastasis. Thus, it is recommended that surgeons think twice before skipping ALND in this subgroup of patients.

  4. [Sentinel node biopsy in melanoma: some critical questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieweg, O E; Eggermont, A M M; Kroon, B B R

    2002-09-21

    Elective lymph node dissection is selectively performed in patients with clinically localised melanoma. Randomised studies suggest that survival is improved only in a few subgroups of patients, whereas all patients are exposed to the substantial risk of operative morbidity. Sentinel node biopsy enables the early detection of lymph node metastases from melanoma with less morbidity. The technique has been standardised. The sentinel node can be identified in almost 100% of the patients. The tumour status of the node is the most important prognostic factor in patients with clinically localised melanoma. This information is essential for studies of adjuvant systemic treatment. Regrettably, there is confusion about the definition of a sentinel node. In addition, the sensitivity of the sentinel node approach is unclear. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether early lymph node dissection improves regional control and survival. Sentinel node biopsy is not yet the standard of care.

  5. [Extrapelvic sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldamer, L; Marret, H; Acker, O; Barillot, I; Body, G

    2012-05-01

    To determine the frequency of extrapelvic sentinel lymph node in patients with cervical cancer. We performed systematic searches (Medline, Pubmed; up to April 2010) to determine the route of lymphatic spread in cervical cancer and to review results on extrapelvic sentinel lymph nodes. According to our search, 2.51% of detected sentinel lymph nodes in patients with cervical cancer were extrapelvic: 2% in the inguinal chain and 98% in the lower paraaortic area. The unusual localizations of sentinel lymph nodes impose to the gynaecologic surgeons to be hardened in performing lymph node dissection in all the territories potentially affected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Most frequent location of the sentinel lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao Lo

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The area between these four landmarks is the most frequent location of the sentinel lymph node identified using the radioisotope method. We suggest that this area should be carefully evaluated preoperatively by ultrasound for appropriate surgical planning. A skin incision in this area is also recommended when sentinel lymph node dissection is guided by blue dye.

  7. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer and melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doting, Meintje Hylkje Edwina

    2007-01-01

    Summary and conclusions In the introduction, a short overview of the development of the sentinel lymph node biopsy concept is presented. In addition to melanoma and breast cancer, the usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a surgical assessment method for squamous cell carcinoma of penis and

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny Edge, Athar Nizami, Judith Whittaker, Robert Mansel. Background. Sentinel lymph node biopsy ... Department of Surgery, Cardiff University, UK. Robert Mansel, MB BS, MRCS, LRCP, MS ..... Lucci A, Keleman P, Miller C, Chardkoft L, Wilson Li National practice patterns of sentinel lymph node dissection for breast ...

  9. Sentinel Node Mapping for Breast Cancer: Current Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Vidal-Sicart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Axillary node status is a major prognostic factor in early-stage disease. Traditional staging needs levels I and II axillary lymph node dissection. Axillary involvement is found in 10%–30% of patients with T1 (<2 cm tumours. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a minimal invasive method of checking the potential nodal involvement. It is based on the assumption of an orderly progression of lymph node invasion by metastatic cells from tumour site. Thus, when sentinel node is free of metastases the remaining nodes are free, too (with a false negative rate lesser than 5%. Moreover, Randomized trials demonstrated a marked reduction of complications associated with the sentinel lymph node biopsy when compared with axillary lymph node dissection. Currently, the sentinel node biopsy procedure is recognized as the standard treatment for stages I and II. In these stages, this approach has a positive node rate similar to those observed after lymphadenectomy, a significant decrease in morbidity and similar nodal relapse rates at 5 years. In this review, the indications and contraindications of the sentinel node biopsy are summarized and the methodological aspects discussed. Finally, the new technologic and histologic developments allow to develop a more accurate and refinate technique that can achieve virtually the identification of 100% of sentinel nodes and reduce the false negative rate.

  10. The Nodal Location of Metastases in Melanoma Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Nyengaard, Jens; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The design of melanoma sentinel lymph node (SLN) histologic protocols is based on the premise that most metastases are found in the central parts of the nodes, but the evidence for this belief has never been thoroughly tested. METHODS: The nodal location of melanoma metastases in 149...... prospectively analyzed, completely step sectioned, positive SLNs from 96 patients was examined using 3 theoretical protocols, evaluating respectively: (1) the 3 most central step sections only; (2) the 3 most peripheral step sections only; and (3) 3 step sections evenly distributed throughout the individual...

  11. In vivo and ex vivo sentinel node mapping does not identify the same lymph nodes in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Helene Schou; Bennedsen, Astrid Louise Bjørn; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard; Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Eiholm, Susanne; Toxværd, Anders; Riis, Lene Buhl; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-07-01

    Identification of lymph nodes and pathological analysis is crucial for the correct staging of colon cancer. Lymph nodes that drain directly from the tumor area are called "sentinel nodes" and are believed to be the first place for metastasis. The purpose of this study was to perform sentinel node mapping in vivo with indocyanine green and ex vivo with methylene blue in order to evaluate if the sentinel lymph nodes can be identified by both techniques. Patients with colon cancer UICC stage I-III were included from two institutions in Denmark from February 2015 to January 2016. In vivo sentinel node mapping with indocyanine green during laparoscopy and ex vivo sentinel node mapping with methylene blue were performed in all patients. Twenty-nine patients were included. The in vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 19 cases, and ex vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 13 cases. In seven cases, no sentinel nodes were identified. A total of 51 sentinel nodes were identified, only one of these where identified by both techniques (2.0%). In vivo sentinel node mapping identified 32 sentinel nodes, while 20 sentinel nodes were identified by ex vivo sentinel node mapping. Lymph node metastases were found in 10 patients, and only two had metastases in a sentinel node. Placing a deposit in relation to the tumor by indocyanine green in vivo or of methylene blue ex vivo could only identify sentinel lymph nodes in a small group of patients.

  12. Experimental model in rat for sentinel node biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Filho Renato Santos de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sentinel node procedure has been used world wide, there are many aspects to be defined and better standardized. This study address if the experimental model in rats is appropriate for sentinel node biopsy. In this model, the lymph nodes are showed by lymphoscintigraphy, they are dyed by patent blue and identified by intraoperative gamma probe detection. It isn?t necessary to use magnification for the procedure. The model demonstrated that sentinel node biopsy in rats is feasible. So, besides allowing researches in this field, the model is useful for training and diffusing this technique.

  13. A level III sentinel lymph node in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghesani Nasrin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For accurate nodal staging, all blue and radioactive lymph nodes should be sampled during the sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer. We report a case of anomalous drainage in which one of the sentinel lymph nodes was unexpectedly found in the level III axillary space. Case presentation A 40-year-old female underwent mastectomy for extensive high-grade ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS with micro-invasion. The index lesion was located in the right upper inner quadrant. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed on the morning of surgery. Two sentinel lymph nodes were identified. At operation, 5 mls of isosulfan blue dye was injected at the same site of the radio-colloid injection. The first sentinel lymph node was found at level I and was blue and radioactive. The second sentinel node was detected in an unexpected anomalous location at level III, medial to the pectoralis minor. Both sentinel nodes were negative. Conclusion Sentinel node staging can lead to unexpected patterns of lymphatic drainage. For accurate staging, it is important to survey all potential sites of nodal metastasis either with preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and/or rigorous examination of regional nodal basins with the intra-operative gamma probe.

  14. Penile lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Tanis, P.J.; Jansen, L.; Nieweg, O.E. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery; Meinhardt, W.; Horenblas, S. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Urology

    2001-05-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node (SN) identification has been extensively validated in breast cancer and melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the findings of lymphoscintigraphy for SN identification in carcinoma of the penis. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 74 consecutive patients (mean age 62.2 years, range 28-87 years) with clinically lymph node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (stage T2 or greater). Following local anaesthesia by xy-locaine 10% spray, technetium-99m nanocolloid (mean dose 64.8 MBq, range 40-131 MBq) in a volume of 0.3-0.4 ml was injected intradermally around the tumour. Shortly after injection, a 20-min dynamic study was performed with a dual-head gamma camera; subsequently, static anterior and lateral images were obtained at 30 min and 2 h using simultaneous cobalt-57 flood source transmission scanning. {sup 57}Co-assisted skin marking defined SN location for gamma probe/blue dye-guided biopsy, which was performed the next day. The SN visualization rate was 97% (72/74). Lymphatic drainage was bilateral in 81% of the cases (58/72), exclusively to the left groin in 13% (9/72) and only to the right groin in 6%. Bilateral lymph node drainage was synchronous in 38% (22/58) and asynchronous in 62% (in 18 patients the initial route was the left groin, and in the other 18, the right groin). Visualization before 30 min occurred in 66 patients (93%), in 64 of them (88%) already during the dynamic study. A total of 173 SNs were visualized (85 in the right groin, 88 in the left groin). Pitfalls were caused by inguinal skin contamination during injection (four patients) and intracavernous administration (one patient). At surgery, a total of 161 SNs were identified and removed. Sixteen patients (22%) had a tumour-positive SN and underwent standard regional lymph node dissection subsequently. During follow-up (median 28 months, range 3-74 months), two patients with a negative SN developed lymph node metastases in the mapped

  15. Sentinel European Node Trial (SENT): 3-year results of sentinel node biopsy in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Clare; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Haerle, Stephan K; Broglie, Martina A; Huber, Gerhard F; Sorensen, Jens Ahm; Bakholdt, Vivi; Krogdahl, Annelise; von Buchwald, Christian; Bilde, Anders; Sebbesen, Lars R; Odell, Edward; Gurney, Benjamin; O'Doherty, Michael; de Bree, Remco; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Flach, Geke B; Villarreal, Pedro M; Fresno Forcelledo, Manuel Florentino; Junquera Gutiérrez, Luis Manuel; Amézaga, Julio Alvarez; Barbier, Luis; Santamaría-Zuazua, Joseba; Moreira, Augusto; Jacome, Manuel; Vigili, Maurizio Giovanni; Rahimi, Siavash; Tartaglione, Girolamo; Lawson, Georges; Nollevaux, Marie-Cecile; Grandi, Cesare; Donner, Davide; Bragantini, Emma; Dequanter, Didier; Lothaire, Philippe; Poli, Tito; Silini, Enrico M; Sesenna, Erinco; Dolivet, Giles; Mastronicola, Romina; Leroux, Agnes; Sassoon, Isabel; Sloan, Philip; McGurk, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Optimum management of the N0 neck is unresolved in oral cancer. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) can reliably detect microscopic lymph node metastasis. The object of this study was to establish whether the technique was both reliable in staging the N0 neck and a safe oncological procedure in patients with early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma. An European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-approved prospective, observational study commenced in 2005. Fourteen European centres recruited 415 patients with radiologically staged T1-T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma. SNB was undertaken with an average of 3.2 nodes removed per patient. Patients were excluded if the sentinel node (SN) could not be identified. A positive SN led to a neck dissection within 3 weeks. Analysis was performed at 3-year follow-up. An SN was found in 99.5% of cases. Positive SNs were found in 23% (94 in 415). A false-negative result occurred in 14% (15 in 109) of patients, of whom eight were subsequently rescued by salvage therapy. Recurrence after a positive SNB and subsequent neck dissection occurred in 22 patients, of which 16 (73%) were in the neck and just six patients were rescued. Only minor complications (3%) were reported following SNB. Disease-specific survival was 94%. The sensitivity of SNB was 86% and the negative predictive value 95%. These data show that SNB is a reliable and safe oncological technique for staging the clinically N0 neck in patients with T1 and T2 oral cancer. EORTC Protocol 24021: Sentinel Node Biopsy in the Management of Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Christensen, Rikke Kølby; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-01-01

    when compared with (B) step-sectioning and immunostaining of the entire sentinel lymph node at 250 microM levels. METHODS: Forty patients with T1/T2 cN0 oral cancer were enrolled. Three patients were excluded. In one patient no sentinel lymph node was identified. The remaining two had unidentified......BACKGROUND: Extended histopathologic work-up has increased the detection of micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma and breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine if (A) step-sectioning of the central 1000 microM at 250 microM levels with immunostaining were accurate...

  17. The 'Sentinel Node' Concept: More Questions Raised than Answers Provided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlag

    1998-01-01

    preoperative lymph node staging. However, there is none. General criteria like size, shape, structure, or texture in variable imaging modalities are unreliable. While it is still too early to definitely evaluate in this context new diagnostic modalities like PET, immunoscintigraphy, or contrast-enhanced MRI, the initial results do not provoke clear enthusiasm toward the development of a sensitive and specific staging tool with regard to the nodal status. Adequate specificity may be obtained by external or endoluminal ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsies. However, uncertainty arises from eventually unrepresentative tissue sampling. The sentinel lymphonodectomy technique may remedy the dilemma, enabling a risk-adapted, individual indication for regional lymphatic dissection. This concept, first introduced in 1977 by Cabanas into the treatment of penis carcinoma, is based on the evidence of orderly and predictable lymphatic drainage pathways. Tumor cell progression within the lymphatic system seems to follow a sequential pattern. Primary draining lymph nodes possess the structural and functional capability to retain and to fight tumor cells efficiently. The 'sentinel node' is defined as the first tumor draining filter, and, if uninvolved, should thus adequately predict the nodal status of the disease. Skip metastases beyond an uninvolved sentinel node are supposed to be a very rare event. The reliability of the 'Cabanas approach', however, was limited by its relatively poor localization technique, and therefore failed to gain widespread acceptance. Unfortunately, the significance of the concept was not fully appreciated at the time. It is to Morton's credit that the procedure was reinstituted in malignant melanoma through a dye injection technique at the primary tumor site. This led to a rapid development and refinement of intraoperative lymphatic mapping. One major step in this process was to use radiolabeled colloids in conjunction with gamma-camera imaging or gamma probe

  18. The history of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer: From visualization of lymphatic vessels to sentinel nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bree, Remco; Nieweg, Omgo E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the history of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer. Sentinel node biopsy is a minimally invasive technique to select patients for treatment of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck. Although this procedure has only recently been accepted for early oral cancer, the first studies on visualization of the cervical lymphatic vessels were reported in the 1960s. In the 1980s mapping of lymphatic drainage from specific head and neck sites was introduced. Sentinel node biopsy was further developed in the 1990s and after validation in this century the procedure is routinely performed in early oral cancer in several head and neck centers. New techniques may improve the accuracy of sentinel node biopsy further, particularly in difficult subsites like the floor of mouth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular Diagnosis for Nodal Metastasis in Endoscopically Managed Cervical Cancer: The Accuracy of the APTIMA Test to Detect High-risk Human Papillomavirus Messenger RNA in Sentinel Lymph Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Christhardt; Le, Xin; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Schneider, Achim; Marnitz, Simone; Bertolini, Julia; Favero, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of a commercially available test to detect E6/E7 mRNA of 14 subtypes of high-risk HPVs (APTIMA; Hologic, Bedford, MA) in the sentinel lymph nodes of CC patients laparoscopically operated. Prospective pilot study. The study was conducted in the Department of Advanced Operative and Oncologic Gynecology, Asklepios Hospital, Hamburg, Germany. 54 women with HPV-positive CC submitted to laparoscopic sentinel node biopsy alone or sentinel node biopsy followed by systematic pelvic and/or para-aortic endoscopic lymphadenectomy. All removed sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) underwent sample collection by cytobrush for the APTIMA assay before frozen section. Results obtained with the HPV mRNA test were compared with the definitive histopathological analysis of the SLNs and additional lymph nodes removed. A total of 125 SLNs (119 pelvic and 6 paraaortic) were excised with a mean number of 2.3 SLNs per patient. Final histopathologic analysis confirmed nodal metastases in 10 SLNs from 10 different patients (18%). All the histologically confirmed metastatic lymph nodes were also HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive, resulting in a sensitivity of 100%. Four histologically free sentinel nodes were positive for HPV E6/E7 mRNA, resulting in a specificity of 96.4%. The HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in the SLNs of patients with CC is feasible and highly accurate. The detection of HPV mRNA in 4 women with negative SLNs might denote a shift from microscopic identification of metastasis to the molecular level. The prognostic value of this findings awaits further verification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Melanoma staging and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsea, Ana-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Tumor staging of melanoma is a crucial step for estimating patient prognosis, deciding on therapy approach, and efficient collection, analysis, comparison and communication of scientific data across borders and research groups. Recently, the Melanoma Staging Committee of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has proposed a revision of the widely used melanoma staging system, using an evidence-based approach, to reflect the improved understanding of this disease. Important adjustments were made related to the role of mitotic rate as a prognostic factor, definition of N category and classification of all microscopic nodal metastases, regardless of the extent of tumor burden, and specifically including micrometastases detected by immunohistochemistry as stage III. These revisions are to be implemented by early 2010 and are likely to be adopted and incorporated in international guidelines. Within the updated AJCC staging system, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) remains a standard-of-care diagnostic procedure, widely accepted as an important prognostic tool. According to current recommendations, SLNB is routinely offered as a staging procedure in patients with tumors more than 1 mm in thickness. Beyond its prognostic value, the therapeutic benefit of this procedure in improving overall survival yet remains to be proven. This article reviews and discusses the new aspects and challenges of the current staging recommendations for melanoma.

  1. Hemosiderin: a new marker for sentinel lymph node identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diógenes; Filgueira, Pedro Henrique de Oliveira; Aragão, Douglas Henning Pinheiro; Barbosa, Pedro Macedo Esmeraldo; Beserra, Hugo Enrique Orsini; Cavalcante, Raissa Vasconcelos

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate and present our initial results of a new marker (hemosiderin) for mammary sentinel lymph node identification in an experimental model. Skins mapped like a lymphatic duct draining to the axilla in patients submitted to breast biopsy, in our mastology service, stimulated us to try it in an animal model (female dogs). Our theory was that some blood derivate (hemosiderin) was captured by macrophages and accessed the lymphatic ducts in direction to the axilla. Six female dogs of no defined race were studied. We injected 0,2 ml of technetium on both superior mammary glands. After ten minutes, a 2,5 ml solution of hemolized blood (hemosiderin) from the own animal was injected in the subareolar lymphatic plexus on the left superior mammary gland and 2,5 ml of patent blue concomitantly and equally on the contralateral gland. Ten minutes after, incisions on both axillae were made to search, through the lymphatic mapping and a gamma probe, the sentinel lymph nodes. Seven brown sentinel lymph nodes were identified and also radiomarked on the left axilla. Six blue sentinel lymph nodes were identified and also radiomarked on the right axilla. Preliminary studies of a potential new dye for sentinel lymph node identification are presented. It may be the change of the current use of the blue dyes and their severe side-effects on patients submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsies.

  2. Axillary lymph node management in breast cancer with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A; Spadafora, Silvana

    2015-02-10

    The surgical treatment of localized breast cancer has become progressively less aggressive over the years. The management of the axillary lymph nodes has been modified by the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Axillary dissection can be avoided in patients with sentinel lymph node negative biopsies. Based on randomized trials data, it has been proposed that no lymph node dissection should be carried out even in certain patients with sentinel lymph node positive biopsies. This commentary discusses the basis of such recommendations and cautions against a general omission of lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsies. Instead, an individualized approach based on axillary tumor burden and biology of the cancer should be considered.

  3. Non-visualization of sentinel lymph nodes in penile carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, Bin K.; Horenblas, Simon [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Valdes Olmos, Renato [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nieweg, Omgo E. [Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and cause of non-visualization of sentinel lymph nodes on preoperative lymphoscintigrams for penile cancer and its implications for further management. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed after injection of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled nanocolloid in 123 clinically node-negative penile carcinoma patients. Anterior dynamic lymphoscintigraphy was performed during 20 min immediately after tracer injection. Subsequently, 5-min anterior and lateral static images were obtained 30 min and 2 h post injection. Lymphatic drainage to both groins was seen in 98 patients (79%), unilateral drainage in 23 patients (19%) and no drainage at all in two patients (2%). Thus, in 27 (11%) of 246 groins, no sentinel node was visualized. The amount of administered tracer dose was associated with non-visualization (p=0.01). Unilateral drainage was initially interpreted as a normal physiological phenomenon. After the occurrence of a tumour-positive node in a non-visualized groin, we explore non-visualized groins by blue dye mapping and intraoperative palpation. Sentinel nodes were retrieved in four out of eight such groins, of which one contained metastasis. In penile carcinoma patients, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy visualizes a sentinel node in 89% of groins. Visualization depends on the administered tracer dose. It is worthwhile to explore non-visualized groins. Sentinel nodes can be intraoperatively identified in more than half of these cases. (orig.)

  4. In vivo and ex vivo sentinel node mapping does not identify the same lymph nodes in colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helene Schou; Bennedsen, Astrid Louise Bjørn; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard

    2017-01-01

    sentinel node mapping in vivo with indocyanine green and ex vivo with methylene blue in order to evaluate if the sentinel lymph nodes can be identified by both techniques. METHODS: Patients with colon cancer UICC stage I-III were included from two institutions in Denmark from February 2015 to January 2016....... In vivo sentinel node mapping with indocyanine green during laparoscopy and ex vivo sentinel node mapping with methylene blue were performed in all patients. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were included. The in vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 19 cases, and ex vivo sentinel node mapping...... mapping. Lymph node metastases were found in 10 patients, and only two had metastases in a sentinel node. CONCLUSION: Placing a deposit in relation to the tumor by indocyanine green in vivo or of methylene blue ex vivo could only identify sentinel lymph nodes in a small group of patients....

  5. Value of SPECT/CT for detection and anatomic localization of sentinel lymph nodes before laparoscopic sentinel node lymphadenectomy in prostate carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Valdés Olmos, Renato A.; Meinhardt, Wim; Bex, Axel; van der Poel, Henk G.; Vogel, Wouter V.; Sivro, Ferida; Hoefnagel, Cees A.; Horenblas, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Laparoscopic evaluation of sentinel nodes is useful for staging prostate cancer, but preoperative localization of deep abdominal sentinel nodes with planar lymphoscintigraphy is difficult. We evaluated the value of SPECT/CT for detecting and localizing sentinel nodes in prostate cancer. METHODS:

  6. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieweg, O.E.; Jansen, L.; Rutgers, E.J.T.; Kroon, B.B.R. [Netherlands Cancer Inst./Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery; Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, K.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst./Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Peterse, J.L. [Netherlands Cancer Inst./Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Pathology

    1999-04-01

    Lymphatic mapping with selective lymphadenectomy is an attractive approach in breast-cancer patients. It uses existing technology to exploit logical anatomic and physiological principles to identify occult regional lymph-node metastases. The lymphatic flow is visualized and the first (sentinel) lymph node on a direct drainage pathway from the primary tumour is identified. This is the node at greatest risk of harbouring metastatic deposits. Retrieving this node requires a concerted effort from the nuclear medicine physician, surgeon and pathologist. Lymphoscintigraphy can indicate the number of sentinel nodes and their location. The surgeon can use two techniques to find the node. A vital dye injected at the tumour site will stain the lymphatic duct as well as the sentinel node and allow their visual identification. Alternatively, a lymph-node-seeking radiopharmaceutical will also migrate from the tumour site to the sentinel node and will enable its retrieval with the use of a gamma detection probe. The pathologist has a number of techniques to identify tumour deposits in the lymph node. A review of the literature shows that the sentinel node can be found in more than 90% of the patients. With experience, the false-negative rate can be kept down to about 5%. This novel approach of lymphatic mapping with selective lymphadenectomy may lead to a substantial reduction in the need for axillary node dissection in patients with breast cancer without compromising survival and regional control, and without loss of prognostic and staging information. This development will translate into a great reduction in patient morbidity and medical expenses. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 39 refs.

  7. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2005-01-01

    with T1/T2 cN0 oral cancer were re-classified histologically to find possible ITC and to describe technical pitfalls. RESULTS: Primarily we found metastatic spread in 12 of 108 sentinel lymph nodes: five macrometastasis and seven micrometastasis. After re-classification, we found seven lymph nodes...

  8. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu PF

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peng-Fei Qiu, Yan-Bing Liu, Yong-Sheng Wang Breast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns due to the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes with the traditional injection technique. Meanwhile, as internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN metastases are mostly found concomitantly with axillary lymph nodes (ALN metastases, previous IM-SLNB clinical trials fail to evaluate the status of IMLN in patients who are really in need (only in clinically ALN negative patients. Our modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance significantly improved the visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. IM-SLNB could provide individual minimally invasive staging, prognosis, and decision-making for breast cancer patients, especially for patients with clinically positive ALN. Moreover, IMLN radiotherapy should be tailored and balanced between the potential benefit and toxicity, and IM-SLNB-guided IMLN radiotherapy could achieve this goal. In the era of effective adjuvant therapy, within the changing treatment approach – more systemic therapy, less loco-regional therapy – clinicians should deliberate the application of regional IMLN therapy. Keywords: breast cancer, internal mammary lymph node, axillary lymph node, sentinel lymph node biopsy 

  9. Does sentinel lymph node biopsy have a role in node- positive head ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lymph nodes (SLNs) detected on lymphoscintigraphy were marked on the skin using a radioactive tracer. In the operating theatre and after induction of general anaesthesia, 1 - 2 ml of methylene blue dye was injected into the mucosa and submucosa surrounding. Does sentinel lymph node biopsy have a role in node-.

  10. PET-skanning ved malignt melanom og positiv sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Janne; Sjøstrand, Helle; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    To illuminate the value of using positron emission tomography (PET) scan as a clinical routine screening procedure for detecting subclinical metastases in melanoma patients with positive sentinel node biopsy, we carried out a retrospective study which included a total of 80 patients.......To illuminate the value of using positron emission tomography (PET) scan as a clinical routine screening procedure for detecting subclinical metastases in melanoma patients with positive sentinel node biopsy, we carried out a retrospective study which included a total of 80 patients....

  11. The Sentinel Lymph Node as a Disease Prognosticator in Node Negative Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lange, Julie

    1999-01-01

    .... The sentinel nodes were processed both in the standard fashion and were saved for specialized studies including microsectioning and telomerase studies to be carried out in a delayed fashion by protocol requirement...

  12. National equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node in animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paula Cristina Fada dos [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Post-graduate Program on Plastic Surgery], e-mail: ppfada@hotmail.com; Santos, Ivan Dunshee de Abranches Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Ferreira, Lydia Masako [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery. Div. of Plastic Sugery; Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculty of Medicine

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate a national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node. Methods: Thirty young adult male rats were used. After anesthetized, animals were divided into two groups of 15 animals each. Animals from group A received dextram 500 - Tc{sup 99} radiopharmaceutical and patent blue V and those from group B received only patent blue V to map the lymphatic drainage. The presence of radiation in the background area, in the area of injection and of the ex vivo sentinel lymph node of group A were measured. After the exeresis, each lymph node in group A and in group B was mixed forming a new random sequence and the radioactive reading of each lymph node was carried out, using both pieces of equipment. Results: The hottest sentinel lymph node was identified by the national equipment when radiation was measured in the area of lymphatic drainage after the Dextran 500 was injected. Also, the ex vivo sentinel lymph node. The national equipment has also detected radiation in the lymph nodes that had not received radiopharmaceutical, leading to false positive, checked by the application of Mann-Whitney tests and Student's paired t-tests. The Cronbach alpha has shown high internal consistency of data 0,9416. Conclusions: The national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection identifies the LS and showed false positives LS and needs improvement. (author)

  13. Procedure guidelines for sentinel lymph node diagnosis; Verfahrensanweisung fuer die nuklearmedizinische Waechter-Lymphknoten-Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, H. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Schmidt, Matthias [Universitaeten zu Koeln (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Bares, R. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Tuebingen (DE)] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    The authors present a procedure guideline for scintigraphic detection of sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma and other skin tumours, in breast cancer, in head and neck cancer, and in prostate and penile carcinoma. Important goals of sentinel lymph node scintigraphy comprise reduction of the extent of surgery, lower postoperative morbidity and optimization of histopathological examination focussing on relevant lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node scintigraphy itself does not diagnose tumorous lymph node involvement and is not indicated when lymph node metastases have been definitely diagnosed before sentinel lymph node scintigraphy. Procedures are compiled with the aim to reliably localise sentinel lymph nodes with a high detection rate typically in early tumour stages. Radiation exposure is low so that pregnancy is not a contraindication for sentinel lymph node scintigraphy. Even with high volumes of scintigraphic sentinel lymph node procedures surgeons, theatre staff and pathologists receive a radiation exposure <1 mSv/year so that they do not require occupational radiation surveillance. (orig.)

  14. High risk of non-sentinel node metastases in a group of breast cancer patients with micrometastases in the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Lisse, Ida Marie

    2012-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel nodes is under debate. We aimed to establish two models to predict non-sentinel node (NSN) metastases in patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC) in sentinel nodes, to guide the decision...... for ALND. 1577 breast cancer patients with micrometastases and 304 with ITC in sentinel nodes, treated by sentinel lymph node dissection and ALND in 2002-2008, were identified in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database. Risk of NSN metastases was calculated according to clinicopathological...... variables in a logistic regression analysis. We identified tumor size, proportion of positive sentinel nodes, lymphovascular invasion, hormone receptor status and location of tumor in upper lateral quadrant of the breast as risk factors for NSN metastases in patients with micrometastases. A model based...

  15. Clinical significance of microscopic melanoma metastases in the nonhottest sentinel lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Su; Lobo, Alice Z C; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Muzikansky, Alona; Durazzo, Tyler; Sober, Arthur; Tsao, Hensin; Cosimi, A Benedict; Lawrence, Donald P; Duncan, Lyn M

    2015-05-01

    A practice gap exists in the surgical removal of sentinel lymph nodes, from removal of only the most radioactive (hottest) lymph node to removal of all lymph nodes with radioactivity greater than 10% of the hottest lymph node. To determine the clinical significance of melanoma in sentinel lymph nodes that are not the hottest sentinel node and to determine the risk for disease progression based on sentinel lymph node status and primary tumor characteristics. Consecutive patients with cutaneous melanoma with sentinel lymph nodes resected from January 5, 2004, to June 30, 2008, with a mean follow-up of 59 months, at Massachusetts General Hospital were included in this retrospective review. The last year of follow-up was 2012. The operative protocol led to resection of all sentinel lymph nodes with radioactivity greater than 10% of the hottest lymph node. The number of lymph nodes removed, technetium-99m counts for each sentinel lymph node, presence or absence of sentinel lymph node metastases, primary tumor characteristics, disease progression, and melanoma-specific survival were recorded. Microscopic melanoma metastases in the hottest and nonhottest sentinel lymph nodes and factors that correlate with disease progression and mortality. A total of 1575 sentinel lymph nodes were analyzed in 475 patients. Ninety-one patients (19%) had positive sentinel lymph nodes. Of these, 72 (79%) had metastases in the hottest sentinel lymph node. Of 19 cases with tumor present, but not in the hottest sentinel lymph node, counts ranged from 26% to 97% of the hottest node. Progression occurred in 43% of patients with sentinel node metastasis, regardless of whether the hottest lymph node was positive. In patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, 11% developed metastases beyond the sentinel lymph node basin and 3.4% recurred in the basin. Mitogenicity of the primary tumor was associated with mortality (odds ratio, 2.435; 95% CI, 1.351-4.391; P negative results in 19 of 475 (4%) of

  16. Intraoperative immunohistochemistry staining of sentinel nodes in breast cancer: Clinical and economical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, M.; Paaschburg, B.; Balslev, E.

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate intraoperative immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of sentinel nodes in primary breast cancer surgery. We analysed retrospectively 1209 consecutive sentinel node procedures and compared the rate of late positive metastases in sentinel node biopsy (SNB) and the duration...

  17. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: An audit of intraoperative assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-02

    Jul 2, 2015 ... Objective. To audit results from intraoperative assessment of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after the introduction of a cytotechnologist. Study design. Since 2010, a cytotechnologist has been involved in the intraoperative assessment of SLNB in our breast cancer patients. The data from patients over ...

  18. Sentinel node biopsy for melanoma: a study of 241 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Jakobsen, Annika Loft

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique for melanoma using both radiocolloid and blue dye in 241 clinically N0 patients with melanomas >1.0 mm, or thinner lesions exhibiting regression/ulceration. We showed that an increase in injected radioactivity increased...

  19. Summary of the Second International Sentinel Node Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieweg, O. E.; Tanis, P. J.; Rutgers, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    A personal account is given of the most notable developments in lymphatic mapping that were discussed at the international conference "Sentinel Node 2000", held in December 2000 in Santa Monica. The latest advances in tracers, imaging, instrumentation and radiation are first outlined. Thereafter,

  20. PET-skanning ved malignt melanom og positiv sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Janne; Sjøstrand, Helle; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    To illuminate the value of using positron emission tomography (PET) scan as a clinical routine screening procedure for detecting subclinical metastases in melanoma patients with positive sentinel node biopsy, we carried out a retrospective study which included a total of 80 patients....

  1. Thick melanoma: prognostic value of positive sentinel nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; van der Ent, Fred W. C.; Sastrowijoto, Prapto S. H.; Hulsewé, Karel W. E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is a widely accepted procedure used to accurately stage patients with melanoma. Its value in patients with thick melanoma (Breslow thickness >4 mm) is reason for discussion because of the generally poor prognosis of these patients. The purpose of this

  2. Feasibility of sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy in stage I testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Pieter J.; Horenblas, Simon; Valdés Olmos, Renato A.; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A.; Nieweg, Omgo E.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in testicular cancer. Five patients with clinical stage I testicular cancer were prospectively included. A single dose of technetium-99m nanocolloid (mean dose 99 MBq, volume 0.2 ml) was

  3. Sentinel node detection in melanomas using contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K. Rue; Klyver, H.; Chakera, A. Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel node (SN) biopsy has proven to be a useful clinical method based on the combination of radionuclide tracer principles and the dye technique. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been used successfully for detection of SN in animals, but the use of CEUS has not been reported...

  4. Sentinel Node Detection in Head and Neck Malignancies: Innovations in Radioguided Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vermeeren

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel node mapping is becoming a routine procedure for staging of various malignancies, because it can determine lymph node status more precisely. Due to anatomical problems, localizing sentinel nodes in the head and neck region on the basis of conventional images can be difficult. New diagnostic tools can provide better visualization of sentinel nodes. In an attempt to keep up with possible scientific progress, this article reviews new and innovative tools for sentinel node localization in this specific area. The overview comprises a short introduction of the sentinel node procedure as well as indications in the head and neck region. Then the results of SPECT/CT for sentinel node detection are described. Finally, a portable gamma camera to enable intraoperative real-time imaging with improved sentinel node detection is described.

  5. Sentinel Node Detection in Head and Neck Malignancies: Innovations in Radioguided Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, L.; Klop, W. M. C.; van den Brekel, M. W. M.; Balm, A. J. M.; Nieweg, O. E.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Sentinel node mapping is becoming a routine procedure for staging of various malignancies, because it can determine lymph node status more precisely. Due to anatomical problems, localizing sentinel nodes in the head and neck region on the basis of conventional images can be difficult. New diagnostic tools can provide better visualization of sentinel nodes. In an attempt to keep up with possible scientific progress, this article reviews new and innovative tools for sentinel node localization in this specific area. The overview comprises a short introduction of the sentinel node procedure as well as indications in the head and neck region. Then the results of SPECT/CT for sentinel node detection are described. Finally, a portable gamma camera to enable intraoperative real-time imaging with improved sentinel node detection is described. PMID:20016804

  6. Sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Gary L; Soutar, David S; Gordon MacDonald, D

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine the reliability and reproducibility of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) as a staging tool in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) for T1/2 clinically N0 patients by means of a standardized technique. METHODS: Between June 1998 and June 2002, 227 SNB...... procedures have been performed in HNSCC cases at six centers. One hundred thirty-four T1/2 tumors of the oral cavity/oropharynx in clinically N0 patients were investigated with preoperative lymphoscintigraphy (LSG), intraoperative use of blue dye/gamma probe, and pathological evaluation with step serial...... sectioning and immunohistochemistry, with a follow-up of at least 12 months. In 79 cases SNB alone was used to stage the neck carcinoma, and in 55 cases SNB was used in combination with an elective neck dissection (END). RESULTS: In 125/134 cases (93%) a sentinel node was identified. Of 59 positive nodes, 57...

  7. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Colorectal Cancer – First Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanoski, Sinisa; Manevska, Nevena; Antovic, Svetozar; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Vaskova, Olivija; Miladinova, Daniela; Mileva, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second commonest cancer in women, the third in men, being the fourth commonest cause of cancer death. The most important factor for prognosis and staging in CRC patients is the status of the regional lymph nodes (LN). AIM: To implement the method for sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in CRC patients using radiocolloid, and test its detection rate, sensitivity, accuracy, negative predictive value and the possibility for upstaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 40 CRC patients, age 63 ± 14 years, without LNs detected on CT or MRI. SLN detection was performed after endoscopically peri- and intratumoral injection of 99mTc-SENTISCINT. All patients underwent resection with systemic lymphadenectomy, and the SLNs were detected ex vivo. Pathohistology was performed to all resected LNs. RESULTS: The identification rate was 95%, the accuracy of the procedure was 92.1%, the negative predictive value was 86.95%, the sensitivity was 83.3%, and the upstage was 22.5%. CONCLUSION: Identification of SLNs in CRC patients with this method is possible and the detection rate, negative predictive value, accuracy and sensitivity are reliable. We expect to contribute in the upstaging of stage II CRC patients and the selection of appropriate oncology treatment protocols. PMID:29123574

  8. Sentinel Node Mapping of VX2 Carcinoma in Rabbit Thigh with CT Lymphography Using Ethiodized Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Jin; Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Park, Ji Hoon [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Seung [Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Chai [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Seung-Moon [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    To assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) lymphography using ethiodized oil for sentinel node mapping in experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh. This experiment received approval from the institutional animal use and care administrative advisory committee. Twenty-three rabbits with VX2 carcinoma in the thigh underwent CT before and after (1 hour, 2 hour) peritumoral injection of 2 mL ethiodized oil. After the CT examination, sentinel nodes were identified by peritumoral injection of methylene blue and subsequently removed. The retrieved sentinel and non-sentinel lymph nodes were investigated with radiographic and pathologic examinations. Based on the comparison of CT findings with those of radiographic and pathologic examinations, the diagnostic performance of CT for sentinel node identification was assessed. All 23 rabbits showed 53 ethiodized oil retention nodes on post-injection CT and specimen radiography, and 52 methylene blue-stained nodes at the right femoroiliac area. Of the 52 blue-stained sentinel nodes, 50 nodes demonstrated ethiodized oil retention. Thus, the sentinel node detection rate of CT was 96% (50 of 52). On pathologic examination, 28 sentinel nodes in 17 rabbits (nodes/rabbit, mean ± standard deviation, 1.7 ± 0.6) harbored metastasis. Twenty seven of the 28 metastatic sentinel nodes were found to have ethiodized oil retention. Computed tomography lymphography using ethiodized oil may be feasible for sentinel node mapping in experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh.

  9. Size of sentinel-node metastasis and chances of non-sentinel-node involvement and survival in early stage vulvar cancer: results from GROINSS-V, a multicentre observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Maaike H.; van Hemel, Bettien M.; Hollema, Harry; de Hullu, Joanne A.; Ansink, Anca C.; Vergote, Ignace; Verheijen, René H.; Maggioni, Angelo; Gaarenstroom, Katja N.; Baldwin, Peter J.; van Dorst, Eleonora B.; van der Velden, Jacobus; Hermans, Ralph H.; van der Putten, Hans W.; Drouin, Pierre; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Sluiter, Wim J.; van der Zee, Ate G.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, all patients with vulvar cancer with a positive sentinel node undergo inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, irrespective of the size of sentinel-node metastases. Our study aimed to assess the association between size of sentinel-node metastasis and risk of metastases in non-sentinel nodes, and

  10. Surgical management of sentinel lymph node biopsy outside major nodal basin in patients with cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracò, Corrado; Marone, Ugo; Di Monta, Gianluca; Aloj, Luigi; Caracò, Corradina; Anniciello, Annamaria; Lastoria, Secondo; Botti, Gerardo; Mozzillo, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    To assess the incidence of nonmajor lymphatic basin sentinel nodes in patients with cutaneous melanoma in order to propose a correct nomenclature and inform appropriate surgical management. This was a retrospective review of 1,045 consecutive patients with cutaneous melanoma who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy and dynamic lymphoscintigraphy to identify sentinel node site. Nonmajor drainage sites were classified as uncommon (located in a minor lymphatic basin along the lymphatic drainage to a major classical nodal basin) or interval (located anywhere along the lymphatics between the primary tumor site and the nearest lymphatic basin) sentinel nodes. Nonclassical sentinel nodes were identified in 32 patients (3.0 %). Uncommon sentinel nodes were identified in 3.2 % (n = 17) of trunk melanoma primary disease and in 1.5 % (n = 7) of upper and lower extremity sites. Interval sentinel nodes were identified in 1.3 % (n = 7) of trunk primary lesions, with none from upper and lower extremities melanomas. The incidence of tumor-positive sentinel nodes was 24.1 % (245 of 1,013) in classical sites and 12.5 % (4 of 32) in uncommon/interval sites. The definition of uncommon and interval sentinel nodes allows the identification of different lymphatic pathways and inform appropriate surgical treatment. Wider experience with uncommon/interval sentinel nodes will better clarify the clinical implications and surgical management to be adopted in the management of uncommon and interval sentinel node sites.

  11. Gray-scale contrast-enhanced utrasonography in detecting sentinel lymph nodes: An animal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yuexiang, E-mail: wangyuexiang1999@sina.co [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Cheng Zhigang, E-mail: qlczg@sina.co [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Li Junlai, E-mail: junlai555@sina.co [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Tang Jie, E-mail: txiner@vip.sina.co [Department of Ultrasound, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Objective: To investigate the usefulness of gray-scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for detecting sentinel lymph nodes. Methods: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed in five normal dogs (four female and one male) after subcutaneous administration of a sonographic contrast agent (Sonovue, Bracco, Milan, Italy). Four distinct regions in each animal were examined. After contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, 0.8 ml of blue dye was injected into the same location as Sonovue and the sentinel lymph nodes were detected by surgical dissection. The findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were compared with those of the blue dye. Results: Twenty-one sentinel lymph nodes were detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography while 23 were identified by blue dye with surgical dissection. Compared with the blue dye, the detection rate of enhanced ultrasonography for the sentinel lymph nodes is 91.3% (21/23). Two patterns of enhancement in the sentinel lymph nodes were observed: complete enhancement (5 sentinel lymph nodes) and partial enhancement (16 sentinel lymph nodes). The lymphatic channels were demonstrated as hyperechoic linear structures leading from the injection site and could be readily followed to their sentinel lymph nodes. Histopathologic examination showed proliferation of lymphatic follicles or lymphatic sinus in partial enhanced sentinel lymph nodes while normal lymphatic tissue was demonstrated in completely enhanced sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusions: Sonovue combined with gray-scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography may provide a feasible method for detecting sentinel lymph nodes.

  12. [Sentinel node in melanoma and breast cancer. Current considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Vilalta Solsona, A; Alonso Vargas, M I

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of sentinel node (SN) biopsy is to avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomies and to identify the 20-25% of patients with occult regional metastatic involvement. This technique reduces the associated morbidity from lymphadenectomy and increases the occult lymphatic metastases identification rate by offering the pathologist the or those lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. Pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy is considered a "road map" to guide the surgeon towards the sentinel nodes and to localize unpredictable lymphatic drainage patterns. The SPECT/CT advantages include a better SN detection rate than planar images, the ability to detect SNs in difficult to interpret studies, better SN depiction, especially in sites closer to the injection site and better anatomic localization. These advantages may result in a change in the patient's clinical management both in melanoma and breast cancer. The correct SN evaluation by pathology implies a tumoral load stratification and further prognostic implication. The use of intraoperative imaging devices allows the surgeon a better surgical approach and precise SN localization. Several studies reports the added value of such devices for more sentinel nodes excision and a complete monitoring of the whole procedure. New techniques, by using fluorescent or hybrid tracers, are currently being developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  13. Sentinel node biopsy in penile cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J. K.; Krarup, K. P.; Sommer, P.

    2015-01-01

    at the four university centres where the procedure was performed. Thus, the study covers all SNB procedures performed in Denmark in the 11-year period 2000-2010. Included patients were newly diagnosed and had either non-palpable lymph nodes (cN0) in one or both groins or had a palpable mass in the groin, from...

  14. Axillary web syndrome following sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves Maldonado, S M; Pubul Núñez, V; Argibay Vázquez, S; Macías Cortiñas, M; Ruibal Morell, Á

    2016-01-01

    A 49 year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma, underwent a right mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy (SLNB). The resected sentinel lymph nodes were negative for malignancy, with an axillary lymphadenectomy not being performed. In the early post-operative period, the patient reported an axillary skin tension sensation, associated with a painful palpable cord. These are typical manifestations of axillary web syndrome (AWS), a poorly known axillary surgery complication, from both invasive and conservative interventions. By presenting this case we want to focus the attention on a pathological condition, for which its incidence may be underestimated by not including it in SLNB studies. It is important for nuclear medicine physicians to be aware of AWS as a more common complication than infection, seroma, or lymphoedema, and to discuss this possible event with the patient who is consenting to the procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  15. Dendronized iron oxide colloids for imaging the sentinel lymph node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhannaud, J.; Garofalo, A.; Felder-Flesch, D.; Pourroy, G.

    2015-03-01

    Various methods have been used in medicine for more than one century to explore the lymphatic system. Radioactive colloids (RuS labelled with 99mTc) or/and Vital Blue dye are injected around the primary tumour and detected by means of nuclear probe or visual colour inspection respectively. The simultaneous clinical use of both markers (dye and radionuclide) improves the sensitivity of detection close to 100%. Superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) are currently receiving much attention as strong T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents that can be potentially used for preoperative localization of sentinel nodes, but also for peroperative detection of sentinel node using hand-held probes. In that context, we present the elaboration of dendronized iron oxide nanoparticles elaborated at the Institute of Physics and Chemistry of Materials of Strasbourg.

  16. What's wrong with sentinel node mapping in colon cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Ronan A

    2007-12-21

    Despite near-universal embrace of the concept and clinical relevance of lymphatic mapping for sentinel node identification and analysis for cancers of the breast and integument, the same technique has struggled to a find a role in gastrointestinal cancers in general and, perhaps, in colon cancer in particular. Despite many studies demonstrating its feasibility in malignancies of the large bowel, concern is continually aroused by the variable and often unacceptably low sensitivity rates. Additionally, many confess uncertainty as to what benefit it could ever confer to patients even if it were proven sufficiently accurate given that standard surgical resection incorporates mesenteric resection anyway. However, the huge impact sentinel node mapping has had on clinical practice in certain cancers means that each of these aspects merit careful reconsideration, from very first principles.

  17. Indications of sentinel node biopsy in thin melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Braga Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess data on survival, recurrence and histological factors in positive and negative sentinel lymph nodes in thin melanoma cases. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on observational studies in four databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Lilacs. Positive and negative micrometastases in sentinel lymph node biopsy were compared regarding the clinical outcomes – death and recurrence – and six histological factors – vertical growth phase, Breslow thickness, Clark level, ulceration, regression and mitosis rate. Results: Positive sentinel lymph node is statistically associated with greater risk of death in six studies (OR: 7.2; 95%CI [2.37-21.83]; I2 0% and also to recurrence in three studies (OR: 30.7; 95%CI [12.58-74.92]; I2 36%. Comparing positive and negative groups, the histological factors predicting positive sentinel nodes and poor prognosis were: mitosis rate ≥ 5/mm2 (OR: 16.29; 95%CI [3.64-72.84]; I2 40%; VGP (OR: 2.93; 95%CI [1.08-7.93]; I2 59%; Breslow thickness ≥ 0.75mm (OR: 2.23; 95%CI [1.29-3.86]; I2 0%; and Clark level IV-V (OR: 1.61; 95%CI [1.06-2.44]; I2 34%. Conclusions: The statistically significant results associated with the presence of micrometastases in thin melanomas were Breslow thickness ≥ 0.75 mm, Clark level IV-V and mitoses ≥ 5/mm2, absence of regression. This histological factor of ulceration was associated, but not statistically significant.

  18. Prognosis of sentinel node staged patients with primary cutaneous melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otmar Elsaesser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study investigated survival probabilities and prognostic factors in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB staged patients with cutaneous melanoma (CM with the aim of defining subgroups of patients who are at higher risk for recurrences and who should be considered for adjuvant clinical trials. METHODS: Patients with primary CM who underwent SLNB in the Department of Dermatology, University of Tuebingen, Germany, between 1996 and 2009 were included into this study. Survival probabilities and prognostic factors were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: 1909 SLNB staged patients were evaluated. Median follow-up time was 44 months. Median tumor thickness was 1.8 mm, ulceration was present in 31.8% of cases. The 5-year Overall Survival (OS was 90.3% in SLNB negative patients (IB 96.2%, IIA 87.0%, IIB 78.1%, IIC 72.6%. Patients with micrometastases (stage IIIA/B had a 5-year OS rate of 70.9% which was clearly less favorable than for stages I-II. Multivariate analysis revealed tumor thickness, ulceration, body site, histopathologic subtype and SLNB status as independent significant prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Survival rates of patients with primary CM in stages I-II were shown to be much more favorable than previously reported from non sentinel node staged collectives. For future clinical trials, sample size calculations should be adapted using survival probabilities based on sentinel node staging.

  19. Sentinel node biopsy for melanoma: a study of 241 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Jakobsen, Annika Loft

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique for melanoma using both radiocolloid and blue dye in 241 clinically N0 patients with melanomas >1.0 mm, or thinner lesions exhibiting regression/ulceration. We showed that an increase in injected radioactivity increased...... nine haematoxylin and eosin (HE)-negatives, all of which were found by immunohistochemistry. The false negative rate for the SNB procedure was 4% (2/55). The complication rate was 6% after SNB and 29% after complete node dissection. In conclusion, SN status is a strong prognostic factor in melanoma...

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer--the Aarhus experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, M C; Garne, J P; Hessov, I

    2000-01-01

    Eighty patients, with newly diagnosed unifocal breast cancer and with no axillary metastases verified by ultrasonography, underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) and subsequent axillary lymph node dissection. To identify the SLN, we used a combination of Tc-99m labelled colloid (Albures) and blue dye...... as SLNs that tested negative but with higher nodes that tested positive. If SLN biopsy is accepted as a routine procedure and when the exact indications are defined, the method described probably could be offered to the majority of breast cancer patients....

  1. Role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy in carcinoma penis with or without palpable nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiresan, N; Raja, Anand; Ramachandran, Krishna Kumar; Sundersingh, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSLNB) in patients diagnosed with carcinoma penis and clinically N0 disease using superficial inguinal dissection as the standard staging modality. Twenty consecutive men (40 groins) with carcinoma penis having clinically N0 status were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent DSLNB if fine needle aspiration cytology from the groin nodes was negative, followed by injection of radiocolloid and blue dye. The sentinel lymph node(s) were harvested. The inguinal incision was then extended and a modified superficial inguinal dissection was performed and all nodes were labeled separately and sent for frozen section. A completion deep inguinal with pelvic dissection was performed if any of the nodes were reported positive for malignancy. The median age of the patients was 52.5 years. Ten patients were smokers. Phimosis was present in five patients. Lesions were present over the glans penis and shaft in 18 and two patients, respectively. Wide local excision, partial penectomy and total penectomy were performed in one, 15 and four patients, respectively. Clinically palpable nodes were found in 19 groins. Median follow-up was 26 months. Nodes were positive in 10 groins. DSLNB missed the sentinel node in one groin. The accuracy and false-negative rate of DSLNB was 97.5% and 10%, respectively. DSLNB is a useful and reliable technique to identify the involved node(s) in patients diagnosed as having carcinoma penis with clinical N0 status (with or without palpable nodes). It helps to avoid the morbidity associated with a staging inguinal dissection in these patients.

  2. Cross-validation of three predictive tools for non-sentinel node metastases in breast cancer patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells in the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, T F; Meretoja, T J; Jensen, M B

    2014-01-01

    metastases while less than 1% was identified by the Finish model. In contrast, the Finish model predicted a much larger proportion of patients being in the low-risk group with less than 10% risk of non-sentinel node metastases. CONCLUSION: The Danish model for micrometastases worked well in predicting high......BACKGROUND: We cross-validated three existing models for the prediction of non-sentinel node metastases in patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC) in the sentinel node, developed in Danish and Finnish cohorts of breast cancer patients, to find the best model to identify patients...... who might benefit from further axillary treatment. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Based on 484 Finnish breast cancer patients with micrometastases or ITC in sentinel node a model has been developed for the prediction of non-sentinel node metastases. Likewise, two separate models have been developed in 1577...

  3. Factors influencing sentinel lymph node identification failure in breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straalman, K.; Kristoffersen, U.S.; Galatius, H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for failed sentinel lymph node identification in breast cancer surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics, surgeon experience and detection success/failure were registered at 748 sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures...... at our inpatient clinic. Data were analysed with backward stepwise multiple logistic regression with a cut-off point of psentinel lymph node detection rate....... Tumour size, palpability and biopsy method were not significantly associated with the sentinel lymph node detection rate. In conclusion, it is possible to identify patients with a higher risk of sentinel lymph node identification failure and we recommend that these patients are operated by experienced...

  4. Size of sentinel-node metastasis and chances of non-sentinel-node involvement and survival in early stage vulvar cancer : results from GROINSS-V, a multicentre observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Maaike H.; van Hemel, Bettien M.; Hollema, Harry; de Hullu, Joanne A.; Ansink, Anca C.; Vergote, Ignace; Verheijen, Rene H.; Maggioni, Angelo; Gaarenstroom, Katja N.; Baldwin, Peter J.; van Dorst, Eleonora B.; van der Velden, Jacobus; Hermans, Ralph H.; van der Putten, Hans W.; Drouin, Pierre; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Sluiter, Wim J.; van der Zee, Ate G.

    Background Currently, all patients with vulvar cancer with a positive sentinel node undergo inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, irrespective of the size of sentinel-node metastases. Our study aimed to assess the association between size of sentinel-node metastasis and risk of metastases in non-sentinel

  5. Size of sentinel-node metastasis and chances of non-sentinel-node involvement and survival in early stage vulvar cancer: results from GROINSS-V, a multicentre observational study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, M.H.; Hemel, B.M. van; Hollema, H.; Hullu, J.A. de; Ansink, A.C.; Vergote, I.; Verheijen, R.H.; Maggioni, A.; Gaarenstroom, K.N.; Baldwin, P.J.; Dorst, E.B. van; Velden, J. van der; Hermans, R.H.; Putten, H.W. van der; Drouin, P.; Runnebaum, I.B.; Sluiter, W.J.; Zee, A.G. van der

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, all patients with vulvar cancer with a positive sentinel node undergo inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, irrespective of the size of sentinel-node metastases. Our study aimed to assess the association between size of sentinel-node metastasis and risk of metastases in non-sentinel

  6. Vertical growth phase and positive sentinel node in thin melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Filho R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel node (SN status is the most important prognostic factor for localized melanoma. Usually, patients with Breslow thickness of less than 1.0 mm are not included in SN protocols. However, the literature presents a rate ranging from 3 to 7% of nodal recurrence in thin melanoma. Ulceration, regression and high mitotic rate have been considered to be indications for an SN biopsy. The metastatic potential of the vertical growth phase is uncertain. To correlate pathological features in thin melanoma with SN metastasis, we reviewed 358 patients submitted to SN biopsy. Seventy-seven patients with lesions of 1 mm or smaller were included in the study group. Histological evaluation of the primary tumor included thickness, Clark level, mitotic rate, ulceration, regression, and growth phase. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed on all patients. Lymphatic mapping and gamma probe detection were both used for SN biopsy. Histological examination of SN consisted of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining. Median follow-up was 37 months. Six patients had micrometastases. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test showed that ulceration (P = 0.019, high mitotic rate (P = 0.008 and vertical growth phase (P = 0.002 were positively correlated with micrometastases. If other studies confirm these results, more melanoma patients must be submitted to SN biopsy.

  7. Cost analysis of sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Menchón, T; Sánchez-Pedreño, P; Martínez-Escribano, J; Corbalán-Vélez, R; Martínez-Barba, E

    2015-04-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the most useful tool for node staging in melanoma. SLNB facilitates selective dissection of lymph nodes, that is, the performance of lymphadenectomy only in patients with sentinel nodes positive for metastasis. Our aim was to assess the cost of SLNB, given that this procedure has become the standard of care for patients with melanoma and must be performed whenever patients are to be enrolled in clinical trials. Furthermore, the literature on the economic impact of SLNB in Spain is scarce. From 2007 to 2010, we prospectively collected data for 100 patients undergoing SLNB followed by transhilar bivalving and multiple-level sectioning of the node for histology. Our estimation of the cost of the technique was based on official pricing and fee schedules for the Spanish region of Murcia. The rate of node-positive cases in our series was 20%, and the mean number of nodes biopsied was 1.96; 44% of the patients in the series had thin melanomas. The total cost was estimated at between €9486.57 and €10471.29. Histopathology accounted for a considerable portion of the cost (€5769.36). The cost of SLNB is high, consistent with amounts described for a US setting. Optimal use of SLNB will come with the increasingly appropriate selection of patients who should undergo the procedure and the standardization of a protocol for histopathologic evaluation that is both sensitive and easy to perform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. The Sentinel Lymph Node as a Disease Prognosticator in Node Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    ninety percent disease-free survival at five years. Study Procedure. Technetium - 99m Sulfur colloid is prepared by the radiopharmacy at Johns Hopkins...sulfur colloid was used as the tracer for the sentinel node procedure. Unfiltered technetium-99m sulfur colloid was prepared by the radiopharmacy

  9. Clinical outcomes after sentinel lymph node biopsy in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hee Ji; Keun Ki Chang; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Yong Bae [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju Ree [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Cheil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Hee Rim [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    To evaluate non-sentinel lymph node (LN) status after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) in patients with breast cancer and to identify the predictive factors for disease failure. From January 2006 to December 2007, axillary lymph node (ALN) dissection after SNB was performed for patients with primary invasive breast cancer who had no clinical evidence of LN metastasis. A total of 320 patients were treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy. The median age of patients was 48 years, and the median follow-up time was 72.8 months. Close resection margin (RM) was observed in 13 patients. The median number of dissected SNB was two, and that of total retrieved ALNs was 11. Sentinel node accuracy was 94.7%, and the overall false negative rate (FNR) was 5.3%. Eleven patients experienced treatment failure. Local recurrence, regional LN recurrence, and distant metastasis were identified in 0.9%, 1.9%, and 2.8% of these patients, respectively. Sentinel LN status were not associated with locoregional recurrence (p > 0.05). Close RM was the only significant factor for disease-free survival (DFS) in univariate and multivariate analysis. The 5-year overall survival, DFS, and locoregional DFS were 100%, 96.8%, and 98.1%, respectively. In this study, SNB was performed with high accuracy and low FNR and high locoregional control was achieved.

  10. Understanding Lymphatic Drainage Pathways of the Ovaries to Predict Sites for Sentinel Nodes in Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, M.; Kraima, A.C.; Kruitwagen, R.F.P.M.; Van Gorp, T.; Smit, N.N.; Van Munsteren, J.C.; De Ruiter, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In ovarian cancer, detection of sentinel nodes is an upcoming procedure. Perioperative determination of the patient’s sentinel node(s) might prevent a radical lymphadenectomy and associated morbidity. It is essential to understand the lymphatic drainage pathways of the ovaries, which are

  11. Sentinel Node Detection in Head and Neck Malignancies: Innovations in Radioguided Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, L.; Klop, W. M. C.; van den Brekel, M. W. M.; Balm, A. J. M.; Nieweg, O. E.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Sentinel node mapping is becoming a routine procedure for staging of various malignancies, because it can determine lymph node status more precisely. Due to anatomical problems, localizing sentinel nodes in the head and neck region on the basis of conventional images can be difficult. New diagnostic

  12. Intra-Operative Lymphatic Mapping and Sentinel Node Biopsy in Laryngeal Carcinoma: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khadivi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sentinel node mapping has been used for laryngeal carcinoma in several studies, with excellent results thus far.In the current study, we report our preliminary results on sentinel node mapping in laryngeal carcinoma using intra-operative peri-tumoral injection of a radiotracer.   Materials and Methods: Patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx were included in the study. Two mCi/0.4 cc Tc-99m-phytate in four aliquots was injected on the day of surgery, after induction of anesthesia, in the sub-mucosal peri-tumoral location using a suspension laryngoscopy. After waiting for 10 minutes, a portable gamma probe was used to search for sentinel nodes. All patients underwent laryngectomy and modified radical bilateral neck dissection. All sentinel nodes and removed non-sentinel nodes were examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining.   Results: Ten patients with laryngeal carcinoma were included. At least one sentinel node could be detected in five patients (bilateral nodes in four patients. One patient had pathologically involved sentinel and non-sentinel nodes (no false-negative cases.   Conclusion:  Sentinel node mapping in laryngeal carcinoma is technically feasible using an intra-operative radiotracer injection. In order to evaluate the relationship of T-stage and the laterality of the tumor with accuracy, larger studies are needed.

  13. Factors influencing sentinel lymph node identification failure in breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straalman, Kristina; Kristoffersen, Ulrik S; Galatius, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for failed sentinel lymph node identification in breast cancer surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics, surgeon experience and detection success/failure were registered at 748 sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures....... Tumour size, palpability and biopsy method were not significantly associated with the sentinel lymph node detection rate. In conclusion, it is possible to identify patients with a higher risk of sentinel lymph node identification failure and we recommend that these patients are operated by experienced...

  14. A systematic review and economic evaluation of intraoperative tests [RD-100i one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) system and Metasin test] for detecting sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Nicola; Jones-Hughes, Tracey; Coelho, Helen; Snowsill, Tristan; Cooper, Chris; Meng, Yang; Hyde, Chris; Mújica-Mota, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    In breast cancer patients, sentinel lymph node biopsy is carried out at the same time as the removal of the primary tumour to postoperatively test with histopathology for regional metastases in the sentinel lymph node. Those patients with positive test results are then operated on 2-4 weeks after primary surgery to remove the lymph nodes from the axilla (axillary lymph node dissection, ALND). New molecular tests RD-100i [one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA); based on messenger RNA amplification to identify the cytokeratin-19 (CK19) gene marker] (Sysmex, Norderstedt, Germany) and Metasin (using the CK19 and mammaglobin gene markers) (Cellular Pathology, Princess Alexandra Hospital NHS Trust, Harlow, UK) are intended to provide an intraoperative diagnosis, thereby avoiding the need for postoperative histopathology and, in positive cases, a second operation for ALND. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of using OSNA and Metasin in the NHS in England for the intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel lymph nodes metastases, compared with postoperative histopathology, the current standard. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and the Health Economic Evaluations Database as well as clinical trial registries, grey literature and conference proceedings were searched up to July 2012. A systematic review of the evidence was carried out using standard methods. Single-gate studies were used to estimate the accuracy of OSNA with histopathology as the reference standard. The cost-effectiveness analysis adapted an existing simulation model of the long-term costs and health implications of early breast cancer diagnostic outcomes. The model accounted for the costs of an extended first operation with intraoperative testing, the loss of health-related quality of life (disutility) from waiting for postoperative test results, disutility and costs of a second operation, and long

  15. The importance of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Atilla; Menekse, Ebru; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Tane, Kaori; Diego, Emilia; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Johnson, Ronald

    2017-07-06

    The presence of pigment in axillary lymph nodes (LN) secondary to migration of tattoo ink can imitate the appearance of a blue sentinel lymph node (SLN) on visual inspection, causing the operator to either miss the true SLN or excise more than is needed. We present patients with tattoos ipsilateral to an early stage breast cancer who underwent a SLN biopsy. Patients were retrospectively reviewed from medical records and clinicopathologic data was collected. A total of 52 LNs were retrieved from 15 patients for sentinel mapping and 29 of them had tattoo pigmentation on pathologic evaluation. Of those 29 SLNs, 2 of them (6.9%) were pigmented, but did not contain either blue dye or Tc-99m (pseudopigmented SLN). Two (3.8%) SLNs were positive for metastasis; both of these had either blue dye or Tc99m uptake, and 1 demonstrated tattoo pigment in the node. In this cohort of patients with ipsilateral tattoos, removed more LNs lead to unnecessary excision which may important for increasing the risk of arm morbidity from SLN biopsy. However, the presence of tattoo pigment did not interfere with understaging for axillary mapping and it did not effect of pathological identification of SLNs positivity.

  16. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Marcuartu, J J; Alvarez-Perez, R M; Sousa Vaquero, J M; Jimenez-Hoyuela García, J M

    2017-12-12

    To evaluate the reproducibility of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) technique in male breast cancer. We retrospectively analysed 21 male patients diagnosed with breast cancer in our hospital from 2008 to 2016 with, at least, 18 months follow-up. Fifteen patients underwent selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) following the usual protocols with peritumoral injection of 18.5-111MBq of 99mTc-nanocoloides and acquisition of planar images 2hours after the injection. In 2 cases it was necessary to perform a SPECT/CT to locate the SLN. Immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques (OSNA) were used for their analysis. Six patients did not undergo SLNB because they had pathological nodes or distant disease at the time of diagnosis. SLNB was performed in 15 patients. The SLN was negative in 6 patients and positive in the remaining 9. Three patients with positive SLNB did not need axillary lymphadenectomy because of the low number of copies by molecular analysis OSNA. Axillary lymphadenectomy was performed in the remaining 6 patients with the result of 4 positive axillary lymphadenectomies and 2 that did not show further extension of the disease. According to our experience, SLNB in males is a reproducible, useful, safe and reliable technique which avoids unnecessary axillary lymphadenectomy and prevents the appearance of undesirable effects. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. What is a sentinel node? Re-evaluating the 10% rule for sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Hidde M; Lowe, Lori; Wong, Sandra; Fullen, Doug; Su, Lyndon; Cimmino, Vincent; Chang, Alfred E; Johnson, Timothy; Sabel, Michael S

    2007-06-15

    Many surgeons use the "10% rule" to define whether a lymph node is a sentinel node (SLN) when staging malignant melanoma. However, this increases the number of SLN removed and the time and cost of the procedure. We examined the impact of raising this threshold on the accuracy of the procedure. We reviewed the records of 561 patients with melanoma (624 basins) who underwent SLN with technetium Tc99 labeled sulfur colloid using a definition of a SLN as 10% of that of the node with the highest counts per minute (CPM). Of the 624 basins, 154 (25%) were positive for metastases. An average of 1.9 nodes per basin were removed (range 1-6). Metastases were found in the hottest node in 137 cases (89% of positive basins, 97% of basins overall). Increasing the threshold above 10% decreased the number of nodes excised and the costs involved, but incrementally raised the number of false negative cases above baseline (a 4% increase for a "20% rule," 5% for a "30% rule," 6% for a "40% rule," and 7% for a "50% rule"). Taking only the hottest node would raise the false negative rate by 11%. Although using thresholds higher than 10% for the definition of a SLN will minimize the extent of surgery and decrease the costs associated with the procedure, it will compromise the accuracy of the procedure and is not recommended. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The clinical value of hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy to predict metastatic sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Cang Ju; Kim, Jeong Hun; Choi, Se Hun; Han, Yeon Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Youn, Hyun Jo; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Hybrid imaging techniques can provide functional and anatomical information about sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Our aim in this study was to evaluate which imaging parameters on hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy predicted metastatic involvement of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with breast cancer. Among 56 patients who underwent conventional sentinel lymphoscintigraphy, 45 patients (age, 53.1 ± 9.5 years) underwent hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy using a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) gamma camera. On hybrid SPECT/CT images, we compared the shape and size (long-to-short axis [L/S] ratio) of the SLN, and SLN/periareolar injection site (S/P) count ratio between metastatic and non-metastatic SLNs. Metastatic involvement of sentinel lymph nodes was confirmed by pathological biopsy. Pathological biopsy revealed that 21 patients (46.7 %) had metastatic SLNs, while 24 (53.3 %) had non-metastatic SLNs. In the 21 patients with metastatic SLNs, the SLN was mostly round (57.1 %) or had an eccentric cortical rim (38.1 %). Of 24 patients with non-metastatic SLNs, 13 patients (54.1 %) had an SLN with a C-shape rim or eccentric cortex. L/S ratio was 2.04 for metastatic SLNs and 2.38 for non-metastatic SLNs. Seven (33 %) patients had T1 primary tumors and 14 (66 %) had T2 primary tumors in the metastatic SLN group. In contrast, 18 (75 %) patients had T1 primary tumors and six (25 %) had T2 tumors in the non-metastatic SLN group. S/P count ratio was significantly lower in the metastatic SLN group than the non-metastatic SLN group for those patients with a T1 primary tumor (p = 0.007). Hybrid SPECT/CT offers the physiologic data of SPECT together with the anatomic data of CT in a single image. This hybrid imaging improved the anatomic localization of SLNs in breast cancer patients and predicted the metastatic involvement of SLNs in the subgroup of breast cancer patients with T1 primary tumors.

  19. Staging of women with breast cancer after introduction of sentinel node guided axillary dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg

    2012-01-01

    Today, sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) has replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as standard procedure for staging of the axilla in the treatment of breast cancer. SLND can accurately stage the axilla by removing on average only two lymph nodes. Only in case of metastatic spread.......8%, when estimated using today´s criteria for risk-allocation, because nodal status is now less important in risk-allocation. In general, only 15-20% of patients with micrometastases and 10-15% of patients with isolated tumor cells (ITC) in sentinel node have further metastatic spread to non-sentinel nodes....../3 of patients with ITC in sentinel node for an ALND. In patients with micrometastases in sentinel node the risk of NSN metastases was significantly associated with increasing tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, negative hormone receptor status, location of tumor in the upper lateral quadrant of the breast...

  20. Predictors of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node (Pilot study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldweny, Hany; Alkhaldy, Khaled; Alsaleh, Noha; Abdulsamad, Majda; Abbas, Ahmed; Hamad, Ahmad; Mounib, Sherif; Essam, Tarek; Kukawski, Pawel; Bobin, Jean-Yves; Oteifa, Medhat; Amanguono, Henney; Abulhoda, Fawaz; Usmani, Sharjeel; Elbasmy, Amany

    2012-03-01

    Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) procedure was found to be an accurate method of staging the axilla in patients with early stage breast cancer. The standard of care for breast cancer patients with positive SLN metastasis includes complete Axillary Lymph Node Dissection (ALND). However, in 40-70% of patients, the SLN is the only involved axillary node. Factors predicting non SLN metastasis should be identified in order to define subgroups of patients with positive SLN in whom the axilla may be staged by SLNB alone. To identify the factors predicting metastatic involvement of the non-SLNs in breast cancer patients having SLN metastasis. Data were collected and analyzed from 80 patients with early stage invasive breast cancer (T1, T2, N0, M0) who underwent SLNB at the Surgical Oncology Department, Kuwait Cancer Control Center (KCCC) between November 2004 and February 2009. SLNB was performed using a combined technique (radioactive colloid, and blue dye) in the majority of cases. In some cases, only one technique was used. Complete ALND was performed in the case of failure of SLN identification and in patients with positive SLN. Multiple variables (patient, tumor, and SLN characteristics) were tested as possible predictors of nonsentinel lymph node metastasis. The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 46.6years. The median tumor size was 2cm. The SLN identification rate was 96.2% (77 out of 80 patients). The SLN was positive in 24 patients (31%), and half of these showed evidence of capsular invasion. The median number of SLNs removed was two. The median number of positive SLNs was one. The incidence of non-SLN metastasis associated with positive SLN was 50% (12 out of 24 patients). Lymphovascular invasion was found to be the only factor associated with non-SLN metastases. In addition, two trends were observed, though they did not reach the statistical significance: the first is that the majority of patients having capsular invasion of the SLN (8 out of 12 patients

  1. Extensive pathological analysis of selected melanoma sentinel lymph nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Sjoegren, Pia; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extensive pathological workup of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in melanoma detects more patients with metastasis-positive SLNs than do routine protocols, but at the cost of high laboratory workloads. We aimed to design a protocol that reduced this workload without compromising metastasis...... detection. METHODS: We analyzed 920 SLNs from 321 consecutive patients with melanoma by complete step sectioning and immunohistochemistry. We designed different models to theoretically reduce the number of histological sections examined and compared the results from these simulations with results obtained...

  2. Clinical implications of axillary sentinel lymph node 'micrometastases' in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauth, J-S; Charitansky, H; Isaac, S; Bobin, J-Y

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, from a series of cases, the frequency and prognostic factors of invasion of non-sentinel lymph nodes when the axillary sentinel lymph node contains a metastasis < or =2 mm, and thereby select a population in which completion axillary dissection could be omitted. Between July 1996 and July 2003, 62 patients, which axillary sentinel lymph node contained a metastasis < or =2 mm had an evaluation of the axillary non-sentinel lymph nodes. Eleven patients had also an evaluation of internal mammary lymph nodes. Eleven patients had axillary non-sentinel lymph node invasion: six by metastases < or =2 mm and five by macrometastases. When internal mammary lymph nodes were also concerned, nodal invasion apart from the axillary sentinel lymph node was seen in 14 patients. Vascular lymphatic invasion was the only factor, statistically significant, linked to non-sentinel lymph node invasion (p = 0.02). Whatever the size or method of histological detection (pN1mi or pN0(i+)), the presence of a metastasis < or =2 mm in the axillary sentinel lymph node leads us to carry out completion axillary dissection to optimize staging and loco-regional control of the disease.

  3. Intraoperative frozen section assessment of sentinel lymph nodes in the operative management of women with symptomatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landers Rob

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maximisation of the potential of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a minimally invasive method of axillary staging requires sensitive intraoperative pathological analysis so that rates of re-operation for lymphatic metastases are minimised. The aim of this study was to describe the test parameters of the frozen section evaluation of sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer compared to the gold standard of standard permanent pathological evaluation at our institution. Methods The accuracy of intraoperative frozen section (FS of sentinel nodes was determined in 94 consecutive women undergoing surgery for clinically node negative, invasive breast cancer (37:T1 disease; 43:T2; 14:T3. Definitive evidence of lymphatic spread on FS indicated immediate level II axillary clearance while sentinel node "negativity" on intraoperative testing led to the operation being curtailed to allow formal H&E analysis of the remaining sentinel nodal tissue. Results Intraoperative FS correctly predicted axillary involvement in 23/30 patients with lymphatic metastases (76% sensitivity rate permitting definitive surgery to be completed at the index operation in 87 women (93% overall. All SN found involved on FS were confirmed as harbouring tumour cells on subsequent formal specimen examination (100% specificity and positive predictive value with 16 patients having additional non-sentinel nodes found also to contain tumour. Negative Predictive Values were highest in women with T1 tumours (97% and lessened with more local advancement of disease (T2 rates: 86%; T3: 75%. Of those with falsely negative FS, three had only micrometastatic disease. Conclusion Intraoperative FS reliably evaluates the status of the sentinel node allowing most women complete their surgery in a single stage. Thus SN can be offered with increased confidence to those less likely to have negative axillae hence expanding the population of potential beneficiaries.

  4. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Matthey-Giè

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of lymph nodes in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients is currently still debated. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM, and other rare skin neoplasms have a well-known risk to spread to regional lymph nodes. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB could be a promising procedure to assess this risk in clinically N0 patients. Metastatic SNs have been observed in 4.5–28% SCC (according to risk factors, in 9–42% MCC, and in 14–57% PEM. We observed overall 30.8% positive SNs in 13 consecutive patients operated for high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer between 2002 and 2011 in our institution. These high rates support recommendation to implement SLNB for nonmelanoma skin cancer especially for SCC patients. Completion lymph node dissection following positive SNs is also a matter of discussion especially in PEM. It must be remembered that a definitive survival benefit of SLNB in melanoma patients has not been proven yet. However, because of its low morbidity when compared to empiric elective lymph node dissection or radiation therapy of lymphatic basins, SLNB has allowed sparing a lot of morbidity and could therefore be used in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients, even though a significant impact on survival has not been demonstrated.

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in paediatric melanoma. A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Aguilar, M; Álvarez Pérez, R M; García Gómez, F J; Fernández Ortega, P; Borrego Dorado, I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in children is uncommon, being particularly rare in children under 10 years-old. However, this disease is increasing by a mean of 2% per year. As in adults, the lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor, crucial to performing the selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). We report 3 cases of paediatric patients of 3, 4 and 8 years-old, in which SLNB was performed for malignant melanoma. Paediatric age implies greater technical difficulty to the scintigraphy scan due to poor patient cooperation, with mild sedation required in some cases, and only being able to acquire planar images in other cases. SPECT/CT was only performed in the oldest patient. In our cases, SLNB was useful for selecting the least invasive surgery in order to reduce morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. The hidden sentinel node and SPECT/CT in breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploeg, Iris M.C. van der; Kroon, Bin B.R.; Rutgers, Emiel J.T.; Nieweg, Omgo E. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Valdes Olmos, Renato A. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-01-15

    In a minority of breast cancer patients, lymphoscintigraphy shows no lymphatic drainage and 'hidden' sentinel nodes may remain undiscovered. The purpose of this study was to explore the additional value of the recently introduced hybrid SPECT/CT in breast cancer patients with axillary non-visualisation on planar images. The role of blue dye and careful palpation of the axilla was evaluated in patients in whom axillary sentinel nodes remained hidden after SPECT/CT. Fifteen breast cancer patients with non-visualisation on planar lymphoscintigraphy and 13 women with only extra-axillary sentinel nodes underwent SPECT/CT following late planar imaging without re-injection of the radiopharmaceutical. SPECT/CT visualised lymphatic drainage in eight of the 15 patients (53%) with non-visualisation on planar imaging, depicted nine of the 14 harvested sentinel nodes (64%) and three of five tumour-positive sentinel nodes. In two of the 13 patients (15%) with only extra-axillary sentinel nodes on their planar lymphoscintigram, SPECT/CT showed an axillary sentinel node that appeared to be uninvolved. Careful exploration of the axilla with the combined use of blue dye, a gamma probe and intra-operative palpation revealed an axillary sentinel node in the remaining 18 patients. SPECT/CT showed the exact anatomical location of all visualised sentinel nodes. SPECT/CT discovered 'hidden' sentinel nodes in the majority of patients with non-visualisation, but was less valuable in patients with only extra-axillary lymphatic drainage on the planar images. Exploration of the axilla in patients with persistent non-visualisation improved the identification of axillary (involved) sentinel nodes. (orig.)

  7. Sentinel node in ovarian cancer: study protocol for a phase 1 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleppe Marjolein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of sentinel lymph node surgery is to determine whether the cancer has spread to the very first lymph node or sentinel node. If the sentinel node does not contain cancer, then there is a high likelihood that the cancer has not spread to other lymph nodes. The sentinel node technique has been proven to be effective in different types of cancer. In this study we want to determine whether a sentinel node procedure in patients with ovarian cancer is feasible when the tracers are injected into the ovarian ligaments. Methods/Design Patients with a high likelihood of having an ovarian malignancy in whom a median laparotomy and a frozen section analysis is planned and patients with endometrial cancer in whom a staging laparotomy is planned will be included. Before starting the surgical staging procedure, blue dye and radioactive colloid will be injected into the ligamentum ovarii proprium and the ligamentum infundibulo-pelvicum. In the analysis we calculate the percentage of patients in whom it is feasible to identify sentinel nodes. Other study parameters are the anatomical localization of the sentinel node(s and the incidence of false negative lymph nodes. Trial registration Approval number: NL40323.068.12 Name: Medical Ethical Committee Maastricht University Hospital, University of Maastricht Affiliation: Maastricht University Hospital Board Chair Name: Medisch Ethische Commissie azM/UM

  8. False negative sentinel node procedure established through palpation of the biopsy wound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, P. J.; Nieweg, O. E.; Merkus, J. W.; Peterse, J. L.; Kroon, B. B.

    2000-01-01

    We describe our first false negative sentinel node biopsy after ceasing confirmatory axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer. Palpation of the axilla through the biopsy wound prevented understaging

  9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in pregnant patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentilini, Oreste; Toesca, Antonio; Sangalli, Claudia; Veronesi, Paolo; Galimberti, Viviana [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Senology, Milan (Italy); Cremonesi, Marta; Pedroli, Guido [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Medical Physics, Milan (Italy); Colombo, Nicola [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Cardiology, Milan (Italy); Peccatori, Fedro [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Haematology-Oncology, Milan (Italy); Sironi, Roberto [S. Pio X Hospital, Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Milan (Italy); Rotmensz, Nicole [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milan (Italy); Viale, Giuseppe [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Pathology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Goldhirsch, Aron [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Veronesi, Umberto [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Senology, Milan (Italy); European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Paganelli, Giovanni [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milano (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is currently not recommended in pregnant patients with breast cancer due to radiation concerns. Twelve pregnant patients with breast cancer received low-dose (10 MBq on average) lymphoscintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc human serum albumin nanocolloids. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified in all patients. Of the 12 patients, 10 had pathologically negative SLN. One patient had micrometastasis in one of four SLN. One patient had metastasis in the SLN and underwent axillary clearance. From the 12 pregnancies, 11 healthy babies were born with no malformations and normal weight. One baby, whose mother underwent lymphatic mapping during the 26th week of gestation, was operated on at the age of 3 months for a ventricular septal defect and at 43 months was in good health. This malformation was suspected at the morphological US examination during week 21, well before lymphoscintigraphy, and was confirmed a posteriori by a different observer based on videotaped material. No overt axillary recurrence appeared in the patients with negative SLNs after a median follow-up of 32 months. Our experience supports the safety of SLNB in pregnant patients with breast cancer, when performed with a low-dose lymphoscintigraphic technique. (orig.)

  10. Mulig forbedret behandling af kolorektal cancer med sentinel lymph node-diagnostik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard; Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Possibly improved treatment of colorectal cancer by sentinel lymph node mapping Prognosis for colorectal cancer is dependent on radical surgical intervention. Chemotherapy in patients with advanced disease has improved the survival. A considerable proportion of the patients going through radical...... surgery will subsequently relapse. Adjuvant chemotherapy is reserved for patients with lymph node metastases, why undetected malignant lymph nodes will result in understaging and exclusion from the possible benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. With sentinel lymph node mapping it may be possible to detect...

  11. Eight false negative sentinel node procedures in breast cancer: what went wrong?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estourgie, S. H.; Nieweg, O. E.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Rutgers, E. J. Th; Peterse, J. L.; Kroon, B. B. R.

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the false negative sentinel node procedures in patients with breast cancer at our institution.METHODS: A total of 606 sentinel node biopsies were performed on 599 clinical N0 breast cancer patients between January 1997 and November 2001.RESULTS: The

  12. Profound hypotension after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young; Lee, Kyung Cheon

    2013-03-01

    Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.

  13. Profound Hypotension after an Intradermal Injection of Indigo Carmine for Sentinel Node Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Youn Yi; Lee, Mi Geum; Yun, Soon Young; Lee, Kyung Cheon

    2013-01-01

    Intradermal injections of indigo carmine for sentinel node mapping are considered safe and no report of an adverse reaction has been published. The authors described two cases of profound hypotension in women that underwent breast-conserving surgery after an intradermal injection of indigo carmine into the periareolar area for sentinel node mapping.

  14. Promising results using sentinel node biopsy as a substitute for radical lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Berit Jul; Skovlund, Vibeke Ravn; Hendel, Helle Westergren

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the sentinel node (SN) procedure in endometrial cancer patients.......The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the sentinel node (SN) procedure in endometrial cancer patients....

  15. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer patients using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoyama Kei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are various methods for detecting sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB using a vital dye is a convenient and safe, intraoperatively preparative method to assess lymph node status. However, the disadvantage of the dye method is that the success rate of sentinel lymph node detection depend on the surgeon's skills and preoperative mapping of the sentinel lymph node is not feasible. Currently, a vital dye, radioisotope, or a combination of both is used to detect sentinel nodes. Many surgeons have reported successful results using either method. In this study we have analyzed breast lymphatic drainage pathways using indocyanine green (ICG fluorescence imaging. Methods We examined the lymphatic courses, or lymphatic vessels, in the breast using ICG fluorescence imaging, and applied this method to SLNB in patients who underwent their first operative treatment for breast cancer between May 2006 and April 2008. Fluorescence images were obtained using a charge coupled device camera with a cut filter used as a detector, and light emitting diodes at 760 nm as a light source. When ICG was injected into the subareola and periareola, subcutaneous lymphatic vessels from the areola to the axilla became visible by fluorescence within a few minutes. The sentinel lymph node was then dissected with the help of fluorescence imaging navigation. Results The detection rate of sentinel nodes was 100%. 0 to 4 states of lymphatic drainage pathways from the areola were observed. The number of sentinel nodes was 3.41 on average. Conclusions This method using indocyanine green (ICG fluorescence imaging may possibly improve the detection rate of sentinel lymph nodes with high sensitivity and compensates for the deficiencies of other methods. The ICG fluorescence imaging technique enables observation of breast lymph vessels running in multiple directions and easily and accurately identification of sentinel lymph nodes

  16. Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: five years experience from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Balslev, E.; Jensen, D.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Danish experience from the first five years with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a routine staging procedure in early breast cancer is reported. METHODS: During the period January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2006, 14 923 patients were diagnosed at Danish breast surgical centers...... certified for the sentinel node method. SLNB was performed in 8 338 patients (55.9%). The fraction increased steadily from 43% in 2002 to 67% in 2006. The median follow-up was 1.7 year (range 0-5.2 years). RESULTS: Patients staged with SLNB were younger, had more often BCS, had smaller tumor size, were more...... classification by SN was known. In the group of 1 563 patients with macrometastases in SN, 45% had non-sentinel node metastases, and in the group of 942 patients with micrometastases only, 23% had more positive nodes. Regional lymph node metastases were found in 15% with ITC in sentinel nodes. Lymph node...

  17. Sentinel node biopsy as a surgical staging method for solid cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doting, MHE; de Vries, J; Tiebosch, ATMG; Plukker, JT; Hoekstra, HJ; Piers, DA; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    The sentinel node is the first lymph node that drains a primary tumour. If this lymphatic drainage occurs in a step-wise fashion, this lymph node reflects the pathological status of the remaining lymph node basin. The day before the operation, a total dose of 60 MBq 99mTc nanocolloid is injected

  18. Detection of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Takami

    2003-07-01

    Conclusions: Sentinel lymph node biopsy may allow discrimination between patients with true lymph-node-negative papillary thyroid carcinoma and those with non-palpable metastatic lymph nodes. It may also be helpful in diagnosing metastases and avoiding unnecessary lymph node dissection in thyroid cancer.

  19. Sentinel node mapping with thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticles in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Ueda, Masakazu; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Oyama, Takashi; Irino, Tomoyuki; Yoshikawa, Takahisa; Kondo, Akihiko; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after interstitial administration of thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticles to detect the sentinel lymph node (SLN). Postcontrast MRI scans were acquired following subcutaneous injection of thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticles into the thoracic wall of rats. The signal-to-noise ratio of axillary lymph nodes was calculated to assess whether the SLN could be detected by MRI. In a second experiment, after injecting thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticles, i.e., Therma-Max 36, Therma-Max 42, Therma-Max 55, and Ferridex, into the subserosa of the cecum of rats, the injection sites, the SLNs, and the distant lymph nodes were resected and examined histologically in order to determine which nanoparticles, if any, were specifically retained in the SLN. MRI showed that the signal-to-noise ratio of axillary SLNs was significantly lower 24 h after injection of Therma-Max 42 than on the precontrast images (P magnetic nanoparticles could be targeted to the SLN by adjusting the temperature at which they aggregate, and that they could be used as a contrast agent for SLN mapping by MRI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection in Locally Recurrent Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Charlotte Caspara; Christensen, Mette Haulund; Oldenbourg, Mette Holmqvist

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) in the treatment of patients with locally recurrent breast cancer. A total of 147 patients with locally recurrent breast cancer were included from five different breast surgery departments in Denmark. Data...... on previous breast and axillary surgery, adjuvant treatment, second operation in the breast and axilla, and lymphoscintigraphy were collected retrospectively from the original patient files. SLND after recurrence (SLNDAR) was successful in 72 of 144 patients (50 %). The detection rate was significantly higher...... recurrent breast cancer and can spare a clinically significant number of patients an unnecessary ALND and the following risk of sequelae. In patients who had previous ALND, SLNDAR identified metastases that would have been overlooked following the current guidelines. A large proportion of patients had...

  1. Nanoparticles in Sentinel Lymph Node Assessment in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Douek

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern management of the axilla in breast cancer relies on surgery for accurate staging of disease and identifying those patients at risk who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy has revolutionized axillary surgery, but still involves a surgical procedure with associated morbidity in many patients with no axillary involvement. Nanotechnology encompasses a broad spectrum of scientific specialities, of which nanomedicine is one. The potential use of dual-purpose nanoprobes could enable imaging the axilla simultaneous identification and treatment of metastatic disease. Whilst most applications of nanomedicine are still largely in the laboratory phase, some potential applications are currently undergoing clinical evaluation for translation from the bench to the bedside. This is an exciting new area of research where scientific research may become a reality.

  2. Implications of a positive sentinel node in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurney, Benjamin A S; Schilling, Clare; Putcha, Venkata

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer is currently being explored. Patients with positive sentinel nodes were investigated to establish if additional metastases were present in the neck, their distribution, and their impact on outcome. METHODS: In all, 109 patients (n......: A total of 122 neck dissections were performed in 109 patients. Additional positive nodes were found in 34.4% of cases (42/122: 18 same, 21 adjacent, and 3 nonadjacent neck level). Additional nodes, especially if outside the sentinel node basin, had an impact on outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The results...... are preliminary but suggest that both the number and the position of positive sentinel nodes may identify different prognostic groups that may allow further tailoring of management plans....

  3. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with no preoperative evidence of lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Óscar; Zafon, Carles; Caubet, Enric; García-Burillo, Amparo; Serres, Xavier; Fort, José Manuel; Mesa, Jordi; Castell, Joan; Roca, Isabel; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Iglesias, Carmela

    2017-10-01

    Lymphadenectomy is recommended during surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma when there is evidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (therapeutic) or in high-risk patients (prophylactic) such as those with T3 and T4 tumors of the TNM classification. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy may improve preoperative diagnosis of nodal metastases. To analyze the results of selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in a group of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no evidence of nodal involvement before surgery. A retrospective, single-center study in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no clinical evidence of lymph node involvement who underwent surgery between 2011 and 2013. The sentinel node was identified by scintigraphy. When the sentinel node was positive, the affected compartment was removed, and when sentinel node was negative, central lymph node dissection was performed. Forty-three patients, 34 females, with a mean age of 52.3 (±17) years, were enrolled. Forty-six (27%) of the 170 SNs resected from 24 (55.8%) patients were positive for metastasis. In addition, 94 (15.6%) out of the 612 lymph nodes removed in the lymphadenectomies were positive for metastases. Twelve of the 30 (40%) low risk patients (cT1N0 and cT2N0) changed their stage to pN1, whereas 12 of 13 (92%) high risk patients (cT3N0 and cT4N0) changed to pN1 stage. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy changes the stage of more than 50% of patients from cN0 to pN1. This confirms the need for lymph node resection in T3 and T4 tumors, but reveals the presence of lymph node metastases in 40% of T1-T2 tumors. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Considerable controversy exists regarding the merits of elective neck dissection in patients with early stage oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. It is highly desirable to have a method of identifying those patients who would benefit from further treatment of the neck when they are clinically node-negative. The purpose of the present study was to examine the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in identifying occult neck disease in a cohort of patients with node-negative oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: We evaluated a total of 13 patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer who were clinically and radiologically node-negative. RESULTS: A sentinel lymph node was found in all 13 patients, revealing metastatic disease in five patients, four of whom had one or more positive sentinel lymph nodes. There was one false negative result, in which the sentinel lymph node was negative for tumour whereas histological examination of the neck dissection specimen showed occult disease. CONCLUSION: In view of these findings, we would recommend the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in cases of oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, in order to aid the differentiation of those patients whose necks are harbouring occult disease and who require further treatment.

  5. A portable gamma-camera for intraoperative detection of sentinel nodes in the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Valdés Olmos, Renato A; Klop, W Martin C; Balm, Alfons J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2010-05-01

    We introduced and evaluated a portable gamma-camera for intraoperative visualization of sentinel nodes in the head and neck region. Planar lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT were performed after peritumoral injection of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid in 25 patients (head and neck melanoma or oral cavity carcinoma). Sentinel nodes were localized intraoperatively with a portable gamma-camera and a hand-held gamma-probe. The portable gamma-camera was used to determine the distribution of remaining radioactivity after excision of the sentinel nodes. The portable gamma-camera visualized all 70 preoperatively identified sentinel nodes. Sentinel nodes at difficult sites could be localized more efficiently, and in 6 patients, 9 additional nodes (1 tumor-positive) were identified with the portable gamma-camera after excision. Intraoperative identification of sentinel nodes in the head and neck region with a portable gamma-camera is feasible and might lead to detection of more sentinel nodes.

  6. SENTINEL LYMPH NODE CONCEPT IN DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC account up to 90% of all thyroid malignacies, and represents the most common malignant tumors of endocrine system. The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially small tumors is rapidly increasing during past three decades. At the time of diagnosis, the incidence of lymph node metastases (LNM ranges from 80 to 90%. During the last 15 years, LNM were recognized as bad prognostic factor for both local-regional relapse (LRR and cancer specific survival. There is general agreement that neck dissections are indicated in cases of clinically apparent LNM. The subject of the current controversy is the surgical treatment of occult LNM that remain unrecognized on preoperative diagnosis (cN0. The extent of operations of the lymph nodes ranges from “wait and see” so-called “Western school” principle substantiated the role of applying ablative I131therapy and frequency peroperative complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism, especially for less experienced teams to mutual prophylactic dissection of the central and lateral compartments so-called “Japanese school” due to the limited use of radioactive iodine therapy and significantly lower operating morbidity if dissetion was done during primary operation. Despite high prevalence of occult LNM, existing controversies regarding diagnosis, longterm prognostic impact and extent of lymph node surgery, motivated some authors to apply consept of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNb in DTC, taking into account excellent results of SLN concept in breast cancer and skin melanoma. This review presents the summarized results of relevant studies and three meta-analysis of accuracy and applicability of SLN concept in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  7. Supine MRI for regional breast radiotherapy: imaging axillary lymph nodes before and after sentinel-node biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijst, Tristan C. F.; Eschbach-Zandbergen, Debora; Hoekstra, Nienke; van Asselen, Bram; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; de Waard, Stephanie N.; Witkamp, Arjen J.; van Dalen, Thijs; Desirée van den Bongard, H. J. G.; Philippens, Marielle E. P.

    2017-08-01

    Regional radiotherapy (RT) is increasingly used in breast cancer treatment. Conventionally, computed tomography (CT) is performed for RT planning. Lymph node (LN) target levels are delineated according to anatomical boundaries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could enable individual LN delineation. The purpose was to evaluate the applicability of MRI for LN detection in supine treatment position, before and after sentinel-node biopsy (SNB). Twenty-three female breast cancer patients (cTis-3N0M0) underwent 1.5 T MRI, before and after SNB, in addition to CT. Endurance for MRI was monitored. Axillary levels were delineated. LNs were identified and delineated on MRI from before and after SNB, and on CT, and compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. LN locations and LN-based volumes were related to axillary delineations and associated volumes. Although postoperative effects were visible, LN numbers on postoperative MRI (median 26 LNs) were highly reproducible compared to preoperative MRI when adding excised sentinel nodes, and higher than on CT (median 11, p  <  0.001). LN-based volumes were considerably smaller than respective axillary levels. Supine MRI of LNs is feasible and reproducible before and after SNB. This may lead to more accurate RT target definition compared to CT, with potentially lower toxicity. With the MRI techniques described here, initiation of novel MRI-guided RT strategies aiming at individual LNs could be possible.

  8. Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austwick, Martin R.; Clark, Benjamin; Mosse, Charles A.; Johnson, Kristie; Chicken, D. Wayne; Somasundaram, Santosh K.; Calabro, Katherine W.; Zhu, Ying; Falzon, Mary; Kocjan, Gabrijela; Fearn, Tom; Bown, Stephen G.; Bigio, Irving J.; Keshtgar, Mohammed R. S.

    2010-07-01

    A novel method for rapidly detecting metastatic breast cancer within excised sentinel lymph node(s) of the axilla is presented. Elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) is a point-contact technique that collects broadband optical spectra sensitive to absorption and scattering within the tissue. A statistical discrimination algorithm was generated from a training set of nearly 3000 clinical spectra and used to test clinical spectra collected from an independent set of nodes. Freshly excised nodes were bivalved and mounted under a fiber-optic plate. Stepper motors raster-scanned a fiber-optic probe over the plate to interrogate the node's cut surface, creating a 20×20 grid of spectra. These spectra were analyzed to create a map of cancer risk across the node surface. Rules were developed to convert these maps to a prediction for the presence of cancer in the node. Using these analyses, a leave-one-out cross-validation to optimize discrimination parameters on 128 scanned nodes gave a sensitivity of 69% for detection of clinically relevant metastases (71% for macrometastases) and a specificity of 96%, comparable to literature results for touch imprint cytology, a standard technique for intraoperative diagnosis. ESS has the advantage of not requiring a pathologist to review the tissue sample.

  9. Sentinel node mapping guided by indocyanine green fluorescence imaging: a new method for sentinel node navigation surgery in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Mitsuo; Tajima, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Kimiyasu; Kato, Masanori; Watanabe, Makoto; Miwa, Mitsuharu

    2008-01-01

    Recently, gastrointestinal cancer has also been identified as a target for sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS). This study is the first to determine the feasibility of sentinel node (SN) mapping guided by indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging in gastrointestinal cancer. Our series consisted of 22 patients with gastric cancer and 26 patients with colorectal cancer who had undergone standard surgical resection. ICG solution was injected intraoperatively into the subserosa around the tumor. Fluorescence imaging was obtained by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera with a light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 760 nm as the light source and a cut filter to filter out light with wavelengths below 820 nm as the detector. Immediately after the ICG injection, lymphatic vessels draining the tumor and round-shaped SNs were visualized by their bright fluorescence. Even SNs that were not green in color could be easily and clearly visualized by ICG fluorescence imaging. The SN detection rate and mean number of SNs were 90.9% and 3.6 +/- 4.5 (mean +/- SD), respectively, in patients with gastric cancer, and 88.5% and 2.6 +/- 2.4, respectively, in patients with colorectal cancer. Among the patients with gastric cancer, the accuracy and false-negative rates were 88.9 and 33.3%, respectively, in patients with T(1) stage cancer, and 70.0 and 60.0%, respectively, overall, in all the patients. Among the patients with colorectal cancer, the corresponding values were 100 and 0%, respectively, in patients with T(1) stage cancer, and 82.6 and 66.7%, respectively, overall, in all the patients. Our preliminary results show that ICG fluorescence imaging allows easy, highly sensitive and real-time imaging-guided SN mapping in patients with gastric or colorectal cancer. SN mapping guided by ICG fluorescence imaging could be a promising tool deserving further clinical exploration. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Inguinal sentinel node dissection versus standard inguinal node dissection in patients with vulvar cancer: A comparison of the size of metastasis detected in inguinal lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Katina; Steinhoff, Margaret M; Granai, C O; Brard, Laurent; Gajewski, Walter; Moore, Richard G

    2006-04-01

    The emergence of sentinel lymph node (SLN) technology has provided the ability for an in depth pathologic evaluation for the detection of metastasis to lymph nodes through the use of ultra-staging. The SLN has been shown to be predictive of the metastatic status of its nodal basin. More recently, SLN dissections have been employed in the evaluation of the inguinal lymphatic basins in patients with vulvar malignancies. We hypothesize that the average size of metastasis detected in non-palpable inguinal lymph nodes is smaller when detected through the use of SLN dissection and ultra-staging versus complete inguinal node dissection (CND). This was an IRB approved retrospective study. The tumor registry database was searched to identify all patients diagnosed with a vulvar malignancy from 1990 to 2004. The records were reviewed to identify patients with inguinal lymph node metastasis. Only patients with non-palpable inguinal lymph nodes (metastasis 1 cm or less) were included in the analysis. All pathology slides were reviewed. The smallest metastatic foci of cells were measured from lymph nodes obtained through the traditional complete inguinal lymph node dissection (CND) and compared with the largest metastatic foci of cells detected in sentinel lymph node dissections. The mean size and standard deviation for each group was calculated and analyzed with a Mann-Whitney test. There were 336 inguinal node dissections performed in patients identified with a vulvar malignancy. SLN dissections were performed in 52 groins and CND in 284 groins. Fifty-eight patients were found to have metastatic disease to the inguinal lymph nodes. Thirty of these patients had no evidence of lymph node metastasis on clinical exam or at the time of their EUA. There were 7 groins with metastasis detected through an SLN and 23 groins through a CND. The mean size of the metastatic foci detected in the SLN group was 2.52 mm (SD 1.55) and in the CND group was 4.35 mm (SD 2.63). This was not

  11. Popliteal sentinel lymph node involvement in melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolli, Eduardo; Bevilacqua, José Luiz Barbosa; Molina, André Sapata; de Macedo, Mariana Petaccia; Pinto, Clovis Antonio Lopes; Duprat Neto, João Pedreira

    2015-08-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in popliteal basins are rare, and there is controversy in literature regarding their origin, management, and outcomes. To correlate clinical and pathological features of popliteal basin drainage and analyze the impact of popliteal lymph node drainage on survival. Retrospective analysis of SLN biopsies performed at a single institution between 2000 and 2010. SLN biopsies were performed in 254 patients with melanoma in lower limbs, 247 of which were evaluated. In this group, there were 59 patients (24%) with a positive SLN. Twenty-seven cases (11%) presented with popliteal drainage, one of which lacked concurrent groin drainage. Among these 27 patients, three (11%) had popliteal metastasis, one of which had exclusive involvement of this basin. Popliteal drainage was associated with worse 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.028) but not 5-year overall survival (OS) (P = 0.219) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, Breslow thickness, mitotic index, and positive SLN were prognostic factors for DFS. Only mitotic index correlated significantly with OS (P = 0.044). Popliteal drainage seems to be associated with worse prognostic features of the primary tumor. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Application of artificial neural networks for predicting presence of non-sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowikiewicz, Tomasz; Wnuk, Paweł; Małkowski, Bogdan; Kurylcio, Andrzej; Kowalewski, Janusz; Zegarski, Wojciech

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to present a new predictive tool for non-sentinel lymph node (nSLN) metastases. One thousand five hundred eighty-three patients with early-stage breast cancer were subjected to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) between 2004 and 2012. Metastatic SLNs were found in 348 patients - the retrospective group. Selective axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed in 94% of cases. Involvement of the nSLNs was identified in 32.1% of patients following ALND. The correlation between nSLN involvement and selected epidemiological data, primary tumor features and details of the diagnostic and therapeutic management was examined in metastatic SLN group. Multivariate analysis was performed using an artificial neural network to create a new nomogram. The new test was validated using the overall study population consisting of the prospective group (365 patients - SLNB between 01-07.2013). Accuracy of the new test was calculated using area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). We obtained AUC coefficient equal to 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.81-0.92). Sensitivity amounted to 69%, specificity to 86%, accuracy - 80% (retrospective group) and 77%, 46%, 66% (validation group), respectively. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram the calculated AUC value was 0.71, for Stanford - 0.68, for Tenon - 0.67. In the analyzed group only the MSKCC nomogram and the new model showed AUC values exceeding the expected level of 0.70. Our nomogram performs well in prospective validation on patient series. The overall assessment of clinical usefulness of this test will be possible after testing it on different patient populations.

  13. Organized nation-wide implementation of sentinel lymph node biopsy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, E.; Galatius, H.; Garne, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    patient load in the individual surgical unit, a minimum surgical training in the sentinel node biopsy technique and a minimum quality outcome in a validating learning series of SNLB procedures. A working group assisted departments in meeting these terms and later audited and certified departments before...... they could include patients into the study. As a result of this strategy the sentinel lymph node staging was fully implemented in all Danish surgical breast cancer centres within three years and all sentinel node biopsies in the period were recorded in the DBCG data centre. Furthermore, the strategy...

  14. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: A Clinical Review and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Altaf; Battoo, Azhar; Qurieshi, Mariya; Mir, Wahid; Shah, Mudasir

    2017-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become a standard staging tool in the surgical management of breast cancer. The positive impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy on postoperative negative outcomes in breast cancer patients, without compromising the oncological outcomes, is its major advantage. It has evolved over the last few decades and has proven its utility beyond early breast cancer. Its applicability and efficacy in patients with clinically positive axilla who have had a complete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is being aggressively evaluated at present. This article discusses how sentinel lymph node biopsy has evolved and is becoming a useful tool in new clinical scenarios of breast cancer management. PMID:28970846

  15. Robust and validated models to predict high risk of non-sentinel node metastases in breast cancer patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells in the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove F; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Balslev, Eva

    2014-01-01

    micrometastases or isolated tumor cells are found in sentinel node. The aim of this study was to validate these models in an independent Danish dataset. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 720 breast cancer patients with micrometastases and 180 with isolated tumor cells in sentinel node operated in 2009-2010 from...... in the original cohort: 0.63 and 0.64, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting risk of non-sentinel node metastases over 30% was 0.36 and 0.81, respectively, in the validation cohort. AUC for the model for patients with isolated tumor cells decreased from 0.73 in the original cohort to 0.......60 in the validation cohort. When dividing patients with isolated tumor cells into high and low risk of non-sentinel node metastases according to number of risk factors present, 37% in the high-risk group had non-sentinel node metastases. Specificity and sensitivity was 0.48 and 0.88, respectively, in the validation...

  16. The influence of wire localisation for non-palpable breast lesions on visualisation of the sentinel node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.E.; Bekker, J.; Verberne, G.H.M. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Haas, M.J. de; Weel, F.A. van der; Quekel, L.G.B.A. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Budel, L.M. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Klerk, J.M.H. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-11-15

    In our clinic, patients with occult breast lesions are treated with a sentinel node biopsy combined with wire-guided tumour excision. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the influence of the sequence of wire localisation and sentinel node procedure on visualisation of the sentinel node. A total of 136 patients had a wire-guided tumour excision combined with a sentinel node procedure. Sixty-six patients had guide wire localisation prior to the sentinel node procedure. Seventy patients had sentinel node visualisation before insertion of the guide wire. The sentinel node was visualised in 41 (62%) of the patients who first underwent guide wire localisation. In the group of patients who underwent visualisation of the sentinel node before placement of the guide wire, the sentinel node was visualised in 62 (89%). This is a significant difference in visualisation (p<0.001). This study shows that guide wire localisation prior to the sentinel node procedure negatively influences visualisation of the sentinel node. (orig.)

  17. Predictors of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer-radioactivity and Ki-67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangarajah, Fabinshy; Malter, Wolfram; Hamacher, Stefanie; Schmidt, Matthias; Krämer, Stefan; Mallmann, Peter; Kirn, Verena

    2016-12-01

    Since the introduction of the sentinel node technique for breast cancer in the 1990s patient's morbidity was reduced. Tracer uptake is known to be dependent from lymph node integrity and activity of macrophages. The aim of this study was to assess whether radioactivity of the tracer can predict sentinel lymph node metastases. Furthermore, a potential association with Ki-67 index was examined. Non-invasive prediction of lymph node metastases could lead to a further decrease of morbidity. We retrospectively analyzed patients with primary breast cancer who underwent surgery at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in the University Hospital of Cologne between 2012 and 2013. Injection of radioactive tracer was done a day before surgery in the department of Nuclear Medicine. Clinical data and radioactivity of the sentinel node measured the day before and intraoperatively were abstracted from patient's files. Of 246 patients, 64 patients had at least one, five patients had two and one patient had three positive sentinel lymph nodes. Occurrence of sentinel lymph node metastases was not associated with preoperative tracer activity (p = 0,319), intraoperative tracer activity of first sentinel node (p = 0,086) or with loss of tracer activity until operation (p = 0,909). There was no correlation between preoperative Ki-67 index and occurrence of lymph node metastases (p = 0,403). In our cohort, there was no correlation between radioactivity and sentinel node metastases. Tracer uptake might not only be influenced by lymph node metastases and does not predict metastatic lymph node involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Laparoscopic sentinel node navigation surgery for early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinami, Shinichi; Kosaka, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the most accurate method for identifying lymph node metastasis is intraoperative diagnosis by sentinel node (SN) biopsy. Based on the SNNS study-a recent large-scale, nationwide, multicenter prospective study-the SN concept seems to be scientifically valid in patients with early gastric cancer. SN biopsy is a multistep technique consisted of six essential elements: indication, the selection of a tracer, a proper tracer injection method, the objective detection of SNs, a reliable biopsy technique, and the precise detection of nodal metastasis. For SN biopsy of gastric cancer, these elements have been validated as follows: the indication should be limited to clinical T1 less than 4 cm in diameter; combination mapping with radioactive colloid and blue dye is used as the standard; and endoscopic submucosal injection is the standard tracer injection. Detection of SNs and a reliable biopsy technique are enabled by adaptation of lymphatic basin dissection, a proper biopsy technique for gastric cancer. Lymphatic basin dissection is a selective lymphadenectomy procedure for dissecting basins en bloc, collecting lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels stained with dye. Lymphatic basin dissection is superior to the ordinary pick-up method, not only for minimizing the rate of missed SNs, but also in terms of oncological safety as it complements an intraoperative frozen section diagnosis by serving as a backup dissection. Moreover, indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence mapping has been developed in recent years. ICG fluorescence mapping is superior because of its high sensitivity and signal stability. Moreover, it is feasible for both open and laparoscopic gastrectomy in treating early gastric cancer. SN biopsy has brought dramatic changes to laparoscopic surgery for early gastric cancer. With laparoscopic SN biopsy using ICG fluorescence navigation, laparoscopic surgery for early gastric cancer has changed from the uniform standard gastrectomy with D1+ into a tailor

  19. Lymphatic drainage from the treated versus untreated prostate: feasibility of sentinel node biopsy in recurrent cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Valdes Olmos, Renato A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meinhardt, Willem; Poel, Henk G. van der [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    The goal of this study was to establish the feasibility of sentinel node biopsy in patients with recurrent prostate cancer after initial local treatment and to compare lymphatic drainage patterns of the treated versus untreated prostate. In ten patients with a proven local recurrence after initial local treatment (four external beam radiation, four brachytherapy and two high-intensity focused ultrasound), the radiotracer ({sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid, GE Healthcare) was injected into the prostate. Planar images after 15 min and 2 h were followed by SPECT/CT (Symbia T, Siemens) to visualize lymphatic drainage. Laparoscopic sentinel lymphadenectomy was assisted by a gamma probe (Europrobe, EuroMedical Instruments) and a portable gamma camera (Sentinella, S102, Oncovision). Sentinel node identification and lymphatic drainage patterns were compared to a consecutive series of 70 untreated prostate carcinoma patients from our institute. Lymphatic drainage was visualized in all treated patients, with a median of 3.5 sentinel nodes per patient. Most sentinel nodes were localized in the pelvic area, although the percentage of patients with a sentinel node outside the pelvic para-iliac region (para-aortic, presacral, inguinal or near the ventral abdominal wall) was high compared to the untreated patients (80 versus 34%, p = 0.01). In patients with recurrent prostate cancer, 95% of the sentinel nodes could be harvested and half of the patients had at least one positive sentinel node on pathological examination. Lymphatic mapping of the treated prostate appears feasible, although sentinel nodes are more frequently found in an aberrant location. Larger trials are needed to assess the sensitivity and therapeutic value of lymphatic mapping in recurrent prostate cancer. (orig.)

  20. Silica-coated gold nanoplates as stable photoacoustic contrast agents for sentinel lymph node imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Geoffrey P.; Bashyam, Ashvin; Homan, Kimberly A.; Makhija, Suraj; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2013-11-01

    A biopsy of the first lymph node to which a tumor drains—the sentinel lymph node (SLN)—is commonly performed to identify micrometastases. Image guidance of the SLN biopsy procedure has the potential to improve its accuracy and decrease its morbidity. We have developed a new stable contrast agent for photoacoustic image-guided SLN biopsy: silica-coated gold nanoplates (Si-AuNPs). The Si-AuNPs exhibit high photothermal stability when exposed to pulsed and continuous wave laser irradiation. This makes them well suited for in vivo photoacoustic imaging. Furthermore, Si-AuNPs are shown to have low cytotoxicity. We tested the Si-AuNPs for SLN mapping in a mouse model where they exhibited a strong, sustained photoacoustic signal. Real-time ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging revealed that the Si-AuNPs quickly drain to the SLN, gradually spreading throughout a large portion of the node.

  1. The sentinel node procedure in colon carcinoma : a multi-centre study in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, Wendy; Braat, Andries E.; Karrenbeld, Arend; Grond, Joris A. K.; De Vries, Johannes E.; Oosterhuis, J. Wolter A.; Baas, Peter C.; Plukker, John T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Lymph node status is the most important predictive factor in colorectal carcinoma. Recurrences occur in 20% of the patients without lymph node metastases. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a tool to facilitate identification of micrometastatic disease and aberrant lymphatic

  2. Impact of non-axillary sentinel node biopsy on staging and treatment of breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, P. J.; Nieweg, O. E.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Peterse, J. L.; Rutgers, E. J. Th; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Kroon, B. B. R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymphatic drainage to non-axillary sentinel nodes and to determine the implications of this phenomenon. A total of 549 breast cancer patients underwent lymphoscintigraphy after intratumoural injection of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid. The sentinel

  3. Sentinel node biopsy in carcinoma penis using methylene blue dye technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Vinayak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Penile carcinoma is a common disease in India. This paper shows the results of sentinel node biopsy using methylene blue and discusses the incidence of false-negative rates. Materials and Methods: From September 2005 to March 2008, 22 newly diagnosed penile carcinoma patients (T1, T2, N0 were included in this prospective study. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping was done using methylene blue dye and the sentinel node was identified and removed. Lymphadenectomy was performed for positive inguinal lymph node metastasis. Results : There were 22 patients (mean age 52.7. The tumors were mostly located in the glans (73%. Eighty six percent was T1 lesions and 14% was T2. Ninety one percent of the patients underwent partial penectomy, and 9% underwent total penectomy. Sentinel node was identified in 20 patients (90.9%. In total, 49 sentinel nodes were identified (2.45 nodes per person. Only one patient had a positive pathological lymph node metastasis at the time of the surgery. Additionally, two patients became inguinal lymph node positive at the follow-up. This data yielded a sensitivity rate of 33% and a false-negative rate of 66%. There were no complications due to methylene blue. Conclusion : Sentinel node biopsy using only methylene blue for penile carcinoma has a very low sensitivity and a high false-negative rate. However, methylene blue can be used as a substitute for lymphazurin.

  4. Portable gamma camera guidance in sentinel lymph node biopsy: prospective observational study of consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral Rubio, F; de La Riva, P; Moreno-Ramírez, D; Ferrándiz-Pulido, L

    2015-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the most important tool available for node staging in patients with melanoma. To analyze sentinel lymph node detection and dissection with radio guidance from a portable gamma camera. To assess the number of complications attributable to this biopsy technique. Prospective observational study of a consecutive series of patients undergoing radioguided sentinel lymph node biopsy. We analyzed agreement between nodes detected by presurgical lymphography, those detected by the gamma camera, and those finally dissected. A total of 29 patients (17 women [62.5%] and 12 men [37.5%]) were enrolled. The mean age was 52.6 years (range, 26-82 years). The sentinel node was dissected from all patients; secondary nodes were dissected from some. In 16 cases (55.2%), there was agreement between the number of nodes detected by lymphography, those detected by the gamma camera, and those finally dissected. The only complications observed were seromas (3.64%). No cases of wound dehiscence, infection, hematoma, or hemorrhage were observed. Portable gamma-camera radio guidance may be of use in improving the detection and dissection of sentinel lymph nodes and may also reduce complications. These goals are essential in a procedure whose purpose is melanoma staging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  5. Sentinel Lymph Node Occult Metastases Have Minimal Survival Effect in Some Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detailed examination of sentinel lymph node tissue from breast cancer patients revealed previously unidentified metastases in about 16% of the samples, but the difference in 5-year survival between patients with and without these metastases was very small

  6. EANM-EORTC general recommendations for sentinel node diagnostics in melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, Annette H; Hesse, Birger; Burak, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The accurate diagnosis of a sentinel node in melanoma includes a sequence of procedures from different medical specialities (nuclear medicine, surgery, oncology, and pathology). The items covered are presented in 11 sections and a reference list: (1) definition of a sentinel node, (2) clinical...... indications, (3) radiopharmaceuticals and activity injected, (4) dosimetry, (5) injection technique, (6) image acquisition and interpretation, (7) report and display, (8) use of dye, (9) gamma probe detection, (10) surgical techniques in sentinel node biopsy, and (11) pathological evaluation of melanoma......-draining sentinel lymph nodes. If specific recommendations given cannot be based on evidence from original, scientific studies, referral is given to "general consensus" and similar expressions. The recommendations are designed to assist in the practice of referral to, performance, interpretation and reporting...

  7. The surgical importance of an axillary arch in sentinel node biopsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridgway, P F

    2011-03-01

    When Carl Langer described the aberrant axillary arch in 1846 its relevance in sentinel node biopsy (SNB) surgery could not have been contemplated. The authors define an incidence and elucidate relevance of the arch in SNB of the axilla.

  8. Fluorescence-guided mapping of sentinel lymph nodes in gynecological malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ole; Szyc, Łukasz; Muallem, Mustafa Zelal; Ignat, Iulia; Chekerov, Radoslav; Macdonald, Rainer; Sehouli, Jalid; Braicu, Ioana; Grosenick, Dirk

    2017-07-01

    We have successfully applied a custom-made handheld fluorescence camera for intraoperative fluorescence detection of indocyanine green in a feasibility study on sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with vulvar, cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer.

  9. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for high risk prostate cancer based on sentinel node SPECT imaging for target volume definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiadis Aristotelis

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RTOG 94-13 trial has provided evidence that patients with high risk prostate cancer benefit from an additional radiotherapy to the pelvic nodes combined with concomitant hormonal ablation. Since lymphatic drainage of the prostate is highly variable, the optimal target volume definition for the pelvic lymph nodes is problematic. To overcome this limitation, we tested the feasibility of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT protocol, taking under consideration the individual pelvic sentinel node drainage pattern by SPECT functional imaging. Methods Patients with high risk prostate cancer were included. Sentinel nodes (SN were localised 1.5–3 hours after injection of 250 MBq 99mTc-Nanocoll using a double-headed gamma camera with an integrated X-Ray device. All sentinel node localisations were included into the pelvic clinical target volume (CTV. Dose prescriptions were 50.4 Gy (5 × 1.8 Gy / week to the pelvis and 70.0 Gy (5 × 2.0 Gy / week to the prostate including the base of seminal vesicles or whole seminal vesicles. Patients were treated with IMRT. Furthermore a theoretical comparison between IMRT and a three-dimensional conformal technique was performed. Results Since 08/2003 6 patients were treated with this protocol. All patients had detectable sentinel lymph nodes (total 29. 4 of 6 patients showed sentinel node localisations (total 10, that would not have been treated adequately with CT-based planning ('geographical miss' only. The most common localisation for a probable geographical miss was the perirectal area. The comparison between dose-volume-histograms of IMRT- and conventional CT-planning demonstrated clear superiority of IMRT when all sentinel lymph nodes were included. IMRT allowed a significantly better sparing of normal tissue and reduced volumes of small bowel, large bowel and rectum irradiated with critical doses. No gastrointestinal or genitourinary acute toxicity Grade 3 or 4 (RTOG

  10. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and tumor histologic grade are associated with surgical detection of the sentinel lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Ortega, M; Torres Sousa, M Y; González García, B; Pardo García, R; González López, A; Delgado Portela, M

    2014-01-01

    To study which variables involved in the process of selective sentinel node biopsy (SSNB) influence the intraoperative detection of the sentinel lymph node. This was a prospective cross-sectional study in 210 patients (mean age, 54 years) diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent SSNB. We recorded clinical, radiological, radioisotope administration, surgical, and histological data as well as follow-up data. We did a descriptive analysis of the data and an associative analysis using multivariable regression. Deep injection alone was the most common route of radioisotope administration (72.7%). Most lesions were palpable (57.1%), presented as nodules (67.1%), measured less than 2 cm in diameter (64.8%), were located in the upper outer quadrant (49.1%), were ductal carcinomas (85.7%), were accompanied by infiltration (66.2%), and had a histologic grade of differentiation of ii (44.8%). Preoperative scintigraphy detected the sentinel node in 97.6% of cases and 95.7% were detected during the operation. One axillary relapse was observed. In the associative study, the variables "preoperative lymphoscintigraphy" and "histologic grade of differentiation of the tumor" were significantly associated with the detection of the sentinel lymph node during the operation. The probability of not detecting the sentinel lymph node during the surgical intervention is higher in patients with high histologic grade tumors or in patients in whom preoperative lymphoscintigraphy failed to detect the sentinel node. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. [Sentinel lymph node metastasis in patients with ductal breast carcinoma in situ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Limón, Eva; de Jesús Garduño-Raya, María; Bautista-Piña, Verónica; Trejo-Martínez, Claudia; Maffuz-Aziz, Antonio; Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ still controversial, with positive lymph node in range of 1.4-12.5% due occult invasive breast carcinoma in surgical specimen. To know the frequency of sentimel node metastases in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, identify differences between positive and negative cases. Retrospective study of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with sentinel lymph node biopsy because mastectomy indication, palpable tumor, radiological lesion = 5 cm, non-favorable breast-tumor relation and/or patients whom surgery could affect lymphatic flow drainage. Of 168 in situ carcinomas, 50 cases with ductal carcinoma in situ and sentinel lymph node biopsy were included, with a mean age of 51.6 years, 30 (60%) asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were palpable nodule (18%), nipple discharge (12%), or both (8%). Microcalcifications were common (72%), comedonecrosis pattern (62%), grade-2 histology (44%), and 28% negative hormonal receptors. Four (8%) cases had intra-operatory positive sentinel lymph node and one patient at final histo-pathological study (60% micrometastases, 40% macrometastases), all with invasive carcinoma in surgical specimen. Patients with intra-operatory positive sentinel lymph node where younger (44.5 vs 51 years), with more palpable tumors (50% vs 23.1%), and bigger (3.5 vs 2 cm), more comedonecrosis pattern (75% vs 60.8%), more indifferent tumors (75% vs 39.1%), and less cases with hormonal receptors (50% vs 73.9%), compared with negative sentinel lymph node cases, all these differences without statistic significance. One of each 12 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ had affection in sentinel lymph node, so we recommend continue doing this procedure to avoid second surgeries due the presence of occult invasive carcinoma.

  12. International multicenter tool to predict the risk of four or more tumor-positive axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients with sentinel node macrometastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meretoja, Tuomo J; Audisio, R A; Heikkilä, P S

    2013-01-01

    to develop a novel international multicenter predictive tool to estimate a patient-specific risk of having four or more tumor-positive axillary lymph nodes (ALN) in patients with macrometastatic sentinel node(s) (SN). A series of 675 patients with macrometastatic SN and completion ALND from five European...... centers were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. A multivariate predictive model was created and validated internally by 367 additional patients and then externally by 760 additional patients from eight different centers. All statistical tests were two-sided. Prevalence of four or more tumor...

  13. Head and neck sentinel lymph node biopsy: current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Philip

    2009-09-01

    Sentinel node biopsy is an alternative to elective neck dissection for the management of T1/T2 oral and oro-pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and is also finding application to head and neck cancer at other sites. The main clinical aim of sentinel node biopsy is to achieve better staging and there is now evidence that the procedure reduces morbidity. Reported detection rates for sentinel neck nodes are greater than 95% and there is also a negative predictive value of 95% for negative sentinel nodes. Current histopathological protocols have been developed for use in the research setting and are designed to identify all micrometastatic disease. However the use of step serial sectioning at 150 micron intervals with pan-cytokeratin immunohistochemistry is currently advised and appears to upstage nodes by approximately 20% over the initial single routine stained section. Adoption of the UICC/TNM definitions is recommended for future sentinel node studies, but further refinements and descriptions are required. The SENT trial has recruited over 300 cases from 10 European centres and a quality control study of the pathological material is in progress. At the first consensus meeting of the SENT pathology group there were excellent levels of agreement on the diagnosis of positive and negative nodes, and a number of potential pitfalls such as non-malignant inclusions and staining artefacts were identified.

  14. Identification of the sentinel lymph node using hemosiderin in locally advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Walter; Aquino, Ranniere Gurgel Furtado DE; Alves, Mayara Maia; Correia, Julio Marcus Sousa; Oliveira, Ayane Layne DE Sousa; Viana, Antônio Brazil; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto

    2017-01-01

    to verify the agreement rate in the identification of sentinel lymph node using an autologous marker rich in hemosiderin and 99 Technetium (Tc99) in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. clinical trial phase 1, prospective, non-randomized, of 18 patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axilla stages T2=4cm, T3 and T4. Patients were submitted to sub-areolar injection of hemosiderin 48 hours prior to sentinel biopsy surgery, and the identification rate was compared at intraoperative period to the gold standard marker Tc99. Agreement between methods was determined by Kappa index. identification rate of sentinel lymph node was 88.9%, with a medium of two sentinel lymph nodes per patients. The study identified sentinel lymph nodes stained by hemosiderin in 83.3% patients (n=15), and, compared to Tc99 identification, the agreement rate was 94.4%. autologous marker rich in hemosiderin was effective to identify sentinel lymph nodes in locally advanced breast cancer patients.

  15. Identification of the sentinel lymph node using hemosiderin in locally advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO HENRIQUE WALTER DE AGUIAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to verify the agreement rate in the identification of sentinel lymph node using an autologous marker rich in hemosiderin and 99 Technetium (Tc99 in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Methods: clinical trial phase 1, prospective, non-randomized, of 18 patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axilla stages T2=4cm, T3 and T4. Patients were submitted to sub-areolar injection of hemosiderin 48 hours prior to sentinel biopsy surgery, and the identification rate was compared at intraoperative period to the gold standard marker Tc99. Agreement between methods was determined by Kappa index. Results: identification rate of sentinel lymph node was 88.9%, with a medium of two sentinel lymph nodes per patients. The study identified sentinel lymph nodes stained by hemosiderin in 83.3% patients (n=15, and, compared to Tc99 identification, the agreement rate was 94.4%. Conclusion: autologous marker rich in hemosiderin was effective to identify sentinel lymph nodes in locally advanced breast cancer patients.

  16. Feasibility of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck melanoma using a hybrid radioactive and fluorescent tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Oscar R; Klop, W Martin C; Buckle, Tessa; Vermeeren, Lenka; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Balm, Alfons J M; Nieweg, Omgo E; Valdés Olmos, Renato A; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2012-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the feasibility of combining lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative sentinel node identification in patients with head and neck melanoma by using a hybrid protein colloid that is both radioactive and fluorescent. Eleven patients scheduled for sentinel node biopsy in the head and neck region were studied. Approximately 5 h before surgery, the hybrid nanocolloid labeled with indocyanine green (ICG) and technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) was injected intradermally in four deposits around the scar of the primary melanoma excision. Subsequent lymphoscintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography (SPECT/CT) were performed to identify the sentinel nodes preoperatively. In the operating room, patent blue dye was injected in 7 of the 11 patients. Intraoperatively, sentinel nodes were acoustically localized with a gamma ray detection probe and visualized by using patent blue dye and/or fluorescence-based tracing with a dedicated near-infrared light camera. A portable gamma camera was used before and after sentinel node excision to confirm excision of all sentinel nodes. A total of 27 sentinel nodes were preoperatively identified on the lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT images. All sentinel nodes could be localized intraoperatively. In the seven patients in whom blue dye was used, 43% of the sentinel nodes stained blue, whereas all were fluorescent. The portable gamma camera identified additional sentinel nodes in two patients. Ex vivo, all radioactive lymph nodes were fluorescent and vice versa, indicating the stability of the hybrid tracer. ICG-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid allows for preoperative sentinel node visualization and concomitant intraoperative radio- and fluorescence guidance to the same sentinel nodes in head and neck melanoma patients.

  17. Quality of life after complete lymphadenectomy for vulvar cancer: do women prefer sentinel lymph node biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Rhonda; Gebski, Val; Hacker, Neville F

    2014-05-01

    Leg lymphoedema occurs in up to 60% of women after a complete inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy for vulvar cancer. To avoid lymphoedema, sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the preferred method of staging. However, false-negative results may influence survival, making the sentinel node procedure unacceptable to many fully informed women. The aims of this study were to measure the quality of life (QoL) in women after a complete lymphadenectomy for vulvar cancer and to quantify the risk to survival these women would be prepared to take with sentinel node biopsy. Sixty women who had a complete lymphadenectomy for early-stage vulvar cancer participated in structured interviews. The severity of lymphoedema symptoms was recorded. The QoL-adjusted survival was measured using the Utility-Based Questionnaire-Cancer, a cancer-specific validated QoL instrument. The women stated their preference for sentinel node biopsy or complete lymphadenectomy. A "standard-gamble" preference table was used to quantify the degree of risk to survival they would take to avoid lymphoedema. Seventy-three percent of women reported lymphoedema after complete lymphadenectomy. Women with lymphoedema or leg pain had significantly worse scores for QoL in terms of social activity as well as physical and sexual function. Overall, 80% of women would choose complete lymphadenectomy rather than sentinel node biopsy if the risk of missing a positive lymph node was higher than 1 in 100, but if the risk of missing a positive lymph node was lower than 1 in 100, almost one third of the women would prefer sentinel node biopsy. Although women treated for early-stage vulvar cancer report reduced QoL after complete lymphadenectomy, most would choose complete lymphadenectomy over sentinel node biopsy. However, there is an individual level of risk that each woman can define with regard to her preference for the sentinel node procedure. Women with early-stage vulvar cancer should be offered an informed choice

  18. Results of optical Monte Carlo simulations of a compact {gamma} camera for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Dean; Truman, Andrew E-mail: atruman@bccancer.bc.ca; Kwok, Harry; Bergman, Alanah

    2001-07-11

    Breast cancer is most often treatable when detected in the early stages, before the primary disease spreads to sentinel lymph nodes in the axilla and supraclavicular region. A sentinel lymph node is the closest adjacent lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a primary breast tumour. It is from these nodes that cancer cells metastasise throughout the lymphatic system, spreading the disease. This work details the optical Monte Carlo modelling of an ultra compact, nuclear medicine {gamma} camera that will be used intra-operatively to detect malignant sentinel lymph nodes. This development will improve the identification and localisation of these sentinel nodes, thereby facilitating improved techniques for axillary lymph node dissection, and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  19. SPECT/CT for sentinel lymph node mapping in head and neck melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Valdés Olmos, Renato A; Klop, W Martin C; van der Ploeg, Iris M C; Nieweg, Omgo E; Balm, Alfons J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2011-01-01

    The additional value of single photon emission computed tomography with CT (SPECT/CT) for detection and localization of sentinel nodes in patients with a melanoma of the head and neck was determined. Thirty-eight patients received conventional lymphoscintigraphy followed by hybrid SPECT/CT. The number of sentinel nodes visualized and anatomic information provided were analyzed. Changes in surgical approach due to additional information from the SPECT/CT were evaluated in 20 patients. SPECT/CT visualized a mean of 2.6 sentinel nodes per patient (range, 1-6). SPECT/CT depicted an additional sentinel node in 16% of the patients and clearly showed the anatomic location of the hot nodes in all patients. The surgical approach was adjusted on the basis of SPECT/CT images in 11 patients (55%). SPECT/CT visualizes more sentinel nodes than conventional images and shows their anatomic location. SPECT/CT is recommended in patients with a melanoma in the head or neck. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011.

  20. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine expression in metastatic melanoma versus nodal nevus in sentinel lymph node biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan J; Granter, Scott R; Laga, Alvaro C; Saavedra, Arturo P; Zhan, Qian; Guo, Weimin; Xu, Shuyun; Murphy, George F; Lian, Christine G

    2015-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsies are conducted to stage patients with newly diagnosed melanomas that have histopathological attributes conferring defined levels of metastatic potential. Because benign nevic cells may also form 'deposits' in lymph nodes (nodal nevus), the pathological evaluation for metastatic melanoma within sentinel lymph nodes can be challenging. Twenty-eight sentinel lymph node biopsy cases containing either metastatic melanoma (N=18) or nodal nevi (N=10) were retrieved from the archives of the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Pathology (2011-2014). In addition, two sentinel lymph node cases that were favored to represent metastatic disease but whose histopathological features were viewed as equivocal, with melanoma favored, were also included. Dual labeling for the melanocyte lineage marker, MART-1, and the epigenetic marker, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, a functionally significant indicator that has been shown to distinguish benign nevi from melanoma, was performed on all cases using immunohistochemistry and/or direct immunofluorescence. All (18 of 18) metastatic melanoma cases showed complete loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine nuclear staining in MART-1-positive cells, and all (10 of 10) nodal nevus cases demonstrated 5-hydroxymethylcytosine nuclear staining in MART-1-positive cells. In addition, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine staining confirmed the favored diagnoses of metastatic melanoma in the two 'equivocal' cases. Thus, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine may be a useful adjunctive marker to distinguish between benign nodal nevi and metastatic melanoma during the evaluation of sentinel lymph node biopsies for metastatic melanoma.

  1. Combined Methylene Blue Dye andRadioactive Tracer Technique for Sentinel Lymph Node Localization in Early Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Talei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a technique used to identify the axillary node most likely to contain tumor cells that have metastasized from a primarycarcinoma of the breast. This technique provides accurate staging with fewer complications than axillary dissection and may result in decreased costs. We designed the present study to determine the accuracy and success rate of a combined blue dyeand radioactive tracer technique in sentinel node localization. Methods: This prospective study included 70 patients with early stage (tumor>5cm; T1, T2 operable breast cancer and nonpalpable axillary lymphadenopathy seen between 2005 and 2009. Patients underwent sentinel lymph node localization using 4mL of blue dye combined with radioactive colloid. After identification and removal of the sentinel node(s, the axilla was checked for any residual radioactivity. A sentinelnode was defined as any node that was hot, hot and blue or only blue.Results:The sentinel node was identified in 66 patients with a detection rate of 94.2%,and a mean of 1.5 sentinel nodes were identified and harvested (range of 1-4. In 23cases, the sentinel lymph node contained metastatic disease on pathological assessment.There was no pathological evidence of any metastases in the sentinel node in the remaining 43 patients. All sentinel lymph nodes were located in level I of the axillary region. In four patients, no sentinel lymph node was found, so axillary dissection was performed. The sensitivity of the procedure in predicting further axillary disease was 95.6% with a specificity of 97.6%.Conclusion: The present study describes the blue dye and radioisotope localization technique as successful in identifying the sentinel lymph node in early-stage breast cancer patients.

  2. The role of sentinel node biopsy in gynecological cancer : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, Maaike H. M.; van de Nieuwenhof, Hedwig P.; de Hullu, Joanne A.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    Purpose of review In early-stage vulvar, cervical and endometrial cancer, lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor. Surgical treatment is aimed at removing the primary tumor and adequately staging the regional lymph nodes. As morbidity of regional lymphadenectomy is high, sentinel

  3. Quantitative analysis of superparamagnetic contrast agent in sentinel lymph nodes using ex vivo vibrating sample magnetometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, M.; Pouw, Joost Jacob; van Baarlen, J.; Klaase, J.M.; ten Haken, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    As the first step in developing a new clinical technique for the magnetic detection of colorectal sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), a method is developed to measure the magnetic content in intact, formalin fixated lymph nodes using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). A suspension of superparamagnetic

  4. Morbidity after axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with cutaneous melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, M; Vonkeman, WG; van Ginkel, RJ; Hoekstra, HJ

    Aim: In this study, the short-term and tong-term morbidity was assesed after axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with or without completion axillary lymph node dissection (SLNB/ALND) in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Methods: Between 1995 and 2003, 119 axillary SLNBs were performed for

  5. The feasibility and reliability of sentinel node mapping in colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doekhie, F.S.; Peeters, K.C.; Kuppen, P.J.; Mesker, W.H.; Tanke, H.J.; Morreau, H.; Velde, C.J. van de; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: Sentinel node mapping (SNM) has been introduced in colorectal cancer (CRC) to improve staging by facilitating occult tumour cell (OTC) assessment in lymph nodes that are most likely to be tumour-positive. In this paper, studies on the feasibility and reliability of SNM in CRC are reviewed.

  6. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer – a modified audit for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a technique that is widely used in the management of early breast cancer. Surgeons are encouraged to validate their initial SLNB results by performing an audit in which both a SLNB and an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) are performed. For surgeons in solo ...

  7. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer--the Aarhus experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, M C; Garne, J P; Hessov, I

    2000-01-01

    Eighty patients, with newly diagnosed unifocal breast cancer and with no axillary metastases verified by ultrasonography, underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) and subsequent axillary lymph node dissection. To identify the SLN, we used a combination of Tc-99m labelled colloid (Albures) and blue dye...

  8. High incidence of in-transit metastases after sentinel node biopsy in patients with melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estourgie, S. H.; Nieweg, O. E.; Kroon, B. B. R.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The occurrence of in-transit metastases in patients with a tumour-positive sentinel node varies greatly between centres and it has been suggested that the incidence is high in this patient group. METHODS: The incidence of in-transit metastases in 61 patients who had lymph node dissection

  9. Dynamic sentinel node biopsy for penile cancer: reliability of a staging technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, P. J.; Lont, A. P.; Meinhardt, W.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Nieweg, O. E.; Horenblas, S.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: We determine the value of dynamic sentinel node biopsy for staging squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 90 patients with clinically node negative penile cancer were prospectively entered in this study. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed after

  10. Metastatic melanoma volume in sentinel nodes: objective stereology-based measurement predicts disease recurrence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Nyengaard, Jens R; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) status is the most important prognostic factor in intermediate thickness melanoma. The amount of metastatic disease in positive SLNs varies greatly between patients, and this tumour burden appears to influence the prognosis of node-positive patients. The aim...

  11. Sentinel node localization in breast cancer patients using intradermal dye injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilum, Lars; Bak, Martin; Olsen, K E

    2000-01-01

    -sectioning and immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin. In one case a benign epithelial inclusion was found. The sentinel node was false negative in 9.1% of cases. The consensus from the literature is that the best results are achieved using a combination of dye and isotopic techniques.......In a series of 161 consecutive breast cancer operations, intradermal injection of Patent Blue was used to localize the sentinel node (SN). The surgical localization rate was 60%. Including the blue lymph nodes found by the pathologist, localization rate was 70%. After the first 103 operations...

  12. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy; A new approach in the management of head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Sharma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical lymph node metastasis affects the prognosis and overall survival rate of and therapeutic planning for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs. However, advanced diagnostic modalities still lack accuracy in detecting occult neck metastasis. A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a minimally invasive auxiliary method for assessing the presence of occult metastatic disease in a patient with a clinically negative neck. This technique increases the specificity of neck dissection and thus reduces morbidity among oral cancer patients. The removal of sentinel nodes and dissection of the levels between the primary tumour and the sentinel node or the irradiation of target nodal basins is favoured as a selective treatment approach; this technique has the potential to become the new standard of care for patients with HNSCCs. This article presents an update on clinical applications and novel developments in this field.

  13. [Cutaneous malignant melanoma; diagnostic procedures and their evaluation in diagnosing and mapping sentinel nodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsamaki, Pipitsa; Zanglis, Antonios; Gerali, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma represents 4% of all the malignant neoplasms. Nevertheless, 79% of the fatal malignant skin diseases are attributed to melanoma. In melanoma patients, the most important prognostic factor is the regional lymph node invasion. The present article describes the classical diagnostic, staging and therapeutic strategies in melanoma patients. In the realm of cutaneous melanoma, pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy and the intra-operative gamma-probe detection, removal and biopsy of the sentinel lymph node(s), comprise convenient, procedures, virtually lacking morbidity. The definition of sentinel includes the first lymph node or nodes, draining the lymph from the primary lesion, thereby attributed with the highest probability of harbouring migrating metastatic cells. A sentinel lymph node negative for malignancy accurately "predicts" the absence of melanoma cell invasion in all the rest regional and distant lymphatic basins. The method aims in the best discrimination of high-risk patients, as candidates for selective lymphadenectomy, with or without adjunctive treatment. Radionuclide-guided lymphatic mapping and surgery is based on the phagocytosis of colloidal-based radiopharmaceuticals by the macrophages encountered in functional tumour-infiltrated sentinel nodes. The nuclear methods successfully add to the staging and the potential surgical treatment of the disease.

  14. Unusual localizations of sentinel lymph nodes in early stage cervical cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldamer, Lobna; Marret, Henri; Acker, Olivier; Barillot, Isabelle; Body, Gilles

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically determine the frequency of unusual localizations of sentinel lymph node in patients with early stage cervical cancer. We performed a comprehensive computer literature search of English and French language studies in human subjects on sentinel node procedures in PUBMED database up to December 2010. For each article two reviewers independently performed data extraction using a standard form to determine the route of unusual lymphatic spread of sentinel procedures in cervical cancer. According to our search, 83.7% of detected sentinel lymph nodes in patients with cervical cancer were in expected localizations (i.e., external iliac, obturator, internal iliac or interiliac). The unusual localizations were: 6.6% in the common iliac chain, 4.31% parametrial, 1.26% sacral, 2% in the lower para-aortic area and 0.07% in the inguinal chain. The unusual localizations of sentinel lymph nodes impose to the gynecologic surgeons to be able to perform lymph node dissection in all the territories potentially affected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer using infrared laser system first experience with PDE camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polom, Karol; Murawa, Dawid; Michalak, Michał; Murawa, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is a gold standard in staging of early breast cancer. Nowadays, routine mapping of lymphatic tract is based on two tracers: human albumin with radioactive technetium, with or without blue dye. Recent years have seen a search for new tracers to examine sentinel node as well as lymphatic network. One of them is indocyanine green (ICG) visible in infrared light. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical usage of ICG in comparison with standard tracer, i.e. nanocoll, in SNB of breast cancer patients. In the 1st Department of Surgical Oncology and General Surgery, Greater Poland Cancer Centre, Poznań, 13 female breast cancer patients have benn operated since September 2010. All these patients had sentinel node biopsy with nanocoll (human albumin with radioactive technetium), and with indocyanine green. The feasibility of this new method was assessed in comparison with the standard nanocoll. A lymphatic network between the place of injection of ICG and sentinel node was seen in infrared light. An area where a sentinel node was possibly located was confirmed by gamma probe. Sensitivity of this method was 100%. SNB using ICG is a new, promising diagnostics technique. This procedure is not without drawbacks; nevertheless it opens new horizons in lymphatic network diagnostics.

  16. EANM-EORTC general recommendations for sentinel node diagnostics in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakera, Annette H; Hesse, Birger; Burak, Zeynep; Ballinger, James R; Britten, Allan; Caracò, Corrado; Cochran, Alistair J; Cook, Martin G; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Essner, Richard; Even-Sapir, Einat; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Stopar, Tanja Gmeiner; Ingvar, Christian; Mihm, Martin C; McCarthy, Stanley W; Mozzillo, Nicola; Nieweg, Omgo E; Scolyer, Richard A; Starz, Hans; Thompson, John F; Trifirò, Giuseppe; Viale, Giuseppe; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Uren, Roger; Waddington, Wendy; Chiti, Arturo; Spatz, Alain; Testori, Alessandro

    2009-10-01

    The accurate diagnosis of a sentinel node in melanoma includes a sequence of procedures from different medical specialities (nuclear medicine, surgery, oncology, and pathology). The items covered are presented in 11 sections and a reference list: (1) definition of a sentinel node, (2) clinical indications, (3) radiopharmaceuticals and activity injected, (4) dosimetry, (5) injection technique, (6) image acquisition and interpretation, (7) report and display, (8) use of dye, (9) gamma probe detection, (10) surgical techniques in sentinel node biopsy, and (11) pathological evaluation of melanoma-draining sentinel lymph nodes. If specific recommendations given cannot be based on evidence from original, scientific studies, referral is given to "general consensus" and similar expressions. The recommendations are designed to assist in the practice of referral to, performance, interpretation and reporting of all steps of the sentinel node procedure in the hope of setting state-of-the-art standards for good-quality evaluation of possible spread to the lymphatic system in intermediate-to-high risk melanoma without clinical signs of dissemination.

  17. Morbidity after inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy and completion lymph node dissection in patients with cutaneous melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, M.; Vonkeman, W. G.; van Ginkel, R. J.; Hoekstra, H. J.

    Background: Aim of the study was to assess the short-term and long-term morbidity after inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with or without completion groin dissection (GD) in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Methods: Between 1995 and 2003, 127 inguinal SLNBs were performed for cutaneous

  18. Understanding Lymphatic Drainage Pathways of the Ovaries to Predict Sites for Sentinel Nodes in Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppe, Marjolein; Kraima, Anne C; Kruitwagen, Roy F P M; Van Gorp, Toon; Smit, Noeska N; van Munsteren, Jacoba C; DeRuiter, Marco C

    2015-10-01

    In ovarian cancer, detection of sentinel nodes is an upcoming procedure. Perioperative determination of the patient's sentinel node(s) might prevent a radical lymphadenectomy and associated morbidity. It is essential to understand the lymphatic drainage pathways of the ovaries, which are surprisingly up till now poorly investigated, to predict the anatomical regions where sentinel nodes can be found. We aimed to describe the lymphatic drainage pathways of the human ovaries including their compartmental fascia borders. A series of 3 human female fetuses and tissues samples from 1 human cadaveric specimen were studied. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded transverse sections (8 or 10 μm) using antibodies against Lyve-1, S100, and α-smooth muscle actin to identify the lymphatic endothelium, Schwann, and smooth muscle cells, respectively. Three-dimensional reconstructions were created. Two major and 1 minor lymphatic drainage pathways from the ovaries were detected. One pathway drained via the proper ligament of the ovaries (ovarian ligament) toward the lymph nodes in the obturator fossa and the internal iliac artery. Another pathway drained the ovaries via the suspensory ligament (infundibulopelvic ligament) toward the para-aortic and paracaval lymph nodes. A third minor pathway drained the ovaries via the round ligament to the inguinal lymph nodes. Lymph vessels draining the fallopian tube all followed the lymphatic drainage pathways of the ovaries. The lymphatic drainage pathways of the ovaries invariably run via the suspensory ligament (infundibulopelvic ligament) and the proper ligament of the ovaries (ovarian ligament), as well as through the round ligament of the uterus. Because ovarian cancer might spread lymphogenously via these routes, the sentinel node can be detected in the para-aortic and paracaval regions, obturator fossa and surrounding internal iliac arteries, and inguinal regions. These findings support the strategy of

  19. Feasibility of sentinel node detection in renal cell carcinoma: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bex, Axel [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Cancer Institute, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vermeeren, Lenka; Olmos, Renato A.V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Windt, Geraldine de; Horenblas, Simon [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Prevoo, Warner [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    Lymphatic drainage from renal cell carcinoma is unpredictable and the therapeutic benefit and extent of lymph node dissection are controversial. We evaluated the feasibility of intratumoural injection of a radiolabelled tracer to image and sample draining lymph nodes in clinically non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Eight patients with cT1-2 cN0 cM0 (<6 cm) renal cell carcinoma prospectively received percutaneous intratumoural injections of {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid under ultrasound guidance (0.4 ml, 225 MBq at one to four intratumoural locations depending on tumour size). Lymphoscintigraphy was performed 20 min, 2 h and 4 h after injection. After the delayed images a hybrid SPECT/CT was performed. SPECT was fused with CT to determine the anatomical localization of the sentinel node. Surgery with sampling was performed the following day using a gamma probe and a portable mini gamma camera. Eight patients, seven with right-sided renal cell carcinoma, were included with a mean age of 55 years (range: 45-77). The mean tumour size was 4 cm (range: 3.5-6 cm). Six patients had sentinel nodes on scintigraphy (two retrocaval, four interaortocaval, including one hilar) with one extraretroperitoneal location along the internal mammary chain. All nodes could be mapped and sampled. In two patients no drainage was visualized. Renal cell carcinomas were of clear cell subtype with no lymph node metastases. Sentinel node identification using preoperative and intraoperative imaging to locate and sample the sentinel node at surgery in renal cell carcinoma is feasible. Sentinel node biopsy may clarify the pattern of lymphatic drainage and extent of lymphatic spread which may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications. (orig.)

  20. Interval Sentinel Lymph Nodes: An Unusual Localization in Patients with Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Manganoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies have demonstrated that there exists a great variation in the lymphatic drainage in patients with malignant melanoma. Some patients have drainage to lymph nodes outside of conventional nodal basins. The lymph nodes that exist between a primary melanoma and its regional nodal basin are defined “interval nodes”. Interval node occurs in a small minority of patients with forearm melanoma. We report our experience of the Melanoma Unit of University Hospital Spedali Civili Brescia, Italy. Methods. Lymphatic mapping using cutaneous lymphoscintigraphy (LS has become a standard preoperative diagnostic procedure to locate the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs in cutaneous melanoma. We used LS to identify sentinel lymph nodes biopsy (SLNB in 480 patients. Results. From over 2100 patients affected by cutaneous melanoma, we identified 2 interval nodes in 480 patients with SLNB . The melanomas were both located in the left forearm. The interval nodes were also both located in the left arm. Conclusion. The combination of preoperative LS and intraoperative hand-held gamma detecting probe plays a remarkable role in identifying these uncommon lymph node locations. Knowledge of the unusual drainage patterns will help to ensure the accuracy and the completeness of sentinel nodes identification.

  1. Gene expression profiling for molecular staging of cutaneous melanoma in patients undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Pedram; Cook, Robert W; Russell, Maria C; Wilkinson, Jeff; Amaria, Rodabe N; Gonzalez, Rene; Lyle, Stephen; Jackson, Gilchrist L; Greisinger, Anthony J; Johnson, Clare E; Oelschlager, Kristen M; Stone, John F; Maetzold, Derek J; Ferris, Laura K; Wayne, Jeffrey D; Cooper, Chelsea; Obregon, Roxana; Delman, Keith A; Lawson, David

    2015-05-01

    A gene expression profile (GEP) test able to accurately identify risk of metastasis for patients with cutaneous melanoma has been clinically validated. We aimed for assessment of the prognostic accuracy of GEP and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) tests, independently and in combination, in a multicenter cohort of 217 patients. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to assess the expression of 31 genes from primary melanoma tumors, and SLNB outcome was determined from clinical data. Prognostic accuracy of each test was determined using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis of disease-free, distant metastasis-free, and overall survivals. GEP outcome was a more significant and better predictor of each end point in univariate and multivariate regression analysis, compared with SLNB (P melanoma. In this study cohort, GEP was an objective tool that accurately predicted metastatic risk in SLNB-eligible patients. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. EANM practice guidelines for lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluemel, Christina; Herrmann, Ken; Giammarile, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an essential staging tool in patients with clinically localized melanoma. The harvesting of a sentinel lymph node entails a sequence of procedures with participation of specialists in nuclear medicine, radiology, surgery and pathology. The aim of this document...... is to provide guidelines for nuclear medicine physicians performing lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node detection in patients with melanoma. METHODS: These practice guidelines were written and have been approved by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) to promote high......-quality lymphoscintigraphy. The final result has been discussed by distinguished experts from the EANM Oncology Committee, national nuclear medicine societies, the European Society of Surgical Oncology (ESSO) and the European Association for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) melanoma group. The document has been...

  3. Contemporary use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan B. Seim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become a well-established and commonplace practice in many oncologic disease sites as a means to stage the regional lymphatics, avoid unnecessary surgery and decrease patient morbidity. In the head and neck, its role is well established for cutaneous melanoma with proven fidelity and survival benefit. Its role in use for other sites such as oral cavity carcinoma continues to develop with promising results from several recent trials. Although not widely adopted, the potential benefits of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of oral cavity carcinoma are apparent. Refinements in technology and protocols including development of novel radiopharmaceutical tracers, routine incorporation of detailed anatomic imaging, increasing surgeon experience and development of new intraoperative identification aids will likely lead to improvements in the use and accuracy of this technique. Keywords: Oral cavity cancer, Sentinel lymph node, Head and neck cancer, Squamous cell carcinoma, Lymphoscintigraphy

  4. Breast cancer lymphoscintigraphy: Factors associated with sentinel lymph node non visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, S C; Silva, Â; Sousa, R; Ferreira, T C; Esteves, S; Carvalho, I P; Ratão, P; Daniel, A; Salgado, L

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate factors associated with non identification of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in lymphoscintigraphy of breast cancer patients and analyze the relationship with SLN metastases. A single-center, cross-sectional and retrospective study was performed. Forty patients with lymphoscintigraphy without sentinel lymph node identification (negative lymphoscintigraphy - NL) were enrolled. The control group included 184 patients with SLN identification (positive lymphoscintigraphy - PL). Evaluated factors were age, body mass index (BMI), tumor size, histology, localization, preoperative breast lesion hookwire (harpoon) marking and SLN metastases. The statistical analysis was performed with uni- and multivariate logistic regression models and matched-pairs analysis. Age (p=0.036) or having BMI (p=0.047) were the only factors significantly associated with NL. Being ≥60 years with a BMI ≥30 increased the odds of having a NL 2 and 3.8 times, respectively. Marking with hookwire seems to increase the likelihood of NL, but demonstrated statistical significance is lacking (p=0.087). The other tested variables did not affect the examination result. When controlling for age, BMI and marking with the harpoon, a significant association between lymph node metastization and NL was not found (p=0.565). The most important factors related with non identification of SLN in the patients were age, BMI and marking with hook wire. However, only the first two had statistical importance. When these variables were controlled, no association was found between NL and axillary metastases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating TIMP-1, Ki67, and HER2 as markers for non-sentinel node metastases in breast cancer patients with micrometastases to the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Bartels, Annette; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to investigate whether the biochemical prognostic markers TIMP-1, Ki67, and HER2 could predict metastatic spread to non-sentinel nodes (NSN) in breast cancer patients with micrometastases to sentinel node (SN). We included all breast cancer patients with micrometastases to SN operated...... and tumor characteristics were retrieved from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database. Immunohistochemical analyses of TIMP-1 and Ki67 and measurements of HER2 on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue were performed. No significant differences in the immunoreactivity of TIMP-1 and Ki67...... were found between patients with and without NSN metastases. Six of seven HER2 positive patients did not have NSN metastases, but the results did not reach statistical significance. Despite being prognostic markers in breast cancer, TIMP-1 and Ki67 could not predict NSN metastases in women...

  6. Low risk of recurrence in breast cancer with negative sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Bartram, Peter; Bak, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure has emerged as a safe staging method with a low morbidity. The objective of the present study was to examine the recurrence rates including especially the axillary recurrence rate in SLN-negative patients after a long follow-up period.......The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure has emerged as a safe staging method with a low morbidity. The objective of the present study was to examine the recurrence rates including especially the axillary recurrence rate in SLN-negative patients after a long follow-up period....

  7. Is Sentinel Node Biopsy of the Internal Mammary Lymph Nodes Relevant in the Management of Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chuan; Caragata, Rebecca; Bennett, Ian

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review the outcomes of a series of breast cancer patients who underwent sentinel node biopsy inclusive of lymphoscintigraphy, and to assess the incidence of internal mammary node (IMN) metastatic positivity at exploration and whether these findings influenced treatment. Between April 2001 and December 2012, 581 breast cancer patients at Princess Alexandra Hospital underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the course of the performance of sentinel node biopsy. Analysis was performed of those patients who demonstrated radio-isotope uptake to the IMN chain, and who had sentinel node biopsy of the IMN's and were found to have metastatic involvement. Assessment was made to determine whether the finding of IMN metastases changed the adjuvant systemic management of these patients, and to review complication rates. 95 of 581 (16.4%) patients with preoperative breast lymphoscintigraphy had lymphatic mapping to the IMN chain. 51 (54%) of these patients had IMN chain surgically explored and IMN nodes were found in 35 of these patients (success rate of 69%). Of these, three patients (3/35 = 8.6%) had metastatic involvement of the IMN sentinel node group. All three IMN positive patients received adjuvant breast radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy. In four patients (7.8%) IMN surgical exploration was complicated by pneumothorax. Only a small proportion of breast cancer patients were found to have metastasic involvement of the IMN chain and which did not significantly change their adjuvant therapy management. These findings suggest that the benefits of exploration of the IMN chain in breast cancer patients are limited and may be outweighed by the risk of complications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Stage migration after introduction of sentinel lymph node dissection in breast cancer treatment in Denmark: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Balslev, Eva

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the size and therapeutic consequences of stage migration after introduction of sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) in breast cancer treatment in Denmark.......To estimate the size and therapeutic consequences of stage migration after introduction of sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) in breast cancer treatment in Denmark....

  9. Prostatic lymphatic drainage with sentinel nodes at the ventral abdominal wall visualized with SPECT/CT: a case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Meinhardt, Willem; Valdes Olmos, Renato A.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphatic drainage from the prostate is mainly directed towards pelvic sentinel lymph nodes, although presacral and para-aortic sentinel nodes have also been found with lymphatic mapping. In this case series, we describe direct lymphatic drainage towards the anterior abdominal wall in 3 patients

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma and other melanocytic tumors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaten, J Brent; Partrick, David A; Pearlman, Nate; Gonzalez, Ricardo J; Gonzalez, Rene; McCarter, Martin D

    2005-01-01

    Melanoma is rare, accounting for only 1% of all pediatric malignancies. The management of pediatric melanoma is controversial but largely parallels that of an adult occurrence. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNBX) has become a standard of care for adults with melanoma, but the role of this procedure in the staging of pediatric patients remains to be established. The goal of this study was to determine outcomes and complications of children and adolescent patients undergoing SLNBX at the authors' institution. A retrospective review of patients younger than 21 years (N = 20) undergoing SLNBX for melanoma or other melanocytic skin lesions at the University of Colorado Health Science Center between 1996 and 2003 was conducted. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was successful in all 20 patients, and 8 patients (40%) were found to have metastases within the sentinel node. As in adults, the sentinel node status correlates with primary tumor depth. No complications occurred in patients undergoing SLNBX, but 4 clinically significant complications (57%) occurred in the 7 patients undergoing a completion lymph node dissection. At 33 months median follow-up, all patients were disease free. Sentinel lymph node biopsy can be successfully and safely performed in pediatric patients for melanoma and atypical nevi. However, the prognostic information and therapeutic implications of SLNBX results for children and adolescents remain unclear. Completion lymph node dissection for microscopic disease is a morbid procedure with uncertain benefit to pediatric or adult patients with a positive SLNBX result. Long-term follow-up data are needed before SLNBX can become a standard of care in pediatric melanoma or as a diagnostic tool to distinguish the atypical Spitz nevus from melanoma.

  11. Comparison between hemosiderin and Technetium-99 in sentinel lymph node biopsy in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diogenes; Aquino, Ranniere Gurgel Furtado de; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto, E-mail: luizgporto@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia; Alves, Mayara Maia [Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia (RENORBIO/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Torres, Roberto Vitor Almeida; Bezerra, Jose Lucas Martins [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Brasileiro, Luis Porto [Faculdades INTA, Sobral, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the safety and potential equivalence of the use of hemosiderin compared to the Technetium-99 in sentinel lymph node biopsy in human breast cancer. Methods: Non-random sample of 14 volunteer women diagnosed with breast cancer with primary tumors (T1/T2) and clinically tumor-free axilla were submitted to the identification of sentinel lymph node using hemosiderin obtained from autologous blood injected in the periareolar region 24h before surgery on an outpatient basis. Patients received preoperative subareolar intradermal injection of Technetium-99 in the immediate preoperative period. Patients were submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsy, with incision in the axillary fold guided by Gamma-Probe, dissection by planes until the identification of the point of maximum uptake of Technetium-99, identifying the marked nodes and their colors. All surgical specimens were sent for pathological and immunohistochemical study. Results: The results showed no evidence of side effects and/or allergic and non-allergic reactions in patients submitted to SLNB with hemosiderin. The SLN identification rate per patient was 100%. SLNB identification rate per patient with hemosiderin was the same as that of Technetium, with a concordance rate of 100% between the methods. Conclusion: Hemosiderin is a safe dye that is equivalent to Technetium in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy. (author)

  12. Comparison between hemosiderin and Technetium-99 in sentinel lymph node biopsy in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diógenes; Alves, Mayara Maia; Aquino, Ranniere Gurgel Furtado de; Torres, Roberto Vitor Almeida; Bezerra, José Lucas Martins; Brasileiro, Luis Porto; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto

    2015-11-01

    To assess the safety and potential equivalence of the use of hemosiderin compared to the Technetium-99 in sentinel lymph node biopsy in human breast cancer. Non-random sample of 14 volunteer women diagnosed with breast cancer with primary tumors (T1/T2) and clinically tumor-free axilla were submitted to the identification of sentinel lymph node using hemosiderin obtained from autologous blood injected in the periareolar region 24h before surgery on an outpatient basis. Patients received preoperative subareolar intradermal injection of Technetium-99 in the immediate preoperative period. Patients were submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsy, with incision in the axillary fold guided by Gamma-Probe, dissection by planes until the identification of the point of maximum uptake of Technetium-99, identifying the marked nodes and their colors. All surgical specimens were sent for pathological and immunohistochemical study. The results showed no evidence of side effects and/or allergic and non-allergic reactions in patients submitted to SLNB with hemosiderin. The SLN identification rate per patient was 100%. SLNB identification rate per patient with hemosiderin was the same as that of Technetium, with a concordance rate of 100% between the methods. Hemosiderin is a safe dye that is equivalent to Technetium in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  13. Arm morbidity following sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection: a study from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Madsen A.; Haugaard, K.; Soerensen, J.

    2008-01-01

    the impact on shoulder mobility of node positive patients having a secondary axillary dissection because of the findings of metastases postoperatively. AIM: We aimed to investigate the objective and subjective arm morbidity in node negative and node positive patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In a prospective...... groups of node negative patients. Highly significant difference was found comparing sensibility. Comparing the morbidity in node positive patients who had a one-step axillary dissection with patients having a two-step procedure (sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by delayed axillary dissection) revealed...... no difference in objective or subjective arm morbidity. CONCLUSION: Node negative patients operated with sentinel lymph node biopsy have less arm morbidity compared with node negative patients operated with axillary lymph node dissection. Node positive patients who had a secondary axillary lymph node dissection...

  14. A Case of Anaphylaxis to Patent Blue in a Patient with Sentinel Lymph Node Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurich, Stefanie; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Tomm, Janina; Simon, Jan-Christoph; Treudler, Regina

    2016-12-01

    In medicine, patent blue violet (PBV) is utilized for staining lymphatic vessels in sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery. Moreover, PBV (also called E131 ) is used as food additive. We report on a 51-year-old non-atopic female with early breast cancer, who was scheduled for SLN excision and experienced an intra-operative anaphylactic reaction. In diagnostics the skin prick test (SPT) was positive to PBV. Hypersensitivity reactions to PBV can arise after the first exposure in surgery as sensitization may arise from either PBV (E131) in foods (i.e. in sweets or blue curacao) or from other structurally closely related triarylmethane dyes in objects of everyday life like textiles, detergents, paints, cold remedies and cosmetics. This article supports the necessity of an increased awareness of the possibility of anaphylactic reactions to PBV during SLN surgery, even if the patient never had contact to PBV before.

  15. Sentinel Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer Patients: Issues for Discussion and Our Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Pechlivanides

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel node biopsy has been established for several years now as a standard procedure of breast cancer surgery, but there are several variations of the indications and the technique used. This paper provides information regarding several issues of debate for its application as are the selection criteria, the application to patients with multifocal/multicentric breast cancer or DCIS, postneoadjuvant chemotherapy, the necessary number of nodes to be biopsied, the need for lymphoscintigraphy, the technique for frozen section, the factors that may predict nonsentinel nodes (NSNs involvement, the value of micrometastasis and isolated tumour cells, the internal mammary chain sentinel nodes, and finally the axillary recurrence after SLNB. Our view for these issues is included together with our experience of 430 SLNBs.

  16. A critical reappraisal of false negative sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, G; Romanini, A; Rubello, D; Mazzarri, S; Boni, G; Chiacchio, S; Tredici, M; Duce, V; Tardelli, E; Volterrani, D; Mariani, G

    2014-06-01

    Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) have completely changed the clinical management of cutaneous melanoma. This procedure has been accepted worldwide as a recognized method for nodal staging. SLNB is able to accurately determine nodal basin status, providing the most useful prognostic information. However, SLNB is not a perfect diagnostic test. Several large-scale studies have reported a relatively high false-negative rate (5.6-21%), correctly defined as the proportion of false-negative results with respect to the total number of "actual" positive lymph nodes. The main purpose of this review is to address the technical issues that nuclear physicians, surgeons, and pathologists should carefully consider to improve the accuracy of SLNB by minimizing its false-negative rate. In particular, SPECT/CT imaging has demonstrated to be able to identify a greater number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) than those found by planar lymphoscintigraphy. Furthermore, a unique definition in the international guidelines is missing for the operational identification of SLNs, which may be partly responsible for this relatively high false-negative rate of SLNB. Therefore, it is recommended for the scientific community to agree on the radioactive counting rate threshold so that the surgeon can be better radioguided to detect all the lymph nodes which are most likely to harbor metastases. Another possible source of error may be linked to the examination of the harvested SLNs by conventional histopathological methods. A more careful and extensive SLN analysis (e.g. molecular analysis by RT-PCR) is able to find more positive nodes, so that the false-negative rate is reduced. Older age at diagnosis, deeper lesions, histologic ulceration, head-neck anatomical location of primary lesions are the clinical factors associated with false-negative SLNBs in melanoma patients. There is still much controversy about the clinical significance of a false-negative SLNB on the prognosis

  17. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Hojo, Takashi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    This is the study which assessed sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of the '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'. Patients (302) were performed SNB using the combined radioisotope (RI)/indigo carmine dye method. Excised SLNs were confirmed whether they were stained and numbered in order of RI count and the percentage of radioactivity as compared to the hottest node was calculated. The relationship between histological diagnosis, dyeing and RI count was assessed. All the patients were detected SLN. Positive nodes were identified in 84 (27.8%) patients and were identified up to the third degree of hottest. All the hottest positive nodes were stained by indigo carmine. From the results, removing the three most radioactive SLNs identified all cases of nodal metastasis without complications. These stopping rules were valid and useful under indigo carmine use too. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Breast Conserving Surgery and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan Sezer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients with locally advanced breast cancer may undergo breast conserving surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the results of locally advanced breast cancer patients who underwent breast conserving surgery, axillary dissection and sentinel lymph node biopsy in a single center. Material and Methods: 12 patients with locally advanced breast cancer stage IIIA/IIIB were included in the study between 2002-2009. The patients were given anthracycline-based regimen before surgery. Patients underwent breast conserving surgery, axillary dissection, and sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by radiotherapy. Results: There were five patients in stage IIIA, six in stage IIIB, and one in stage IIIC. Patients had received 3-6 regimen of FAC/FEC. Eight had partial and four had complete response. Five positive axilla were detected. The median value of the lymph nodes was 12 (n:8-19. Five patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. The biopsy has failed in one patient and the median value of dissected sentinel node was 3.5 (n:3-4. Locoregional recurrence was not observed in any patients. The mean follow-up of the patients was 29.8 months and median time was 16 (n:2-80 months.Of the 12 patients 10 are alive and 2 were deceased. Conclusion: In selected locally advanced patients, breast conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy may be applied by a multidisciplinary approach, and excellent success may be achieved in those patients as in early breast cancer patients.

  19. Accuracy and Significance of Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Sentinel Node Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    III LNs not dissected) 10%-90% from lymphedema to dysesthesias ? these patients, the axillary nodes are removed.11 In patients undergoing... supplement ): 93. (6) Bedrosian, I.; Reynolds, C; Mick, R; al, e. Accuracy of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Patients with Large Primary Breast Tumors. Cancer... Supplement ): 87. (22) Burak, W., Jr.; Walker, M. J.; Yee, L. D.; Kim, J. A; Saha, S.; Hinkle, G.; Olsen, J. O.; Pozderac, R; Farrar, W. B. Routine

  20. Validation of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer women N1-N2 with complete axillary response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Multicentre study in Tarragona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, D; de la Flor, M; Galera, J; Amillano, K; Gomez, M; Izquierdo, V; Aguilar, E; López, S; Martínez, M; Martínez, S; Serra, J M; Pérez, M; Martin, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate sentinel lymph node biopsy as a diagnostic test for assessing the presence of residual metastatic axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, replacing the need for a lymphadenectomy in negative selective lymph node biopsy patients. A multicentre, diagnostic validation study was conducted in the province of Tarragona, on women with T1-T3, N1-N2 breast cancer, who presented with a complete axillary response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Study procedures consisted of performing an selective lymph node biopsy followed by lymphadenectomy. A total of 53 women were included in the study. Surgical detection rate was 90.5% (no sentinel node found in 5 patients). Histopathological analysis of the lymphadenectomy showed complete disease regression of axillary nodes in 35.4% (17/48) of the patients, and residual axillary node involvement in 64.6% (31/48) of them. In lymphadenectomy positive patients, 28 had a positive selective lymph node biopsy (true positive), while 3 had a negative selective lymph node biopsy (false negative). Of the 28 true selective lymph node biopsy positives, the sentinel node was the only positive node in 10 cases. All lymphadenectomy negative cases were selective lymph node biopsy negative. These data yield a sensitivity of 93.5%, a false negative rate of 9.7%, and a global test efficiency of 93.7%. Selective lymph node biopsy after chemotherapy in patients with a complete axillary response provides valid and reliable information regarding axillary status after neoadjuvant treatment, and might prevent lymphadenectomy in cases with negative selective lymph node biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  1. Anatomy and physiology of lymphatic drainage of the breast from the perspective of sentinel node biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, P. J.; Nieweg, O. E.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Kroon, B. B.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the lymphatic system is helpful when considering a particular sentinel node biopsy technique. The delicate balance between internal and external pressures in a lymphatic channel can be influenced by the injection volume and by massage in a negative or

  2. An innovative multimodality approach for sentinel node mapping and biopsy in head and neck malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borbón-Arce, M.; Brouwer, O. R.; van den Berg, N. S.; Mathéron, H.; Klop, W. M. C.; Balm, A. J. M.; van Leeuwen, F. W. B.; Valdés-Olmos, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent innovations such as preoperative SPECT/CT, intraoperative imaging using portable devices and a hybrid tracer were evaluated in a multimodality approach for sentinel node (SN) mapping and biopsy in head and neck malignancies. Material and methods: The evaluation included 25

  3. The EANM and SNMMI practice guideline for lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel node localization in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giammarile, F.; Alazraki, N.; Aarsvold, J.N.; Audisio, R.A.; Glass, E.; Grant, S.F.; Kunikowska, J.; Leidenius, M.; Moncayo, V.M.; Uren, R.F.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Olmos, R.A. Valdes; Sicart, S. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The accurate harvesting of a sentinel node in breast cancer includes a sequence of procedures with components from different medical specialities, including nuclear medicine, radiology, surgical oncology and pathology. The aim of this document is to provide general information about

  4. One-day or two-day procedure for sentinel node biopsy in melanoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, A H; Lock-Andersen, J; Hesse, U

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We compared the outcome of a 1-day and a 2-day sentinel node (SN) biopsy procedure, evaluated in terms of lymphoscintigraphic, surgical and pathological findings. METHODS: We studied 476 patients with melanoma from two melanoma centres using static scintigraphy and blue dye. A proportional...

  5. Sentinel node biopsy for melanoma in the head and neck region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, L.; Koops, H. S.; Nieweg, O. E.; Doting, M. H.; Kapteijn, B. A.; Balm, A. J.; Vermey, A.; Plukker, J. T.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Piers, D. A.; Kroon, B. B.

    2000-01-01

    Lymphatic drainage in the head and neck region is known to be particularly complex. This study explores the value of sentinel node biopsy for melanoma in the head and neck region. Thirty consecutive patients with clinically localized cutaneous melanoma in the head and neck region were included.

  6. Utility of sentinel node biopsy in patients with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, J E; Stolle, L B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently there is no consensual agreement on the standard use of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) in staging of high-risk patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to define the predictive value and role of SLNB combined with the different high-risk factors to determine which patients ...

  7. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer : procedural issuses and prognostic impact of detecting micrometastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobardhan, P.D.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients raised several procedure-related clinical questions as well as questions regarding the implications of the obtained staging information. As a minimally invasive operative procedure as well as an enhanced pathological

  8. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node harvesting in patients with recurrent breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumen, R.M.H.; Kuijt, G.P.; Liem, I.H.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the feasibility and consequences of lymphatic mapping and a ("repeat") sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in patients with breast cancer relapse after previous breast and axillary surgery. METHODS: Review and presentation of a patient cohort. All SLN procedures included

  9. Sentinel node biopsy for oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in the previously treated neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, G.B.; Broglie, M.A.; van Schie, A.; Bloemena, E.; Leemans, C.R.; de Bree, R.; Stoeckli, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    In patients with early stage oral or oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is a reliable method to detect occult disease in the neck. However, patients with a history of surgery or radiotherapy in the neck may have aberrant lymphatic drainage caused by disruption of

  10. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy and Isolated Tumor Cells in Invasive Lobular Versus Ductal Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, Wilfred; Roumen, Rudi M.; Siesling, Sabine; van der Heiden-van der Loo, Margriet; Lobbezoo, Dorien J.; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C.G.; Voogd, Adri C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in invasive breast cancer. The introduction of SLN biopsy with an extensive pathology examination, in addition to the introduction of the 2002 TNM classification, led to different axillary classification

  11. Axillary sentinel node identification in breast cancer patients: degree of radioactivity present at biopsy is critical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina R; Oturai, Peter S; Friis, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    The radioactivity present in the patient (Act(rem) ) at sentinel node (SN) biopsy will depend on injected activity amount as well as on the time interval from tracer injection to biopsy, which both show great variations in the literature. The purpose of this study was to analyse the influence...

  12. The hidden sentinel node and SPECT/CT in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Iris M. C.; Valdés Olmos, Renato A.; Kroon, Bin B. R.; Rutgers, Emiel J. T.; Nieweg, Omgo E.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: In a minority of breast cancer patients, lymphoscintigraphy shows no lymphatic drainage and 'hidden' sentinel nodes may remain undiscovered. The purpose of this study was to explore the additional value of the recently introduced hybrid SPECT/CT in breast cancer patients with axillary

  13. Multicenter validation study of the sentinel lymph node concept in cervical cancer: AGO Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgassen, Christopher; Hertel, Hermann; Brandstädt, Antje; Köhler, Christhardt; Dürst, Matthias; Schneider, Achim

    2008-06-20

    Single-institution case series have demonstrated the feasibility of the sentinel concept in cervical cancer. However, the diagnostic accuracy remains to be validated. We evaluated detection rate and diagnostic accuracy to predict the histopathologic pelvic nodal status in patients with cervical cancer of all stages. In a hypothesis-based, prospective, multicenter cohort study, patients underwent lymph node detection after labeling with technetium, patent blue, or both. After systematic pelvic and, if indicated, para-aortic node dissection, all lymph nodes were histopathologically examined. Detection rate, sensitivity, and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. According to the protocol, 590 patients were eligible. Detection rate of pelvic sentinel nodes was 88.6% (95% CI, 85.8% to 91.1%) and was significantly higher for the combination of technetium and patent blue (93.5%; 95% CI, 90.3% to 96.0%). Of 106 patients with pelvic lymph node metastases, 82 had pelvic sentinel node metastases. The overall sensitivity was 77.4% (95% CI, 68.2% to 85.0%), which was lower than 90%, the predefined noninferiority margin (P concept was low. However, patients with tumor diameter concept.

  14. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided Sentinel lymph node biopsy of the ocular conjunctiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Mindy R; Merton, Daniel A; Liu, Ji-Bin; Saxena, Shivam; Pluta, John; Eisenbrey, John R; Baker, Adam L; Rabinowitz, Michael P; Lally, Sara; Cognetti, David; Goldberg, Barry B; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Curry, Joseph M

    2014-11-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been utilized for cutaneous melanoma and other malignancies arising from the eye and ocular adnexa. Currently, SLNB requires blue dyes and/or radiopharmaceuticals; both of which have significant shortcomings. This study sought to evaluate the feasibility of SLNB with the use of real-time, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) as an alternative technique for tumors arising in the conjunctiva. Prospective feasibility study in a porcine model. Twelve experiments were performed on six non-tumor-bearing Yorkshire swine. An ultrasound contrast agent, Sonazoid (GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway), (99m) technetium ((99m) Tc), and methylene blue (MB) (Covidien, Mansfield, MA) were injected in the ocular conjunctiva. Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were localized with CEUS and findings were compared to that of MB and (99m) Tc. Fisher exact test was used. Contrast-enhanced SLNs were identified within an average of 6.2 minutes from time of injection of Sonazoid. A total of 17 SLNs were identified by at least one of the three techniques. Correlation between Sonazoid and (99m) Tc was 94.1% (16/17 SLNs). Correlation between (99m) Tc and MB was 88.2% (15/17). One SLN that was positive for (99m) Tc but negative for Sonazoid and was considered to be a false positive (1/17); findings were similar for MB (1/17). Differences between the three techniques were not significant (P = .886). CEUS-guided injection of conjunctiva for SLNB is technically feasible and correlates well with standard detection techniques. This technique shows promise for rapid, real-time, intraoperative imaging for SLNB, using a widely available imaging modality and avoiding the need for radiopharmaceuticals. NA © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Results in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kocakuflak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB in breast cancer patients targets the evaluation of the initial lymph node (SLN which drains the primary tumor. The morbidity of unnecessary axillary dissection can be avoided by intensive preoperative assessment of SLN. Methods: Twenty-six consecutive patients who had been surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer between March 2005 and August 2007 were evaluated. Blue dye (methylene blue method was used to detect SLN. All patients underwent axillary lymph node dissection following SLNB. NCSS program was used for statistical analysis. Chi-square test was used in the comparison of binary groups. Results: Except for one, all patients were female. The mean age of the patients was 56 (29-76 years. While 13 patients underwent modified radical mastectomy (=mastectomy+axillary dissection, the remaining 13 patients underwent breast preserving surgery (lumpectomy+axillary dissection. SLN could not be found in 2 patients (7.6%.The male patient was one of these 2 patients and both of them were positive for axillary node metastases. The detection rate of SLN, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, sensitivity, false negativity, and reliability were 92.3%, 92.8%, 86%, 90.9%, 83.3%, 16.6%, and 88.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Our result support the hypothesis that SLNB with blue dye alone is a reliable technique and, surgery clinics should use it prior to axillary dissection to test their own success during the learning curve. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2011; 49: 67-72

  16. The sentinel lymph node management: basics, techniques, documentation, classification, and recommendations regarding quality assurance; Das Sentinel-Lymph-Node-Management: Grundlagen, Technik, Dokumentation, Klassifikation und Empfehlungen zur Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza, S.; Munz, D.L. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Charite - Universitaetmedizin Berlin (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) management represents one of the most fascinating developments world-wide in oncology during the last 15 years. The N{sub 0}M{sub 0}-situation in the context of pN-staging is the general indication and must be guaranteed before SLN diagnostics. An SLN is defined as one or more lymph node(s) to which lymphatic drainage and metastases from a (solid) primary tumour are most likely to occur. The SLN is visualised by lymphatic mapping using either a radioactive tracer, a vital dye, a lymphotropic MR-contrast agent or a combination of all (if necessary multimodal imaging). SLNs are reliably identified by the visualisation of an ''own'' afferent lymphatic vessel (further criteria are described). Instructions for the SLN diagnostic procedure in selected primary tumours are presented. Finally, suggestions on documentation and classification and also recommendations regarding quality assurance are addressed. (orig.)

  17. Probability of axillary lymph node metastasis when sentinel lymph node biopsy is negative in women with clinically node negative breast cancer: a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Kiyomi; Kanbe, Masako; Kodama, Hitomi; Omi, Yoko; Kawamata, Akiko; Suzuki, Rumi; Igari, Yuka; Tanaka, Reiko; Iihara, Masatoshi; Ito, Yukio; Sawada, Tatsuo; Nishikawa, Toshio; Maki, Masako; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Obara, Takao

    2005-01-01

    Although sentinel lymph node biopsy(SLNB)is highly accurate in predicting axillary nodal status in patients with breast cancer, it has been shown that the procedure is associated with a few false negative results. The risk of leaving metastatic nodes behind in the axillary basin when SLNB is negative should be estimated for an individual patient if SLNB is performed to avoid conventional axillary lymph node dissection(ALND). A retrospective analysis of 512 women with T1-3N0M0 breast cancer was conducted to derive a prevalence of nodal metastasis by T category as a pre-test(i.e., before SLNB)probability and to examine potential confounders on the relationship between T category and axillary nodal involvement. Probability of nodal metastasis when SLNB was negative was estimated by means of Bayes' theorem which incorporated the pre-test probability and sensitivity and specificity of SLNB. Axillary nodal metastasis was observed in 6.1% of T1a-b, 25.1% of T1c, 28.7% of T2, 35.0% of T3 tumors. Point estimates for the probability of nodal involvement when SLNB was negative ranged from 0.3-1.3% for T1a-b, 1.6-6.3% for T1c, 2.0-7.5% for T2, and 2.6-9.7% for T3 tumors with representative sensitivities of 80%, 85%, 90% and 95%, respectively. The risk may be higher when the tumor involves the upper outer quadrant of the breast, while it may be lower for an underweight woman. The probability of axillary lymph node metastasis when SLNB is negative can be estimated using a Bayesian approach. Presenting the probability to the patient may guide the decision of surgery without conventional ALND.

  18. Unfiltered sulfur colloid and sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer: technical and kinetic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, F L; Gulec, S A; Sittler, S Y; Serafini, A N; Sfakianakis, G N; Boggs, J E; Franceschi, D; Pruett, C S; Pop, R; Gurkok, C; Livingstone, A S; Krag, D N

    1999-12-01

    There are few clinical data on technical limitations and radiocolloid kinetics related to sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer. In 70 clinical node-negative patients, unfiltered 99mTc sulfur-colloid was injected peritumorally and cutaneous hot spots were mapped with a gamma probe. SLN biopsy was performed followed by axillary lymph node dissection. Missed radioactive nodes (nodes not under hot spots) were removed from axillary lymph node dissection specimens and submitted separately. At least one hot spot was mapped in 69 patients (98%) and SLNs were retrieved in 62 (89%). No radiolabeled nodes were found in five (7%) and only nodes not under hot spots were retrieved in three patients (4%). Residual nodes not under hot spots were retrieved in 17 patients (24%) in whom at least one SLN specimen had been found. Diffuse radioactivity around the radiocolloid injection site impeded identification of all radiolabeled nodes during SLN biopsy, and was responsible for one of two false negatives (20 node-positive patients; false-negative rate 10%). Hot spot radioactivity, number of radiolabeled nodes, and nodal radioactivity did not change with time interval from radiocolloid injection to surgery (0.75-6.25 hours). Although SLN localization rate is high, intraparenchymal injection may predispose to failure of radiocolloid migration, failure to identify SLNs because of high radiation background, and false-negative outcomes. Alternative routes of radiocolloid administration should be explored.

  19. Contraindications of sentinel lymph node biopsy: Áre there any really?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zografos George

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most exciting and talked about new surgical techniques in breast cancer surgery is the sentinel lymph node biopsy. It is an alternative procedure to standard axillary lymph node dissection, which makes possible less invasive surgery and side effects for patients with early breast cancer that wouldn't benefit further from axillary lymph node clearance. Sentinel lymph node biopsy helps to accurately evaluate the status of the axilla and the extent of disease, but also determines appropriate adjuvant treatment and long-term follow-up. However, like all surgical procedures, the sentinel lymph node biopsy is not appropriate for each and every patient. Methods In this article we review the absolute and relative contraindications of the procedure in respect to clinically positive axilla, neoadjuvant therapy, tumor size, multicentric and multifocal disease, in situ carcinoma, pregnancy, age, body-mass index, allergies to dye and/or radio colloid and prior breast and/or axillary surgery. Results Certain conditions involving host factors and tumor biologic characteristics may have a negative impact on the success rate and accuracy of the procedure. The overall fraction of patients unsuitable or with multiple risk factors that may compromise the success of the sentinel lymph node biopsy, is very small. Nevertheless, these patients need to be successfully identified, appropriately advised and cautioned, and so do the surgeons that perform the procedure. Conclusion When performed by an experienced multi-disciplinary team, the SLNB is a highly effective and accurate alternative to standard level I and II axillary clearance in the vast majority of patients with early breast cancer.

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with pure and high-risk ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eredità, Giovanni; Giardina, Carmela; Napoli, Anna; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Troilo, Vito Leopoldo; Fischetti, Fernando; Berardi, Tommaso

    2009-01-01

    The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients initially diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ resides in determining the predictors of invasive disease. The aim of the present study was to examine the incidence of sentinel lymph node metastases in a selected group of patients, with characteristics of high-risk ductal carcinoma in situ, in order to determine the clinical usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy. A total of 90 patients with a biopsy diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ were treated. Fifty-two patients with high-risk ductal carcinoma in situ had sentinel lymph node biopsy. The following characteristics of the primary tumor were considered as indicative of a risk of invasive disease: presence of palpable mass, mammographic mass, multicentric disease that required mastectomy, and histologically high nuclear grade or non-high nuclear grade with necrosis. Subdermal injections of 99mTc-labeled human albumin and subareolar injection of blue dye were used for sentinel lymph node identification. All sentinel nodes were sectioned serially and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using a cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. A positive sentinel lymph node was found in only one patient (1.9%). The patient had a double lesion, and core-needle biopsy showed an atypical ductal hyperplasia and a intermediate degree of ductal carcinoma in situ. At pathologic review of the specimen, no invasive aspect was detected. The results of our study indicate that sentinel lymph node metastasis in pure ductal carcinoma in situ is extremely uncommon. We therefore suggest that sentinel lymph node biopsy might be indicated for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ detected as a palpable mass or as large extensive microcalcifications, as well as for patients who are undergoing mastectomy, especially with immediate reconstruction.

  1. Sentinel nodes are identifiable in formalin-fixed specimens after surgeon-performed ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, Fraser McLean

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, the technique of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has been applied to colorectal cancer. One aim was to ultrastage patients who were deemed node negative by routine pathologic processing but who went on to develop systemic disease. Such a group may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: With fully informed consent and ethical approval, 37 patients with primary colorectal cancer and 3 patients with large adenomas were prospectively mapped. Isosulfan blue dye (1 to 2 mL) was injected around tumors within 5 to 10 minutes of resection. After gentle massage to recreate in vivo lymph flow, specimens were placed directly into formalin. During routine pathologic analysis, all nodes were bivalved, and blue-staining nodes were noted. These later underwent multilevel step sectioning with hematoxylin and eosin and cytokeratin staining. RESULTS: SLNs were found in 39 of 40 patients (98% sensitivity), with an average of 4.1 SLNs per patient (range, 1-8). In 14 of 16 (88% specificity) patients with nodal metastases on routine reporting, SLN status was in accordance. Focused examination of SLNs identified occult tumor deposits in 6 (29%) of 21 node-negative patients. No metastatic cells were found in SLNs draining the three adenomas. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to identify SLNs after formalin fixation increases the ease and applicability of SLN mapping in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity of this simple ex vivo method for establishing regional lymph node status were directly comparable to those in previously published reports.

  2. Temporary shielding of hot spots in the drainage areas of cutaneous melanoma improves accuracy of lymphoscintigraphic sentinel lymph node diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza, S.; Valencia, R.; Geworski, L.; Zander, A.; Munz, D.L. [Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Charite, Humboldt University of Berlin, Schumannstrasse 20-21, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Draeger, E.; Winter, H.; Sterry, W. [Clinic for Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Hospital Charite, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    Detection of the ''true'' sentinel lymph nodes, permitting correct staging of regional lymph nodes, is essential for management and prognostic assessment in malignant melanoma. In this study, it was prospectively evaluated whether simple temporary shielding of hot spots in lymphatic drainage areas could improve the accuracy of sentinel lymph node diagnostics. In 100 consecutive malignant melanoma patients (45 women, 55 men; age 11-91 years), dynamic and static lymphoscintigraphy in various views was performed after strict intracutaneous application of technetium-99m nanocolloid (40-150 MBq; 0.05 ml/deposit) around the tumour (31 patients) or the biopsy scar (69 patients, safety distance 1 cm). The images were acquired with and without temporary lead shielding of the most prominent hot spots in the drainage area. In 33/100 patients, one or two additional sentinel lymph nodes that showed less tracer accumulation or were smaller (<1.5 cm) were detected after shielding. Four of these patients had metastases in the sentinel lymph nodes; the non-sentinel lymph nodes were tumour negative. In 3/100 patients, hot spots in the drainage area proved to be lymph vessels, lymph vessel intersections or lymph vessel ectasias after temporary shielding; hence, a node interpreted as a non-sentinel lymph node at first glance proved to be the real sentinel lymph node. In two of these patients, lymph node metastasis was histologically confirmed; the non-sentinel lymph nodes were tumour free. In 7/100 patients the exact course of lymph vessels could be mapped after shielding. In one of these patients, two additional sentinel lymph nodes (with metastasis) were detected. Overall, in 43/100 patients the temporary shielding yielded additional information, with sentinel lymph node metastases in 7%. In conclusion, when used in combination with dynamic acquisition in various views, temporary shielding of prominent hot spots in the drainage area of a malignant melanoma of the

  3. Analysis of sentinel node positivity in primary cutaneous melanoma: an 8-year single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, K M; McInerney, N M; Piggott, R P; Martin, F; Jones, D M; Hussey, A J; Kerin, M J; Kelly, J L; Regan, P J

    2017-11-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a standard method for determining the pathologic status of the regional lymph nodes. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and clinicopathologic factors predictive of SLN positivity, and to evaluate the prognostic importance of SLNB in patients with cutaneous melanoma. We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database of all patients who underwent SLNB for primary melanoma at our institution from 2005 to 2012. Statistical analysis was performed using χ 2 and Fischer exact test. In total, 318 patients underwent SLNB, of which 65 were for thin melanoma (≤1 mm). There were 36 positive SLNB, 278 negative SLNB and in four cases the SLN was not located. The incidence rate for SLNB was 11.3% overall and 1.5% in thin melanomas alone. Statistical analysis identified Breslow thickness >1 mm (P = 0.006), Clark level ≥ IV (P = 0.004) and age <75 years (P = 0.035) as the strongest predictors of SLN positivity. Our overall false negativity rate was 20% (9/45) with one case of false-negative SLNB in thin melanomas. Breslow thickness of the primary tumour remains the strongest predictor of SLN positivity. Our findings point to a possible limited role for SLNB in thin melanoma due to its low positivity rate, associated false-negative rate and related morbidity.

  4. [Evaluation of green indocyanine interest compared to Technetium in sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenane, Y; Gorj, M; Nguyen, V; Revol, M; Mazouz-Dorval, S

    2016-12-01

    Axillary sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy by using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence for breast cancer is a recent technique. However, compared to Technetium-99m (Tc), which is the reference technique, its efficiency has received little testing. Between December 2013 and January 2014, 40 patients with node-negative breast cancer underwent SN biopsy by injecting sub areolar Tc in preoperative stage and injecting sub areolar ICG in intraoperative stage. SN were previously identified and resected by using ICG coupled with infrared camera. After resection of fluorescent SN, we check its radioactivity with a gamma probe (isotopic method). In case of residual radioactive labeling in the axillary crease, we remove the remaining SN. We have retrospectively analyzed the SN detection concordance rates of these two methods. In total we resected 53 SN, among which 48 (90.6%) were indocyanine green positive and 53 (100%) Tc positive. The remaining 5 SN were all ICG negative and Tc positive. Using ICG has not caused any side effect. SN detection for breast cancer by using ICG fluorescence is a promising, reliable technique which nonetheless requires a degree of expertise before reaching similar results as the Tc technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Pigmentation of axillary sentinel nodes from extensive skin tattoo mimics metastatic melanoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganoni, Ausilia Maria; Sereni, Elena; Pata, Giacomo; Ungari, Marco; Pavoni, Laura; Farisoglio, Camillo; Calzavara-Pinton, Pier Giacomo; Farfaglia, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    The relationship between the occurrence of skin diseases and skin tattoos remains unclear. Dermatologic disorders have been reported to occur in about 2% of cases. In addition, tattoo pigment can migrate to the regional lymph nodes through the lymphatic vessels and subsequently mimic metastatic disease from melanoma. A 23-year-old Caucasian man presented with a pigmented lesion on the left scapular region, which had slowly enlarged over time. The patient exhibited an extensive tattoo on the left upper arm, left shoulder, and part of the upper back. His medical history was unremarkable. The pigmented lesion was excised. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen, neck, and inguinal and axillary lymph nodes and a total body computed tomography scan showed no sign of disease. A re-excision with 2-cm margins and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) were performed. Two grossly enlarged, black sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) highly suggestive of melanoma metastases were removed. No evidence of melanoma metastasis was found in any of the sampled tissues. Large amounts of pigment were present within the subcapsular space and sinusoid areas of the two clinically suspicious lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical analysis was negative. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is widely performed in cutaneous melanoma. Histologic confirmation of any enlarged, pigmented SLN is essential prior to radical surgery, especially when pigmented SLNs are found near a tattoo. Tattoo pigments may deposit in the regional lymph nodes and may clinically mimic metastatic disease. A history of tattooing should be considered in all melanoma patients eligible for SLNB. In a finding of darkly pigmented nodes during SLNB, radical lymphadenectomy should be withheld until immunohistologic confirmation of metastasis in the SLN is obtained. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. Advanced malignant melanoma during pregnancy: technical description of sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by radical lymph node dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Julius Alves Wainstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: melanoma is a very aggressive cancer, with increasing incidence, and is currently the fifth most common cancer in men and the sixth most common in women in the United States. Melanoma is not unusual in pregnancy, with an estimated occur-rence rate of 1:1.000. Although not the most common cancer in pregnancy, melanoma is the tumor with the highest incidence ofplacenta and fetus metastases. Description: a 29-year-old lady, 4 weeks after conception underwent resection of an atypical pigmented lesion after a diagnosis of stage T4b melanoma. At 16 weeks she underwent a broad local excision and sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy. SLN was evaluated histologically and tested positive for melanoma. A radical axillary lymphadenectomy was performed on the patient without evidence of metas-tasis in any other LN. In the 40th week of pregnancy, labor was induced and a healthy newborn was deli-vered via cesarean. Discussion: melanoma management in pregnancy is more complex and requires multidisciplinary coor-dination, as well as extensive discussion with the patient and her family. We present a case report description in which treatment recommendations are established according to no pregnancy experience.

  7. Elastography in the assessment of sentinel lymph nodes prior to dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourasse, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.tourasse@radiologie-lyon.com [Radiology Department, Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, 55 avenue Jean Mermoz, 69008 Lyon (France); Denier, Jean Francois [Anatomopathology Department, Technipath, 41 allee des Cypres, 69760 Limonest (France); Awada, Azzam; Gratadour, Anne-Christel; Nessah-Bousquet, Karima [Gynaecological and Breast Surgery Department, Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, 69008 Lyon (France); Gay, Joeel [SuperSonic Imagine, Les Jardins de la Duranne - Bat. F, 510, rue Rene Descartes, 13857 Aix-en-Provence Cedex (France)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: Breast cancer starts as a local tumor but can become metastatic and spread via the lymph nodes. When the pre-operative assessment of the axillary lymph nodes is negative patients generally undergo sentinel node biopsy (SNB), followed by a secondary surgical axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) if the SNB is positive. The extemporaneous anatomo-pathological analysis of the sentinel lymph node enables metastases to be detected and an ALND at the same time of the SNB. The goal of this study was to evaluate the added value of ShearWave Elastography (SWE), compared with the conventional pre-operative assessment, in the screening of sentinel lymph nodes with a high metastatic risk, which could then benefit from an extemporaneous anatomo-pathological analysis. Patients and methods: Women undergoing breast surgery with SNB were prospectively enrolled. Before surgery, they underwent ultrasound and elastography imaging of axillary lymph nodes using the SuperSonic Imagine device and its ShearWave Trade-Mark-Sign elastography mode (SWE Trade-Mark-Sign ). The results obtained were compared to the immunohistochemical results for the removed lymph nodes. Results: 65 patients were enrolled. From the 103 lymph nodes examined by elastography and the 185 lymph nodes removed we were able to pair 81; 70 were healthy and 11 were malignant. The stiffness measurements (mean and maximal values) were significantly different between the healthy and metastatic lymph nodes, (p < 0.05). The areas under the ROC curves were 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94) and 0.75 (95%CI: 0.55-0.95) for the mean and the maximal stiffness, respectively. Conclusion: These encouraging results show a correlation between the metastatic risk of lymph nodes and their increased mean stiffness. Elasticity variables and potential thresholds that seem to predict the metastatic status of axillary lymph nodes were identified. If confirmed by further larger studies, these results could be useful in

  8. Sentinel node necrosis is a negative prognostic factor in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging study of 252 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L.; Wei, X.; Li, Y.H.; Li, W.B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We explored the patterns of sentinel node metastasis and investigated the prognostic value of sentinel node necrosis (snn) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc), based on magnetic resonance imaging (mri). Methods This retrospective study enrolled 252 patients at our institution who had metastatic lymph nodes from biopsy-confirmed npc and who were treated with definitive radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy. All participants underwent mri before treatment, and the resulting images were reviewed to evaluate lymph node status. The patients were divided into snn and non-snn groups. Overall survival (os), tumour-free survival (tfs), regional relapse–free survival (rrfs), and distant metastasis–free survival (dmfs) were calculated by the Kaplan–Meier method, and differences were compared using the log-rank test. Factors predictive of outcome were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Of the 252 patients, 189 (75%) had retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis, and 189 (75%) had level iia or iib lymph node necrosis. The incidence of snn was 43.4% (91 of 210 patients with lymph node metastasis or necrosis, or both). After a median follow-up of 54 months, the 5-year rates of os, tfs, rrfs, and dmfs in the snn and non-snn groups were, respectively, 79.4% and 95.3%, 73.5% and 93.3%, 80.4% and 96.6%, and 75.5% and 95.3% (all p < 0.01). Age greater than 40 years, snn, T stage, and N stage were significant independent negative prognostic factors for os, tfs, rrfs, and dmfs. Conclusions Metastatic retropharyngeal lymph nodes and necrotic level ii nodes both seem to act as sentinels. Sentinel node necrosis is an negative prognostic factor in patients with npc. Patients with snn have a worse prognosis. PMID:28680290

  9. Long term results of sentinel lymph node biopsy in early oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dequanter D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Didier Dequanter, Mohammad Shahla, Pascal Paulus, Philippe Lothaire Civil Hospital of Charleroi (site Vésale, Montigny le Tilleul, Belgium Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the long term results of the sentinel node (SN biopsy technique in the management of the clinically negative (N0 neck in patients with early oral squamous cell carcinoma (T1–T2. Patients with positive SN underwent neck dissection. A sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy was performed on 31 consecutive patients. Six of the 31 patients were upstaged by the results of the SLN biopsy. The SLN biopsy allowed the identification of node metastasis in 100% of the cases with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 100%, and negative predictive value of 100%. There was a mean follow-up of 59 months. The neck control rate was 100% in the SLN negative group and two SLN positive patients developed subsequent neck disease (neck control rate of 88%. One SLN patient presented at the follow-up with a second primary tumor, 18 months later treated successfully by chemoradiotherapy. The overall survival rate was 100% in both groups. The promising reported short-term results have been sustained by long term follow-up. Patients with negative SLN achieved an excellent neck control rate. The neck control rate in SN negative patients was superior to that in SLN positive patients, but not statistically different. Keywords: sentinel lymph node, characteristics of patients, head and neck cancer

  10. Intraoperative examination of sentinel lymph nodes using scrape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-03

    Aug 3, 2014 ... or radiotherapy of the axilla is indicated for macrometastases, as well as adjuvant therapy for macrometastases and micrometastasic spread. Aim. To determine the ... Methods. SLNB was performed in 100 patients with early breast cancer in whom the axillary nodes appeared normal on clinical examination.

  11. Inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy with only blue dye in lower extremity malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omranipour R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy has become the standard of care in malignant melanoma, it is commonly identified by intradermal injection of both radiocolloid tracer and Patent Blue Dye (PBD around the tumor. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of PBD in identifying inguinal SLN and also the accuracy of SLN mapping performed by peritumoral injection of PBD without combined radioisotope in malignant melanoma of lower extremity.Methods: Thirty consecutive patients with primary melanoma of lower exteremity who were referred to Cancer Institute of Tehran University of Medical Science between March 2003 to March 2006 were enrolled in this study. All patients had a preoperative pathologic diagnosis of malignant melanoma, median breslow thickness (range 1-4 mm and none had clinical or radiologic evidence of nodal involvement or distant metastases. At surgery PBD was injected around the lesion or scar of excisionl biopsy. Subsequently with a 5cm groin incision SLN Biopsy and complete lymph node dissection was done and all lymph nodes were sent for histopathologic examination. SLN examined by both hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining.Results: SLN identification rate was 100%. No complication directly related to PBD injection was seen. Forty-eight sentinel lymph nodes and 195 non sentinel lymph nodes were harvested. Nineteen SLNS were found to be metastasic in 13 patients (47%. In these patients metastases were found in other inguinal lymph nodes.In the remaining 17 patients, both the SLN itself and the other removed nodes were negative for the metastatic involvement. Conclusions: Patent blue dye may be enough to identify superficial inguinal SLN in lower extremity melanoma.

  12. The value of level III clearance in patients with axillary and sentinel node positive breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dillon, Mary F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The value of level III axillary clearance is contentious, with great variance worldwide in the extent and levels of clearance performed. OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of level III positivity in patients undergoing level I-III axillary clearance, and identify which patients are at highest risk of involved level III nodes. METHODS: From a database of 2850 patients derived from symptomatic and population-based screening service, 1179 patients who underwent level I-III clearance between the years 1999-2007 were identified. The pathology, surgical details, and prior sentinel nodes biopsies of patients were recorded. RESULTS: Eleven hundred seventy nine patients had level I-III axillary clearance. Of the patients, 63% (n = 747) were node positive. Of patients with node positive disease, 23% (n = 168) were level II positive and 19% (n = 141) were level III positive. Two hundred fifty patients had positive sentinel node biopsies prior to axillary clearance. Of these, 12% (n = 30) and 9% (n = 22) were level II and level III positive, respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors predictive of level III involvement in patients with node positive disease were tumor size (P < 0.001, OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.2-1.5), invasive lobular disease (P < 0.001, OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.9-6.95), extranodal extension (P < 0.001, OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.18-0.4), and lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.04, OR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-1). Lobular invasive disease (P = 0.049, OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1-16.8), extranodal spread (P = 0.003, OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.06-0.57), and having more than one positive sentinel node (P = 0.009, OR = 4.9; 95% CI: 1.5-16.1) were predictive of level III involvement in patients with sentinel node positive disease. CONCLUSION: Level III clearance has a selective but definite role to play in patients who have node positive breast carcinoma. Pathological characteristics of the primary tumor are of particular use in identifying those who are at various risk of level III nodal

  13. The diagnostic value of adding dynamic scintigraphy to standard delayed planar imaging for sentinel node identification in melanoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Kristina Rue; Chakera, Annette H; Hesse, Birger

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare early dynamic imaging combined with delayed static imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT with delayed, planar, static imaging alone for sentinel node (SN) identification in melanoma patients....

  14. Improvement in sentinel node biopsy results in a teaching community hospital: results of a multidisciplinary quality improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard K; Wheeler, Kerry L; Barrineau, Devonne D; Hird, R Barry

    2008-10-01

    In 2001 we reported poor results for sentinel node biopsy and marked variability among surgeons. Subsequently, we initiated a multidisciplinary protocol involving standardized radiocolloid injection, physician education, and surgeon proctoring. The current study presents follow-up data (2004-2006) after this quality improvement initiative. Data recorded included technical details and patient factors, related to each surgeon. Results were compared with our previously published data. The overall identification rate was improved markedly from 2001 (92% vs 66%). Eleven general surgeons performed 151 sentinel node biopsies. Seven surgeons had a 100% identification rate, the others had identification rates of 84% (N = 44), 86% (N = 29), 92% (N = 12), and 0% (N = 1). Differences still persist among surgeons, including number of sentinel nodes sampled, performance of axillary dissections, and breast conservation. A multidisciplinary protocol improved sentinel node biopsy performance in a community teaching hospital. However, further work is needed to standardize and improve overall breast surgery results.

  15. Sentinel node biopsy as an adjunct to limb salvage surgery for epithelioid sarcoma of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammond Alex

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelioid sarcomas of the hand are rare, high-grade tumors with a propensity for regional lymphatic spread approaching 40%. Case presentation A 54-year-old male with an epithelioid sarcoma of the palm was treated with neoadjuvant radiation, wide excision, and two-stage reconstruction. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was used to stage the patient's axilla. Sentinel node biopsy results were negative. The patient has remained free of local, regional and distant disease for the follow-up time of 16 months. Conclusion The rarity of this tumor makes definitive conclusions difficult but SLN biopsy appears to be a useful adjunct in the treatment of these sarcomas.

  16. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the treatment of breast ductal carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Rasmussen, Emil Villiam; Jensen, Maj Britt; Balslev, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The risk of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with only ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is low. Thus, axillary staging with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) should only be used according to the current guidelines to avoid over-treatment and unnecessary morbidity. In the pr......Objectives The risk of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with only ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is low. Thus, axillary staging with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) should only be used according to the current guidelines to avoid over-treatment and unnecessary morbidity...... underwent SLNB. The use of SLNB increased from 26.6% in 2004 to 65.1% in 2015. A total of 1877 (71.7%) patients underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS), and 577 (22.0%) underwent mastectomy, of which 43.9% and 86.0% respectively had a concomitant SLNB. The SLNB was performed in 23.8% of 454 patients...

  17. Contemporary use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Nolan B; Wright, Chadwick L; Agrawal, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become a well-established and commonplace practice in many oncologic disease sites as a means to stage the regional lymphatics, avoid unnecessary surgery and decrease patient morbidity. In the head and neck, its role is well established for cutaneous melanoma with proven fidelity and survival benefit. Its role in use for other sites such as oral cavity carcinoma continues to develop with promising results from several recent trials. Although not widely adopted, the potential benefits of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of oral cavity carcinoma are apparent. Refinements in technology and protocols including development of novel radiopharmaceutical tracers, routine incorporation of detailed anatomic imaging, increasing surgeon experience and development of new intraoperative identification aids will likely lead to improvements in the use and accuracy of this technique.

  18. Evaluation of Methylobacterium radiotolerance and Sphyngomonas yanoikoaie in Sentinel Lymph Nodes of Breast Cancer Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Hamid Reza; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Fallah, Fateme; Alizadeh Shargh, Shohreh; Mansouri, Neda; Heidary Pour, Atefeh; Hashemi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    It has been established that different kinds of bacteria agents are involved in various cancers. Although the mechanism of tumorigenesis is not clearly understood, there is evidence for the presence of bacteria within tumors, with at least a progression effect for some bacteria that prepare suitable microenvironments for tumor cell growth. The aim of current study was to evaluate bacterial dysbiosis in sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients. One hundred and twenty three fresh-frozen sentinel lymph nodes and a corresponding number of normal adjacent breast tissue specimens and five normal mastectomy samples were investigated employing RT-PCR. In addition using genus-specific primers were applied. There was a significant differences as presence of Methylobacterium radiotolerance DNA recorded between patients and normal control group (p= 0.0). Based on our research work, further studies into the role of microbes in breast cancer would be of great interest.

  19. [Lymph node mapping and axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy in 243 invasive breast cancers with no palpable nodes. The south Lyon hospital center experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, J Y; Spirito, C; Isaac, S; Zinzindohoue, C; Joualee, A; Khaled, M; Perrin-Fayolle, O

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of intraoperative lymph node mapping and sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) on the axillary staging of patients with N0 breast carcinoma. Two techniques were used: blue dye alone (Evans Blue and Patent Blue) and combined technique (blue dye and isotope). The incidence of axillary node metastasis in axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and SLND was compared prospectively. Multiple sections of each SLN were examined by HPS staining and immunohistochemical techniques. Two sections of each non sentinel node in ALND specimens were examined by routine HPS staining. 243 patients underwent ALND after SLN biopsy. The SLN detection rate was 225/243 cases (92.59%): 89.94% with blue dye alone and 100% with the combined technique. The false-negative rate was less than 2%. SN biopsy is an accurate staging technique for N0 breast cancer. SLN biopsy with multiple sections and immunohistochemical staining of the SLN can identify significantly more patients with lymph node metastases than ALND with routine HPS staining.

  20. Axillary sentinel node identification in breast cancer patients: degree of radioactivity present at biopsy is critical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina R; Oturai, Peter S; Friis, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    The radioactivity present in the patient (Act(rem) ) at sentinel node (SN) biopsy will depend on injected activity amount as well as on the time interval from tracer injection to biopsy, which both show great variations in the literature. The purpose of this study was to analyse the influence...... of varying Act(rem) levels on the outcome of axillary SN biopsy in patients with breast cancer (BC)....

  1. The utility of intraoperative handheld gamma camera for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Elgin; Eroglu, Aydan [Ankara University Medical School, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2015-12-15

    Accurate identification of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is an important prognostic factor for melanoma. In a minority of cases drainage to interval nodal basins, such as the epitrochlear region, are possible. Intraoperative handheld gamma cameras have been used to detect SLNs which are located in different anatomical localizations. In this case we report the utility of an intraoperative handheld gamma camera in the localization of epitrochlear drainage of distal upper extremity melanoma and its impact on surgical procedure.

  2. Fire års erfaringer med sentinel node-operation ved brystcancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Hanne; Lanng, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The sentinel node (SN) procedure is increasingly being employed in breast surgery to determine the status of the axilla. So far, experience has shown that determination of axillary status is just as accurate as with axillary dissection. Results from 47 months of prospective registra...... of the surgeon's experience has a great impact on the rate of detection. We feel that continuous quality control is necessary, so that measures can be taken if and when standards are not fulfilled....

  3. Clinical application and outcomes of sentinel node navigation surgery in patients with early gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigami, Takaaki; Uenosono, Yoshikazu; Yanagita, Shigehiro; Okubo, Keishi; Kijima, Takashi; Matsushita, Daisuke; Amatatsu, Masahiko; Hagihara, Takahiko; Haraguchi, Naoto; Mataki, Yuko; Ehi, Katsuhiko; Ishigami, Sumiya; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2017-01-01

    Sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS) has been recognized as a minimally invasive tool for individualized lymphadenectomy in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC). The aim of this study was to compare clinicopathological factors, adverse events, and clinical outcomes between sentinel node mapping (SNM) and SN dissection (SND) groups and assess the clinical utility of SNNS in patients with EGC. The clinical data of 157 patients with EGC, diagnosed as clinical T1N0M0 with tumors ≤ 40 mm, undergoing SNNS between March 2004 and April 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-seven patients were excluded from the analysis. In the remaining 130 patients, 59 and 71 patients underwent standard lymphadenectomy for SNM and SND, respectively. The sentinel node detection rate in the SNM and SND groups was 98.3% (58/59) and 100% (71/71), respectively. Two (3.5%), 15 (25.9%), and 41 (70.7%) patients having sentinel nodes underwent total gastrectomy, proximal gastrectomy (PG), and distal gastrectomy (DG), respectively, in the SNM group. One (1.4%), 5 (7.0%), 10 (14.1%), 39 (54.9%), and 16 (22.5%) patients underwent PG, DG, segmental gastrectomy, local resection, and endoscopic submucosal dissection, respectively, in the SND group. There was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the SNM and SND groups (P = 0.781). Survival did not differ between the both groups (P = 0.856). The present results suggest that personalized surgery with SND provides technical safety and curability related with a favorable survival outcome in patients with EGC. PMID:29088895

  4. Dynamic sentinel node biopsy for penile cancer: an initial experience in an Irish Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, P E; Nic An Riogh, A; O'Kelly, F; Lundon, D J; O'Sullivan, D; O'Connell, M; Hegarty, P K

    2017-11-01

    The presence of nodal metastases is the single most important prognostic factor in penile cancer. However, reliable assessment of nodal status in clinically node-negative (cN0) patients poses a challenge. Approximately 20% of these patients harbour occult nodal metastases. Currently available non-invasive radiological investigations are unreliable in excluding micrometastatic disease. Dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) is a minimally invasive procedure for assessing lymph node involvement. We report our initial experience with DSNB in assessing the status of regional lymph nodes in cN0 penile cancer patients. DSNB was performed in penile cancer patients with at least one cN0 groin. All patients undergoing DSNB at our institution were included. Lymphoscintigraphic images were obtained from all patients, after intradermal, peritumoral injection of a Technetium-99m nanocolloid. The sentinel nodes were defined as the nodes identified on lymphoscintigraphy, which were also radioactive intraoperatively using a gamma probe. In total, 18 groins from 11 patients underwent DSNB. Of these, 11 patients underwent bilateral DSNB and 4 had unilateral DSNB. The mean (range) age of patients at the time of presentation of their primary tumour was 63 (39-78) years. A mean of 1.2 nodes per groin was retrieved. One lymph node was positive in one patient, who subsequently underwent a bilateral inguinal lymph node dissection. Overall, the median (range) follow-up was 12.8 (2.7-31.3) months with no local or regional recurrences. Further cases and longer follow-up will define the accuracy of this technique in the Irish population.

  5. Investigating the role of SPECT/CT in dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy for penile cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Ziauddin Zia; Bomanji, Jamshed [University College Hospitals London, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); UCLH NHS Foundation Trust, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 5th Floor, London (United Kingdom); Omorphos, Savvas; Malone, Peter; Nigam, Raj; Muneer, Asif [University College Hospitals London, Department of Urology, London (United Kingdom); Michopoulou, Sofia; Gacinovic, Svetislav [University College Hospitals London, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    Currently, most centres use 2-D planar lymphoscintigraphy when performing dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy in penile cancer patients with clinically impalpable inguinal nodes. This study aimed to investigate the role of SPECT/CT following 2-D planar lymphoscintigraphy (dynamic and static) in the detection and localization of sentinel lymph nodes in the groin. A qualitative (visual) review was performed on planar followed by SPECT/CT lymphoscintigraphy in 115 consecutive patients (age 28-86 years) who underwent injection of {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid followed by immediate acquisition of dynamic (20 min) and early static scans (5 min) initially and further delayed static (5 min) images at 120 min followed by SPECT/CT imaging. The lymph nodes detected in each groin on planar lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT were compared. A total of 440 and 467 nodes were identified on planar scintigraphy and SPECT/CT, respectively. Overall, SPECT/CT confirmed the findings of planar imaging in 28/115 cases (24%). In the remaining 87 cases (76%), gross discrepancies were observed between planar and SPECT/CT images. SPECT/CT identified 17 instances of skin contamination (16 patients, 13%) and 36 instances of in-transit lymphatic tract activity (24 patients, 20%) that had been interpreted as tracer-avid lymph nodes on planar imaging. In addition, SPECT/CT identified 53 tracer-avid nodes in 48 patients (42%) that were not visualized on planar imaging and led to reclassification of the drainage basins (pelvic/inguinal) of 27 tracer-avid nodes. The addition of SPECT/CT improved the rate of detection of true tracer-avid lymph nodes and delineated their precise (3-D) anatomic localization in drainage basins. (orig.)

  6. The diagnostic value of adding dynamic scintigraphy to standard delayed planar imaging for sentinel node identification in melanoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Kristina Rue; Chakera, Annette H; Hesse, Birger

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare early dynamic imaging combined with delayed static imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT with delayed, planar, static imaging alone for sentinel node (SN) identification in melanoma patients.......The aim of this study was to compare early dynamic imaging combined with delayed static imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT with delayed, planar, static imaging alone for sentinel node (SN) identification in melanoma patients....

  7. EANM practice guidelines for lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemel, Christina; Herrmann, Ken; Lassmann, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Giammarile, Francesco; Dubreuil, Julien [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Medecine Nucleaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon and EA 3738, Lyon (France); Nieweg, Omgo E.; Chakera, Annette H. [The Poche Centre, Melanoma Institute Australia, North Sydney (Australia); Testori, Alessandro [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Audisio, Riccardo A. [University of Liverpool, St Helens Teaching Hospital, St Helens (United Kingdom); Zoras, Odysseas [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Surgical Oncology, Heraklion (Greece); Uren, Roger [The University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Alfred Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, RPAH Medical Centre, Newtown, NSW (Australia); Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Rubello, Domenico [' Santa Maria della Misericordia' Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET/CT Centre, Radiology, NeuroRadiology, Medical Physics, Rovigo (Italy); Colletti, Patrick M. [University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an essential staging tool in patients with clinically localized melanoma. The harvesting of a sentinel lymph node entails a sequence of procedures with participation of specialists in nuclear medicine, radiology, surgery and pathology. The aim of this document is to provide guidelines for nuclear medicine physicians performing lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node detection in patients with melanoma. These practice guidelines were written and have been approved by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) to promote high-quality lymphoscintigraphy. The final result has been discussed by distinguished experts from the EANM Oncology Committee, national nuclear medicine societies, the European Society of Surgical Oncology (ESSO) and the European Association for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) melanoma group. The document has been endorsed by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). The present practice guidelines will help nuclear medicine practitioners play their essential role in providing high-quality lymphatic mapping for the care of melanoma patients. (orig.)

  8. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Arising in Phyllodes Tumor With Isolated Tumor Cells in Sentinel Lymph Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ju Kuo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumor (PT consists of stroma of variable grading and benign ductal epithelium. Although exceptional, carcinomas that arise from the epithelium in PTs do exist, and seem to behave less aggressively than the usually encountered breast carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, among the invasive carcinomas that have arisen in PTs, only 1 has been proved to have metastatic carcinoma in the lymph nodes. Here, we describe the youngest woman to have invasive ductal carcinoma that arose in a borderline PT, with isolated carcinoma cells in the sentinel lymph node. Whether such a combined lesion carries a more indolent course is also discussed.

  9. Role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy in carcinoma penis with or without palpable nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kathiresan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: DSLNB is a useful and reliable technique to identify the involved node(s in patients diagnosed as having carcinoma penis with clinical N0 status (with or without palpable nodes. It helps to avoid the morbidity associated with a staging inguinal dissection in these patients.

  10. Breast Cancer and Internal Mammary Sentinel Nodes: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun Bekdache

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The management of internal mammary (IM nodes in breast cancer lacks a well-defined consensus. Lymphoscintigraphy identifies up to one-third of breast cancer patients with extra-axillary drainage, which is mainly located in the IM chain. Our aim in this meta-analysis is to identify the lymphoscintigraphy technique variables that effect IM node identification.Methods: An internet database was utilized to review articles concerning sentinel nodes and breast cancer from 1993 through the end of 2011; 74 articles met our inclusion criteria. The total number of patients included was 22959. We grouped the citations by injection location and injection material. We then analyzed the rate of identification of IM nodes according to these groupings and their subsets.Results: The overall IM identification rate using the random effect model was 9%. The injection location had the most significant impact on IM identification rate; the deeper injections were associated with the highest rate of identification. Variation in IM identification was associated with the particle size of injection material; the smaller particle size group had a higher rate of identification. Increased dose of the tracer was also associated with increased identification rate.Conclusions: The use of smaller particle size tracers and a deeper injection location achieve the highest IM identification rate. The dose of the tracer also increased the identification rate. These observations can help in the selection of patients for IM sentinel node biopsy, which can affect their prognosis and treatment management.

  11. Need for intensive histopathologic analysis to determine lymph node metastases when using sentinel node biopsy in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, Anders; von Buchwald, Christian; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive value of sentinel node biopsy (SNB)-assisted neck dissection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) stage T1 to 2N0M0 and to determine the incidence of subclinical metastases. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Fifty-one patients...... feasible in identifying subclinical metastasis, thus accurately staging the neck with a high degree of sensitivity in patients with oral SCC T1 to 2N0M0 when additional histopathology was performed. The vast majority of patients in this study would have been spared selective neck dissection had reliance...... dissection in patients with oral SCC....

  12. Problems and pitfalls in vulvar and cervical cancer sentinel node scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Sinzinger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available After the introduction for penile cancer, the sentinel lymph node imaging is increasingly applied in various types of cancer. After the initial learning phase, 105 patients with vulvar and 24 with cervical cancer have been investigated. In vulvar cancer all the imaged sentinel nodes were discovered by the portable probe intraoperatively. No false negative sentinel node was observed. The most critical issue is the tracer application. Performed strictly intradermally, the sentinel node shows up immediately. Concomitant use of isosulfan blue dye did not improve the results and was stopped therefore. Similarly, more superficial (intra/subendothelial application brings up better results as compared to deeper injection in cervical cancer patients. No false negative results were seen. Apparently, an almost 100% detection is possible. Our findings clearly show that tracer application is the key for successful imaging. If not done properly, sentinel node may appear later or may even more likely be missed.Após a introdução para câncer do pênis, a imagem do linfonodo sentinela é cada vez mais aplicada nos diversos tipos de câncer. Após a fase inicial de aprendizagem, 105 pacientes com câncer vulvar e 24 com câncer cervical foram investigados. No câncer vulvar todas as imagens de nodos sentinela foram descobertas por sonda portátil durante o exame. Nenhum nodo sentinela falso negativo foi observado. A questão mais crítica é a aplicação do traçador. Realizada pela via intradérmica, o nodo sentinela surge imediatamente. O corante isosulfan blue não melhora os resultados e seu uso concomitante foi abandonado. Do mesmo modo, a aplicação mais superficial (intra/subendotelial apresenta melhores resultados quando comparada com a administração mais profunda em pacientes com câncer cervical. Não foram observados resultados falsos negativos. Aparentemente, uma detecção de aproximadamente 100% é possível. Nossos achados mostram claramente

  13. Staging of early lymph node metastases with the sentinel lymph node technique and predictive factors in T1/T2 oral cavity cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nicklas Juel; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Hedbäck, Nora

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of detecting lymph node metastases and to identify predictive and prognostic clinicopathological factors in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). METHODS: All...

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: unfiltered radioisotope is superior to filtered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, D C; Hill, A D; Tran, K N; Yeung, H; Yeh, S D; Borgen, P I; Cody, H S

    1999-04-01

    The combination of gamma-probe radiolocalization and blue-dye mapping of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) has been advocated as the most accurate method for staging the clinically negative axilla in breast cancer patients, but the technical aspects of these procedures are not fully characterized in the literature. In this study, we compared the success of SLN localization in 134 consecutive breast cancer patients using blue dye plus two different preparations of radiocolloid. A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained data base was performed to assess SLN localization in two cohorts of patients. Unfiltered technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sulfur colloid (in 77 patients; group I) was compared with filtered Tc-99m sulfur colloid (in 57 patients; group II). All patients had a peritumoral injection of blue dye and isotope, followed immediately by lymphoscintigraphy to confirm radioactivity at the injection site and to image the SLN. Statistical analysis was performed using the Pearson chi-square test. Unfiltered Tc-99m sulfur colloid was superior to the filtered radiocolloid in localizing the SLN (88% versus 73%; p = 0.03). SLN imaging by lymphoscintigraphy was also more successful in the unfiltered group. Using the combination of blue dye and radiolocalization, SLNs were identified in 94% of patients. For optimal localization of the SLN in breast cancer patients, surgeons should use the combined technique of blue-dye mapping and gamma-probe localization using unfiltered Tc-99m sulfur colloid.

  15. Age as a predictor of sentinel node metastasis among patients with localized melanoma: an inverse correlation of melanoma mortality and incidence of sentinel node metastasis among young and old patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Charles M; Thompson, John F; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Soong, Seng-Jaw; Ding, Shouluan; McMasters, Kelly M; Coit, Daniel G; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Gimotty, Phyllis A; Johnson, Timothy M; Kirkwood, John M; Leong, Stanley P; Ross, Merrick I; Byrd, David R; Cochran, Alistair J; Mihm, Martin C; Morton, Donald L; Atkins, Michael B; Flaherty, Keith T; Sondak, Vernon K

    2014-04-01

    We have previously reported that older patients with clinical stage I and II primary cutaneous. Melanoma had lower survival rates compared to younger patients. We postulated that the incidence of nodal metastasis would therefore be higher among older melanoma patients. The expanded American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging database contains a cohort of 7,756 melanoma patients who presented without clinical evidence of regional lymph node or distant metastasis and who underwent a sentinel node biopsy procedure as a component of their staging assessment. Although older patients had primary melanoma features associated with more aggressive biology, we paradoxically observed a significant decrease in the incidence of sentinel node metastasis as patient age increased. Overall, the highest incidence of sentinel node metastasis was 25.8 % in patients under 20 years of age, compared to 15.5 % in patients 80 years and older (p metastasis in a multifactorial analysis (p melanoma under 20 years of age had a higher incidence of sentinel lymph node metastasis but, paradoxically, a more favorable survival outcome compared to all other age groups. In contrast, patients >70 years had the most aggressive primary melanoma features and a higher mortality rate compared to all other age groups but a lower incidence of sentinel lymph node metastasis.

  16. Sentinel lymph node mapping in early stage of endometrial and cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajossadat Allameh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sentinel lymph node (SLN is defined as the first chain node in the lymphatic basin that receives primary lymphatic flow. If the SLN is negative for metastatic disease, then other nodes are expected to be disease-free. SLN techniques have been extensively applied in the staging and treatment of many tumors, including melanoma, breast and vulvar cancers. This study aims to evaluate our technique in SLN mapping in early stage endometrial and cervical cancers. Materials and Methods: We scheduled a cross-sectional pilot study for patients undergoing staging surgery for endometrial and cervical cancer from November 2012 to February 2014 in Beheshti and Sadoughi Hospitals. Our SLN mapping technique included 1 h preoperative or intraoperative injection of 4 ml of 1% methylene blue dye in the tumor site. At the time of surgery, blue lymph nodes were removed and labeled as SLNs. Then systematic lymph node dissection was completed, and all of the nodes were sent for pathologic examination concerning metastatic involvement. All of the sentinel nodes were first stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined. Those negative in this study were then stained with immunohistochemistry using anti-keratin antibody. Descriptive statistics, sensitivity, negative predictive values (NPV, false negative (FN and detection rates were calculated. Results: Twenty-three patients including 62% endometrial and 38% cervical cancers enrolled in the study. Median of SLN count in the endometrial and cervical cancers was 3 and 2, respectively. Among endometrial and cervical cancers, detection rate of metastatic disease was 80% and 87.5%, respectively. The FN rate for this technique was 0 and the sensitivity and NPV are 100% for both endometrial and cervical cancers. Conclusion: Considering the lower risk of metastases in early stage of both endometrial and cervical cancers, SLN technique allows for confident and accurate staging of cancer.

  17. Sentinel node biopsy for melanoma. Analysis of our experience (125 patients).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliveres Soliveres, Edelmira; García Marín, Andrés; Díez Miralles, Manuel; Nofuentes Riera, Carmen; Candela Gomis, Asunción; Moragón Gordon, Manuel; Antón Leal, María Ángeles; García García, Salvador

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze our experience in the use of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in melanoma and identify the predictive factors of positive SNB and multiple drainage. Retrospective study of patients who underwent SNB for melanoma between August of 2000 and February of 2013. SNB was performed in 125 patients with a median of age of 55,6 (±15) years. The anatomic distribution was: 44 (35,2%) in legs, 24 (19,2%) in arms, 53 (42,4%) trunk and 3 (2,4%) in head and neck. The median Breslow index was 1,81 (0,45-5). Between 1 and 6 nodes were isolated. The drainage was unique in 98 (78,4%) and multiple in 27 (21,6%). The trunk was the localization of 25 (92,6%) nodes with multiple drainage. The definitive result of sentinel node (SN) was positive in 18 cases (7,1%). Breslow thickness (p=0,01) was statistically significant predictor of a positive SNB. The SNB allows patients to be selected for lymphadenectomy. Melanoma of the trunk was the principle location of multiple drainage. The only predictive factor of positive SNB was Breslow thickness. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Precise intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies guided by lymphatic drainage in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Sisi; Jiang, Liyu; Kong, Xiaoli; Ma, Tingting; Xu, Hong; Yang, Qifeng

    2017-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to present a novel surgical method for intraoperative precise sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and to determine its clinical efficacy and sensitivity in breast cancer patients. The sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were preoperatively evaluated by axillary ultrasound. The intraoperative detection of SLNs was guided by lymphatic drainage pathway. The lymphatic vessels and SLNs were visualized. During operation, we searched for all the true SLNs (trSLNs), para-SLNs (paSLNs) and post-SLNs (poSLNs) followed lymphatic drainage ducts. After precisely locating the lymphatic channels and lymph node, all the lymph nodes that firstly receive lymphatic drainage are designated as trSLNs. We precisely distinguished the trSLNs, paSLNs and poSLNs. We found the average number of trSLNs ranged from1 to 6. In addition, we assessed the novel technique in a total of 125 breast cancer patients. trSLNs were successfully identified in all patients (detection rate: 100 %). The accuracy of trSLNs is 99.2%. Data from our study strongly suggest that our method is a feasible and effective for the detection of precise trSLNs in breast cancer with real-time observations. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02651142).

  19. Clinical value of sentinel lymph node diagnostics in head and neck cancer; Klinische Wertigkeit der Sentinel-Lymph-Node-Diagnostik bei Kopf-Hals-Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampen, W.U. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin am Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany); Hoeft, S. [Klinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie am Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany); Maune, S. [Praxis fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Kiel (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The concept of the so-called sentinel lymph node (SLN), being the first node draining a malignant tumor and thus carrying the highest risk of metastatic disease, is already frequently applied in patients suffering from malignant melanoma and breast cancer. It is the aim of this concept, to reduce postoperative morbidity by omitting a conventional lymph node dissection if the SLN is proven to be free of any tumor cells. First clinical studies showed promising results also in patients with head and neck cancer. However, both the anatomical localization of the primary tumor and the very complex lymphatic, frequently bilateral drainage pattern may lead to significant methodological problems. Besides a skilful intraoperative usage of the gamma probe, the precise preoperative staging of the respective patient for determination of the N0 status and the assiduous histopathological analysis of the excised SLN are extremely important to reach a maximum of sensitivity in this clinical setting. This paper summarizes the data published on the SLN concept in patients with head and neck cancer, describes the several methodological aspects of labeling the SLN with radiocolloides and reviews the today's impact of the SLN method in clinical routine. (orig.)

  20. Detection of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Gynecologic Tumours by Planar Scintigraphy and SPECT/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Kraft

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assess the role of planar lymphoscintigraphy and fusion imaging of SPECT/CT in sentinel lymph node (SLN detection in patients with gynecologic tumours. Material and Methods: Planar scintigraphy and hybrid modality SPECT/CT were performed in 64 consecutive women with gynecologic tumours (mean age 53.6 with range 30-77 years: 36 pts with cervical cancer (Group A, 21 pts with endometrial cancer (Group B, 7 pts with vulvar carcinoma (Group C. Planar and SPECT/CT images were interpreted separately by two nuclear medicine physicians. Efficacy of these two techniques to image SLN were compared. Results: Planar scintigraphy did not image SLN in 7 patients (10.9%, SPECT/CT was negative in 4 patients (6.3%. In 35 (54.7% patients the number of SLNs captured on SPECT/CT was higher than on planar imaging. Differences in detection of SLN between planar and SPECT/CT imaging in the group of all 64 patients are statistically significant (p<0.05. Three foci of uptake (1.7% from totally visible 177 foci on planar images in 2 patients interpreted on planar images as hot LNs were found to be false positive non-nodal sites of uptake when further assessed on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT showed the exact anatomical location of all visualised sentinel nodes. Conclusion: In some patients with gynecologic cancers SPECT/CT improves detection of sentinel lymph nodes. It can image nodes not visible on planar scintigrams, exclude false positive uptake and exactly localise pelvic and paraaortal SLNs. It improves anatomic localization of SLNs. (MIRT 2012;21:47-55

  1. Intraoperative Injection of Technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Berrocal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most institutions require a patient undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy to go through nuclear medicine prior to surgery to be injected with radioisotope. This study describes the long-term results using intraoperative injection of radioisotope. Methods. Since late 2002, all patients undergoing a sentinel lymph node biopsy at the Yale-New Haven Breast Center underwent intraoperative injection of technetium-99m sulfur colloid. Endpoints included number of sentinel and nonsentinel lymph nodes obtained and number of positive sentinel and nonsentinel lymph nodes. Results. At least one sentinel lymph node was obtained in 2,333 out of 2,338 cases of sentinel node biopsy for an identification rate of 99.8%. The median number of sentinel nodes found was 2 and the mean was 2.33 (range: 1–15. There were 512 cases (21.9% in which a sentinel node was positive for metastatic carcinoma. Of the patients with a positive sentinel lymph node who underwent axillary dissection, there were 242 cases (54.2% with no additional positive nonsentinel lymph nodes. Advantages of intraoperative injection included increased comfort for the patient and simplification of scheduling. There were no radiation related complications. Conclusion. Intraoperative injection of technetium-99m sulfur colloid is convenient, effective, safe, and comfortable for the patient.

  2. Intraoperative Injection of Technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, Julian; Saperstein, Lawrence; Grube, Baiba; Horowitz, Nina R; Chagpar, Anees B; Killelea, Brigid K; Lannin, Donald R

    2017-01-01

    Background. Most institutions require a patient undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy to go through nuclear medicine prior to surgery to be injected with radioisotope. This study describes the long-term results using intraoperative injection of radioisotope. Methods. Since late 2002, all patients undergoing a sentinel lymph node biopsy at the Yale-New Haven Breast Center underwent intraoperative injection of technetium-99m sulfur colloid. Endpoints included number of sentinel and nonsentinel lymph nodes obtained and number of positive sentinel and nonsentinel lymph nodes. Results. At least one sentinel lymph node was obtained in 2,333 out of 2,338 cases of sentinel node biopsy for an identification rate of 99.8%. The median number of sentinel nodes found was 2 and the mean was 2.33 (range: 1-15). There were 512 cases (21.9%) in which a sentinel node was positive for metastatic carcinoma. Of the patients with a positive sentinel lymph node who underwent axillary dissection, there were 242 cases (54.2%) with no additional positive nonsentinel lymph nodes. Advantages of intraoperative injection included increased comfort for the patient and simplification of scheduling. There were no radiation related complications. Conclusion. Intraoperative injection of technetium-99m sulfur colloid is convenient, effective, safe, and comfortable for the patient.

  3. Impact of sentinel lymph node management in malignant melanoma; Zur Bedeutung des Sentinel-Lymphknoten-Managements beim malignen Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza, S.; Munz, D.L. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Charite - Universitaetmedizin Berlin (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Malignant melanoma initially metastasises to regional lymph nodes and belongs to the ''leading candidates'' for sentinel lymph node (SLN) management. In newly diagnosed melanoma stage Ib to IIIa, today the SLN diagnostics is classified as the staging method of first choice. The technique of the SLN diagnostics is described thoroughly, including multimodal imaging if this is required for selective SLN biopsy. The evaluation of the diagnostic results, documentation and classification encompasses an important part. In approximately 2/3 of the melanoma patients there is no presence of metastases in SLN and non-SLN, one of five patients has metastases in SLN with negative non-SLN, every sixth to tenth patient has positive SLN and non SLN. Every thirtieth patient with tumour free SLN exhibits pathological findings in the non-SLN by using conventional examination methods only, every fifteenth if using molecular-genetic methods in addition. Among the prognostic parameters the SLN status has the most significant impact on disease-free and disease-specific survival. (orig.)

  4. Sentinel lymph node detection through radioguided surgery in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Benedita Andrade Leal de; Santos, Adriana de Morais; Soares, Livia de Almeida; Santos, Antonio Ricardo dos; Barros, Idna de Carvalho; Abreu, Everardo Leal de; Cruz Filho, Alexandre Jorge Gomes da; Abreu, Joao Batista de; Vieira, Sabas Carlos [Universidade Estadual do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Piaui (CEFET-PI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Faculdade Sao Gabriel, PI (Brazil); Hospital Sao Marcos, PI (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Biopsy of the sentinel lymphnode (SLNB), the first lymphnode to receive lymphatic drainage from the primary tumor, accurately predicts the axillary lymph node status and, when negative, obviates the need for axillary lymphadenectomy (AL). The aim of this study was, to verify the SLN localization in breast cancer through preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma-probe, as well as to demonstrate the benefits of such techniques in preventing complications of AL. Medical records of 228 patients with breast carcinoma, who were underwent SLN localization and, radioguided surgery, from March 2005 to December 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. Data regarding age, tumor characteristic, breast involved, type of surgery, radiopharmaceutical drainage pattern, axillary assessment (SLNB or AL) and number of lymph nodes dissected were collected. It was ascertained that radioguided surgery is a selective method of axillary assessment in breast cancer, which makes this technique a safe alternative to radical assessment of total dissection of axillary lymph nodes and its subsequent complications. (author)

  5. Down-regulation of the CD3-zeta chain in sentinel node biopsies from breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Jana; Bergkvist, Leif; Håkansson, Leif; Gustafsson, Bertil; Håkansson, Annika

    2002-07-01

    In several neoplastic diseases, immunosuppression has been shown to correlate with disease stage, progression, and outcome. As the prognosis for metastatic breast cancer is still pessimistic, additional strategies are being sought to improve survival. Local immunosuppression in sentinel node biopsies from 24 evaluable breast cancer patients was studied as a possible way of selecting patients for immunotherapy. Sentinel node biopsy was performed in 24 out of 25 women operated on for primary breast cancer (one was not evaluable). Specimens were snap-frozen and double-stained for the zeta-chain of the T-cell receptor. The degree of down-regulation of the zeta-chain was evaluated in three different lymph-node areas: primary follicles, secondary follicles, and paracortex. Down-regulation of varying degrees was noted in all 24 sentinel node biopsies. A high degree of down-regulation (more than 50% of T-cells not expressing zeta-chain) was seen in the primary follicles in six patients (25%), in the secondary follicles in 13 patients (72%), and in the paracortex in 19 patients (79%). Local down-regulation of an immune function parameter was seen in sentinel node biopsies from breast cancer patients. In addition to possible prognostic implications, the sentinel node might be an appropriate location for detecting early-stage immunological down-regulation, which might open a possibility of selecting patients who could benefit from immunotherapy.

  6. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Use in Patient Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xing

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a significant health problem worldwide and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in women. Preoperative chemotherapy has become the standard of care for patients with locally advanced disease and is being used more frequently in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has shown great promise in the surgical management of breast cancer patients, but its use following preoperative chemotherapy is yet to be determined. Eleven studies have been published with respect to the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Ten studies showed favourable results, with the ability to identify a sentinel lymph node in 84% to 98% of cases, and reported false negative rates ranging from 0% to 20%. The accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy following preoperative chemotherapy for breast cancer ranges from 88% to 100%, with higher rates when specific techniques and inclusion criteria are applied. The published literature supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy for assessment of the axilla in patients with clinically node-negative disease following preoperative chemotherapy.

  7. Optimal extent of completion lymphadenectomy for patients with melanoma and a positive sentinel node in the groin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Verver (Daniëlle); Madu, M.F. (M. F.); C.M.C. Oude Ophuis (Charlotte); Faut, M. (M.); J.H.W. de Wilt (Johannes); J. Bonenkamp (Han); D.J. Grunhagen (Dirk Jan); A.C.J. van Akkooi (Alexander); C. Verhoef (Kees); van Leeuwen, B.L. (B. L.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The optimal extent of groin completion lymph node dissection (CLND) (inguinal or ilioinguinal dissection) in patients with melanoma is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the extent of groin CLND after a positive sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is

  8. Joint practice guidelines for radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node localization in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkureishi, L W T; Burak, Z; Alvarez, J A

    2009-01-01

    Involvement of the cervical lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor for patients with oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and the decision of whether to electively treat patients with clinically negative necks remains a controversial topic. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB...

  9. Joint practice guidelines for radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node localization in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkureishi, Lee W T; Burak, Zeynep; Alvarez, Julio A

    2009-01-01

    Involvement of the cervical lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor for patients with oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and the decision whether to electively treat patients with clinically negative necks remains a controversial topic. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB...

  10. Surgeons' opinions on lymphadenectomy in melanoma patients with positive sentinel nodes: a worldwide web-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasquali, S.; Spillane, A.J.; Wilt, J.H. de; McCaffery, K.; Rossi, C.R.; Quinn, M.J.; Saw, R.P.; Shannon, K.F.; Stretch, J.R.; Thompson, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: A worldwide web-based survey was conducted among melanoma surgeons to investigate opinions about completion lymph node dissection (CLND) in patients with positive sentinel nodes (SN). METHODS: A questionnaire was designed following input from a group of melanoma surgeons. Cognitive

  11. Lymphoscintigraphic sentinel node identification in patients with breast cancer: the role of SPECT-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerman, H.; Metser, U.; Lievshitz, G. [Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Sperber, F. [Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Department of Mammography Unit of Radiology, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Shneebaum, S. [Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Department of RIGS Unit of Surgery A, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Tel-Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Even-Sapir, E. [Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Tel-Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2006-03-15

    Lymph node status is a major factor in determining the stage, appropriate therapy and outcome in patients with breast cancer. It is therefore of clinical importance to accurately identify all sentinel nodes (SNs) for each individual tumour before surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of SPECT-CT lymphoscintigraphy in SN identification in patients with breast cancer. Lymphoscintigraphy comprising planar and SPECT-CT acquisition was performed in 157 consecutive patients with breast cancer (mean age 54.7{+-}10.6, range 27-81 years) with a palpable mass (n=100), with a non-palpable mass (n=52) or post lumpectomy (n=5). Planar and SPECT-CT images were interpreted separately and the two imaging techniques were compared with respect to their ability to identify hot nodes. Planar imaging alone was negative for identification of hot nodes in 15% of the patients. SPECT-CT alone was negative in 10% and both techniques were negative in 9% of the patients. Forty-six of the total of 361 (13%) hot nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were detected only on SPECT-CT, including 21 nodes obscured by the scattered radiation from the injection site, nine adjacent nodes misinterpreted on planar images as a single node and 16 nodes which were missed on planar images and detected on SPECT data. SPECT-CT detected additional sites of drainage unexpected on planar images, including axillary (n=23 patients), internal mammary (n=5 patients), interpectoral (n=3 patients) and intramammary (n=2 patients) lymph node sites. Fourteen of the 329 (4%) hot lesions seen on planar images were false positive non-nodal sites of uptake that were accurately assessed by SPECT-CT and further validated by surgery. In a single patient, SPECT-CT was negative while planar images identified the SN. (orig.)

  12. Prognostic significance of axillary dissection in breast cancer patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells in sentinel nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    . In this nationwide study, we found a low risk of AR on 1.58 % and we did not find a significantly increased risk of AR if ALND was omitted in patients with micrometastases or ITC in sentinel nodes. Furthermore, no significant difference in overall survival was seen between patients with and without ALND when......We estimated the impact of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) on the risk of axillary recurrence (AR) and overall survival (OS) in breast cancer patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC) in sentinel nodes. We used the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) database...... to identify patients with micrometastases or ITC in sentinel nodes following surgery for primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2008. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was developed to assess the hazard ratios (HR) for AR and OS between patients with and without ALND. We identified 2074 patients...

  13. Sentinel node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in biopsy-proven node-positive breast cancer: the SN FNAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Jean-Francois; Poirier, Brigitte; Basik, Mark; Holloway, Claire M B; Gaboury, Louis; Sideris, Lucas; Meterissian, Sarkis; Arnaout, Angel; Brackstone, Muriel; McCready, David R; Karp, Stephen E; Trop, Isabelle; Lisbona, Andre; Wright, Frances C; Younan, Rami J; Provencher, Louise; Patocskai, Erica; Omeroglu, Atilla; Robidoux, Andre

    2015-01-20

    An increasing proportion of patients (> 30%) with node-positive breast cancer will obtain an axillary pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). If sentinel node (SN) biopsy (SNB) is accurate in this setting, completion node dissection (CND) morbidity could be avoided. In the prospective multicentric SN FNAC study, patients with biopsy-proven node-positive breast cancer (T0-3, N1-2) underwent both SNB and CND. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) use was mandatory, and SN metastases of any size, including isolated tumor cells (ypN0[i+], ≤ 0.2 mm), were considered positive. The optimal SNB identification rate (IR) ≥ 90% and false-negative rate (FNR) ≤ 10% were predetermined. From March 2009 to December 2012, 153 patients were accrued to the study. The SNB IR was 87.6% (127 of 145; 95% CI, 82.2% to 93.0%), and the FNR was 8.4% (seven of 83; 95% CI, 2.4% to 14.4%). If SN ypN0(i+)s had been considered negative, the FNR would have increased to 13.3% (11 of 83; 95% CI, 6.0% to 20.6%). There was no correlation between size of SN metastases and rate of positive non-SNs. Using this method, 30.3% of patients could potentially avoid CND. In biopsy-proven node-positive breast cancer after NAC, a low SNB FNR (8.4%) can be achieved with mandatory use of IHC. SN metastases of any size should be considered positive. The SNB IR was 87.6%, and in the presence of a technical failure, axillary node dissection should be performed. We recommend that SN evaluation with IHC be further evaluated before being included in future guidelines on the use of SNB after NAC in this setting. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. Auxiliary diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer using quantitative evaluation of sentinel node radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Nakahara, Tadaki; Niihara, Masahiro; Nakamura, Rieko; Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Wada, Norihito; Kawakubo, Hirofumi; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Omori, Tai; Murakami, Koji; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-10-01

    Sentinel node (SN) mapping using dye and radioisotope (RI) tracer has been reported to be feasible in cases of early gastric cancer. Because accurate diagnosis of micrometastasis is sometimes difficult in the limited time available during surgery, a faster and simpler method of improving the intraoperative diagnostic precision of lymph node metastasis is needed. The amount of tracer deposited in an SN can be determined from its radioactivity; however, the significance of the RI count has not been fully discussed. We investigated the clinical impact of the RI count when used as an adjunct to conventional lymph node dissection when diagnosing lymphatic metastasis in cases of early gastric cancer. From 2008 to 2009, patients with clinically diagnosed T1N0M0 gastric cancers who underwent gastrectomy and SN mapping were enrolled. SNs were examined by intraoperative and postoperative pathology. The RI count was measured for each SN with a handheld gamma probe; the correlation between nodal metastasis and the RI count was assessed. A total of 308 SNs were harvested from 72 patients. Patients with SN metastasis had significantly higher total RI counts than those without SN metastasis (p = 0.007). Among cases with SN metastasis, RI counts were also significantly elevated in metastasis-positive nodes, stations, and basins. In these cases, the most of SNs having the highest RI count in each case had metastasis including isolated tumor cells. In early gastric cancer patients, a high RI count from an SN was correlated with lymph node metastasis. Therefore, RI counting may aid efficient pathological diagnosis and focused lymph node dissection.

  15. A triangular intermuscular space sentinel node in melanoma: association with axillary lymphatic drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Sara A; Dengel, Lynn T; Hranjec, Tjasa; Slingluff, Craig L

    2010-09-01

    Large centers have described triangular intermuscular space (TIS) sentinel nodes (SNs) for some melanomas of the back. However, their management remains controversial and poorly characterized, especially as related to the ipsilateral axillary node basin. The aim of this study was to summarize our experience with TIS SN, which may contribute to defining their appropriate surgical management. We performed a retrospective review on surgical patients from January 1993 to April 2009. Among 293 patients with upper back melanoma, data were collected on those with TIS SN. Fourteen patients (5%) with melanoma of the upper back had a TIS SN, 6 of whom (43%) were incorrectly identified at lymphoscintigraphy as axillary, and 11 of whom (79%) had a concurrent axillary SN. Micrometastatic disease was identified in TIS SN in two patients (14%) and in an axillary SN in one (9%). We found direct lymphatic drainage independently to the TIS and to the axilla, as well as a more typical pattern of drainage first to the TIS node and then to axillary nodes. We defined three patterns of lymphatic drainage to TIS and axillary nodes. The TIS and axilla are anatomically linked; patients with SN in both locations should undergo biopsies of both for optimal nodal staging. We recommend directed evaluation for TIS SN in patients with upper back melanomas and recommend clearing the TIS at the time of TIS SN biopsy. Melanoma can metastasize to TIS SN, and we discuss considerations for management of the axilla in patients with positive TIS nodes.

  16. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Head and Neck Melanoma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Corsten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma in the United States continues to rise. Head and neck melanomas comprise approximately 20% of all primary cutaneous melanomas. Sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy (SLNB has become the standard of care for staging in melanoma. It has a number of advantages, including the addition of prognostic information, accurate staging, and the potential to add completion lymph node dissection (CLND or adjuvant therapy when indicated. Furthermore, it may allow for the identification of patients who would benefit from inclusion in clinical trials; this advantage may be amplified based on the introduction of novel targeted therapies. SLNB does have some disadvantages in head and neck melanomas. The complex lymphatic drainage and anatomy of the head and neck can result in some technical challenges. SLN positivity rates in head and neck melanoma are lower than for trunk or extremity melanoma; despite this, overall and disease free survival rates are lower in head and neck melanoma. This review examines the literature evidence for the efficacy of SLNB in head and neck melanoma, and in particular attempts to estimate five variables: the likelihood of finding a SLN, the number of SLNs found, the likelihood of a positive SLN, the likelihood of identifying positive non-sentinel lymph nodes on CLND, and the likelihood of recurrence in the neck despite a negative SLNB. Overall, despite the technical challenges inherent in SLNB when applied to head and neck melanoma, it remains a technically feasible and effective procedure in this anatomic site.

  17. Experimental study of 99mTc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, V. I.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p imported analogue and its practical application will facilitate intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes.

  18. Recent Development of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Ikeda

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of breast cancer cases undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB has been increasing with the number of articles published in Japan. SLNB using the dye method alone is performed in about one-third of patients. Analysis of questionnaire responses from 40 institutions in Japan revealed an identification rate by the dye method alone of 87%, compared with 96% using the combined method; the combined method is now recognized in Japan as superior to the dye method alone. No dyes have been specifically approved by the government for use in SLNB, and physicians have been using several inappropriate dyes as tracers for SLNB, such as indocyanine green, patent blue, indigo carmine, and isosulfan blue. The colloidal radiotracers used in Japan include tin colloid, stannous phytate, rhenium sulfate and human serum albumin. Albumin colloid and sulfur colloid are not commercially available in Japan. Small-size tin colloids, stannous phytate and rhenium sulfate all yield good results in terms of detection and false-negative rates. Provided that the surgeon has adequate experience in SLNB, a negative sentinel node can serve as a substitute for negative results from axillary lymph node dissection. Although many institutions have introduced SLNB, few reports have focused on the results of SLNB without axillary dissection because of short follow-up times and small number of patients. The final decision as to whether SLNB is an adequate substitute for axillary dissection awaits the results of prospective randomized trials.

  19. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in gynecological cancers: a critical review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Polat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although it does not have a long history of sentinel node evaluation (SLN in female genital system cancers, there is a growing number of promising study results, despite the presence of some aspects that need to be considered and developed. It has been most commonly used in vulvar and uterine cervivcal cancer in gynecological oncology. According to these studies, almost all of which are prospective, particularly in cases where Technetium-labeled nanocolloid is used, sentinel node detection rate sensitivity and specificity has been reported to be 100%, except for a few cases. In the studies on cervical cancer, sentinel node detection rates have been reported around 80–86%, a little lower than those in vulva cancer, and negative predictive value has been reported about 99%. It is relatively new in endometrial cancer, where its detection rate varies between 50 and 80%. Studies about vulvar melanoma and vaginal cancers are generally case reports. Although it has not been supported with multicenter randomized and controlled studies including larger case series, study results reported by various centers around the world are harmonious and mutually supportive particularly in vulva cancer, and cervix cancer. Even though it does not seem possible to replace the traditional approaches in these two cancers, it is still a serious alternative for the future. We believe that it is important to increase and support the studies that will strengthen the weaknesses of the method, among which there are detection of micrometastases and increasing detection rates, and render it usable in routine clinical practice.

  20. Identification of the sentinel lymph node in the SNAC-1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadahm, Amira A; Gill, Peter G; Bochner, Melissa; Gebski, Val J; Zannino, Diana; Wetzig, Neil; Campbell, Ian; Stockler, Martin; Ung, Owen; Simes, John; Uren, Roger

    2015-01-01

    A combination of scintigraphy and a lymphotropic dye (patent blue dye (BD)) is the recommended technique to detect the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in early breast cancer. This study determined the effect of clinical factors on SLN identification in the sentinel node biopsy versus axillary clearance (SNAC) trial. A total of 1088 women were registered. Lymphatic mapping was performed using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy (LSG) and gamma probe (GP) combined with peritumoural injection of patent BD (971 patients) or BD alone (106 patients). SLNs were identified in 1024 women (94%), localized with LSG in 779 (81.4%), and were identified by GP in 879 (91.8%). The BD identified SLNs in 890 of 1073 (82%) women. Three patients had allergic reactions. BD detected the SLNs in 141 of 178 women with negative LSG mapping and in 44 of 79 women with no hot SLNs detected intraoperatively. Age, body mass index (BMI) and tumour presentation (screen detected versus symptomatic) were significantly related to the identification of the SLN. For BD, the primary tumour location was significantly related to identification rate. The detection of blue SLN was significantly lower in women with inner quadrant tumours. The combined technique resulted in a high identification rate. BD contributed to the identification of the SLNs in patients where LSG and GP failed to identify the sentinel node. Special attention to these techniques is needed in particular groups of patients such as those with high BMI, screen-detected primary tumours and tumour located in the inner quadrants. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  1. New models and online calculator for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Denise L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs, although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. Methods We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC, boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART, and multivariate logistic regression (MLR informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. Results 285 patients had positive SLNs, of which 213 had known angiolymphatic invasion status and 171 had complete pathologic data including hormone receptor status. 264 (93% patients had limited SLN disease (micrometastasis, 70%, or isolated tumor cells, 23%. 101 (35% of all SLN-positive patients had tumor-involved NSLNs. Three variables (tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and SLN metastasis size predicted risk in all our models. RP-ROC and boosted CART stratified patients into four risk levels. MLR informed by CART was most accurate. Using two composite predictors calculated from three variables, MLR informed by CART was more accurate than the Nomogram computed using eight predictors. In our dataset, area under ROC curve (AUC was 0.83/0.85 for MLR (n = 213/n = 171 and 0.77 for Nomogram (n = 171. When applied to an independent dataset (n = 77, AUC was 0.74 for our model and 0.62 for Nomogram. The composite predictors in our model were the product of

  2. [Subareolar injection for sentinel lymph node biopsy in multiple breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eredità, G; Troilo, V L; Giardina, C; Ingravallo, G; Rubini, G; Lattanzio, V; Berardi, T

    2006-01-01

    In this study we performed subdermal injection of 99mTc-labeled albumin combined with subareolar (SA) injection of blue dye to axillary lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNLB) in patients with multifocal and multicentric breast cancer (MC) to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of this technique. We compared the results with a group of patients with unifocal breast cancer. From January 1999 to March 2006 axillary lymph node mapping and SLNB was performed on 250 patients followed by a complete axillary lymph node dissection. Retrospective analysis showed that 32 (12.8%) of these patients have MC on final histopathologic examination and 218 (87.2%) have unifocal cancer. In statistical analysis tumor size shows a significant difference (p=.01) with largest lesions in MC. In MC often histological type is invasive lobular with or without in situ cancer (p= .001). Metastatic lymph node involvement was significantly higher in the MC group compared to unifocal cancer group (p=.001). False negative (FN) rate was 5.8% in MC and 9.6% in unifocal cancers. The overall accuracy of lymphatic mapping was 96.8% in MC and 97.6% in unifocal cancers. Sensitivity was 94.4% in MC and 91.2% in unifocal cancers. In this study we provide further evidence that lymphatic mapping may be reliable even in patients with MC. SA injection technique demonstrates a high sentinel lymph node identification rate and low FN rate; therefore this technique should been recommended to SLNB in patients with MC of the breast.

  3. Retrospective observational study about reducing the false negative rate of the sentinel lymph node biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-ting; Du, Zheng-gui; Zhang, Di; Lv, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Reducing the false negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for breast cancer patients has always been a focus of clinical research. We aimed to map the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in detail, and analyze the factors related to SLNs located at locations that are often ignored by surgeons, to reduce the rate of false negatives from SLNB. A retrospective analysis involving 545 breast cancer patients who underwent SLNB in west China hospital between August 2010 and February 2016 was performed. Blue dye, radioisotope, or combined methods were used for tracing SLNs. Using blue dye, radioisotope, and a combination of blue dye and radioisotope successfully traced SLNs in 479, 507, and 525 patients, the detection rate was 88.2%, 93.9%, and 97.4%, respectively. Among the 1559 detected SLNs, 139 (9.6%) were located at the latissimus dorsi lateral margin, and 108 (6.9%) were located at level 2. Subcutaneous injection of radioisotope (P = .004) and intradermal injection of blue dye (P = .002) were independent factors associated with SLNs distributed at level 2 and the latissimus dorsi lateral margin, respectively. It was noteworthy that 2 of 7 patients had skipping metastasis in level 2, so subcutaneous injection of the isotope is strongly recommended for tracing SLNs distributed in level 2 because of the possibility of skipping metastasis. Though intradermal injection of blue dye was superior methods for tracing SLNs located at the latissimus dorsi lateral margin, we surprisingly found those patients with metastasis to the latissimus dorsi lateral margin nodes also could have metastasis to level 1 (expect for the latissimus dorsi lateral margin) nodes, it seemed that maybe there is no need to excise SLNs at the latissimus dorsi lateral margin in SLNB, whether such nodes should be regarded as useful for SLNB still needs to be determined by further large, multicenter clinical studies. PMID:28834882

  4. Iatrogenic displacement of tumor cells to the sentinel node after surgical excision in primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove F; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Kroman, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Isolated tumor cells (ITC) are more common in the sentinel node (SN) after needle biopsy of a breast cancer, indicating iatrogenic displacement of tumor cells. We here investigate whether similar iatrogenic displacement occurs after surgical excision of a breast tumor. We compared the incidence...... of ITC in the SN of 414 breast cancer patients with recent surgical excision to a group of 16,960 patients without recent surgical procedure in a multivariate analysis by linking data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database and the Danish National Health Register. Moreover, the incidence...

  5. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection Using Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Lymphangiography in Patients with Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikalp Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy is a vital component of staging and management of multiple cancers. The current gold standard utilizes technetium 99 (tech99 and a blue dye to detect regional nodes. While the success rate is typically over 90%, these two methods can be inconclusive or inconvenient for both patient and surgeon. We evaluated a new technique using laser-assisted ICG dye lymphangiography to identify SLN. Methods. In this retrospective analysis, we identified patients with melanoma who were candidates for SLN biopsy. In addition to tech99 and methylene blue, patients received a dermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG. The infrared signal was detected with the SPY machine (Novadaq, and nodes positive by any method were excised. Results. A total of 15 patients were evaluated, with 40 SLNs removed. Four patients were found to have nodal metastases on final pathology. 100% of these 4 nodes were identified by ICG, while only 75% (3/4 were positive for tech99 and/or methylene blue. Furthermore, none of the nodes missed by ICG (4/40 had malignant cells. Conclusion. ICG dye lymphangiography is a reasonable alternative for locating SLNs in patients with melanoma. Prospective studies are needed to better ascertain the full functionality of this technique.

  6. The definition of the sentinel lymph node in melanoma based on radioactive counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Grant W; Murray, Douglas R; Thourani, Vinod; Hestley, Andrea; Cohen, Cynthia

    2002-11-01

    There is no consensus on the definition of a hot, nonblue sentinel lymph node (SLN), despite the widespread use of radiocolloid in SLN mapping. A retrospective review of 592 patients with malignant melanoma who underwent SLN mapping was performed. Ex vivo SLN counts and nodal bed counts were obtained by using a gamma probe. The size of each metastatic deposit in an SLN was defined as macrometastases (>2 mm), micrometastases (melanoma cells. A total of 1175 SLNs (SLN(-), n = 1041; SLN(+), n = 134) were evaluated. The mean SLN count/bed counts were SLN(-), 322 +/- 980 and SLN(+), 450 +/- 910 (not significant [NS]) (>2 mm, 270 +/- 792 [NS]; melanoma cells/cluster of cells, 677 +/- 1189 [P =.036]). Overall, 16 (1.4%) of the SLNs collected had an overall ratio of < or =2. This included two positive SLNs (1.5%), both of which contained macrometastatic disease. Forty-seven positive nodal basins had at least one negative SLN. The hottest SLNs in these basins were negative for metastatic disease in nine cases (19.1%). In one basin (2.1%), the positive SLN count was <10% of the hottest lymph node count. Removal of lymph nodes until the bed count is 10% of the hottest lymph node will remove 98% of positive SLNs. Lymph node tumor burden influences radioactive counts.

  7. Sentinel lymph node detection in gynecologic malignancies by a handheld fluorescence camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ole; Szyc, Lukasz; Muallem, Mustafa Zelal; Ignat, Iulia; Chekerov, Radoslav; Macdonald, Rainer; Sehouli, Jalid; Braicu, Ioana; Grosenick, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) as a tracer is a promising technique for mapping the lymphatic system and for detecting sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) during cancer surgery. In our feasibility study we have investigated the application of a custom-made handheld fluorescence camera system for the detection of lymph nodes in gynecological malignancies. It comprises a low cost CCD camera with enhanced NIR sensitivity and two groups of LEDs emitting at wavelengths of 735 nm and 830 nm for interlaced recording of fluorescence and reflectance images of the tissue, respectively. With the help of our system, surgeons can observe fluorescent tissue structures overlaid onto the anatomical image on a monitor in real-time. We applied the camera system for intraoperative lymphatic mapping in 5 patients with vulvar cancer, 5 patients with ovarian cancer, 3 patients with cervical cancer, and 3 patients with endometrial cancer. ICG was injected at four loci around the primary malignant tumor during surgery. After a residence time of typically 15 min fluorescence images were taken in order to visualize the lymph nodes closest to the carcinomas. In cases with vulvar cancer about half of the lymph nodes detected by routinely performed radioactive SLN mapping have shown fluorescence in vivo as well. In the other types of carcinomas several lymph nodes could be detected by fluorescence during laparotomy. We conclude that our low cost camera system has sufficient sensitivity for lymphatic mapping during surgery.

  8. RADIONUCLIDE INDICATION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODES IN LARYNX AND LARYNGOPHARYNX CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Sinilkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to determine the possibility of radionuclide methods in the identification of "sentinel" lymph node (SLN in larynx and laryngopharynx cancer patients.Material and methods: 17 patients with larynx and laryngopharynx cancer were included in research. In all patients for SLN visualization nanocolloid radiopharmaceutical was injection around tumor into mucous coat with the subsequent SPECT and radioguided study.Results: Sensitivity and specificity of SPECT and radioguided study for SLN identification were 100%. We found 22 SLN in 17 patients (from 1 to 2 per patient, on average 1.3. Most often SLN were located in the III level of a neck (lymph nodes around of carotid arteries – 12 SLN (54.5% and IIA level (under lower jaw lymph nodes – 6 (27.2%. One SLN (4.5% was localized in IV level and 3 nodes (13.6% in VI level. In 2 patients (11.8% metastasis in SLN were found. In these patients within 2 years cancer progressing was revealed. Fifteen patients (88.2% had no metastatic in SLN and had no progressing of a cancer.Conclusions: Sensitivity and specificity of SPECT and radioguided study for SLN identification are 100%. In patients with metastatic SLN radical surgery with lymph node dissection is helpful.

  9. The effect of colonoscopic tattooing on lymph node retrieval and sentinel lymph node mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Sanne A. L.; van der Zaag, Edwin S.; Dekker, Evelien; Buskens, Christianne J.; Bemelman, Willem A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In colorectal cancer (CRC), colonoscopic tattooing is performed to mark the tumor site before laparoscopic surgery. Objective: To determine whether colonoscopic tattooing can be used to refine staging accuracy by increasing the lymph node (LN) yield per specimen and to determine its

  10. Non-Invasive Assessment of Sentinel Lymph Nodes That Drain the Tumoral Mammary Glands in Female Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Gheorghe Stan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mammary gland tumours occupy a significant place in the pathology of this species. Female dogs that are not spayed after their first heat cycle have a higher predisposition of developing mammary tumours. Most tumours metastasize at distance via the lymphatic system. In these conditions, the sentinel lymph nodes of the mammary glands must be assessed prior to surgical treatment. Aims: Considering the insufficient usage of non-invasive investigative methods of the sentinel lymph nodes, the aim of this study is to describe the sonographic anatomy of the lymph nodes that drain the mammary gland tumours in female dog. Materials and Methods: Twelve dog females presenting tumours of the cranial and caudal abdominal mammary glands (A1 and A2, inguinal mammary gland (I and cranial thoracic mammary gland (T1 were examined (group I. In addition, a control group composed of eight dog females was used (group II. The axillary and superficial inguinal lymph nodes were evaluated using an algorithm composed of gray-scale ultrasound, Doppler technique, contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS and real time elastography. Surgical excision of the sentinel lymph nodes was performed and samples for histopathological examination were taken. Results: The following ultrasonographic findings revealed on gray-scale examination were suspected for the metastatic infiltration: hypoechoic pattern, round shape, hillus absence and heterogenicity. Doppler technique showed an aberrant and mixed vascularisation of the lymph nodes, while the CEUS revealed incomplete enhancement of lymph nodes parenchyma. On real time elastography, the presence of blue areas in more than 50% from the lymph nodes parenchyma led us to conclude that the lymph node stiffness was caused by metastatic infiltration. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of the metastatic infiltration in 97% of the examined lymph nodes. Conclusion: The algorithm composed of gray-scale ultrasound

  11. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: current status and unresolved challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemel, Christina; Herrmann, Ken [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Rubello, Domenico [Rovigo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine-PET/CT Oncologic and Endocrine Sections, Rovigo (Italy); Colletti, Patrick M. [University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Bree, Remco de [UMC Utrecht Cancer Center, Department of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    Because imaging with ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography is unreliable for preoperative lymph node staging of early-stage oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), elective neck dissection has been typically performed. The targeted sampling of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) identified by lymphoscintigraphy and detected by gamma probe has become an effective alternative for the selection of patients for regional nodal resection. With careful consideration to technique, high SLN detection rates have been reported. Advanced techniques including intraoperative handheld gamma camera imaging and freehand single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are expected to increase surgical confidence in these procedures. This review gives an update on SLN biopsy in patients with OSCC including clinical standards and controversial aspects. (orig.)

  12. Three-year follow-up of sentinel node-negative patients with early oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebbesen, Lars; Bilde, Anders; Therkildsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    2009, 53 consecutive SNB-negative patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) T1 to T2 were accrued. Follow-up was done continuously with the most recent examination in October 2011. The location of the sentinel lymph nodes was determined using dynamic and planar lymphoscintigraphy......BACKGROUND: Resection of the primary tumor followed by sentinel node biopsy (SNB) for the clinically N0 patient has been implemented in our Head and Neck University Center. The purpose of this study was to report on the outcome for patients with negative SNB. METHODS: From April 2007 to October...... and single photon emission CT (SPECT)-CT. Intraoperatively, a hand-held gamma probe was applied. The harvested sentinel lymph nodes underwent histopathologic examination using step-serial sectioning at 150-μm intervals and immunohistochemistry. In the follow-up period, we observed and examined the SNB...

  13. Evaluation of sentinel lymph node size and shape as a predictor of occult metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhans, Linnea; Bilde, Anders; Charabi, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    . A retrospective study based on data from 50 patients with clinically N0 neck and oral squamous cell carcinoma stage T1-2N0M0, SNB and consecutive neck dissection was performed. Excised sentinel nodes were measured in three axes by the surgeons before undergoing histopathological examination. Measured sentinel......The aim of the study was to evaluate sentinel lymph node size as a predictor of metastasis in N0 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma treated by individual sentinel node biopsy (SNB) guided neck dissection. In addition, to evaluate lymph node shape as an indicator of malignancy...... node axis lengths were compared with the histopathological results. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2008 for Mac, version 12.0. A total of 167 sentinel nodes was excised with a median of 3.3 per patient. Following SNB 18% of the patients was upstaged at the subsequent histopathological...

  14. Factors associated with successful bilateral sentinel lymph node mapping in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Edward J; Sinno, Abdulrahman K; Stone, Rebecca L; Levinson, Kimberly L; Long, Kara C; Fader, Amanda N

    2015-09-01

    As our understanding of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping for endometrial cancer (EC) evolves, tailoring the technique to individual patients at high risk for failed mapping may result in a higher rate of successful bilateral mapping (SBM). The study objective is to identify patient, tumor, and surgeon factors associated with successful SBM in patients with EC and complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH). From September 2012 to November 2014, women with EC or CAH underwent SLN mapping via cervical injection followed by robot-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy (RA-TLH) at a tertiary care academic center. Completion lymphadenectomy and ultrastaging were performed according to an institutional protocol. Patient demographics, tumor and surgeon/intraoperative variables were prospectively collected and analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed evaluating factors known or hypothesized to impact the rate of successful lymphatic mapping. RA-TLH and SLN mapping was performed in 111 women; 93 had EC and 18 had CAH. Eighty women had low grade and 31 had high grade disease. Overall, at least one SLN was identified in 85.6% of patients with SBM in 62.2% of patients. Dye choice (indocyanine green versus isosulfan blue), odds ratio (OR: 4.5), body mass index (OR: 0.95), and clinically enlarged lymph nodes (OR: 0.24) were associated with SBM rate on multivariate analyses. The use of indocyanine green dye was particularly beneficial in patients with a body mass index greater than 30. Injection dye, BMI, and clinically enlarged lymph nodes are important considerations when performing sentinel lymph node mapping for EC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in malignant melanoma as same day procedure vs delayed procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Jes Christian; Kramer, Stine; Stolle, Lars B

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a delayed sentinel node biopsy (dSNB) procedure with a same-day procedure (sSNB) in malignant melanoma. In March 2012, Aarhus University Hospital went from the dSNB to the sSNB procedure defined by lymphoscintigraphy (LS) and sentinel node biopsy (SNB) performed...... malignant melanoma thickness >1 mm, Clark level IV/V, and ulcus or unknown thickness of the melanoma. All patients underwent re-excision and SNB at the same time. Pathological evaluation was not changed in the observation periods; however, the LS procedures varied. Only a minor turnover among the surgeons...... of hospitalisation days differed significantly, with 1.94 days in dSNB and 0.49 days in sSNB. Rates of complications at the site of the SNB procedure were similar. No differences in disease-free survival (DFS) or overall survival (OS) were recorded. SNB does not increase the overall survival. It is, therefore...

  16. Prediction of Sentinel Node Status and Clinical Outcome in a Melanoma Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB is a standard procedure for patients with localized cutaneous melanoma. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN Melanoma Panel has reinforced the status of the sentinel lymph node (SLN as an important prognostic factor for melanoma survival. We sought to identify predictive factors associated with a positive SLNB and overall survival in our population. Methods. We performed a retrospective chart review of 221 patients who have done a successful SLNB for melanoma between 2004 and 2010 at our department. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done. Results. The SLNB was positive in 48 patients (21.7%. Univariate analysis showed that male gender, increasing Breslow thickness, tumor type, and absence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were significantly associated with a positive SLNB. Multivariate analysis confirmed that Breslow thickness and the absence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are independently predictive of SLN metastasis. The 5-year survival rates were 53.1% for SLN positive patients and 88.2% for SLN negative patients. Breslow thickness and the SLN status independently predict overall survival. Conclusions. The risk factors for a positive SLNB are consistent with those found in the previous literature. In addition, the SLN status is a major determinant of survival, which highlights its importance in melanoma management.

  17. Accuracy and prognostic value of sentinel lymph node biopsy in head and neck melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patuzzo, Roberto; Maurichi, Andrea; Camerini, Tiziana; Gallino, Gianfranco; Ruggeri, Roberta; Baffa, Giulia; Mattavelli, Ilaria; Tinti, Maria Carla; Crippa, Federica; Moglia, Daniele; Tolomio, Elena; Maccauro, Marco; Santinami, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Debate remains around the accuracy and prognostic implications of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for melanoma arising in the head and neck (HN) areas because several analyses have shown discordances between clinically predicted lymphatic drainage pathways and those identified by lymphoscintigraphy. This study assesses the accuracy and prognostic value of SLNB in this critical anatomic region. Retrospective review of a prospectively collected melanoma database identified 331 patients with HN melanomas from January 2000 to December 2012. Primary end points included SLNB result, time to recurrence, site of recurrence, and survival. Multivariate models were constructed for analyses. A sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified in all 331 patients. There were 59 patients with a positive SLN (17.8%) with a recurrence rate of 88.1% compared with 22.4% in SLN-negative patients (P basin and had undergone a previous SLNB procedure for a false-omission rate of 1.45%. Risks for false-negative SLN occurrences included thick and scalp melanomas. Multivariate analysis on prognostic factors affecting relapse-free survival showed positive SLNB status to be the most prognostic clinicopathologic predictor of recurrence (hazard ratio, 20.56; P < 0.0001). SLNB for patients with HN melanomas is an accurate procedure and has prognostic value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular markers to complement sentinel node status in predicting survival in patients with high-risk locally invasive melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Casey J; Tang, Fiona; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Rodero, Mathieu P; Malt, Maryrose; Lambie, Duncan; Barbour, Andrew; Hayward, Nicholas K; Smithers, B Mark; Green, Adele C; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2016-08-01

    Sentinel lymph node status is a major prognostic marker in locally invasive cutaneous melanoma. However, this procedure is not always feasible, requires advanced logistics and carries rare but significant morbidity. Previous studies have linked markers of tumour biology to patient survival. In this study, we aimed to combine the predictive value of established biomarkers in addition to clinical parameters as indicators of survival in addition to or instead of sentinel node biopsy in a cohort of high-risk melanoma patients. Patients with locally invasive melanomas undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy were ascertained and prospectively followed. Information on mortality was validated through the National Death Index. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyse proteins previously reported to be associated with melanoma survival, namely Ki67, p16 and CD163. Evaluation and multivariate analyses according to REMARK criteria were used to generate models to predict disease-free and melanoma-specific survival. A total of 189 patients with available archival material of their primary tumour were analysed. Our study sample was representative of the entire cohort (N = 559). Average Breslow thickness was 2.5 mm. Thirty-two (17%) patients in the study sample died from melanoma during the follow-up period. A prognostic score was developed and was strongly predictive of survival, independent of sentinel node status. The score allowed classification of risk of melanoma death in sentinel node-negative patients. Combining clinicopathological factors and established biomarkers allows prediction of outcome in locally invasive melanoma and might be implemented in addition to or in cases when sentinel node biopsy cannot be performed. © 2016 UICC.

  19. Is the identification of in-transit sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma patients really necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Pons, Francesca; Fuertes, Silvia; Vilalta, Antonio; Rull, Ramón; Puig, Susana; Palou, Josep M; Ortega, Marisa; Castel, Teresa

    2004-07-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first node in a nodal basin to receive the direct lymphatic flow from a malignant melanoma. However, in some patients, lymphoscintigraphic study reveals the presence of lymphatic nodes in the area between the primary melanoma and the regional basin. These nodes are called "in-transit nodes" or "interval nodes" and, by definition, are also SLNs. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and location of in-transit SLNs in patients with malignant melanoma and to assess whether it is really necessary to harvest them. The evaluation involved 600 consecutive malignant melanoma patients. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed on the day before surgery following intradermal injection of 74-111 MBq of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid in four doses around the primary melanoma or the biopsy scar. Dynamic and static images were obtained and revealed SLNs in 599 out of 600 patients. The SLN was intraoperatively identified with the aid of patent blue dye and a hand-held gamma probe. Lymphoscintigraphy showed in-transit SLNs in 59/599 patients (9.8%). During surgery, all these in-transit SLNs were harvested, with those in the popliteal and epitrochlear regions being the most difficult to identify and excise. Metastatic cell deposits were subsequently identified in ten (16.9%) of these in-transit SLNs. In conclusion, lymphoscintigraphy has a key role in the identification of in-transit SLNs. Although the incidence of these nodes is relatively low in malignant melanoma patients, such SLNs present metastatic deposits in a significant percentage of cases and therefore the identification of in-transit SLNs in these patients is really necessary.

  20. Is the identification of in-transit sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma patients really necessary?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Pons, Francesca [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Villarroel 170, 08036, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); Fuertes, Silvia; Ortega, Marisa [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Villarroel 170, 08036, Barcelona (Spain); Vilalta, Antonio; Puig, Susana; Palou, Josep M.; Castel, Teresa [Department of Dermatology, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona (Spain); Rull, Ramon [Department of Surgery, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first node in a nodal basin to receive the direct lymphatic flow from a malignant melanoma. However, in some patients, lymphoscintigraphic study reveals the presence of lymphatic nodes in the area between the primary melanoma and the regional basin. These nodes are called ''in-transit nodes'' or ''interval nodes'' and, by definition, are also SLNs. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and location of in-transit SLNs in patients with malignant melanoma and to assess whether it is really necessary to harvest them. The evaluation involved 600 consecutive malignant melanoma patients. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed on the day before surgery following intradermal injection of 74-111 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid in four doses around the primary melanoma or the biopsy scar. Dynamic and static images were obtained and revealed SLNs in 599 out of 600 patients. The SLN was intraoperatively identified with the aid of patent blue dye and a hand-held gamma probe. Lymphoscintigraphy showed in-transit SLNs in 59/599 patients (9.8%). During surgery, all these in-transit SLNs were harvested, with those in the popliteal and epitrochlear regions being the most difficult to identify and excise. Metastatic cell deposits were subsequently identified in ten (16.9%) of these in-transit SLNs. In conclusion, lymphoscintigraphy has a key role in the identification of in-transit SLNs. Although the incidence of these nodes is relatively low in malignant melanoma patients, such SLNs present metastatic deposits in a significant percentage of cases and therefore the identification of in-transit SLNs in these patients is really necessary. (orig.)

  1. Sentinel node lymphatic mapping for breast cancer using lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Y. H.; Kee, H.; Kim, D. I.; Chung, W. H.; Oh, K. K.; Jeon, T. J.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, J. D. [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has been investigated as a technique for minimizing the morbidity associated with axillary node staging in breast cancer. This study was to evaluate the value of combined imaging and intraoperative gamma probe (IGP) localization of SLN. A total of 38 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer were mapped using both Tc-99 labelled antimony sulfide colloid (ASC) lymphoscintigraphy (LS) and IGP. Consecutive LS was performed after peri-tumoral injection of Tc-99m ASC. SLN was identified and removed, followed by a definitive cancer operation, including a complete axillary LN dissection. If the SLN was not involved in frozen section, additional 3 sections of H and E stain and immuno-histochemical stain were performed. LS alone revealed lymphatic drainage in 74% of cases. The mean time to node visualization in successful cases was 19 minute, with a mean of 1.38 nodes visualized. Combination of LS and IGP revealed successful localization in 89.5% of cases, with a mean of 1.47 nodes visualized. Of those 34 cases in whom SLN were localized, SLN were not involved by the tumor in 23 cases and lymph node metastasis were noted in 11 cases. In 5 cases, SLN was the only node that contained metastatic tumor and in 6 cases, additional concomitant axillary LN metastasis was detected. In 1 patient, SLN was negative on frozen section and skipped metastatic LN were noted, however, permanent pathologic specimen of SLN revealed micrometastasis. Estimated sensitivity was 91.7% and specificity was 100% and negative predictive value was 95.7%.

  2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in bladder cancer: Systematic review and technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Liss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A sentinel lymph node (SLN is the first lymph node to drain a solid tumor and likely the first place metastasis will travel. SLN biopsy has been well established as a staging tool for melanoma and breast cancer to guide lymph node dissection (LND; its utility in bladder cancer is debated. We performed a systematic search of PubMed for both human and animal studies that looked at SLN detection in cases of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. We identified a total of nine studies that assessed a variety of imaging techniques to identify SLNs in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Eight studies investigated human patients while one looked at animal (dog models. Seven studies representing 156 patients noted the negative predictive value of the SLN to predict a metastasis free state was 92% (92/100. The SLN biopsy was less accurate in metastatic patients with a positive predictive value of only 77% (43/56 with a false negative range of in individual studies of 0-19%. Clinically, positive nodes routinely do not take up the pharmaceutical agent for SLN. Therefore, SLN biopsy is a promising concept with a 92% negative predictive value; however, the false negative rates are high which may be improved by standardizing populations and indications. Novel technologies are improving the detection of SLN and may provide the surgeon with an improved ability to detect micrometastasis, guide surgery, and reduce patient morbidity.

  3. Meta-analysis of predictive factors for non-sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients with a positive SLN.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parra, R.F.D. van la; Peer, P.G.M.; Ernst, M.F.; Bosscha, K.

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: A meta-analysis was performed to identify the clinicopathological variables most predictive of non-sentinel node (NSN) metastases when the sentinel node is positive. METHODS: A Medline search was conducted that ultimately identified 56 candidate studies. Original data were abstracted from each

  4. Immediate dynamic lymphoscintigraphy delivers no additional value to lymphoscintigraphy 3 hr after tracer injection in sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doting, M. H. Edwina; Stiekema, H. M. Annemiek; de Vries, Jacob; Lemstra, Clara; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Vrieling, Mirjam; Rietman, Lianne; Jager, Pieter L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Immediate dynamic imaging enables accurate definition of sentinel lymph nodes, whereas imaging, 3 hr after tracer injection may lead to overestimation of the number of sentinel lymph nodes. A study was performed to define the value of lymphoscintigraphy immediately versus 3 hr after

  5. Sentinel lymph node based management or routine axillary clearance? Three-year outcomes of the RACS sentinel node biopsy versus axillary clearance (SNAC) 1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzig, Neil; Gill, Peter Grantley; Zannino, Diana; Stockler, Martin R; Gebski, Val; Ung, Owen; Campbell, Ian; Simes, R John

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether the benefits of sentinel node based management (SNBM) over routine axillary clearance (RAC) at 1 year persisted to 3 years of follow-up. A total of 1,088 women with clinically node-negative breast cancer were randomly assigned to the SNBM or RAC group. Upper limb volume, symptoms, and function were assessed at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after surgery objectively with upper limb measurements by clinicians and subjectively by patients' using validated self-rating scales. Upper limb volume increased in both groups over the first 2 years and differed between the two groups all time points beyond 1 month (P < 0.02) but then plateaued. Upper limb swelling was no worse in women who had axillary clearance as a two-stage procedure than in women assigned RAC as a one-stage procedure. Upper limb volume had increased 15 % or more in 6.0 % at 6 months and 17.6 % at 3 years in those assigned RAC versus 4.2 and 11.9 % in those assigned SNBM. Reductions in upper limb movement were also greater, with RAC than SNBM over 6 months, but improved and were similar in the two groups from 1 to 3 years. Subjective ratings of upper limb swelling, symptoms, dysfunction, and disability over 3 years were worse in the RAC group. Upper limb swelling at 3 years was rated severe by few women (1.1 %) but was rated as moderate by 9.4 % in the RAC group and 2.5 % in the SNBM group (P < 0.001). The benefits of SNBM over RAC persist 3 years after surgery.

  6. Risk of non-sentinel node metastases in patients with symptomatic cancers compared to screen-detected breast cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove F; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Balslev, Eva

    2015-01-01

    nodes. This was evenly distributed between patients with symptomatic and screen-detected cancers; 18.5% vs 17.5% (OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.77-1.49; p = 0.69). In patients with micrometastases 21% had non-sentinel node metastases in the group with symptomatic cancers compared to 19% of patients with screen......-detected cancers. This difference was not significant (OR 1.16; 95% CI 0.81-1.65, p = 0.43). Neither the multivariate analysis showed an increased risk of non-sentinel node metastases in patients with symptomatic cancers compared to screen-detected cancers (OR 1.12, CI 0.77-1.62, p = 0.55). In patients with ITCs 8......% of patients with symptomatic cancers had non-sentinel node metastases compared to 13% of patients with screen-detected cancers. This difference was not significant (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.22-1.54, p = 0.27). In the multivariate analysis, the risk of non-sentinel node metastases was still not significantly...

  7. Reliability of sentinel lymph node biopsy for regional staging of head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalbach, Cecelia E; Lowe, Lori; Teknos, Theodoros N; Johnson, Timothy M; Bradford, Carol R

    2005-07-01

    To determine (1) the reliability of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy and (2) the need for cytokeratin 20 (CK-20) immunostaining in the staging of head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Retrospective cohort study (median follow-up of 34.5 months). Tertiary care center. Ten patients with head and neck MCC who underwent regional staging with SLN biopsy (SLNB) and CK-20 immunostaining. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative gamma probe, and isosulfan blue dye. The SLNs were evaluated with hematoxylin-eosin and CK-20 immunostaining. Patients with negative SLNB results were followed up clinically. Percentage of positive SLNs, regional recurrence in the setting of a negative finding from SLNB, and percentage of positive SLNs requiring CK-20 immunostaining for diagnosis of micrometastatic MCC. At least 1 SLN was identified in every patient. Of 24 nodes, 19 (79%) were from the neck region and 5 (21%) were from the parotid basin. Two of the 24 SLNs, in 2 (20%) of 10 patients, were positive for metastatic disease. Both positive SLNs appeared negative on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, but small foci of micrometastatic MCC were identified with CK-20 immunostaining. No cranial nerve complications occurred. Regional failure in the setting of a negative finding on SLNB was observed in 1 (12%) of 8 patients. Biopsy of SLNs represents a safe and reliable technique for regional staging of MCC of the head and neck. It provides pathologists with a limited number of SLNs for focused analysis, which is imperative because hematoxylin-eosin immunostaining is often insufficient for identifying micrometastatic MCC. The use of anti-CK-20 antibody allows accurate identification of micrometastatic MCC.

  8. Predictive Factors for Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Positive Sentinel Lymph Nodes After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Nomogram for Predicting Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jai Min; Lee, Se Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Han, Se Hwan; Jung, Yong Sik; Nam, Seok Jin

    2017-11-01

    Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. With increasing numbers of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), issues concerning sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after NAC have emerged. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features and developed a nomogram to predict the possibility of nonsentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastases in patients with positive SLNs after NAC. A retrospective medical record review was performed of 140 patients who had had clinically positive ALNs at presentation, had a positive SLN after NAC on subsequent SLNB, and undergone axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) from 2008 to 2014. On multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, pathologic T stage, lymphovascular invasion, SLN metastasis size, and number of positive SLN metastases were independent predictors for NSLN metastases (P Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram was developed to predict the likelihood of additional positive NSLNs. The Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram could provide information to surgeons regarding whether to perform additional ALND when the permanent biopsy revealed positive findings, although the intraoperative SLNB findings were negative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multimodal surgical guidance during sentinel node biopsy for melanoma: combined gamma tracing and fluorescence imaging of the sentinel node through use of the hybrid tracer indocyanine green-99mTc-nanocolloid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, N.S.; Brouwer, O.R.; Schaafsma, B.E.; Mathéron, H.M.; Klop, W.M.C.; Balm, A.J.M.; van Tinteren, H.; Nieweg, O.E.; van Leeuwen, F.W.B.; Valdés Olmos, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the hybrid approach in a large population of patients with melanoma in the head and neck, on the trunk, or on an extremity who were scheduled for sentinel node (SN) biopsy. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Between March

  10. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma on the Head and Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Alison B; Lowe, Lori; Malloy, Kelly M; McHugh, Jonathan B; Bradford, Carol R; Chubb, Heather; Johnson, Timothy M; McLean, Scott A

    2016-12-01

    Metastasis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to the nodal basin is associated with a poor prognosis. The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for regional staging in patients diagnosed with SCC is unclear. To evaluate a single institution's experience with use of SLNB for regional staging of SCC on the head and neck. A retrospective review of 53 patients who were diagnosed with SCC on the head and neck, at high risk for nodal metastasis based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk factors, and treated with wide local excision (WLE) and SLNB from December 1, 2010, through January 30, 2015, in a single academic referral center was performed. The follow-up period ended November 5, 2015. Sentinel lymph node biopsy paraffin blocks were retrieved and processed retrospectively with serial sectioning and immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) in cases with nodal recurrence following a negative SLNB. Sentinel node (SN) identification rate, SLNB positivity rate, local recurrence, regional nodal recurrence, and distant recurrence. In 53 patients with 54 tumors the SN identification rate was 94%. The SLNB positivity rate was 11.3%. On more thorough tissue processing and IHC, metastatic SCC was identified in 2 of 5 (40%) cases previously deemed negative. After reclassification of these cases, the adjusted SLNB positivity rate was 15.1%. The adjusted rate of false omission was 7.1% (95% CI, 2%-19%). Nodal disease developed in 20.8% overall. Angiolymphatic invasion (Cohen d, 3.52; 95% CI, 1.83-5.21), perineural invasion (Cohen d, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.09-1.52), and clinical size (Cohen d, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.05-1.63) were associated with the presence of nodal disease. Rigorous study of SLNB for cutaneous SCC incorporating prospectively-collected comprehensive data sets based on standardized treatment algorithms is justified with potential to modify clinical practice. Our study demonstrates the critical importance of serial sectioning and IHC of the SLNB specimen for

  11. Sentinel node biopsy in melanoma: technical considerations of the procedure as performed at the John Wayne Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaria, Sanjay P; Faries, Mark B; Morton, Donald L

    2010-06-15

    Since its first description in 1990, sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become the standard for accurate staging of a melanoma-draining regional lymphatic basin. This minimally invasive, multidisciplinary technique can detect occult metastases by selective sampling and focused pathologic analysis of the first nodes on the afferent lymphatic pathway from a primary cutaneous melanoma. An understanding of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative lymphatic mapping, and the definition of SN are critical for surgical expertise with SN biopsy. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Sentinel Node Biopsy in Melanoma: Technical Considerations of the Procedure as Performed at the John Wayne Cancer Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Bagaria, Sanjay P.; Faries, Mark B.; Morton, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Since its first description in 1990, sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become the standard for accurate staging of a melanoma-draining regional lymphatic basin. This minimally invasive, multidisciplinary technique can detect occult metastases by selective sampling and focused pathologic analysis of the first nodes on the afferent lymphatic pathway from a primary cutaneous melanoma. An understanding of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative lymphatic mapping, and the definition of SN are ...

  13. Molecular Staging of Sentinel Lymph Nodes Identifies Melanoma Patients at Increased Risk of Nodal Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Charles W; Egger, Michael E; McMasters, Kelly M; Stromberg, Arnold J; Martin, Robert C G; Philips, Prejesh; Scoggins, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    Molecular staging of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) may identify patients who are node-negative by standard microscopic staging but are at increased risk for regional nodal recurrence; such patients may benefit from completion lymph node dissection (CLND). In a multicenter, randomized clinical trial, patients with tumor-negative SLNs by standard pathology (hematoxylin and eosin [H and E] serial sections and immunohistochemistry [IHC]) underwent reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of SLNs for melanoma-specific mRNA. Microscopically negative/PCR+ patients were randomized to observation, CLND, or CLND with high-dose interferon (HDI). For this post-hoc analysis, clinicopathologic features and survival outcomes, including overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), were compared between PCR+ patients who underwent CLND vs observation. Microscopic and molecular node-negative (PCR-) patients were included for comparison. A total of 556 patients were PCR+: 180 underwent observation, and 376 underwent CLND. An additional 908 PCR- patients were observed. Median follow-up was 72 months. Disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly better for PCR+ patients who underwent CLND compared with observation (p = 0.0218). No statistically significant differences in OS or distant disease-free survival (DDFS) were seen. Regional lymph node recurrence-free survival (LNRFS) was improved in PCR+ patients with CLND compared to observation (p = 0.0065). The PCR+ patients in the observation group had the worst DFS; those with CLND had similar DFS to that in the PCR- group (p = 0.9044). Patients with microscopically negative/PCR+ SLN have an increased risk of nodal recurrence that was mitigated by CLND. Although CLND did not affect OS, these data suggest that molecular detection of melanoma-specific mRNA in the SLN predicts a greater risk of nodal recurrence and deserves further study. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier

  14. Value of RT-PCR analysis of sentinel nodes in determining the pathological nodal status in colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, Wendy; Braat, Andries; Van den Berg, Anke; Platteel, Inge; Hollema, Harry; Groen, Henk.; Plukker, John

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pathological examination of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) and non-SLNs in colon cancer is frequently not performed to the same extent. We examined whether non-SLNs were truly negative in tumors with tumor-negative SLNs using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

  15. The role of SPECT-CT in the lymphoscintigraphic identification of sentinel nodes in patients with oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, Anders; Von Buchwald, Christian; Mortensen, Jann

    2006-01-01

    CONCLUSION: SPECT-CT may improve the localization of sentinel nodes (SNs) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Compared with planar lymphoscintigraphy SPECT-CT detected more SNs and provided additional anatomical and spatial information about their localization. New generation...

  16. Sentinel-lymph-node procedure in colon and rectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pas, M.H.G.M.; Meijer, S.; Hoekstra, O.S.; Riphagen, I.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Knol, D.L.; van Grieken, N.C.T.; Meijerink, W.J.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: No consensus exists on the validity of the sentinel-lymph-node procedure for assessment of nodal status in patients with colorectal cancer. We aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of this procedure. Methods: We searched Embase and PubMed databases for studies published before March

  17. Review and evaluation of sentinel node procedures in 250 melanoma patients with a median follow-up of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estourgie, Susanne H.; Nieweg, Omgo E.; Valdés Olmos, Renato A.; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A.; Kroon, Bin B. R.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of sentinel node biopsy in cutaneous melanoma at our institute. METHODS: A total of 250 patients with cutaneous melanoma were studied prospectively. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed after injection of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid

  18. A portable gamma-camera for intraoperative detection of sentinel nodes in the head and neck region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Valdés Olmos, Renato A.; Klop, W. Martin C.; Balm, Alfons J. M.; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduced and evaluated a portable gamma-camera for intraoperative visualization of sentinel nodes in the head and neck region. METHODS: Planar lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT were performed after peritumoral injection of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid in 25 patients (head and neck melanoma or oral cavity

  19. Immunohistochemistry on frozen section of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer with improved morphology and blocking of endogenous peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jylling, Anne Marie Bak; Lindebjerg, Jan; Nielsen, Lone

    2008-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of patients with breast cancer is the clinical practice. Peroperative examination means that more patients can be treated in a 1-step procedure. The addition of immunohistochemistry to frozen section slides improves the detection rate of especially...

  20. Sentinel node biopsy in head and neck squamous cell cancer: 5-year follow-up of a European multicenter trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkureishi, Lee W T; Ross, Gary L; Shoaib, Taimur

    2010-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) may represent an alternative to elective neck dissection for the staging of patients with early head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). To date, the technique has been successfully described in a number of small single-institution studies. This report describes t...

  1. Factors Predictive of the Status of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Melanoma Patients from a Large Multicenter Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Richard L.; Ayers, Gregory D.; Stell, Virginia H.; Ding, Shouluan; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Salo, Jonathan C.; Pockaj, Barbara A.; Essner, Richard; Faries, Mark; Charney, Kim James; Avisar, Eli; Hauschild, Axel; Egberts, Friederike; Averbook, Bruce J.; Garberoglio, Carlos A.; Vetto, John T.; Ross, Merrick I.; Chu, David; Trisal, Vijay; Hoekstra, Harald; Whitman, Eric; Wanebo, Harold J.; DeBonis, Daniel; Vezeridis, Michael; Chevinsky, Aaron; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Shyr, Yu; Berry, Lynne; Zhao, Zhiguo; Soong, Seng-jaw; Leong, Stanley P. L.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous predictive factors for cutaneous melanoma metastases to sentinel lymph nodes have been identified; however, few have been found to be reproducibly significant. This study investigated the significance of factors for predicting regional nodal disease in cutaneous melanoma using a large

  2. Impact of sentinel node status and other risk factors on the clinical outcome of head and neck melanoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leong, SPL; Accortt, NA; Essner, R; Ross, M; Gershenwald, JE; Pockaj, B; Hoekstra, HJ; Garberoglio, C; White, RL; Biel, M; Charney, K; Wanebo, H; Avisar, E; Vetto, J; Soong, SJ

    Objective: To determine the impact of sentinel lymph node (SLN) status and other risk factors on recurrence and overall survival in head and neck melanoma patients. Design: The SLN Working Group, based in San Francisco, Calif, with its 11 member centers, the John Wayne Cancer Institute, and The

  3. 99mTc Nanocoll: a radiopharmaceutical for sentinel node localisation in breast cancer - In vitro and in vivo results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, G.M.M.; Gommans, E.; van der Zant, F.M.; Teule, G.J.J.; van der Schors, T.G.; de Waard, J.W.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated labelling efficiency and radiochemical purity of 99mTc colloid albumin to identify an optimal labelling protocol for sentinel node detection. Results indicate that a 72 h eluate is not recommended for high specific labelling of 99mTc colloid albumin. Ex vivo, significantly

  4. Sentinel node biopsy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx: a diagnostic meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, T.M.; Hannink, G.J.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Takes, R.P.; Rovers, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to systematically assess the accuracy of a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in cT1/T2N0 oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients. METHODS: We searched electronic databases, including EMBASE and MEDLINE (Pubmed) up to November 7 2012, by

  5. Sentinel lymph node in endometrial cancer: A systematic review on laparoscopic detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Anita Abdullah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer (EC is the most frequent gynecological malignancy in developed countries, and accounts for 6–9% of female malignancies. The prevalence is growing in overweight individuals and those with medical comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension. Nodal status is a key determinant of the outcome and there is a strong rationale incorporating sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy in the management of EC. We performed a systemic review concerning studies investigating the role of laparoscopic detection of SLN in early-stage EC. The detection rate and sensitivity of the laparoscopic approach in SLN ranged from 69.6% to 100% and 58.6% to 100%, respectively. The combination of dye and radiocolloid detection substances is the best method for SLN detection in EC. The use of pericervical injection and the laparoscopic approach increase the detection rate of SLNs, especially in the iliac lymph node groups. The hysteroscopy injection technique highlights the presence of isolated para-aortic lymph node metastasis. However, the precise method of SLN biopsy in EC needs to be determined further.

  6. Evolution of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer, in and out of vogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Shabnam; Bleiweiss, Ira J

    2014-11-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was introduced 2 decades ago and thereafter validated for routine surgical management of breast cancer, including cases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. As the number of lymph nodes for staging has decreased, pathologists have scrutinized SLN with a combination of standard hematoxylin and eosin, levels, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular methods. An epidemic of small-volume metastases thereby arose, leading to modifications in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging to accommodate findings such as isolated tumor cells (ITC) and micrometastases. With the goal of determining the significance of these findings, retrospective followed by prospective trials were performed, showing mixed results. The ACOSOG Z10 and NSABP B-32 trials both independently showed that ITC and micrometastases were not significant and thus discouraged the use of levels and IHC for detecting them. However, the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database showed that patients with micrometastases had an overall decreased survival. In addition, the MIRROR (Micrometastases and ITC: Relevant and Robust or Rubbish?) trial, showed that patients with ITC and micrometastases treated with adjuvant therapy had lower hazard ratios compared with untreated patients. Subsequently, the ACOSOG Z0011 trial randomized patients with up to 2 positive SLN to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or not, all treated with radiation and chemotherapy, showing no difference in survival or recurrence rates between the 2 groups and causing a shift from ALND. As the rate of ALND has declined, the necessity of performing levels, IHC, frozen section, and molecular studies on SLN needs to be revisited.

  7. One-day or two-day procedure for sentinel node biopsy in melanoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakera, A.H.; Drzewiecki, K.T. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns Unit, Section 2102, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lock-Andersen, J. [Roskilde University Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, Roskilde (Denmark); Hesse, U. [University of Southern Denmark, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nuernberg, B.M. [Roskilde University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Roskilde (Denmark); Juhl, B.R. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Department of Pathology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Stokholm, K.H. [Roskilde University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Roskilde (Denmark); Hesse, B. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, PET and Cyclotron Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-06-15

    We compared the outcome of a 1-day and a 2-day sentinel node (SN) biopsy procedure, evaluated in terms of lymphoscintigraphic, surgical and pathological findings. We studied 476 patients with melanoma from two melanoma centres using static scintigraphy and blue dye. A proportional odds model was used for statistical analysis. The number of SNs visualized at scintigraphy increased significantly with time from injection to scintigraphy and activity left in the patient at scintigraphy, and depended on the melanoma location. The number of SNs removed at surgery increased with the number of SNs visualized at scintigraphy and time from injection to surgery. The frequency of nodal metastasis increased with increasing thickness and Clark level of the melanoma, and was highest for two SNs visualized at scintigraphy. This study showed that early vs. late imaging and surgery do make a difference on the outcome of the SN procedure and confirmed the importance of the scintigraphic visualization of all true SNs. (orig.)

  8. Automated digital volume measurement of melanoma metastases in sentinel nodes predicts disease recurrence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Nyengaard, Jens R; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Total metastatic volume (TMV) is an important prognostic factor in melanoma sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) that avoids both the interobserver variation and unidirectional upstaging seen when using semi-quantitative size estimates. However, it is somewhat laborious for routine application. Our......, respectively. The Bland-Altman plot showed an even distribution of the differences, and the kappa statistic was 0.84. In multivariate analysis, both manual and digital metastasis volume measurements were independent progression markers when corrected for primary tumour thickness [manual: hazard ratio (HR): 1.......21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.36, P = 0.002; digital: HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.37, P = 0.004]. Conclusions: Stereology-based, automated digital metastasis volume measurement in melanoma SLNs predicts adisease recurrence and survival....

  9. Role of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in the Management of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Arruda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a rare and typically aggressive form of skin cancer. It most commonly affects the elderly and has a predilection for the sun-exposed skin of the head and neck region. Other etiological factors include immune suppression, organ transplantation, and polyoma virus infection. MCC has a propensity to spread to regional lymphatics with a high locoregional recurrence rate. Since its discovery in 1972, treatment paradigms have shifted, with no consensus on optimal management strategies. Currently, standard of care includes surgical intervention to the primary and locoregional site with adjuvant radiotherapy for high-risk disease. In this paper, we discuss the history, pathology, and epidemiology of this rare disease with a focus on the evidentiary basis of treatment protocols. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a management option will be the focus of this paper.

  10. The sentinel node concept in prostate cancer: Present reality and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Egawa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A sentinel node (SN is defined as the first site where cancer cells are carried by lymph flow from a tumor. If this definition (SN concept correctly reflects the clinical reality, intraoperative SN biopsy would facilitate precise nodal staging. In malignant melanoma, a prolonged survival has been evidenced by a large-scale randomized controlled study. On the contrary, research on SN concept in deeply located cancers including prostate cancer, is still investigative, and no concrete data from clinical trials are yet available. Since 1993, several investigators have demonstrated that the SN concept could be applied in prostate cancer patients as well with high accuracy. Although promising and technically feasible in pre-clinical settings, many hurdles remain to be cleared before clinical application can be recommended. This review addresses the current status and related issues of the SN concept in prostate cancer, and discusses the future directions.

  11. Cytokeratin on frozen sections of sentinel node may spare breast cancer patients secondary axillary surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovgaard, Elisabeth Specht; Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Lænkholm, Anne Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    Background. The feasibility and accuracy of immunohistochemistry (IHC) on frozen sections, when assessing sentinel node (SN) status intraoperatively in breast cancer, is a matter of continuing discussion. In this study, we compared a center using IHC on frozen section with a center not using...... this method with focus on intraoperative diagnostic values. Material and Methods. Results from 336 patients from the centre using IHC intraoperatively were compared with 343 patients from the center not using IHC on frozen section. Final evaluation on paraffin sections with haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining...... supplemented with cytokeratin staining was used as gold standard. Results. Significantly more SN with isolated tumor cells (ITCs) and micrometastases (MICs) were found intraoperatively when using IHC on frozen sections. There was no significant difference in the number of macrometastases (MACs) found...

  12. The sentinel node concept in prostate cancer: Present reality and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, M; Fukuda, M; Takashima, H; Misaki, T; Kinuya, K; Terahata, S

    2008-10-01

    A sentinel node (SN) is defined as the first site where cancer cells are carried by lymph flow from a tumor. If this definition (SN concept) correctly reflects the clinical reality, intraoperative SN biopsy would facilitate precise nodal staging. In malignant melanoma, a prolonged survival has been evidenced by a large-scale randomized controlled study. On the contrary, research on SN concept in deeply located cancers including prostate cancer, is still investigative, and no concrete data from clinical trials are yet available. Since 1993, several investigators have demonstrated that the SN concept could be applied in prostate cancer patients as well with high accuracy. Although promising and technically feasible in pre-clinical settings, many hurdles remain to be cleared before clinical application can be recommended. This review addresses the current status and related issues of the SN concept in prostate cancer, and discusses the future directions.

  13. Experimental study of {sup 99m}Tc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernov, V. I., E-mail: Chernov@oncology.tomsk.ru; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Lyapunov, A. Yu., E-mail: Lyapunov1720.90@mail.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52–77 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 16.7–24.5 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of {sup 99}mTc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the lymph node was significantly higher than {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose

  14. Practice variation in defining sentinel lymph nodes on lymphoscintigrams in oral cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Geke B.; Bree, Remco de [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schie, Annelies van; Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Witte, Birgit I. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Olmos, Renato A.V. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Klop, W.M.C. [Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Lymphoscintigraphic imaging and adequate interpretation of the lymphatic drainage pattern is an essential step in the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) procedure. In oral cancer, identification of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) can be challenging. In this study, interobserver variability in defining SLNs on lymphoscintigrams was evaluated in patients with T1-T2 stage N0 oral cancer. Sixteen observers (head and neck surgeons, nuclear medicine physicians or teams of both) from various institutes were asked which criteria they use to consider a hot focus on the lymphoscintigram as SLN. Lymphoscintigrams of 9 patients with 47 hot foci (3-9 per patient) were assessed, using a scale of 'yes/equivocal/no'. Bilateral drainage was seen in four of nine cases. In three cases additional late single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT scanning was performed. Interobserver variability was evaluated by kappa (κ) analysis, using linear weighted pairwise comparison of the observers. Conservative (equivocal analysed as no) and sensitive (equivocal analysed as yes) assessment strategies were investigated using pairwise kappa analysis. Various definitions of SLN on lymphoscintigrams were given. Interobserver variability of all cases using a 3-point scale showed fair agreement (71 %, κ{sub w} = 0.29). The conservative and sensitive analyses both showed moderate agreement: conservative approach κ = 0.44 (in 80 % of the hot foci the observers agreed) and sensitive approach κ = 0.42 (81 %) respectively. Multidisciplinary involvement in image interpretation and higher levels of observer experience appeared to increase agreement. Among 16 observers, there is practice variation in defining SLNs on lymphoscintigrams in oral cancer patients. Interobserver variability of lymphoscintigraphic interpretation shows moderate agreement. In order to achieve better agreement in defining SLNs on lymphoscintigrams specific guidelines are warranted. (orig.)

  15. Mapping Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis by Dual-probe Optical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiangyu; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Fuwu; Zhu, Guizhi; Song, Jibin; Teng, Gao-Jun; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has emerged as the preferred standard procedure in patients with breast cancer, melanoma and other types of cancer. Herein, we developed a method to intra-operatively map SLNs and differentiate tumor metastases within SLNs at the same time, with the aim to provide more accurate and real-time intraoperative guidance. Experimental Design: Hyaluronic acid (HA), a ligand of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE)-1, is employed as a SLN mapping agent after being conjugated with a near-infrared fluorophore (Cy5.5). Different sized HAs (5, 10 and 20K) were tested in normal mice and mice with localized inflammation to optimize LN retention time and signal to background ratio. Cetuximab, an antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and trastuzumab, an antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), were labeled with near-infrared fluorophore (IRDye800) for detecting metastatic tumors. LN metastasis model was developed by hock injection of firefly luciferase engineered human head neck squamous carcinoma cancer UM-SCC-22B cells or human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells. The metastases within LNs were confirmed by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). IRDye800-Antibodies were intravenously administered 24 h before local administration of Cy5.5-HA. Optical imaging was then performed to identify nodal metastases. Results: Binding of HA with LYVE-1 was confirmed by ELISA and fluorescence staining. HA with a size of 10K was chosen based on the favorable migration and retention profile. After sequential administration of IRDye800-antibodies intravenously and Cy5.5-HA locally to a mouse model with LN metastases and fluorescence optical imaging, partially metastasized LNs were successfully distinguished from un-metastasized LNs and fully tumor occupied LNs, based on the different signal patterns. Conclusions: Fluorophore conjugated HA is a potential lymphatic mapping agent for SLNB. Dual-tracer imaging

  16. Outcomes of Post Mastectomy Radiation Therapy in Patients Receiving Axillary Lymph Node Dissection After Positive Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauder, Michael C., E-mail: mstauder@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Caudle, Abigail S. [Department of Breast Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chavez-Macgregor, Mariana [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hunt, Kelly K.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda [Department of Breast Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Woodward, Wendy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the rate of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) among women treated with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) after positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy results and to establish the effect of negative ALND results and PMRT on locoregional recurrence (LRR) and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: All patients were treated with mastectomy and ALND after positive SLN biopsy results. All patients had clinical N0 or NX disease at the time of mastectomy and received no neoadjuvant therapy. The presence of lymphovascular space invasion, presence of multifocality, number of positive SLNs and non-SLNs, clinical and pathologic stage, extranodal extension, age, and use of PMRT were evaluated for significance regarding the rates of OS and LRR. Results: A total of 345 patients were analyzed. ALND after positive SLN biopsy results was negative in 235 patients (68.1%), and a total of 112 patients (32.5%) received radiation therapy. On multivariate analysis, only pathologic stage III predicted for lower OS (hazard ratio, 3.32; P<.001). The rate of 10-year freedom from LRR was 87.9% and 95.3% in patients with positive ALND results and patients with negative ALND results, respectively. In patients with negative ALND results with ≥3 positive SLNs, the rate of freedom from LRR was 74.7% compared with 96.7% in those with <3 positive SLNs (P=.009). In patients with negative ALND results, ≥3 positive SLNs predicted for an increase in LRR on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 10.10; P=.034). Conclusions: A low proportion of cT1-2, N0 patients with positive SLNs who undergo mastectomy receive PMRT after ALND. Even in this low-risk cohort, patients with ≥3 positive SLNs and negative ALND results are at increased risk of LRR and may benefit from PMRT.

  17. The diagnostic role of radioactivity in sentinel nodes in oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Adorján F; Döbert, Natascha; Walendzik, Hartmut; Zaplatnikov, Konstantin; Landes, Constantin A

    2006-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB), using radioactive tracers, is a novel, interesting tool in the staging of patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous-cell carcinoma (OOSCC), which could lead to a reduced rate of elective neck dissections. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ranking of measured radioactivity in the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) and to correlate these findings with histopathological results to assess the number of SLN being sufficient for exact staging of the neck. In 77 consecutive patients with T1-4 OOSCC clinically and positron emission tomography-staged N0, between 15 and 55 MBq of Tc- 99m-labeled albumin-microcolloids were injected peritumorally and 213 SLNs were excised by small skin incisions using a gamma probe 2-3 hours later. The counts per second (cps) were measured ex vivo and excised SLNs were ranked according to their cps defining the LN with the highest activity as primary SLN, followed by a 2nd, 3rd, and so forth, SLN. Elective neck dissections were not performed. Median activity was 213 cps. All levels harbored SLNs with a maximum (43%) in level II and a minimum in level V (1%). SLNs in level II had significantly higher tracer accumulation (median, 289 cps) than those in levels I (144 cps) and IV (149 cps), but distant levels did not have significantly lower counts, compared to proximal. Eight (8) pathologically positive SLNs in 7 patients (7/77 = 9%; median activity, 157 cps) were detected. The median counts of the positive SLNs were not significantly different from those of the 205 negative SLNs (235 cps). The positive SLN was the one with the highest tracer accumulation in 4 cases, with the second highest in 1 case, and with the third highest tracer accumulation in 2 cases. Three (3) positive SLN were in level IB, 4 in level IIA, and 1 in level III. One (1) patient had 2 positive SLNs: a SLN with the third highest activity in level IIB and a SLN with the fifth highest activity in level III. In OOSCC, excision of only 1 SLN

  18. Clinicopathologic analysis of sentinel lymph node mapping in early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hye; Barsky, Sanford H; Chang, Helena R

    2003-01-01

    Axillary nodal status is the most significant prognosticator for predicting survival and guiding adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) represents a minimally invasive procedure with low morbidity for staging axillary nodal status. In this article we review and report our experiences in patients with early breast cancer who underwent SLNB at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center. Between September 1998 and May 2000, a total 83 SLNBs were performed in 81 patients with proven breast cancer and negative axillary examination who elected to have SLNB as the first step of nodal staging. Two patients had bilateral breast cancer. SLNB was localized by using both 99Tc sulfur colloid (83 cases) and isosulfan blue dye (75 cases). Data of these patients were prospectively collected and analyzed. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of women with positive and negative sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were compared to identify features predictive of SLN metastasis. Of the 83 cases, the SLN was successfully localized in 82 (98.8%). Sixty-three percent of patients had SLNs found in level I only, 18.3% in both level I and II, and 4.9% in level II alone. The vast majority (84.3%) of these cases had T1 breast cancer with an average size of 1.55 cm for the entire series. Twenty-three patients (28%) had positive SLNs, with an average of 1.5 positive SLNs per patient. Fifteen had metastases detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining and 8 had micrometastases detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using anticytokeratin antibodies. Ten of the former group agreed to and 2 of the latter group opted for full axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). An average of 17.5 lymph nodes were removed from each ALND procedure. Additional metastases or micrometastases were found in seven patients (in a total of 28 lymph nodes). Three patients with completely negative SLNs experienced additional axillary lymph node removal due to their election of free flap reconstruction

  19. Indocyanine green injection for detecting sentinel nodes using color fluorescence camera in the laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masashi; Kubota, Keisuke; Kuroda, Junko; Ohta, Keiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Saito, Junichi; Kobayashi, Michiya; Sato, Takayuki; Beck, Yoshifumi; Kitagawa, Yuko; Kitajima, Masaki

    2012-04-01

    We seek for the accurate and simple method for detecting sentinel nodes of gastric cancer which can be popularized in community hospitals. The indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence-guided method is reported to be sensitive. However, the ordinal fluorescence cameras have gray scale imaging and require a dark room. We have developed a new device, Hyper Eye Medical System (HEMS) which can simultaneously detect color and near-infrared rays and can be used under room light. This study was planned to examine whether submucosal injection of 0.5 mL × 4 of 50 µg/mL ICG on the day before operation is the adequate administration for detecting sentinel nodes using HEMS in the gastric cancer surgery. The patients underwent gastrectomy for clinical T1a (mucosa)-T2 (muscularis propria) and clinical N0 were enrolled in the present study. As a preliminary trial, one case each of the ICG 25 and 100 µg/mL, injected on the day before operation and intraoperative injection, was examined. Then, 10 cases injected 50 µg/mL ICG on the day before operation were examined. The ICG fluorescence of the patient injected 100 µg/mL was too intense and that of the patient injected 25 µg/mL was too faint. Sentinel lymph nodes were detected in all of 10 cases injected 50 µg/mL, the day before operation and number of sentinel lymph nodes per patient was 3.6 ± 2.1. Metastasis was observed in one case. All of ICG fluorescence-positive sentinel nodes were positive for the metastasis. In the patient who underwent intraoperative injection, sentinel lymphatic basins could be identified. The present study shows that HEMS-guided abdominal surgery is feasible under room light. Submucosal injection of 0.5 mL × 4 of 50 µg/mL ICG on the day before operation is the adequate administration for detecting sentinel nodes using HEMS in the gastric cancer surgery. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. [Sentinel node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. Its relation with molecular subtypes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, R; Ramos, M; García-Talavera, J R; Ramos, T; Rosero, A S; González-Orus, J M; Sancho, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of the molecular subtype (MS) in the Sentinel Node Biopsy (SNB) technique after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in women with locally advanced breast cancer (BC) and a complete axillary response (CR). A prospective study involving 70 patients with BC treated with NAC was carried out. An axillary lymph node dissection was performed in the first 48 patients (validation group: VG), and in case of micro- or macrometastases in the therapeutic application phase (therapy group:TG). Classified according to MS: 14 luminal A; 16 luminal B HER2-, 13 luminal B HER2+, 10HER2+ non-luminal, 17 triple-negative. SNB was carried out in 98.6% of the cases, with only one false negative result in the VG (FN=2%). Molecular subtype did not affect SN detection. Despite the existence of axillary CR, statistically significant differences were found in the proportion of macrometastasis (16.7% vs. 35.7%, p=0.043) on comparing the pre-NAC cN0 and cN+. Breast tumor response to NAC varied among the different MS, this being lowest in luminal A (21.5%) and highest in non-luminal HER2+ group (80%). HER2+ and triple-negative were the groups with the best axillary histological response both when there was prior clinical involvement and when there was not. Molecular subtype is a predictive factor of the degree of tumor response to NAC in breast cancer. However, it does not affect SNB detection and efficiency. SNB can also be used safely in women with prior node involvement as long as a complete clinical and radiological assessment is made of the node response to NAC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  1. Sentinel node mapping guided by indocyanine green fluorescence imaging during laparoscopic surgery in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yusuke; Murakami, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Kimiyasu; Masuda, Yuki; Kato, Masanori; Sato, Atsushi; Goto, Satoru; Otsuka, Koji; Kato, Takashi; Kusano, Mitsuo

    2010-07-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging has recently been reported as a new method for sentinel node (SN) mapping in several types of cancers. In this study, we determined the possible usefulness of SN mapping guided by ICG fluorescence imaging during laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) for gastric cancer. Our series consisted of 77 patients with cT1- or cT2-stage gastric cancer who had undergone LAG (LAG group; 38 patients) or conventional open gastrectomy (OG group; 39 patients). Intraoperative SN mapping guided by ICG fluorescence imaging was conducted with a charge-coupled device camera with a light-emitting diode as the light source and a cut filter as the detector. The detection rate and mean number of fluorescent nodes (FNs) were 94.7% and 7.9, respectively, in the LAG group, and 94.9% and 7.2, respectively, in the OG group. The accuracy and false-negative rates were 97.2% (35 of 36 cases) and 25% (1 of 4), respectively, in the LAG group, and 91.9% (34 of 37) and 23.1% (3 of 13), respectively, in the OG group. Among 33 LAG group patients and 27 OG group patients without FN metastasis, lymph node metastasis was found only in non-SNs located in the same lymphatic basin as the detected FNs. SN mapping guidance by ICG fluorescence imaging could be useful for predicting the lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer, even during LAG. Our data suggest that dissection of the lymphatic basin containing FNs with laparoscopic surgery may be a promising approach as a new type of minimally invasive surgery for patients with cT1- or cT2-stage gastric cancer having no metastasis in FNs.

  2. Functional Testing of Wireless Sensor Node Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif M.; Madsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    test approach can enable their conformance to design and deployment specifications. We discuss off-line, hierarchical, functional testing of complete wireless sensor nodes containing configurable logic through a combination of FPGA-based board test and Software-Based Self-Test (SBST) techniques....... The proposed functional test methodology has been applied to a COTS-based sensor node development platform and can be applied, in general, for testing all types of wireless sensor node designs....

  3. Intraoperative sentinel lymph node detection by vital dye through laparoscopy or laparotomy in early endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mais, Valerio; Peiretti, Michele; Gargiulo, Tigellio; Parodo, Giuseppina; Cirronis, Maria Giuseppina; Melis, Gian Benedetto

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies reported the feasibility of intraoperative lymphatic mapping in women with endometrial cancer but none of these studies compared the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) detection rates obtainable through laparoscopy or laparotomy. The purpose of this study was to address this issue. Thirty-four patients with clinical stage I-II endometrial cancer were enrolled in this prospective comparative trial. Four milliliters of Patent Blue Violet were injected into the cervix after the induction of general anesthesia. The assessment of SLNs was done in 17 patients through laparoscopy and in 17 patients through laparotomy as first step of systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy. Both SLNs and non-SLNs were evaluated for micrometastases. The SLNs detection rate was significantly higher (82%) for laparoscopy than for laparotomy (41%; P = 0.008). Pelvic lymph node metastases were present in 6 out of 34 patients (18%) but only 3 (50%) of these patients were correctly identified. SLNs detection rate is significantly higher through laparoscopy than through laparotomy after vital dye pericervical injection but intraoperative vital dye pericervical injection is not reliable as part of standard care for predicting lymphatic spread in women with early stage endometrial cancer. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Sentinel-Lymph-Node-Based Management or Routine Axillary Clearance? Five-Year Outcomes of the RACS Sentinel Node Biopsy Versus Axillary Clearance (SNAC) 1 Trial: Assessment and Incidence of True Lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzig, Neil; Gill, Peter Grantley; Espinoza, David; Mister, Rebecca; Stockler, Martin R; Gebski, Val J; Ung, Owen A; Campbell, Ian; Simes, John

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether the benefits of sentinel-node-based management (SNBM) over routine axillary clearance (RAC) persisted to 5 years. A total of 1088 women with breast cancer less than 3 cm in diameter and clinically negative axillary nodes were randomized to SNBM with axillary clearance if the sentinel node was positive or RAC preceded by sentinel-node biopsy. The outcomes were: (1) objectively measured change in the volume of the operated and contralateral nonoperated arms; (2) the proportion with an increase in arm volume 15% from baseline (RAC 5.0% vs. SNBM 1.7%). Significant predictors were surgery type (RAC vs. SNBM), obesity, diabetes, palpable tumor, and weight gain exceeding 10% of baseline value. Subjective assessments revealed persisting patient concerns about swelling and symptoms but not overall disability at 5 years. Subjective scores were only moderately correlated with volume increase. SNAC1 has demonstrated that objective morbidity and subjective morbidity persist for 5 years after surgery and that SNBM significantly lowers the risk of both.

  5. Management of non-visualization following dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahdev, Varun; Albersen, Maarten; Christodoulidou, Michelle; Parnham, Arie; Malone, Peter; Nigam, Raj; Bomanji, Jamshed; Muneer, Asif

    2017-04-01

    To review the management and clinical outcomes of uni- or bilateral non-visualization of inguinal lymph nodes during dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy (DSNB) in patients diagnosed with penile cancer and clinically impalpable inguinal lymph nodes (cN0), and to develop an algorithm for the management of patients in which non-visualization occurs. This is a retrospective observational study over a period of 4 years, comprising 166 patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma undergoing DSNB and followed up for a minimum of 6 months. All cases diagnosed with uni- or bilateral non-visualization of sentinel nodes in this cohort were identified from a penile cancer database. The management of the inguinal lymph nodes after non-visualization and the oncological outcomes including local and regional recurrence rates were documented. Out of 166 consecutive patients undergoing DSNB, 20 patients (12%) had unilateral non-visualization after injection of intradermal (99m) Tc. Of these 20 patients, seven underwent repeat DSNB at a later date, with six having successful visualization. One patient had persistent non-visualization and proceeded to a superficial modified inguinal lymphadenectomy (SML). None of these patients experienced recurrence at follow-up. A further seven patients underwent modified SML with on-table frozen-section analysis of the lymph node packet; none of these patients were found to have micrometastatic disease in the inguinal lymph nodes, although one patient developed metastatic inguinal node disease at a later date. Six patients elected to undergo clinical surveillance and have remained disease-free. Patients with impalpable inguinal lymph nodes undergoing DSNB with ≥G2 T1 disease should ideally have bilateral visualization of the sentinel lymph nodes, reflecting the drainage pattern from the primary tumour. In the present series, 12% of patients were found to have unilateral non-visualization after DSNB. Among patients offered a repeat DSNB at a later

  6. Laparoscopic Sentinel Node Mapping in Endometrial Cancer After Hysteroscopic Injection of Indocyanine Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Fabio; Ditto, Antonino; Bogani, Giorgio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    To report the detection rate (DR) of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in endometrial cancer (EC) patients after hysteroscopic injection of indocyanine green (ICG) and laparoscopic near-infrared (L-NIR) fluorescence mapping. Prospectively collected data (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Gynecologic oncology referral center. Consecutive patients with apparent early-stage endometrioid EC scheduled for surgical treatment: total laparoscopic hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, SLN mapping. The mapping technique consisted in an intraoperative hysteroscopic peritumoral injection of 5 mg ICG followed by L-NIR fluorescence mapping. Evaluations of the SLN DR and sites of mapping were performed. A total of 57 procedures was performed. Patient mean age was 60 years (range, 28-80) and mean body mass index was 28.2 kg/m 2 (range, 19-43). At least 1 SLN was detected in 89.5% of the whole population (51/57). After the first 16 cases, L-NIR camera technical improvement led to a 95% DR (39/41). The mean number of harvested SLNs was 4.1 (range. 1-8), and in 47% of cases SLNs mapped to aortic nodes (24/51). Bilateral pelvic mapping was found in 74.5% of cases (38/51). Three patients had SLN metastases: 1 in the pelvic area only, 1 both in the pelvic and aortic area, and 1 presented with 2 metastatic aortic SLNs with negative pelvic SLNs. Overall, 2 of 3 node-positive patients (67%) had aortic SLN involvement. No adverse events were reported. Laparoscopic SLN mapping after the hysteroscopic injection of ICG has comparable DRs with both radioactive tracer series and ICG series with cervical injection, overcoming the need for radioactive substances. Hysteroscopic injection leads to a higher mapping in the aortic area compared with cervical injection. Further investigation is warranted on this topic. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Axillary staging for breast cancer during pregnancy: feasibility and safety of sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S N; Amant, F; Cardonick, E H; Loibl, S; Peccatori, F A; Gheysens, O; Sangalli, C A; Nekljudova, V; Steffensen, K Dahl; Mhallem Gziri, M; Schröder, C P; Lok, C A R; Verest, A; Neven, P; Smeets, A; Pruneri, G; Cremonesi, M; Gentilini, O

    2017-12-12

    Safety of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer during pregnancy is insufficiently explored. We investigated efficacy and local recurrence rate in a large series of pregnant patients. Women diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent SLN biopsy during pregnancy were identified from the International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy, the German Breast Group, and the Cancer and Pregnancy Registry. Chart review was performed to record technique and outcome of SLN biopsy, locoregional and distant recurrence, and survival. We identified 145 women with clinically N0 disease who underwent SLN during pregnancy. The SLN detection techniques were as follows: 99m Tc-labeled albumin nanocolloid only (n = 96; 66.2%), blue dye only (n = 14; 9.7%), combined technique (n = 15; 10.3%), or unknown (n = 20; 13.8%). Mapping was unsuccessful in one patient (0.7%) and she underwent an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Mean number of SLNs was 3.2 (interquartile range 1-3; missing n = 15). Positive SLNs were found in 43 (29.7%) patients and 34 subsequently underwent ALND. After a median follow-up of 48 months (range 1-177), 123 (84.8%) patients were alive and free of disease. Eleven patients experienced a locoregional relapse, including 1 isolated ipsilateral axillary recurrence (0.7%). Eleven (7.6%) patients developed distant metastases, of whom 9 (6.2%) died of breast cancer. No neonatal adverse events related to SLN procedure during pregnancy were reported. SLN biopsy during pregnancy has a comparably low axillary recurrence rate as in nonpregnant women. Therefore, this method can be considered during pregnancy instead of standard ALND for early-stage, clinically node-negative breast cancer.

  8. A novel finding of sentinel lymphatic channels in early stage breast cancer patients: which may influence detection rate and false-negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghai Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The exact lymphatic drainage pattern of the breast hasn't been explained clearly. The aim of this study was to investigate the sentinel lymphatic channels (SLCs in the cancerous breast. Whether the type of SLCs influenced the detection rate and false-negative rate of SLNB was also assessed. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mimic SLNB was performed in 110 early-stage breast cancer patients with subareolar injection of blue methylene dye intraoperatively. Postoperatively, 110 specimens of modified radical mastectomy were examined for all blue SLCs after additional injection of methylene dye in peritumoral parenchyma. Interestingly, three types of SLCs, including superficial sentinel lymphatic channel (SSLC, deep sentinel lymphatic channel (DSLC, and penetrating sentinel lymphatic channel (PSLC were found in 107 patients. Six lymphatic drainage patterns based on the three types of SLCs were observed in these 107 patients. The proportions of the drainage pattern SSLC, DSLC, PSLC, SSLC+DSLC, SSLC+PSLC, and DSLC+PSLC in the breast were 43%, 0.9%, 15.9%, 33.6%, 3.7% and 2.8%, respectively. The lymphatic drainage pattern in the breast was a significant risk factor for unsuccessful identification of sentinel lymph nodes (P<0.001 and false-negatives in SLNB (P = 0.034 with the subareolar injection technique. CONCLUSIONS: Three kinds of SLCs are the basis of six lymphatic drainage patterns from the breast to the axilla. The type of SLCs is the factor influencing the detection rate and false-negative rate of SLNB. These findings suggest the optimal injection technique of the combination of superficial and deep injection in SLNB procedures. Future clinical studies are needed to confirm our novel findings.

  9. Sentinel Lymph Node Characterization with a Dual-Targeted Molecular Ultrasound Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kibo; Stanczak, Maria; Forsberg, Flemming; Liu, Ji-Bin; Eisenbrey, John R; Solomides, Charalambos C; Lyshchik, Andrej

    2017-07-31

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of molecular ultrasound with dual-targeted microbubbles to detect metastatic disease in the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in swine model of naturally occurring melanoma. The SLN is the first lymph node in the lymphatic chain draining primary tumor, and early detection of metastatic SLN involvement is critical in the appropriate management of melanoma. Nine Sinclair swine (weight 3-7 kg; Sinclair BioResources, Columbia, MO, USA) with naturally occurring melanoma were examined. Siemens S3000 scanner with a 9L4 probe was used for imaging (Siemens Healthineers, Mountain View, CA). Dual-targeted contrast agent was created using Targestar SA microbubbles (Targeson, San Diego, CA, USA) labeled with ανβ3-integrin and P-selectin antibodies. Targestar SA microbubbles labeled with IgG-labeled were used as control. First, peritumoral injection of Sonazoid contrast agent (GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway) was performed to detect SLNs. After that, dual-targeted and IGG control Targestar SA microbubbles were injected intravenously with a 30-min interval between injections. Labeled Targestar SA microbubbles were allowed to circulate for 4 min to enable binding. After that, two sets of image clips were acquired several seconds before and after a high-power destruction sequence. The mean intensity difference pre- to post-bubble destruction within the region of interest placed over SLN was calculated as a relative measure of targeted microbubble contrast agent retention. This process was repeated for non-SLNs as controls. All lymph nodes evaluated on imaging were surgically removed and histologically examined for presence of metastatic involvement. A total of 43 lymph nodes (25 SLNs and 18 non-SLNs) were included in the analysis with 18 SLNs demonstrating metastatic involvement greater than 5 % on histology. All non-SLNs were benign. The mean intensity (± SD) of the dual-targeted microbubbles for metastatic SLNs was

  10. Validation and application of the sentinel lymph node concept in malignant vulvar tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Puig-Tintoré, Lluís María; Lejárcegui, José Antonio; Paredes, Pilar; Ortega, María Luisa; Muñoz, Antonio; Ordi, Jaume; Fusté, Pere; Ortín, Jaime; Duch, Joan; Martín, Francisco; Pons, Francesca

    2007-03-01

    Inguinal lymphadenectomy, unilateral or bilateral, is widely used in cases of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma but has a high morbidity. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy may be used in the management of these patients. The aims of this study were firstly to determine the reliability of SLN biopsy in predicting regional lymph node status and secondly to apply this technique in the routine clinical setting. We prospectively studied 70 women with vulvar malignancies. The first 50 cases were of squamous vulvar cancer and were used to validate the SLN technique in this clinical setting (validation group). Once a satisfactory success rate had been achieved in the validation group, the SLN technique was applied to a further 20 patients with vulvar malignancies, i.e. squamous cell carcinoma (n=12) and melanomas (n=8) (application group). Dynamic and static images were acquired after the injection of 74-148 MBq of a colloidal albumin, and continued until SLN identification. Fifteen minutes before surgery, blue dye injection was administered in a similar manner to the radiocolloid. After incision, a hand-held gamma probe was used to find the SLN. In the validation group, dissection of the SLN was always followed by lymphadenectomy. In the application group, this procedure was only performed if the SLN was positive for metastases. For pathological staging, samples were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry. In the validation group, lymphoscintigraphy allowed SLN detection in 49/50 patients (98%). Blue dye detected the SLN in 40/50 patients (80%). In 16 patients (33%), the SLN showed metastases in the pathology study. All 33 patients with negative SLN had regional lymph nodes negative for metastases (negative predictive value 100%). In the application group, lymphoscintigraphy showed drainage to an SLN in 19 out of 20 patients (95%) and blue dye demonstrated a stained SLN in 17/20 patients (85%). Seven of the 19 SLN-identified nodes (37

  11. Lymphoscintigraphy detecting alterations of upper limb lymphatic flow following early sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarri AJ

    2017-04-01

    surgery was performed.Results: The mean age was 54.53±9.03 years (36–73 years, the mean BMI was 27.16±4.16 kg/m2 (19.3–34.42, and the mean number of lymph nodes removed from each patient was 1.6±0.74 (1–3. There was significant difference in the time between surgery and the realization of LS (p=0.002; Mann–Whitney U test, but in an inverse relationship, the higher was the range, the smaller was the lymphatic flow, indicating a gradual reduction of lymphatic flow after surgery (Spearman’s p=0.498, with p=0.013.Conclusion: Upper limb lymphatic flow gradually decreased after the SLNB and conservative breast surgery in this study, but these results are exploratory because of the small sample size. Further studies are needed to confirm and to investigate more in depth these findings. Keywords: lymph node sentinel biopsy, lymphoscintigraphy, nuclear medicine, lymphedema, breast cancer

  12. Frozen section is superior to imprint cytology for the intra-operative assessment of sentinel lymph node metastasis in Stage I Breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makita Masujiro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A standard intra-operative procedure for assessing sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients has not yet been established. Patients and methods One hundred and thirty-eight patients with stage I breast cancer who underwent sentinel node biopsy using both imprint cytology and frozen section were analyzed. Results Seventeen of the 138 patients had sentinel node involvement. Results of imprint cytology included nine false negative cases (sensitivity, 47.1%. In contrast, only two cases of false negatives were found on frozen section (sensitivity, 88.2%. There were two false positive cases identified by imprint cytology (specificity, 98.3%. On the other hand, frozen section had 100% specificity. Conclusion These findings suggest that frozen section is superior to imprint cytology for the intra-operative determination of sentinel lymph node metastasis in stage I breast cancer patients.

  13. Is there a requirement for axillary lymph node dissection following identification of micro-metastasis or isolated tumour cells at sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Joyce, D P

    2012-02-29

    INTRODUCTION: Recent decades have seen a significant shift towards conservative management of the axilla. Increasingly, immunohistochemical analysis of sentinel nodes leads to the detection of small tumour deposits, the significance of which remains uncertain. The aims of this study are to examine patients whose sentinel lymph nodes are positive for macro-metastasis, micro-metastasis or isolated tumour cells (ITCs) and to determine the rate of further nodal disease after axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) between January 2007 and December 2010 in a tertiary referral breast unit was performed. Patients who underwent an axillary lymph node dissection for macro-metastasis, micro-metastasis or ITCs were identified. Demographics, histological data and the rate of further axillary disease were examined. RESULTS: In total, 664 breast cancer patients attended the symptomatic breast unit during the study period, 360 of whom underwent a SLNB. Seventy patients had a SLNB positive for macro-metastasis. All of these patients underwent ALND. A positive SLNB with either micro-metastasis or ITCs was identified in 58 patients. Only 41 of the 58 patients went on to have an ALND, due primarily to variations in surgeons\\' preferences. Nineteen patients with micro-metastasis underwent an ALND. Four patients had further axillary disease (21%). Twenty-two patients had ITCs identified, of whom only one had further disease (4.5%). No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of tumour size, grade, lymphovascular invasion or oestrogen receptor status. CONCLUSION: ALND should be considered in patients with micro-metastasis at SLNB. It should rarely be employed in the setting of SLNB positive for ITCs.

  14. The sentinel node in cutaneous melanoma: spanish experience; Ganglion sentinelle chez les porteurs de melanome malin. Technique et experience espagnole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal Sicart, S. [Hospital Clinic, Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-10-01

    The sentinel lymph node biopsy performed with previous lymphatic drainage scintigraphic study and a gamma detection probe is a technique that has been gained a remarkable growth worldwide during last years. Its inclusion in clinical guidelines of malignant melanoma in order to avoid unnecessary lymphaden-ectomies is a fact. In this issue a brief description of indications, technical aspects and cumulative experience in Spanish Nuclear Medicine departments is discussed. (author)

  15. Quality of Life Following Sentinel Node Biopsy for Primary Cutaneous Melanoma: Health Economic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Rachael L; Tran, Anh; Vessey, Johan Yusof; Rowbotham, Nick; Winstanley, Julie; Shannon, Kerwin; Spillane, Andrew J; Stretch, Jonathan; Thompson, John F; Saw, Robyn P-M

    2017-08-01

    Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is commonly performed in contemporary melanoma management, however there is a paucity of long-term quality of life (QoL) estimates required for economic evaluation of this treatment. A single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study of adults with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I/II/IIIA melanoma of the limbs, trunk, or neck who had undergone wide excision and SNB, but not complete regional node dissection, was undertaken. Limb volume was measured using perometry, with lymphedema defined as a ≥10% volume increase in the ipsilateral limb compared with the contralateral limb. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) questionnaire measured QoL. Associations between patient and treatment characteristics were assessed using linear regression. Among 694 patients (median time from SNB of 37 months), 14 (2%) had objectively measured lymphedema (i.e. an increase in limb volume of ≥10%). Of 687 stage I/II patients with complete QoL data, the mean weighted QoL was 0.745 (standard deviation 0.04) on a 0-1 scale (i.e. death to full health). In multivariable analysis, weighted QoL was 0.0004 higher for each year of increasing age (p = 0.001); 0.011 lower for females (p = 0.001), 0.018 lower following post-SNB limb trauma (p = 0.002); 0.252 lower for patients who perceived a large increase in limb size (p = 0.015); and 0.027 lower with self-reported difficulty in walking, running, or climbing stairs (p = 0.043). Our data suggest that very few patients treated at our institution had lymphedema in the long-term following SNB, with weighted QoL strongly associated with perceived rather than actual changes in limb size.

  16. Relationship between intraprostatic tracer deposits and sentinel lymph node mapping in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Tessa; Brouwer, Oscar R; Valdés Olmos, Renato A; van der Poel, Henk G; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2012-07-01

    Intraprostatic injection of the hybrid tracer indocyanine green (ICG)-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid enables both preoperative sentinel node (SN) identification and intraoperative visualization of the SN. Relating the fluorescence deposits in embedded prostate tissue specimens to the preoperatively detected SNs also provides the opportunity to study the influence of their placement on lymphatic drainage pattern. Nineteen patients with prostate carcinoma scheduled for robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and lymph node (LN) dissection were included. ICG-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid was injected intraprostatically, guided by ultrasound. SN biopsy was performed using a combination of radioguidance and fluorescence guidance. Tracer distribution was visualized in paraffin-embedded prostate samples using ex vivo fluorescence imaging. This distribution was correlated to the number and location of the SNs identified on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT. ICG-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid helped guide surgical excision of the SNs. Ex vivo fluorescence imaging revealed a large variation in the locations of intraprostatic tracer deposits among patients. Tracer deposits in the peripheral zone correlated with a higher number of visualized LNs than deposits in the central zone (on average, 4.7 vs. 2.4 LNs per patient). Furthermore, tracer deposits in the mid gland correlated with a higher number of visualized LNs than deposits near the base or apex of the prostate (on average, 6 vs. 3.5 LNs per patient). The hybrid nature of the tracer not only enables surgical guidance but also provides an opportunity to study the correlation between the location of tracer deposits within the prostate and the number and location of preoperatively visualized SNs. These data suggest that the location at which a tracer deposit is placed influences the lymphatic drainage pattern.

  17. Sentinel node mapping guided by indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Kimiyasu; Masuda, Yuki; Kato, Masanori; Yasuda, Daisuke; Aoki, Takeshi; Kato, Takashi; Murakami, Masahiko; Miwa, Mitsuharu; Kusano, Mitsuo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we determined the possible usefulness of sentinel node (SN) mapping guided by indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging in the management of gastric cancer. ICG fluorescence imaging system has recently been developed for obtaining biochemical information from living tissues. Our series consisted of 56 patients with gastric cancer who underwent standard gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy. Two milliliters of ICG solution (0.5%) was injected into the submucosa around the tumor endoscopically before the operation or into the subserosa intraoperatively. ICG fluorescence imaging was conducted using a charge-coupled device camera with a light-emitting diode having a wavelength of 760 nm as the light source and a cut filter to filter out light with wavelengths below 820 nm as the detector. SNs were detected in 54 (96.4%) of the 56 patients, and the mean number of SNs was 7.2 +/- 7.0. Even SNs that were not green in color could be easily and clearly visualized by ICG fluorescence imaging. cT1-stage cancers were associated with a significantly higher accuracy rate (97.2% vs. 72.2%, P = 0.0127) than cT2-or cT3-stage cancers. Preoperative ICG injection was associated with a significantly higher incidence of cT1-stage cancers (87.1% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.0004), a larger mean number of SNs (9.9 +/- 7.5 vs. 4.1 +/- 5.0, P cancer. Our data suggest that SN mapping guided by ICG fluorescence imaging might be useful for predicting the metastatic status in lymph nodes in cases of gastric cancer, especially those with cT1-stage cancer.

  18. The use of indocyanine green in sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-qiang KOU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the prospect of clinical application of indocyanine green (ICG in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB in patients with breast cancer. Methods Seventy-two female breast cancer patients were selected from those receiving surgery during July 2014 and December 2014, with an age range of 33-67 years and a median age of 50 years, and they were randomly divided into experimental group (n=35 and control group (n=37, ICG and methylene blue as tracers were used respectively for SLNB. The surgical specimens were submitted to frozen section for pathological examination. The patients with metastasis to SLN received axillary lymph node dissection. Results The successful detection rate of metastasis to SLN by ICG method was 94.3%, with a total of 111 SLNs, with an average of 3.17 SLNs for each patient, and the accuracy rate was 94.3%, the sensitivity and false negative rate were 100% and 0%, respectively. On the other hand, the detection rate with methylene blue method was 92.0%, including 78 SLNs, with an average of 2.1 SLNs for each patient, and the accuracy rate was 89.2%, the sensitivity and false negative rates were 92.9% and 7.7%, respectively. The differences between two methods in the average SLNs and false-negative rate were statistically significant (P0.05. Conclusion ICG method for SLNB in breast cancer shows a higher success rate and lower false negative rate, indicating that its clinical efficacy is superior to that of methylene blue, therefore it may be hopeful to be used alone in SLNB for breast cancer. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.05.12

  19. Laparoscopic Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Prostate Cancer: The Relevance of Locations Outside the Extended Dissection Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Meinhardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the relevance of sentinel lymph nodes (SNs outside the extended pelvic lymph node dissection area (e-PLND. Patients and Methods. Evaluation of our laparoscopic SN procedures for prostate cancer patients of intermediate prognosis. Retrospective data collection on the exact location of the excised SNs and the pathology results were analyzed. Results and Limitations. Of the 121 patients, 49 had positive lymph nodes. 37 patients (31% had SNs outside the e-PLND template. Five of these nodes were tumor bearing but only twice exclusively so. Of the 14 patients considered for salvage treatment, 6 were node positive. 7 of these 14 patients (50% had SNs outside the extended dissection area, yet none of these nodes were tumor positive. Limitations are those of a retrospective study. Conclusions. Laparoscopic SN biopsy may show SNs outside the e-PLND template in 31% of the patients. However, nodes that are exclusively positive in one of these areas are rare. For the dichotomy positive or negative nodes, the locations outside the e-PLND area are not often relevant. Nevertheless, when all positive nodes are to be treated by resection or radiotherapy, these locations are relevant. When considering salvage treatment for prostate cancer, the method is feasible.

  20. Organic Alternatives to Quantum Dots for Intraoperative Near-Infrared Fluorescent Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Ohnishi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative near-infrared (NIR fluorescence imaging provides the surgeon with real-time image guidance during cancer and other surgeries. We have previously reported the use of NIR fluorescent quantum dots (QDs for sentinel lymph node (SLN mapping. However, because of concerns over potential toxicity, organic alternatives to QDs will be required for initial clinical studies. We describe a family of 800 nm organic heptamethine indocyanine-based contrast agents for SLN mapping spanning a spectrum from 775 Da small molecules to 7 MDa nanocolloids. We provide a detailed characterization of the optical and physical properties of these contrast agents and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. We present robust methods for the covalent conjugation, purification, and characterization of proteins with tetra-sulfonated heptamethine indocyanines, including mass spectroscopic site mapping of highly substituted molecules. One contrast agent, NIR fluorescent human serum albumin (HSA800, emerged as the molecule with the best overall performance with respect to entry to lymphatics, flow to the SLN, retention in the SLN, fluorescence yield and reproducibility. This preclinical study, performed on large animals approaching the size of humans, should serve as a foundation for future clinical studies.

  1. Three-dimensional sensitivity mapping of a handheld magnetic probe for sentinel lymph node biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahata, Akihiro; Chikaki, Shinichi; Ergin, Aslı; Kaneko, Miki; Kusakabe, Moriaki; Sekino, Masaki

    2017-05-01

    An experimental apparatus for three-dimensional sensitivity mapping of a handheld magnetic probe with a permanent magnet and a Hall sensor was developed. To optimize the shapes and sizes of the magnets, the sensitivity mappings of two types of magnets, column- and cone-type magnets, were evaluated by the experimental apparatus. The longitudinal sensitivities of column and cone types are 8 and 9 mm, respectively, for 5 μL of magnetic nanoparticles. The measured longitudinal sensitivities agree well with the sensitivities calculated by the finite element method. Furthermore, the maximum lateral resolutions of column and cone types are 4.1 and 3.7 mm, respectively. In terms of the directionality, the sensitivities of column and cone types of the angle of 90° with respect to the probe axis fall approximately to 72% and 50% at 6 mm distance from the probe head, indicating that the cone type has high directionality due to its sharp shape. The measurement of sensitivity mapping revealed that the characteristics of the cone-type magnet are superior to that of the column-type magnet for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes.

  2. A magnetic probe equipped with small-tip permanent magnet for sentinel lymph node biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Miki; Ohashi, Kaichi; Chikaki, Shinichi; Kuwahata, Akihiro; Shiozawa, Mikio; Kusakabe, Moriaki; Sekino, Masaki

    2017-05-01

    We previously developed a magnetic probe equipped with a ring-shaped permanent magnet for detecting magnetic nanoparticle tracer accumulating in the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). The magnetic probe enables us to identify SLNs objectively, without the risk of radiation exposure, unlike the conventional technique using dye and radioisotope. A technical challenge of the probe is to reduce the tip diameter of magnet to identify smaller SLNs. In this study, we optimized the size of smaller-tip magnet based on numerical analyses using the finite element method and evaluated the expected sensitivity. According to the analysis results, the optimum tip diameter and length of convex-shaped magnet were 16 mm and 12 mm, respectively. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity of the probe with smaller-tip magnet was comparable to the previous one. We successfully developed a smaller tip magnet, maintaining the sensitivity to magnetic nanoparticles. The proposed probe will be capable of identifying the location of SLNs more easily.

  3. Photoacoustic Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging with Self-Assembled Copper Neodecanoate Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dipanjan; Cai, Xin; Yalaz, Ceren; Senpan, Angana; Omanakuttan, Karthik; Wickline, Samuel A.; Wang, Lihong V.; Lanza, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is emerging as a novel, hybrid, and non ionizing imaging modality, because of its satisfactory spatial resolution and high soft tissue contrast. PAT combines the advantages of both optical and ultrasonic imaging methods. It opens up the possibilities for non-invasive staging of breast cancer and may replace sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in clinic in the near future. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time that Copper can be used as a contrast metal for near infrared detection of SLN using PAT. A unique strategy is adopted to encapsulate multiple copies of Cu as organically soluble small molecule complexes within a phospholipids-entrapped nanoparticle. The nanoparticles assumed a size of 80–90nm, which is the optimum hydrodynamic diameter for its distribution throughout the lymphatic systems. These particles provided at least six times higher signal sensitivity in comparison to blood, which is a natural absorber of light. We also demonstrated that high SLN detection sensitivity with PAT can be achieved in rodent model. This work clearly demonstrates for the first time, the potential use of copper as an optical contrast agent. PMID:22229462

  4. Clinical significance of sentinel lymph node detection in patients with invasive cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinilkin, I. G.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Zelchan, R. V.; Chernyshova, A. L.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Bragina, O. D.

    2017-09-01

    The clinical significance of determining sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in patients with invasive cervical cancer was studied. From 2013 to 2014, 30 cervical cancer patients (T1a1NxM0-T1b1NxM0) were treated at the Gynecological Oncology Department of the Cancer Research Institute. The day before surgery, four submucosal injections of 99mTc Al2O3 at a total dose of 80 MBq were made in each quadrant around the cervical tumor. Patients were submitted to preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative SLN detection. The feasibility of preserving the reproductive potential in patients after radical abdominal trachelectomy was assessed. The 3-year, overall, disease-free and metastasis-free survival rates were analyzed. Thirty-four SLNs were detected by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 42 SLNs were identified by intraoperative gamma probe. The sensitivity in detecting SLNs was 100% for intraoperative SLN identification and 80% for SPECT image. The reproductive potential was preserved in 86% of patients. The 3-year overall and metastases-free survival rates were 100%. Recurrence occurred in 8.6% of cases.

  5. Intraoperative touch imprint cytology of axillary sentinel nodes for breast cancer: a series of 355 procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorand, Sophie; Lavoué, Vincent; Tas, Patrick; Foucher, Fabrice; Mesbah, Habiba; Rouquette, Sophie; Bendavid, Cécile; Coué, Olivier; Porée, Philippe; Leveque, Jean

    2011-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate intraoperative sentinel node touch imprint cytology (IOSNTI) for breast cancer. Three hundred and fifty-five patients with invasive breast cancer (pT1N0, lobular or ductal subtype) were included in our study. IOSNTI consists of touching glass slides to the surfaces of interest after gently pressing the spatially localized specimen, taken according to predetermined conditions, in order to perform a final histological examination consisting of H&E and immunohistochemical staining. The total sensitivity (Se) of IOSNTI was 36% and 15% of patients with nodal metastasis went undetected during the intraoperative examination. Sensitivity was significantly lower for the oldest patients (aged over 57 years: 25%), small tumors (smaller than 12 mm: 23.3%), lobular subtypes (8.3%), in the absence of vascular emboli (33%) and for detection of micrometastases (10%). This simple, fast and relatively inexpensive method could be combined with intraoperative molecular biology methods in populations in which cytology is less efficient and produces negative results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An operative gamma camera for sentinel lymph node procedure in case of breast cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Salvador, S; Mathelin, C; Guyonne, J; Huss, D

    2007-01-01

    Large field of view gamma cameras are widely used to perform lymphoscintigraphy in the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) procedure in case of breast cancer. However, they are not specified for this application and their sizes do not enable their use in the operative room to control the excision of the all SLN. We present the results obtained with a prototype of a new mini gamma camera developed especially for the operative lymphoscintigraphy of the axillary area in case of breast cancer. This prototype is composed of 10 mm thick parallel lead collimator, a 2 mm thick GSO:Ce inorganic scintillating crystal from Hitachi and a Hamamatsu H8500 flat panel multianode (64 channels) photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) equipped with a dedicated electronics. Its actual field of view is 50 × 50mm2. The gamma interaction position in the GSO scintillating plate is obtained by calculating the center of gravity of the fired MAPMT channels. The measurements performed with this prototype demonstrate the usefulness of this mini gamma camer...

  7. A new intraoperative gamma camera for the sentinel lymph node procedure in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathelin, Carole; Salvador, Samuel; Bekaert, Virgile; Croce, Sabrina; Andriamisandratsoa, Norosoa; Liégeois, Philippe; Prados, Eric; Guyonnet, Jean-Louis; Grucker, Daniel; Brasse, David

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the performance of an intraoperative gamma camera, named CarolIReS, to detect axillary drainage and to assess the removal of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in breast surgery. SLN biopsy was performed on 25 patients and the CarolIReS camera was used preoperatively to localize SLNs. During surgery, individual removal of SLNs was performed using a gamma probe and their activity was measured with a gamma ray counter. At the end of surgery, the CarolIReS camera was used again to check the quality of surgery which was followed by surgical excision for remaining SLNs. The detection efficiency of the CarolIReS camera was 2.2 cps/kBq for 99"Tc activity in SLNs. In one case, it allowed the detection of a residual SLN with a low activity (0.5 kBq) which was massively metastatic. Intraoperative cameras could be used to improve the efficiency of the SLN procedure.

  8. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in multiple breast cancer using subareolar injection of the tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eredita', Giovanni; Giardina, Carmela; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Rubini, Giuseppe; Lattanzio, Vincenzo; Berardi, Tommaso

    2007-06-01

    We performed subdermal injection of (99m)Tc-labelled albumin combined with subareolar (SA) injection of blue dye to axillary lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with multifocal and multicentric breast cancer to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of this technique. A retrospective analysis of our experience on 235 SLNB showed that 30(12.7%) had multiple cancer (MC) on final pathologic examination and was considered in relation to the aim of the study. Mean age was 57.19 years (range 24-90). Mean number of SLNs identified was 1.93 (range 1-5). Mean number of axillary LNs examined was 18.10 (range 12-27). Overall successful identification was 100% with a false negative (FN) rate of 6.25%. Overall accuracy of lymphatic mapping and sensitivity was 96.6% and 93.7%, respectively. SLNB using the SA injection technique may be an alternative to complete axillary dissection in patients with multiple breast cancers and a clinically negative axilla.

  9. Intraoperative 3-D imaging improves sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemel, Christina; Herrmann, Ken; Buck, Andreas K.; Lapa, Constantin [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kuebler, Alexander; Hartmann, Stefan; Linz, Christian; Mueller-Richter, Urs [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery, Wuerzburg (Germany); Geissinger, Eva; Wild, Vanessa [University Wuerzburg, Institute of Pathology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and potential advantages of freehand single-photon emission computed tomography (fhSPECT) compared with conventional intraoperative localization techniques for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in oral cancer. Between November 2012 and February 2014, 23 consecutive patients with clinical T1/T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma and a cN0 neck were recruited. All patients underwent SLNB followed by elective neck dissection (END). All patients received preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. To detect the SLNs intraoperatively, fhSPECT with a combination of conventional acoustic SLN localization and 3-D visual navigation was used. All but one of the SLNs detected by preoperative imaging were successfully mapped intraoperatively by fhSPECT (detection rate 98 %), including those in six patients with a tumour in the floor of the mouth. A histopathology analysis revealed positive SLNs in 22 % of patients. No further metastases were found in LNs resected during END. SLNB correctly predicted the final LN stage in all patients (accuracy 100 %). Additional radioactive LNs, which were not present on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, were observed in three patients. FhSPECT is a feasible technology that allows the accurate identification of SLNs in oral cancer. FhSPECT overcomes the shine-through phenomenon, one of the most important limitations of SLNB, thereby confirming the importance of SLNB in patients with cN0 oral cancer. (orig.)

  10. Predictors of sentinel lymph node status in cutaneous melanoma: a classification and regression tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera-Vaquerizo, A; Martín-Cuevas, P; Gallego, E; Herrera-Acosta, E; Traves, V; Herrera-Ceballos, E; Nagore, E

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify predictors of sentinel lymph node (SN) metastasis in cutaneous melanoma. This was a retrospective cohort study of 818 patients in 2 tertiary-level hospitals. The primary outcome variable was SN involvement. Independent predictors were identified using multiple logistic regression and a classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. Ulceration, tumor thickness, and a high mitotic rate (≥6 mitoses/mm(2)) were independently associated with SN metastasis in the multiple regression analysis. The most important predictor in the CART analysis was Breslow thickness. Absence of an inflammatory infiltrate, patient age, and tumor location were predictive of SN metastasis in patients with tumors thicker than 2mm. In the case of thinner melanomas, the predictors were mitotic rate (>6 mitoses/mm(2)), presence of ulceration, and tumor thickness. Patient age, mitotic rate, and tumor thickness and location were predictive of survival. A high mitotic rate predicts a higher risk of SN involvement and worse survival. CART analysis improves the prediction of regional metastasis, resulting in better clinical management of melanoma patients. It may also help select suitable candidates for inclusion in clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  11. A magnetic probe equipped with small-tip permanent magnet for sentinel lymph node biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Kaneko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed a magnetic probe equipped with a ring-shaped permanent magnet for detecting magnetic nanoparticle tracer accumulating in the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs. The magnetic probe enables us to identify SLNs objectively, without the risk of radiation exposure, unlike the conventional technique using dye and radioisotope. A technical challenge of the probe is to reduce the tip diameter of magnet to identify smaller SLNs. In this study, we optimized the size of smaller-tip magnet based on numerical analyses using the finite element method and evaluated the expected sensitivity. According to the analysis results, the optimum tip diameter and length of convex-shaped magnet were 16 mm and 12 mm, respectively. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity of the probe with smaller-tip magnet was comparable to the previous one. We successfully developed a smaller tip magnet, maintaining the sensitivity to magnetic nanoparticles. The proposed probe will be capable of identifying the location of SLNs more easily.

  12. Factors of importance for scintigraphic non-visualisation of sentinel nodes in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakera, A H; Friis, E; Hesse, U; Al-Suliman, N; Zerahn, B; Hesse, B

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse different factors of possible significance for non-visualisation of sentinel nodes (SNs) by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, in order to enable improvement of the success rate of SN visualisation through modification or alteration of some of the factors. Between March 1998 and January 2003 we analysed a series of 442 women with unilateral stage T1 and clinical N0 breast cancer. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed after periareolar or peritumoural injection of 99mTc-albumin nanocolloid, with image acquisition after 2-6 h or 18-24 h. Until January 2001, all patients received around 20 MBq tracer, irrespective of time to operation. From January 2001, patients injected on the day before surgery received at least 100 MBq while patients injected on the day of surgery received around 50 MBq. An SN was visualised in 87% of the patients, and at surgery the SN was detected with the hand-held gamma probe in 42% of the remaining patients. By multiple logistic regression analysis, statistically significant independent variables that increased the risk for non-visualisation were increasing age (p=0.0007), increasing body weight (p=0.0189) and peritumoural injection (psuccess rate may be improved by periareolar (rather than peritumoural) injection. Early and late imaging procedures are equally efficient, but if a late imaging procedure is used, activity (adjusted for physical decay) in the patient on day 2 should be more than 10 MBq.

  13. The role of FDG-PET/CT in preoperative staging of sentinel lymph node biopsy-positive melanoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frary, Charles; Gad, Dorte; Bastholt, Lars

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On April 1, 2015, Odense University Hospital (OUH) began a new diagnostic strategy, wherein all malignant melanoma (MM) patients in the Region of Southern Denmark with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) underwent FDG-PET/CT preoperatively prior to lymph node dissection (LND...... cohort study which included all patients with MM from all hospitals in the Region of Southern Denmark from April 1, 2015 to April 1, 2016 found to be SLNB-positive who subsequently underwent FDG-PET/CT. Patient information was acquired from the Danish Melanoma Database and was cross-referenced with OUH...

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the management of early breast cancer: Safety considerations and timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Edge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, breast cancer treatment has become more personalised. Treatment plans are based on the biology of the tumour rather than the stage. Consequently, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT is commonly the primary therapy for early breast cancer as well as locally advanced disease. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB is standard axillary management for women with node-negative disease. This review looks at the relevant literature and gives guidance on the timing of SLNB when NACT is planned and evaluates the safety of performing an SLNB rather than an axillary clearance.

  15. The added value of a portable gamma camera for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, M; Paredes, P; Sieira, R; Vidal-Sicart, S; Marti, C; Pons, F

    2014-01-01

    The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is still subject to debate although some studies have reported its feasibility. The main reason for this debate is probably due to the high false-negative rate for floor-of-mouth tumors per se. We report the case of a 54-year-old man with a T1N0 floor-of-mouth squamous cell carcinoma who underwent the sentinel lymph node procedure. Lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT imaging were performed for lymphatic mapping with a conventional gamma camera. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified at right Ib, left IIa and Ia levels. However, these sentinel lymph nodes were difficult to detect intraoperatively with a gamma probe owing to the activity originating from the injection site. The use of a portable gamma camera made it possible to localize and excise all the sentinel lymph nodes. This case demonstrates the usefulness of this tool to improve sentinel lymph node detecting in floor-of-mouth tumors, especially those close to the injection area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. Local recurrence and assessment of sentinel lymph node biopsy in deep soft tissue leiomyosarcoma of the extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyman Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leiomyosarcoma of deep soft tissues of the extremities is a rare malignant tumour treated primarily by surgery. The incidence of local recurrence and lymph node metastasis is uncertain and it is not known whether a sentinel lymph node biopsy is indicated in these tumours. Methods A retrospective review of patients treated for extremity deep soft tissue leiomyosarcoma at our institution over a 10-year period was conducted. Patients developing local recurrence or lymph node metastasis were identified. The presence or absence of lymphatics in the primary tumours was assessed by immunohistochemical expression of LYVE-1 and podoplanin. Results 27 patients (mean age 62 years were included in the study. 15 were female and 12 male. Lymph node metastasis was seen in only two cases (7%; intratumoural lymphatics were identified in the primary tumours of both these cases. Local recurrence occurred in 25.9% of cases despite complete excision and post-operative radiotherapy; the mean time to recurrence was 10.1 months. Conclusion On the basis of this study, we do not advocate sentinel lymph node biopsy in this group of patients except in those cases in which intratumoural lymphatics can be demonstrated. Close follow up is important especially for high grade leiomyosarcomas, particularly in the first year, as these tumours have a high incidence of local recurrence.

  17. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer--experience with the combined use of dye and radioactive tracer at Aarhus University Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Cathrine; Garne, Jens Peter; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2004-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-four patients with palpable tumours underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and subsequent axillary lymph node dissection. Ultrasound of the axilla was used as part of the diagnostic work-up on all patients and those with lymph node metastasis verified by fine-needle as......One hundred and twenty-four patients with palpable tumours underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and subsequent axillary lymph node dissection. Ultrasound of the axilla was used as part of the diagnostic work-up on all patients and those with lymph node metastasis verified by fine...... found to have metastatic involvement of the axillary lymph nodes. In 52 (79%) of these patients, the SLNs were the only nodes involved, 28 (54%) had micrometastasis only. The false-negative rate was 1.5%. This method has proven valid in the staging of the axilla in patients with breast cancer...

  18. Contribution of SPECT/CT for sentinel node localization in patients with ipsilateral breast cancer relapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrelli, Pablo [Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hospital La Fe, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Clinical Area, Valencia (Spain); Donswijk, Maarten L.; Stokkel, Marcel P.; Teixeira, Suzana C. [Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tinteren, Harm van [Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Biometrics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rutgers, Emiel J.T. [Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Surgery, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Valdes Olmos, Renato A. [Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Centre, Nuclear Medicine Section and Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2017-04-15

    In recent years repeat sentinel node (SN) biopsy has been proven to be feasible in local breast cancer recurrence (LBCR). However, in these patients SNs outside the ipsilateral axilla are frequently observed. This study evaluates the contribution of SPECT/CT for SN localization and surgical adjustment in LBCR patients. SN biopsy was performed in 122 LBCR patients (median age 60.5 years, range 24-87), enrolled from August 2006 to July 2015. Median disease-free time lapse was 109.5 months (range 9-365). Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) had previously been performed in 55 patients, SN biopsy in 44, both techniques in 13 and fine-needle aspiration in 10. Primary breast cancer treatment included radiotherapy in 104 patients (85.3 %) and chemotherapy in 40 (32.8 %). Preoperative lymphatic mapping, using planar scintigraphy (PS) and SPECT/CT included report of SN location according to lymph node territory. In case of a territorial PS-SPECT/CT mismatch, surgery was adjusted according to SPECT/CT findings. SPECT/CT SN visualization rate was higher than PS (53.3 % vs. 43.4 %, p n.s.) with, in total, 19 additional SN (118 vs. 99, p n.s.). PS-SPECT/CT territory mismatch, found in 60 % (39/65) of patients with SN visualization, led to surgical adjustment in 21.3 % (26/122) of patients. The SN procedure was finally performed in 104 patients resulting in a 65.7 % surgical retrieval rate with a total of 132 removed SNs (1.86/patient). SN metastases were found in 17/71 patients (23.9 %), in 16 of them (94 %) in ipsilateral basins outside the axilla or in the contralateral axilla. Using SPECT/CT there is a trend to visualize more SNs in LBCR, providing at the same time important anatomical information to adjust intraoperative SN procedures. The addition of SPECT/CT to the standard imaging protocol may lead to better staging mainly in patients presenting drainage outside the ipsilateral axilla. (orig.)

  19. Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging for Sentinel Lymph Node Detection: Prospective Clinical Trial to Compare the Usefulness of Indocyanine Green vs Technetium Tc 99m for Identification of Sentinel Lymph Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, Ingo; Dissemond, Joachim; Pöppel, Thorsten; Schadendorf, Dirk; Klode, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    The metastatic status of regional lymph nodes is the most relevant prognostic factor in breast cancer, melanoma, and other solid organ tumors with a lymphatic spread. The current gold standard for detection and targeted excision of the sentinel lymph node is preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with technetium Tc 99m. Because of the worldwide shortage of technetium Tc 99m, physicians are looking for nonradioactive dyes for sentinel lymph node labeling. Based on several retrospective studies, the fluorescent dye indocyanine green is considered a possible alternative to technetium Tc 99m. To analyze the feasibility and clinical benefit of intraoperative near infrared fluorescence sentinel lymph node excision (SLNE) compared with standard technetium Tc 99m-guided SLNE using malignant melanoma in which SLNE is firmly established. Analysis of a prospective clinical trial at the Skin Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen. Eighty patients with malignant melanoma on the trunk or extremities (upper and lower) who were scheduled to undergo SLNE were included in this study from January 1, 2013, to June 27, 2014. Concordance of preoperative and intraoperative sentinel lymph node detection rates. During the study period, 80 patients were operated on with an additional intraoperative application of a near infrared fluorescent dye. In these 80 surgical procedures, 147 SLNs were excised. Detection of a technetium Tc 99m-marked SLN before surgery was possible in all cases. Intraoperative visualization of the SLN by indocyanine green before skin incision was successful in only 17 of 80 patients (21%). The number of SLNs identified using the near infrared fluorescence technique in the operative site after skin incision and initial tissue preparation was 141 of 147 (96%). Among patients in whom the lymph node basin cannot be predicted correctly (eg, in cutaneous melanoma on the trunk), the use of indocyanine green for SLN detection is severely limited compared with SLNE using standard

  20. Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression as Supporting Marker to Cytokeratin 19 mRNA in Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Murawski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA detects and quantifies, with the use of a polymerase chain reaction, the presence of cytokeratin 19 mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes. The main advantage of the OSNA assay is the avoidance of second surgery in case of positive sentinel lymph node diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the significance of matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression by immunohistochemistry as supporting marker to cytokeratin 19 mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients and to relate this expression with clinicopathological data. This study was conducted on fresh sentinel lymph nodes obtained from 40 patients with tumors classified as carcinoma of no special type. The presence of metastatic cells in the slices of lymph nodes was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using antibodies for CK19 and MMP-9. Expression of CK19 and MMP-9 in lymph nodes was also confirmed by means of Western blot analysis. Results indicated that the strongest correlation with CK19 mRNA was displayed by MMP-9, CK19 (by immunohistochemistry, IHC, and nodal metastases (p < 0.001. Higher histological grading also positively correlated with CK19 mRNA, however that correlation was less significant. Since MMP-9 shows very strong correlation with CK19 mRNA in breast carcinoma of no special type metastases, expression of MMP-9 in sentinel lymph nodes should be considered as useful method whenever OSNA analysis is not available.

  1. Sentinel lymph node identification in breast cancer using periareolar and subdermal injection of the radiopharmaceutical in four points; Identificacao do linfonodo sentinela no cancer de mama com injecao subdermica periareolar em quatro pontos do radiofarmaco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho-Oliveira, Afranio; Rocha, Augusto Cesar Peixoto [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Ginecologia]. E-mail: afranioliveira@hotmail.com; Gutfilen, Bianca; Pessoa, Maria Carolina Pinheiro; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia e Medicina Nuclear

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the sentinel node by periareolar injection of the radiopharmaceutical in four points, regardless of tumor topography. The sentinel node biopsy reduces morbidity in axillary staging. Fifty-seven sentinel node biopsies were prospectively performed in two groups: group A (25 patients) and group B (32 patients). The peritumoral injection technique was used in group A and the new injection technique in four points was used in group B. The sentinel node biopsies were studied by imprint cytology and hematoxylin and eosin staining followed by axillary lymph node dissection in all patients of group A and only in the positive cases of group B. In group A, 88% (22/25) of the sentinel nodes were identified. There was no false negative case; the sensibility and specificity were of 100%. In group B, 96% (31/32) of sentinel nodes were identified and the status of the axillary lymph nodes showed a predictive positive value of 100%. The number of sentinel nodes varied from 1 to 7, mode of 1 and median of 2.7. The hotspot area was 10 to 100 times the background radiation. The periareolar injection in four points seems to be a good lymphatic mapping method for identification of the sentinel node. We suggest the standardization of this site for injections to identify the sentinel node, although further studies to confirm these findings are necessary. (author)

  2. Sentinel node detection by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma-probe guidance in melanoma; Nachweis des Sentinel-Lymphknotens mittels praeoperativer Lymphszintigraphie und intraoperativer Gammasondenmessung bei malignen Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, H.; Wengenmair, H.; Dorn, R.; Heidenreich, P. [Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Bachter, D. [Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie; Buechels, H.K. [Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Allgemein- und Visceralchirurgie

    1999-08-01

    Aim: The purpose of this work was to prove the clinical significance of nuclear medical procedures in pre-and intraoperative detection of the SLN. Methods: In the past 4 years, we did preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in 214 patients (pts.). Intraoperative localisation of the SLN with a handheld gamma probe followed in 150 pts. Results: In 214 pts. 247 lymphatic draining regions were found by preoperative scintigraphy. In 3 pts. with melanoma of the cheek no lymphatics/lymphe nodes could be detected. 14 pts. showed interval lymph nodes. In 150 pts. gamma probe guided SLNE was done. In 2 pts. with supraclavicular primary tumor 4 SLN had been defined by preoperative scintigraphy but only 2 could be found intraoperatively. In all other cases (98.7%) the sentinel node was detected correctly by the gamma probe and then removed. In 19 of 150 pts. (12.7%) metastases were detected in the pathologic specimen. The incidence of lymph node metastases showed a continuous increase from 0% at tumor stage pT1 to 44% at stage pT4. Conclusion: SLNE is an accurate method to determine nodal involvement in melanoma and minimizes operative invasiveness in melanoma surgery. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Ueberpruefung der Wertigkeit nuklearmedizinischer Verfahren in der prae- und intraoperativen Diagnostik des Sentinel-Lymphknotens (SLN). Methoden: Bei 214 Patienten fuehrten wir waehrend der vergangenen vier Jahre die praeoperative Lymphszintigraphie und bei 150 Patienten die intraoperative Gammasondenmessung zur Lokalisationsdiagnostik des SLN durch. Ergebnisse: Es fanden sich bei 214 Patienten 247 Abflussgebiete. Bei drei Patienten konnte kein Lymphabfluss nachgewiesen werden. Es handelte sich um Melanome der Wange, zwei dieser Patienten waren voroperiert. 14 Patienten zeigten Intervall-Lymphknoten. Bei 150 Patienten erfolgte eine operative Entfernung des SLN (Sentinel-Lymphonodektomie, SLNE) mit intraoperativer Gammasondenmessung. Bei zwei Patienten mit

  3. Sentinel lymph node diagnostic in prostate carcinoma: Part I. Technique and clinical evaluation; Sentinel-Lymphknoten-Diagnostik beim Prostatakarzinom. Teil I. Methodik und klinische Ergebnisse

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    Vogt, H.; Dorn, R.; Groeber, S.; Heidenreich, P. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Wawroschek, F. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Urologische Klinik; Wengenmair, H.; Kopp, J. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz; Wagner, T. [Klinikum Augsburg (Germany). Pathologisches Inst.

    2002-04-01

    Aim: Evaluation of the significance of lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative probe measurement for the identification of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in prostate cancer. Patients and method: In 117 patients with prostate cancer scintigrams in various projections were acquired till approximately 6 hours p.i. after ultrasound guided transrectal intraprostatic injection of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocoll trademark. On the following day the SLNs were identified in the operation theatre with a gamma probe and removed. Pelvic standard lymph node dissection followed SLNE. Results: In three of 117 patients with preoperative lymphoscintigraphy no SLN was scintigraphically detectable. These three patients had antecedent transurethral resection of the prostate. In 113 of the residual 114 patients SLN could be intraoperatively localized. In the mean four SLNs per patient were removed. 28 of 117 patients had pelvic lymph node metastases. In 25 cases SLN were right-positive, in one false-negative and in one intraoperatively not detectable. In one patient we found macrometastasis of up to 4 cm diameter (one SLN was tumour positive). In 15 cases only the SLN was bearing tumour. Conclusion: The SLNE with preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma probe measurement is suitable for detecting lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer. SLNE is superior to the surgical techniques commonly used in pelvic lymphadenectomy. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Wertigkeit von Lymphszintigraphie und intraoperativer Gammasondenmessung fuer die Identifikation des Sentinel-Lymphknotens (SLN) beim Prostatakarzinom zu ueberpruefen. Patienten und Methode: Bei 117 Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom wurden nach sonographisch kontrollierter transrektaler, intraprostatischer Applikation von {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocoll trademark Szintigramme des Beckens in verschiedenen Projektionen bis zirka 6 Stunden p.i. angefertigt. Am Folgetag wurden die SLN intraoperativ mittels einer Gammasonde gesucht und

  4. Factors affecting failed localisation and false-negative rates of sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer--results of the ALMANAC validation phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Newcombe, Robert G; Chhabra, Alok; Mansel, Robert E

    2006-09-01

    Despite the widespread application of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for early stage breast cancer, there is a wide variation in reported test performance characteristics. A major aim of this prospective multicentre validation study was to quantify detection and false-negative rates of SLNB and evaluate factors influencing them. Eight-hundred and fourty-two patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer underwent SLNB according to a standardised protocol that used a combination of radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-albumin colloid and Patent Blue V dye. SLNB was followed by standard axillary treatment at the same operation in all patients. Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were identified in 803 (96.1%) of 836 evaluable cases. The median number of SLNs removed per patient was 2 (range 1-9). There were 19 false negatives, resulting in a sensitivity of 263/282 (93.3%) and accuracy 782/803 (97.6%). SLNs were successfully identified by blue dye in 698 (85.6%), by isotope in 698 (85.6%), and by the combination of blue dye and isotope in 782 (96.0%) of 815 patients. Among 276 node positive patients, one or more positive SLNs were identified by blue dye in 251 (90.9%), by isotope in 246 (89.1%) and by the combination of blue dye and gamma probe in 258 (93.5%). Obesity, tumor location other than upper outer quadrant and non-visualisation of SLNs on the pre-operative lymphoscintiscan were significantly associated with failed localisation (psuccess and accuracy of SLNB are optimised by the combined use of blue dye and isotope. SLNB success decreases with increasing body mass, tumor location other than the upper outer quadrant and non-visualisation of hot nodes on the pre-operative lymphoscintiscan. This study demonstrates reduction in the predictive value of a negative SLNB in grade 3 tumors.

  5. Use of indocyanine green for detecting the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients: from preclinical evaluation to clinical validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwei Chi

    Full Text Available Assessment of the sentinel lymph node (SLN in patients with early stage breast cancer is vital in selecting the appropriate surgical approach. However, the existing methods, including methylene blue and nuclides, possess low efficiency and effectiveness in mapping SLNs, and to a certain extent exert side effects during application. Indocyanine green (ICG, as a fluorescent dye, has been proved reliable usage in SLN detection by several other groups. In this paper, we introduce a novel surgical navigation system to detect SLN with ICG. This system contains two charge-coupled devices (CCD to simultaneously capture real-time color and fluorescent video images through two different bands. During surgery, surgeons only need to follow the fluorescence display. In addition, the system saves data automatically during surgery enabling surgeons to find the registration point easily according to image recognition algorithms. To test our system, 5 mice and 10 rabbits were used for the preclinical setting and 22 breast cancer patients were utilized for the clinical evaluation in our experiments. The detection rate was 100% and an average of 2.7 SLNs was found in 22 patients. Our results show that the usage of our surgical navigation system with ICG to detect SLNs in breast cancer patients is technically feasible.

  6. Sentinel lymph node detection after trans axillary augmentation mammoplasty: a prospective controlled study utilizing lymphoscintigraphy in 43 breasts

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    Sado, Heitor Naoki; Timi, Jorge Rufino Ribas; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Program of Post-Graduation in Surgical Practice]. E-mail: heitor@cermen.com.br; Graf, Ruth Maria [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Urban, Cicero Andrade [UnicenP, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Yamada, Airton Seiji [CERMEN - Centro de Radioimunoensaio e Medicina Nuclear de Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Woellner, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Unit of Nuclear Medicine; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas

    2008-09-15

    Objective: to evaluate the potential influence of trans axillary augmentation mammoplasty on future detection of sentinel lymph node. Materials and methods: prospective controlled study where 22 patients were selected and divided into two groups (post-mammoplasty and control) corresponding to 43 breasts (22 in the post-mammoplasty group and 21 in the control group) evaluated by lymphoscintigraphy immediately after periareolar {sup 99m}Tc-phytate injections. In the statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: all the breasts in the post-mammoplasty group presented lymphatic drainage to the axillary chain, with no difference as compared with the control group (p 0.488). The average number of hot lymph nodes was 1.27 {+-} 0.46 in the post-mammoplasty group, and 1.33 {+-} 0.58 in the control group (p = 0.895). The mean time required to visualize the first lymph node was 3.14 {+-} 4.42 minutes in the post mammoplasty group, and 5.48 {+-} 5.06 minutes in the control group (p 0.136). Conclusion: transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty did not affect the future detection of sentinel lymph node. (author)

  7. Sentinel lymph node detection after transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty: a prospective controlled study utilizing lymphoscintigraphy in 43 breasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sado, Heitor Naoki; Yamada, Airton Seiji [Centro de Radioimunoensaio e Medicina Nuclear do Parana (CERMEN), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: heitor@cermen.com.br; Graf, Ruth Maria; Timi, Jorge Rufino Ribas; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Cirurgia Plastica; Urban, Cicero Andrade [Universidade Posotivo (UnicenP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Universitario Positivo; Woellner, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Medicina Nuclear; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Hospital Universitario

    2008-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the potential influence of transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty on future detection of sentinel lymph node. Materials and methods: Prospective controlled study where 22 patients were selected and divided into two groups (post-mammoplasty and control) corresponding to 43 breasts (22 in the post-mammoplasty group and 21 in the control group) evaluated by lymphoscintigraphy immediately after periareolar {sup 99m}Tc-phytate injections. In the statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: All the breasts in the post-mammoplasty group presented lymphatic drainage to the axillary chain, with no difference as compared with the control group (p 0.488). The average number of hot lymph nodes was 1.27 {+-} 0.46 in the post-mammoplasty group, and 1.33 {+-} 0.58 in the control group (p = 0.895). The mean time required to visualize the first lymph node was 3.14 {+-} 4.42 minutes in the post mammoplasty group, and 5.48 {+-} 5.06 minutes in the control group (p 0.136). Conclusion: Transaxillary augmentation mammoplasty did not affect the future detection of sentinel lymph node. (author)

  8. Analysis of regional recurrence after negative sentinel lymph node biopsy for head and neck melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kelly; Page, Andrew J; Jordan, Sumanas W; Chu, Carrie; Hestley, Andrea; Delman, Keith A; Murray, Douglas R; Carlson, Grant W

    2013-05-01

    The head and neck have a rich lymphatic drainage and complex anatomy, which complicate sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for melanoma. The incidence of regional recurrence after a negative SLN biopsy has been shown to be higher than that at other sites. Compounding factors in this scenario were analyzed to determine their impact on both SLN status and survival. A retrospective review of a prospective database of 315 patients who underwent SLN biopsy for head and neck melanoma from 1994 to 2009 was performed. A false-negative SLN biopsy was defined as a regional recurrence in a previously mapped nodal basin. In all, 267 patients (84.8%) were SLN negative (SLN-) and 48 patients (15.2%) were SLN positive (SLN+). The false-negative SLN biopsy occurred in 17 patients (6.4%). The mean follow-up was 37.6 months (3-152 months). The false-negative SLN and SLN+ patients were similar with respect to patient age and sex and primary melanoma tumor thickness and ulceration. The site of the primary melanoma and the lymphatic drainage patterns did not influence the false-negative biopsy rate. The mean survival was SLN- 119.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 106.1-132.5, p < .001), SLN+ 73.4 months (95% CI, 52.3-94.4), and the false-negative SLN 70.7 months (95% CI, 54.2-87.1). The risk of a false-negative SLN biopsy in head and neck melanoma is independent of primary site and lymphatic drainage pattern. Patients with head and neck melanoma who have a regional recurrence after a negative SLN biopsy do not have a worse survival than that of patients who are initially SLN positive. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Is intra-operative gamma probe detection really necessary for inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Santos de Oliveira Filho

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Sentinel node (SN biopsy has changed the surgical treatment of malignant melanoma. The literature has emphasized the importance of gamma probe detection (GPD of the SN. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of patent blue dye (PBD and GPD for SN biopsy in different lymphatic basins. DESIGN: Patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma in stages I and II were submitted to biopsy of the SN, identified by PBD and GPD, as part of a research project. SETTING: Patients were seen at Hospital São Paulo by a multidisciplinary group (Plastic Surgery Tumor Branch, Nuclear Medicine and Pathology. PATIENTS: 64 patients with localized malignant melanoma were studied. The median age was 46.5 years. The primary tumor was located in the neck, trunk or extremities. INTERVENTIONS: Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, lymphatic mapping with PBD and intraoperative GPD was performed on all patients. The SN was examined by conventional and immunohistochemical staining. If the SN was not found or contained micrometastases, only complete lymphadenectomy was performed. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The SN was identified by PBD if it was blue-stained, and by GPD if demonstrated activity five times greater than the adipose tissue of the neighborhood. RESULTS: Seventy lymphatic basins were explored. Lymphoscintigraphy showed ambiguous drainage in 7 patients. GPD identified the SN in 68 basins (97% and PBD in 53 (76%. PBD and GPD identified SN in 100% of the inguinal basins. For the remaining basins both techniques were complementary. A metastatic SN was found in 10 basins. Three patients with negative SN had recurrence (median follow-up = 11 months. CONCLUSION: Although both GPD and PBD are useful and complementary, PBD alone identified the SN in 100% of the inguinal lymphatic basins.

  10. Feasibility of sentinel lymph node dissection using Tc-99m phytate in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Se Hyun; Yi, Ka Hee; Kim, Su-Jin; Choi, June Young; Park, Young Joo; Park, Do-Joon; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June-Key

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Various methods of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in thyroid cancer have been introduced. Tc-99m phytate as a radiotracer has been successfully utilized for SLN biopsy in breast, cervix, and endometrial cancer. We assessed the feasibility of SLN dissection using Tc-99m phytate in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods Seventeen patients with PTC were prospectively enrolled. Ultrasound-guided peritumoral injection of 55.5 MBq Tc-99m phytate in 0.25-mL normal saline was performed. Preoperative single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperative gamma-probe were used for SLN detection during operation. Results Identification rate of SLNs was 70.6% (12 of 17) with SPECT, and 88.2% (15 of 17) with gamma-probe. Combined SPECT and gamma-probe had identification rates of 88.2% (15 of 17). Identification rates of SLNs in central LN compartments were 82.4% (14 of 17) and 41.2% (7 of 17) in lateral LN compartments. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the results of SLN biopsy were 91.6%, 100%, 88.4%, and 100%, respectively. Eight patients (47.1%) had metastasis in SLNs; all patients had SLN metastasis in the central compartment and 2 patients had SLN metastasis in both the central and lateral compartments. Conclusion Combined SPECT and gamma-probe could detect SLNs with an 88.2% identification rate in PTC. SLN biopsy using Tc-99m phytate is technically feasible. Further investigation is warranted for clinical application of Tc-99m phytate in PTC. PMID:29184876

  11. Is intra-operative gamma probe detection really necessary for inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Santos, Ivan Dunshe Abranches Oliveira; Ferreira, Lydia Massako; Almeida, Fernando Augusto de; Simoes, Milvia Maria; Enokihara, Silvia; Barbieri, Antonio; Tovo Filho, Reinaldo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP - EPM), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Cirurgia Plastica

    2000-11-01

    Sentinel node (SN) biopsy has changed the surgical treatment of malignant melanoma. The literature has emphasized the importance of gamma probe detection (GPD) of the SN. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of patent blue dye (PBD) and GPD for SN biopsy in different lymphatic basins. Patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma in stages I and II were submitted to biopsy of the SN, identified by PBD and GPD, as part of a research project. Patients were seen at Hospital Sao Paulo by a multidisciplinary group (Plastic Surgery Tumor Branch, Nuclear Medicine and Pathology). 64 patients with localized malignant melanoma were studied. The median age was 46.5 years. The primary tumor was located in the neck, trunk or extremities. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, lymphatic mapping with PBD and intraoperative GPD were performed on all patients. The SN was examined by conventional and immuno-histological staining. If the SN was not found or contained micrometastases, only complete lymphadenectomy was performed. The SN was identified by PBD if it was blue-stained, and by GPD if demonstrated activity five times greater than the adipose tissue of the neighborhood. Seventy lymphatic basins were explored. Lymphoscintigraphy showed ambiguous drainage em 7 patients. GPD identified the SN in 68 basins (97%) and PBD in 53 (76%). PBD and GPD identified SN in 100% of the inguinal basins. For the remaining basins both techniques were complementary. A metastatic SN was found in 10 basins. Three patients with negative SN had recurrence (median follow-up=11 months). Although both GPD and PBD are useful and complementary, PBD alone identified the SN in 100% of the inguinal lymphatic basins. (author)

  12. The sentinel node procedure with Patent Blue V dye in the surgical treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzo, M R; Boschin, I M; Toniato, A; Bernante, P; Piotto, A; Rinaldo, A; Ferlito, A

    2001-04-01

    How far to extend the surgical treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is still an open question. A contribution may come from intra-operative lymphatic mapping because, in other malignancies, the procedure has become an important aid in defining lymph node status. To assess the feasibility of using the sentinel lymph node (SLN) technique with the intratumoral injection of Patent Blue V dye to guide nodal dissection in PTC, 29 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of PTC and no clinical or ultrasonographic evidence of nodal involvement underwent cervicotomy and exposure of the thyroid gland, followed by Patent Blue V dye injection into the thyroid nodule. Total thyroidectomy was subsequently performed, resecting the lymph nodes at levels III, IV, VI and VII. The thyroid, SLN and the other lymph nodes were snap-frozen and submitted for both intra-operative and subsequent definitive pathological evaluation. Intra-operative lymphatic mapping located the SLN in 22/29 patients (75.9%) and the SLN revealed neoplastic involvement in 4/22 (18.2%); other lymph nodes were also positive in 2 cases. In the 18 patients whose SLNs were not metastatic, the other nodes were also disease-free. The SLN technique thus seems helpful in avoiding unnecessary lymph node dissection in PTC without spread to the SLN.

  13. Location of Sentinel Lymph Node in Cervical Carcinoma and Factors Associated With Unilateral Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuntakal, Rekha; Papadopoulos, Andreas John; Montalto, Stephen Attard; Perovic, Milica; Coutts, Michael; Devaja, Omer

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess locality of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in cervical carcinoma and examine factors affecting bilateral SLN detection. This was a retrospective review of SLN data (anatomical location, count and laterality) in patients with early-stage cervical cancer (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IA1 with lymphovascular space invasion to stage IIA) using intraoperative gamma probe and blue dye. The preoperative single-photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography was used to detect laterality, number of the SLNs, and rare locations. Patients were treated between January 2005 to January 2015 at the West Kent Gynaecological Oncology Centre, Maidstone Hospital, Maidstone, United Kingdom. A total of 132 women were investigated. The most common SLN location was the external iliac (38.6%) followed by obturator (25.3%) and internal iliac (23.6%) regions. A small percentage was identified in presacral (1.4%) and para-aortic regions (0.7%). Older age (P = 0.01) and an elevated body mass index (P = 0.03) were associated with decreased SLN count by preoperative single-photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography, and only age affected SLN count by gamma probe (P = 0.01). Initial surgery, large loop excision of the transformation zone, or cone biopsy of the cervix had no effect on SLN count. There was no difference observed in bilateral detection with respect to surgical approach (open: n = 48/laparoscopic: n = 84). However, older age was independently associated with a decrease in bilateral SLN detection (P = 0.003). In these patients who underwent unilateral full pelvic lymphadenectomy, all the nonsentinel nodes were negative. The majority of SLNs were located in the external iliac, obturator, and internal iliac regions. Both older age and an elevated body mass index were associated with a reduced SLN count. Unilateral detection of SLN was independently associated with older age, which may be

  14. Development of radiolabeled mannose-dextran conjugates for sentinel lymph node detection; Desenvolvimento de conjugados de dextran manose radiomarcados para deteccao de linfonodo sentinela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Nunez, Eutimio Gustavo

    2011-07-01

    Early diagnosis of tumors and metastasis is the current cornerstone in public health policies directed towards the fights against cancer. In breast cancer and melanoma, the sentinel lymph node biopsy has been widely used for diagnoses of metastasis. The minor impact in patient of this technique compared with total nodes dissection and the accurate definition of therapeutic strategies have powered its spreading. The aim of this work was the development of radiolabeled dextran-mannose conjugates for diagnosis using the stable technetium core [{sup 99m}Tc(CO)3]{sup +}. Cysteine, a trident ligand, was attached to the conjugates backbone, as a chelate for {sup 99m}Tc labeling. Radiolabeling conditions established for all products considered in this study showed high radiochemical purities (> 90%) and specific activities (>59,9 MBq/nmol) as well and high stability obtained through in vitro tests. The lymphatic node uptake increased significantly (4-folds) when mannose units were added to the conjugates compared with those without this monosaccharide. The radiolabeled cysteine-mannose-dextran conjugate with 30 kDa ({sup 99m}Tc - DCM2) showed the best performance at different injected activities among the studied tracers. Concentrations of this radio complex higher than 1 M demonstrated an improvement of lymph node uptakes. Comparisons of {sup 99m}Tc - DCM2 performance with commercial radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil market for lymph node detection showed its upper profile. (author)

  15. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Contralateral Axilla at Initial Presentation of a Breast Cancer Patient: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülin Uçmak Vural

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main basin for breast lymphatic drainage is ipsilateral axilla. However, extra-axillary drainage may be seen in some patients. The most common extra-axillary site is internal mammary chain, while contralateral axillary drainage is an extremely rare situation in previously untreated patients. We describe a case of untreated right breast retroareolar carcinoma with contralateral axillary drainage detected on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. Contralateral axillary dissection was performed based on the result of frozen section examination of the sentinel lymph node (SLN which turned out to burden micrometastasis. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed invasive ductal carcinoma metastasis in 17 out of 22 lymph nodes from the ipsilateral axillary dissection, whereas 14 lymph nodes from contralateral axillary dissection other than the SLN were nonmetastatic. In our opinion, determination of contralateral axillary metastasis in primary staging process had a major contribution to the management of the patient

  16. Can SOX-10 or KBA.62 Replace S100 Protein in Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Metastatic Melanoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrotsos, Elena; Alexis, John

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes for metastatic melanoma relies, in part, on the use of immunohistochemical analysis to identify minute metastatic deposits that may be overlooked on routine microscopy. At present S100 protein is widely used in this role, in large part for its superior sensitivity; however, interpretation is hampered by the presence of benign S100 protein-positive cellular elements present in every lymph node, leading to reduced specificity and consequent difficulties in interpretation. In recent years, multiple melanocytic markers have emerged that promise superior sensitivity and specificity, including KBA.62 and SOX-10. SOX-10 shows a nuclear pattern of staining. In normal tissue it is expressed in Schwann cells, melanocytes, and myoepithelial cells of salivary, bronchial, and mammary glands. KBA.62 is also specific except for staining of endothelial cells and shows a membranous staining pattern. This study was undertaken to determine whether KBA.62 or SOX-10 could equal (or surpass) the sensitivity of S100 protein while offering superior specificity in the immunohistochemical evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes for metastatic melanoma. In this study we performed immunohistochemical stains for S100 protein, Sox-10, and KBA.62 on 50 lymph nodes with proven metastatic melanoma. SOX-10 detected all cases of metastatic melanoma (50 of 50 cases; 100%) compared with S100 protein (48 of 50 cases; 96%) and KBA.62 (37 of 50 cases; 74%). There was no "background" staining of normal cellular elements with SOX-10 or KBA.62. In contrast, S100 protein was expressed in scattered dendritic interdigitating reticulum cells in the paracortex of lymph nodes, showing cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity, sometimes posing significant difficulty in differentiating benign reticulum cells from single cell metastatic melanoma. Our findings suggest that SOX-10 may be superior to S100 protein for identifying metastatic melanoma in a lymph node. KBA.62 was less

  17. The clinical implication of the number of lymph nodes harvested during sentinel lymph node biopsy and its effects on survival outcome in patients with node-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyoung; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Jee Ye; Kim, Sanghwa; Nam, Sanggeun; Park, Seho; Kim, Seung Il

    2017-10-01

    The optimal number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) that need to be harvested to achieve favorable survival outcome during a SLN biopsy (SLNB) has not yet been established. Six hundred and thirteen patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer who underwent SLNB were reviewed. Survival outcomes according to the number of total harvested lymph nodes (THLNs), defined as the sum of enumerated SLNs and non-SLNs were analyzed. Patients with only 1 THLN showed lower recurrence-free survival (RFS) as compared to those with ≥2 THLNs (p = 0.049). In multivariate analysis, only 1 THLN was associated with poor RFS (HR = 2.711; p = 0.029). Removing at least 2 lymph nodes during SLNB may be acceptable. Harvesting only 1 lymph node should be undertaken cautiously because of false negative results and increasing the subsequent recurrence rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of intraoperative frozen section analysis of sentinel node with preoperative positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jung-Hyun; Nam, Seok-Jin; Lee, Hae-Kyung; Kim, Byung-Tae [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae-Seung; Jung, Sung-Hoo

    2001-01-01

    Although axillary lymph node status is an important prognostic factor and axillary dissection is regarded as the gold standard for staging, it requires radical surgery which is accompanied by considerable postoperative problems such as lymphedema. This study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative positron emission tomography (PET) and intraoperative frozen biopsy of sentinel lymphadenectomy (SLND) in detecting axillary lymph node metastasis. We studied 18 patients who had preoperative PET and SLND for breast cancer in the Department of Surgery at Samsung Medical Center. They all had preoperative PET with a radiolabeled glucose analogue ([{sup 18}F]FDG) to visualize primary tumors and metastatic nodes. Isosulphan blue dye was used for intraoperative SLND. Frozen and permanent biopsies were then compared after full axillary dissection. In 18 cases, six had positive metastatic nodes in the permanent biopsy of full axillary dissection but were negative in three cases by preoperative PET. There was one false negative result by frozen biopsy of SLND which was later shown to be positive by permanent biopsy. The sensitivity and specificity of SLND and PET for detecting axillary node metastasis were 83, 100% and 50, 100%, respectively. Although both methods are good for axillary nodal status, the intraoperative frozen biopsy result of SLND was superior to preoperative PET in our preliminary study. (author)

  19. Is Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection Necessary in All Patients with Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Undergoing Total Mastectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonev, Valentina; De Paz Villanueva, Carlos Chavez; Solomon, Naveenraj; Senthil, Maheswari; Reeves, Mark E; Garberoglio, Carlos; Lum, Sharon S

    2016-10-01

    When ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is found on core needle biopsy, rates of upgrade to invasive cancer of 25 per cent and nodal positivity of 10 per cent have been reported. Sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) is recommended when mastectomy is performed for DCIS. We investigated the role of SLND in DCIS patients undergoing partial and total mastectomy (TM). During the study period 2004 to 2013, 170 patients with DCIS were identified with a median age of 60 years (range 26-84 years). Of these, 58.2 per cent had partial mastectomy (PM) alone, 10.6 per cent had PM with SLND, and 31.1 per cent had TM with or without contralateral prophylactic mastectomy with SLND. Overall, SLND identified positive nodes in 4.2 per cent of patients. Upgrade to invasive carcinoma on final breast pathology was found in 8.2 per cent of patients overall, including 4.0 per cent of patients undergoing PM alone, 22.2 per cent undergoing PM with SLND, and 11.3 per cent for TM with SLND (P = 0.8). In this study, patients diagnosed with DCIS on core needle biopsy had lower than expected rates of positive sentinel nodes and upgrade to invasive carcinoma. Surgeons and patients should revisit the necessity of SLND in DCIS patients undergoing mastectomy, which could lead to decreased health expenditure, resources, time, morbidity, and emotional impact on patients.

  20. The Study of 99mTc-Aluminum Oxide Using for Sentinel Lymph Nodes Detection in Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, A. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.; Dergilev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research of the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes in the experiment. Measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. Average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node - at 1 hour after administration the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower - 1,8% (p imported analogue and its practical application will facilitate intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes.

  1. microRNA Expression in Sentinel Nodes from Progressing Melanoma Patients Identifies Networks Associated with Dysfunctional Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Vallacchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel node biopsy (SNB is a main staging biomarker in melanoma and is the first lymph node to drain the tumor, thus representing the immunological site where anti-tumor immune dysfunction is established and where potential prognostic immune markers can be identified. Here we analyzed microRNA (miR profiles in archival tumor-positive SNBs derived from melanoma patients with different outcomes and performed an integrated analysis of transcriptional data to identify deregulated immune signaling networks. Twenty-six miRs were differentially expressed in melanoma-positive SNB samples between patients with disease progression and non-progressing patients, the majority being previously reported in the regulation of immune responses. A significant variation in miR expression levels was confirmed in an independent set of SNB samples. Integrated information from genome-wide transcriptional profiles and in vitro assessment in immune cells led to the identification of miRs associated with the regulation of the TNF receptor superfamily member 8 (TNFRSF8 gene encoding the CD30 receptor, a marker increased in lymphocytes of melanoma patients with progressive disease. These findings indicate that miRs are involved in the regulation of pathways leading to immune dysfunction in the sentinel node and may provide valuable markers for developing prognostic molecular signatures for the identification of stage III melanoma patients at risk of recurrence.

  2. Does the introduction of sentinel node biopsy increase the number of node positive patients with early breast cancer? A population based study form the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Husted; Jensen, Anni Ravnsbaek; Christiansen, Peer

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The validation series of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in the treatment of breast cancer have shown that 10-20% more lymph node metastases are detected. However, their impact has never been studied in populations where the method has been fully implemented. In a population-based s...

  3. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer--experience with the combined use of dye and radioactive tracer at Aarhus University Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Cathrine; Garne, Jens Peter; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2004-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-four patients with palpable tumours underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and subsequent axillary lymph node dissection. Ultrasound of the axilla was used as part of the diagnostic work-up on all patients and those with lymph node metastasis verified by fine-needle as......One hundred and twenty-four patients with palpable tumours underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and subsequent axillary lymph node dissection. Ultrasound of the axilla was used as part of the diagnostic work-up on all patients and those with lymph node metastasis verified by fine....... The advanced techniques of serial sectioning and immunohistochemical staining further improve the diagnostic advantage offered by the SLNB, as it increases the possibility of diagnosing micrometastatic deposits....

  4. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer--experience with the combined use of dye and radioactive tracer at Aarhus University Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Cathrine; Garne, Jens Peter; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2004-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-four patients with palpable tumours underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and subsequent axillary lymph node dissection. Ultrasound of the axilla was used as part of the diagnostic work-up on all patients and those with lymph node metastasis verified by fine-needle as......One hundred and twenty-four patients with palpable tumours underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and subsequent axillary lymph node dissection. Ultrasound of the axilla was used as part of the diagnostic work-up on all patients and those with lymph node metastasis verified by fine....... The advanced techniques of serial sectioning and immunohistochemical staining further improve the diagnostic advantage offered by the SLNB, as it increases the possibility of diagnosing micrometastatic deposits. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-null...

  5. [The lymphotropic marking and biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes in T1 tumors--a new approach to the staging of axillary lymphatic metastasis in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliĭski, T; Baĭchev, G; Popovska, S; Penkova, R

    1997-01-01

    It is the purpose of the study to assay the possibility of demonstrating axillary lymph status through marking and biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes. Preoperative lymphotropic marking of sentinel lymph nodes is performed in 48 female patients presenting mammary gland carcinoma, measuring up to two centimeters. Drimaren 0.5 ml (in 18 cases), Mitoxantrone (17 cases) or Patent Blue (13 cases) each are perineoplastically injected in two points. Intraoperatively, in 34 patients blue stained lymph nodes (from Patent Blue and Mitoxantrone mainly) are identified, and compared with the results of axillary dissection. Metastases in sentinel nodes are documented in seven instances. In the remainder (30) which are histologically negative, lymph node metastasis II level is discovered in one case (false negative = 3.3 per cent). As shown by the initial observations perioperative marking of lymph nodes with Patent Blue and Mitoxantrone contribute to demonstrate sentinel nodes, and by biopsy study of the latter it is possible to judge about the pattern of lymph metastasizing of mammary gland carcinoma.

  6. Feasibility of Real-Time Near-Infrared Fluorescence Tracer Imaging in Sentinel Node Biopsy for Oral Cavity Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders; Juhl, Karina; Charabi, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    be identified in vivo using NIRF imaging, and the majority of those were located in level 1 close to the primary tumor. CONCLUSIONS: A combined fluorescent and radioactive tracer for SNB is feasible, and the additional use of NIRF imaging may improve the accuracy of SN identification in oral cancer patients......BACKGROUND: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is an established method in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) for staging the cN0 neck and to select patients who will benefit from a neck dissection. Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging has the potential to improve the SNB procedure by facilitating...

  7. Three-Dimensional Image Fusion of SPECT and CT Scans for Locating Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Malignant Melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Akiyama

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Image fusion software can derive a fusion image from single photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography scans. We applied a three-dimensional fusion image to detect sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs in 3 patients with malignant melanomas of the lumbar, vulvar and head region, respectively. During each operation, we detected SLNs at the expected site, as indicated by the fusion images. The three-dimensional image fusion could thus be confirmed as a simple and helpful method for precisely localizing SLNs in these patients.

  8. Factors associated with the non detection of the sentinel node in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Guirao

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to analyse the potential influence of different factors on the surgical detection of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer. The procedure has been performed in 704 patients. In 43 out of the 704 cases, the SN was not detected, 24 were palpable and 19 had no palpable tumors. Lymphoscitigraphy was done in 2 h p.i. of 37-55 MBq of 99mTc-nanocolloid. The day before surgery in palpable tumours and 4 h previous to surgery in non-palpable tumours, surgical detection was performed using a gammaprobe. The following factors were analysed: patient age, tumour size, breast quadrant tumour localization, scintigraphic visualizatio,n and the palpation of the tumour. Results: Patient age was significantly (pO objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a possível influencia de diferentes fatores na detecção cirúrgica de linfonodos sentinela no câncer de mama. O procedimento foi realizado em 704 pacientes. Em 43 dos 704, o linfonodo sentinela não foi detectado, 24 eram palpáveis e 19 eram tumores não palpáveis. Foi realizada a linfocintilografia 2 horas após a injeção de 37-55MBq de 99mTc-nanocolóide. No dia anterior à cirurgia nos tumores palpáveis e nas 4 horas prévias à cirurgia de tumores não palpáveis foi realizada detecção cirúrgica com a gammaprobe. Foram analisados os seguintes fatores: idade do paciente, tamanho do tumor, quadrante de localização do tumor de seio, visualização cintilográfica e palpação do tumor. Resultados: a idade do paciente foi significativamente maior (p<0,001 nos pacientes nos quais o nódulo sentinela não foi detectado. Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas com relação ao outros parâmetros estudados. A idade do paciente e a visualização cintilográfica são parâmetros que influenciam diretamente na detecção de nódulo sentinela em câncer de mama.

  9. Evaluation of a CdTe semiconductor based compact gamma camera for sentinel lymph node imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Paolo; Curion, Assunta S.; Mettivier, Giovanni; Esposito, Michela; Aurilio, Michela; Caraco, Corradina; Aloj, Luigi; Lastoria, Secondo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, I-80126 Napoli (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Medicina Nucleare, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Fondazione G. Pascale, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The authors assembled a prototype compact gamma-ray imaging probe (MediPROBE) for sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization. This probe is based on a semiconductor pixel detector. Its basic performance was assessed in the laboratory and clinically in comparison with a conventional gamma camera. Methods: The room-temperature CdTe pixel detector (1 mm thick) has 256x256 square pixels arranged with a 55 {mu}m pitch (sensitive area 14.08x14.08 mm{sup 2}), coupled pixel-by-pixel via bump-bonding to the Medipix2 photon-counting readout CMOS integrated circuit. The imaging probe is equipped with a set of three interchangeable knife-edge pinhole collimators (0.94, 1.2, or 2.1 mm effective diameter at 140 keV) and its focal distance can be regulated in order to set a given field of view (FOV). A typical FOV of 70 mm at 50 mm skin-to-collimator distance corresponds to a minification factor 1:5. The detector is operated at a single low-energy threshold of about 20 keV. Results: For {sup 99m}Tc, at 50 mm distance, a background-subtracted sensitivity of 6.5x10{sup -3} cps/kBq and a system spatial resolution of 5.5 mm FWHM were obtained for the 0.94 mm pinhole; corresponding values for the 2.1 mm pinhole were 3.3x10{sup -2} cps/kBq and 12.6 mm. The dark count rate was 0.71 cps. Clinical images in three patients with melanoma indicate detection of the SLNs with acquisition times between 60 and 410 s with an injected activity of 26 MBq {sup 99m}Tc and prior localization with standard gamma camera lymphoscintigraphy. Conclusions: The laboratory performance of this imaging probe is limited by the pinhole collimator performance and the necessity of working in minification due to the limited detector size. However, in clinical operative conditions, the CdTe imaging probe was effective in detecting SLNs with adequate resolution and an acceptable sensitivity. Sensitivity is expected to improve with the future availability of a larger CdTe detector permitting operation at shorter

  10. Patterns of recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Timothy R; McCarty, Todd M; Fisher, Tammy L; Preskitt, John T; Lieberman, Zelig H; Stephens, Jeffrey F; O'Brien, John C; Kuhn, Joseph A

    2003-12-01

    Previous sentinel lymph node (SLN) studies for cutaneous melanoma have shown that the SLN accurately reflects the nodal status of the corresponding nodal basin. However, there are few long-term studies that describe recurrence site patterns, predictors for recurrence, and overall survival and disease-free survival after SLN biopsy. A retrospective review of patients over a 6-year period was performed to determine patient outcomes and the patterns of recurrence. In all cases, Tc-99 sulfur colloid along with isosulfan blue dye was injected at the primary melanoma site. After resection, the SLN was serially sectioned and evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. One hundred ninety-eight patients were identified who underwent SLN biopsy for cutaneous melanoma including T1 (n = 21), T2 (n = 88), T3 (n = 75), and T4 (n = 14) primary tumors. Of these patients, 38 had a positive SLN. Of the 38 patients with a positive SLN (mean follow-up 38 months), recurrent disease was identified in 10 (26.3%) at a mean interval of 14.2 months. The site of first recurrence was distant (n = 4) and local (n = 6). Regional lymphatic basin recurrence was not identified. Of the 160 patients with a negative SLN (mean follow-up 50 months), recurrent disease was identified in 16 (10.0%) at a mean interval of 31.3 months. The site of first recurrence was systemic (n = 11), local (n = 4), and nodal (n = 1). Overall survival and disease-free survival for patients with a positive SLN at 55 months was 53.3% and 47.7% respectively, while overall survival and disease-free survival for patients with a negative SLN at 53 months was 92.2% and 87.7% respectively (P analysis of the entire cohort (n = 198) identified primary tumor depth and positive SLN status as significant predictors of recurrence. The incidence of nodal basin recurrence after SLN biopsy was found to be 0.6%. Primary tumor depth and pathological status of the SLN are significant predictors of local and systemic

  11. Molecular Imaging Probes for Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Imaging of Sentinel Lymph Node and Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhengtao

    Molecular imaging is visualizations and measurements of in vivo biological processes at the molecular or cellular level using specific imaging probes. As an emerging technology, biocompatible macromolecular or nanoparticle based targeted imaging probes have gained increasing popularities. Those complexes consist of a carrier, an imaging reporter, and a targeting ligand. The active targeting ability dramatically increases the specificity. And the multivalency effect may further reduce the dose while providing a decent signal. In this thesis, sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and cancer imaging are two research topics. The focus is to develop molecular imaging probes with high specificity and sensitivity, for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and optical imaging. The objective of this thesis is to explore dextran radiopharmaceuticals and porous silicon nanoparticles based molecular imaging agents. Dextran polymers are excellent carriers to deliver imaging reporters or therapeutic agents due to its well established safety profile and oligosaccharide conjugation chemistry. There is also a wide selection of dextran polymers with different lengths. On the other hand, Silicon nanoparticles represent another class of biodegradable materials for imaging and drug delivery. The success in fluorescence lifetime imaging and enhancements of the immune activation potency was briefly discussed. Chapter 1 begins with an overview on current molecular imaging techniques and imaging probes. Chapter 2 presents a near-IR dye conjugated probe, IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept. Fluorophore density was optimized to generate the maximum brightness. It was labeled with 68Ga and 99mTc and in vivo SLN mapping was successfully performed in different animals, such as mice, rabbits, dogs and pigs. With 99mTc labeled IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept, chapter 3 introduces a two-day imaging protocol with a hand-held imager. Chapter 4 proposed a method to dual radiolabel the IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept with both 68Ga and

  12. Limited pelvic lymphadenectomy using the sentinel lymph node procedure in patients with localised prostate carcinoma: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenot-Rossi, Isabelle; Pasquier, Jacques [Universite de la Mediterranee, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France); Bastide, Cyril; Rossi, Dominique [Universite de la Mediterranee, Department of Urology, Marseille (France); Garcia, Stephane [Universite de la Mediterranee, Department of Pathology, Marseille (France); Dumas, Stephane [Universite de la Mediterranee, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Esterni, Benjamin [Universite de la Mediterranee, Department of Statistics, Marseille (France)

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the potential role of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in limited lymph node dissection in patients with apparently localised prostate carcinoma. In 27 patients with organ-confined prostate cancer, a single injection of 0.3 ml/30 MBq{sup 99m}Tc-rhenium sulphur colloid was injected transrectally into the peripheral zone of each lobe of the prostate (total 0.6 ml/60 MBq) under ultrasound guidance. Two hours after injection, scintigraphy was performed. The first step in surgery was the detection and dissection of lymph nodes identified as SLNs. Then, standard lymphadenectomy was performed, consisting in a limited dissection that included all lymph nodes from the obturator fossa and along the external iliac vein. Lymphatic tissue along the hypogastric artery was not systematically removed, except in the presence of SLNs. Mean patient age was 66 years (48-77); the mean serum prostate-specific antigen value was 10.6 ng/ml. In a high proportion of patients (21/27, 77.8%) an SLN was located along the initial centimetres of the hypogastric artery. The second most frequent site of SLNs was in the obturator fossa (11/27 patients, 40.7%), followed by the external iliac area (5/27 patients, 18.5%). Four patients had lymph node metastases, all in SLNs: two in the hypogastric area and two in the obturator fossa. The SLN procedure revealed the individual variability in the lymphatic drainage of the prostate. The main site of SLNs was the hypogastric area, and two of the four metastatic nodes were located at this site. A limited standard pelvic lymphadenectomy, excluding the hypogastric lymph nodes, would have missed half of the lymph node metastases in this study. A radionuclide SLN procedure could assist in the correct staging of patients with early prostate cancer, especially when performing limited lymphadenectomy. (orig.)

  13. The Axillary Nodal Harvest in Breast Cancer Surgery Is Unchanged by Sentinel Node Biopsy or the Timing of Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Byrne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy may undergo delayed completion axillary dissection. Where intraoperative analysis is available, immediate completion axillary dissection can be performed. Alternatively, patients may undergo primary axillary dissection for breast cancer, historically or when preoperative assessment suggests axillary metastases. This study aims to determine if there is a difference in the total number of lymph nodes or the number of metastatic nodes harvested between the 3 possible approaches. Methods. Three consecutive comparable groups of 50 consecutive patients who underwent axillary dissection in each of the above contexts were identified from the Portsmouth Breast Unit Database. Patient demographics, clinicopathological variables, and surgical treatment were recorded. The total pathological nodal count and the number of metastatic nodes were compared between the groups. Results. There were no differences in clinico-pathological features between the three groups for all features studied with the exception of breast surgical procedure (P<0.001. There were no differences in total nodal harvest (P=0.822 or in the number of positive nodes harvested (P=0.157 between the three groups. Conclusion. The three approaches to axillary clearance yield equivalent nodal harvests, suggesting oncological equivalence and robustness of surgical technique.

  14. Detection of sentinel node in gastric cancer surgery by indocyanine green fluorescence imaging: comparison with infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashiro, Isao; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Hiratsuka, Masahiro; Kishi, Kentaro; Yamada, Terumasa; Ohue, Masayuki; Ohigashi, Hiroaki; Yano, Masahiko; Ishikawa, Osamu; Imaoka, Shingi

    2008-06-01

    Secure methods for clinical detection of the sentinel node (SN) are in great demand to avoid unnecessary resection. This was a clinical exploration/feasibility study of a novel detection system for SN biopsy using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging in gastric cancer surgery. SN biopsy using ICG dye was performed in three patients who had gastric cancer. ICG fluorescence images were obtained using a detection system comprising a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera with a cut filter as the detector and light emitting diodes (LED) as the light source. The nodes were also examined simultaneously by an infrared (IR) imaging videoscope. Immediately after intraoperative ICG injection, the fluorescence imaging system allowed easy visualization of the lymphatic vessels draining from the primary gastric tumor toward the lymph nodes and tracing of the moving injected dye. Some lymph vessels and nodes were hardly recognized by ICG green color or IR imaging. The ICG fluorescence system also allowed visualization of the lymph node when ICG was injected the day before surgery, similar to the radio-guided method. Detection of SNs in gastric cancer surgery using the ICG fluorescence imaging system is a promising novel technique and may perhaps prove useful for laparoscopic surgery.

  15. Review of the role of the sentinel node biopsy in neoadjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer and negative or positive axillary node at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano Pérez, R; Rebollo Aguirre, A C; García-Talavera San Miguel, P; Díaz Expósito, R; Vidal-Sicart, S; Cordero García, J M; Carrera Salazar, D; Rioja Martín, M E

    2017-08-28

    The role of the selective sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is increasing in relevance in breast cancer women with indication of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The Radiosurgery Working Group of the SEMNIM is aware of the necessity of establishing the need for SNB before or after NAC, and also how to manage patients with axillary node-negative or node-positive. There is sufficient data to assess that the SNB with radioisotope techniques are feasible and safe in all these scenarios. An adequate axilla evaluation prior to surgery and the possibility of marking prior to NAC the nodes infiltrated must be the two main pillars to guarantee the success of the SNB. It has been shown that to incorporate the SNB in breast cancer women with indication of NAC increases the rate of a conservative treatment of the axilla that will be a clear benefit for these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical utility of the additional use of blue dye for indocyanine green for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yinan; Luo, Ningbin; Jiang, Yi; Li, Qiuyun; Wei, Wei; Yang, Huawei; Liu, Jianlun

    2017-07-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is widely used as a tracer in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) of patients with breast cancer. Whether SLNB performance can be improved by supplementing ICG with methylene blue dye remains controversial. This study compared the performance of SLNB when ICG was used alone or with blue dye. Consecutive patients with T1-3 primary breast cancer at our hospital were recruited into our study and randomized to undergo SLNB with ICG alone (n = 62) or with the combination of ICG and blue dye (n = 65). We compared the two methods in terms of identification rate, number and detection time of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) removed. SLN identification rate were similar in the absence (95.2%) or presence of blue dye (98.5%, P = 0.578) but significantly, more average nodes were removed when blue dye was used (3.8 ± 1.5 versus 2.7 ± 1.2, P = 0.000), and the average time for detecting each SLN was significantly shorter (3.91 ± 1.87 versus 5.65 ± 2.95 min; P = 0.000). No patient in the study experienced severe adverse reactions or complications. Recurrence of axillary node was detected in one patient (1.6%) using ICG alone but not in any patients using ICG and blue dye. The efficiency and sensitivity of SLNB can be improved by combining ICG with blue dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of Lymph Node Ultrasound Prior to Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in 384 Patients with Melanoma: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, D; Brotons-Seguí, M; Del Toro, C; González, M; Requena, C; Traves, V; Pla, A; Bolumar, I; Moreno-Ramírez, D; Nagore, E

    2017-12-01

    Locoregional lymph node ultrasound is not typically included in guidelines as part of the staging process prior to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The objective of the present study was to make a clinical and economic analysis of lymph node ultrasound prior to SLNB. We performed a retrospective study of 384 patients with clinical stage I-II primary melanoma who underwent locorregional lymph node ultrasound (with or without ultrasound-guided biopsy) prior to SLNB between 2004 and 2015. We evaluated the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the strategy. Use of locorregional lymph node ultrasound avoided SLNB in 23 patients (6%). Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 46% and specificity of 76% for the detection of metastatic lymph nodes that were not clinically palpable. False negatives were significantly more common in patients aged over 60 years and in tumors with a thickness of less than 2mm. The staging process using SLNB and ultrasound with ultrasound-guided biopsy produced an increase of €16.30 in the unit price. Our cost-effectiveness analysis identified the staging protocol with ultrasound and SLNB as the dominant strategy, with a lower cost-effectiveness ratio than the alternative, consisting of SLNB alone (8,095.24 vs. €28,605.00). Ultrasound with ultrasound-guided biopsy for the diagnostic staging of melanoma prior to SLNB is a useful and cost-effective tool. This procedure does not substitute SLNB, though it does allow to avoid SLNB in a not insignificant proportion of patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility and accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in clinically node-positive breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Fei Fu

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB has replaced conventional axillary lymph node dissection (ALND in axillary node-negative breast cancer patients. However, the use of SLNB remains controversial in patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC. The aim of this review is to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of SLNB after NAC in clinically node-positive patients. Systematic searches were performed in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases from 1993 to December 2013 for studies on node-positive breast cancer patients who underwent SLNB after NAC followed by ALND. Of 436 identified studies, 15 were included in this review, with a total of 2,471 patients. The pooled identification rate (IR of SLNB was 89% [95% confidence interval (CI 85-93%], and the false negative rate (FNR of SLNB was 14% (95% CI 10-17%. The heterogeneity of FNR was analyzed by meta-regression, and the results revealed that immunohistochemistry (IHC staining may represent an independent factor (P = 0.04. FNR was lower in the IHC combined with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining subgroup than in the H&E staining alone subgroup, with values of 8.7% versus 16.0%, respectively (P = 0.001. Thus, SLNB was feasible after NAC in node-positive breast cancer patients. In addition, the IR of SLNB was respectable, although the FNR of SLNB was poor and requires further improvement. These findings indicate that IHC may improve the accuracy of SLNB.

  19. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with a needle core biopsy diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ: is it justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, B; Al-Mudhaffer, M; Kennedy, M M; O'Doherty, A; Flanagan, F; McDermott, E W; Kerin, M J; Hill, A D; Quinn, C M

    2009-06-01

    The incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has increased markedly with the introduction of population-based mammographic screening. DCIS is usually diagnosed non-operatively. Although sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) has become the standard of care for patients with invasive breast carcinoma, its use in patients with DCIS is controversial. To examine the justification for offering SNB at the time of primary surgery to patients with a needle core biopsy (NCB) diagnosis of DCIS. A retrospective analysis was performed of 145 patients with an NCB diagnosis of DCIS who had SNB performed at the time of primary surgery. The study focused on rates of SNB positivity and underestimation of invasive carcinoma by NCB, and sought to identify factors that might predict the presence of invasive carcinoma in the excision specimen. 7/145 patients (4.8%) had a positive sentinel lymph node, four macrometastases and three micrometastases. 6/7 patients had invasive carcinoma in the final excision specimen. 55/145 patients (37.9%) with an NCB diagnosis of DCIS had invasive carcinoma in the excision specimen. The median invasive tumour size was 6 mm. A radiological mass and areas of invasion NCB were predictive of invasive carcinoma in the excision specimen. SNB positivity in pure DCIS is rare. In view of the high rate of underestimation of invasive carcinoma in patients with an NCB diagnosis of DCIS in this study, SNB appears justified in this group of patients.

  20. Metasin—An Intra-Operative RT-qPCR Assay to Detect Metastatic Breast Cancer in Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasi Sundaresan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nodal status is one of the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer. Established tests such as touch imprint cytology and frozen sections currently used in the intra-operative setting show variations in sensitivity and specificity. This limitation has led to the development of molecular alternatives, such as GeneSearch, a commercial intra-operative real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR assay that allows the surgeon to carry out axillary clearance as a one-step process. Since GeneSearch has been discontinued, we have developed the replacement Metasin assay, which targets the breast epithelial cell markers CK19 and mammaglobin mRNA and identifies metastatic disease in sentinel lymph nodes. The optimised assay can be completed within 32 min (6 min for RNA preparation and 26 min instrument run time, making its use feasible in the intraoperative setting. An analysis by Metasin of 154 archived lymph node homogenates previously analysed by both parallel histology and GeneSearch showed concordance for 148 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of Metasin compared with GeneSearch were 95% (CI 83%–99% and 97% (CI 91%–99% respectively; compared with histology they were 95% (CI 83%–99% and 97% (CI 91%–99%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of GeneSearch compared with histology were 90% (CI 77%–96% and 97% (CI 93%–99% respectively. The positive predictive value of Metasin was 90% and negative predictive value was 98% for both histology and GeneSearch. The positive predictive value of GeneSearch was 92% and the negative predictive value was 97% compared to histology. The discordance rates of Metasin with both GeneSearch and histology were 3.89%. In comparison, the discordance rate of GeneSearch with histology was 4.5%. Metasin’s robustness was independently evaluated on 193 samples previously analysed by GeneSearch from the Jules Bordet Institute, where Metasin yielded comparable results.

  1. A systematic review of tests for lymph node status in primary endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora Javier

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lymph node status of a patient is a key determinate in staging, prognosis and adjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer. Despite this, the potential additional morbidity associated with lymphadenectomy makes its role controversial. This study systematically reviews the accuracy literature on sentinel node biopsy; ultra sound scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computer tomography (CT for determining lymph node status in endometrial cancer. Methods Relevant articles were identified form MEDLINE (1966–2006, EMBASE (1980–2006, MEDION, the Cochrane library, hand searching of reference lists from primary articles and reviews, conference abstracts and contact with experts in the field. The review included 18 relevant primary studies (693 women. Data was extracted for study characteristics and quality. Bivariate random-effect model meta-analysis was used to estimate diagnostic accuracy of the various index tests. Results MRI (pooled positive LR 26.7, 95% CI 10.6 – 67.6 and negative LR 0.29 95% CI 0.17 – 0.49 and successful sentinel node biopsy (pooled positive LR 18.9 95% CI 6.7 – 53.2 and negative LR 0.22, 95% CI 0.1 – 0.48 were the most accurate tests. CT was not as accurate a test (pooled positive LR 3.8, 95% CI 2.0 – 7.3 and negative LR of 0.62, 95% CI 0.45 – 0.86. There was only one study that reported the use of ultrasound scanning. Conclusion MRI and sentinel node biopsy have shown similar diagnostic accuracy in confirming lymph node status among women with primary endometrial cancer than CT scanning, although the comparisons made are indirect and hence subject to bias. MRI should be used in preference, in light of the ASTEC trial, because of its non invasive nature.

  2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy revisited: ultrasound-guided photoacoustic detection of micrometastases using molecularly targeted plasmonic nanosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Geoffrey P.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.

    2014-01-01

    Metastases rather than primary tumors are responsible for killing most cancer patients. Cancer cells often invade regional lymph nodes (LN) before colonizing other parts of the body. However, due to the low sensitivity and specificity of current imaging methods to detect localized nodal spread, an invasive surgical procedure - sentinel lymph node biopsy - is generally employed to identify metastatic cancer cells. Here we introduce a new approach for more sensitive in vivo detection of lymph node micrometastases, based on the use of ultrasound-guided spectroscopic photoacoustic (sPA) imaging of molecularly-activated plasmonic nanosensors (MAPS). Using a metastatic murine model of oral squamous cell carcinoma, we showed that MAPS targeted to the EGFR shifted their optical absorption spectrum to the red-near-infrared region after specific interactions with nodal metastatic cells, enabling their non-invasive detection by sPA. Notably, LN metastases as small as 50 μm were detected at centimeter-depth range with high sensitivity and specificity. Large sPA signals appeared in metastatic LN within 30 minutes of MAPS injection, in support of the clinical utility of this method. Our findings offer a rapid and effective tool to non-invasively identify micrometastases as an alternate to sentinal node biopsy analysis. PMID:25106426

  3. EORTC recommended protocol for melanoma sentinel lymph node sectioning misclassifies up to 50% of the patients compared with complete step sectioning. Danish Society for Pathological Anatomy and Clinical Cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Hastrup, N; Clemmensen, O.

    2010-01-01

    EORTC recommended protocol for melanoma sentinel lymph node sectioning misclassifies up to 50% of the patients compared with complete step sectioning. Danish Society for Pathological Anatomy and Clinical Cytology......EORTC recommended protocol for melanoma sentinel lymph node sectioning misclassifies up to 50% of the patients compared with complete step sectioning. Danish Society for Pathological Anatomy and Clinical Cytology...

  4. Use of mammary lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative radioguided gamma probe in detection of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeon, Seok Kil; Kim, Soon; Kim, Yu Sa [School of Medicine, Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as the first node draining primary tumor site and reflect the histologic features of the remainder of the lymphatic basin in breast cancer. This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of lymphoscintigraphy (LSG) and intraoperative gamma probe(IGP) in SLN biopsy and axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis in breast cancer. LSG using 30-37MBq Tc-99m antimony sulfide (0.4ml) was performed preoperatively in 15 patient of biopsy proven primary breast cancer. Four intraderm injections of 0.1ml radiotracer were done at 2-3mm of the tumor margin. Scanning were obtained by early dynamic image (10sec/frame) for 10min, static image (5min/frame) of 30-60 min and delayed image (5min/frame) at two hours. The SLN was identified on LSG and removed with the aid of the IGP during operation. In 14 of 15 patients, the 31 SLNs were noted by LSG and IGP(detection rate (93.3%). Dynamic image of LSG revealed lymphatic drainage pattern and SLN in six of 14 patients. 2.47{+-}2.00 and 2.36 {+-}1.96 nodes were noted by LSG and IGP, respectively. In seven of 14 patients, 8/31 SLNs were the only nodes that contained metastatic tumor(50%). In five patients, concomitant 26/86 ALN metastasis were detected (sensitivity: 72%). In seven patients, 21/31 SLNs were negative for cancer cell on frozen section, and concomitant 120/247 ALNs were not involved by tumor(specificity: 100%). In two of seven patients with SLN metastasis, ALN were not contained meatstatic tumor (negative predictive value:78%). SLN biopsy with LSG and IGP is a reliable method to predict axiallary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer.

  5. Characteristics and outcomes of sentinel node-positive breast cancer patients after total mastectomy without axillary-specific treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Sarah; Cody, Hiram; Tan, Lee; Morrow, Monica; Pesce, Catherine; Setton, Jeremy; Rogers, Katherine; Arnold, Brittany; Eaton, Anne; Catalano, Jeffrey; McCormick, Beryl; Powell, Simon; Ho, Alice

    2012-11-01

    Regional failure rates are low in patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) who undergo breast-conserving therapy without axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The applicability of these findings to total mastectomy (TM) patients is not established. Our aims were to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of SLNB-positive TM patients who did not receive axillary-specific treatment and to compare them to similar patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS). A total of 535 patients with early-stage breast cancer who underwent definitive breast surgery (210 TM, 325 BCS), had a positive SLNB and did not receive ALND between 1997 and 2009 were identified from an institutional database. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between the TM and BCS groups. Most patients had stage I to IIA, estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptor-positive, Her2-negative invasive ductal carcinoma, with minimal nodal disease. Compared to the BCS group, TM patients were younger, had larger tumors, had higher nomogram scores predicting additional axillary disease and were more likely to receive chemotherapy. Ninety-four percent of the BCS cohort and 5 % of the TM cohort received adjuvant radiotherapy. At a median follow-up of 57.8 months, the 4-year local, regional and distant failure rates were 1.7, 1.2 and 0.7 % in the TM group and 1.4, 1.0 and 3.7 % in the BCS group. The 4-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 94.8 and 97.8 % in the TM group and 90.1 and 92.6 % in the BCS group. Early-stage breast cancer patients with minimal sentinel node disease experience excellent outcomes without ALND, whether they undergo BCS or TM.

  6. Meta-analysis of sentinel lymph node biopsy at the time of prophylactic mastectomy of the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Bin; Liu, Xiao-An; Dai, Jun-Cheng; Wang, Shui

    2011-01-01

    Background Prophylactic mastectomy is performed to decrease the risk of breast cancer in women at high risk for the disease. The benefit of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) at the time of prophylactic mastectomy is controversial, and we performed a meta-analysis of the reported data to assess that benefit. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases from January 1993 to December 2009 for studies on patients who underwent SLNB at the time of prophylactic mastectomy. Two reviewers independently evaluated all the identified papers, and only retrospective studies were included. We used a mixed-effect model to combine data. Results We included 6 studies in this review, comprising a total study population of 1251 patients who underwent 1343 prophylactic mastectomies. Of these 1343 pooled prophylactic mastectomies, the rate of occult invasive cancer (21 cases) was 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1%–2.5%), and the rate of positive SLNs (23 cases) was 1.9% (95% CI 1.2%–2.6%). In all, 36 cases (2.8%, 95% CI 2.0%–3.8%) led to a significant change in surgical management as a result of SLNB at the time of prophylactic mastectomy. In 17 cases, patients with negative SLNs were found to have invasive cancer at the time of prophylactic mastectomy and avoided axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). In 19 cases, patients with positive SLNBs were found not to have invasive cancer at the time of prophylactic mastectomy and needed a subsequent ALND. Of the 23 cases with positive SLNs, about half the patients had locally advanced disease in the contralateral breast. Conclusion Sentinel lymph node biopsy is not suitable for all patients undergoing prophylactic mastectomy, but it may be suitable for patients with contralateral, locally advanced breast cancer. PMID:21651834

  7. [Sentinel node biopsy in patients with multifocal and multicentric breast cancer: A 5-year follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Saiz, I; López Carballo, M T; Martínez Fernández, J; Carrión Maldonado, J; Cabrera Pereira, A; Moral Alvarez, S; Santamaría Girón, L; Cantero Cerquella, F; López Secades, A; Díaz González, D; Llaneza Folgueras, A; Aira Delgado, F J

    2014-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a staging procedure in multiple breast cancer is a controversial issue. We have aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sentinel node (SN) detection in patients with multifocal or multicentric breast cancer as well as the safety of its clinical application after a long follow-up. A prospective descriptive study was performed. Eighty-nine patients diagnosed of multiple breast cancer (73 multifocal; 16 multicentric) underwent SLNB. These patients were compared to those with unifocal neoplasia. Periareolar radiocolloid administration was performed in most of the patients. Evaluation was made at an average of 67.2 months of follow-up (32-126 months). Scintigraphic and surgical SN localization in patients with multiple breast cancer were 95.5% and 92.1%, respectively. A higher percentage of extra-axillary nodes was observed than in the unifocal group (11.7% vs 5.4%) as well as a significantly higher number of SN per patient (1.70 vs 1.38). The rate of SN localization in multicentric cancer was slightly lower than in multifocal cancer (87.5% vs 93.1%), and the finding of extra-axillary drainages was higher (20% vs 10%). Number of SN per patient was significantly higher in multicentric breast cancer (2.33 vs 1.57). No axillary relapses have been demonstrated in the follow-up in multiple breast cancer patients group. SLNB performed by periareolar injection is a reliable and accurate staging procedure of patients with multiple breast cancer, including those with multicentric processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  8. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: is it possible to reduce false negative rates by excluding patients with nodular melanoma?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corrigan, M A

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the outcome of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with melanoma and to delineate whether patients with nodular melanoma are more likely to develop nodal recurrence despite negative SLNB. METHODS: Consecutive patients with cutaneous melanoma undergoing SLNB were identified from a departmental database between 1997 and 2005. Factors including demographic data, site, histological subtype, depth and outcome were examined. RESULTS: Of 131 patients, 103 were node negative and eligible for study. The median age was 53 (16-82) years with 46 patients being male (45%) and 57 female (55%). Primary melanoma sites included lower limb (49; 48%), upper limb (29; 28%), head (12; 11%), trunk (7; 7%) and back (6; 6%). The median Breslow thickness was 2mm. Superficial spreading accounted for 43% of melanoma with nodular accounting for 42%. Median follow-up was 40 (3-90) months. Of 20 relapses, seven recurred in the same nodal basin, three were satellite recurrences, one recurred with both satellite and nodal lesions simultaneously, and nine experienced haematogenous spread. Of the eight patients who developed recurrence in the same nodal basin, four were of nodular histological subtype (p=NS). All of the three patients with satellite lesions had nodular melanoma histologically (p=0.02). When nodal and satellite recurrences were combined, eight of 11 were histologically nodular (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that lymphatic recurrence occurs more often in SLNB negative patients with nodular melanoma. Further evaluation of the inclusion criteria for sentinel node biopsy is warranted.

  9. The use of 99mTc-Al2O3 for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Medvedeva, A.; Zeltchan, R.; Slonimskaya, E.; Doroshenko, A.; Varlamova, N.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the feasibility of using the new radiopharmaceutical based on the technetium-99m-labeled gamma-alumina for identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients. The study included two groups of breast cancer patients who underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperaive gamma probe identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). To identify SLNs, the day before surgery Group I patients (n = 34) were injected with radioactive 99mTc-Al2O3, and Group II patients (n = 30) received 99mTc-labeled phytate colloid. A total of 37 SLNs were detected in Group I patients. The number of identified SLNs per patient ranged from 1 to 2 (the average number of identified SLNs was 1.08). Axillary lymph nodes were the most common site of SLN localization. 18 hours after 99mTc-Al2O3 injection, the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 7-11% (of the counts in the injection site) by SPECT and 17-31% by gamma probe detection. In Group II SLNs were detected in 27 patients. 18 hours after injection of the phytate colloid the percentage of its accumulation in the SLN was 1.5-2% out of the counts in the injection site by SPECT and 4-7% by gamma probe. The new radiopharmaceutical based on the 99mTc-Al2O3 demonstrates high accumulation in SLNs without redistribution through the entire lymphatic basin. The sensitivity and specificity of 99mTc-Al2O3 were 100% for both SPECT and intraoperative gamma probe identification.

  10. Identification of sentinel lymph node in malignant melanoma by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma probe guidance; Diagnostik des `Sentinel Lymph Node` bei malignem Melanom: praeoperative Lymphszintigraphie und intraoperative Sondenmessung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, S.; Weiss, M.; Rossmueller, B.; Tatsch, K.; Hahn, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Heckmann, M.; Konz, B. [Dermatologische Klinik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Aim: The sentinel lymph node (SLN) has shown to reflect the histologic features of the remainder of the lymphatic basin in patients with melanoma and is of considerable prognostic relevance. Aim of the study was to localize the SLN pre- and intraoperatively by means of lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe guidance. Methods: 38 patients with histologically proven malignant melanoma (tumor thickness >0.75 mm) were preoperatively examined by injecting 40 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocoll intradermally around the lesion. The first lymph node identified was marked on the skin. Immediately after scintigraphy patients were referred to the operation room and intraoperatively mapped using a handheld gamma probe. Activity of the SLN and of the adjacent nodes was measured ex vivo. After excision of the SLN, the lymphatic basin was re-checked for radioactivity and activity of the SLN and of the adjacent nodes was re-measured after removal. Results: The hottest reading was found in all patients in vivo and ex vivo in the preoperatively marked lymph node. Morphologically (macroscopically, ultrasound, CT) all nodes were unsuspicious. Histologically, in 8 patients metastatic involvement of the lymph node was found which led to a wide exploration of the lymphatic basin with consecutive lymph node excision in 7 patients. Conclusion: The findings suggest that combined preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative mapping with a gamma probe is a powerful approach for exact localization of the SLN. Diagnostic detection of the SLN may have considerable impact for patient management, since extended lymph node dissection may be confined to patients presenting with positive SLN. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Der `sentinel lymph node` (SLN) reflektiert den Befall der nachfolgenden Lymphknoten-Stationen bei Patienten mit malignem Melanom und hat damit eine erhebliche prognostische Bedeutung. Ziel der Studie war die prae- und intraoperative Lokalisierung dieses Lymphknotens mittels Lymphszintigraphie und

  11. Cost-effectiveness of preoperative SPECT/CT combined with lymphoscintigraphy vs. lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node excision in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffels, Ingo; Leyh, Julia; Schadendorf, Dirk; Klode, Joachim [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, University-Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany); Mueller, Markus [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Medical controlling, University-Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany); Geisel, Marie Henrike [University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University-Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany); Poeppel, Thorsten [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University-Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Malignant melanoma has become a major growing interdisciplinary problem in public health worldwide. Sentinel lymph node excision (SLNE) in conjunction with preoperative SPECT/CT is considered the most sensitive and specific staging test for the detection of micrometastatic melanoma in regional lymph nodes. Among patients with clinically lymph node-negative melanoma, the use of SPECT/CT-aided SLNE compared with SLNE alone has been found to be associated with a higher frequency of metastatic involvement and a higher rate of disease-free survival. The aim of this study was to analyse the cost-effectiveness of SLNE with preoperative SPECT/CT for detecting sentinel lymph nodes versus that of standard SLNE with preoperative lymphoscintigraphy from a single-institution database. Cost-effectiveness analysis of two surgical approaches for SLNE for malignant melanoma at the University Hospital Essen, Skin Cancer Center in Essen, Germany. Between March 2003 and April 2011 464 patients eligible for SLNE were identified. Of these patients, 403 with clinically negative lymph nodes who underwent SLNE with or without preoperative SPECT/CT qualified for subsequent analysis. Between March 2003 and October 2008, 254 patients were operated upon with the standard technique. From November 2008, 149 patients underwent the SPECT/CT technique. Cost analysis showed a mean cost saving of EUR 710.50 when SPECT/CT was added to preoperative imaging. This was achieved by a reduction in operative time (median, Q1;Q3, 40 min, 40;50 min, vs. 45 min, 35;60 min; p = 0.002), hospital stay duration (5 days, 3;8 days, vs. 8 days, 4.5;14.5 days; p < 0.001) and more frequent use of local anaesthesia (90.6 % vs. 70.5 %; p < 0.001). The median cost of SLNE using SPECT/CT was EUR 1,619.7 (Q1;Q3 EUR 1,317.0;2,603.4) and of SLNE without SPECT/CT was EUR 2,330.2 (EUR 1,468.3;4,058.1; p < 0.001), a cost saving of 30.5 %. In patients with cutaneous melanoma, the use of preoperative SPECT/CT-aided SLNE compared

  12. Value and efficiency of sentinel lymph node diagnostics in patients with penile carcinoma with palpable inguinal lymph nodes as a new multimodal, minimally invasive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetzen, Ulf; Zuhayra, Maaz; Marx, Marlies; Zhao, Yi [University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Imaging Diagnostics and Therapy, Kiel (Germany); Colberg, Christian; Knuepfer, Stephanie; Juenemann, Klaus-Peter; Naumann, Carsten Maik [University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, Kiel (Germany); Baumann, Rene [University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Department of Radio Oncology, Kiel (Germany); Kaehler, Katharina Charlotte [University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Kiel (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The international guidelines recommend sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for lymph node staging in penile cancer with non-palpable inguinal lymph nodes (LN) but it is not recommended with palpable inguinal LN. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and morbidity of SLNB in combination with an ultrasound-guided resection of suspect inguinal LNs as a new multimodal, minimally invasive staging approach in these patients. We performed SLNB in 26 penile cancer patients with 42 palpable inguinal LNs. Prior to the combined staging procedures the patients underwent an ultrasound examination of the groins as well as planar lymphatic drainage scintigraphy and SPECT/CT scans. During the surgical procedure, the radioactive-labelled sentinel lymph nodes and, in addition, sonographically suspect LNs, were resected under ultrasound guidance. Follow-up screening was done by ultrasound examination of the groins according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology. Nineteen groins of 42 preoperatively palpable inguinal findings were histologically tumor-positive. SLNB alone showed lymphogenic metastases in 14 groins. Sonography revealed five further metastatic groins, which would not have been detected during SLNB due to a tumor-related blockage of lymphatic drainage or a so-called re-routing of the tracer. During follow-up, none of the 28 groins with tumor-negative LN status showed any LN recurrence in this combined investigation technique. The median follow-up period was 46 (24 to 92) months. Morbidity of this procedure was low at 4.76 % in relation to the number of groins resp. 7.69 % in relation to the number of patients. The results show that this combined procedure is a reliable multimodal diagnostic approach for treatment of penile cancer patients with palpable inguinal LNs. It is associated with low morbidity rates. SLNB alone would lead to a significantly higher false-negative rate in these patients. The encouraging results of this work can

  13. Intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast carcinoma by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, P; Zhang, W; Zhao, H; Lei, Y; Cui, L; Zhang, Y; Xu, Z

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a routine surgical staging procedure in clinically lymph node-negative breast cancer. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, a technique based on the biochemical composition of the tissue, has previously been found to be capable of differentiating between normal and malignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to explore the intraoperative use of FTIR spectroscopy for rapidly identifying metastatic SLNs, and distinguishing between metastatic and non-metastatic tissue. Freshly removed SLNs from patients with breast cancer were analysed. Samples were measured by FTIR spectroscopy before histopathological diagnosis. The FTIR spectrum of each sample identified ten bands from 2000 to 900 cm(-1) . The peak position, intensity and full width at half maximum of each absorbent band were measured, and the relative intensity ratios calculated. Canonical discriminant analysis was performed to discriminate between metastatic and non-metastatic samples. A total of 149 SLNs were removed from 49 patients. Histopathological examination confirmed 38 metastatic and 111 non-metastatic SLNs. Eighteen of 29 parameters were significantly different between the metastatic and non-metastatic SLNs. Five parameters were selected as independent factors to form discriminant functions. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of this method were 94·7, 90·1 and 91·3 per cent respectively. The accuracy of histological analysis of frozen sections was 100 per cent. FTIR spectroscopy is a promising technique for the real-time diagnosis of SLN metastasis during breast cancer surgery. Surgical relevance Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a highly accurate predictor of overall axillary status and has become the standard in disease staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer. A rapid and accurate intraoperative assessment of metastatic spread to the SLN provides the necessary information for the surgeon to proceed with immediate axillary

  14. High Resolution Magic Angle Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (HRMAS) in Intact Sentinel Node Biopsy from Breast Cancer Patients: A New Diagnostic Tool!

    OpenAIRE

    Surender Kumar; Shailendra Kumar; Ankita Singh Rathore; Sandeep Kumar; Raja Roy; Madhu Mati Goel; Gaurav Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The extent of axillary lymph node involvement is one of the most important prognostic markers in patients of breast cancer. However, axillary dissection is associated with significant morbidity. The intra-operative sentinel node biopsy (SNB) provides a basis for omitting the routine axillary clearance however; use of in-house frozen section histopathology is required in order to substitute later. We report the use of in vitro high resolution magic angle proton magnetic resonance...

  15. Is axillary lymph node dissection necessary after sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with mastectomy and pathological N1 breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yun; Chung, Debra; Cao, Minh-An; Apple, Sophia; Chang, Helena

    2014-12-01

    The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial reported that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) did not change the recurrence and overall survival (OS) rates in patients with lumpectomy and one to two positive nodes detected by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with mastectomy and pathological N1 disease found by SLNB could forego ALND. This is a retrospective study of 214 patients diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer who were treated by mastectomy and lymph node staging surgery (SLNB or ALND) at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between January 2002 and December 2010. Patients with pathological N1 disease were separated by their first nodal surgery into SLNB (subgroups: observation, radiation, and additional ALND with or without radiation) and ALND groups (subgroups: ALND with or without radiation). After a median follow-up of 43.6 months, the OS and systemic relapse-free survival (RFS) rate of the radiation group and additional ALND group were significantly better than the observation group (p = 0.031 and 0.046, respectively). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression was found to predict OS and patients' age, histological grade and HER2 expression predicted systemic recurrence. Compared with the SLNB group, pain (p = 0.021) and lymphedema (p = 0.043) occurred more frequently in the ALND group. Radiation was as effective as ALND in patients with mastectomy and N1 disease for OS and RFS rates, yet radiation after SLNB had fewer side effects than ALND. SLNB followed by radiation could replace ALND in patients with mastectomy and pathological N1 breast cancer identified by SLNB.

  16. Population based study on sentinel node biopsy before or after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in clinically node negative breast cancer patients: Identification rate and influence on axillary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heiden-van der Loo, M; de Munck, L; Sonke, G S; van Dalen, T; van Diest, P J; van den Bongard, H J G D; Peeters, P H M; Rutgers, E J T

    2015-05-01

    The timing of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is controversial in clinically node negative patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). We studied variation in the timing of axillary staging in breast cancer patients who received NAC and the subsequent axillary treatment in The Netherlands. Patients diagnosed with clinically node negative primary breast cancer between 1st January 2010 and 30th June 2013 who received NAC and SNB were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Data on patient and tumour characteristics, axillary staging and treatment were analysed. Two groups were defined: (1) patients with SNB before NAC (N=980) and (2) patients with SNB after NAC (N=203). Eighty-three percent of patients underwent SNB before NAC, with large regional variation (35-99%). The SN identification rate differed for SNBs conducted before and after NAC (98% versus 95%; p=0.032). A lower proportion of patients had a negative SNB when assessed before NAC compared to after (54% versus 67%; p=0.001). The proportion of patients receiving any axillary treatment was higher for those with SNB before NAC than after (45% versus 33%; p=0.006). In conclusion, variation exists in the timing of SNB in clinical practice in The Netherlands for clinically node negative breast cancer patients receiving NAC. The post-NAC SN procedure is, despite some lower SN identification rate, associated with a significantly less frequent axillary treatment and thus with less expected morbidity. The effect on recurrence rate is not yet clear. Patients in this registry will be followed prospectively for long-term outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A study on uterine lymphatic anatomy for standardization of pelvic sentinel lymph node detection in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Barbara; Lönnerfors, Céline; Bollino, Michele; Arechvo, Anastasija; Persson, Jan

    2017-05-01

    To describe the anatomy of uterine lymphatic drainage following cervical or fundal tracer injection to enable standardization of a pelvic sentinel lymph node (SLN) concept in endometrial cancer (EC). A prospective consecutive study of women with EC was conducted. A fluorescent dye (Indocyanine green) was injected into the cervix (n=60) or the uterine fundus (n=30). A systematic trans- and retroperitoneal mapping of uterine lymphatic drainage was performed. Positions of the pelvic SLNs, defined by afferent lymph vessels, and lymph node metastases were compared. Two consistent lymphatic pathways with pelvic SLNs were identified irrespective of injection site; an upper paracervical pathway (UPP) with draining medial external and/or obturator lymph nodes and a lower paracervical pathway (LPP) with draining internal iliac and/or presacral lymph nodes. Bilateral display of at least one pelvic pathway following cervical and fundal injection occurred in 98% and 80% respectively (p=0.005). Bilateral display of both pelvic pathways occurred in 30% and 20% respectively (p=0.6) as the LPP was less often displayed. Nearly one third of the 19% node positive patients had metastases along the LPP. No false negative SLNs were identified. Based on uterine lymphatic anatomy a bilateral detection of at least one SLN in both the UPP and LPP should be aimed for. Absence of display of the LPP may warrant a full presacral lymphadenectomy. Although pelvic pathways and positions of SLNs are independent of the tracer injection site, cervical injection is preferable due to a higher technical success rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Absence of Granzyme B positive tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in primary melanoma excisional biopsies is strongly associated with the presence of sentinel lymph node metastasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdt, I.S. van; Sluijter, B.J.; Leeuwen, P.A. van; Moesbergen, L.M.; Hooijberg, E.; Meijer, C.J.; Gruijl, T.D. de; Oudejans, J.J.; Boven, E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) status is strongly related to clinical outcome in melanoma patients. In this study we investigated the possible association between the presence of activated and/or suppressive Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) and SLN status in clinically stage I/II

  19. A systematic review and meta-analyses of sentinel lymph node identification in breast cancer and melanoma, a plea for tracer mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niebling, M. G.; Pleijhuis, R. G.; Bastiaannet, E.; Brouwers, A. H.; van Dam, G. M.; Hoekstra, Harald

    Purpose: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become a widely accepted staging procedure for both breast carcinoma and melanoma. The aim of our study was to systematically review different SLNB techniques and perform a meta-analysis for corresponding identification and false-negative rates.

  20. 89Zr-nanocolloidal albumin-based PET/CT lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node detection in head and neck cancer: Preclinical results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuveling, Derrek A.; Visser, Gerard W.M.; Baclayon, Marian; Roos, Wouter H.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Leemans, C. René; De Bree, Remco; Van Dongen, Guus A. M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying sentinel nodes near the primary tumor remains a problem in, for example, head and neck cancer because of the limited resolution of current lymphoscintigraphic imaging when using99mTc-nanocolloidal albumin. This study describes the development and evaluation of a nanocolloidal

  1. Absence of Granzyme B Positive Tumour-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Primary Melanoma Excisional Biopsies is Strongly Associated with the Presence of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. van Houdt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN status is strongly related to clinical outcome in melanoma patients. In this study we investigated the possible association between the presence of activated and/or suppressive Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs and SLN status in clinically stage I/II melanoma patients.

  2. Mapping the extent of disease by multislice computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and sentinel node evaluation in stage I and II cervical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaram S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: (1 To map the extent of disease in women with stage I and II carcinoma cervix by multislice spiral computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and sentinel nodes. (2 To assess accuracy of each modality individually and in conjunction with FIGO clinical staging. Design and Setting: Prospective, single-blind study. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radiodiagnosis, and Pathology, UCMS and GTBH and Division of Radiological Imaging and Bioinformatics, INMAS, Delhi. Material and Method: The study was conducted on 25 women with cervical cancer FIGO stage I and II. Each woman underwent clinical staging, multislice spiral CT and MRI which was compared to the gold-standard histopathology/cytology. The overall accuracy of each modality and improvement of clinical staging by CT/MRI were noted. Sentinel nodes were evaluated by intracervical Patent Blue V dye injection. Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated by 2Χ2 contingency tables. Results: The accuracy of staging by FIGO, CT and MRI was 68%, 52% and 80%, respectively. MRI and CT improved the overall accuracy of FIGO staging to 96% and 80%, respectively. Sentinel nodes were identified in 89% of patients with 91% accuracy. Conclusion: MRI emerges as the most valuable stand-alone modality improving accuracy of FIGO staging to 96%. Sentinel lymph-node evaluation appears promising in evaluating spread beyond cervix.

  3. The role of lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in the staging and treatment of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Wayne K

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing at an alarming rate, doubling in women and growing by more 300% in men during the past 25 years. The importance of diagnosing nodal metastatic disease, with the ability to detect smaller and smaller volumes of tumor in the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) biopsied using immunohistochemical staining, has impacted the accurate staging and stratification of melanoma patients. The role that elective lymph node dissection now plays in staging the melanoma patient and determining subsequent treatment has been greatly diminished in favor of less morbid and less invasive techniques that have a higher degree of accuracy in detecting occult nodal disease. This article explores what has driven the advent of selective or SLN biopsy, the rationale behind obtaining a preoperative lymphoscintigram, the technical details of the SLN biopsy procedure, and the refinement in the pathologic detection of ever smaller volumes of tumor in nymph node tissue removed. The role that these new modalities have played in changing the dynamic field of melanoma care is emphasized.

  4. The role of sentinel node mapping in malignant melanoma: experience with {sup 99m}Tc-phytate and a review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, Marcelo T.; Soares Junior, Jose; Marone, Marilia M.S.; Tavares, Marcia G.M.; Endo, Irene S.; Campos Neto, Guilherme C.; Lewin, Shlomo [Hospital Samaritano de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unidade de Diagnostico e Densitometria Ossea (UDDO)]. E-mail: mtsapienza@hotmail.com; Lopes, Margarida M.M. F.; Nakagawa, Sergio; Belfort, Francisco A. [Instituto Brasileiro de Controle do Cancer (IBCC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-04-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN), corresponding to the first lymph node draining the tumor, is usually the first one to receive its metastasis, and its biopsy is used to define the status of the whole lymphatic basin. The aim of this paper is to describe the use {sup 99m} Tc-phytate in SLN localization in malignant melanoma patients, and to review the main indications and information provided by SLN biopsy. A total of 92 patients with malignant melanoma was studied. Lymph node scintigraphy was carried out after the sub dermal injection of {sup 99m} Tc-Phytate. After 18-24 hours, intra-operative SLN localization was carried out using the gamma-probe and lymph node dissection was then performed. Lymphoscintigraphy identified the sentinel node in all studies and intra-operative detection using gamma-probe was reached in 98.8% of the cases. The SLN was involved in 23 patients (26%). The method's negative predictive value was 100%, and there were no side effects related to {sup 99m} Tc-Phytate. Scintigraphic and intra-operative sentinel node detection was satisfactorily performed using {sup 99m} Tc- Phytate, an easily available and low cost radiopharmaceutical. SLN mapping allows the use of more accurate tumor staging techniques and reduces surgical morbidity. (author)

  5. [Lymphatic mapping and inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy in anal canal cancers to avoid prophylactic inguinal irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, J Y; Gérard, J P; Chapet, O; Romestaing, P; Isaac, S

    2003-11-01

    Thirty-five patients with clinically N0 cancers of the canal anal, 33 epidermoid carcinomas et 2 melanomas were histologically staged with inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy (ISN). With the combined technique, blue dye and radiocolloid the ISN was identified in 100% of the cases. The ISN was invaded in 7 cases/33 for epidermoid tumors and 2/2 for melanomas. After 18 months of follow-up, no inguinal recurrence could be seen in ISN pN0 cases. In conclusion, ISN biopsy is a reliable procedure to stage anal canal cancers. It should prevent unnecessary prophylactic inguinal irradiation for pN0 ISN. Inguinal irradiation is only indicated in pN1 ISN.

  6. Innovating image-guided surgery: Introducing multimodal approaches for sentinel node detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, O.R.

    2013-01-01

    Founded on Halsted’s hypothesis of sequential tumor spread, selective biopsy of the tumor draining lymph nodes enables early detection of clinically occult nodal metastases while sparing patients the morbidity of an unnecessary lymph node dissection. Originally introduced for melanoma and breast

  7. Validation study of the modified injection technique for internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong BB

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bin-Bin Cong,1,2,* Xiao-Shan Cao,1,2,* Peng-Fei Qiu,1 Yan-Bing Liu,1 Tong Zhao,1 Peng Chen,1 Chun-Jian Wang,1 Zhao-Peng Zhang,1 Xiao Sun,1 Yong-Sheng Wang1 1Breast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan University-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Abstract: According to the hypothesis of internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern, a modified radiotracer injection technique (periareolar intraparenchyma, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance was established. To verify the accuracy of the hypothesis and validate the modified radiotracer injection technique and to observe whether the lymphatic drainage of the whole breast parenchyma could reach to the same IM-SLN, different tracers were injected into different locations of the breast. The validation study results showed that the correlation and the agreement of the radiotracer and the fluorescence tracer are significant (case-base, rs =0.808, P<0.001; Kappa =0.79, P<0.001. It proved that the lymphatic drainage from different location of the breast (the primary tumor, the subareolar plexus reached the same IM-SLNs and the hypothesis of IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern (ie, IM-SLN receives lymphatic drainage from not only the primary tumor area, but also the entire breast parenchyma. In other words, it validated the accuracy of our modified radiotracer injection technique. Keywords: breast cancer, internal mammary, sentinel lymph node biopsy, visualization rate

  8. The added value of SPECT-CT for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes in early stage oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toom, Inne J. den; Bree, Remco de [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); UMC Utrecht Cancer Center, University Medical Center, Department of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schie, Annelies van; Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Weert, Stijn van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Karagozoglu, K.H. [VU University Medical Center/Academic Centre for Dentistry (ACTA) Amsterdam, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bloemena, Elisabeth [VU University Medical Center/Academic Centre for Dentistry (ACTA) Amsterdam, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    To assess the role of single-photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography (SPECT-CT) for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with early stage (T1-T2) oral cancer and a clinically negative neck (cN0). In addition to planar lymphoscintigraphy, SPECT-CT was performed in 66 consecutive patients with early stage oral cancer and a clinically negative neck. The addition of SPECT-CT to planar images was retrospectively analyzed for the number of additional SLNs, more precise localization of SLNs, and importance of anatomical information by a team consisting of a nuclear physician, surgeon, and investigator. Identification rate for both imaging modalities combined was 98% (65/66). SPECT-CT identified 15 additional SLNs in 14 patients (22%). In 2/15 (13%) of these additional SLNs, the only metastasis was found, resulting in an upstaging rate of 3% (2/65). In 20% of the patients with at least one positive SLN, the only positive SLN was detected due to the addition of SPECT-CT. SPECT-CT was considered to add important anatomical information in two patients (3%). In 5/65 (8%) of the patients initially scored SLNs on planar lymphoscintigrams were scored as non-SLNs when SPECT-CT was added. There were four false-negative SLN biopsy procedures in this cohort. The addition of SPECT-CT to planar lymphoscintigraphy is recommended for the identification of more (positive) SLNs and better topographical orientation for surgery in sentinel lymph node biopsy for early stage oral cancer. (orig.)

  9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with a needle core biopsy diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ: is it justified?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, B

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has increased markedly with the introduction of population-based mammographic screening. DCIS is usually diagnosed non-operatively. Although sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) has become the standard of care for patients with invasive breast carcinoma, its use in patients with DCIS is controversial. AIM: To examine the justification for offering SNB at the time of primary surgery to patients with a needle core biopsy (NCB) diagnosis of DCIS. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of 145 patients with an NCB diagnosis of DCIS who had SNB performed at the time of primary surgery. The study focused on rates of SNB positivity and underestimation of invasive carcinoma by NCB, and sought to identify factors that might predict the presence of invasive carcinoma in the excision specimen. RESULTS: 7\\/145 patients (4.8%) had a positive sentinel lymph node, four macrometastases and three micrometastases. 6\\/7 patients had invasive carcinoma in the final excision specimen. 55\\/145 patients (37.9%) with an NCB diagnosis of DCIS had invasive carcinoma in the excision specimen. The median invasive tumour size was 6 mm. A radiological mass and areas of invasion <1 mm, amounting to "at least microinvasion" on NCB were predictive of invasive carcinoma in the excision specimen. CONCLUSIONS: SNB positivity in pure DCIS is rare. In view of the high rate of underestimation of invasive carcinoma in patients with an NCB diagnosis of DCIS in this study, SNB appears justified in this group of patients.

  10. Selective sentinel node biopsy after intratumour administration of radiotracer in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy in relation to the level of tumour response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Expósito, R; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Burgués, O; Casáns-Tormo, I; Bermejo-de Las Heras, B; Julve-Parreño, A; Caballero-Garate, A

    Our objective was to analyse the accuracy of the sentinel node biopsy, taking into consideration the scintigraphy detection rate after the intratumoural administration of the radiopharmaceutical in patients with breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The study included 60 patients with a diagnosis of invasive breast carcinoma, stage T1-T3, who received treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and were subsequently subjected to breast surgery and sentinel node biopsy after intra-tumour administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Scintigraphic detection of some sentinel node was achieved in 55/60 patients (91.6%). When those cases that received a second injection of the radiopharmaceutical, performed peri-areolarly due to a lack of tracer migration, were excluded, the detection rate dropped to 70% (42/60). When the detection of sentinel node, or its absence, was compared in those 42 patients, no differences were found with age, laterality-location of the lesion, size pre- and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy, histological grade, or immunohistochemical profile. There were significant differences when comparing the groups according to the degree of pathological tumour response, both with the Miller-Payne system (non-detection 44.4%-detection 16.7%, p = 0.003) as well as the residual cancer burden (72.2%-28.6%, pcancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy was below the optimal value, and sometimes a further, peri-areolar, injection was necessary, probably in relation to an alteration in the lymphatic drainage pathways. There was a significant inverse relationship between the detection of the sentinel node and level of pathological tumour response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  11. [Impact of the availability of an external nuclear medicine service in the application of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Marcel; Juncà, Valentín; Solsona, Jordi; Piqueras, Arturo; Puig, Sonia; Jimeno, Jaime; Pereira, José Antonio; Ortega, Marisa; Fernández, Alex; Fraile, Manuel; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Segura, Agia; Ferrer, Francisco; Grande, Luis

    2006-08-01

    To perform sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), nuclear medicine services that have previously undergone a validation phase are required. The aim of the present study was to analyze the possibility of performing this technique with a previously validated, external nuclear medicine service and to study its impact on the indication for radical axillary lymphadenectomy (RAL) and on length of postoperative hospital stay. We performed a prospective study in a cohort of patients with breast cancer starting from the introduction of SLNB in our center, which was made possible by collaboration with an external nuclear medicine service that performed lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel node detection. Intraoperative detection was performed through a portable probe. The feasibility of the project and its clinical impact were analyzed, taking a reduction in the number of lymphadenectomies and length of hospital stay as endpoints. A total of 196 patients with 201 breast carcinomas were treated. The most frequent interventions were tumorectomy (TC) with SLNB in 124 patients (62%), and TC with SLNB and RAL in 62 patients (31%). Sentinel node visualization on lymphoscintigraphy was achieved in 187/201 carcinomas (93.1%) and sentinel nodes were detected during the intervention in 182/187 carcinomas (97.4%). Sentinel node detection in the internal mammary chain was achieved in 23/201 carcinomas (11.4%). RAL was avoided in 131 of the 201 carcinomas (65%). Days of postoperative hospital stay with or without RAL showed a mean difference of 1.8 days (3.1 vs. 1.3; P < .001). SLNB is feasible with the collaboration of an external nuclear medicine service. This technique avoids 65% of RAL and reduces length of postoperative stay by 1.8 days.

  12. Validity of ultrasound-guided aspiration needle biopsy in the diagnosis of micrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes in patients with cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijan Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most aggressive solid cancers, that develops local, regional and distant metastases. The presence of metastases in lymph nodes is in correlation with Breslow tumor thickness. According to various researches, in melanoma with more than 4 mm Breslow thickness, lymph node micrometastases can be found in 60-70% of cases. Sentinel lymph nodes biopsy is a diagnostic procedure for lymph node micrometastasis detection, which is necessary for disease staging. In recent studies, ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration with cytology (US FNAC of the sentinel lymph node was used as less invasive procedure, but is not accepted as the standard procedure. The goal of this work was to define sensitivity, specification and precision of the ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration method in comparison with standard sentinel lymph node biopsy. Methods. After obtaining the Ethics Committee’s permission, from 2012 to 2014 a total of 60 patients with cutaneous melanoma were enrolled, and divided into three groups: group I with thin melanoma, group II with intermediate thickness melanoma and group III with thick melanoma. The presence of micrometastases in sentinel regional lymph nodes was analyzed by US FNAC. The results obtained were compared to sentinel lymph nodes biopsy (SLNB results. The golden standard for calculating the specific, sensitive and precise characteristics of the method of US FNAC of sentinel lymph nodes was histopathologic lymph node examination of sentinel lymph nodes acquired through biopsy. Results. Detection rate of US FNAC was 0% in the group I, 5% in the group II and 30% in the group III. SLNB detection rates were: 10% in the group I, 15% in the group II, and 45% in the group III. In melanoma thicker than 4 mm, 15% of the patients were false negative by US FNAC. The sensitivity of US FNAC for all the patients was 50%: in the group I, 0%; in the group II, 33.3%; and in the group III, 66

  13. Sentinel node biopsy using blue dye and technetium{sup 99} in advanced gastric cancer: anatomical drainage and clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F.A.V.; Rodrigues, M.A.; Cabral, M.A.; Pedrosa, M.S.; Braga, H. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Cirurgia; Drummond-Lage, A.P.; Wainstein, A.J.A., E-mail: albertojaw@gmail.com [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    Lymph node metastases are an independent prognosis factor in gastric carcinoma (GC) patients. Radical lymphadenectomy can improve survival but it can also increase surgical morbidity. As a principle, sentinel node (SN) navigation surgery can avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomy without compromising prognosis. In this pilot study, 24 patients with untreated GC were initially screened for SN navigation surgery, of which 12 were eligible. Five patients had T2 tumors, 5 had T3 tumors and 2 had T1 tumors. In 33% of cases, tumor diameter was greater than 5.0 cm. Three hundred and eighty-seven lymph nodes were excised with a median of 32.3 per patient. The SN navigation surgery was feasible in all patients, with a median of 4.5 SNs per patient. The detection success rate was 100%. All the SNs were located in N1 and N2 nodal level. In 70.9% of cases, the SNs were located at lymphatic chains 6 and 7. The SN sensitivity for nodal staging was 91.6%, with 8.3% of false negative. In 4 patients who were initially staged as N0, the SNs were submitted to multisection analyses and immunohistochemistry, confirming the N0 stage, without micrometastases. In one case initially staged as negative for nodal metastases based on SN analyses, metastases in lymph nodes other than SN were found, resulting in a 20% skip metastases incidence. This surgery is a reproducible procedure with 100% detection rate of SN. Tumor size, GC location and obesity were factors that imposed some limitations regarding SN identification. Results from nodal multisection histology and immunohistochemistry analysis did not change initial nodal staging. (author)

  14. Sentinel node biopsy using blue dye and technetium99 in advanced gastric cancer: anatomical drainage and clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.V. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymph node metastases are an independent prognosis factor in gastric carcinoma (GC patients. Radical lymphadenectomy can improve survival but it can also increase surgical morbidity. As a principle, sentinel node (SN navigation surgery can avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomy without compromising prognosis. In this pilot study, 24 patients with untreated GC were initially screened for SN navigation surgery, of which 12 were eligible. Five patients had T2 tumors, 5 had T3 tumors and 2 had T1 tumors. In 33% of cases, tumor diameter was greater than 5.0 cm. Three hundred and eighty-seven lymph nodes were excised with a median of 32.3 per patient. The SN navigation surgery was feasible in all patients, with a median of 4.5 SNs per patient. The detection success rate was 100%. All the SNs were located in N1 and N2 nodal level. In 70.9% of cases, the SNs were located at lymphatic chains 6 and 7. The SN sensitivity for nodal staging was 91.6%, with 8.3% of false negative. In 4 patients who were initially staged as N0, the SNs were submitted to multisection analyses and immunohistochemistry, confirming the N0 stage, without micrometastases. In one case initially staged as negative for nodal metastases based on SN analyses, metastases in lymph nodes other than SN were found, resulting in a 20% skip metastases incidence. This surgery is a reproducible procedure with 100% detection rate of SN. Tumor size, GC location and obesity were factors that imposed some limitations regarding SN identification. Results from nodal multisection histology and immunohistochemistry analysis did not change initial nodal staging.

  15. Does sentinel lymph node biopsy have a role in nodepositive head ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine diagnostic accuracy in patients with T1-4 N0-3 SCC of the oral cavity or oropharynx undergoing primary surgical resection and neck dissection. Results. Thirty-three patients were included in the study, 13 in the node-negative (N0) and 20 in the node-positive (N+) group. In the clinically N0 group the sensitivity of ...

  16. Lymph scintigraphy and pre- and intraoperative gamma probe measurements for localization of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in breast cancer; Lymphszintigraphie sowie prae- und intraoperative Sondenmessung zur Darstellung des Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) beim Mammakarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, W.; Czech, N.; Felde, U. zum; Kampen, W.U.; Henze, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Ostertag, H. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Gynaekologie und Geburtshilfe; Klutmann, S.; Bohuslavizki, K.H. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Luettges, J.; Sprenger, A. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine und Pathologische Anatomie

    2000-05-01

    Aim of this study was to prove the clinical value of nuclear medicine procedures to detect the sentinel lymph node (SLN) for SLN biopsy. Methods: In 132 patients with breast cancer we performed lymph scintigraphy of the breast as well as both pre- and intraoperative gamma probe measurements correlating the results with the findings of histopathology. Results: SLN were detectable in 62 of 110 patients according to a sensitivity of 56% when scanning was performed only at 1-2 h p.i. while the sensitivity increased to 86% (19 of 22 pts.) if sequential images were acquired up to 2 h p.i. One or more SLN were identified by a handheld gamma probe transcutaneously prior to surgery in 96% (113 of 118 pts.) of the patients who showed up with no clinically suspected lymph node metastases. Intraoperatively, in additionally 2 patients the SLN could be found resulting in a sensitivity of 97% (115 of 118 pts.). In only 3 patients with clinically no tumor spread to axillary lymph nodes no SLN could be identified by the probe. Skip lesions, i.e. lymph node metastases in patients with tumorfree SLN, occurred in 2 cases: Due to SLN biopsy in these patients lymph node staging was false negative compared to conventional staging by means of axillary lymph node dissection. Conclusion: The results demonstrate a high preoperative detection rate of SLN in patients with breast cancer using lymph scintigraphy and gamma probe measurements. Thus, nuclear medicine is capable of providing the basic requirements for SLN biopsy in the daily routine. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit im Vorfeld einer geplanten Multicenterstudie zur Wertigkeit der Sentinel-Lymphknoten (SLN) Biopsie war, die Zuverlaessigkeit der SLN-Detektion mit nuklearmedizinischen Methoden im klinischen Routinebetrieb zu ueberpruefen. Methoden: Bei 132 Patientinnen mit stanzbioptisch gesichertem Mammakarzinom fuehrten wir eine Lymphszintigraphie der Brust sowie eine prae- und intraoperative Gammasondenmessung durch und

  17. Results of a standardized protocol for sentinel node imaging in breast cancer with Tc-99m labeled nanocolloidal albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, T.; Schroth, H.J. [Municipal Hospital, Hanau (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Heuser, T.; Weller, E.; Zippel, H.H. [Dept. of Gynecology, Municipal Hospital, Hanau (Germany); Fitz, H. [Dept. of Pathology, Municipal Hospital, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the results of a standardized protocol for sentinel node (SN) detection in breast cancer using Tc-99m labeled nanocolloidal albumin and a combined intra- and subdermal injection technique. Methods: One hundred and fifty-five women with proven breast cancer (disease stages Tis-T2) were included. Four injections of 10 to 15 MBq of Tc-99m nanocolloid in 0.1 ml physiologic saline were administered intra- and subdermally at the 3, 6, 9 and 12 o'clock positions in the skin overlying the tumor. Planar scintigraphic images in lateral and anterior projections were obtained once between 2.5 and 18 hours after tracer administration. Guided by a gamma probe, all radioactive lymph nodes in the axilla were resected, then complete dissection followed. Results: In 151 of the 155 women (97.4%), nodal tracer uptake (range 1-7 foci, average 2.2) was scintigraphically revealed. In one of these cases, drainage was only to the internal mammary lymphatic chain. Three of the 4 women with detection failure presented with histologically proven tumor infiltration of the lymphatics and axillary involvement. In 49 of the patients with visualized axillary lymph nodes (32.7%), at least one SN was metastatic. In 21 cases, this SN was the only positive node. The remaining 101 patients with negative SN included 4 cases with axillary involvement. The sensitivity of the SN with respect to the histological status of the entire axilla was thus 92.5%, the negative predictive value was 96.0%. The overall accuracy of the method was 97.3%. There was a significant difference between the number of totally detected radioactive nodes in the groups with and without nodal metastases (3.49 vs. 2.57, p <0.01). Conclusion: The described protocol represents an easy reproducible and reliable method for SN detection in breast cancer that additionally allows flexible timing of surgery. Further, we found evidence that the number of scintigraphically visualized nodes also reflects

  18. A cut-off of 2150 cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number in sentinel lymph node may be a powerful predictor of non-sentinel lymph node status in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrenato, Irene; D'Alicandro, Valerio; Casini, Beatrice; Perracchio, Letizia; Rollo, Francesca; De Salvo, Laura; Di Filippo, Simona; Di Filippo, Franco; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Mottolese, Marcella; Buglioni, Simonetta

    2017-01-01

    Since 2007, one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) has been used as a diagnostic system for sentinel lymph node (SLN) examination in patients with breast cancer. This study aimed to define a new clinical cut-off of CK19 mRNA copy number based on the calculation of the risk that an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) will be positive. We analyzed 1529 SLNs from 1140 patients with the OSNA assay and 318 patients with positive SLNs for micrometastasis (250 copies) and macrometastasis (5000 copies) underwent ALND. Axillary non-SLNs were routinely examined. ROC curves and Youden's index were performed in order to identify a new cut-off value. Logistic regression models were performed in order to compare OSNA categorical variables created on the basis of our and traditional cut-off to better identify patients who really need an axillary dissection. 69% and 31% of OSNA positive patients had a negative and positive ALND, respectively. ROC analysis identified a cut-off of 2150 CK19 mRNA copies with 95% sensitivity and 51% specificity. Positive and negative predictive values of this new cut-off were 47% and 96%, respectively. Logistic regression models indicated that the cut-off of 2150 copies better discriminates patients with node negative or positive in comparison with the conventional OSNA cut-off (ppatients really need an ALND and which patients can avoid one. This is why we suggest that the negative cut-off should be raised from 250 to 2150. Furthermore, we propose that for patients with a copy number that ranges between 2150 and 5000, there should be a multidisciplinary discussion concerning the clinical and bio-morphological features of primary breast cancer before any decision is taken on whether to perform an ALND or not.

  19. Recognition of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer by nano-carbon and methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangzhou; Zhu, Yan; Qian, Yichuan; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    To compare the accuracy and feasibility of methylene blue and nano-carbon in clinical tracing of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Ninety-six PTC patients were selected and randomly divided into a methylene blue group and a nano-carbon group (n=48). During surgery, tracer agent was injected around the tumor, and SLNs were resected and subjected to frozen pathological examination. The results were compared with those of routine pathological examination after surgery. Latent lymph node metastasis (level VI and lateral neck) was detected in both groups, with neck distribution of SLNs. There was no significant difference in the detection rate or accuracy of SLNs between two groups (P>0.05). The incorrect resection rate of parathyroid gland and incidence of temporary hypoparathyroidism in the methylene blue group were significantly higher than those of the nano-carbon group (t=4.137, Pmethylene blue and nano-carbon as tracers, but using nano-carbon has a lower incidence rate of parathyroid injury, with great clinical prospects accordingly.

  20. Reliability of radioisotope-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy in penile cancer: verification in consideration of the European guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Tim; Uphoff, Jens; Henke, Rolf-Peter; Wawroschek, Friedhelm; Winter, Alexander

    2015-09-28

    Lymph node (LN) staging in penile cancer has strong prognostic implications. This contrasts with the high morbidity of extended inguinal LN dissection (LND) or over-treatment of many patients. Therefore, inguinal dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) or modified LND is recommended by the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines to evaluate the nodal status of patients with clinically node-negative penile cancer. This study analyzed the reliability and morbidity of radioguided DSNB in penile cancer under consideration of the current EAU recommendations in an experienced center with long-term follow-up. Thirty-four patients who received primary surgery and had radioguided inguinal DSNB for penile cancer (≥ T1G2) were included (July 2004 to July 2013). Preoperative sentinel LN (SLN) mapping was performed using lymphoscintigraphy after peritumoral injection of (99m)Technetium nanocolloid on the day of surgery. During surgery, SLNs were detected using a gamma probe. According to the EAU guidelines, a secondary ipsilateral radical inguinal LND was performed in patients who had positive SLNs. The false-negative and complication rates of DSNB were assessed. A total of 32 patients were analyzed. Two patients were lost to follow-up. A total of 166 SLNs (median, 5; range, 1-15) were removed and 216 LNs (SLNs + non-SLNs; median, 6; range, 2-19) were dissected. LN metastases were found in five of the 32 (15.6 %) patients and nine of the 166 (5.4 %) SLNs were found to contain metastases. None of the remaining 50 non-SLNs contained metastases. In only one of the five SLN-positive patients, a singular further metastasis was detected by secondary radical inguinal LND. During follow-up (median, 30.5; range, 5-95 months) no inguinal nodal recurrence was detected. DSNB-related complications occurred in 11.1 % of explored groins. Radioguided DSNB is a suitable procedure for LN staging in penile cancer considering the EAU recommendations and with the required experience. Under

  1. Magnetic sentinel lymph node biopsy and localization properties of a magnetic tracer in an in vivo porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anninga, Bauke; Ahmed, Muneer; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Pouw, Joost; Westbroek, David; Pinder, Sarah; Ten Haken, Bennie; Pankhurst, Quentin; Douek, Michael

    2013-08-01

    The standard for the treatment of early non-palpable breast cancers is wide local excision directed by wire-guided localization and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). This has drawbacks technically and due to reliance upon radioisotopes. We evaluated the use of a magnetic tracer for its localization capabilities and concurrent performance of SLNB using a handheld magnetometer in a porcine model as a novel alternative to the current standard. Ethical approval by the IRCAD Ethics Review Board, Strasbourg (France) was received. A magnetic tracer was injected in varying volumes (0.1-5 mL) subcutaneously into the areolar of the left and right 3rd inguinal mammary glands in 16 mini-pigs. After 4 h magnetometer counts were taken at the injection sites and in the groins. The magnetometer was used to localize any in vivo signal from the draining inguinal lymph nodes. Magnetic SLNB followed by excision of the injection site was performed. The iron content of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were graded and quantified. All excised specimens were weighed and volumes were calculated. Univariate analyses were performed to evaluate correlation. Magnetic SLNB was successful in all mini-pigs. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.86; p iron content of SLNs. Grading of SLNs on both H&E and Perl's staining correlated significantly with the iron content (p = 0.001; p = 0.003) and magnetometer counts (p < 0.001; p = 0.004). The peak counts corresponded to the original magnetic tracer injection sites 4 h after injection in all cases. The mean volume and weight of excised injection site specimens was 2.9 cm(3) (SD 0.81) and 3.1 g (SD 0.85), respectively. Injection of ≥0.5 mL magnetic tracer was associated with significantly greater volume (p = 0.05) and weight of excision specimens (p = 0.01). SLNB and localization can be performed in vivo using a magnetic tracer. This could provide a viable alternative for lesion localization and concurrent SLNB in the treatment of non-palpable breast

  2. The sentinel lymph node concept in pre- and intraoperative nuclear medicine diagnostics; Der Sentinel-Lymphknoten (SLN): prae- und intraoperative nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, H.; Wengenmair, H.; Kopp, J.; Dorn, R.; Groeber, S.; Heidenreich, P. [Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1999-10-01

    In 379 patients with suspected cutaneous melanoma, the SLN was detected in 99% using these criteria. During surgery the SLN was found in 99% of 260 patients who underwent SLNE. Statistics in breast cancer initially were not that good. In nine of 86 patients no SLN could be detected by scintigraphy before surgery. But eight of them were among the first 30 patients who underwent this procedure, only one SLN failed to show in the following 56 patients till now (learning curve.). 50 patients with prostate cancer underwent sentinel lymphoscintigraphy. Only in one patient no radioactive tagged lymph node could be detected pre- or intraoperatively, this patient had prior transurethral resection of the prostate. One patient with disease-free SLN had a micrometastasis in another lymph node. The results lead to the conclusion that lymphoscintigraphy plays a major role in planning cutaneous melanoma and breast cancer surgery. The positive experiences with these two tumor entities will lead to easier and more rapid solutions in difficult tasks like e.g. SLN diagnostics in prostate cancer. (orig.) [German] Bei 379 Patienten mit Verdacht auf malignes Melanom ergab sich unter Einhaltung dieser Kriterien praeoperativ ein SLN-Nachweis von ueber 99%. Intraoperativ konnte bei 260 Patienten, die eine SLNE erhielten, der SLN ebenfalls in ueber 99% der Faelle nachgewiesen werden. Weniger gut sieht die Statistik beim Mammakarzinom aus. Bei 86 Patientinnen wurde neunmal praeoperativ kein SLN nachgewiesen. Acht der neun Patientinnen fanden sich allerdings unter den ersten 30, waehrend unter den letzten 56 Patientinnen nur einmal der SLN praeoperativ nicht zur Darstellung kam (Lernkurve.). 50 Patienten mit einem Prostatakarzinom wurden untersucht. Bei einem dieser Patienten konnte weder prae- noch intrapoperativ ein radioaktiv markierter Lymphknoten nachgewiesen werden (Zustand nach TUR). Ein Patient hatte bei negativem SLN eine solitaere Mikrometastase in einem anderen Lymphknoten

  3. [Selective biopsy of the sentinel lymph node in patients with breast cancer and previous excisional biopsy: is there a change in the reliability of the technique according to time from surgery?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté-Llobera, A; Notta, P C; Benítez-Segura, A; López-Ojeda, A; Pernas-Simon, S; Boya-Román, M P; Bajén, M T

    2015-01-01

    To assess the influence of time on the reliability of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients with previous excisional biopsy (EB), analyzing both the sentinel lymph node detection and the lymph node recurrence rate. Thirty-six patients with cT1/T2 N0 breast cancer and previous EB of the lesion underwent a lymphoscintigraphy after subdermal periareolar administration of radiocolloid, the day before SLNB. Patients were classified into two groups, one including 12 patients with up to 29 days elapsed between EB and SLNB (group A), and another with the remaining 24 in which time between both procedures was of 30 days or more (group B). Scintigraphic and surgical detection of the sentinel lymph node, histological status of the sentinel lymph node and of the axillary lymph node dissection, if performed, and lymphatic recurrences during follow-up, were analyzed. Sentinel lymph node visualization at the lymphoscintigraphy and surgical detection were 100% in both groups. Histologically, three patients showed macrometastasis in the sentinel lymph node, one from group A and two from group B. None of the patients, not even those with malignancy of the sentinel lymph node, relapsed after a medium follow-up of 49.5 months (24-75). Time elapsed between EB and SLNB does not influence the reliability of this latter technique as long as a superficial injection of the radiopharmaceutical is performed, proving a very high detection rate of the sentinel lymph node without evidence of lymphatic relapse during follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: results of the GEICAM 2005-07 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero-Madrona, Antonio; Escudero-Barea, María J; Fernández-Robayna, Francisco; Alberro-Adúriz, José A; García-Fernández, Antonio; Vicente-García, Francisco; Dueñas-Rodriguez, Basilio; Lorenzo-Campos, Miguel; Caparrós, Xavier; Cansado-Martínez, María P; Ramos-Boyero, Manuel; Rojo-Blanco, Roberto; Serra-Genís, Constantí

    2015-01-01

    A controversial aspect of breast cancer management is the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients requiring neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). This paper discusses the detection rate (DT) and false negatives (FN) of SLNB after NCT to investigate the influence of initial nodal disease and the protocols applied. Prospective observational multicenter study in women with breast cancer, treated with NCT and SLNB post-NCT with subsequent lymphadenectomy. DT and FN rates were calculated, both overall and depending on the initial nodal status or the use of diagnostic protocols pre-SLNB. No differences in DT between initial node-negative cases and positive cases were found (89.8 vs. 84.4%, P=.437). Significant differences were found (94.1 vs. 56.5%, P=0,002) in the negative predictive value, which was lower when there was initial lymph node positivity, and a higher rate of FN, not significant (18.2 vs. 43.5%, P=.252) in the same cases. The axillary study before SLNB and after the NCT, significantly decreased the rate of FN in patients with initial involvement (55.6 vs 12.5, P=0,009). NCT means less DT and a higher rate of FN in subsequent SLNB, especially if there is initial nodal involvement. The use of protocols in axillary evaluation after administering the NCT and before BSGC, decreases the FN rate in these patients. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation between theoretical anatomical patterns of lymphatic drainage and lymphoscintigraphy findings during sentinel node detection in head and neck melanomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Monica; Ruiz, Diana Milena [Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Paredes, Pilar; Pons, Francesca [Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Nuclear Medicine Department, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques Agusti Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); Torres, Ferran [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Statistical of Biostatistics and Data Management Core Facility, IDIBAPS, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Biostatistics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    In the diagnosis of head and neck melanoma, lymphatic drainage is complex and highly variable. As regional lymph node metastasis is one of the most important prognostic factors, lymphoscintigraphy can help map individual drainage patterns. The aim of this study was to compare the results of lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection with theoretical anatomical patterns of lymphatic drainage based on the location of the primary tumour lesion in patients with head and neck melanoma. We also determined the percentage of discrepancies between our lymphoscintigraphy and the theoretical location of nodal drainage predicted by a large lymphoscintigraphic database, in order to explain recurrence and false-negative SLN biopsies. In this retrospective study of 152 patients with head and neck melanoma, the locations of the SLNs on lymphoscintigraphy and detected intraoperatively were compared with the lymphatic drainage predicted by on-line software based on a large melanoma database. All patients showed lymphatic drainage and in all patients at least one SLN was identified by lymphoscintigraphy. Of the 152 patients, 4 had a primary lesion in areas that were not described in the Sydney Melanoma Unit database, so agreement could only be evaluated in 148 patients. Agreement between lymphoscintigraphic findings and the theoretical lymphatic drainage predicted by the software was completely concordant in 119 of the 148 patients (80.4 %, 95 % CI 73.3 - 86 %). However, this concordance was partial (some concordant nodes and others not) in 18 patients (12.2 %, 95 % CI 7.8 - 18.4 %). Discordance was complete in 11 patients (7.4 %, 95 % CI 4.2 - 12.8 %). In melanoma of the head and neck there is a high correlation between lymphatic drainage found by lymphoscintigraphy and the predicted drainage pattern and basins provided by a large reference database. Due to unpredictable drainage, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy is essential to accurately detect the SLNs in head and

  6. Factors affecting sentinel lymph node identification rate after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients enrolled in ACOSOG Z1071 (Alliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughey, Judy C; Suman, Vera J; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Ahrendt, Gretchen M; Wilke, Lee G; Taback, Bret; Leitch, A Marilyn; Flippo-Morton, Teresa S; Kuerer, Henry M; Bowling, Monet; Hunt, Kelly K

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate factors affecting sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with initial node-positive breast cancer. SLN surgery is increasingly used for nodal staging after NAC and optimal technique for SLN identification is important. The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 prospective trial enrolled clinical T0-4, N1-2, M0 breast cancer patients. After NAC, SLN surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) were planned. Multivariate logistic regression modeling assessing factors influencing SLN identification was performed. Of 756 patients enrolled, 34 women withdrew, 21 were ineligible, 12 underwent ALND only, and 689 had SLN surgery attempted. At least 1 SLN was identified in 639 patients (92.7%: 95% CI: 90.5%-94.6%). Among factors evaluated, mapping technique was the only factor found to impact SLN identification; with use of blue dye alone increasing the likelihood of failure to identify the SLN relative to using radiolabeled colloid +/- blue dye (P = 0.006; OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 1.47-9.92). The SLN identification rate was 78.6% with blue dye alone; 91.4% with radiolabeled colloid and 93.8% with dual mapping agents. Patient factors (age, body mass index), tumor factors (clinical T or N stage), pathologic nodal response to chemotherapy, site of tracer injection, and length of chemotherapy treatment did not significantly affect the SLN identification rate. The SLN identification rate after NAC was higher when mapping was performed using radiolabeled colloid alone or with blue dye compared with blue dye alone. Optimal tracer use is important to ensure successful identification of SLN(s) after NAC.

  7. Prevention of an additional surgery for regional lymphadenectomy in melanoma: rapid intraoperative immunostaining of sentinel lymph node imprint smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Bruce H

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy is performed at many institutions and is considered a standard of care in the management of cutaneous melanoma. The discriminatory immunostaining pattern with the 'MCW Melanoma Cocktail' (a mixture of MART-1 {1:500}, Melan- A {1:100}, and Tyrosinase {1:50} monoclonal antibodies allows intraoperative immunocytochemical evaluation of imprint smears of SLNs for melanoma metastases. Cohesive cells of benign capsular melanocytic nevi that were also immunoreactive with the cocktail do not exfoliate easily for imprint smear detection. Methods We prospectively evaluated 73 lymph nodes (70 SLN & 3 non-SLN from 41 cases (mean 1.8, 1 to 4 SLNs/case of cutaneous melanoma using a rapid 17-minute immunostaining previously published protocol. The results were compared with permanent sections also immunostained with 'the cocktail'. Results 19.5%, 8/41 cases (12%, 9/73 lymph nodes were positive for melanoma metastases on permanent sections immunostained with the 'MCW melanoma cocktail'. Melanoma metastases in 87.5% (7/8 of these cases were also detected in rapidly immunostained imprint smears, with 100% specificity and 90% sensitivity. None of the 7 SLNs from 7 cases with capsular nevi showed false positive results. Conclusion Melanoma metastases could be detected in imprint smears immunostained with 'MCW Melanoma Cocktail' utilizing a rapid intraoperative protocol. The cohesive cells of the capsular nevi do not readily exfoliate and do not lead to false positive interpretation. In a majority of positive cases, a regional lymphadenectomy could have been completed during the same surgery for SLN biopsy and wide excision of primary melanoma site, potentially eliminating the need for an additional surgery.

  8. An original approach in the diagnosis of early breast cancer: use of the same radiopharmaceutical for both non-palpable lesions and sentinel node localisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feggi, L.; Prandini, N. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, S. Anna Hospital, Ferrara (Italy); Basaglia, E.; Soliani, G.; Ascanelli, S.; Bergossi, L.; Carcoforo, P. [Dept. of General Surgery, University of Ferrara (Italy); Corcione, S. [Dept. of Radiology, S. Anna Hospital, Ferrara (Italy); Querzoli, P. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2001-11-01

    We propose the use of a single nanocolloid tracer which is labelled with technetium-99m for simultaneous performance of ROLL and sentinel node indentification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of this approach, which should be easier and more practical than the dual-tracer injection method. We have employed this new technique in 73 patients with non-palpable, cytologically diagnosed breast cancer and non-palpable axillary lymph nodes. In all patients the radiocolloid, in a total volume of 0.3-0.4 cc, was injected under sonographic or stereotactic guidance. Half of the dose was injected intratumourally and half superficially, but very close to the tumour. Because of the slow lymphatic flow in the breast, Nanocoll must be injected some time before surgery in order to enable adequate migration to the axilla. We injected colloid in the afternoon before surgery (16-23 h before the start of the operation, with an average interval of 18 h). An average dose of 130 MBq (range 110-150) was injected in order to have about 10 MBq of radioactivity when surgery commenced. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed after 15-19 h, with an average interval of 17 h. The procedure was always successful in permitting the localisation of occult breast lesions. Lesions were always localised at the first attempt, and were always contained within the surgical margins. Histological examination revealed all 73 resected lesions to be malignant: there were 64 cases of infiltrating carcinoma and nine of intraductal carcinoma. All breast lesions were therefore confirmed to be early breast cancer. We achieved sentinel node localisation in 71 out of 73, either at scintigraphy or with the intraoperative probe; in two patients, radiopharmaceutical migration was absent. Lymphoscintigraphy showed only axillary drainage in 52 cases, only internal mammary chain (IMC) drainage in nine cases, and combined axillary and IMC drainage in eight cases. In two cases, lymphoscintigraphy suggested the

  9. Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection to Select Clinically Node-negative Prostate Cancer Patients for Pelvic Radiation Therapy: Effect on Biochemical Recurrence and Systemic Progression

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    Grivas, Nikolaos, E-mail: n.grivas@nki.nl [Department of Urology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wit, Esther [Department of Urology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jong, Jeroen de [Department of Pathology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vegt, Erik [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bex, Axel; Hendricksen, Kees; Horenblas, Simon [Department of Urology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); KleinJan, Gijs [Department of Urology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Rhijn, Bas van; Poel, Henk van der [Department of Urology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of robotic-assisted laparoscopic sentinel lymph node (SLN) dissection (SLND) to select those patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who would benefit from additional pelvic external beam radiation therapy and long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and Materials: Radioisotope-guided SLND was performed in 224 clinically node-negative patients scheduled to undergo external beam radiation therapy. Patients with histologically positive SLNs (pN1) were also offered radiation therapy to the pelvic lymph nodes<