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Sample records for testing normative threshold

  1. Normative data for the Maryland CNC Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Lisa Lucks; Mustain, William D; Magro, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    The Maryland consonant-vowel nucleus-consonant (CNC) Test is routinely used in Veterans Administration medical centers, yet there is a paucity of published normative data for this test. The purpose of this study was to provide information on the means and distribution of word-recognition scores on the Maryland CNC Test as a function of degree of hearing loss for a veteran population. A retrospective, descriptive design was conducted. The sample consisted of records from veterans who had Compensation and Pension (C&P) examinations at a Veterans Administration medical center (N = 1,760 ears). Audiometric records of veterans who had C&P examinations during a 10 yr period were reviewed, and the pure-tone averages (PTA4) at four frequencies (1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz) were documented. The maximum word-recognition score (PBmax) was determined from the performance-intensity functions obtained using the Maryland CNC Test. Correlations were made between PBmax and PTA4. A wide range of word-recognition scores were obtained at all levels of PTA4 for this population. In addition, a strong negative correlation between the PBmax and the PTA4 was observed, indicating that as PTA4 increased, PBmax decreased. Word-recognition scores decreased significantly as hearing loss increased beyond a mild hearing loss. Although threshold was influenced by age, no statistically significant relationship was found between word-recognition score and the age of the participants. RESULTS from this study provide normative data in table and figure format to assist audiologists in interpreting patient results on the Maryland CNC test for a veteran population. These results provide a quantitative method for audiologists to use to interpret word-recognition scores based on pure-tone hearing loss. American Academy of Audiology.

  2. Normative data for cutaneous threshold and spatial discrimination in the feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Willem D; Aziz, M Hosein; Van Deelen, Meike J M; Willemsen, Sten P; Castro Cabezas, Manuel; Van Neck, Johan W; Coert, J Henk

    2017-09-01

    No data are available for normative values of cutaneous threshold and spatial discrimination in the feet. We developed clinically applicable reference values in relation to the nerve distributions of the feet. We determined foot sensation in 196 healthy individuals. Cutaneous threshold (1-point static discrimination, S1PD) was tested with monofilaments (0.008 to 300 gram) and spatial discrimination (2-point static [S2PD] and moving [M2PD] discrimination) on five locations per foot. There was a significant age-dependent increase in S1PD, S2PD, and M2PD values (P feet. S1PD values differed up to 0.8 g between genders. There were no significant differences between genders for S2PD and M2PD measurements. M2PD values were generally lower than S2PD values. This study provides age-related normative values for foot sensation to help clinicians assess sensory deficits in relation to aging and identify patients with underlying nerve problems. Muscle Nerve 56: 399-407, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Normative adductor squeeze tests scores in rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Lisa; Hignett, Tom; Edwards, Kim

    2015-05-01

    Groin pain is a common problem. Adductor squeeze tests are used to diagnose, monitor and prophylactically determine the risk of developing groin pain. This study defines normative adductor squeeze scores in professional rugby that will facilitate strength monitoring during screening. Using a sphygnamometer, squeeze scores were collected, at one professional rugby club as part of the pre-season screening for two seasons. Scores were collected in four positions. For all positions mean strength and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Data were collected for 81 athletes. Mean strength for adduction at 60° was 220.1 (212.2-228.1); 0° 211.1 (201.7-220.5); 90°90° 198.8 (190.0-207.7); 90°90° supported 224.9 (214.9-234.9). Backs had lower squeeze scores than forwards for 0°, 90°:90° and 90°:90° supported (p > 0.05 for all four tests); older players had lower scores, as did shorter and lighter players (p > 0.05 except for height with test 60° p = 0.048 and test 90°:90° supported p = 0.035). This study establishes references ranges for adductor squeeze tests for normative pre-season data in non-injured rugby players. This information will enable evaluation and inform return to play judgements following adductor related injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards a comprehensive test specification for normative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study assessed the extent to which the primary tenets of Conservation of Resources theory provide an adequate basis for categorising and conceptualising normative adolescent fears. Method: Initial descriptive research, using data obtained from a sample of South African adolescents (n = 163), used ...

  5. Normative auditory brainstem response data for hearing threshold and neuro-otological diagnosis in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, J N; Munro, K J; Cox, C L

    1997-03-01

    There is growing interest in the application of auditory brainstem response (ABR) audiometry for hearing assessment in dogs. The technique is far from standardised, however, resulting in large discrepancies between studies. This study aimed to obtain normative data, under clearly defined conditions, for two breeds of significantly different size; head size being a potential factor determining ABR latency values. The subjects, 20 dalmatians and 20 Jack Russell terriers, were sedated prior to ABR testing, and subcutaneous scalp electrodes used to detect the evoked potential elicited by a click stimulus presented via insert earphones. The mean ABR thresholds for the two breeds, 0 and -5 decibels re normal hearing level (dB nHL), respectively, were very similar to those for humans. The latency values of the main ABR waves and the interval between them were statistically significantly smaller for the smaller breed, but there was no correlation with head size within either breed. The results provide a baseline to assist with confirmation of hearing impairment and neuro-otological diagnosis in the dog.

  6. Electrical perceptual threshold testing: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Grace W S; Gorrie, Catherine A; Ng, Karl; Rutkowski, Sue; Waite, Phil M E

    2009-01-01

    To investigate inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of electrical perceptual threshold (EPT) testing in assessing somatosensory function in healthy volunteers. Prospective experimental. Hospital-based spinal cord injuries unit. Cutaneous electrical stimulation of 4 dermatomes at ASIA sensory key points (C3, T1, L3, and S2) was performed on 40 control subjects. The lowest ascending stimulus intensity at which sensation was perceived was recorded as the EPT. Mean EPT values for each dermatome, as determined by 2 testers at 2 time points, were examined and plotted against a normative template. Differences and associations between intra- and inter-rater measurements and left-right measurements were studied. EPT results for 2 people with spinal cord injuries were also examined. EPT measurements from left and right sides, obtained from the 2 time points and 2 testers, were found to be strongly associated, with the exception of left and right side measurements at the S2 dermatome. No significant differences in the mean EPT for tester or time period were found. The intra- and inter-rater reliability was good for all dermatomes tested. Mean EPT measurements fell within the range of a normative template at each of the 4 dermatomes tested. EPT is an objective, reproducible, and quantifiable method of assessing sensation in a control group. However, caution should be applied in certain dermatomes such as S2, where there was large variation between left and right side measurements.

  7. Czech version of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test: normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdicek, Ondrej; Stepankova, Hana; Moták, Ladislav; Axelrod, Bradley N; Woodard, John L; Preiss, Marek; Nikolai, Tomáš; Růžička, Evžen; Poreh, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides normative data stratified by age for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test Czech version (RAVLT) derived from a sample of 306 cognitively normal subjects (20-85 years). Participants met strict inclusion criteria (absence of any active or past neurological or psychiatric disorder) and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Our analyses revealed significant relationships between most RAVLT indices and age and education. Normative data are provided not only for basic RAVLT scores, but for the first time also for a variety of derived (gained/lost access, primacy/recency effect) and error scores. The study confirmed a logarithmic character of the learning slope and is consistent with other studies. It enables the clinician to evaluate more precisely subject's RAVLT memory performance on a vast number of indices and can be viewed as a concrete example of Quantified Process Approach to neuropsychological assessment.

  8. Indeterminacy and the normative basis of the harm threshold for overriding parental decisions: a response to Birchley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind J

    2016-02-01

    Birchley's critique of the harm threshold for overriding parental decisions is successful in demonstrating that the harm threshold, like the best interests standard, suffers from the problem of indeterminacy. However, his focus on critiquing empirical rather than normative arguments for the harm threshold means that his broad conclusion that it is 'ill-judged' is not justified. Advocates of the harm threshold can accept that the concept of harm to a child is indeterminate, yet still invoke strong normative arguments for this way of responding to parental decisions that conflict with medical recommendations. I suggest that Birchley's discussion, rather than showing that the harm threshold is mistaken, instead highlights the importance of developing a comprehensive account of children's interests, for proponents of a best interests approach and for advocates of the harm threshold. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Non-dynamometric trunk performance tests: reliability and normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaranta, H; Hurri, H; Heliövaara, M; Soukka, A; Harju, R

    1994-12-01

    A sample of 508 male and female white-collar and blue-collar employees aged 35 to 54 years was evaluated clinically to determine the reliability of repetitive sit-ups, repetitive arch-ups, repetitive squatting, and static back endurance tests, to determine the normal values of these tests and to detect determinants for trunk muscle performance. All of the given tests had fairly good or even excellent test-retest reliability. Muscular performance capacity decreased with advancing age, particularly among blue-collar workers. Men showed greater muscle endurance in all the muscle tests, and blue-collar workers lower values in all tests. The repetitive tests, in particular, showed reduced values in those with previous low-back pain. Normative values of back endurance, repetitive squatting, sit-up and arch-up tests for different age, sex and occupational groups are presented.

  10. The modified Romberg Balance Test: normative data in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Yuri; Carey, John P; Hoffman, Howard J; Sklare, Daniel A; Schubert, Michael C

    2011-10-01

    To generate normative values for performance on the modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support Surfaces stratified by age, sex, and race/ethnicity and to determine fall risk associated with different levels of performance. National cross-sectional survey. Ambulatory examination centers. U.S. adults 40 years and older who participated in the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5,086). Time to failure on the modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance on Firm and Compliant Support Surfaces. History of falling in the previous 12 months. We observed that the time to failure decreased with increasing age across all sex and race/ethnicity categories. We found that once individuals went below a time to failure of 20 seconds, there was a significant greater than 3-fold increase in the odds of falling. In general, participants crossed the 20-second threshold at the age of 60 to 69 years. We established nationally representative normative values for performance on the modified Romberg test and noted differences in the rates of change across demographic groups. In addition, we demonstrated the fall risk associated with different levels of performance. These data will aid the clinician in interpreting and risk stratifying their patient's performance on this postural test.

  11. Body coordination test for children (KTK: Applications and normative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Sá Carneiro Ribeiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present review were: i to demonstrate the use of the Body Coordination Test for Children (Körperkoordinationstest Für Kinder - KTK in diverse populations of children, ii to describe studies that developed reference values for KTK, and iii to ascertain the existence of reference values of KTK for Brazilian children’s motor coordination. The selection of publications was performed between April and June (2010 and the Pubmed, Lilacs and www.google.com/scholar databases were employed. The results indicated that the KTK is an evaluation instrument for motor coordinative performance appropriate to be applied in different childish populations, such as Down syndrome bearers. Most studies that constructed reference values for their childish population showed lower mean values than those established from the group of German children from whom originated the reference data of KTK. This fact demonstrates the importance of the construction of normative data in different countries in view of diverse biological, social, economical and cultural characteristics to be considered. Finally, it was observed the absence of reference data of KTK for Brazilian children, however, it is undeniable the importance of applying the test to evaluate the global motor coordination of these children.

  12. Acoustic stapedial reflexes in healthy neonates: normative data and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kei, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The acoustic stapedial reflex (ASR) test provides useful information about the function of the auditory system. While it is frequently used with adults and children in a clinical setting, its use with young infants is limited. Presently, there are few data for neonates and inadequate research into the test-retest reliability of the ASR test. This study aimed to establish normative data and evaluate the test-retest reliability of the ASR test in healthy neonates. A cross-sectional experimental design was used to establish ASR normative data and assess the test-retest reliability of ASR thresholds obtained from healthy neonates. Sixty-eight full-term neonates with mean chronological age of 2.5 days (SD = 1.8 day), who passed the automated auditory brainstem response, transient evoked otoacoustic emission, and high frequency (1 kHz) tympanometry (HFT) tests. One randomly selected ear from each neonate was tested using TEOAE (transient evoked otoacoustic emission), HFT, and ASR tests using a 1 kHz probe tone. ASR thresholds were elicited by presenting pure tones of 0.5, 2, and 4 kHz and broadband noise (BBN) separately to the test ear in an ipsilateral stimulation mode. The ASR procedure was repeated to acquire retest data within the same testing session. Descriptive statistics, χ2, and analysis of variance with repeated measures tests were used to analyze ASR data. All neonates exhibited ASR when stimulated by tonal stimuli or BBN. The mean ASRTs (acoustic stapedial reflex thresholds) for the 0.5, 2, and 4 kHz tones were 81.6 ± 7.9, 71.3 ± 7.9, and 65.4 ± 8.7 dB HL, respectively. The mean ASRT for the BBN was estimated to be smaller than 57.2 dB HL, given the limitation of the equipment. The 95th percentiles of the ASRT were 95, 85, 80, and 75 dB HL for the 0.5, 2, and 4 kHz and BBN, respectively. The test-retest reliability of the ASR test for all stimuli was high, with no significant difference in mean ASRTs across the test and retest conditions. Test

  13. Normative data for a new memory test: the Shum Visual Learning Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, D H; O'Gorman, J G; Eadie, K

    1999-05-01

    This study reports normative data and test-retest reliabilities for a visuo-spatial memory test, the Shum Visual Learning Test (SVLT). Participants were 146 Caucasians (70 males and 76 females, age range between 17-83 years). The test was administered to 116 participants once and 30 participants twice (1 month apart). Age (but not gender and education) was found to affect SVLT test performance. The norms, therefore, were presented according to seven age groups (viz., 17-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70+ years). Three indices (learning, retention after interference, and delayed retention) were derived for descriptive and clinical purposes. The test-retest reliabilities for all trials of the SVLT (except Trial 6) were found to be significant (rs ranged from .63 to .82). Normative data reported allow neuropsychologists to compare patient performances with those of appropriate controls and are important for fostering clinical application of this test.

  14. Nutrient drink test: Normative values in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shava, Upender; Srivastava, Anshu; Mathias, Amrita; Yachha, Surender Kumar; Poddar, Ujjal

    2017-09-01

    Nutrient drink test (NDT) is a simple, non-invasive method to assess gastric function including accommodation. However, data on normal satiety drink volume (SDV) in children is scanty with no information about postprandial symptoms (PPS). Our aims were to establish normal values of NDT in healthy children and evaluate its correlation with age, gender, and anthropometry. Six- to 18-year-old healthy children underwent the NDT. The nutrient drink (0.94 kcal/mL) was given at a constant rate of 15 mL/min in 6-12-year-old subjects and at 30 mL/min in 13-18-year-old subjects till satiety score of 5 was reached. Postprandial symptoms (30 min) of fullness, nausea, bloating, and pain were scored using a visual analogue scale (0-100 mm) individually and as aggregate score. Sixty-seven children (40 boys, age 12 [6-18 years]) were enrolled. Median SDV was 360 [180-960 mL], higher in 13-18-year-olds in comparison to 6-12-year-old children (360 [240-1002] vs. 300 [148-960] mL; p=0.005). SDV showed significant correlation with age, weight, and height. SDV was higher in boys than girls (450 [240-1074] vs. 330 [240-480] mL; p=0.02) in the older children (13-18 y), but it was similar in the younger children. Mild fullness (40 [0-80]) was the only PPS seen in 85% children and none had pain. PPS were not different between boys and girls or younger and older children. The study provides normative data of SDV and PPS by NDT in 6-18-year-old children. SDV correlated with age and was higher in adolescent boys than girls.

  15. Threshold Theory Tested in an Organizational Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo T.; Hartmann, Peter V. W.; Hedegaard Rasmussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A large sample of leaders (N = 4257) was used to test the link between leader innovativeness and intelligence. The threshold theory of the link between creativity and intelligence assumes that below a certain IQ level (approximately IQ 120), there is some correlation between IQ and creative...... potential, but above this cutoff point, there is no correlation. Support for the threshold theory of creativity was found, in that the correlation between IQ and innovativeness was positive and significant below a cutoff point of IQ 120. Above the cutoff, no significant relation was identified, and the two...

  16. The Five-Point Test : Reliability, validity and normative data for children and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, L.I.; Aschenbrenner, S.; Koerts, J.; Lange, K.W.

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides normative data from a sample of 257 healthy children and 608 adults on a modified version of the Five-Point Test (5PT). The 5PT is a structured and standardized test measuring figural fluency functions. Interrater reliability, test-retest-reliability and construct validity

  17. Normative data for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the older French-Quebec population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Monica; Bherer, Louis; Joubert, Sven; Gagnon, Jean-François; Blanchet, Sophie; Rouleau, Isabelle; Macoir, Joël; Hudon, Carol

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normative data for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, a test assessing verbal episodic memory, in the older French-Quebec population. A total of 432 French-speaking participants aged between 55 and 93 years old, from the Province of Quebec (Canada), were included in the study. Using multiple regression analyses, normative data were developed for five variable of interest, namely scores on trial 1, sum of trials 1 to 5, interference list B, immediate recall of list A, and delayed recall of list A. Results showed that age, education, and sex were associated with performance on all variables. Equations to calculate the expected score for a participant based on sex, age, and education level as well as the Z score were developed. This study provides clinicians with normative data that take into account the participants' sociodemographic characteristics, thus giving a more accurate interpretation of the results.

  18. Development of the Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test: Normative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2013-01-01

    The present study consisted of two phases: development and psychometric validation of a Chinese version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) using Rasch analysis and the provision of normative data on the basis of a representative sample of the Chinese-speaking population. The HVOT was administered to 1008 healthy adults aged 15-79 years,…

  19. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerabl......). There was no significant association between foot size and FLT values. CONCLUSION: The FLT is a reproducible technique to assess foot posture....

  20. The NIH Toolbox Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test: Normative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Tulsky, David S.; Gershon, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    The NIH Toolbox Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test was developed to assess processing speed. While initial validation work provides preliminary support for this test in both children and adults, more work is needed to ensure dependability and generalizability. Thus, this replication study examines descriptive data (including age effects), test–retest reliability, and construct validity in n = 4,859 participants ages 3–85 years (matched to 2010 census data). Although the Pattern Comparison was not appropriate for all 3 and 4 years old, by ages 5 and 6, more meaningful scores were apparent. There was evidence for convergent and discriminant validity. There was also a moderate practice effect (i.e., increase of 5.5 points) over a 1-week time frame. Pattern Comparison exhibits a number of strengths: it is appropriate for use across the lifespan (ages 5–85), it is short and easy to administer, and there is support for construct validity. PMID:26025230

  1. Neuropsychology in Cameroon: first normative data for cognitive tests among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffieux, N; Njamnshi, A K; Mayer, E; Sztajzel, R; Eta, S C; Doh, R F; Kengne, A-M; Ngamaleu, R N; Chanal, J; Verdon, V; Hauert, C-A

    2010-01-01

    Very few normative data on psychometric tests are available in sub-Saharan African countries, in spite of the obvious needs and potential benefits from psychological and neuropsychological examination in these contexts. The goal of the ongoing overall project is to assess the cognitive functioning of Cameroonian school-aged children suffering from Sickle Cell Disease. For this purpose, normative data on psychometric tests adapted to the Cameroonian cultural context had to first be established. 125 "healthy" school-aged Cameroonian children were recruited from public schools in the city of Yaounde and were given a battery of 14 cognitive tests assessing executive functions and memory. Criteria for tests inclusions were: simplicity of administration, few verbal demand, and broad cross-cultural applicability. Results allow concluding that the battery is appropriate for neuropsychological evaluation in Cameroon, with the exception of the Block Design test (WISC-IV) and a Verbal Phonemic Fluency test. A factor analysis shows a division of the tests in a four-factors model that is very consistent with the expected measures of the tests. Effects of gender, age, and education are also discussed. this study is the first to report normative data on neuropsychological tests among children in Cameroon and constitutes an initial step for the advancement of neuropsychology in this country in particular and in sub-Saharan Africa in general. The battery is currently used in Cameroon with children suffering from Sickle Cell Disease as an aid to detect cerebrovascular complications.

  2. Simple verbal analogies test: normative data on a short task exploring abstract thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallassi, Roberto; Sambati, Luisa; Stanzani Maserati, Michelangelo; Poda, Roberto; Oppi, Federico; De Matteis, Maddalena; Marano, Gianfranco

    2014-02-01

    The simple verbal analogies test (SVAT) is a short neuropsychological task requiring few minutes of administration that explores inductive verbal abstract thinking. It already showed a good specificity and sensitivity in discriminating normal controls from probable Alzheimer's disease patients. Verbal working memory, semantic knowledge and memory and word-finding ability are also involved in performing analogies. The aim of this study is to provide the normative values of this test in a sample of normal controls and corrections of raw scores and equivalent scores. We determined the normative values of SVAT in a sample of 424 normal controls to provide corrections of raw scores and equivalent scores. SVAT is a useful test to assess executive functions, working memory and to discriminate between cognitive deterioration and normal aging.

  3. The Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS): reliability, validity and international normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; McIntosh, Theresa; Fuller, Laura; Curry, Morgan; Thomas, Paige; Walshe, Margaret; McCague, Ellen; Battel, Irene; Nogueira, Dalia; Frank, Ulrike; van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Sella-Weiss, Oshrat

    2017-07-05

    Clinical swallowing assessment is largely limited to qualitative assessment of behavioural observations. There are limited quantitative data that can be compared with a healthy population for identification of impairment. The Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS) was developed as a quantitative assessment of solid bolus ingestion. This research programme investigated test development indices and established normative data for the TOMASS to support translation to clinical dysphagia assessment. A total of 228 healthy adults (ages 20-80+ years) stratified by age and sex participated in one or more of four consecutive studies evaluating test-retest and interrater reliability and validity to instrumental assessment. For each study the test required participants to ingest a commercially available cracker with instructions to 'eat this as quickly as is comfortably possible'. Further averaged measures were derived including the number of masticatory cycles and swallows per bite, and time per bite, masticatory cycle and swallow. Initial analyses identified significant differences on salient measures between two commercially available crackers that are nearly identical in shape, size and ingredients, suggesting the need for separate normative samples for specific regional products. Additional analyses on a single cracker identified that the TOMASS was sensitive at detecting changes in performance based on age and sex. Test-retest reliability across days and interrater reliability between clinicians was high, as was validation of observational measures to instrumental correlates of the same behaviours. Therefore, normative data are provided for the TOMASS from a minimum of 80 healthy controls, stratified by age and sex, for each of seven commercially available crackers from broad regions worldwide. Analyses on a single cracker identified Arnott's Salada, and that TOMASS measures were sensitive for detecting changes in performance based on age and sex. Interrater

  4. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  5. Verbal fluency tests: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarrieta-Landa, L; Rivera, D; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Garza, M T; Saracho, C P; Rodríguez, W; Chávez-Oliveros, M; Rábago, B; Leibach, G; Schebela, S; Martínez, C; Luna, M; Longoni, M; Ocampo-Barba, N; Rodríguez, G; Aliaga, A; Esenarro, L; García de la Cadena, C; Perrin, B P; Arango-Lasprilla, J C

    2015-01-01

    To generate normative data for the Verbal Fluency Tests across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and, Puerto Rico. Each subject was administered the Verbal Fluency Test as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. The final multiple linear regression models for the letter F explained 8-30% of the variance, 7-32% for letter A, 8-32% for the letter S, and 16-43% for the animal category in Verbal Fluency Test scores. Although t-tests showed significant differences between men and women on the Verbal Fluency Test, they did not have an effect size larger than 0.3. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated. This is the first normative multicenter study conducted in Latin America aiming to create norms for the Verbal Fluency Test; this study will have important outcomes for the future of neuropsychology in the region.

  6. Normative data and test-retest reliability of the SYNAPSYS video head impulse test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Owen; Mabrey, Heather; Pearson, Amber; Byrd, Stephanie; Akin, Faith

    2014-03-01

    The observation or measurement of eye movement can aid in the detection and localization of vestibular pathology due to the relationship between the function of the vestibular sensory receptors in the inner ear and the eye movements produced by the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The majority of bedside and laboratory tests of vestibular function involve the observation or measurement of horizontal eye movements (i.e., horizontal VOR) produced by stimuli that activate the horizontal semicircular canals (SCCs) and the superior vestibular nerve. The video head impulse test (vHIT) is a new clinical test of dynamic SCC function that uses a high-speed digital video camera to record head and eye movement during and immediately after passive head rotations. The SYNAPSYS Inc. vHIT device measures the "canal deficit" (deviation in gaze) during passive head impulses in the horizontal and diagonal (vertical) planes. There is, however, a paucity of data that has been reported using this device. The purpose of this study was to obtain normative data and assess the test-retest reliability of the SYNAPSYS vHIT (version 2.0). A prospective repeated measures design was utilized. Thirty young adults with normal hearing, normal caloric test results, and a negative history of vestibular disorder, neurological disease, open or closed head injury, or cervical spine injury participated in the study. A single examiner manually rotated each participant's head in the horizontal and diagonal planes in two directions (left and right in the horizontal plane; downward and upward in each diagonal plane) resulting in the stimulation of each of the six SCCs. Each participant returned for repeat testing to assess test-retest reliability. The effects of ear, session, and semicircular canal (horizontal, anterior, posterior) on the magnitude of canal deficit during the vHIT were assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The mean canal deficit of the horizontal canals (8.3%) was

  7. Accelerated testing for chloride threshold of reinforcing steel in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Put, M. van; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Testing for the chloride threshold (also called critical chloride content) for corrosion initiation of steel in concrete has been found difficult and, at best, time consuming. Nevertheless, the chloride threshold is an important parameter in service life design of new structures and for evaluation

  8. Reliability, validity and normative data of a quick repetition test for Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresoldi, Martina; Ambrogi, Federico; Favero, Elena; Colombo, Anna; Barillari, Maria Rosaria; Velardi, Patrizia; Schindler, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    A quick repetition test can be useful as a screening or preliminary investigation to select children who need to be assessed with a more specific articulation test. Schindler's repetition test lasts about 2 min and requires the repetition of a 30 words list, each word targeting a specific phoneme or cluster. The aims of the study are: to assess reliability of Schindler's repetition test; to establish normative data for speech development in Italian-speaking children; to analyse validity of this instrument. Six-hundred-two Italian children, aged range between 3;0 and 10;8 years, were included in the study: 557 without clinical sign of speech impairment and 45 had a speech sound disorder. Reliability. One-hundred-five children were tested the same day by two examiners (inter-rater reliability); the administration of the repetition test to 45 children was audio-recorded (intra-rater reliability); 105 children underwent the repetition test twice, with a 2 weeks interval (test-retest reliability). Data were compared through Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Normative data. Percentages of children without clinical sign of speech impairment in each age group who repeated correctly, omitted or produced distorted target phonemes of Schindler's repetition test were reported. To assess the ability of the test to record improvement in mean values with age (construct validity), the proportion of correct repetitions obtained by children from different age groups were compared through logistic regression. The speech abilities of 45 children were also analysed through a more comprehensive articulation test (concurrent validity). Scores were compared through Bland-Altman plot. Reliability. All ICC were superior to 0.9. Normative data. Despite language-specific pattern of acquisition emerged, data showed many similarities to data reported in international studies on speech sound development. Logistic regression demonstrated a significant effect of age groups. Bland

  9. Centile curves and normative values for the twenty metre shuttle-run test in English schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, Gavin; Voss, Christine; Cohen, Daniel; Taylor, Matthew; Stasinopoulos, D M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide normative data for performance on the 20 m shuttle-run test of cardiorespiratory fitness in English schoolchildren. A total of 7366 10-16 year olds completed the 20 m shuttle-run test. We expressed performance as the number of shuttles completed, test score (shuttles and levels) and estimated peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). We calculated descriptive statistics for each age-sex group to construct percentile curves and tables. To assess the cardiorespiratory fitness of our sample, we calculated the number of participants who fell below proposed cut-offs for low cardiorespiratory fitness based on either completed shuttles or VdotO2peak. These cut-offs did not agree in terms of frequency of classification. The classification based on estimated VO2peak suggested low fitness was more prevalent in males and that the incidence of low fitness increased with age in both sexes. These are the first normative data for shuttle-run performance in English youth and can now be used to interpret data from this cardiorespiratory fitness test. The two cut-offs used for low fitness did not agree and future research should establish a cut-off for test performance which can predict present or future ill-health.

  10. Normative data for modified Box and Blocks test measuring upper-limb function via motion capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Jacqueline S; Lewicke, Justin; Williams, Thomas R; Vette, Albert H

    2014-01-01

    Motion analysis is an important tool for examining upper-limb function. Based on previous work demonstrating a modified Box and Blocks (BB) test with motion capture to assess prosthetic performance, we collected data in 16 nondisabled participants to establish normative kinematics for this test. Four motions of the modified BB test were analyzed to establish kinematic data for upper-limb and trunk motion. The test was repeated for right and left arms in standing and seated positions. Data were compared using a nonparametric Friedman test. No differences were found between right- and left-hand performance other than for task completion time. Small but significant differences were found for standing and seated performance, with slightly greater ranges in standing for axial trunk rotation, medial-lateral sternum displacement, and anterior-posterior hand displacement. The kinematic trajectories, however, were very consistent. The consistency in our nondisabled data suggests that normative kinematic trajectories can be defined for this task. This motion capture procedure may add to the understanding of movement in upper-limb impairment and may be useful for measuring the effect of interventions to improve upper-limb function.

  11. Testing for a Debt‐Threshold Effect on Output Growth†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sokbae; Park, Hyunmin; Seo, Myung Hwan; Shin, Youngki

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Using the Reinhart–Rogoff dataset, we find a debt threshold not around 90 per cent but around 30 per cent, above which the median real gross domestic product (GDP) growth falls abruptly. Our work is the first to formally test for threshold effects in the relationship between public debt and median real GDP growth. The null hypothesis of no threshold effect is rejected at the 5 per cent significance level for most cases. While we find no evidence of a threshold around 90 per cent, our findings from the post‐war sample suggest that the debt threshold for economic growth may exist around a relatively small debt‐to‐GDP ratio of 30 per cent. Furthermore, countries with debt‐to‐GDP ratios above 30 per cent have GDP growth that is 1 percentage point lower at the median. PMID:29263562

  12. Testing for a Debt-Threshold Effect on Output Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sokbae; Park, Hyunmin; Seo, Myung Hwan; Shin, Youngki

    2017-12-01

    Using the Reinhart-Rogoff dataset, we find a debt threshold not around 90 per cent but around 30 per cent, above which the median real gross domestic product (GDP) growth falls abruptly. Our work is the first to formally test for threshold effects in the relationship between public debt and median real GDP growth. The null hypothesis of no threshold effect is rejected at the 5 per cent significance level for most cases. While we find no evidence of a threshold around 90 per cent, our findings from the post-war sample suggest that the debt threshold for economic growth may exist around a relatively small debt-to-GDP ratio of 30 per cent. Furthermore, countries with debt-to-GDP ratios above 30 per cent have GDP growth that is 1 percentage point lower at the median.

  13. Normative adductor squeeze test values in elite junior rugby union players.

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    Coughlan, Garrett F; Delahunt, Eamonn; Caulfield, Brian M; Forde, Colin; Green, Brian S

    2014-07-01

    To establish normative adductor squeeze test (AST) values in elite junior rugby union players and investigate if differences existed between field position units and categorizations. Cross-sectional study. National underage screening camp. One hundred four healthy players attending an under-19 and under-18 national musculoskeletal and fitness screening camp. Players had no history of surgery, no self-reported history of groin or pelvic pain in either limb and no other lower limb injury in the past 3 months, and no pain reported during the testing procedure. The AST in 3 positions of hip flexion (0, 45, and 90 degrees), position unit, and categorizations. The highest AST values were observed at 45 degrees of hip flexion in all field position categories. No differences were observed between position units and categorizations. Normative AST values in an elite junior rugby union population were established in this investigation. Clinically, the sports medicine professional may use these results in making decisions on the management of both symptomatic and asymptomatic players.

  14. Multivariate Analyses of Balance Test Performance, Vestibular Thresholds, and Age

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    Faisal Karmali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We previously published vestibular perceptual thresholds and performance in the Modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance in 105 healthy humans ranging from ages 18 to 80 (1. Self-motion thresholds in the dark included roll tilt about an earth-horizontal axis at 0.2 and 1 Hz, yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis at 1 Hz, y-translation (interaural/lateral at 1 Hz, and z-translation (vertical at 1 Hz. In this study, we focus on multiple variable analyses not reported in the earlier study. Specifically, we investigate correlations (1 among the five thresholds measured and (2 between thresholds, age, and the chance of failing condition 4 of the balance test, which increases vestibular reliance by having subjects stand on foam with eyes closed. We found moderate correlations (0.30–0.51 between vestibular thresholds for different motions, both before and after using our published aging regression to remove age effects. We found that lower or higher thresholds across all threshold measures are an individual trait that account for about 60% of the variation in the population. This can be further distributed into two components with about 20% of the variation explained by aging and 40% of variation explained by a single principal component that includes similar contributions from all threshold measures. When only roll tilt 0.2 Hz thresholds and age were analyzed together, we found that the chance of failing condition 4 depends significantly on both (p = 0.006 and p = 0.013, respectively. An analysis incorporating more variables found that the chance of failing condition 4 depended significantly only on roll tilt 0.2 Hz thresholds (p = 0.046 and not age (p = 0.10, sex nor any of the other four threshold measures, suggesting that some of the age effect might be captured by the fact that vestibular thresholds increase with age. For example, at 60 years of age, the chance of failing is roughly 5% for the lowest roll tilt

  15. Multivariate Analyses of Balance Test Performance, Vestibular Thresholds, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Bermúdez Rey, María Carolina; Clark, Torin K; Wang, Wei; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    We previously published vestibular perceptual thresholds and performance in the Modified Romberg Test of Standing Balance in 105 healthy humans ranging from ages 18 to 80 (1). Self-motion thresholds in the dark included roll tilt about an earth-horizontal axis at 0.2 and 1 Hz, yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis at 1 Hz, y-translation (interaural/lateral) at 1 Hz, and z-translation (vertical) at 1 Hz. In this study, we focus on multiple variable analyses not reported in the earlier study. Specifically, we investigate correlations (1) among the five thresholds measured and (2) between thresholds, age, and the chance of failing condition 4 of the balance test, which increases vestibular reliance by having subjects stand on foam with eyes closed. We found moderate correlations (0.30-0.51) between vestibular thresholds for different motions, both before and after using our published aging regression to remove age effects. We found that lower or higher thresholds across all threshold measures are an individual trait that account for about 60% of the variation in the population. This can be further distributed into two components with about 20% of the variation explained by aging and 40% of variation explained by a single principal component that includes similar contributions from all threshold measures. When only roll tilt 0.2 Hz thresholds and age were analyzed together, we found that the chance of failing condition 4 depends significantly on both (p = 0.006 and p = 0.013, respectively). An analysis incorporating more variables found that the chance of failing condition 4 depended significantly only on roll tilt 0.2 Hz thresholds (p = 0.046) and not age (p = 0.10), sex nor any of the other four threshold measures, suggesting that some of the age effect might be captured by the fact that vestibular thresholds increase with age. For example, at 60 years of age, the chance of failing is roughly 5% for the lowest roll tilt thresholds in

  16. Normative Values for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Testing Among US Children Aged 6-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahche, Jaime J; Kit, Brian K; Fulton, Janet E; Carroll, Dianna D; Rowland, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Nationally representative normative values for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) have not been described for US children since the mid 1980s. To provide sex- and age-specific normative values for CRF of US children aged 6-11 years. Data from 624 children aged 6-11 years who participated in the CRF testing as part of the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey, a cross-sectional survey, were analyzed. Participants were assigned to one of three age-specific protocols and asked to exercise to volitional fatigue. The difficulty of the protocols increased with successive age groups. CRF was assessed as maximal endurance time (min:sec). Data analysis was conducted in 2016. For 6-7, 8-9, 10-11 year olds, corresponding with the age-specific protocols, mean endurance time was 12:10 min:sec (95% CI: 11:49-12:31), 11:16 min:sec (95% CI: 11:00-11:31), and 10:01 min:sec (95% CI: 9:37-10:25), respectively. Youth in the lowest 20th percentile for endurance time were more likely to be obese, to report less favorable health, and to report greater than two hours of screen time per day. These data may serve as baseline estimates to monitor trends over time in CRF among US children aged 6-11 years.

  17. Normative data for neuropsychological tests in a rural elderly Chinese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Jin, Yinlong; Hendrie, Hugh C; Liang, Chaoke; Hall, Kathleen S; Cao, Jingxiang; Ma, Feng; Murrell, Jill R; Cheng, Yibin; Li, Ping; Bian, Jianchao; Gao, Sujuan

    2012-01-01

    Normative information is important for appropriate interpretation of cognitive test scores as a critical component of dementia diagnosis in the elderly population. A cross-sectional evaluation of 1826 participants aged 65 years and older from four rural counties in China was conducted using six cognitive instruments including tests of global cognitive function (the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia), memory (Word List Learning and Recall tasks from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease, IU Story), language (Animal Fluency Test), and executive function (IU Token). Multiple regression models adjusting for demographic variables were used to provide standardized residuals z-scores and corresponding percentile ranking for each cognitive test. In all cognitive tests older age was associated with worse test performance while exposure to education was related to better cognitive test performance. We also detected a significant gender difference with men scoring better than women and a significant gender by education interaction on two tests. The interaction indicates that gender difference in test scores was much smaller in participants with more education than those who had less or no education. These demographically adjusted, regression-based norms can be a useful tool to clinicians involved with differential diagnosis of cognitive and memory disorders in older adults in rural China.

  18. Normative comparisons for large neuropsychological test batteries: User-friendly and sensitive solutions to minimize familywise false positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizenga, Hilde M; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; Grasman, Raoul P P P; Muslimovic, Dino; Schmand, Ben

    2016-08-01

    In neuropsychological research and clinical practice, a large battery of tests is often administered to determine whether an individual deviates from the norm. We formulate three criteria for such large battery normative comparisons. First, familywise false-positive error rate (i.e., the complement of specificity) should be controlled at, or below, a prespecified level. Second, sensitivity to detect genuine deviations from the norm should be high. Third, the comparisons should be easy enough for routine application, not only in research, but also in clinical practice. Here we show that these criteria are satisfied for current procedures used to assess an overall deviation from the norm-that is, a deviation given all test results. However, we also show that these criteria are not satisfied for current procedures used to assess test-specific deviations, which are required, for example, to investigate dissociations in a test profile. We therefore propose several new procedures to assess such test-specific deviations. These new procedures are expected to satisfy all three criteria. In Monte Carlo simulations and in an applied example pertaining to Parkinson disease, we compare current procedures to assess test-specific deviations (uncorrected and Bonferroni normative comparisons) to new procedures (Holm, one-step resampling, and step-down resampling normative comparisons). The new procedures are shown to: (a) control familywise false-positive error rate, whereas uncorrected comparisons do not; (b) have higher sensitivity than Bonferroni corrected comparisons, where especially step-down resampling is favorable in this respect; (c) be user-friendly as they are implemented in a user-friendly normative comparisons website, and as the required normative data are provided by a database. These new normative comparisons procedures, especially step-down resampling, are valuable additional tools to assess test-specific deviations from the norm in large test batteries.

  19. Evidence of factorial variance of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test across schizophrenia and normative samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M; Pogue-Geile, Michael F; Greeno, Catherine G; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2009-10-01

    The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is a key measure of social cognition recommended by the MATRICS committee. While the psychometric properties of the MSCEIT appear strong, previous evidence suggested its factor structure may have shifted when applied to schizophrenia patients, posing important implications for cross-group comparisons. Using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we explicitly tested the factorial invariance of the MSCEIT across schizophrenia (n=64) and two normative samples (n=2099 and 451). Results indicated that the factor structure of the MSCEIT was significantly different between the schizophrenia and normative samples. Implications for future research are discussed.

  20. Shiraz Verbal Learning Test (SVLT): Normative Data for Neurologically Intact Speakers of Persian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fahimeh; Haghshenas, Hassan; Mehrabanpour, Abdolrasoul; Mani, Arash; Mahmoodi, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    Memory assessment plays an important role in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders. Several tests, such as the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), have been developed for this purpose, yet a variety of different factors can affect one's performance on such tests, the most important of which are demographic and cultural variables. The present study examined the norming process performed on the CVLT-revised and aimed to devise a new test, the Shiraz Verbal Learning Test (SVLT), to better meet the needs of speakers of Persian. In order to collect normative data, a group of 1275 Persian-speaking individuals consisting of both sexes (676 women and 599 men) aged 20-89 years old were selected for this study. The results of Pearson's Correlation analysis indicated that there was a significant negative correlation between age and SVLT performance and a positive one between education and SVLT performance (p SVLT has the potential to be further developed among different culture and language groups. This test can also be used for clinical and research purposes for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders who need further neuropsychological assessment.

  1. Standardization of the normative group for the third version of the test of visual attention – TAVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Gabriel; Mattos, Paulo; Araújo, Catia; Borges, Manuela; Alfano, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Despite the importance of objective measures of attention to clinical practice, there is a paucity of Brazilian standardized tests. Objective The aim of the present study was the standardization of a normative group for the third version of a computerized test of visual attention (TAVIS-3), developed to evaluate children and adolescents in the 6 to 17 years age range. Methods 631 students from 3 schools in Rio de Janeiro city were assessed with TAVIS-3, administered by experienced psychologists, following parents’ authorization. Results The normative groups were determined considering performance of different age groups: from 6 to 10 years (with scores for 5 different ages); from 11 to 12 and from 13 to 17 years. Three tasks (focused, shifted and sustained attention) were standardized for each age group. Conclusion The standardization of a normative group for TAVIS-3 discriminated performance ranges for distinct age groups, allowing its use as a neuropsychological assessment of attention. PMID:29213535

  2. Development of a novel Italian speech-in-noise test using a roving-level adaptive method: adult population-based normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzi, P; Manfrin, M; Locatelli, G; Nopp, P; Perotti, M; Benazzo, M

    2016-12-01

    In recent years the increasing development of hearing devices has led to a critical analysis of the standard methods employed to evaluate hearing function. Being too far from reality, conventional investigation of hearing loss based on pure-tone threshold audiometry and on mono/disyllabic word lists, presented in quiet conditions, has been shown to be inadequate. A speech-in-noise test using a roving-level adaptive method employs target and competing signals varying in level in order to reproduce everyday life speaking conditions and explore a more complete sound range. Up to now, only few roving-level adaptive tests have been published in the literature. We conducted a rovinglevel adaptive test in healthy Italian adults to produce new normative data on a language of Latin origin. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  3. Color-discrimination threshold determination using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiva eJurasevska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We produced a set of pseudoisochromatic plates for determining individual color-difference thresholds to assess test performance and test properties, and analyzed the results. We report a high test validity and classification ability for the deficiency type and severity level (comparable to that of the fourth edition of the Hardy–Rand–Rittler (HRR test. We discuss changes of the acceptable chromatic shifts from the protan and deutan confusion lines along the CIE xy diagram, and the high correlation of individual color-difference thresholds and the red–green discrimination index. Color vision was tested using an Oculus HMC anomaloscope, a Farnsworth D15, and an HRR test on 273 schoolchildren, and 57 other subjects with previously diagnosed red–green color-vision deficiency.

  4. Quality of education and memory test performance in older men: the New York University Paragraph Recall Test normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Melissa; Abner, Erin; Caban-Holt, Allison; Dennis, Brandon C; Kryscio, Richard; Schmitt, Frederick

    2013-09-01

    Memory evaluation is a key component in the accurate diagnosis of cognitive disorders.One memory procedure that has shown promise in discriminating disease-related cognitive decline from normal cognitive aging is the New York University Paragraph Recall Test; however, the effects of education have been unexamined as they pertain to one's literacy level. The current study provides normative data stratified by estimated quality of education as indexed by irregular word reading skill. Conventional norms were derived from a sample (N = 385) of cognitively intact elderly men who were initially recruited for participation in the PREADViSE clinical trial. A series of multiple linear regression models were constructed to assess the influence of demographic variables on mean NYU Paragraph Immediate and Delayed Recall scores. Test version, assessment site, and estimated quality of education were significant predictors of performance on the NYU Paragraph Recall Test. Findings indicate that estimated quality of education is a better predictor of memory performance than ethnicity and years of total education. Normative data stratified according to estimated quality of education are presented. The current study provides evidence and support for normativedata stratified by quality of education as opposed to years of education.

  5. Development of normative data for the Brazilian adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; dos Santos, Clayson Alan; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Voegels, Richard Louis; Doty, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    It is well established that olfactory dysfunction has significant implications for safety, nutrition, and quality of life. The more reliable standardized tests of olfactory function, such as the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assess odor identification ability. Unfortunately, cultural factors can influence such tests, as a number of odors are not universally recognized. In this study, a Portuguese language version of the UPSIT was administered to an age- and sex-stratified prospective sample of 1820 Brazilian subjects. Normative data were developed for a subset of 1578 subjects who reported having no difficulties smelling or tasting. Individuals with a history of head trauma or, in the case of those over the age of 64 years, Mini-Mental State Examination Scores <24, were excluded from analysis. As in other populations, the test scores were significantly influenced by age and sex. The median overall difference between the North American and Brazilian UPSIT scores was 2.2 points for men and 0.8 points for women, although subtle age-related differences were also apparent. This research represents that largest clinical study of olfaction ever performed in South America. Correction factors based upon age and sex are provided to allow for direct comparisons of Brazilian test scores to those based upon North American norms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Dichotic Digits difference Test (DDdT): Development, Normative Data, and Test-Retest Reliability Studies Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey; Whitfield, Jessica; Seymour, John

    2016-06-01

    The dichotic digits test is one of the most widely used assessment tools for central auditory processing disorder. However, questions remain concerning the impact of cognitive factors on test results. To develop the Dichotic Digits difference Test (DDdT), an assessment tool that could differentiate children with cognitive deficits from children with genuine dichotic deficits based on differential test results. The DDdT consists of four subtests: dichotic free recall (FR), dichotic directed left ear (DLE), dichotic directed right ear (DRE), and diotic. Scores for six conditions are calculated (FR left ear [LE], FR right ear [RE], and FR total, as well as DLE, DRE, and diotic). Scores for four difference measures are also calculated: dichotic advantage, right-ear advantage (REA) FR, REA directed, and attention advantage. Experiment 1 involved development of the DDdT, including error rate analysis. Experiment 2 involved collection of normative and test-retest reliability data. Twenty adults (aged 25 yr 10 mo to 50 yr 7 mo, mean 36 yr 4 mo) took part in the development study; 62 normal-hearing, typically developing, primary-school children (aged 7 yr 1 mo to 11 yr 11 mo, mean 9 yr 4 mo) and 10 adults (aged 25 yr 0 mo to 51 yr 6 mo, mean 34 yr 10 mo) took part in the normative and test-retest reliability study. In Experiment 1, error rate analysis was conducted on the 36 digit-pair combinations of the DDdT. Normative data collected in Experiment 2 were arcsine transformed to achieve a distribution that was closer to a normal distribution and z-scores calculated. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to determine the strength of relationships between DDdT conditions. The development study revealed no significant differences in the adult population between test and retest on any DDdT condition. Error rates on 36 digit pairs ranged from 1.5% to 16.7%. The most and the least error-prone digits were removed before commencement of the normative data study, leaving 25

  7. Emotion recognition from facial expressions: a normative study of the Ekman 60-Faces Test in the Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodich, Alessandra; Cerami, Chiara; Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Marcone, Alessandra; Arpone, Marta; Realmuto, Sabrina; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-07-01

    The Ekman 60-Faces (EK-60F) Test is a well-known neuropsychological tool assessing emotion recognition from facial expressions. It is the most employed task for research purposes in psychiatric and neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as the behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD). Despite its remarkable usefulness in the social cognition research field, to date, there are still no normative data for the Italian population, thus limiting its application in a clinical context. In this study, we report procedures and normative data for the Italian version of the test. A hundred and thirty-two healthy Italian participants aged between 20 and 79 years with at least 5 years of education were recruited on a voluntary basis. They were administered the EK-60F Test from the Ekman and Friesen series of Pictures of Facial Affect after a preliminary semantic recognition test of the six basic emotions (i.e., anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, surprise). Data were analyzed according to the Capitani procedure [1]. The regression analysis revealed significant effects of demographic variables, with younger, more educated, female subjects showing higher scores. Normative data were then applied to a sample of 15 bvFTD patients which showed global impaired performance in the task, consistently with the clinical condition. We provided EK-60F Test normative data for the Italian population allowing the investigation of global emotion recognition ability as well as selective impairment of basic emotions recognition, both for clinical and research purposes.

  8. Normative data for the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 in 7-yr.-old children in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepicka, Ladislav

    2010-06-01

    Scores on the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in a Czech sample recruited from mainstream urban elementary schools were compared with the U.S. normative sample. 315 children participated (152 boys, M age = 7.1 yr., SD = 0.3; 163 girls, M age = 7.0 yr., SD = 0.3). Differences in raw score means and percentiles were evaluated, showing differences between the Czech and the U.S. normative samples. Standardized U.S. norms for the TGMD-2 should not be generalized to the Czech population without further study.

  9. Urinary Luteinizing Hormone Tests: Which Concentration Threshold Best Predicts Ovulation?

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    Rene Antonio Leiva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo study the best possible luteinizing hormone (LH threshold to predict ovulation within the 24, 48, and 72 h.DesignObservational study.SettingMulticenter collaborative study.PatientsA total of 107 women.InterventionsWomen collected daily first morning urine for hormonal assessment and underwent serial ovarian ultrasound. This is a secondary analysis of 283 cycles.Main outcome measuresThe sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were estimated for varying ranges of LH thresholds. Receiver operating characteristic curves and cost–benefit ratios were used to estimate the best thresholds to predict ovulation.ResultsThe best scenario to predict ovulation at random was within 24 h after the first single positive test. The false-positive rate was found to increase as (1 the cycle progressed or (2 two or three consecutive tests were used, or (3 ovulation was predicted within 48 or 72 h. Testing earlier in the cycle increases the predictive value of the test. The ideal thresholds to predict ovulation ranged between 25 and 30 mIU/ml with a PPV (50–60%, NPV (98%, LR+ (20–30, and LR− (0.5. At least, one day with LH ≥25 mIU/ml followed by three negatives (LH <25 occurred before ovulation in 31% of all cycles. When used throughout the cycle and evaluated together, peak-fertility type mucus with a positive LH test ≥25 mIU/ml provides a higher specificity than either mucus or LH testing alone (97–99 vs. 77–95 vs. 91%, respectively.ConclusionWe identified that beginning LH testing earlier in the cycle (day 7 with a threshold of 25–30 mIU/ml may present the best predictive value for ovulation within 24 h. However, prediction by LH testing alone may be affected negatively by several confounding factors so LH testing alone should not be used to define the end of the fertile window. Complementary markers should be further investigated to predict

  10. 'Timed Up and Go' test: Age, gender and cognitive impairment stratified normative values of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Azianah; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Shahar, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish 'Timed up and Go' test (TUG) normative data among community dwelling older adults stratified based on cognitive status, gender and age groups. A total of 2084 community dwelling older adults from wave I and II were recruited through a multistage random sampling method. TUG was performed using the standard protocol and scores were then stratified based on with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI), gender and in a 5-year age groups ranging from ages of 60's to 80's. 529(16%) participants were identified to have MCI. Past history of falls and medical history of hypertension, heart disease, joint pain, hearing and vision problem, and urinary incontinence were found to have influenced TUG performance. Cognitive status as a mediator, predicted TUG performance even when both gender and age were controlled for (B 0.24, 95% CI (0.02-0.47), β 0.03, t 2.10, p = 0.36). Further descriptive analysis showed, participants with MCI, women and older in age took a longer time to complete TUG, as compared to men with MCI across all age groups with exceptions for some age groups. These results suggested that MCI needs to be taken into consideration when testing older adults using TUG, besides age and gender factors. Data using fast speed TUG may be required among older adults with and without MCI for further understanding.

  11. 'Timed Up and Go' test: Age, gender and cognitive impairment stratified normative values of older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azianah Ibrahim

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish 'Timed up and Go' test (TUG normative data among community dwelling older adults stratified based on cognitive status, gender and age groups.A total of 2084 community dwelling older adults from wave I and II were recruited through a multistage random sampling method. TUG was performed using the standard protocol and scores were then stratified based on with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI, gender and in a 5-year age groups ranging from ages of 60's to 80's.529(16% participants were identified to have MCI. Past history of falls and medical history of hypertension, heart disease, joint pain, hearing and vision problem, and urinary incontinence were found to have influenced TUG performance. Cognitive status as a mediator, predicted TUG performance even when both gender and age were controlled for (B 0.24, 95% CI (0.02-0.47, β 0.03, t 2.10, p = 0.36. Further descriptive analysis showed, participants with MCI, women and older in age took a longer time to complete TUG, as compared to men with MCI across all age groups with exceptions for some age groups.These results suggested that MCI needs to be taken into consideration when testing older adults using TUG, besides age and gender factors. Data using fast speed TUG may be required among older adults with and without MCI for further understanding.

  12. Uncertainty Estimates of Psychoacoustic Thresholds Obtained from Group Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Christian, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive psychoacoustic test methods, in which the next signal level depends on the response to the previous signal, are the most efficient for determining psychoacoustic thresholds of individual subjects. In many tests conducted in the NASA psychoacoustic labs, the goal is to determine thresholds representative of the general population. To do this economically, non-adaptive testing methods are used in which three or four subjects are tested at the same time with predetermined signal levels. This approach requires us to identify techniques for assessing the uncertainty in resulting group-average psychoacoustic thresholds. In this presentation we examine the Delta Method of frequentist statistics, the Generalized Linear Model (GLM), the Nonparametric Bootstrap, a frequentist method, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Posterior Estimation and a Bayesian approach. Each technique is exercised on a manufactured, theoretical dataset and then on datasets from two psychoacoustics facilities at NASA. The Delta Method is the simplest to implement and accurate for the cases studied. The GLM is found to be the least robust, and the Bootstrap takes the longest to calculate. The Bayesian Posterior Estimate is the most versatile technique examined because it allows the inclusion of prior information.

  13. Challenges of thermal nociceptive threshold testing in the donkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grint, Nicola J; Whay, Helen R; Beths, Thierry; Yvorchuk, Kathy; Murrell, Joanna C

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate a thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing device in the donkey, and the influence of potential confounding factors on TNTs. Two groups (Group 1 and Group 2) of eight castrated male donkeys aged 4-9 years, weighing 105-170 kg. TNTs were measured by heating a thermal probe on skin until an end-point behaviour (threshold temperature) or a cut-out temperature (51 °C) was reached. The withers and the dorsal aspect of the distal limb were used as sites for TNT testing. The effects on TNT of different confounding factors: the limb tested; rate of heating; and ambient temperature were evaluated. Data were analyzed using general linear models, and Mann-Whitney tests, p < 0.05 was considered significant. End-point behaviours (skin twitch or donkey looking at test device) when the thermal probe heated the withers were observed in approximately half of tests. TNT was (mean ± SD) 46.8 ± 2.85 °C. Subsequently the limb was evaluated as the test site in Group 1 followed by Group 2 donkeys; end-point behaviour being a foot-lift. In Group 1, 72% of tests ended in an end-point behaviour but the response rate was lower in Group 2 (20%), although TNTs were similar [(47.6 ± 3.3) and (47.3 ± 3.0) °C respectively] for responding animals. Rate of heating, ambient temperature and laterality (right or left) did not affect thresholds, but mean TNT was significantly higher in the forelimb (48.5 ± 2.8 °C) than the hind limb (47.4 ± 2.8 °C) (p = 0.012). When a thermal probe cut-out temperature of 51 °C was used in TNT testing in the donkey a high proportion of tests did not produce an identifiable end point behaviour. Higher cut-out temperatures damaged the skin. Under these conditions, thermal nociceptive threshold testing appears not be an appropriate analgesiometry technique in the donkey. TNT testing under these conditions is not suitable form of analgesiometry for donkeys. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American

  14. Explaining reactions to normative information about alcohol consumption: a test of an extended social identity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Andrew G; McCafferty, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    To test the role of group identification and the perceived importance of alcohol consumption to a group identity in shaping reactions to normative information about alcohol consumption. The study had a 2 (behaviour: identity-defining/alcohol vs. non-identity defining/caffeine) × 2 (norm: low vs. heavy consumption) between-subjects factorial design. Group identification and personal attitudes towards alcohol/caffeine consumption were included as measured predictors. Participants were 83 undergraduate students (44 female, 38 male, one unspecified) at a University in Scotland. Predictor and outcome variables included questionnaire measures of group (student) identification, personal attitudes to alcohol/caffeine consumption, the perceived importance of alcohol/caffeine consumption to group identity, and behavioral intentions to consume alcohol/caffeine. Personal attitude and group identification moderated the impact of norm information on consumption intentions, but only for alcohol consumption, and not caffeine consumption. For alcohol, norm information did affect intended consumption (ps ≤ .034), with the crucial exception of high identifiers who had favourable personal attitudes towards alcohol consumption. Instead, these individuals resist norm information (ps = .458 and .174), showing no decrease in intentions in the face of norm information that emphasised relatively 'low' levels of consumption. The impact of norm information on alcohol consumption intentions depends on group-based factors such as group identification and the perceived importance of alcohol to a group identity. When both of these factors are high, and an individual also personally favours the behaviour, the potential for norm-based interventions to fail is increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of Bengali Audio-Visual Test Battery for Assessment of Pragmatic Skills: Preliminary Normative Data Based on Educational Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Madhushree; Biswas, Atanu; Pal, Sandip; Chatterjee, Amita

    2017-04-01

    Pragmatic competence may be disrupted due to psychological and neurological causes. For appropriate remedy and rehabilitation, a precise assessment of pragmatic skills is important. However, there is no test battery in the Bengali language, and consequently, there is no published data on pragmatic ability of Bengali speakers. Due to the vast diversity of the population, it becomes increasingly difficult to assess pragmatic ability of an individual without a proper knowledge of the normal variations. To address this problem we have developed a test battery in Bengali, and to begin with, we have administered it to one hundred and five (105) normal healthy persons having different levels of education. The four groups having 17 years and above, 15 to education yielded a normative score of 193, 189, 171 and 150, respectively. These normative scores will allow clinicians to make a proper assessment of patients suffering from pragmatic deficits and help avoid interpreting social differences as neurological deficits.

  16. Development of the North American Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences test (NA LiSN-S): sentence equivalence, normative data, and test-retest reliability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Brown, David; Keith, Robert; Martin, Jeffrey; Watson, Charlene; Dillon, Harvey

    2009-02-01

    The Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences test (LiSN-S) was originally developed in Australia to assess auditory stream segregation skills in children with suspected central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The software produces a three-dimensional auditory environment under headphones. A simple repetition-response protocol is utilized to determine speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for sentences presented from 0 degrees azimuth in competing speech. The competing speech (looped children's stories) is manipulated with respect to its location (0 degrees vs. +90 degrees and -90 degrees azimuth) and the vocal quality of the speaker(s) (same as, or different to, the speaker of the target stimulus). Performance is measured as two SRT and three advantage measures. The advantage measures represent the benefit in dB gained when either talker, spatial, or both talker and spatial cues combined are incorporated in the maskers. The objective of this research was to develop a version of the LiSN-S suitable for use in the United States and Canada. The original sentences and children's stories were reviewed for unfamiliar semantic items and rerecorded by native North American speakers. In a descriptive design, a sentence equivalence study was conducted to determine the relative intelligibility of the rerecorded sentences and adjust the amplitude of the sentences for equal intelligibility. Normative data and test-retest reliability data were then collected. Twenty-four children with normal hearing aged 8 years, 3 months, to 10 years, 0 months, took part in the sentence equivalence study. Seventy-two normal-hearing children aged 6 years, 2 months, to 11 years, 10 months, took part in the normative data study. Thirty-six children returned between two and three months after the initial assessment for retesting. Participants were recruited from sites in Cincinnati, Dallas, and Calgary. The sentence equivalence study showed that post-adjustment, sentence intelligibility increased

  17. Wideband Acoustic Immittance: Normative Study and Test-Retest Reliability of Tympanometric Measurements in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present normative data of tympanometric measurements of wideband acoustic immittance and to characterize wideband tympanograms. Method: Data were collected in 84 young adults with strictly defined normal hearing and middle ear status. Energy absorbance (EA) was measured using clicks for 1/12-octave…

  18. A new EMG frequency-based fatigue threshold test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, C Russell; Housh, Terry J; Johnson, Glen O; Mielke, Michelle; Camic, Clayton L; Zuniga, Jorge M; Schmidt, Richard J

    2009-06-30

    Theoretically, the critical torque (CT) and electromyographic mean power frequency fatigue threshold (EMG MPF(FT)) describe the maximal non-fatiguing isometric torque level. The purposes of this study were two-fold: (1) to determine if the mathematical model for estimating the EMG fatigue threshold (EMG(FT)) from the amplitude of the EMG signal was applicable to the frequency domain of the EMG signal to estimate a new fatigue threshold called the EMG MPF(FT); and (2) to compare the torque level derived from the CT test to that of the EMG MPF(FT) test for the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle during isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors. Nine adults (4 men and 5 women; mean+/-SD age=21.6+/-1.2 yr) performed three or four continuous, fatiguing, isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors at 30, 45, 60, and 75% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) to determine the time to exhaustion (T(lim)) values. The slope coefficient of the linear relationship between total isometric "work" (W(lim) in Nms=TorquexT(lim)) and T(lim) was defined as the CT. Surface EMG signals were recorded from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle during each fatiguing isometric muscle action. The EMG MPF(FT) was defined as the y-intercept of the isometric torque versus slope coefficient (EMG MPF versus time) plot. There were no significant differences between CT (19.7+/-5.8%MVIC) and EMG MPF(FT) (21.4+/-8.7%MVIC). These findings provided indirect validation of the EMG MPF(FT) test.

  19. Establishing normative data for the Functional Dexterity Test in typically developing children aged 3-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Joanie; Curatolo, Sabrina; Leblanc, Marine; Patulli, Cristina; Tang, Tiffany; Darsaklis, Vasiliki; Bilodeau, Nathalie; Dahan-Oliel, Noémi

    2018-01-04

    Cross-sectional. The Functional Dexterity Test (FDT) is a timed pegboard hand dexterity test. Normative data have been developed primarily in adults with some studies in the pediatric population. The present study will complement the existing pediatric data and make the FDT a stronger assessment for use in this population. The primary aim of this study was to collect normative data in typically developing children aged 3-5 years in the Greater Montreal area; the secondary aim was to evaluate the intrarater and interrater reliabilities of the FDT. The FDT was administered to typically developing children aged 3-5 years, who were recruited from various geographical locations and socioeconomic status levels across the Greater Montreal area. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, and analysis of variance were used to compare age-gender groups. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to determine intrarater and interrater reliabilities. Normative data were collected from 267 children (137 females) from 18 daycares. Statistically significant differences in FDT scores were found across all age bands (P < .01). Total time decreased with increasing age (P < .01). No significant differences were found between genders. The FDT showed excellent interrater (ICC = 0.89-0.98) and intrarater (ICC = 0.83-0.99) reliabilities. The clear and standardized pediatric instructions, scoring sheet, and normative data table developed in this study provide health care professionals with quick and easy tools to facilitate scoring and clinical interpretation of hand dexterity in preschool-aged children. Future studies should include school-aged children and adolescents from a larger geographic area. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Normative data for a battery of free recall, cued recall and recognition tests in the elderly Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccia, Emanuele; Gamboz, Nadia; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to provide normative data on a large sample of the elderly Italian population (N = 464; range of age = 49-94; range of education = 3-25) on both the word and the picture versions of a battery of free recall, cued recall, and recognition tests of memory. Results from multiple regression analyses showed that both age and education were significant predictors of performance. Therefore, norms were calculated taking into account these demographic variables. The availability of normative data based on a large sample will allow a more reliable use of the battery for clinical assessment in Italian-speaking dementia population.

  1. The Cross-cultural Utility of Foreign- and Locally-derived Normative Data for Three WHO-endorsed Neuropsychological Tests for South African Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrett, Helen L.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.; Tapert, Susan F.; Carey, Paul D.; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Stein, Dan J.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

  2. Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert Falkner Norm advocacy: a small state strategy to influence the EUAnnika Björkdahl Empowering Africa: normative power in EU-Africa relationsSibylle Scheipers and Daniela Sicurelli Fake, partial and imposed compliance: the limits of the EU's normative power in the Western BalkansGergana Noutcheva...... Globalizing European Union environmental policyR. Daniel Kelemen Europe and the new global economic order: internal diversity as liability and asset in managing globalizationOrfeo Fioretos Forthcoming: Normative Power Spotting: An ontological and methodological appraisalElisabeth De Zutter...

  3. New drain current model for nano-meter MOS transistors on-chip threshold voltage test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional reliability tests use complicated equipment, like probe stations and semiconductor parameter analyzers, to measure changes in transistors' threshold voltages, which are both expensive and time consuming. This paper provides an idea to test the threshold voltage with existing

  4. Neuropsychological test performance of Hawai'i high school athletes: Hawai'i ImPACT normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Oshiro, Ross; Zimbra, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Establishing normative data of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) performance of high school athletes in Hawai'i. Pre-season ImPACT testing was performed on 751 participants in football, baseball, basketball, soccer, volleyball, softball, and track from 4 Oahu public high schools. The ImPACT composite scores included measures of Verbal Memory, Visual Memory Processing Speed, and Reaction Time. The descriptive statistical data collected were the group means, standard deviations, standard errors of measurement, distribution of scores and percentile ranks of (1) 262 boys ages 13 to 15; (2) 297 boys ages 16 to 18; and (3) 192 girls ages 13 to 18. The means and standard deviations of the 4 ImPACT composite scores for the 751 student-athletes in Hawai'i were similar to the ImPACT scores obtained from a master database of ImPACT test results. Although differences between the Hawai'i and mainland data were nonsignificant, there appeared to be a trend revealing somewhat lower scores in the Hawai'i sample of athletes. The similarity in ImPACT test performance of Hawai'i high school athletes as compared to the mainland normative data provides support for the applicability of this computerized neuropsychological battery in Hawai'i. However in view of a trend reflecting slightly lower ImPACT scores among Hawai'i participants, the use of the normative data produced by this study may be desirable in assessing Hawai'i high school athletes.

  5. Italian normative data and validation of two neuropsychological tests of face recognition: Benton Facial Recognition Test and Cambridge Face Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albonico, Andrea; Malaspina, Manuela; Daini, Roberta

    2017-09-01

    The Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT) and Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) are two of the most common tests used to assess face discrimination and recognition abilities and to identify individuals with prosopagnosia. However, recent studies highlighted that participant-stimulus match ethnicity, as much as gender, has to be taken into account in interpreting results from these tests. Here, in order to obtain more appropriate normative data for an Italian sample, the CFMT and BFRT were administered to a large cohort of young adults. We found that scores from the BFRT are not affected by participants' gender and are only slightly affected by participant-stimulus ethnicity match, whereas both these factors seem to influence the scores of the CFMT. Moreover, the inclusion of a sample of individuals with suspected face recognition impairment allowed us to show that the use of more appropriate normative data can increase the BFRT efficacy in identifying individuals with face discrimination impairments; by contrast, the efficacy of the CFMT in classifying individuals with a face recognition deficit was confirmed. Finally, our data show that the lack of inversion effect (the difference between the total score of the upright and inverted versions of the CFMT) could be used as further index to assess congenital prosopagnosia. Overall, our results confirm the importance of having norms derived from controls with a similar experience of faces as the "potential" prosopagnosic individuals when assessing face recognition abilities.

  6. Partner Influence in Diet and Exercise Behaviors: Testing Behavior Modeling, Social Control, and Normative Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea; Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Brady, Christy Freadreacea; Garcia, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. We analyze the association between partner characteristics and the obesity-related health behaviors of focal respondents, comparing the effects of partners' body type, partners' attempts to manage respondents' eating behaviors, and partners' own health behaviors on respondents' health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food consumption). Data on 215 partners are extracted from a larger study of social mechanisms of obesity in family and community contexts conducted in 2011 in the United States. Negative binomial regression models indicate that partner behavior is significantly related to respondent behavior (p influence of normative body size or partner social control in this sample, though generalizations about the relevance of these processes may be inappropriate. These results underscore the importance of policies and interventions that target dyads and social groups, suggesting that adoption of exercise or diet modifications in one individual is likely to spread to others, creating a social environment characterized by mutual reinforcement of healthy behavior.

  7. Partner Influence in Diet and Exercise Behaviors: Testing Behavior Modeling, Social Control, and Normative Body Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brea Perry

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. We analyze the association between partner characteristics and the obesity-related health behaviors of focal respondents, comparing the effects of partners' body type, partners' attempts to manage respondents' eating behaviors, and partners' own health behaviors on respondents' health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food consumption. Data on 215 partners are extracted from a larger study of social mechanisms of obesity in family and community contexts conducted in 2011 in the United States. Negative binomial regression models indicate that partner behavior is significantly related to respondent behavior (p < .001, net of controls. These results are suggestive of a behavior modeling mechanism in obesity-related patterns of consumption and physical activity. In contrast, we find little support for the influence of normative body size or partner social control in this sample, though generalizations about the relevance of these processes may be inappropriate. These results underscore the importance of policies and interventions that target dyads and social groups, suggesting that adoption of exercise or diet modifications in one individual is likely to spread to others, creating a social environment characterized by mutual reinforcement of healthy behavior.

  8. Establishing normative data for the special judo fitness test in female athletes using systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna L; Fukuda, David H

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting results have been documented in the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) for mean parameters of performance between male and female judo athletes matched by age and competitive level. Therefore, it is debatable whether previously established norms for the SJFT prepared for men, should be adopted for use in women. The goal of this investigation was to prepare standards to allow coaches and researchers to control and evaluate training effects in female judoka. Systematic review was used to compile previously published scientific studies containing information on female judo athletes who were tested using the SJFT. The results were derived using meta-analysis and included data obtained from 11 relevant studies published between January 1997 and December 2013. Combined mean and SDs were computed based on studies containing 161 individual results from the SJFT. A 5° scale was adopted as follows: Excellent = highest 5%, Good = next highest 15%, Regular = middle 60%, Poor = next lowest 15%, and Very poor = lowest 5%. The results of the current investigation provide normative data for the SJFT for junior and senior female judoka. Classification for each of the parameters of the SJFT, including number of throws completed during the test, heart rate (HR) measured immediately after the effort, HR after a 1-minute recovery period and SJFT index, were established. This normative data can be used in the design of training programs for female judoka, as well as evaluation after training, and in preparation for competition.

  9. Normative values for the Timed 'Up and Go' test in children and adolescents and validation for individuals with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini-Panisson, Renata D'Agostini; Donadio, Márcio V F

    2014-05-01

    To determine normative values for the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test in typically developing children and adolescents and to validate its use in individuals with Down syndrome. Participants in this cross-sectional study were South Brazilian schoolchildren aged 3 to 18 years. In phase 1, 459 typically developing individuals (227 males, 232 females; mean age 10 y 8 mo (SD 4 y 4 mo) were included; and in phase 2, 40 individuals with Down syndrome (16 males, 24 females; mean age 10 y 6 mo (SD 4 y 4 mo). Anthropometric measurements, real leg length, TUG test scores, and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) scores were evaluated. The association between the TUG test and possible predictive variables was analyzed. In phase 1, the mean time to perform the TUG test was 5.61 seconds (SD 1.06). Values were stratified in age groups that served as normative data for both sexes. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted and the best variables to predict TUG scores were age and weight. The best model obtained presented an R(2) of 0.25 and a standard error of the estimate of 0.92. Excellent intrasession reliability in the three tests performed (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] of 0.93, 0.94, and 0.95) and between the sessions (both with an ICC of 0.95) was demonstrated. In phase 2, the test also showed excellent reproducibility (ICC=0.82 between the two tests performed). The performance time was significantly longer (pDown syndrome compared with sex- age-, and weight-matched typically developing children with a mean difference of -3.53 (95% confidence interval -4.05 to -3.00). Dimension E of the GMFM (Walking, Running and Jumping) showed the highest correlation (r=-0.55, pDown syndrome. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Red Spinach Extract Increases Ventilatory Threshold during Graded Exercise Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique N. Moore

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We examined the acute effect of a red spinach extract (RSE (1000 mg dose; ~90 mg nitrate (NO 3 − on performance markers during graded exercise testing (GXT. Methods: For this randomized, double-blind, placebo (PBO-controlled, crossover study, 15 recreationally-active participants (aged 23.1 ± 3.3 years; BMI: 27.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2 reported >2 h post-prandial and performed GXT 65–75 min post-RSE or PBO ingestion. Blood samples were collected at baseline (BL, pre-GXT (65–75 min post-ingestion; PRE, and immediately post-GXT (POST. GXT commenced with continuous analysis of expired gases. Results: Plasma concentrations of NO 3 − increased PRE (+447 ± 294%; p < 0.001 and POST (+378 ± 179%; p < 0.001 GXT with RSE, but not with PBO (+3 ± 26%, −8 ± 24%, respectively; p > 0.05. No effect on circulating nitrite (NO 2 − was observed with RSE (+3.3 ± 7.5%, +7.7 ± 11.8% PRE and POST, respectively; p > 0.05 or PBO (−0.5 ± 7.9%, −0.2 ± 8.1% PRE and POST, respectively; p > 0.05. When compared to PBO, there was a moderate effect of RSE on plasma NO 2 − at PRE (g = 0.50 [−0.26, 1.24] and POST g = 0.71 [−0.05, 1.48]. During GXT, VO2 at the ventilatory threshold was significantly higher with RSE compared to PBO (+6.1 ± 7.3%; p < 0.05, though time-to-exhaustion (−4.0 ± 7.7%; p > 0.05 and maximal aerobic power (i.e., VO2 peak; −0.8 ± 5.6%; p > 0.05 were non-significantly lower with RSE. Conclusions: RSE as a nutritional supplement may elicit an ergogenic response by delaying the ventilatory threshold.

  11. Saudi normative data for the Wisconsin Card Sorting test, Stroop test, Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-3, Picture Completion and Vocabulary (subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghatani, Ali M; Obonsawin, Marc C; Binshaig, Basmah A; Al-Moutaery, Khalaf R

    2011-01-01

    There are 2 aims for this study: first, to collect normative data for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop test, Test of Non-verbal Intelligence (TONI-3), Picture Completion (PC) and Vocabulary (VOC) sub-test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised for use in a Saudi Arabian culture, and second, to use the normative data provided to generate the regression equations. To collect the normative data and generate the regression equations, 198 healthy individuals were selected to provide a representative distribution for age, gender, years of education, and socioeconomic class. The WCST, Stroop test, TONI-3, PC, and VOC were administrated to the healthy individuals. This study was carried out at the Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Riyadh Military Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to July 2002. Normative data were obtained for all tests, and tables were constructed to interpret scores for different age groups. Regression equations to predict performance on the 3 tests of frontal function from scores on tests of fluid (TONI-3) and premorbid intelligence were generated from the data from the healthy individuals. The data collected in this study provide normative tables for 3 tests of frontal lobe function and for tests of general intellectual ability for use in Saudi Arabia. The data also provide a method to estimate pre-injury ability without the use of verbally based tests.

  12. Methodology for the development of normative data for ten Spanish-language neuropsychological tests in eleven Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Within the field of neuropsychology, there is a significant lack of normative data for individuals in Latin America. To describe the methodology utilized to obtain the data and create norms for 10 Spanish-language neuropsychological tests administered in 11 Latin-American countries in a sample of 3,977 healthy individuals between the ages 18 and 90. The same data manipulation process was applied to the data collected (regardless of the scale or country) using a regression-based procedure that takes into account sex, age, and educational influences on neuropsychological test scores. Following this procedure, we were able to generate age, education, and sex (if relevant) based norms for each test in each of the 11 countries studied. These norms are presented in the 10 articles that comprise this special issue.

  13. Normative data of Modified Functional Reach Test in younger and middle-aged North Eastern Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The modified functional reach test (MFRT is the objective measure for dynamic sitting balance. It quantifies sitting balance in two directions: Forward and lateral reach. So, the purpose of the study was to 1 provide clinical reference value and 2 examine the factors that may influence the anthropometrics measures. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 apparently healthy subjects participated in this descriptive study. All subjects were divided in two groups: Younger (20-39 yr and middle-aged (40-59 yr. After anthropometric measurement, all subjects performed test by reaching forward and lateral with a closed fist while sitting. MFRT was taken with 3 trials with 15 sec break in between. Results: The mean score of the forward and lateral reach of right and left in group 1 was higher compared to group 2. The normative value of forward reach in group 1 was 34.05 ± 9.03 cm; for lateral reach right and left, it was 18.2 ± 5.26 cm and 17.32 ± 5.21 cm, respectively. For group 2, normative values for forward reach, lateral right and left were 25.18 ± 5.71 cm, 14.02 ± 3.98 cm and 13.53 ± 4.25 cm, respectively. There was no significant correlation of forward and lateral reach measures with the anthropometric characteristics in both the groups, except trunk length and BMI in group 1, which was significantly correlated ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study provides clinical reference value for younger and middle age group subjects while anthropometrics do not affect performance except trunk length and BMI in younger age group.

  14. Automated laser damage threshold test systems of different test modes for optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Zhang, Yanyun; Ma, Hongping; Liu, Huasong; Ji, Yiqin

    2012-11-01

    The automated laser damage threshold test systems of different test modes are developed recently with micron-scale damage events automated detection, location and re-inspection. The system is carried out using a 10 ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In view of the requirements of weak site identification and growth test for initial damage sites, we pay more attention to the raster scan protocol. The automated test system is enabled by the pulsed stage movement method. A one pulse to one image correspondence have been set up during scans, which is available for the later confirmation of the automated damage detection results and the growth study at specified test sites. The new and grown defects are decided by comparing the pre-image and current image at the same place during different scans. Currently, the defect comparison rules and tolerance are being optimized to improve the accuracy of test systems.

  15. The Talk Test and its relationship with the ventilatory and lactate thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Timothy J; Coons, Benjamin A

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we wished to determine the relationship between the Talk Test physiological and perceptual indicators and variables measured at the ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and if the Talk Test indicators were associated with a typical exercise prescription. Fifteen participants (13 males and 2 females; age 18-35 years) underwent a treadmill lactate threshold test followed by a VO2max (maximal oxygen consumption) test in which the ventilatory threshold was determined. On a separate day, a Talk Test was administered in which participants read a passage during exercise and rated speaking comfort: "comfortable" (+Talk Test), "not sure" (+/-Talk Test), or "not able to speak comfortably" (-Talk Test). Exercise prescriptions based on 65% and 80% of heart rate reserve and VO2 reserve were determined. Lactate threshold values were significantly higher than those at the ventilatory threshold (P ACSM exercise intensity guidelines. Therefore, the Talk Test can be used in this population to prescribe exercise, and Talk Test data are more strongly related to physiological and perceptual variables corresponding to the lactate threshold than to the ventilatory threshold.

  16. Danish validation of sniffin' sticks olfactory test for threshold, discrimination, and identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklassen, Andreas Steenholt; Ovesen, Therese; Fernandes, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The applicability of olfactory testing is dependent on cultural adaptation. The aim of this study was to validate the Sniffin' Sticks (Burghart Messtechnik, Wedel, Germany) threshold (T), discrimination (D), and identification (I) olfaction test. This data was subsequently used...

  17. The Clock'N test as a possible measure of emotions: normative data collected on a non-clinical population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auriane eGros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: At present emotional experience and implicit emotion regulation (IER abilities are mainly assessed though self-reports, which are subjected to several biases. The aim of the present studies was to validate the Clock’N test, a recently developed time estimation task employing emotional priming to assess implicitly emotional reactivity and IER.Methods: In Study 1, the Clock’N test was administered to 150 healthy participants with different age, laterality and gender, in order to ascertain whether these factors affected the test results. In phase 1 participant were asked to judge the duration of seven sounds. In phase 2, before judging the duration of the same sounds, participants were presented with short arousing video-clip used as emotional priming stimuli. Time warp was calculated as the difference in time estimation between phase 2 and phase 1, and used to assess how emotions affected subjective time estimations. In study 2, a representative sample was selected to provide normative scores to be employed to assess emotional reactivity (Score 1 and IER (Score 2, and to calculate statistical cutoffs, based on the 10th and 90th score distribution percentiles. Results: Converging with previous findings, the results of study 1 suggested that the Clock’N test can be employed to assess both emotional reactivity, as indexed by an initial time underestimation, and IER, as indexed by a progressive shift to time overestimation. No effects of gender, age and laterality were found. Conclusions: These results suggest that the Clock'N test is adapted to assess emotional reactivity and IER. After collection of data on the test discriminant and convergent validity, this test may be employed to assess deficits in these abilities in different clinical populations.

  18. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  19. A test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS: Normative data and psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio eArcara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in patients with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2 and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total. Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts’ evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient’s cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The

  20. Recognition disorders for famous faces and voices: a review of the literature and normative data of a new test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Davide; Piccininni, Chiara; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Luzzi, Simona; Marra, Camillo; Papagno, Costanza; Trojano, Luigi; Gainotti, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Several anatomo-clinical investigations have shown that familiar face recognition disorders not due to high level perceptual defects are often observed in patients with lesions of the right anterior temporal lobe (ATL). The meaning of these findings is, however, controversial, because some authors claim that these patients show pure instances of modality-specific 'associative prosopagnosia', whereas other authors maintain that in these patients voice recognition is also impaired and that these patients have a 'multimodal person recognition disorder'. To solve the problem of the nature of famous faces recognition disorders in patients affected by right ATL lesions, it is therefore very important to verify with formal tests if these patients are or are not able to recognize others by voice, but a direct comparison between the two modalities is hindered by the fact that voice recognition is more difficult than face recognition. To circumvent this difficulty, we constructed a test battery in which subjects were requested to recognize the same persons (well-known at the national level) through their faces and voices, evaluating familiarity and identification processes. The present paper describes the 'Famous People Recognition Battery' and reports the normative data necessary to clarify the nature of person recognition disorders observed in patients affected by right ATL lesions.

  1. Normative and legal regulation of state testing, registration of plant varieties based on genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. О. Собова

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The review of legal regulation of state testing, registration of plant varieties based on genetically modified organisms in Ukraine and the European Union. Defined problems, namely the problem of harmonization of legislation, the actual Ukraine's lack of specific legislation in the area of biosafety for GMO handling, lack of clear procedures for registration of GMOs and others.

  2. The stability of color discrimination threshold determined using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutere, B.; Jurasevska Luse, K.; Livzane, A.

    2014-09-01

    Congenital red-green color vision deficiency is one of the most common genetic disorders. A previously printed set of pseudoisochromatic plates (KAMS test, 2012) was created for individual discrimination threshold determination in case of mild congenital red-green color vision deficiency using neutral colors (colors confused with gray). The diagnostics of color blind subjects was performed with Richmond HRR (4th edition, 2002) test, Oculus HMC anomaloscope, and further the examination was made using the KAMS test. 4 male subjects aged 20 to 24 years old participated in the study: all of them were diagnosed with deuteranomalia. Due to the design of the plates, the threshold of every subject in each trial was defined as the plate total color difference value ΔE at which the stimulus was detected 75% of the time, so the just-noticeable difference (jnd) was calculated in CIE LAB DeltaE (ΔE) units. Authors performed repeated discrimination threshold measurements (5 times) for all four subjects under controlled illumination conditions. Psychophysical data were taken by sampling an observer's performance on a psychophysical task at a number of different stimulus saturation levels. Results show that a total color difference value ΔE threshold exists for each individual tested with the KAMS pseudoisochromatic plates, this threshold value does not change significantly in multiple measurements. Deuteranomal threshold values aquired using greenish plates of KAMS test are significantly higher than thresholds acquired using reddish plates. A strong positive correlation (R=0.94) exists between anomaloscope matching range (MR) and deuteranomal thresholds aquired by the KAMS test and (R=0.81) between error score in the Richmond HRR test and thresholds aquired by the KAMS test.

  3. Validity of the modified conconi test for determining ventilatory threshold during on-water rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo, Jorge Villamil; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Del Valle, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to design a field test based on the Conconi protocol to determine the ventilatory threshold of rowers and to test its reliability and validity. A group of sixteen oarsmen completed a modified Conconi test for on-water rowing. The reliability of the detection of the heart rate threshold was evaluated using heart rate breaking point in the Conconi test and retest. Heart rate threshold was detected in 88.8% of cases in the test-retest. The validity of the modified Conconi test was evaluated by comparing the heart rate threshold data acquired with that obtained in a ventilatory threshold test (VT2). No significant differences were found for the values of different intensity parameters i.e. heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2), stroke rate (SR) and speed (S) between the heart rate threshold and the ventilatory threshold, (170.9 ± 6.8 vs. 169.3 ± 6.4 beats·min(-1); 42.0 ± 8.6 vs. 43.5 ± 8.3 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); 25.8 ± 3.3 vs. 27.0 ± 3.2 strokes·min(-1) and 14.4 ± 0.8 vs. 14.6 ± 0.8 km·h(-1)). The differences in averages obtained in the Conconi test-retest were small with a low standard error of the mean. The reliability data between the Conconi test-retest showed low coefficients of variations (CV) and high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). The total errors for the Conconi test-retest are low for the measured variables (1.31 HR, 0.87 VO2, 0.65 SR, and 0.1 S). The Bland- Altman's method for analysis validity showed a strong concordance according to the analyzed variables. We conclude that the modified Conconi test for on-water rowing is a valid and reliable method for the determination of the second ventilatory threshold (VT2). Key pointsThe Modified Conconi test for on-water rowing is a simple and non-invasive method for the determination of anaerobic threshold for on-water rowing.The modified Conconi protocol for rowing was also shown to be a valid protocol for the calculation of the second ventilatory threshold

  4. Threshold Studies of Heated HMX-Based Energetic Material Targets Using the Steven Impact Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzer, L L; Vandersall, K S; Chidester, S K; Greenwood, D W; Tarver, C M

    2003-07-01

    Impact tests performed at low velocity on heated energetic material samples are of interest when considering the situation of energetic materials involved in a fire. To determine heated reaction thresholds, Steven Test targets containing PBX 9404 or LX-04 samples heated to the range of 150-170 C were impacted at velocities up to 150 m/s by two different projectile head geometries. Comparing these measured thresholds to ambient temperature thresholds revealed that the heated LX-04 thresholds were considerably higher than ambient, whereas the heated PBX 9404 thresholds were only slightly higher than the ambient temperature thresholds. The violence of reaction level of the PBX 9404 was considerably higher than that of the LX-04 as measured with four overpressure gauges. The varying results in these samples with different HMX/binder configurations indicate that friction plays a dominant role in reaction ignition during impact. This work outlines the experimental details, compares the thresholds and violence levels of the heated and ambient temperature experiments, and discusses the dominant mechanisms of the measured thresholds.

  5. Normal Threshold Size of Stimuli in Children Using a Game-Based Visual Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Ali, Zaria; Subramani, Siddharth; Biswas, Susmito; Fenerty, Cecilia; Henson, David B; Aslam, Tariq

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate and explore the ability of novel game-based perimetry to establish normal visual field thresholds in children. One hundred and eighteen children (aged 8.0 ± 2.8 years old) with no history of visual field loss or significant medical history were recruited. Each child had one eye tested using a game-based visual field test 'Caspar's Castle' at four retinal locations 12.7° (N = 118) from fixation. Thresholds were established repeatedly using up/down staircase algorithms with stimuli of varying diameter (luminance 20 cd/m2, duration 200 ms, background luminance 10 cd/m2). Relationships between threshold and age were determined along with measures of intra- and intersubject variability. The Game-based visual field test was able to establish threshold estimates in the full range of children tested. Threshold size reduced with increasing age in children. Intrasubject variability and intersubject variability were inversely related to age in children. Normal visual field thresholds were established for specific locations in children using a novel game-based visual field test. These could be used as a foundation for developing a game-based perimetry screening test for children.

  6. LAST-Q: Adaptation and normative data for the Language Screening Test in a French-Canadian population

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    Laura Monetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most researchers and clinicians agree that early detection of aphasia after stroke will help to predict future outcome (see Laska et al., 2007 and to allow for a better recovery by combining early and intensive speech therapy with early neural reorganization (see Salter et al., 2006. However, most standard aphasia tests are inadequate for assessment in acute stroke. The recently developed Language Screening Test (LAST; Flamand-Roze et al., 2011 can be used for early detection of signs of aphasia in acute post-stroke patients. The goal of the present study was to adapt and to establish normative data for the LAST in the French-Canadian population of Quebec according to age and education. Methods: The first step was to adapt the LAST to the French-Canadian linguistic context by (1 assessing its surface validity, and (2 verifying with a local language expert the relevance of the selected items. After this first step, the final version of the test (LAST-Q was developed. The final LAST-Q comprises 5 subtests: picture naming, repetition, automatic speech, word picture matching and verbal instructions. Patients have 5 seconds to answer each question, and the answers are scored as either 1 or 0. As in the original LAST, two parallel versions of the LAST-Q (versions a and b, for patient test-retest, were developed. The second step was to norm the LAST-Q (a and b with a sample of 50 French-Canadian normals. Participants were divided into four groups according to their (a age (40 to 60 years old and 60 to 80, and (b educational level (≤11 and ≥12 years of education. Results. As expected, a perfect score was obtained for all people from both groups of ages and both educational levels but only for one of the two versions of the LAST-Q. The scores of the second version seemed influenced by the educational level (i.e. only individuals with high level of education obtained a 15/15 final score while low level education individuals obtained heterogeneous

  7. How do 'Public' Values Influence Individual Health Behaviour? An Empirical-Normative Analysis of Young Men's Discourse Regarding HIV Testing Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rod; Small, Will; Shoveller, Jean

    2016-11-01

    Philosophical arguments stemming from the public health ethics arena suggest that public health interventions ought to be subject to normative inquiry that considers relational values, including concepts such as solidarity, reciprocity and health equity. As yet, however, the extent to which 'public' values influence the 'autonomous' decisions of the public remains largely unexplored. Drawing on interviews with 50 men in Vancouver, Canada, this study employs a critical discourse analysis to examine participants' decisions and motivations to voluntarily access HIV testing and/or to accept a routine HIV test offer. Within a sub-set of interviews, a transactional discourse emerged in which the decision to test features an arrangement of 'giving and receiving'. Discourses related to notions of solidarity emphasize considerations of justice and positions testing as a 'public' act. Lastly, 'individualistic' discourses focused on individual-level considerations, with less concern for the broader public 'good'. These findings underscore how normative dimensions pertaining to men's decisions to test are dialectically interrelated with the broader social and structural influences on individual and collective health-related behaviour, thereby suggesting a need to advance an explicit empirical-normative research agenda related to population and public health intervention research.

  8. Demographically corrected normative data for the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised in an elderly sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Demographic variables, such as age, education, and gender, routinely affect performance on neuropsychological tests. Whereas normative data are available to correct for these variables on many tests, data are lacking on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R), especially in the elderly. The current study examined the influence of age, education, and gender on HVLT-R and BVMT-R scores in 290 cognitively intact older adults. Age negatively correlated with nearly every score on the HVLT-R and BVMT-R, and education positively correlated with most scores on these same 2 memory tests. There were fewer gender differences on these tests. Using stepwise multiple regression, HVLT-R and BVMT-R scores were predicted from age, education, and/or gender. When observed scores are compared to these demographically adjusted predicted scores, clinicians can make assumptions about how an individual compared to his/her age-, education-, and gender-matched peers. The current conorming of these 2 memory tests also allows for direct comparison between verbal and visual memory in older patients.

  9. Detection Test for Language Impairments in Adults and the Aged-A New Screening Test for Language Impairment Associated With Neurodegenerative Diseases: Validation and Normative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoir, Joël; Fossard, Marion; Lefebvre, Laurent; Monetta, Laura; Renard, Antoine; Tran, Thi Mai; Wilson, Maximiliano A

    2017-11-01

    To date, there is no quick screening test that could be used during routine office visits to accurately assess language disorders in neurodegenerative diseases. To fill this important gap, we developed the Detection Test for Language impairments in Adults and the Aged (DTLA), a quick, sensitive, standardized screening test designed to assess language disorders in adults and the elderly individuals. In Study 1, we describe the development of the DTLA. In Study 2, we report data on the DTLA's validity and reliability. Finally, in Study 3, we establish normative data for the test. The DTLA has good convergent and discriminant validity as well as good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Norms for the DTLA obtained from a sample of 545 healthy, community-dwelling, French-speaking adults from 4 French-speaking countries (Belgium, Canada (Quebec), France, and Switzerland) are provided. The development, validation, and standardization of the DTLA constitute a significant effort to meet the need for a language screening test adapted to neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Normatização de um teste computadorizado de atenção visual: (TAVIS Normatization of a computerized visual attention test (TAVIS

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    Mônica Duchesne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam os dados normativos de um teste computadorizado de atenção visual (TAVIS para crianças e adolescentes, que representa o primeiro instrumento neuropsicológico deste tipo projetado e desenvolvido no Brasil. Três tarefas diferentes avaliam os apectos de seletividade, alternância e sustentação da atenção. Erros de omissão e ação, bem como o tempo de reação, são avaliados. São comentadas as vantagens e limitações do teste.The authors present the normative data of a computerized test (TAVIS that address visual attention in children and adolescents being the first neuropsychological instrument as such devised and developed in Brazil. Selective, alternate and sustained attention aspects are evaluated through three different tasks. Omission and action errors as well as time reaction are evaluated. The advantages and limitations of the test are commented.

  11. VALIDITY OF THE MODIFIED CONCONI TEST FOR DETERMINING VENTILATORY THRESHOLD DURING ON-WATER ROWING

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    Jorge Villamil Cabo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to design a field test based on the Conconi protocol to determine the ventilatory threshold of rowers and to test its reliability and validity. A group of sixteen oarsmen completed a modified Conconi test for on-water rowing. The reliability of the detection of the heart rate threshold was evaluated using heart rate breaking point in the Conconi test and retest. Heart rate threshold was detected in 88.8% of cases in the test-retest. The validity of the modified Conconi test was evaluated by comparing the heart rate threshold data acquired with that obtained in a ventilatory threshold test (VT2. No significant differences were found for the values of different intensity parameters i.e. heart rate (HR, oxygen consumption (VO2, stroke rate (SR and speed (S between the heart rate threshold and the ventilatory threshold, (170.9 ± 6.8 vs. 169.3 ± 6.4 beats·min-1; 42.0 ± 8.6 vs. 43.5 ± 8.3 ml·kg-1·min-1; 25.8 ± 3.3 vs. 27.0 ± 3.2 strokes·min-1 and 14.4 ± 0.8 vs. 14.6 ± 0.8 km·h-1. The differences in averages obtained in the Conconi test-retest were small with a low standard error of the mean. The reliability data between the Conconi test-retest showed low coefficients of variations (CV and high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC. The total errors for the Conconi test-retest are low for the measured variables (1.31 HR, 0.87 VO2, 0.65 SR, and 0.1 S. The Bland- Altman's method for analysis validity showed a strong concordance according to the analyzed variables. We conclude that the modified Conconi test for on-water rowing is a valid and reliable method for the determination of the second ventilatory threshold (VT2.

  12. Sweat output measurement of the post-ganglion sudomotor response by Q-Sweat Test: a normative database of Chinese individuals

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    Chen Shu-Fang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Q-Sweat is a model used for evaluating the post-ganglionic sudomotor function by assessing sweat response. This study aimed to establish the normative database of Q-Sweat test among Chinese individuals since this type of information is currently lacking. Results One hundred and fifty (150 healthy volunteers, 76 men and 74 women with age range of 22–76 years were included. Skin temperature and sweat onset latency measured at the four sites (i.e., the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and the foot did not significantly correlate with age, gender, body height (BH, body weight (BW, and body mass index (BMI but the total sweat volume measured in all four sites significantly correlated with sex, BH, and BW. Except for the distal leg, the total sweat volume measured at the other three sites had a significant correlation with BMI. In terms of gender, men had larger total sweat volume, with median differences at the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and foot of 0.591 μl, 0.693 μl, 0.696 μl, and 0.358 μl, respectively. Regarding BW difference (≥62 and  Conclusion This is the first report to show the normative database of sweat response in Chinese participants evaluated using Q-Sweat device. This normative database can help guide further research on post-ganglionic sudomotor or related clinical practice involving a Chinese population.

  13. Blink frequency and duration during perimetry and their relationship to test-retest threshold variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Toor, Sonia S; Gautam, Ramesh; Henson, David B

    2011-06-28

    To describe different patterns of blinking in patients undergoing a visual field test and to establish whether the blink parameters are related to threshold variability. Thirty-nine patients with diagnosed or suspected glaucoma were recruited to undertake a perimetric task twice. Blinks were detected with a video eye-tracker system that records at a sampling rate of 60 Hz. Blink frequency, duration, and episodes of microsleep (eye closures >500 ms) were analyzed, and correlated with test-retest threshold variability. The timing of blinks with respect to stimulus presentation was analyzed and the percentage of seen stimuli for all presentations (POS(overall)) and those overlapped with blinks (POS(overlapped)) were compared. Blink frequency ranged from 0 to 58 per minute. A significant increase in blink frequency was observed in the second test (P blink duration and microsleep episodes were not significantly different between the two tests. The relationship between test-retest threshold variability and all blink parameters was not significant. For suprathreshold stimulus presentations, blinks often occurred after presentation, whereas for subthreshold presentations, their timing was independent of stimulus timing. The difference between POS(overall) and POS(overlapped) was significant (P blink frequencies was observed during perimetric testing. Although no blink parameters showed significant influence on threshold variability, when the blinks overlapped with a stimulus presentation, the probability of seeing was reduced. For suprathreshold stimuli, blinks often occurred after the presentation, whereas for subthreshold presentations, there was no relationship to presentation time.

  14. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

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    Becky Hothersall

    Full Text Available Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs. This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1 and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg (Part 2. Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167 from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1. In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further

  15. Tests of English Language as Significant Thresholds for College-Bound Chinese and the Washback of Test-Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoush, Marylou M.; Fu, Danling

    2012-01-01

    Tests of English language mark significantly high thresholds for all college-bound students in the People's Republic of China. Many Chinese students hope to seek their fortunes at universities in the United States, or other English speaking countries. These students spend long hours, year after year, in test-preparation centres in order to develop…

  16. Video Head Impulse Tests with a Remote Camera System: Normative Values of Semicircular Canal Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Gain in Infants and Children

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    Sylvette R. Wiener-Vacher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The video head impulse test (VHIT is widely used to identify semicircular canal function impairments in adults. But classical VHIT testing systems attach goggles tightly to the head, which is not tolerated by infants. Remote video detection of head and eye movements resolves this issue and, here, we report VHIT protocols and normative values for children. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR gain was measured for all canals of 303 healthy subjects, including 274 children (aged 2.6 months–15 years and 26 adults (aged 16–67. We used the Synapsys® (Marseilles, France VHIT Ulmer system whose remote camera measures head and eye movements. HITs were performed at high velocities. Testing typically lasts 5–10 min. In infants as young as 3 months old, VHIT yielded good inter-measure replicability. VOR gain increases rapidly until about the age of 6 years (with variation among canals, then progresses more slowly to reach adult values by the age of 16. Values are more variable among very young children and for the vertical canals, but showed no difference for right versus left head rotations. Normative values of VOR gain are presented to help detect vestibular impairment in patients. VHIT testing prior to cochlear implants could help prevent total vestibular loss and the resulting grave impairments of motor and cognitive development in patients with residual unilateral vestibular function.

  17. The 100-meter timed test: Normative data in healthy males and comparative pilot outcome data for use in Duchenne muscular dystrophy clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Lindsay N; Miller, Natalie F; Berry, Katherine M; Yin, Han; Rolf, Kimberly E; Flanigan, Kevin M; Mendell, Jerry R; Lowes, Linda P

    2017-05-01

    Timed walking tests are often used to measure function in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Our objective was to evaluate the 100 meter timed test (100m), a fixed distance test of maximal performance, for use in DMD. To this end, we sought to establish normative 100m performance in healthy controls, compare DMD performance to controls, and evaluate the reliability of 100m. Seventy-two boys with DMD (18 steroid-naïve, 54 on steroids) and 599 controls (4-14 years) completed the 100m as speedily as possible on a 25-meter track. Repeat testing was completed between 1 and 42 days later and again at 1 year in a subgroup of 96 control boys. Additionally 35 DMD boys were followed longitudinally (5-19 months). Descriptive statistics are presented by age and cohort. There was a significant difference in performance between groups (p  0.90, p < 0.001). Normative data can be used to determine percent-predicted 100m times to quantify the severity of running impairment in children with a motor deficit. Performance of 100m follows the natural history established by other outcome measures in DMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Glare Effect Test and the Impact of Age on Luminosity Thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Facchin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The glare effect (GE is an illusion in which a white region appears self-luminous when surrounded by linearly decreasing luminance ramps. It has been shown that the magnitude of the luminosity effect can be modulated by manipulating the luminance range of the gradients. In the present study we tested the thresholds for the GE on two groups of adults: young (20–30 years old and elderly (60–75 years old. Purpose of our perspective study was to test the possibility of transforming the GE into a test that could easily measure thresholds for luminosity and discomfort glare. The Glare Effect Test (GET consisted in 101 printed cards that differed from each other for the range of luminance ramps. Participants were assessed with GET and a battery of visual tests: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, illusion of length perception, and Ishihara test. Specifically in the GET, participants were required to classify cards on the basis of two reference cards (solid black-no gradient; full range black to white gradient. PSEs of the GE show no correlation with the other visual tests, revealing a divergent validity. A significant difference between young and elderly was found: contrary to our original expectations, luminosity thresholds of GE for elderly were higher than those for young, suggesting a non-direct relationship between luminosity perception and discomfort glare.

  19. The restricted stochastic user equilibrium with threshold model: Large-scale application and parameter testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Watling, David P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the application and calibration of the recently proposed Restricted Stochastic User Equilibrium with Threshold model (RSUET) to a large-scale case-study. The RSUET model avoids the limitations of the well-known Stochastic User Equilibrium model (SUE) and the Deterministic User...... equilibrated set of paths which all are within a threshold relative to the cost on the cheapest path and which do not leave any attractive paths unused. Several variants of a generic RSUET solution algorithm are tested and calibrated on a large-scale case network with 18,708 arcs and about 20 million OD......-pairs, and comparisons are performed with respect to a previously proposed RSUE model as well as an existing link-based mixed Multinomial Probit (MNP) SUE model. The results show that the RSUET has very attractive computation times for large-scale applications and demonstrate that the threshold addition to the RSUE...

  20. Attention in Older Adults: A Normative Study of the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test for Persons Aged 70 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berginström, Nils; Johansson, Jonas; Nordström, Peter; Nordström, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to present normative data from 70-year-olds on the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA), a computerized measure of attention and response control. 640 participants (330 men and 310 women), all aged 70 years, completed the IVA, as well as the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Data were stratified by education and gender. Education differences were found in 11 of 22 IVA scales. Minor gender differences were found in six scales for the high-education group, and two scales for the low-education group. Comparisons of healthy participants and participants with stroke, myocardial infarction, or diabetes showed only minor differences. Correlations among IVA scales were strong (all r > .34, p < .001), and those with the widely used Mini-Mental State Examination were weaker (all r < .21, p < .05). Skewed distributions of normative data from primary IVA scales measuring response inhibition (Prudence) and inattention (Vigilance) represent a weakness of this test. This study provides IVA norms for 70-year-olds stratified by education and gender, increasing the usability of this instrument when testing persons near this age. The data presented here show some major differences from original IVA norms, and explanations for these differences are discussed. Explanations include the broad age-range used in the original IVA norms (66-99 years of age) and the passage of 15 years since the original norms were collected.

  1. The Parsing Syllable Envelopes Test for Assessment of Amplitude Modulation Discrimination Skills in Children: Development, Normative Data, and Test-Retest Reliability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Chong-White, Nicky; Mealings, Kiri; Beechey, Tim; Dillon, Harvey; Young, Taegan

    2018-02-01

    Intensity peaks and valleys in the acoustic signal are salient cues to syllable structure, which is accepted to be a crucial early step in phonological processing. As such, the ability to detect low-rate (envelope) modulations in signal amplitude is essential to parse an incoming speech signal into smaller phonological units. The Parsing Syllable Envelopes (ParSE) test was developed to quantify the ability of children to recognize syllable boundaries using an amplitude modulation detection paradigm. The envelope of a 750-msec steady-state /a/ vowel is modulated into two or three pseudo-syllables using notches with modulation depths varying between 0% and 100% along an 11-step continuum. In an adaptive three-alternative forced-choice procedure, the participant identified whether one, two, or three pseudo-syllables were heard. Development of the ParSE stimuli and test protocols, and collection of normative and test-retest reliability data. Eleven adults (aged 23 yr 10 mo to 50 yr 9 mo, mean 32 yr 10 mo) and 134 typically developing, primary-school children (aged 6 yr 0 mo to 12 yr 4 mo, mean 9 yr 3 mo). There were 73 males and 72 females. Data were collected using a touchscreen computer. Psychometric functions (PFs) were automatically fit to individual data by the ParSE software. Performance was related to the modulation depth at which syllables can be detected with 88% accuracy (referred to as the upper boundary of the uncertainty region [UBUR]). A shallower PF slope reflected a greater level of uncertainty. Age effects were determined based on raw scores. z Scores were calculated to account for the effect of age on performance. Outliers, and individual data for which the confidence interval of the UBUR exceeded a maximum allowable value, were removed. Nonparametric tests were used as the data were skewed toward negative performance. Across participants, the performance criterion (UBUR) was met with a median modulation depth of 42%. The effect of age on the UBUR was

  2. Modelling multiple thresholds in meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Steinhauser

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy, routinely only one pair of sensitivity and specificity per study is used. However, for tests based on a biomarker or a questionnaire often more than one threshold and the corresponding values of true positives, true negatives, false positives and false negatives are known. Methods We present a new meta-analysis approach using this additional information. It is based on the idea of estimating the distribution functions of the underlying biomarker or questionnaire within the non-diseased and diseased individuals. Assuming a normal or logistic distribution, we estimate the distribution parameters in both groups applying a linear mixed effects model to the transformed data. The model accounts for across-study heterogeneity and dependence of sensitivity and specificity. In addition, a simulation study is presented. Results We obtain a summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC curve as well as the pooled sensitivity and specificity at every specific threshold. Furthermore, the determination of an optimal threshold across studies is possible through maximization of the Youden index. We demonstrate our approach using two meta-analyses of B type natriuretic peptide in heart failure and procalcitonin as a marker for sepsis. Conclusions Our approach uses all the available information and results in an estimation not only of the performance of the biomarker but also of the threshold at which the optimal performance can be expected.

  3. THRESHOLD STUDIES ON TNT, COMPOSITION B, C-4, AND ANFO EXPLOSIVES USING THE STEVEN IMPACT TEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Garcia, F

    2006-06-20

    Steven Impact Tests were performed at low velocity on the explosives TNT (trinitrotolulene), Composition B (63% RDX, 36% TNT, and 1% wax by weight), C-4 (91% RDX, 5.3% Di (2-ethylhexyl) sebacate, 2.1% Polyisobutylene, and 1.6% motor oil by weight) and ANFO (94% ammonium Nitrate with 6% Fuel Oil) in attempts to obtain a threshold for reaction. A 76 mm helium driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles up to approximately 200 m/s in attempts to react (ignite) the explosive samples. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, standard video and high-speed photography were used to characterize the level of any high explosive reaction violence. No bulk reactions were observed in the TNT, Composition B, C-4 or ANFO explosive samples impacted up to velocities in the range of 190-200 m/s. This work will outline the experimental details and discuss the lack of reaction when compared to the reaction thresholds of other common explosives. These results will also be compared to that of the Susan Test and reaction thresholds observed in the common small-scale safety tests such as the drop hammer and friction tests in hopes of drawing a correlation.

  4. The development of an Afrikaans test for sentence recognition thresholds in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Marianne; Hanekom, Johan J; Swanepoel, DeWet

    2011-02-01

    The development of a valid and reliable Afrikaans test of sentence recognition thresholds in noise. A collection of sentences was developed, rated for naturalness and grammatical complexity, and digitally recorded using a female speaker. Sentences found to have similar psychometric curve slopes, with equivalent intelligibility at three different noise levels, were arranged into 22 phonemically matched lists of ten sentences each. List equivalence was evaluated in normal-hearing listeners in full and reduced bandwidth conditions. Test-retest reliability of the remaining lists was evaluated in a second group of listeners. All listeners were native speakers of Afrikaans with normal hearing. For evaluation of list equivalence, ten listeners were used. Twenty other listeners were used to evaluate test-retest reliability. A collection of eighteen phonemically matched lists was produced. Lists were found to be of equivalent difficulty in full and reduced bandwidth conditions, and to have good test-retest reliability in normal-hearing listeners. The average recognition threshold of these lists was -2.73 dB signal-to-noise ratio (standard deviation = 0.64 dB), and within-subject variability was 1.22 dB. The developed test provides a valid and reliable means of measuring sentence recognition thresholds in noise in Afrikaans.

  5. Sweat output measurement of the post-ganglion sudomotor response by Q-Sweat Test: a normative database of Chinese individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Q-Sweat is a model used for evaluating the post-ganglionic sudomotor function by assessing sweat response. This study aimed to establish the normative database of Q-Sweat test among Chinese individuals since this type of information is currently lacking. Results One hundred and fifty (150) healthy volunteers, 76 men and 74 women with age range of 22–76 years were included. Skin temperature and sweat onset latency measured at the four sites (i.e., the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and the foot) did not significantly correlate with age, gender, body height (BH), body weight (BW), and body mass index (BMI) but the total sweat volume measured in all four sites significantly correlated with sex, BH, and BW. Except for the distal leg, the total sweat volume measured at the other three sites had a significant correlation with BMI. In terms of gender, men had larger total sweat volume, with median differences at the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and foot of 0.591 μl, 0.693 μl, 0.696 μl, and 0.358 μl, respectively. Regarding BW difference (≥62 and sweat volume. Median differences at the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and foot were 0.538 μl, 0.744 μl, 0.695 μl, and 0.338 μl, respectively. There was an uneven distribution of male and female participants in the two BW groups. In all conditions, the total sweat volume recorded at the foot site was the smallest. Conclusion This is the first report to show the normative database of sweat response in Chinese participants evaluated using Q-Sweat device. This normative database can help guide further research on post-ganglionic sudomotor or related clinical practice involving a Chinese population. PMID:22682097

  6. Normative data for phonemic and semantic verbal fluency test in the adult French-Quebec population and validation study in Alzheimer's disease and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, Alexandre; Hudon, Carol; Vallet, Guillaume T; Bherer, Louis; Lussier, Maxime; Gagnon, Jean-François; Simard, Martine; Gosselin, Nadia; Escudier, Frédérique; Rouleau, Isabelle; Macoir, Joël

    2016-10-01

    Verbal fluency tasks are principally used to assess lexical access and have shown usefulness for differential diagnosis. The purpose of Study 1 was to provide normative data in the adult French-Quebec population (Canada) for semantic verbal fluency (animals), for two sets of phonemic verbal fluency (TNP and PFL), and for letter P alone (60 seconds per category/letter). The objectives of Study 2 were to establish the diagnostic and predictive validity of the present tasks and normative data in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and major depressive episode (MDE). The normative sample consisted of 932 participants aged 19-91 years. Based on multiple linear regressions, equations to calculate Z-scores were provided. To assess validity, performance of 62 healthy participants was compared to 62 participants with AD and 41 with MDE aged over 50. Age and education, but not gender, predicted performance on each verbal fluency task. Healthy adults aged 50 and younger had a better performance on semantic than phonemic verbal fluency. In comparison to MDE, AD participants had lower performance on animals and TNP, but not on letter P. Ninety percent of people with a Z-score ≤ -1.50 on semantic verbal fluency had AD and the global accuracy was 76.6%. Test-retest reliability over one year was high for both animals (r = .711) and TNP (r = .790) in healthy older participants, but dropped for animals in people with AD (r = .493). These data will strengthen accurate detection of verbal fluency deficits in French-Quebec adults.

  7. Threshold Studies on TNT, Composition B, and C-4 Explosives Using the Steven Impact Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Garcia, F

    2005-09-26

    Steven Impact Tests were performed at low velocity on the explosives TNT, Comp B, and C-4 in attempts to obtain a threshold for reaction. A 76 mm helium driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles up to approximately 200 m/s in attempts to react (ignite) the explosive samples. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, standard video and high-speed photography were used to characterize the level of any high explosive reaction violence. No bulk reactions were observed in the TNT, Composition B, or C-4 explosive samples impacted up to velocities in the range of 190-200 m/s. This work will outline the experimental details and discuss the lack of reaction when compared to the reaction thresholds of other common explosives.

  8. Unheralded failure of Riata defibrillator lead identified at defibrillation threshold testing

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Matthew R.; Allen, Rosemary F.; Stiles, Martin K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: St Jude Medical “Riata” implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads have a higher-than-expected failure rate and carry a Class 1 recall. Failure usually relates to an insulation breach that may not be identified by lead fluoroscopic or electrical changes. Case presentation: We report a case of Riata lead failure identified by the aborted delivery of effective therapy for ventricular fibrillation at the time of defibrillation threshold testing. Lead fluoroscopic appearances wer...

  9. Multivariate normative comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizenga, Hilde M; Smeding, Harriet; Grasman, Raoul P P P; Schmand, Ben

    2007-06-18

    In neuropsychological evaluations and single case research generally a number of tests are administered, since the interest is not in a single, but in multiple characteristics of a patient. The typical problem is to decide whether or not a patient is different from normal controls with respect to one or more of these characteristics. Consideration of each characteristic separately entails an increased risk of a false positive decision (a wrongful decision that the patient is abnormal, or a type 1 error). From a statistical point of view this calls for a multivariate analysis. In this paper, we propose two approaches to perform normative comparisons for such multivariate data: Bonferroni corrected univariate comparisons and a multivariate comparison. Both approaches allow for the testing of unidirectional (two-sided) as well as directional (one-sided) hypothesis, i.e. the hypothesis that a patient deviates in a negative sense from the norm. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to check if the type I error of both approaches is adequately controlled, and to investigate the power of both approaches to detect deviation from the norm. The results indicate that the type I error rate of both approaches is correct, even in small samples. The results also indicate that the power is higher for the univariate approach if the normative sample size is very small (i.e. just exceeds the number of tests administered). In larger samples, the multivariate comparison has in general increased power. We illustrate both approaches with a clinical example of patients with Parkinson disease, who received deep brain stimulation to alleviate motor symptoms, and who were neuropsychologically evaluated to detect possible cognitive side effects.

  10. Evaluation of the pentylenetetrazole seizure threshold test in epileptic mice as surrogate model for drug testing against pharmacoresistant seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töllner, Kathrin; Twele, Friederike; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a major problem in epilepsy therapy, so that development of more effective AEDs is an unmet clinical need. Several rat and mouse models of epilepsy with spontaneous difficult-to-treat seizures exist, but because testing of antiseizure drug efficacy is extremely laborious in such models, they are only rarely used in the development of novel AEDs. Recently, the use of acute seizure tests in epileptic rats or mice has been proposed as a novel strategy for evaluating novel AEDs for increased antiseizure efficacy. In the present study, we compared the effects of five AEDs (valproate, phenobarbital, diazepam, lamotrigine, levetiracetam) on the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold in mice that were made epileptic by pilocarpine. Experiments were started 6 weeks after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. At this time, control seizure threshold was significantly lower in epileptic than in nonepileptic animals. Unexpectedly, only one AED (valproate) was less effective to increase seizure threshold in epileptic vs. nonepileptic mice, and this difference was restricted to doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg, whereas the difference disappeared at 400mg/kg. All other AEDs exerted similar seizure threshold increases in epileptic and nonepileptic mice. Thus, induction of acute seizures with PTZ in mice pretreated with pilocarpine does not provide an effective and valuable surrogate method to screen drugs for antiseizure efficacy in a model of difficult-to-treat chronic epilepsy as previously suggested from experiments with this approach in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of methods for the estimation of threshold concentrations by the skin prick test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreborg, Sten; Holgersson, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The allergen dose-response curve is flat; thus, small changes in wheal size reflect large differences in skin sensitivity. The sensitivity as measured by provocation tests is given by the threshold concentration that causes symptoms and/or objective signs. The threshold concentrations differ by several magnitudes between the most and the least sensitive individuals clinically allergic to the same allergen. Variation in technique can be minimized by relating allergen responses to that to histamine. The aim here is to present and validate simple methods for estimation of the skin sensitivity given as the concentration inducing a wheal of the same size as that with the positive reference, 10 mg/ml of histamine HCl, in the same patient. Data from previously reported trials on the biological equilibration of allergen extracts were used to document a method to calculate the concentration of allergen required to induce a wheal of the same size as that with 10 mg/ml of histamine dihydrochloride in the same patient, and to validate the methods using the parallel line bioassay as the gold standard. The validated methods correlated well with the results obtained using the gold standard method and provide results of skin prick testing based on threshold concentrations of allergen. The validated methods reduce the error of differences in testing techniques and make it possible to report skin sensitivity at threshold concentrations. A simple method to be used in clinical practice and a method suitable to describe changes in skin reactivity over time or during treatment are proposed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Population normative data for the 10/66 Dementia Research Group cognitive test battery from Latin America, India and China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Ana Luisa; Albanese, Emiliano; Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; de Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Yang, Fang; Gaona, Ciro; Joteeshwaran, At; Rodriguez, Guillermina; de la Torre, Gabriela Rojas; Williams, Joseph D; Stewart, Robert

    2009-08-26

    1) To report site-specific normative values by age, sex and educational level for four components of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group cognitive test battery; 2) to estimate the main and interactive effects of age, sex, and educational level by site; and 3) to investigate the effect of site by region and by rural or urban location. Population-based cross-sectional one phase catchment area surveys were conducted in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China and India. The protocol included the administration of the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia (CSI 'D', generating the COGSCORE measure of global function), and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) verbal fluency (VF), word list memory (WLM, immediate recall) and recall (WLR, delayed recall) tests. Only those free of dementia were included in the analysis. Older people, and those with less education performed worse on all four tests. The effect of sex was much smaller and less consistent. There was a considerable effect of site after accounting for compositional differences in age, education and sex. Much of this was accounted for by the effect of region with Chinese participants performing better, and Indian participants worse, than those from Latin America. The effect of region was more prominent for VF and WLM than for COGSCORE and WLR. Cognitive assessment is a basic element for dementia diagnosis. Age- and education-specific norms are required for this purpose, while the effect of gender can probably be ignored. The basis of cultural effects is poorly understood, but our findings serve to emphasise that normative data may not be safely generalised from one population to another with quite different characteristics. The minimal effects of region on COGSCORE and WLR are reassuring with respect to the cross-cultural validity of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis, which uses only these elements of the 10/66 battery.

  13. The video head impulse test (vHIT of semicircular canal function – age dependent normative values of VOR gain in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Andrew McGarvie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Hypothesis. The video Head Impulse Test (vHIT is now widely used to test the function of each of the six semicircular canals individually by measuring the eye rotation response to an abrupt head rotation in the plane of the canal. The main measure of canal adequacy is the ratio of the eye movement response to the head movement stimulus i.e. the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR. However there is a need for normative data about how VOR gain is affected by age and also by head velocity, to allow the response of any particular patient to be compared to response of healthy subjects in their age range. In this study we determined for all six semicircular canals, normative values of VOR gain, for each canal across a range of head velocities, for healthy subjects in each decade of life.Study Design. The VOR gain was measured for all canals across a range of head velocities for at least 10 healthy subjects in decade age bands: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89. Methods. The compensatory eye movement response to a small, unpredictable, abrupt head rotation (head impulse was measured by the ICS Impulse prototype system. The same operator delivered every impulse to every subject. Results. VOR gain decreased at high head velocities, but was largely unaffected by age into the 80-89 year age group. There were some small but systematic differences between the two directions of head rotation, which appear to be largely due to the fact that in this study only the right eye was measured. The results are considered in relation to recent evidence about the effect of age on VOR performance.Conclusion. These normative values allow the results of any particular patient to be compared to the values of healthy people in their age range and so allow, for example, detection of whether a patient has a bilateral vestibular loss. VOR gain, as measured directly by the eye movement response to head rotation, seems largely unaffected by

  14. Contact heat thermal threshold testing in beagle dogs: baseline reproducibility and the effect of acepromazine, levomethadone and fenpipramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Marina Verena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this methodology article a thermal threshold testing device designed to test nociception in cats was assessed in six dogs. The purpose of this study was to investigate baseline reproducibility of thermal thresholds obtained by the contact heat testing device, to assess the influence of acepromazine and levomethadone and fenpipramide in dogs. The relationship between change in nociceptive thermal threshold and the opioid′s plasma concentration was determined. Six adult beagle dogs received levomethadone (0.2 mg/kg, acepromazine (0.02 mg/kg or saline placebo by intramuscular injection (IM in a randomized cross-over design. Three baseline nociceptive thermal threshold readings were taken at 15 minutes intervals prior to treatment. Further readings were made at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, 300, 330, 360, 420 and 480 minutes after injection. A sedation score was assigned at every reading. Four saline placebo treatments were performed to assess baseline reproducibility. Levomethadone serum concentrations were measured prior and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after drug dosing in a separate occasion. Results Acepromazine did not seem to increase the thermal threshold at any time. After levomethadone there was a significant rise of the thermal threshold between 15 to 120 minutes at serum concentrations between 22.6-46.3 ng/mL. Baseline reproducibility was stable in adult beagle dogs. Conclusion The thermal threshold testing system is a suitable device for nociceptive threshold testing in dogs.

  15. Validity of an on-court lactate threshold test in young basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Carlo; Manzi, Vincenzo; Impellizzeri, Franco; Chaouachi, Anis; Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Ditroilo, Massimiliano

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the criterion validity of a submaximal field test (Intermittent Shuttle-Running Test [ISRT]) for lactate threshold (LT) detection in young basketball players. Fourteen basketball players (age 15.3 +/- 0.6 years, height 182 +/- 4.6 cm, and body mass 71.6 +/- 6.3 kg) were submitted in random order and on separate occasions, to ISRT (20-m shuttle running for 4 minutes at 9, 10 and 11 kmxh-1) and to a treadmill intermittent progressive test (criterion validity, TM) devised for the assessment of LT (4-minute stages at 8, 10, 12, 14 kmxh-1). Blood-lactate concentrations [La]b were assessed taking earlobe blood samples at rest and immediately after each of the 4-minute running steps considered for ISRT and TM. Lactate threshold was considered as the running speed attained at 1 mmolxL-1 [La]b above resting levels. Results showed that speed at LT during ISRT and TM was significantly related (r = 0.82, p basketball players to complement anaerobic fitness and agility.

  16. Pre-test habituation improves the reliability of a handheld test of mechanical nociceptive threshold in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundal, P. M.; Andersen, P. H.; Toft, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) testing has been used to investigate aspects of painful states in bovine claws. We investigated a handheld tool, where the applied stimulation force was monitored continuously relative to a pre-encoded based target force. The effect on MNT of two pre-testing...... habituation procedures was performed in two different experiments comprising a total of 88 sound Holsteins dairy cows kept either inside or outside their home environment. MNT testing was performed using five consecutive mechanical nociceptive stimulations per cow per test at a fixed pre-encoded target rate...... of 2.1 N/s. The habituation procedure performed in dairy cows kept in their home environment led to lowered intra-individual coefficient of variation of MNT (P Pre-test...

  17. Y-balance normative data for female collegiate volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Christy; Garrison, J Craig; Pollard, Kalyssa

    2016-11-01

    The Lower Quarter Y Balance (YBT-LQ) Test performance varies depending on competitive level, sport, gender, and age; therefore, determining normative scores specific to a population may be helpful in identifying injury-risk thresholds and return-to-play criteria following an injury. The purpose of this study was to determine normative YBT-LQ scores by assessing a subset of female, Division I volleyball players. A descriptive analysis cohort study. Ninety healthy (19.6 ± 1.2 y/o), collegiate female volleyball players. YBT-LQ was measured in 3 distinct directions of anterior (ANT), posteromedial (PM) and posterolateral (PL) on both the dominant and non-dominant limbs. In addition, a one way ANOVA was performed to determine mean group differences of YBT-LQ dominant and non-dominant limb composite score across position. Baseline values for this population were 94.1 ± 6.6% on the dominant limb and 93.9 ± 6.2% on the non-dominant limb. There were no significant differences for YBT-LQ composite scores on dominant (P = 0.867) and non-dominant (P = 0.989) limbs between position. This study identified normative YBT-LQ composite scores for healthy, female, collegiate volleyball players. Participants performed similarly despite their position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Normative reference values for the 20 m shuttle‐run test in a population‐based sample of school‐aged youth in Bogota, Colombia: the FUPRECOL study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios‐López, Adalberto; Humberto Prieto‐Benavides, Daniel; Enrique Correa‐Bautista, Jorge; Izquierdo, Mikel; Alonso‐Martínez, Alicia; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Our aim was to determine the normative reference values of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to establish the proportion of subjects with low CRF suggestive of future cardio‐metabolic risk. Methods A total of 7244 children and adolescents attending public schools in Bogota, Colombia (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years) participated in this study. We expressed CRF performance as the nearest stage (minute) completed and the estimated peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak). Smoothed percentile curves were calculated. In addition, we present the prevalence of low CRF after applying a correction factor to account for the impact of Bogota's altitude (2625 m over sea level) on CRF assessment, and we calculated the number of participants who fell below health‐related FITNESSGRAM cut‐points for low CRF. Results Shuttles and V˙O2peak were higher in boys than in girls in all age groups. In boys, there were higher levels of performance with increasing age, with most gains between the ages of 13 and 17. The proportion of subjects with a low CRF, suggestive of future cardio‐metabolic risk (health risk FITNESSGRAM category) was 31.5% (28.2% for boys and 34.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). After applying a 1.11 altitude correction factor, the overall prevalence of low CRF was 11.5% (9.6% for boys and 13.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). Conclusions Our results provide sex‐ and age‐specific normative reference standards for the 20 m shuttle‐run test and estimated V˙O2peak values in a large, population‐based sample of schoolchildren from a large Latin‐American city at high altitude. PMID:27500986

  19. Normative reference values for the 20 m shuttle-run test in a population-based sample of school-aged youth in Bogota, Colombia: the FUPRECOL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Palacios-López, Adalberto; Humberto Prieto-Benavides, Daniel; Enrique Correa-Bautista, Jorge; Izquierdo, Mikel; Alonso-Martínez, Alicia; Lobelo, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the normative reference values of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to establish the proportion of subjects with low CRF suggestive of future cardio-metabolic risk. A total of 7244 children and adolescents attending public schools in Bogota, Colombia (55.7% girls; age range of 9-17.9 years) participated in this study. We expressed CRF performance as the nearest stage (minute) completed and the estimated peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak ). Smoothed percentile curves were calculated. In addition, we present the prevalence of low CRF after applying a correction factor to account for the impact of Bogota's altitude (2625 m over sea level) on CRF assessment, and we calculated the number of participants who fell below health-related FITNESSGRAM cut-points for low CRF. Shuttles and V˙O2peak were higher in boys than in girls in all age groups. In boys, there were higher levels of performance with increasing age, with most gains between the ages of 13 and 17. The proportion of subjects with a low CRF, suggestive of future cardio-metabolic risk (health risk FITNESSGRAM category) was 31.5% (28.2% for boys and 34.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). After applying a 1.11 altitude correction factor, the overall prevalence of low CRF was 11.5% (9.6% for boys and 13.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for the 20 m shuttle-run test and estimated V˙O2peak values in a large, population-based sample of schoolchildren from a large Latin-American city at high altitude. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Normative interpretations of diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Normative interpretations of particular cases consist of normative principles or values coupled with social theoretical accounts of the empirical facts of the case. The article reviews the most prominent normative interpretations of the Muhammad cartoons controversy over the publication of drawings...... of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. The controversy was seen as a case of freedom of expression, toleration, racism, (in)civility and (dis)respect, and the article notes different understandings of these principles and how the application of them to the controversy implied different...

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring during cardiopulmonary exercise testing detects anaerobic threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohit P; Danduran, Michael J; Loomba, Rohit S; Dixon, Jennifer E; Hoffman, George M

    2012-06-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides assessment of the integrative responses involving the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and skeletal muscle systems. Application of exercise testing remains limited to children who are able to understand and cooperate with the exercise protocol. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a noninvasive, continuous method to monitor regional tissue oxygenation (rSO2). Our specific aim was to predict anaerobic threshold (AT) during CPET noninvasively using two-site NIRS monitoring. Achievement of a practical noninvasive technology for estimating AT will increase the compatibility of CPET. Patients without structural or acquired heart disease were eligible for inclusion if they were ordered to undergo CPET by a cardiologist. Data from 51 subjects was analyzed. The ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) was computed on [Formula: see text] and respiratory quotient post hoc using the standard V-slope method. The inflection points of the regional rSO2 time-series were identified as the noninvasive regional NIRS AT for each of the two monitored regions (cerebral and kidney). AT calculation made using an average of kidney and brain NIRS matched the calculation made by VAT for the same patient. Two-site NIRS monitoring of visceral organs is a predictor of AT.

  2. Validity and reliability of incremental test to determine the anaerobic threshold in swimming rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Rafael Beck

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The organic and metabolic consequences of physical exercise are critically modulated depending of the effort intensity and volume. Nevertheless, most of the protocols employed for objectively determine the individual exercise intensities for rats are impractical or unadvisable for various experimental designs. The aim of this study was to individually determine the anaerobic threshold intensity (iAnT and the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS, gold standard procedure intensities using a single incremental swimming test for rats, verifying it validity and reliability. Eleven male Wistar rats were submitted twice (48 hours of interval to an incremental test with overloads from 3% of body mass (%bm, increments of 0.5%bm and stages of 5 min. From blood lactate concentration and %bm data were constructed two linear regressions to determine iAnT. Then, all of the animals performed the MLSS procedure based on iAnT. Comparing iAnT test and re-test were found significant intraclass correlation (r = 0.67; p = 0.01, no significant difference (p = 0.91, coefficient of variation of 4.04% and effect size of 0.02, beyond good agreement, precision and accuracy attested by Bland-Altman plots (bias of 0.010. Furthermore, iAnT was not different from MLSS intensity. A single incremental swimming test comprises a high applicable, valid and reliable tool for objectively and individually determines exercise intensity of swimming rats. Keywords: Anaerobic threshold; exercise intensity; lactataemia; maximal lactate steady state; swimming rats

  3. Accuracy of a Modified Lactate Minimum Test and Reverse Lactate Threshold Test to Determine Maximal Lactate Steady State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patrick; Manunzio, Christian; Vogt, Florian; Strütt, Sarah; Volmary, Prisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2017-12-01

    Wahl, P, Manunzio, C, Vogt, F, Strütt, S, Volmary, P, Bloch, W, and Mester, J. Accuracy of a modified lactate minimum test and reverse lactate threshold test to determine maximal lactate steady state. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3489-3496, 2017-This study evaluated the accuracy of a modified lactate minimum test (mLMT), a modified reverse lactate threshold test (mRLT), compared with 2 established threshold concepts (onset of blood lactate accumulation [OBLA] and modified maximal deviation method [mDmax]) to determine power output at maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) in cycling. Nineteen subjects performed an mLMT, mRLT, graded exercise test (100 W start, +20 W every 3 minutes) and 3 or more constant-load tests of 30 minutes to determine power output at MLSS. The mLMT and mRLT both consisted of an initial lactate priming segment, followed by a short recovery phase. Afterward, the initial load of the subsequent incremental or reverse segment was calculated individually and was increased or decreased by 10 W every 90 seconds, respectively. The mean difference to MLSS was +2 ± 7 W (mLMT), +5 ± 10 W (mRLT), +9 ± 21 W (OBLA), and +6 ± 14 W (mDmax). The correlation between power output at MLSS and mLMT was highest (r = 0.99), followed by mRLT (r = 0.98), mDmax (r = 0.95), and OBLA (r = 0.90). Because of the higher accuracy of the mLMT and the mRLT to determine MLSS compared with OBLA and mDmax, we suggest both tests as valid and meaningful concepts to estimate power output at MLSS in one single test in moderately trained to well-trained athletes. Additionally, our modified tests provide anaerobic data and do not require detailed knowledge of the subjects' training status compared with previous LMT or RLT protocols.

  4. Normativity, agency, and life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, James

    2012-03-01

    There is an immense philosophical literature dealing with the notions of normativity and agency, as well as a sizeable and rapidly growing scientific literature on the topic of autonomous agents. However, there has been very little cross-fertilization between these two literatures. As a result, the philosophical literature tends to assume a somewhat outdated mechanistic image of living things, resulting in a quasi-dualistic picture in which only human beings, or the higher animals, can be normative agents properly speaking. From this perspective, the project of 'naturalizing normativity' becomes almost a contradiction in terms. At the same time, the scientific literature tends to misuse 'normativity,' 'agency,' and related terms, assuming that it is meaningful to ascribe these concepts to 'autonomous agents' conceived of as physical systems whose behavior is to be explained in terms of ordinary physical law. From this perspective, the true depth of the difficulty involved in understanding what makes living systems distinctive qua physical systems becomes occluded. In this essay, I begin the attempt to remedy this situation. After some preliminary discussion of terminology and situating of my project within the contemporary philosophical landscape, I make a distinction between two different aspects of the project of naturalizing normativity: (1) the 'Scope Problem,' which consists in saying how widely in nature our concept of normative agency may properly be applied; and (2) the 'Ground Problem,' which consists in rationalizing the phenomenon of normative agency in terms of the rest of our knowledge of nature. Then, in the remainder of this paper, I argue that the Scope Problem ought to be resolved in favor of attributing normative agency, in the proper sense of those words, to living things as such. The Ground Problem will be discussed in a companion paper at a later time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cultural Adaptation of the Portuguese Version of the "Sniffin' Sticks" Smell Test: Reliability, Validity, and Normative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, João Carlos; Simões, João; Silva, Filipe; Silva, Eduardo D; Hummel, Cornelia; Hummel, Thomas; Paiva, António

    2016-01-01

    The cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Sniffin`Sticks test for the Portuguese population is described. Over 270 people participated in four experiments. In Experiment 1, 67 participants rated the familiarity of presented odors and seven descriptors of the original test were adapted to a Portuguese context. In Experiment 2, the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test was administered to 203 healthy participants. Older age, male gender and active smoking status were confirmed as confounding factors. The third experiment showed the validity of the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test in discriminating healthy controls from patients with olfactory dysfunction. In Experiment 4, the test-retest reliability for both the composite score (r71 = 0.86) and the identification test (r71 = 0.62) was established (pPortuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test is provided, showing good validity and reliability and effectively distinguishing patients from healthy controls with high sensitivity and specificity. The Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test identification test is a clinically suitable screening tool in routine outpatient Portuguese settings.

  6. Cultural Adaptation of the Portuguese Version of the “Sniffin’ Sticks” Smell Test: Reliability, Validity, and Normative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, João Carlos; Simões, João; Silva, Filipe; Silva, Eduardo D.; Hummel, Cornelia; Hummel, Thomas; Paiva, António

    2016-01-01

    The cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Sniffin`Sticks test for the Portuguese population is described. Over 270 people participated in four experiments. In Experiment 1, 67 participants rated the familiarity of presented odors and seven descriptors of the original test were adapted to a Portuguese context. In Experiment 2, the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test was administered to 203 healthy participants. Older age, male gender and active smoking status were confirmed as confounding factors. The third experiment showed the validity of the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test in discriminating healthy controls from patients with olfactory dysfunction. In Experiment 4, the test-retest reliability for both the composite score (r71 = 0.86) and the identification test (r71 = 0.62) was established (peffectively distinguishing patients from healthy controls with high sensitivity and specificity. The Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test identification test is a clinically suitable screening tool in routine outpatient Portuguese settings. PMID:26863023

  7. ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS ON DIFFERENT POSITIONS, USING THE CONCONI TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Cvetković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Requirements and needs of properly programmed training process, especially in the pre-season, look for a precise definition of the functional parameters of all the players. The level of anaerobic threshold, as well as research on the same, may be a good indicator of proper dosage of loading. The aim of the research is to determine the differences in running speed and heart rate at the level of anaerobic threshold in relation to the position of the player. Methods: Age of the respondents in this study included boys from 14 to 16 years of age (60 football players. The sample of respondents was divided according to playing position, as follows: center-backs (12 players, wing-backs (15 players, midfielders (14 players, forwarders (13 players and goalkeepers (6 goalkeepers. An estimation of maximum heart rate and anaerobic threshold was performed using the Conconi test – (Conconi et al. 1996. Prior to testing players had ten minutes to warm up and after a few minutes of rest the testing began. Players started with jogging test (10 km/h and after every 200 m running speed was increased by 0.5 km/h. Within certain sections the load is constant which is achieved by increasing speed after each 200 m, and then maintaining that speed until the end of the section. After processing the results within the particular software (“Polar Precision Performance SW” the values needed for this research were collected. Multivariate methods MANOVA and discriminant analysis will be applied in the paper. Regarding the univariate procedures, ANOVA t-test and Roy’s test shall be applied. The descriptive parameters, mean value, standard deviation (SD, minimum and maximum of all values, the coefficient of variation (CV of confidence intervals, skewness as the measures of asymmetry, kurtosis as the measure of flatness and the value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, shall be presented. Results: By using the multivariate analysis of variance and based on the

  8. Dose-response assessments of Kathon biocide (I). Diagnostic use and diagnostic threshold patch testing with sensitized humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J E; Cardin, C W; Maibach, H I

    1985-03-01

    Nearly all effective, commercially available preservatives possess skin sensitization potential. This manuscript describes a program of diagnostic patch and practical use testing of consumer products that contained Kathon CG, a relatively new biocide. A series of threshold diagnostic patch tests demonstrated that the minimal elicitation concentration in occluded patch testing of allergic subjects considerably exceeded the concentrations of the biocide typically present in normal diluted use of the test products. Use testing further confirmed a threshold exposure for eliciting allergic reactions. It showed that even subjects who have delayed contact hypersensitivity to Kathon CG used rinse-off personal care products preserved with this agent without experiencing elicitation of these allergies.

  9. A comparative and normative analysis of the remoteness test in the availability of significant remedies in international sales transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Beheshti, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the remoteness of loss. It will be shown that the availability of damages under legal regimes created by the main international conventions, such as the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, are essentially the same, although there are some wording dissimilarities in the rules dealing with the remoteness test. However, the implications of the absence of a remoteness test for the possibility of termination in the Sale of Goods Act 1...

  10. Prognostic Implications of Defibrillation Threshold Testing in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Pietro; Adduci, Carmen; Semprini, Lorenzo; Palano, Francesca; Santini, Daria; Musumeci, Beatrice; Santolamazza, Caterina; Volpe, Massimo; Autore, Camillo

    2017-01-01

    In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients the need for defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing at the time of ICD implantation is debated. Moreover, its prognostic implications have never been explored. In a cohort of HCM patients we sought to (a) investigate factors prompting DFT testing, (b) evaluate ICD efficacy by testing DFT, (c) compare DFT in patients with and without massive LVH, and (d) assess whether DFT testing predicts shock efficacy for spontaneous VT/VF. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of HCM patients implanted with an ICD. DFT was tested at the discretion of the implanting physician with a 10 J safety margin. During follow-up, ICD interventions were evaluated. The study population included 66 patients. DFT was determined in 25 (38%) patients. Age (HR: 0.95; 95%CI: 0.92-0.98; P = 0.004) and massive LVH (HR: 6.0; 95%CI: 2.03-18.8; P = 0.001) affected the decision to test DFT. DFT was at least 10 J less than maximal ICD output in 25/25. Safety margin was similar among patients with and without massive LVH (15 ± 3 J vs. 14 ± 2 J; P = 0.42). During follow-up (median 53 months) 15 shocks were delivered for 12 VT/VF in 7 patients. One VF ended spontaneously after a failed shock. Of 4 unsuccessful shocks, 2 occurred in 1 patient with DFT testing and 2 were delivered in 2 patients without. All unsuccessful shocks were ≤35 J. Young age and massive LVH prompt DFT testing. Contemporary ICDs are safe and effective in HCM patients independently from the magnitude of LVH. DFT testing does not predict shock efficacy for spontaneous VT/VF. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Normative reference values for the 20-meter shuttlerun test in a population-based sample of schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia: The FUPRECOL Study

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios-López, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the normative reference values of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to establish the proportion of subjects with low CRF suggestive of future cardio-metabolic risk. Our aim was to determine the normative reference values of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to establish the proportion of subjects with low CRF suggestive of future cardio-metabolic risk. Methods: A total of 7244 children and adolescents attending public schools in Bogota, Colomb...

  12. Normative Study of the Functional Assessment of Verbal Reasoning and Executive Strategies (FAVRES) Test in the French-Canadian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Karine; McSween, Marie-Pier; Pouliot, Monica; Martineau, Sarah; Pauze, Anne-Marie; Wiseman-Hakes, Catherine; MacDonald, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The Functional Assessment of Verbal Reasoning and Executive Strategies (FAVRES; MacDonald, 2005) test was designed for use by speech-language pathologists to assess verbal reasoning, complex comprehension, discourse, and executive skills during performance on a set of challenging and ecologically valid functional tasks. A recent French…

  13. Psychometric Validation and Normative Data of a Second Chinese Version of the Hooper Visual Organization Test in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Su, Chwen-Yng; Guo, Wei-Yuan; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2012-01-01

    The Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT) is a measure of visuosynthetic ability. Previously, the psychometric properties of the HVOT have been evaluated for Chinese-speaking children aged 5-11 years. This study reports development and further evidence of reliability and validity for a second version involving an extended age range of healthy…

  14. Development of Bengali Audio-Visual Test Battery for Assessment of Pragmatic Skills: Preliminary Normative Data Based on Educational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Madhushree; Biswas, Atanu; Pal, Sandip; Chatterjee, Amita

    2017-01-01

    Pragmatic competence may be disrupted due to psychological and neurological causes. For appropriate remedy and rehabilitation, a precise assessment of pragmatic skills is important. However, there is no test battery in the Bengali language, and consequently, there is no published data on pragmatic ability of Bengali speakers. Due to the vast…

  15. Reliability of heart rate variability threshold and parasympathetic reactivation after a submaximal exercise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Janssen Gomes da Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate reproducibility of heart rate variability threshold (HRVT and parasympathetic reactivation in physically active men (n= 16, 24.3 ± 5.1 years. During the test, HRVT was assessed by SD1 and r-MSSD dynamics. Immediately after exercise, r-MSSD was analyzed in segments of 60 seconds for a period of five minutes. High absolute and relatively reproducible analysis of HRVT were observed, as assessed by SD1 and r-MSSD dynamics (ICC = 0.92, CV = 10.8, SEM = 5.8. During the recovery phase, a moderate to high reproducibility was observed for r-MSSD from the first to the fifth minute (ICC = 0.69-0.95, CV = 7.5-14.2, SEM = 0.07-1.35. We conclude that HRVT and r-MSSD analysis after a submaximal stress test are highly reproducible measures that might be used to assess the acute and chronic effects of exercise training on cardiac autonomic modulation during and/or after a submaximal stress test.

  16. The Significance of Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    This dissertation examines the concept of normativity through a series of studies in post- Kantian philosophy and social theory. The overall aim is to analyse the historical as well as systematic relevance of the concept of normativity to modern philosophy and to the methodological challenges...... of social theory. In pursuing this overall research agenda, the dissertation contributes to a number of specific research literatures. Following two introductory and methodological chapters, Chapter 3 thus critically examines the analysis of normativity suggested in the recent attempts at transforming...... the methods of neo-classical economics into a broader form of social theory. The chapter thereby contributes to the critical discourses, particularly in philosophy of science, that challenge the validity of neo-classical economics and its underlying conception of practical rationality. In examining...

  17. Non-normative Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Paulsen

    2016-01-01

    The close ties between modes of governing, subjectivities and critique in contemporary societies challenge the role of critical social research. The classical normative ethos of the unmasking researcher unravelling various oppressive structures of dominant vs. dominated groups in society is inade......The close ties between modes of governing, subjectivities and critique in contemporary societies challenge the role of critical social research. The classical normative ethos of the unmasking researcher unravelling various oppressive structures of dominant vs. dominated groups in society...... outlines a non-normative but critical programme based on an ethos of re-politicizing contemporary pervasive modes of governing. The analytical advantages and limitations of such a programme are demonstrated by readings of both Foucauldian studies and the works of and debates regarding the French pragmatic...

  18. EXPLORACIÓN DE DIFERENCIAS NORMATIVAS EN EL SISTEMA DE CALIFICACIÓN CUALITATIVA PARA EL TEST GESTÁLTICO DE BENDER MODIFICADO/ EXPLORING NORMATIVE DIFFERENCES IN QUALITATIVE SCORING SYSTEM FOR MODIFIED THE BENDER GESTALT TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Merino Soto*

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEl presente estudio explora la magnitud de las diferencias en los puntajes del Sistema de Calificación Cualitativa parael Test Gestáltico de Bender Modificado, usando diferente información normativa proveniente de Perú, Estados Unidos yChina. En una muestra de 324 niños(as peruanos entre 5 y 6 años de edad, se analizaron las potenciales diferencias en ladensidad, tendencia central, dispersión y clasificaciones de rendimiento visomotor. Se hallaron grandes diferenciasnormativas, y por lo tanto, el desempeño en los participantes se vio altamente sobreestimado o subestimado dependiendode la norma usada. Se discute el impacto de estos resultados en la apropiada práctica evaluativa en niños.ABSTRACTThis study explores the magnitude of difference in scores from Qualitative Scoring System to Bender Gestalt TestModified using different normative data from Peru, USA and China. In a sample of 324 children (boys and girls between5 and 6 ages, we analyzed the potential differences in density, central tendency, dispersion and visual motor performanceclassifications. It was found large normative differences, and therefore, performance in participants was highlyoverestimated or underestimated depending on the standard used. It discusses the impact of these results in the appropriateassessment practice in children.

  19. Overcoming pain thresholds with multilevel models—an example using quantitative sensory testing (QST data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Hirschfeld

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of somatosensory function is a cornerstone of research and clinical practice in neurology. Recent initiatives have developed novel protocols for quantitative sensory testing (QST. Application of these methods led to intriguing findings, such as the presence lower pain-thresholds in healthy children compared to healthy adolescents. In this article, we (re- introduce the basic concepts of signal detection theory (SDT as a method to investigate such differences in somatosensory function in detail. SDT describes participants’ responses according to two parameters, sensitivity and response-bias. Sensitivity refers to individuals’ ability to discriminate between painful and non-painful stimulations. Response-bias refers to individuals’ criterion for giving a “painful” response. We describe how multilevel models can be used to estimate these parameters and to overcome central critiques of these methods. To provide an example we apply these methods to data from the mechanical pain sensitivity test of the QST protocol. The results show that adolescents are more sensitive to mechanical pain and contradict the idea that younger children simply use more lenient criteria to report pain. Overall, we hope that the wider use of multilevel modeling to describe somatosensory functioning may advance neurology research and practice.

  20. Quantitative sensory test for primary restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease using the current perception threshold test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Won; Kang, Min-Sung; Kim, Keun Tae; Do, So Young; Lim, Jung-Geun; Lee, So Young; Motamedi, Gholam K

    2017-02-01

    Restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) is a sensorimotor neurological disorder, and it is especially aggravated at night. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diurnal sensory dysfunction in primary RLS/WED using the current perception threshold (CPT) test, compared to healthy controls. Thirty primary RLS/WED subjects and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. The severity of RLS/WED and sleep problems were evaluated in all subjects. Peripheral polyneuropathy was excluded through neurological examination and nerve conduction study. We used the Neurometer ® system for the CPT test and applied three different parameters (2000 Hz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz), to stimulate both big toes. The CPT test was performed twice, once during the asymptomatic daytime period and again in the evening, when the patients were symptomatic. The mean ages of the RLS/WED group and controls were 50.5 ± 11.7 (22; 73.3% female), and 46.3 ± 11.4 (24; 80.0% female), respectively. The mean international RLS/WED study group severity scale score was 28.6 ± 4.25. There was no significant difference in the current perception thresholds between the RLS/WED patients and controls in daytime. However, the RLS/WED patients had lower mean CPT measurements for all three stimulation protocols in the evening (2000 Hz: 393.2 ± 93.7 vs 430.8 ± 79.6, 250 Hz: 172.0 ± 48.4 vs 198.5 ± 38.2, and 5 Hz: 98.0 ± 34.1 vs 124.6 ± 31.3), while the healthy controls showed no difference. RLS patients showed a lower CPT in the evening. The diurnal variation of hyperalgesia in RLS/WED patients indicates a central (circadian) sensory processing disturbance rather than a peripheral disturbance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Testing the theory of threshold concepts in a context of dental education. Preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, M

    2013-05-08

    This paper reports on the pilot phase of a phenomenographic study which explores the relationship between teachers' and students' perceptions of the curriculum and theory of threshold concepts, which claims that there are concepts in all disciplines which must be understood, if learners are to progress to a more advanced level of understanding. It is suggested that threshold concepts may represent ways of thinking and practising within disciplines. In this study consideration is given to the troublesome aspects of knowledge as described by David Perkins (1999) and further developed by Meyer and Land (2003). Researcher's intention is to investigate if students experience any conceptual difficulties and what the nature of these might be. Students' and teachers' accounts of how they perceive the dental curriculum might help to verify if there is a relationship between the curriculum and the theory of threshold concepts. Analysis of the troublesome aspects of knowledge may lead to the identification of threshold concepts in the dental curriculum.

  2. Experimental Tests of Normative Group Influence and Representation Effects in Computer-Mediated Communication: When Interacting Via Computers Differs from Interacting With Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Nass, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Presents two experiments to address the questions of if and how normative social influence operates in anonymous computer-mediated communication and human-computer interaction. Finds that the perception of interaction partner (human vs. computer) moderated the group conformity effect such that the undergraduate student subjects expressed greater…

  3. Normative significance of transnationalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    The paper concerns the specific transnational aspects of the ‘cartoons controversy' over the publication of 12 drawings of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. Transnationalism denotes the relationships that are not international (between states) or domestic (between states...... and citizens, or between groups or individuals within a state). The paper considers whether the specifically transnational aspects of the controversy are normatively significant, that is, whether transnationalism makes a difference for the applicability or strength of normative considerations concerning...... publications such as the Danish cartoons. It is argued that, although some of the usual arguments about free speech only or mainly apply domestically, many also apply transnationally; that standard arguments for multicultural recognition are difficult to apply transnationally; and that requirements of respect...

  4. Normative acts management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ardeleanu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the normative act amongst the formal law sources system is the result of the constructive activity of specialized bodies, designated by the Constitution, by laws or by regulations of normative power (having the right of drafting norms of generally mandatory power. Such bodies are named lawgiving bodies (also referred to as the "lawgiver" or "lawmaker" and they are first of all the bodies of the lawgiving power, entitled to issue on a primary and originator level the fundamental social relations in a society, to organize the juridical order of a nation or of a community of nations. The activity of these bodies is carried out under rules of juridical technique and in accordance with the general purposes imposed by the proper functioning of the social mechanism regarding the coexistence of social freedoms.

  5. Threshold Theory Tested in an Organizational Setting: The Relation between Perceived Innovativeness and Intelligence in a Large Sample of Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bo T.; Hartmann, Peter V. W.; Rasmussen, Thomas Hedegaard

    2017-01-01

    A large sample of leaders (N = 4257) was used to test the link between leader innovativeness and intelligence. The threshold theory of the link between creativity and intelligence assumes that below a certain IQ level (approximately IQ 120), there is some correlation between IQ and creative potential, but above this cutoff point, there is no…

  6. Normative Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The chapter develops a normative power approach to European studies that can be applied across and beyond its constitutive disciplines in order to interrogate and transgress the ideas and spaces on/of Europe. In four parts the chapter explores the terms ‘normative', ‘power', and ‘Europe', before......' - in order to make sense of ideas of the common good. Part two looks at three different types of power - ‘relational', ‘structural', and ‘normative' - as a means of understanding the power of ideas of the common good. Part three considers three different means of understanding Europe - ‘civilizational......', ‘categorical', and ‘cultural' - to show how the power of ideas of the common good shape our means of comprehending contemporary Europe. Part four attempts to apply the approach to the question of a European counter-terrorist response. This example was chosen because of the challenges it presents...

  7. The effect of social isolation, gender and familiarity with the experimental procedure on tests of porcine nociceptive thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Stausholm, Julie S.; Viitasaari, Eliina

    2015-01-01

    receiving the mechanical challenge in the pelvic limbs were tested inside a cage, whereas pigs exposed to stimuli at the tail region were tested in an open arena. For both experiments, the effect of familiarity to the procedure was evaluated by comparing thresholds of nociception in habituated versus naïve...... pigs. The presence of a companion animal was also evaluated in pigs receiving stimuli at the pelvic limbs. Results Pigs tested inside the cage were affected by the habituation to the procedure as indicated by the increase in willingness and time spent by the animals in the test cage. This effect......Objective To investigate the effects of habituation and isolation on mechanical nociceptive thresholds in pigs at the pelvic limbs and at the tail. Study design Prospective randomized multifactorial study. Animals Thirty-two healthy castrated male (experiment 1), and 12 castrated male and 12 female...

  8. Yields of Soviet Underground Nuclear Explosions from Seismic Surface Waves: Compliance with the Threshold Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Lynn R.; Cifuentes, Inés L.

    1984-03-01

    Magnitudes of the larger Soviet underground nuclear weapons tests from the start of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty in 1976 through 1982 are determined for short- and long-period seismic waves. Yields are calculated from the surface wave magnitude for those explosions at the eastern Kazakh test site that triggered a small-to-negligible component of tectonic stress and are used to calibrate body wave magnitude-yield relationship that can be used to determine the sizes of other explosions at that test site. The results confirm that a large bias, related to differential attenuation of P waves, exists between Nevada and Central Asia. The yields of the seven largest Soviet explosions are nearly identical and are close to 150 kilotons, the limit set by the Threshold Treaty.

  9. 13C-Urea breath test threshold calculation and evaluation for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Herold, Ralf; Becker, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background The 13C-urea breath test (UBT) is performed in adults and children with epigastric pain for non-invasively diagnosing a suspected H. pylori infection. Criteria for UBT interpretation have not been generally agreed on and test reliability has not been established in children of different ages. This study aimed at identifying reliable UBT thresholds in children by using 251 UBTs in conjunction with reference histology and by analyzing 1232 UBTs. Methods At baseline and 30 an...

  10. Experimental and Finite Element Modeling of Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth for the K-Decreasing Test Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Seshadri, Banavara R.; Newman, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental methods to determine near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate data are prescribed in ASTM standard E647. To produce near-threshold data at a constant stress ratio (R), the applied stress-intensity factor (K) is decreased as the crack grows based on a specified K-gradient. Consequently, as the fatigue crack growth rate threshold is approached and the crack tip opening displacement decreases, remote crack wake contact may occur due to the plastically deformed crack wake surfaces and shield the growing crack tip resulting in a reduced crack tip driving force and non-representative crack growth rate data. If such data are used to life a component, the evaluation could yield highly non-conservative predictions. Although this anomalous behavior has been shown to be affected by K-gradient, starting K level, residual stresses, environmental assisted cracking, specimen geometry, and material type, the specifications within the standard to avoid this effect are limited to a maximum fatigue crack growth rate and a suggestion for the K-gradient value. This paper provides parallel experimental and computational simulations for the K-decreasing method for two materials (an aluminum alloy, AA 2024-T3 and a titanium alloy, Ti 6-2-2-2-2) to aid in establishing clear understanding of appropriate testing requirements. These simulations investigate the effect of K-gradient, the maximum value of stress-intensity factor applied, and material type. A material independent term is developed to guide in the selection of appropriate test conditions for most engineering alloys. With the use of such a term, near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate tests can be performed at accelerated rates, near-threshold data can be acquired in days instead of weeks without having to establish testing criteria through trial and error, and these data can be acquired for most engineering materials, even those that are produced in relatively small product forms.

  11. The optimal threshold values for the severity of urinary incontinence based on the 1-hour pad test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Zhu, Lan; Xu, Tao; Lang, Jinghe

    2012-08-01

    To explore the correlation between the 1-hour pad test and Stamey incontinence grading and to obtain the optimal threshold values for the severity of urinary incontinence. In a cross-sectional retrospective study at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1-hour pad test results and Stamey grades of female patients who had undergone therapy for urinary incontinence between June 2005 and December 2010 were reviewed. The correlation between the objective and subjective measurements was assessed via a Spearman rank correlation test. The optimal diagnostic threshold was evaluated by ROC curve, and areas under the ROC curve reflected the accuracy of the 1-hour pad test. A strong positive correlation was found between the 1-hour pad test results and the subjective grades of 320 patients (correlation coefficient 0.757, Ptest, the optimal diagnostic cutoff points for the severity of urinary incontinence were 3.4 g and 10.2g. The 1-hour pad test could assess the severity of urinary incontinence accurately. The threshold values should be, approximately, less than 3g for mild, 3-10 g for moderate, and more than 10 g for severe urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Normative Data of the Story and Six-Object Memory Recall Tests in Older Spanish Adults: NEDICES Population-Based Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contador, Israel; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino; Boycheva, Elina; Rueda, Laura; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2017-02-10

    We provide normative data for the story and six-object recall tasks, stratified by age and education in a large population-based cohort of older Spanish adults. The sample consisted of 2,581 participants without dementia (age range: 67-98 years) from different socioeconomic areas of central Spain. Normative data are presented in percentile ranks and divided into four overlapping age tables with different midpoints. Spearman correlations and shared variances were calculated to evaluate the effects of sociodemographic variables on both tasks. Our findings showed that age and education influence the scores in the story and six-object recall tasks, whereas sex had null effect on story recall and an almost negligible on object recall, respectively. The norms presented herein are important for the correct interpretation of scores in the story and six-object recall tasks when assessing older adults in Spain.

  13. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for acoustic test signals of short duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Daugaard, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Hearing thresholds were measured for broadband clicks of 100 µs duration and for brief tones (0.500, 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz). The signal shape of the tone pulses was of type 2-3-2, ie each pulse consisted of two periods of linear rise and fall and three periods with constant amplitude in between. The...

  14. Controversies in the physiological basis of the 'anaerobic threshold' and their implications for clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopker, J G; Jobson, S A; Pandit, J J

    2011-02-01

    This article reviews the notion of the 'anaerobic threshold' in the context of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Primarily, this is a review of the proposed mechanisms underlying the ventilatory and lactate response to incremental exercise, which is important to the clinical interpretation of an exercise test. Since such tests are often conducted for risk stratification before major surgery, a failure to locate or justify the existence of an anaerobic threshold will have some implications for clinical practice. We also consider alternative endpoints within the exercise response that might be better used to indicate a patient's capacity to cope with the metabolic demands encountered both during and following major surgery. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Assessment of Heart Rate Variability Thresholds from Incremental Treadmill Tests in Five Cross-Country Skiing Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibai Mendia-Iztueta

    Full Text Available The assessment of heart rate variability (HRV thresholds (HRVTs as an alternative of Ventilatory thresholds (VTs is a relatively new approach with increasing popularity which has not been conducted in cross-country (XC skiing yet. The main purpose of the present study was to assess HRVTs in the five main XC skiing-related techniques, double poling (DP, diagonal striding (DS, Nordic walking (NW, V1 skating (V1, and V2 skating (V2.Ten competitive skiers completed these incremental treadmill tests until exhaustion with a minimum of one to two recovery days in between each test. Ventilatory gases, HRV and poling frequencies were measured. The first HRV threshold (HRVT1 was assessed using two time-domain analysis methods, and the second HRV threshold (HRVT2 was assessed using two non-time varying frequency-domain analysis methods. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting the mean successive difference (MSD and standard deviation (SD of normalized R-R intervals to workload. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting high frequency power (HFP and the HFP relative to respiratory sinus arrhythmia (HFPRSA with workload. HRVTs were named after their methods (HRVT1-SD; HRVT1-MSD; HRVT2-HFP; HRVT2-HFP-RSA. The results showed that the only cases where the proposed HRVTs were good assessors of VTs were the HRVT1-SD of the DS test, the HRVT1-MSD of the DS and V2 tests, and the HRVT2-HFP-RSA of the NW test. The lack of a wider success of the assessment of HRVTs was reasoned to be mostly due to the high entrainment between the breathing and poling frequencies. As secondary finding, a novel Cardiolocomotor coupling mode was observed in the NW test. This new Cardiolocoomtor coupling mode corresponded to the whole bilateral poling cycle instead of corresponding to each poling action as it was reported to the date by the existing literature.

  16. Perceived, desired, and normatively determined orthodontic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (n=567) Nigerian children aged 12-18 years (mean age,. 14.6 i 1.5), in Ibadan city. ' Perceived and desired needs were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Normative need was assessed on all participants by one orthodontist using the Dental Aes- thetic Index. Results revealed 13.8% of the children having very.

  17. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, S., E-mail: hoess@ecossa.d [Ecossa, Giselastr. 6, 82319 Starnberg (Germany); Institute of Biodiversity - Network (IBN), Dreikronengasse 2, 93047 Regensburg (Germany); Ahlf, W., E-mail: ahlf@tu-harburg.d [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Fahnenstich, C. [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Gilberg, D., E-mail: d-gilberg@ect.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hollert, H., E-mail: henner.hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Melbye, K. [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Meller, M., E-mail: m-meller@ecotox-consult.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hammers-Wirtz, M., E-mail: hammers-wirtz@gaiac.rwth-aachen.d [Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment (gaiac), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Heininger, P., E-mail: heininger@bafg.d [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56070 Koblenz (Germany); Neumann-Hensel, H., E-mail: hensel@fintelmann-meyer.d [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ottermanns, R., E-mail: ottermanns@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Ratte, H.-T., E-mail: toni.ratte@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  18. Logical Framework for Normative Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I propose a new logical framework that can be used to analyze normative phenomena in general. I call this framework a Logic for Normative Systems (LNS). I also demonstrate how to solve some paradoxes of Standard Deontic Logic (SDL). A characteristic of LNS is its dynamic behavior. LNS is flexible, hence it can be applied to describe complex normative problems including ethical problems.

  19. Pure-Tone-Spondee Threshold Relationships in Functional Hearing Loss: A Test of Loudness Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Han, Heekyung J.; Yu, Tzu-Ling J.; Carney, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine explanations for pure-tone average-spondee threshold differences in functional hearing loss. Method: Loudness magnitude estimation functions were obtained from 24 participants for pure tones (0.5 and 1.0 kHz), vowels, spondees, and speech-shaped noise as a function of level (20-90 dB SPL).…

  20. Precision Measurements of Neutral Pion Electroproduction Near Threshold: A Test of Chiral QCD Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Richard A. [University of Virginia; Chirapatpimol, Khem [University of Virginia; Smith, Lee Cole [University of Virginia

    2013-08-01

    Preliminary results are presented from an experiment to measure {pi}{sup 0} electroproduction at and above threshold using the p(e;e' p){pi}{sup 0} reaction. The data were taken at a beam energy of 1192 MeV using a two-spectrometer setup in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. For the first time in {pi}{sup 0} threshold electroproduction, complete coverage of the {phi}{sub {pi}}* and {theta}{sub {pi}}* angles in the center-of-mass (C.M.) was obtained for the invariant mass region up to {Delta}W=18 MeV above the {pi}{sup 0} threshold. At the same time our invariant momentum transfer squared covers the range Q{sup 2} = 0.05-0.15 (GeV/c){sup 2} with twelve bins in Q{sup 2}. The improved kinematic coverage in C.M., W and Q{sup 2} will better constrain theoretical interpretations of the data using phenomenological models and QCD-inspired models such as Heavy Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory.

  1. Yields of Soviet underground nuclear explosions from seismic surface waves: Compliance with the Threshold Test Ban Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Sykes, Lynn R.; Cifuentes, Inés L.

    1984-01-01

    Magnitudes of the larger Soviet underground nuclear weapons tests from the start of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty in 1976 through 1982 are determined for short- and long-period seismic waves. Yields are calculated from the surface wave magnitude for those explosions at the eastern Kazakh test site that triggered a small-to-negligible component of tectonic stress and are used to calibrate body wave magnitude-yield relationship that can be used to determine the sizes of other explosions at that...

  2. The Bay Area Verbal Learning Test (BAVLT): Normative Data and the Effects of Repeated Testing, Simulated Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2017-01-01

    Verbal learning tests (VLTs) are widely used to evaluate memory deficits in neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders. However, their validity has been called into question by studies showing significant differences in VLT scores obtained by different examiners. Here we describe the computerized Bay Area Verbal Learning Test (BAVLT), which minimizes inter-examiner differences by incorporating digital list presentation and automated scoring. In the 10-min BAVLT, a 12-word list is presented on three acquisition trials, followed by a distractor list, immediate recall of the first list, and, after a 30-min delay, delayed recall and recognition. In Experiment 1, we analyzed the performance of 195 participants ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. Acquisition trials showed strong primacy and recency effects, with scores improving over repetitions, particularly for mid-list words. Inter-word intervals (IWIs) increased with successive words recalled. Omnibus scores (summed over all trials except recognition) were influenced by age, education, and sex (women outperformed men). In Experiment 2, we examined BAVLT test-retest reliability in 29 participants tested with different word lists at weekly intervals. High intraclass correlation coefficients were seen for omnibus and acquisition scores, IWIs, and a categorization index reflecting semantic reorganization. Experiment 3 examined the performance of Experiment 2 participants when feigning symptoms of traumatic brain injury. Although 37% of simulated malingerers showed abnormal (p primacy/recency effects, learning rate across acquisition trials, and IWIs) discriminated the two groups with 80% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Experiment 4 examined the performance of a small group of patients with mild or severe TBI. Overall, both patient groups performed within the normal range, although significant performance deficits were seen in some patients. The BAVLT improves the speed and replicability of verbal learning assessments

  3. Gaps-in-Noise test: gap detection thresholds in 9-year-old normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculino, Carolina Finetti; Rabelo, Camila Maia; Schochat, Eliane

    2011-12-01

    To establish the standard criteria for the Gaps-in-Noise (GIN) test in 9-year-old normal-hearing children; to obtain the mean gap detection thresholds; and to verify the influence of the variables gender and ear on the gap detection thresholds. Forty normal-hearing individuals, 20 male and 20 female, with ages ranging from 9 years to 9 years and 11 months, were evaluated. The procedures performed were: anamnesis, audiological evaluation, acoustic immittance measures (tympanometry and acoustic reflex), Dichotic Digits Test, and GIN test. The results obtained were statistically analyzed. The results revealed similar performance of right and left ears in the population studied. There was also no difference regarding the variable gender. In the subjects evaluated, the mean gap detection thresholds were 4.4 ms for the right ear, and 4.2 ms for the left ear. The values obtained for right and left ear, as well as their standard deviations, can be used as standard criteria for 9-year-old children, regardless of ear or gender.

  4. 13C-Urea breath test threshold calculation and evaluation for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Michael

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 13C-urea breath test (UBT is performed in adults and children with epigastric pain for non-invasively diagnosing a suspected H. pylori infection. Criteria for UBT interpretation have not been generally agreed on and test reliability has not been established in children of different ages. This study aimed at identifying reliable UBT thresholds in children by using 251 UBTs in conjunction with reference histology and by analyzing 1232 UBTs. Methods At baseline and 30 and 60 minutes after the administration of 75 mg 13C-urea to children and adolescents (0.25 to 18 years of age, the differences (Δ of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air (δ were determined by mass spectrometry. UBT Δδ value thresholds were calculated in random subgroups and evaluated in complementary subgroups using logistic regressions on reference histology or bimodal distribution analyses of Δδ values from UBTs alone. Results Δδ values were higher (median, 15.4‰ in positive (133/251, 53 % than in negative histology (2.4‰. At 30 minutes, the calculated cut-off was 5.3‰ (mean regression determination R2 = 0.91, and sensitivity (0.95, specificity (0.97, positive (0.97 and negative predictive values (0.95 were higher than at 60 minutes (threshold 6.8‰, R2 = 0.85. Similar thresholds resulted from UBTs analysis (5.8‰ and 6.2‰ when sensitivity and specificity were maximized (concordance probabilities, 0.99 and 0.99. There was no systematic age effect. Conclusions In children, 13C UBT cut-offs were obtained and specially validated, entailing high accuracy of non-invasively testing for gastric H. pylori infection.

  5. Experimental test of a new neutron threshold detector and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Li Gui Sheng; Su You Wu; Li Shu Wei

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi as a new threshold detector to measure high-energy neutrons was investigated for the first time. At the same time the experiment measured successfully the emitted neutron fluence rate, energy spectrum and dose equivalent rate distributions in the heavy ion target area using a detector complex including sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi, sup 1 sup 1 sup 5 In, sup 2 sup 7 Al, sup 1 sup 9 F and sup 1 sup 2 C samples

  6. Contextualism in Normative Political Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Contextualism denotes a set of ideas about the importance of attention to context. The topic of the article is contextualism in normative political theory/philosophy, in relation to the part of political theory concerned with systematic political argument for normative claims—evaluative claims...

  7. Ahemeral light regimens test the photoperiodic threshold of the european starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, R. G.

    1980-03-01

    Male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were held for three consecutive photoperiod oscillations (ahemeral years) composed of 30-h day lengths, i.e., the “daily” light and dark each lasted three hours longer than under the natural daily photoperiod at latitude 38°N. These starlings had no gonad metamorphosis during the 45 actual months necessary to complete the three ahemeral photoperiod oscillations; nor did subsequent exposure to continuous illumination elicit gonad response. It is concluded that the daily duration of light and darkness (although certainly operant in controlling starling sexual cycles under temperate-zone photoperiod oscillations) is not the critical factor establishing a sexual cycle under the ahemeral regimen. Rather, it appears that this species must experience a daily duration of light of 12 hours or less (a definitive photoperiodic threshold) before photo-induction of a sexual cycle is possible.

  8. Prognostic threshold levels of NT-proBNP testing in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J.; Schou, M.; Gustafsson, F.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Chronic heart failure (HF) is a common condition with a poor prognosis. As delayed diagnosis and treatment of HF patients in primary care can be detrimental, risk-stratified waiting lists for echocardiography might optimize resource utilization. We investigated whether a prognostic threshold...... level of the cardiac peptide, NT-proBNP, could be identified. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 2003-2005, 5875 primary care patients with suspected HF (median age 73 years) had NT-proBNP analysed in the Copenhagen area. Eighteen percent died and 20% had a cardiovascular (CV) hospitalization (median follow......-up time: 1127 and 1038 days, respectively). In Cox proportional hazards regression models regarding NT-proBNP levels, the fourth decile (range: 83-118 pg/mL) was associated with a 90% (95% CI: 30-190, P

  9. Testing normative and self-appraisal feedback in an online slot-machine pop-up in a real-world setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mario Auer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, there have been an increasing number of gaming operators that have incorporated on-screen pop-up messages while gamblers play on slot machines and/or online as one of a range of tools to help encourage responsible gambling. Coupled with this, there has also been an increase in empirical research into whether such pop-up messages are effective, particularly in laboratory settings. However, very few studies have been conducted on the utility of pop-up messages in real-world gambling settings. The present study investigated the effects of normative and self-appraisal feedback in a slot machine pop-up message compared to a simple (non-enhanced pop-up message. The study was conducted in a real-world gambling environment by comparing the behavioural tracking data of two representative random samples of 800,000 gambling sessions (i.e., 1.6 million sessions in total across two conditions (i.e., simple pop-up message versus an enhanced pop-up message. The results indicated that the additional normative and self-appraisal content doubled the number of gamblers who stopped playing after they received the enhanced pop-up message (1.39% compared to the simple pop-up message (0.67%. The data suggest that pop-up messages influence only a small number of gamblers to cease long playing sessions and that enhanced messages are slightly more effective in helping gamblers to stop playing in-session.

  10. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society...

  11. Detection of the Lactate Threshold in Runners: What is the Ideal Speed to Start an Incremental Test?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas José Luiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Incremental tests on a treadmill are used to evaluate endurance athletes; however, no criterion exists to determine the intensity at which to start the test, potentially causing the loss of the first lactate threshold. This study aimed to determine the ideal speed for runners to start incremental treadmill tests. The study consisted of 94 runners who self-reported the average speed from their last competitive race (10-42.195 km and performed an incremental test on a treadmill. The speeds used during the first three test stages were normalised in percentages of average competition speed and blood lactate concentration was analysed at the end of each stage. The relationship between speed in each stage and blood lactate concentration was analysed. In the first stage, at an intensity corresponding to 70% of the reported average race speed, only one volunteer had blood lactate concentration equal to 2 mmol·L-1, and in the third stage (90% of the average race speed the majority of the volunteers had blood lactate concentration ≥2 mmol·L-1. Our results demonstrated that 70% of the average speed from the subject’s last competitive race - from 10 to 42.195 km - was the best option for obtaining blood lactate concentration <2 mmol·L-1 in the first stage, however, 80% of the average speed in marathons may be a possibility. Evaluators can use 70% of the average speed in competitive races as a strategy to ensure that the aerobic threshold intensity is not achieved during the first stage of incremental treadmill tests.

  12. Active Learning and Threshold Concepts in Multiple Testing That Can Further Develop Student Critical Statistical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Desley

    2015-01-01

    Two practical activities are described, which aim to support critical thinking about statistics as they concern multiple outcomes testing. Formulae are presented in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, which are used to calculate the inflation of error associated with the quantity of tests performed. This is followed by a decision-making exercise, where…

  13. Standard test method for determining a threshold stress intensity factor for environment-assisted cracking of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the environment-assisted cracking threshold stress intensity factor parameters, KIEAC and KEAC, for metallic materials from constant-force testing of fatigue precracked beam or compact fracture specimens and from constant-displacement testing of fatigue precracked bolt-load compact fracture specimens. 1.2 This test method is applicable to environment-assisted cracking in aqueous or other aggressive environments. 1.3 Materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by strength as long as specimens are of sufficient thickness and planar size to meet the size requirements of this test method. 1.4 A range of specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but size may be variable and adjusted for yield strength and applied force. Specimen thickness is a variable independent of planar size. 1.5 Specimen configurations other than those contained in this test method may be used, provided that well-established stress ...

  14. Two Notions of Epistemic Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2009-01-01

    Although the dominant view of epistemic normativity is an extreme form of deontology, it is argued that there is no good reason for not also adopting a complementary consequentialist notion, which can be put to use in applied epistemology....

  15. Reliability of regression-based normative data for the oral symbol digit modalities test: an evaluation of demographic influences, construct validity, and impairment classification rates in multiple sclerosis samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrigan, Lindsay I; Fisk, John D; Walker, Lisa A S; Wojtowicz, Magdalena; Rees, Laura M; Freedman, Mark S; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2014-01-01

    The oral Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) has been recommended to assess cognition for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, the lack of adequate normative data has limited its clinical utility. Recently published regression-based norms may resolve this limitation but, because these norms were derived from a relatively small sample, their stability is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the stability of regression-based SDMT norms by comparing existing norms to a cross-validation dataset. First, regression-based normative data were created from a similarly-sized, independent, control sample (n = 94). Next the original and cross-validation norms were compared for equivalency, management of demographic influences, construct validity, and impairment classification rates in a mildly affected MS sample (n = 70). Lastly, similar comparisons were made for a large, representative MS clinic sample (n = 354). We found construct validity and management of demographic influences were equivalent for the two sets of regression-based norms but lower T-scores were obtained using the original dataset, resulting in discrepancies in impairment classification. In conclusion, regression-based norms for the oral SDMT attenuate demographic influences and possess adequate construct validity. However, norms generated using small samples may yield unreliable classification of cognitive impairment. Larger, representative databases will be necessary to improve the clinical utility of regression-based norms.

  16. Dangerous Dogs, Constructivism and Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Dreyer

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that although there is no necessary link between constructivism and particular sets of norms, constructivism opens up a space for normativity and can be articulated through particular normative or political programs. I show how Laclau’s deconstructive constructivism can be art...... be articulated within the framework of an ethos of democratization. The article takes its empirical point of departure in debates over dangerous dogs....

  17. Crack initiation testing of thimble tube material under PWR conditions to determine a stress threshold for IASCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, R. W.; Vankeerberghen, M.; Gérard, R.; Somville, F.

    2015-06-01

    IASCC (Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking) crack initiation tests have been carried out on thimble tube material retrieved from a Belgian PWR. The crack initiation tests were carried out by constant load testing of thimble tube specimens at different stress levels. The time-to-failure was determined as a function of the applied stress to find a stress threshold under which no stress corrosion cracking will take place. The thimble tube was made of 316L cold-worked stainless steel and the dose profile along the thimble tube ranges from 45 to 80 dpa. This allows adding crack initiation data for dose values that have not been significantly reported, i.e. in the range of 45-55 dpa and at 80 dpa. The results can be used to determine whether the stress under which no IASCC occurs saturates for a dose larger than 30 dpa or whether a small further threshold decrease with dose can be observed. Over a period of four years, more than 40 specimens have been tested with doses ranging from 45 to 80 dpa at stress levels between 40% and 70% of the irradiated yield stress. Fracture occurred at all stress levels (but not all specimens) although the time-to-failure increased with decreasing stress. The results show that intergranular cracking was the main fracture mode in all failed O-rings. Three of six 80 dpa O-rings subjected to 40% and 45% of the yield stress did not fail after six months of testing. Based on these results and a comparison with literature data, an apparent stress limit for IASCC could be estimated at 40% of the irradiated yield stress.

  18. Nasometry normative data for young Dutch children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heijden, P; Hobbel, H H F; Van der Laan, B F A M; Korsten-Meijer, A G W; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S M

    2011-03-01

    Hypernasality is a common problem in cleft care. It should be treated before the age of six, because of the impact it can have on speech sound development in young children. An objective method of nasalance evaluation is nasometry. To decide whether a nasometer test result is normal or abnormal, normative data and cut off points are needed. Normative data for children are not available for every language and age. For Dutch children two sets of Dutch speech stimuli, the Van Zundert sentences or the Moolenaar-Bijl, sentences, are often used in the diagnostic process for hypernasality. Primary goal of this study is to determine normative data and cut off points for two sets of Dutch speech stimuli for Dutch children from four to six years of age. Secondary is to compare those two sets of oral sentences. Children without clefts were recruited from schools. According to their teachers their speech was normal. They were tested with the nasometer with the two sets of speech stimuli. The set from Van Zundert has oral and oronasal sentences, the Moolenaar-Bijl set only has oral sentences. 118 children were recruited. Out of these children, 55 produced recording samples which were suitable for analysis. There were no significant differences between age groups or gender. The two different sets of speech stimuli used were significantly different, but the confidence intervals overlapped. Normal nasalance scores of the tested sentences are between 3 and 19% for oral sentences and between 17 and 37% for oronasal sentences. The Moolenaar-Bijl speech sentences are preferred to evaluate hypernasality in young Dutch children, because of the shortness and intelligibility. Normative nasalance scores are applicable to the whole group of children from four to six years of age. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison on taste threshold between adult male white cigarette and clove cigarette smokers using Murphy clinical test method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Reyses Tapilatu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The habit of smoking white cigarettes and clove cigarettes may affect the gustatory function, that is, it will cause damage to taste buds, resulting in an increase in gustatory threshold. This research used the descriptive comparative method and had the purpose of obtaining an illustration of gustatory threshold and compare gustatory threshold in white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers in young, male adults. For gustatory threshold evaluation, the Murphy method was used to obtain a value for perception threshold and taste identification threshold using sucrose solution of 0.0006 M-0.06 M concentration. Research results indicate that the perception threshold and identification threshold of young, male adult smokers are 0.0119 M and 0.0292 M. Young, male adult clove cigarette smokers have a perception threshold and identification threshold of 0.0151 M and 0.0348 M. The conclusion of this research is that the perception threshold of young, male adult white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers are the same, whereas the identification threshold of young, male adult white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers are different, that is, the identification threshold of clove cigarette smokers is higher than that of white cigarette smokers.

  20. Optimum binary cut-off threshold of a diagnostic test: comparison of different methods using Monte Carlo technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibnegger, Gilbert; Schrabmair, Walter

    2014-11-25

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compare different methods (maximizing Youden index, maximizing mutual information, and logistic regression) for their ability to determine optimum binary cut-off thresholds for a ratio-scaled diagnostic test variable. Special attention is given to the stability and precision of the results in dependence on the distributional characteristics as well as the pre-test probabilities of the diagnostic categories in the test population. Fictitious data sets of a ratio-scaled diagnostic test with different distributional characteristics are generated for 50, 100 and 200 fictitious "individuals" with systematic variation of pre-test probabilities of two diagnostic categories. For each data set, optimum binary cut-off limits are determined employing different methods. Based on these optimum cut-off thresholds, sensitivities and specificities are calculated for the respective data sets. Mean values and SD of these variables are computed for 1000 repetitions each. Optimizations of cut-off limits using Youden index and logistic regression-derived likelihood ratio functions with correct adaption for pre-test probabilities both yield reasonably stable results, being nearly independent from pre-test probabilities actually used. Maximizing mutual information yields cut-off levels decreasing with increasing pre-test probability of disease. The most precise results (in terms of the smallest SD) are usually seen for the likelihood ratio method. With this parametric method, however, cut-off values show a significant positive bias and, hence, specificities are usually slightly higher, and sensitivities are consequently slightly lower than with the two non-parametric methods. In terms of stability and bias, Youden index is best suited for determining optimal cut-off limits of a diagnostic variable. The results of Youden method and likelihood ratio method are surprisingly insensitive against distributional differences as well as pre-test probabilities of

  1. Topological Characteristics of the Hong Kong Stock Market: A Test-based P-threshold Approach to Understanding Network Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghua; Wong, Wing-Keung; Chen, Guanrong; Huang, Shuo

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relationship among stock networks by focusing on the statistically reliable connectivity between financial time series, which accurately reflects the underlying pure stock structure. To do so, we firstly filter out the effect of market index on the correlations between paired stocks, and then take a t-test based P-threshold approach to lessening the complexity of the stock network based on the P values. We demonstrate the superiority of its performance in understanding network complexity by examining the Hong Kong stock market. By comparing with other filtering methods, we find that the P-threshold approach extracts purely and significantly correlated stock pairs, which reflect the well-defined hierarchical structure of the market. In analyzing the dynamic stock networks with fixed-size moving windows, our results show that three global financial crises, covered by the long-range time series, can be distinguishingly indicated from the network topological and evolutionary perspectives. In addition, we find that the assortativity coefficient can manifest the financial crises and therefore can serve as a good indicator of the financial market development.

  2. No Critical Peripheral Fatigue Threshold during Intermittent Isometric Time to Task Failure Test with the Knee Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando G; Millet, Guillaume Y; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that group III and IV muscle afferents provide inhibitory feedback from locomotor muscles to the central nervous system, setting an absolute threshold for the development of peripheral fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to test the validity of this theory. Thus, we asked whether the level of developed peripheral fatigue would differ when two consecutive exercise trials were completed to task failure. Ten trained sport students performed two exercise trials to task failure on an isometric dynamometer, allowing peripheral fatigue to be assessed 2 s after maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) post task failure. The trials, separated by 8 min, consisted of repeated sets of 10 × 5-s isometric knee extension followed by 5-s rest between contractions. In each set, the first nine contractions were performed at a target force at 60% of the pre-exercise MVC, while the 10th contraction was a MVC. MVC and evoked force responses to supramaximal electrical femoral nerve stimulation on relaxed muscles were assessed during the trials and at task failure. Stimulations at task failure consisted of single stimulus (SS), paired stimuli at 10 Hz (PS10), paired stimuli at 100 Hz (PS100), and 50 stimuli at 100 Hz (tetanus). Time to task failure for the first trial (12.84 ± 5.60 min) was longer (P fatigue. The present data therefore question the existence of a critical peripheral fatigue threshold during intermittent isometric exercise to task failure with the knee extensors.

  3. Topological Characteristics of the Hong Kong Stock Market: A Test-based P-threshold Approach to Understanding Network Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghua; Wong, Wing-Keung; Chen, Guanrong; Huang, Shuo

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relationship among stock networks by focusing on the statistically reliable connectivity between financial time series, which accurately reflects the underlying pure stock structure. To do so, we firstly filter out the effect of market index on the correlations between paired stocks, and then take a t-test based P-threshold approach to lessening the complexity of the stock network based on the P values. We demonstrate the superiority of its performance in understanding network complexity by examining the Hong Kong stock market. By comparing with other filtering methods, we find that the P-threshold approach extracts purely and significantly correlated stock pairs, which reflect the well-defined hierarchical structure of the market. In analyzing the dynamic stock networks with fixed-size moving windows, our results show that three global financial crises, covered by the long-range time series, can be distinguishingly indicated from the network topological and evolutionary perspectives. In addition, we find that the assortativity coefficient can manifest the financial crises and therefore can serve as a good indicator of the financial market development.

  4. Topological Characteristics of the Hong Kong Stock Market: A Test-based P-threshold Approach to Understanding Network Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghua; Wong, Wing-Keung; Chen, Guanrong; Huang, Shuo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relationship among stock networks by focusing on the statistically reliable connectivity between financial time series, which accurately reflects the underlying pure stock structure. To do so, we firstly filter out the effect of market index on the correlations between paired stocks, and then take a t-test based P-threshold approach to lessening the complexity of the stock network based on the P values. We demonstrate the superiority of its performance in understanding network complexity by examining the Hong Kong stock market. By comparing with other filtering methods, we find that the P-threshold approach extracts purely and significantly correlated stock pairs, which reflect the well-defined hierarchical structure of the market. In analyzing the dynamic stock networks with fixed-size moving windows, our results show that three global financial crises, covered by the long-range time series, can be distinguishingly indicated from the network topological and evolutionary perspectives. In addition, we find that the assortativity coefficient can manifest the financial crises and therefore can serve as a good indicator of the financial market development. PMID:28145494

  5. Perception of basic tastes and threshold sensitivity during testing of selected judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zajác

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false SK JA X-NONE The sense of taste is one of the most important human senses. Alteration in taste perception can greately interfere to our lives, because it influences our dietary habits and consequently general human health. Many physiological and external factors can cause the loss of taste perception. These factors include for example certain diseases, the side effect of the use of certain medicaments, head trauma, gender, dietary habbits, smoking, role of saliva, age, stress and many more. In this paper we are discussing perception of basic tastes and treshold sensitivity during testing of selected groupe of 500 sensory judges. A resolution taste test and sensitivity treshold test were performed using basic tastes (sour, bitter, salty, sweet, umami, astringent, metallic. We have found that the perception of basic tastes decreese with human age. Smoking leads to significant errors in the determination of basic tastes. Different mistakes occures in different age categories. This study suggests further researches, investigating various factors influencing taste perception.  doi:10.5219/259

  6. Dose-response assessments of Kathon biocide. (II). Threshold prophetic patch testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, C W; Weaver, J E; Bailey, P T

    1986-07-01

    Biocidal preservative agents are important in preventing the growth of pathogenic and nonpathogenic organisms in a variety of personal care, household and industrial products. Nearly all effective, commonly used preservative materials possess skin sensitization potential. In a series of 13 prophetic human repeat insult patch tests involving a total of 1450 subjects, no skin sensitization was induced at concentrations of 10 ppm, 6 ppm or 5 ppm (1121 subjects) or at 15 ppm (200 subjects) of a new isothiazolinone preservative mixture (Kathon CG). Delayed contact hypersensitivity was induced in 1 of 84 subjects at 12.5 ppm and in 2 of 45 subjects at 20 ppm. These results add further support to the previously reported conclusion that use of this new biocide at the very low concentrations required for effective preservation of rinse-off products involves an extremely low risk of clinical dermatoses.

  7. Normative and microeconomic models of voluntary childlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, T

    1984-01-01

    This paper employs microeconomic and normative variables rather than the more commonly used social psychological modesl to examine voluntary childlessness. The author uses religion, race, ruban versus sural residence, education, and region of residence as normative determinants of fertility; he hypothesizes that fewer Catholics will be childless and that urban dwellers, the well-educated, and those from the West, Midwest, and Northeast will be most likely to remain childless. Microeconomic theory, emphasizing the costs of children, assumes that income and fertility are directly related and that income and childlessness are inversely related. Because loss of wife's income is a greater factor than the direct costs of a child, childlessness should be more common when the wife's earning potential, or opportunity costs, is highest. In the microeconomic model, education is the most important determinant in the wife's opportunity costs. The findings indicate that husband's income is directly related to the first birth, and that wife's education (and opportunity costs) reduces the chances of a first birth. Microeconomic theory suggests that differences in child costs or in tastes could produce urban-rural, regional, or racial differences in childlessness. Demographic variables such as age, age at marriage, and marital duration also influence the likelihood of a first birth. The author uses data for 2182 intentionally childless black and white women, aged 20-34, from the 1965 National Fertility Survey to test his models. Study findings indicate that 1) marital duration greater than 15 years is the only significant demographic control variable, 2) normative variables generally meet expectations; only the coefficient for Catholicism is significant, and 3) financial satisfaction is positively associated with childlessness; husband's income is the only significant variable. Future research should 1) examine how Catholicism acts to discourage childlessness, 2) employ normative

  8. Validity and Reproducibility of an Incremental Sit-To-Stand Exercise Test for Evaluating Anaerobic Threshold in Young, Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nakamura, Masayoshi Ohira, Yoshiharu Yokokawa, Yuya Nagasawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sit-to-stand exercise (STS is a common activity of daily living. The objectives of the present study were: 1 to assess the validity of aerobic fitness measurements based on anaerobic thresholds (ATs, during incremental sit-to-stand exercise (ISTS with and without arm support compared with an incremental cycle-ergometer (CE test; and 2 to examine the reproducibility of the AT measured during the ISTSs. Twenty-six healthy individuals randomly performed the ISTS and CE test. Oxygen uptakes at the AT (AT-VO2 and heart rate at the AT (AT-HR were determined during the ISTSs and CE test, and repeated-measures analyses of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to evaluate the differences between these variables. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the strength of the relationship between AT-VO2 and AT-HR during the ISTSs and CE test. Data analysis yielded the following correlations: AT-VO2 during the ISTS with arm support and the CE test, r = 0.77 (p < 0.05; AT-VO2 during the ISTS without arm support and the CE test, r = 0.70 (p < 0.05; AT-HR during the ISTS with arm support and the CE test, r = 0.80 (p < 0.05; and AT-HR during the ISTS without arm support and the CE test, r = 0.66 (p < 0.05. The AT-VO2 values during the ISTS with arm support (18.5 ± 1.9 mL·min-1·kg-1 and the CE test (18.4 ± 1.8 mL·min-1·kg-1 were significantly higher than those during the ISTS without arm support (16.6 ± 1.8 mL·min-1·kg-1; p < 0.05. The AT-HR values during the ISTS with arm support (126 ± 10 bpm and the CE test (126 ± 13 bpm were significantly higher than those during the ISTS without arm support (119 ± 9 bpm; p < 0.05. The ISTS with arm support may provide a cardiopulmonary function load equivalent to the CE test; therefore, it is a potentially valid test for evaluating AT-VO2 and AT-HR in healthy, young adults.

  9. Normative premises in regulatory theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, W.J.

    The concern of this article is to identify a ubiquitous problem (with a multiplicity of manifestations) inevitably encountered in the art of regulatory analysis. The problem is one of circularity; the analyst assumes something about the object to be determined that governs the determination. Thus, the first steps in analysis often carry commitments that significantly prefigure the decisional results. Typically, the assumption takes the form of an implicit antecedent normative premise embedded in a tool or concept. While normative premises are necessary and inevitable, the argument here is that they should be made as explicit as possible. This article attempts to answer two questions: (1) whater are we really doing when we use certain techniques of regulatory analysis; (2) in what ways do normative premises condition the conclusions reached. 33 references.

  10. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society......This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... as a whole or with special concern for the most vulnerable members of the population. The third consideration involves scientific advisers' attempts to balance the strengths of the scientific evidence with the expected consequences of scientific advice. We hope to promote more explicit discussion...

  11. Shoulder Joint Dislocation as an Unusual Complication of Defibrillation Threshold Testing Following Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Noheria, MBBS, SM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 53-year-old man underwent implantation of a totally subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD; Boston Scientific. He was positioned supine, with the left arm abducted, externally rotated (i.e. palm up and strapped to the arm extender. The generator was placed in the left mid-axillary line along the 5th-6th intercostal spaces and the defibrillation coil was tunneled anterior to the sternum. Defibrillation threshold (DFT testing with 65 Jcaused a forceful pectoralis twitch. The patient woke up with a painful anteriorly dislocated left shoulder. Glenohumeral dislocation due to DFT testing has not been previously reported. It is likely that this complication is specific to the S-ICD implantation, and is related to positioning with the arm abducted, externally rotated, and immobilized, and use of greater defibrillation energy with current pathway through the bulk of the pectoralis muscle.Precautions may include extending the arm palm down, strapping the arm loosely, and adduction of the arm for DFT testing.

  12. Equine intradermal test threshold concentrations for house dust mite and storage mite allergens and identification of stable acari fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Holly A; Hurcombe, Samuel D A; Hillier, Andrew; Lorch, Gwendolen

    2014-04-01

    House dust mite (HDM) and storage mite (SM) stable fauna and their associated equine intradermal test (IDT) threshold concentrations (TCs) for the midwestern region of the USA are unknown. To determine IDT TCs and serum IgE concentrations for two HDM and three SM species in clinically normal horses over two seasons, and to identify the mite taxa and habitats in a stable. Thirty-eight clinically normal horses. Threshold concentrations for HDMs and SMs were determined using IDT subjective measurements and a statistical model. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify serum IgE concentrations for the same mite species. A modified flotation method was used to identify morphologically HDMs and SMs. Subjective IDT TCs were as follows: 1:80,000 w/v for Dermatophagoides farinae in both seasons; 1:80,000 w/v in spring and 1:160,000 w/v in late summer for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; 1:40,000 w/v in spring and 1:20,000 w/v in late summer for Acarus siro; 1:20,000 w/v for Lepidoglyphus destructor in both seasons; and 1:20,000 w/v in spring and 1:10,000 w/v in late summer for Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Statistically significant associations for increased serum IgE and a positive IDT reaction were evident for D. farinae in the spring and D. pteronyssinus in both seasons. One mite from all four genera specific to this study was identified; however,two HDM and A. siro species were not detected.Conclusions and clinical importance – This study established HDM and SM IDT dilution concentrations for the horses in this region. Exposure to diverse acaridae fauna may contribute to the pathogenesis of equine allergic disease.

  13. Age, gender, and side differences of cutaneous electrical perceptual threshold testing in an able-bodied population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Grace Woon Su; Lauschke, Jenny; Rutowski, Susan B; Waite, Phil M

    2010-01-01

    To investigate age, gender, and left-right differences in cutaneous electrical perceptual threshold (EPT) testing in an able-bodied, Australian sample. Prospective experimental. Hospital-based spinal cord injuries unit. Cutaneous electrical stimulation of the 28 dermatomes at ASIA sensory key points (C2-S4/S5) was performed on 29 female and 16 male healthy volunteers aged 21 to 76 years. Mean EPTs for each dermatome were compared (repeated measures ANOVA) for left-right, gender-related, and age-related (50 years of age) differences. There was no group difference between sides (repeated measures ANOVA, P = 0.934). Women across all ages had lower group mean EPTs than men (P dermatomes revealed no significant differences in thoracic dermatomes between genders or age groups, contrary to the limb dermatomes. There were gender differences in EPT values across all ages. Women had higher EPTs as they advanced in age, but this was less clear in men. There was considerable somatotopic variability in EPTs, especially in the lower limbs. If EPT testing is to be applied to detect subclinical changes within a dermatome, establishment of age- and gender-specific somatotopic normograms is a prerequisite.

  14. Comparison of three methods to identify the anaerobic threshold during maximal exercise testing in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Paul J; Possemiers, Nadine M; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Van Berendoncks, An M; Wuyts, Kurt; Vrints, Christiaan J; Conraads, Viviane M

    2012-02-01

    Exercise training efficiently improves peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) in patients with chronic heart failure. To optimize training-derived benefit, higher exercise intensities are being explored. The correct identification of anaerobic threshold is important to allow safe and effective exercise prescription. During 48 cardiopulmonary exercise tests obtained in patients with chronic heart failure (59.6 ± 11 yrs; left ventricular ejection fraction, 27.9% ± 9%), ventilatory gas analysis findings and lactate measurements were collected. Three technicians independently determined the respiratory compensation point (RCP), the heart rate turning point (HRTP) and the second lactate turning point (LTP2). Thereafter, exercise intensity (target heart rate and workload) was calculated and compared between the three methods applied. Patients had significantly reduced maximal exercise capacity (68% ± 21% of predicted V˙O2peak) and chronotropic incompetence (74% ± 7% of predicted peak heart rate). Heart rate, workload, and V˙O2 at HRTP and at RCP were not different, but at LTP2, these parameters were significantly (P exercise tests, precede the occurrence of LTP2. Target heart rates and workloads used to prescribe tailored exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure based on LTP2 are significantly higher than those derived from HRTP and RCP.

  15. Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydrogen Embrittlement Threshold in Steel by the Incremental Step Loading Technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method establishes a procedure to measure the susceptibility of steel to a time-delayed failure such as that caused by hydrogen. It does so by measuring the threshold for the onset of subcritical crack growth using standard fracture mechanics specimens, irregular-shaped specimens such as notched round bars, or actual product such as fasteners (2) (threaded or unthreaded) springs or components as identified in SAE J78, J81, and J1237. 1.2 This test method is used to evaluate quantitatively: 1.2.1 The relative susceptibility of steels of different composition or a steel with different heat treatments; 1.2.2 The effect of residual hydrogen in the steel as a result of processing, such as melting, thermal mechanical working, surface treatments, coatings, and electroplating; 1.2.3 The effect of hydrogen introduced into the steel caused by external environmental sources of hydrogen, such as fluids and cleaners maintenance chemicals, petrochemical products, and galvanic coupling in an aqueous enviro...

  16. Test-retest reliability of a new device for assessing ankle joint threshold to detect passive movement in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Song, Qipeng; Yu, Bing; Zhang, Cui; Mao, Dewei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the test-retest reliability of a new device for assessing ankle joint kinesthesia. This device could measure the passive motion threshold of four ankle joint movements, namely plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, inversion and eversion. A total of 21 healthy adults, including 13 males and 8 females, participated in the study. Each participant completed two sessions on two separate days with 1-week interval. The sessions were administered by the same experimenter in the same laboratory. At least 12 trials (three successful trials in each of the four directions) were performed in each session. The mean values in each direction were calculated and analysed. The ICC values of test-retest reliability ranged from 0.737 (dorsiflexion) to 0.935 (eversion), whereas the SEM values ranged from 0.21° (plantarflexion) to 0.52° (inversion). The Bland-Altman plots showed that the reliability of plantarflexion-dorsiflexion was better than that of inversion-eversion. The results evaluated the reliability of the new device as fair to excellent. The new device for assessing kinesthesia could be used to examine the ankle joint kinesthesia.

  17. Four Normative Languages of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Herup

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future...

  18. Patch test dose-response study: polysensitized individuals do not express lower elicitation thresholds than single/double-sensitized individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B C; Fischer, Louise Arup; Sosted, H

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not known if reduced elicitation thresholds are evident among polysensitized individuals when using allergens to which the patients are already sensitized. Reduced elicitation thresholds may be an expression of increased reactivity in this patient group. OBJECTIVES: To examine...

  19. Validity and Reproducibility of an Incremental Sit-To-Stand Exercise Test for Evaluating Anaerobic Threshold in Young, Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Ohira, Masayoshi; Yokokawa, Yoshiharu; Nagasawa, Yuya

    2015-12-01

    Sit-to-stand exercise (STS) is a common activity of daily living. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to assess the validity of aerobic fitness measurements based on anaerobic thresholds (ATs), during incremental sit-to-stand exercise (ISTS) with and without arm support compared with an incremental cycle-ergometer (CE) test; and 2) to examine the reproducibility of the AT measured during the ISTSs. Twenty-six healthy individuals randomly performed the ISTS and CE test. Oxygen uptakes at the AT (AT-VO2) and heart rate at the AT (AT-HR) were determined during the ISTSs and CE test, and repeated-measures analyses of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to evaluate the differences between these variables. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the strength of the relationship between AT-VO2 and AT-HR during the ISTSs and CE test. Data analysis yielded the following correlations: AT-VO2 during the ISTS with arm support and the CE test, r = 0.77 (p < 0.05); AT-VO2 during the ISTS without arm support and the CE test, r = 0.70 (p < 0.05); AT-HR during the ISTS with arm support and the CE test, r = 0.80 (p < 0.05); and AT-HR during the ISTS without arm support and the CE test, r = 0.66 (p < 0.05). The AT-VO2 values during the ISTS with arm support (18.5 ± 1.9 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) and the CE test (18.4 ± 1.8 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) were significantly higher than those during the ISTS without arm support (16.6 ± 1.8 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1); p < 0.05). The AT-HR values during the ISTS with arm support (126 ± 10 bpm) and the CE test (126 ± 13 bpm) were significantly higher than those during the ISTS without arm support (119 ± 9 bpm; p < 0.05). The ISTS with arm support may provide a cardiopulmonary function load equivalent to the CE test; therefore, it is a potentially valid test for evaluating AT-VO2 and AT-HR in healthy, young adults. Key pointsThe ISTS is a simple test that varies only according to the frequency of standing up, and requires only

  20. Social Institutions as Tools in Normative Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Sinding

    Social institutions are normative cognitive tools, the functions of which should be an important subject in cognitive anthropology......Social institutions are normative cognitive tools, the functions of which should be an important subject in cognitive anthropology...

  1. Normative and counter-normative stress messages and symptom reporting: implications for health promotion and a methodological artefact for stress research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Lawrence, Claire

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing use of counter-normative health messages (i.e., evidence-based health information about cause-effect relationships that run counter to shared normative beliefs, e.g., stress can lead to personal growth). The current studies examine the effect of normative and counter-normative messages about stress on levels of symptom reporting. Predictions are derived from reactance, social comparison, and self-enhancement theories. Two studies focus on the development of the messages, and two experimental studies examine the effect of manipulating normative and counter-normative messages on symptom reports. The final study controls for mere-measurement effects and explores the role of stress process variables (appraisals and coping). Exposure to a normative message (stress causes ill health) results in reduced symptom reporting compared to a counter-normative message (stress provides challenge, growth, and development) and control groups. The results suggest that people may use symptom reporting strategically to indicate coping. Based on the argument that beliefs about stress and health are stored as mental models, the theoretical associations derived from stress theory are only observed when a normative message is presented. Counter-normative stress messages may carry no tangible benefits compared to normative messages. Some stress research may suffer from inherent methodological bias when normative information is provided in information and consent sheets. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? At present, nothing is known about counter-normative health messages, despite the fact that they are becoming widely used as a public intervention. What does this study add? A clear operational definition of counter-normative messages. A test of three competing theories for counter-normative messages that focus of the stress-symptom link. Demonstrating for the first time, that in the domain of stress and health, counter-normative messages

  2. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    this period it became increasingly clear that the study of the EU in world politics needed to engage with both critical social theory and normative international theory. This chapter represents a return to critical social theory - a holistic research programme that works within a cosmopolitical understanding......What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...... of normative theory; that seeks to work ‘within categories of existing thought' regarding EU external actions, radicalise them and show ‘in varying degrees both their problems and their unrecognised possibilities' (Calhoun 1995: 23)....

  3. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redmond Anthony C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant, FPI scores and body mass index (BMI where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619 confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4. A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p t = -1.44, p = 0.149. No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making.

  4. Designing normative open virtual enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Emilia; Giret, Adriana; Botti, Vicente

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest on developing virtual enterprises in order to deal with the globalisation of the economy, the rapid growth of information technologies and the increase of competitiveness. In this paper we deal with the development of normative open virtual enterprises (NOVEs). They are systems with a global objective that are composed of a set of heterogeneous entities and enterprises that exchange services following a specific normative context. In order to analyse and design systems of this kind the multi-agent paradigm seems suitable because it offers a specific solution for supporting the social and contractual relationships between enterprises and for formalising their business processes. This paper presents how the Regulated Open Multi-agent systems (ROMAS) methodology, an agent-oriented software methodology, can be used to analyse and design NOVEs. ROMAS offers a complete development process that allows identifying and formalising of the structure of NOVEs, their normative context and the interactions among their members. The use of ROMAS is exemplified by means of a case study that represents an automotive supply chain.

  5. Co-operatives and Normative Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten; Jagd, Søren

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the conditions for applying normative control in co-operatives. For normative control to be effective two conditions are found particularly important: Individuals must be morally involved and the organization must have a system of making it possible to link common norms...... and individual action. If these conditions are not fulfilled, as may be the case in many co-operatives, normative control cannot be expected to work. The problems of normative control in co-operatives may then not be caused by the use of normative control as such, but may instead be a problem of securing...... the conditions necessary for normative control. This is illustrated by a case study of control in a Danish producers co-operative. The analysis of the case study leads to the hypothesis of a paradox of normative control in co-operatives: The need of information tends to be greater in co-operatives comparet...

  6. Evaluation of threshold response and appropriate electrode placement site for electric pulp testing in fluorosed anterior teeth: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemisetty, Harikumar; Vanapatla, Amulya; Ravichandra, Polavarapu Venkata; Reddy, Surakanti Jayaprada; Punna, Rajani; Chandragiri, Srujana

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis is key to success. Diagnosing the pulpal status in varied clinical situations poses a challenge to the clinician. Electric pulp test (EPT) is one of the valuable attempts in evaluating the sensibility of pulp tissue. The aim of this study was to find out and compare the threshold levels and optimal electrode placement site for EPT in fluorosed and nonfluorosed anterior teeth. Eighty volunteers recruited for this study were divided into two groups based on the incidence of dental fluorosis. Electric pulp testing was done on either of the central incisors in fluorosed and nonfluorosed group. Four sites on each crown were tested 4 times with digitest electric pulp tester, and the mean of the threshold responses was recorded. The data were analyzed with SPSS, version 11. Means of variables from each location were compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test while the critical level of significance was set at P sites with incisal edge showing the least mean threshold levels for both the groups (P > 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that fluorosed teeth respond to higher threshold levels than the non-fluorosed teeth, and incisal edge was the optimal electrode placement site.

  7. Detecting thresholds for bitter, umami, and sweet tastants in broiler chicken using a 2-choice test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheled-Shoval, Shira L; Reicher, Naama; Niv, Masha Y; Uni, Zehava

    2017-07-01

    The sense of taste has a key role in nutrient sensing and food intake in animals. A standardized and simple method for determination of tastant-detection thresholds is required for chemosensory research in poultry. We established a 24-h, 2-alternative, forced-choice solution-consumption method and applied it to measure detection thresholds for 3 G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated taste modalities-bitter, sweet, and umami-in chicken. Four parameters were used to determine a significant response: 1) tastant-solution consumption; 2) water (tasteless) consumption; 3) total consumption (tastant and water together); 4) ratio of tastant consumption to total consumption. Our results showed that assignment of the taste solutions and a water control to 2 bottles on random sides of the pen can be reliably used for broiler chicks, even though 47% of the chicks groups demonstrated a consistently preferred side. The detection thresholds for quinine (bitter), L-monosodium glutamate (MSG) (umami), and sucrose (sweet) were determined to be 0.3 mM, 300 mM, and 1 M, respectively. The threshold results for quinine were similar to those for humans and rodents, but the chicks were found to be less sensitive to sucrose and MSG. The described method is useful for studying detection thresholds for tastants that have the potential to affect feed and water consumption in chickens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. The relationship between high-frequency pure-tone hearing loss, hearing in noise test (HINT) thresholds, and the articulation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermiglio, Andrew J; Soli, Sigfrid D; Freed, Daniel J; Fisher, Laurel M

    2012-01-01

    Speech recognition in noise testing has been conducted at least since the 1940s (Dickson et al, 1946). The ability to recognize speech in noise is a distinct function of the auditory system (Plomp, 1978). According to Kochkin (2002), difficulty recognizing speech in noise is the primary complaint of hearing aid users. However, speech recognition in noise testing has not found widespread use in the field of audiology (Mueller, 2003; Strom, 2003; Tannenbaum and Rosenfeld, 1996). The audiogram has been used as the "gold standard" for hearing ability. However, the audiogram is a poor indicator of speech recognition in noise ability. This study investigates the relationship between pure-tone thresholds, the articulation index, and the ability to recognize speech in quiet and in noise. Pure-tone thresholds were measured for audiometric frequencies 250-6000 Hz. Pure-tone threshold groups were created. These included a normal threshold group and slight, mild, severe, and profound high-frequency pure-tone threshold groups. Speech recognition thresholds in quiet and in noise were obtained using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) (Nilsson et al, 1994; Vermiglio, 2008). The articulation index was determined by using Pavlovic's method with pure-tone thresholds (Pavlovic, 1989, 1991). Two hundred seventy-eight participants were tested. All participants were native speakers of American English. Sixty-three of the original participants were removed in order to create groups of participants with normal low-frequency pure-tone thresholds and relatively symmetrical high-frequency pure-tone threshold groups. The final set of 215 participants had a mean age of 33 yr with a range of 17-59 yr. Pure-tone threshold data were collected using the Hughson-Weslake procedure. Speech recognition data were collected using a Windows-based HINT software system. Statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive, correlational, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) statistics. The

  9. Influence of regression model and incremental test protocol on the relationship between lactate threshold using the maximal-deviation method and performance in female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fabiana Andrade; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói De

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the regression model and initial intensity of an incremental test on the relationship between the lactate threshold estimated by the maximal-deviation method and the endurance performance. Sixteen non-competitive, recreational female runners performed a discontinuous incremental treadmill test. The initial speed was set at 7 km · h⁻¹, and increased every 3 min by 1 km · h⁻¹ with a 30-s rest between the stages used for earlobe capillary blood sample collection. Lactate-speed data were fitted by an exponential-plus-constant and a third-order polynomial equation. The lactate threshold was determined for both regression equations, using all the coordinates, excluding the first and excluding the first and second initial points. Mean speed of a 10-km road race was the performance index (3.04 ± 0.22 m · s⁻¹). The exponentially-derived lactate threshold had a higher correlation (0.98 ≤ r ≤ 0.99) and smaller standard error of estimate (SEE) (0.04 ≤ SEE ≤ 0.05 m · s⁻¹) with performance than the polynomially-derived equivalent (0.83 ≤ r ≤ 0.89; 0.10 ≤ SEE ≤ 0.13 m · s⁻¹). The exponential lactate threshold was greater than the polynomial equivalent (P intensity of the incremental test and better than the polynomial equivalent.

  10. What matters when judging intentionality-moral content or normative status? Testing the rational scientist model of the side-effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, C; Hayes, B K

    2017-05-15

    Previous work has demonstrated a "side-effect effect," such that intentionality is more likely to be attributed to agents who bring about negatively valenced as opposed to positively valenced side effects. The rational-scientist model explains this by suggesting that norm-violating side effects are more informative for inferring intentionality than norm-conforming side effects. In the present study we reexamined this account, addressing limitations of previous empirical tests (e.g., Uttich & Lombrozo, Cognition 116: 87-100, 2010). Side-effect valence and norm status were manipulated factorially, enabling an examination of the impact of norm status on intentionality judgments in both positively and negatively valenced side effects. Additionally, the impact of side-effect norm status on the perceived valences of side effects and agents was examined. Effects of norm status were found for both positive and negative side effects. Violation of an ostensibly neutral norm led to negative perceptions of the side effect. However, a norm status effect on intentionality judgments persisted when these effects were controlled. These results support the view that the side-effect effect is the result of the rational use of social-cognitive evidence.

  11. Attitudes and normative beliefs of nursing students as predictors of intended care behaviors with AIDS patients: a test of the Ajzen-Fishbein theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, D; Laschinger, H

    1991-03-01

    Few investigators have studied nurses' or nursing students' responses to caring for AIDS patients. The purpose of this exploratory study was to test the Ajzen-Fishbein (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action in a student nurse population about AIDS patient care. This theory offers an approach to explaining individuals' intentions to engage in certain behaviors as determined by two components: attitudes toward the behavior and subjective norms. Forty-six second-year baccalaureate nursing students completed a questionnaire developed according to guidelines described by Ajzen and Fishbein (alpha reliability range was .69-.85) prior to and following an instructional unit on caring for AIDS patients. Consistent with the theory, students' attitudes and subjective norms were found to be significant predictors of intentions to care for AIDS patients in their clinical experience (R2 = .29, F[1, 43] = 6.63, p less than .003). In addition, qualitative data resembled those in previous reports of fear of contagion among health professionals. The effects of the instructional unit about caring for AIDS patients resulted in significant changes in both attitudes and subjective norms.

  12. Associations between Verbal Reasoning, Normative Beliefs about Aggression, and Different Forms of Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…

  13. Can triggered electromyography thresholds assure accurate pedicle screw placements? A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Hong Rye; Lee, Cheol-Young; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sala, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Triggered electromyography (t-EMG) for pedicle screw placement was introduced to prevent the misplacement of screws; however, its diagnostic value is still debated. This study aimed to clarify the diagnostic value of t-EMG and to compare thresholds. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, and 179 studies were identified. Among them, 11 studies were finally enrolled. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC) plots were analyzed. The enrolled studies included 13,948 lumbar and 2070 thoracic screws. The overall summary sensitivity/specificity/DOR values of t-EMG were 0.55/0.97/42.16 in the lumbar spine and 0.41/0.95/14.52 in the thoracic spine, respectively, indicating a weak diagnostic value. However, subgroup analysis by each threshold value showed that the cutoff value of 8mA in the lumbar spine indicated high sensitivity (0.82), specificity (0.97), and DOR (147.95), thereby showing high diagnostic accuracy of identifying misplaced screws. The most useful application of t-EMG may be as a warning tool for lumbar pedicle screw malpositioning in the presence of positive stimulation at a threshold of ⩽8mA. t-EMG by screw stimulation may be valuable in the lumbar region at a threshold of ⩽8mA. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A test of critical thresholds and their indicators in a desertification-prone ecosystem: more resilience than we thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoretical models predict that dryland ecosystems can cross critical thresholds after which vegetation loss is independent of initial drivers, but experimental data are nonexistent. We used a long-term (13 year) pulse-perturbation experiment featuring heavy grazing and shrub removal to determine i...

  15. Normative data for idiomatic expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Emily; Jambazova, Antonia A

    2017-02-01

    Idiomatic expressions such as kick the bucket or go down a storm can differ on a number of internal features, such as familiarity, meaning, literality, and decomposability, and these types of features have been the focus of a number of normative studies. In this article, we provide normative data for a set of Bulgarian idioms and their English translations, and by doing so replicate in a Slavic language the relationships between the ratings previously found in Romance and Germanic languages. Additionally, we compared whether collecting these types of ratings in between-subjects or within-subjects designs affects the data and the conclusions drawn, and found no evidence that design type affects the final outcome. Finally, we present the results of a meta-analysis that summarizes the relationships found across the literature. As in many previous individual studies, we found that familiarity correlates with a number of other features; however, such studies have shown conflicting results concerning literality and decomposability ratings. The meta-analysis revealed reliable relationships of decomposability with a number of other measures, such as familiarity, meaning, and predictability. Conversely, literality was shown to have little to no relationship with any of the other subjective ratings. The implications for these relationships in the context of the wider experimental literature are discussed, with a particular focus on the importance of attaining familiarity ratings for each sample of participants in experimental work.

  16. When is normative recruitment legitimate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Øystein Ursin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rosamond Rhodes and John Harris have both recently argued that we all have a general moral duty to participate in medical research. However, neither Rhodes' nor Harris' arguments in support of this obligation stand up to scrutiny, and severe and convincing criticism has been levelled against their case. Still, to refute their arguments is not to refute the conclusion. There seems to be some truth in the view that when people are asked to take part in medical research, their choice is not completely morally neutral. In this article, we argue that the proper question to ask is when, rather than if, a certain moral duty to volunteer for medical research can be appealed to. To answer this question, we need a denser description of relevant research projects and their context rather than just describing medical research in general. Drawing on our study of participants in the Norwegian HUNT biobank, we use the normative implications of the Norwegian concept «dugnad» as an analogy to discuss the requirement of providing neutral information to potential biobank participants in order to promote their free and informed decision as to whether or not to take part. We suggest that normative recruitment is not just a question of principles and ethics. It is also a question of research design and the creation of the common good in the community where the research takes place.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v2i2.1697

  17. Reflecting on Normative Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread belief that the European Union (EU) is a novel kind of power not only in its own institutional set-up but also in its external relations. It is said to rely on civilian rather than military means and to pursue the spread of particular norms rather than self-interested geogra......There is a widespread belief that the European Union (EU) is a novel kind of power not only in its own institutional set-up but also in its external relations. It is said to rely on civilian rather than military means and to pursue the spread of particular norms rather than self......-interested geographical expansion or military superiority. In the 1970s, François Duchêne called it a ‘civilian power’ (1972: 43); in the early 2000s it was argued that the label ‘normative power’ would be better suited (Manners 2000, 2002). Just as Duchêne’s civilian power reflected the Cold War milieu of the 1970s......, the normative power approach signified a crystallisation of the EU in the post-Cold War era....

  18. Four Normative Languages of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Herup

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future of the wel......This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future...... to be of particular importance: (1) A civic order of worth, defining individualism and welfare consumerism as the big problems while emphasizing the need for every citizen to mentally step out of their selfish state of mind and care more for others and society as such. (2) A domestic order of worth stating...... of worth stating welfare dependency to be one of the big problems and stressing the need for individual responsibility and for giving structural incentives for such behaviour....

  19. Risk of defibrillation threshold testing in severe heart failure patient: A case of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-D with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiko Nakai, MD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Defibrillation threshold (DFT testing is usually recommended after device implantation to confirm appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D function [1,2]. However, induction of ventricular fibrillation may result in hemodynamic compromise, and cardioversion itself may cause myocardial injury [3,4]. We report on a CRT-D patient with acute myocardial infarction who died due to multiple organ failure 1 day after DFT testing. Our case emphasizes the importance of deciding whether DFT testing should be performed for patients with very severe heart failure in the acute stage of myocardial infarction.

  20. Normativity and deflationary theories of truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mölder

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that deflationary theories of truth stumble over the normativity of truth. This paper maintains that the normativity objection does not pose problems to at least one version of deflationism, minimalism. The rest of the paper discusses truth-related norms, showing that either they do not hold or they are not troublesome for deflationism.

  1. 169 CONTENT NORMATIVITY AND THE INTERDEPENDENCY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    It is widely held that a concept is normative only if it is constitutive of our understanding of a statement involving it such that the statement entails an ШЮРСЭ. In his papers (2003 2005) Paul Boghossian has developed an argument for the thesis that mental content is constitutively normative. The argument is criticized Лy a.

  2. Dangerous Dogs, Constructivism and Normative Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Dreyer

    The paper argues that even though there is no necessary link between constructivism and specific norms, constructivism opens a space for normativity and can be articulated with specific normative or political programs. The argument is based on Laclau’s deconstructive constructivism, but instead o...

  3. Normative industrial symbiotic networks : a position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdanpanah, Vahid; Yazan, Devrim Murat; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Criado Pacheco, N.; Carrascosa, C.; Osman, N.; Julián Inglada, V.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a normative, multi-agent perspective on the field of industrial symbiosis research and propose normative institutions as a key technology for operating Industrial Symbiotic Networks (ISNs), both as a framework to represent and reason about dynamic behaviour of ISNs and as

  4. Normative Cognition in Culture and Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Sinding

    2013-01-01

    "Normative Cognition" is a theoretical model of human cognition as driven, modulated and governed by symbolically mediated inter-subjective norms and conventions......"Normative Cognition" is a theoretical model of human cognition as driven, modulated and governed by symbolically mediated inter-subjective norms and conventions...

  5. Against essential normativity of the mental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2008-01-01

    A number of authors have recently developed and defended various versions of ‘normative essentialism’ about the mental, i.e. the claim that propositional attitudes are constitutively or essentially governed by normative principles. I present two arguments to the effect that this claim cannot...

  6. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses in young oarsmen during prolonged exercise tests on a rowing ergometer at power outputs corresponding to two concepts of anaerobic threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgois, J; Vrijens, J

    1998-01-01

    A group of ten young experienced oarsmen [mean age 17.5 (SD 1.7) years, height 182.5 (SD 5.9) cm, body mass 77.0 (SEM 10.6) kg] exercised in a progressive incremental test (PIE: 50W x 3 min[-1]) on a rowing ergometer to determine the power output corresponding to the 4 mmol lactate x l(-1) anaerobic threshold (AT4) and the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Within 10 days they performed at random two 30-min prolonged exercise tests (PET) at power outputs corresponding to AT4 and IAT to demonstrate whether or not a steady-state blood lactate concentration [La-]b could be maintained. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR) and [La-]b were measured. The PIE revealed significant lower values at IAT compared to AT4 for power output (P concepts of anaerobic threshold gave different information about submaximal endurance capacity. Only IAT represented on average [La-]ss. It is suggested that more research is needed to elicit optimal guidelines for the intensity of endurance training.

  7. Nociceptive thermal threshold testing in horses – effect of neuroleptic sedation and neuroleptanalgesia at different stimulation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aim of the study was to compare the effect of neuroleptic sedation with acepromazine and neuroleptanalgesia with acepromazine and buprenorphine on thermal thresholds (TT) obtained at the nostrils and at the withers. The study was carried out as a randomized, blinded, controlled trial with cross-over design. Thermal thresholds were determined by incremental contact heat applied to the skin above the nostril (N) or the withers (W). Eleven horses were treated with saline (S), acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) (ACE) or acepromazine and buprenorphine (0.0075 mg/kg) (AB) intravenously (IV). Single stimulations were performed 15 minutes prior and 15, 45, 75, 105, 165, 225, 285, 405 and 525 minutes after treatment. Sedation score, gastrointestinal auscultation score and occurrence of skin lesions were recorded. Data were analysed with analysis of variance for repeated measurements. Results There were no significant differences in TT between N and W with all treatments. The TT remained constant after S and there was no difference in TT between S and ACE. After AB there was a significant increase above baseline in TT until 405 minutes after treatment. Restlessness occurred 30–90 minutes after AB in 7 horses. All horses had reduced to absent borborygmi after AB administration for 165 to 495 minutes. Conclusion Thermal stimulation at both described body areas gives comparable results in the assessment of cutaneous anti-nociception in horses. There is no differential influence of neuroleptic sedation or neuroleptanalgesia on TTs obtained at N or W. Buprenorphine combined with acepromazine has a long lasting anti-nociceptive effect associated with the typical opioid induced side effects in horses. PMID:23837730

  8. Normal values for sensory thresholds in the cervical dermatomes: a critical note on the use of Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voerman, V F; van Egmond, J; Crul, B J

    1999-01-01

    In many healthy subjects, sensory thresholds for touch using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments appear to be higher than the 2.83 filament, which some authors have suggested as a screening instrument. The currently proposed normal values, the interpretation of results, as well as the calibration of the filaments are questioned. A normative study of 20 normal subjects using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments was undertaken at a pain clinic in a university hospital. The main outcome measures were sensory thresholds (touch) in dermatomes C3 to C8. Per subject, 24 sites were tested and 50 sites in dermatome C5 left of one subject. The threshold distribution patterns were analyzed. The mean threshold expressed in log (10 x F; with F = force in milligrams) of all sites (n = 480) in normal subjects was 3.10 (95% confidence interval, 2.34-3.86). The mean threshold per subject was 3.10 (range, 2.70-3.50). The mean threshold of 50 sites in dermatome C5 left of one healthy subject was 3.22 (range, 2.42-4.02). In the study contained herein, sensory thresholds in the cervical dermatomes have been shown to be higher than the generally proposed normal values. The cervical dermatomes show thresholds from 0.13 to 8.47 mN. This concurs with other authors. Results depend on the testing method, which in this study was different from previous studies. The testing method must be described accurately. The distribution of thresholds within all tested sites, dermatomes, subjects, or even within one dermatome in one subject are comparable. Individual results have to be related to the mean of the subject to determine abnormality. Calibration of the monofilaments is important. When these terms are met, testing with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments is an easy, reliable, and relatively inexpensive method of quantitative sensory testing and can be a useful tool in the process of rehabilitation.

  9. Hate crimes and normative regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily devoted to issues related to the normative regulation of hate crimes, with special reference to the regulations of the Republic of Serbia, which are indirectly related to this matter. This kind of crimes are characterized by prejudices that perpetrators have towards injured parties, as members of certain, mostly, minority groups, due to which many hate crimes could be also called crimes of prejudice. In comparative law there are two different basic directions when it comes to regulating hate crimes: separation of hate crimes in a separate category on the one hand, and punishment of perpetrators of criminal acts with the detriment of minority groups through the usual charges of a given criminal justice system, on the other. The author finds that, regardless of the formal response forms, real life suggests that hate crimes can be essentially suppressed only by promoting values such as equality, respect for diversity and tolerance, and by continuous education of public about the danger of hate crimes.

  10. Evaluation of contact heat thermal threshold testing for standardized assessment of cutaneous nociception in horses - comparison of different locations and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poller, Christin; Hopster, Klaus; Rohn, Karl; Kästner, Sabine Br

    2013-01-08

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of contact heat thermal stimulation in horses at different body sites and under different environmental conditions and different test situations. Five warm-blood horses were equipped with the thermal probe located on the skin of nostril (N), withers (W) or coronary band (C). Skin temperature and reaction temperature (thermal threshold) at each location were measured and percent thermal excursion (% TE = 100 * (threshold temperature - skin temperature)/(cut-out temperature - skin temperature) was calculated. Environmental conditions were changed in partial random order for all locations, so each horse was tested in its familiar box stall and stocks, in the morning and evening and at warm and cold ambient temperatures. Type of reaction to the stimulus and horse's general behaviour during stimulation were recorded. The stimulation sites were examined for the occurrence of possible skin lesions. Skin temperatures were significantly different during warm and cold ambient temperatures at all three locations, but remained constant over repeated stimulation. An obvious response to stimulation before reaching cut-out temperature could be detected most frequently at N and W in boxes during warm ambient temperatures. The most frequent type of reaction to thermal stimulation at the nostril was headshaking (64.6%), skin twitching at the withers (82.9%) and hoof withdrawal at the coronary band (79.2%). The outcome of thermal threshold testing depended on ambient temperature, stimulation site and environment. Best results with the WTT2 in horses were obtained at the nostrils or withers in a familiar environment at warm ambient temperatures.

  11. Normative Virtue Theory in Theological Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Austin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available What place is there for virtue theory in theological ethics? Many question the normative significance of virtue theory in theological ethics today, leaving it to rule-based ethics to provide action-guidance. There are three key objections to the normativity of virtue theory: that virtue theory is about agents rather than actions, that virtue theory has nothing to say directly about the morality of actions, and that the virtues are too vague to be of normative or action-guiding significance. This essay, drawing on Thomas Aquinas’s account of virtue, challenges these perceptions and argues for a genuinely normative, action-guiding virtue theory within theological ethics. Theological ethics, in turn, can contribute to virtue theory, especially by its emphasis on the ecstatic nature of mature moral virtue, and through its reflection on the virtue of spiritual discernment.

  12. Inquiry and the normative aspect in learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    as the interplay between intentions and life-story of the individual and culture and community. The theory of inquiry in the philosophy of Dewey offers an understanding of processes of learning as transformation from an indeterminate to a determinate situation. Furthermore, the normative aspect of learning......“Inquiry and the normative aspect of learning” In the paper it will be argued that the normative aspect of learning is to be found in the interplay between individual and world when the individual in an inquiring process tries to come to terms with the world. Normativity in learning is seen...... will be conceptualized as the interplay between directed and non-directed processes or learning...

  13. Determination of irritant threshold concentrations of multiple tree, grass, weed and mould allergens for intradermal testing of horses residing in the southern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Martha J; Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Kearney, Michael T; Woodward, Michelle

    2017-12-01

    Appropriate allergen threshold concentrations (TCs) for intradermal testing (IDT) have not been established in horses for many pollen and mould allergens. To determine the TCs in non-allergic horses and describe the frequency of late phase reactions for 26 allergens, including trees, grasses, weeds and moulds in horses residing in the southern Unites States. Twenty four clinically normal horses in the southern United States. Threshold concentrations for different allergens were determined using IDT subjective measurements at 30 minutes. Delayed reactions were evaluated at 4 and 24 h. Threshold concentrations (all PNU/mL) were established for eight tree allergens (black willow 1,000, box elder 1,000, live oak 1,000, pecan 2,000, white ash 4,000, red oak 4,000, red mulberry 2,000 and green ash 2,000); two grass allergens (Johnson grass 250 PNU/mL and Kentucky blue grass 500 PNU/mL); two weeds (carelessweed 1,000 PNU/mL, great ragweed 500 PNU/mL) and one mould (Curvularia 8,000 PNU/mL). The TC was not determined due to excessive reactivity at the lowest concentration tested (1,000 PNU/mL) for bahia and perennial rye grass. Eleven other allergens did not meet the criteria to establish a TC when evaluated at 30 min due to lack of positive reactions. Multiple allergens caused positive reactions in ≥10% of horses at 4 h. Reactions at 24 h were rare with the exception of one horse. This study identified intradermal TC for multiple pollen and mould allergens in horses. These values may prove useful for optimizing allergen concentrations for IDT of allergic horses. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. 169 CONTENT NORMATIVITY AND THE INTERDEPENDENCY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    an argument for the thesis that mental content is constitutively normative. The argument is criticized Лy a. numЛer of critics. In this paper I will address a key. oЛУection against the normativity of content thesis proposed Лy Miller (2008). In section one I will reformulate Boghossian's argument for the thesis in details. In section ...

  15. THE NORMATIVE BIAS IN ENTREPRENEURIAL THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    KEITH JAKEE; HEATH SPONG

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights the normative bias in the entrepreneurial theories of Schumpeter and Kirzner. This bias, while significant, has remained largely implicit, and the approaches of both authors, we argue, entail "Panglossian" views of entrepreneurial processes. We trace these problems to each of the theories' teleological foundations and suggest that defining entrepreneurial "outcomes", and normatively judging those outcomes, will be more problematic than commonly admitted. We suggest ana...

  16. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    OpenAIRE

    Redmond, A.; Crane, YZ; Menz, HB

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual ...

  17. Risk, Benefit, and Cost Thresholds for Emergency Department Testing: A Cross-sectional, Scenario-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Arjun Prasad; Porath, Jonathan Douglas; Iyengar, Rahul; Morrow, Chelsea; Fagerlin, Angela; Meurer, William J

    2017-06-01

    While diagnostic testing is common in the emergency department, the value of some testing is questionable. The purpose of this study was to assess how varying levels of benefit, risk, and costs influenced an individual's desire to have diagnostic testing. A survey through Amazon Mechanical Turk presented hypothetical clinical situations: low-risk chest pain and minor traumatic brain injury. Each scenario included three given variables (benefit, risk, and cost), that was independently randomly varied over four possible values (0.1, 1, 5, and 10% for benefit and risk and $0, $100, $500, and $1,000 for the individual's personal cost for receiving the test). Benefit was defined as the probability of finding the target disease (traumatic intracranial hemorrhage or acute coronary syndrome). One-thousand unique respondents completed the survey. With an increased benefit from 0.1% to 10%, the percentage of respondents who accepted a diagnostic test went from 28.4% to 53.1%. (odds ratio [OR] = 3.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.57-4.54). As risk increased from 0.1% to 10%, this number decreased from 52.5% to 28.5%. (OR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.25-0.44). Increasing cost from $0 to $1,000 had the greatest change of those accepting the test from 61.1% to 21.4%, respectively (OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.11-0.2). The desire for testing was strongly sensitive to the benefits, risks, and costs. Many participants wanted a test when there was no added cost, regardless of benefit or risk levels, but far fewer elected to receive the test as cost increased incrementally. This suggests that out-of-pocket costs may deter patients from undergoing diagnostic testing with low potential benefit. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  18. How Can Paresthesia After Zygomaticomaxillary Complex Fracture Be Determined After Long-Term Follow-Up? A New and Quantitative Evaluation Method Using Current Perception Threshold Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okochi, Masayuki; Ueda, Kazuki; Mochizuki, Yasushi; Okochi, Hiromi

    2015-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to analyze the effectiveness of current perception threshold (CPT) testing to determine patients' minor paresthesia of the infraorbital region after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for unilateral zygomaticomaxillary bone fracture (UZF) and to clarify which nerve fiber was related to the paresthesia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who had undergone ORIF after UZF. We also performed neurosensory testing for healthy volunteers who served as the control group. The predictor variables were the period of measurement of Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (S-W) testing and CPT testing (preoperatively and 1 and 5 years postoperatively), measurement side, and disease status (UZF or control). The outcome variables were paresthesia status of the infraorbital nerve region and the results of S-W and CPT testing in both UZF and control groups. The differences in the S-W and CPT values between the affected and unaffected sides in the UZF group and between the UZF and control groups were analyzed by t test (P effective sensory test for determining minor paresthesia that could not be detected using S-W testing. Paresthesia of the infraorbital nerve region was caused by the damaged A-δ and C fibers. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Normative power Europe? EU relations with Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa de Wekker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the extent to which the European Union (EU constitutes a normative power in its relations with Moldova. ‘Normative power Europe’ is examined along three dimensions: (i normative intent; (ii normative process; and (iii normative impact. Our empirical analysis focuses on two norms: democracy and good governance. In addition, we ask how ‘normatively’ the EU has acted regarding a solution to the Transnistrian conflict. On the basis of our three-dimensional framework, we find that EU normative power can be judged as only moderate in EU-Moldovan relations. As for intent, while norms of democracy and good governance seem to play a central role in EU-Moldovan relations, the Union tends to apply double standards in terms of what it expects from (EU Member States and what it asks of Moldova, and also seems to be inconsistent in its policies towards Moldova and Ukraine. In terms of process, the degree of inclusiveness on the part of the Union has not been satisfactory. Neither has the extent of reflexivity, but more recently the Commission seems to have developed a more reflexive behaviour. In regards to impact, while norm changes in Moldova have been modest/moderate, it seems that the EU has substantially contributed to these changes.

  20. Cumulative Lead Exposure and Age-related Hearing Loss: The VA Normative Aging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung Kyun; Elmarsafawy, Sahar; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Huiling; Weisskopf, Marc G; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Although lead has been associated with hearing loss in occupational settings and in children, little epidemiologic research has been conducted on the impact of cumulative lead exposure on age-related hearing loss in the general population. We determined whether bone lead levels, a marker of cumulative lead exposure, are associated with decreased hearing ability in 448 men from the Normative Aging Study, seen between 1962 and 1996 (2,264 total observations). Air conduction hearing thresholds w...

  1. Forearm Torque and Lifting Strength: Normative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Peter; Fredrikson, Per; Nilsson, Anders; Andersson, Jonny K; Kärrholm, Johan

    2018-02-10

    To establish reference values for new methods designed to quantitatively measure forearm torque and lifting strength and to compare these values with grip strength. A total of 499 volunteers, 262 males and 237 females, aged 15 to 85 (mean, 44) years, were tested for lifting strength and forearm torque with the Kern and Baseline dynamometers. These individuals were also tested for grip strength with a Jamar dynamometer. Standardized procedures were used and information about sex, height, weight, hand dominance, and whether their work involved high or low manual strain was collected. Men had approximately 70% higher forearm torque and lifting strength compared with females. Male subjects aged 26 to 35 years and female subjects aged 36 to 45 years showed highest strength values. In patients with dominant right side, 61% to 78% had a higher or equal strength on this side in the different tests performed. In patients with dominant left side, the corresponding proportions varied between 41% and 65%. There was a high correlation between grip strength and forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, body height, body weight, and age showed a significant correlation to the strength measurements. In a multiple regression model sex, age (entered as linear and squared) could explain 51% to 63% of the total variances of forearm torque strength and 30% to 36% of lifting strength. Reference values for lifting strength and forearm torque to be used in clinical practice were acquired. Grip strength has a high correlation to forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, age, and height can be used to predict forearm torque and lifting strength. Prediction equations using these variables were generated. Normative data of forearm torque and lifting strength might improve the quality of assessment of wrist and forearm disorders as well as their treatments. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Describing the Diagnostic Accuracy of History, Physical Examination, Imaging, and Lumbar Puncture With an Exploration of Test Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher R; Hussain, Adnan M; Ward, Michael J; Zipfel, Gregory J; Fowler, Susan; Pines, Jesse M; Sivilotti, Marco L A

    2016-09-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a rare, but serious etiology of headache. The diagnosis of SAH is especially challenging in alert, neurologically intact patients, as missed or delayed diagnosis can be catastrophic. The objective was to perform a diagnostic accuracy systematic review and meta-analysis of history, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, computed tomography (CT), and clinical decision rules for spontaneous SAH. A secondary objective was to delineate probability of disease thresholds for imaging and lumbar puncture (LP). PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and research meeting abstracts were searched up to June 2015 for studies of emergency department patients with acute headache clinically concerning for spontaneous SAH. QUADAS-2 was used to assess study quality and, when appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted using random effects models. Outcomes were sensitivity, specificity, and positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios. To identify test and treatment thresholds, we employed the Pauker-Kassirer method with Bernstein test indication curves using the summary estimates of diagnostic accuracy. A total of 5,022 publications were identified, of which 122 underwent full-text review; 22 studies were included (average SAH prevalence = 7.5%). Diagnostic studies differed in assessment of history and physical examination findings, CT technology, analytical techniques used to identify xanthochromia, and criterion standards for SAH. Study quality by QUADAS-2 was variable; however, most had a relatively low risk of biases. A history of neck pain (LR+ = 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2 to 7.6) and neck stiffness on physical examination (LR+ = 6.6; 95% CI = 4.0 to 11.0) were the individual findings most strongly associated with SAH. Combinations of findings may rule out SAH, yet promising clinical decision rules await external validation. Noncontrast cranial CT within 6 hours of headache onset accurately ruled in (LR+ = 230; 95

  3. Improving linkage to HIV care at low-threshold STI/HIV testing sites: An evaluation of the Immediate Staging Pilot Project in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Bobbi; Taylor, Darlene; Phan, Felicia; Sandstra, Irvine; Stimpson, Rochelle; Barrios, Rolando; Lester, Richard; Ogilvie, Gina

    2017-04-20

    The objective of the Immediate Staging Pilot Project (ISPP) was to improve linkage to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care by increasing the number of referrals made to HIV care, and to decrease the time between diagnosis and linkage to care for newly diagnosed HIV clients. This pilot had the potential to decrease HIV transmission at a population level by engaging clients in treatment earlier. The Bute Street Clinic and Health Initiative for Men Clinic on Davie in Vancouver, British Columbia are low-threshold public health facilities providing HIV/STI testing primarily to men who have sex with men (MSM). To improve engagement of MSM in the cascade of HIV care, the BC Centre for Disease Control implemented a 12-month ISPP in 2012 for clients newly diagnosed with HIV. The pilot offered CD4 and viral load testing at the time of diagnosis, implemented improved referral procedures and enhanced nursing support for clients. Comparing linkage to care outcomes between a group that received the standard of care (SOC) and an intervention group that received immediate staging, the median linkage to care time decreased from 21.5 to 14.0 days respectively (p = 0.053). The referral rates to HIV care were 56.1% in the SOC group and 94.1% in the intervention group (p < 0.001). Creating best practices that include offering CD4 and viral load testing at the time of diagnosis, enhanced nursing support and standardized referral processes has facilitated an improvement in the quality of HIV services provided to MSM clients attending low-threshold clinics.

  4. Dual Character Concepts in Social Cognition: Commitments and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pinal, Guillermo; Reuter, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    The concepts expressed by social role terms such as artist and scientist are unique in that they seem to allow two independent criteria for categorization, one of which is inherently normative (Knobe, Prasada, & Newman, 2013). This study presents and tests an account of the content and structure of the normative dimension of these "dual character concepts." Experiment 1 suggests that the normative dimension of a social role concept represents the commitment to fulfill the idealized basic function associated with the role. Background information can affect which basic function is associated with each social role. However, Experiment 2 indicates that the normative dimension always represents the relevant commitment as an end in itself. We argue that social role concepts represent the commitments to basic functions because that information is crucial to predict the future social roles and role-dependent behavior of others. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Testing the adjustable threshold model for intruder recognition on Myrmica ants in the context of a social parasite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias Alois; Durey, Maëlle; Nash, David Richard

    2012-01-01

    gains access to the ants' nests by mimicking their cuticular hydrocarbon recognition cues, which allows the parasites to blend in with their host ants. Myrmica rubra may be particularly susceptible to exploitation in this fashion as it has large, polydomous colonies with many queens and a very viscous...... population structure. We studied the mutual aggressive behaviour of My. rubra colonies based on predictions for recognition effectiveness. Three hypotheses were tested: first, that aggression increases with distance (geographical, genetic and chemical); second, that the more queens present in a colony...... and therefore the less-related workers within a colony, the less aggressively they will behave; and that colonies facing parasitism will be more aggressive than colonies experiencing less parasite pressure. Our results confirm all these predictions, supporting flexible aggression behaviour in Myrmica ants...

  6. Reliability and validity of heart rate variability threshold assessment during an incremental shuttle-walk test in middle-aged and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Z. Dourado

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the assessment of heart rate variability threshold (HRVT during walking are scarce. We determined the reliability and validity of HRVT assessment during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT in healthy subjects. Thirty-one participants aged 57 ± 9 years (17 females performed 3 ISWTs. During the 1st and 2nd ISWTs, instantaneous heart rate variability was calculated every 30 s and HRVT was measured. Walking velocity at HRVT in these tests (WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was registered. During the 3rd ISWT, physiological responses were assessed. The ventilatory equivalents were used to determine ventilatory threshold (VT and the WV at VT (WV-VT was recorded. The difference between WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was not statistically significant (median and interquartile range = 4.8; 4.8 to 5.4 vs 4.8; 4.2 to 5.4 km/h; the correlation between WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was significant (r = 0.84; the intraclass correlation coefficient was high (0.92; 0.82 to 0.96, and the agreement was acceptable (-0.08 km/h; -0.92 to 0.87. The difference between WV-VT and WV-HRVT2 was not statistically significant (4.8; 4.8 to 5.4 vs 4.8; 4.2 to 5.4 km/h and the agreement was acceptable (0.04 km/h; -1.28 to 1.36. HRVT assessment during walking is a reliable measure and permits the estimation of VT in adults. We suggest the use of the ISWT for the assessment of exercise capacity in middle-aged and older adults.

  7. Theories of normative ethics - an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The presentation is a general introduction to the main schools in applied ethics, their implications and problems, and their relationship to the notion of equity. Background: Dilemmas and tensions between ethical principles and the practices of the maritime industry will be discussed...... at an empirical level in the workshop Ethics and Equity. This opening theoretical presentation is an attempt to frame and qualify the following discussion. Summary: The interest of normative ethics' is the content of our moral behaviour. Normative ethical theories seek to provide action-guides - procedures...... for answering practical questions ("What ought I to do?"). That is, in practice, normative ethics cannot be pursued in isolation from applied ethics. Four main theories will be introduced: Utilitarism: An action is right if and only if, in the situation, there was no alternative to it which would have resulted...

  8. Wideband reflectance in newborns: Normative regions and relationship to hearing screening results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lisa L.; Feeney, M. Patrick; Lapsley Miller, Judi A.; Jeng, Patricia S.; Bohning, Susie

    2013-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objectives To develop normative data for wideband middle-ear reflectance in a newborn hearing-screening population, and to compare test performance with 1-kHz tympanometry for prediction of OAE screening outcome. Design Wideband middle-ear reflectance (using both tone and chirp stimuli over 0.2 to 6 kHz), 1-kHz tympanometry, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPs) were measured in 324 infants at two test sites. Ears were categorized into DP-pass and DP-refer groups. Results Normative reflectance values were defined over various frequency regions for both tone and chirp stimuli in ambient pressure conditions, and for reflectance area indices (RAIs) integrated over various frequency ranges. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses showed that reflectance provides the best discriminability of DP status in frequency ranges involving 2 kHz, and greater discriminability of DP status than 1-kHz tympanometry. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) established that (a) there were significant differences in reflectance as a function of DP status and frequency, but not sex or ear; (b) tone and chirp stimulus reflectance values are essentially indistinguishable, and (c) newborns from two geographic sites had similar reflectance patterns above 1-kHz. Birth type and weight did not contribute to differences in reflectance. Conclusions Referrals in OAE-based infant hearing screening were strongly associated with increased wideband reflectance, suggesting middle-ear dysfunction at birth. Reflectance improved significantly over the first 4 days after birth with normalization of middle-ear function. Reflectance scores can be achieved within seconds using the same equipment used for OAE screening. Newborns with high reflectance scores at Stage I screening should be rescreened within a few hours to a few days, as most middle-ear problems are transient and resolve spontaneously. If reflectance and OAE are not passed upon Stage II screening

  9. Normative values for a tablet computer-based application to assess chromatic contrast sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodduluri, Lakshmi; Boon, Mei Ying; Ryan, Malcolm; Dain, Stephen J

    2017-04-14

    Tablet computer displays are amenable for the development of vision tests in a portable form. Assessing color vision using an easily accessible and portable test may help in the self-monitoring of vision-related changes in ocular/systemic conditions and assist in the early detection of disease processes. Tablet computer-based games were developed with different levels of gamification as a more portable option to assess chromatic contrast sensitivity. Game 1 was designed as a clinical version with no gaming elements. Game 2 was a gamified version of game 1 (added fun elements: feedback, scores, and sounds) and game 3 was a complete game with vision task nested within. The current study aimed to determine the normative values and evaluate repeatability of the tablet computer-based games in comparison with an established test, the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT) Trivector test. Normally sighted individuals [N = 100, median (range) age 19.0 years (18-56 years)] had their chromatic contrast sensitivity evaluated binocularly using the three games and the CCT. Games 1 and 2 and the CCT showed similar absolute thresholds and tolerance intervals, and game 3 had significantly lower values than games 1, 2, and the CCT, due to visual task differences. With the exception of game 3 for blue-yellow, the CCT and tablet computer-based games showed similar repeatability with comparable 95% limits of agreement. The custom-designed games are portable, rapid, and may find application in routine clinical practice, especially for testing younger populations.

  10. Altered pressure pain thresholds and increased wind-up in adult patients with chronic back pain with a history of childhood maltreatment: a quantitative sensory testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarz, Jonas; Eich, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Gerhardt, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with an increased risk of nonspecific chronic low back pain (nsCLBP). However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Therefore, this study considered whether distinct types of CM are accompanied by specific alterations in somatosensory function. A total of 176 subjects with nsCLBP and 27 pain-free controls (PCs) were included. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to categorize patients into 2 groups (abused/neglected vs nonabused/nonneglected) for 5 types of CM (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect). The standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain" was performed to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory function, including detection and pain thresholds, pain sensitivity, and assessments of temporal summation (wind-up). Between 17.7% and 51.4% of subjects with nsCLBP reported CM, depending on the type of CM. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire subscores for emotional and sexual abuse were significantly higher in subjects with nsCLBP than in PCs. Compared with PCs, subjects with CM showed reduced pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), irrespective of the type of CM. Regarding distinct types of CM, subjects with nsCLBP with emotional abuse reported significantly higher wind-up than those without, and sexual abuse was accompanied by enhanced touch sensitivity. Our findings suggest that CM is nonspecifically associated with a decreased PPT in nsCLBP. Emotional abuse apparently leads to enhanced spinal pain summation, and sexual abuse leads to enhanced touch sensitivity. These results emphasize the importance of emotional abuse in nsCLBP and suggest that CM can induce long-term changes in adult somatosensory function.

  11. Voting on Thresholds for Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauchdobler, Julian; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2010-01-01

    Introducing a threshold in the sense of a minimal project size transforms a public-good game with an inefficient equilibrium into a coordination game with a set of Pareto-superior equilibria. Thresholds may therefore improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. In our one......-shot experiment, we find that coordination often fails and exogenously imposed thresholds are ineffective at best and often counterproductive. This holds over a range of threshold levels and refund rates. We test whether thresholds perform better if they are endogenously chosen, i.e., whether a threshold...

  12. Voting on Thresholds for Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauchdobler, Julian; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Introducing a threshold in the sense of a minimal project size transforms a public goods game with an inefficient equilibrium into a coordination game with a set of Pareto-superior equilibria. Thresholds may therefore improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. In our one......-shot experiment, we find that coordination often fails and exogenously imposed thresholds are ineffective at best and often counter-productive. This holds under a range of threshold levels and refund rates. We test if thresholds perform better if they are endogenously chosen, i.e. if a threshold is approved...

  13. Criterion and longitudinal validity of a fixed-distance incremental running test for the determination of lactate thresholds in field settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Antonio; Fiorella, Pierluigi; Santos, Tony M; Faina, Marcello; Mauri, Clara; Impellizzeri, Franco M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the criterion validity of 2 lactate thresholds (LTs, intensity corresponding to 1 mmol·L(-1) above baseline; onset of blood lactate accumulation, intensity at 4 mmol·L(-1)) determined with a fixed-distance incremental field test by assessing their correlation with those obtained using a traditional fixed-time laboratory protocol. A second aim was to verify the longitudinal validity by examining the relationships between the changes in LTs obtained with the 2 protocols. To determine the LTs, 12 well-trained male middle and long distance amateur and competitive runners training from 4 to 7 d·wk(-1) (age 25 [5] years, body mass 66 [5] kg, estimated VO(2)max 58.6 [4.9] ml·min(-1)·kg(-1), SD in parentheses) performed in 2 separate sessions an incremental running test on the field starting at 12 km·h(-1) and increasing the speed by 1 km·h(-1) every 1,200 m (FixD test) and an incremental treadmill test in the laboratory starting at 12 km·h(-1) and increasing the speed by 1 km·h(-1) every 6 minutes. The 2 tests were repeated after 6-12 weeks. A nearly perfect relationship was found between the running speeds at LTs determined with the 2 protocols (r = 0.95 [CI95% 0.83-0.99]; p distance intervals performed in field setting.

  14. Producerea efectelor juridice ale actelor normative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Delia POPESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The normative act produces effects for a period of time until it is at an end – tempus regit actum. Publicity of acts constitutes a validity condition; no one could invoke the nemo censetur legem principle. Three main modalities entail the end of the effects: the act is at an end, falling into desuetude or repealed. There are also other cases, such as: a repealing of the legal basis; b ascertaining the unconstitutionality on the basis of article 147 par. (1 of the Constitution; c adoption of a law for the rejection of an ordinance; d issuance of a decision that declares unconstitutional the law for the approval of an ordinance; e inexistence and caducity of an ordinance; f repealing of the repealed norms of ordinances; g annulment of a normative administrative act; h promulgation of the law before the issuing of the decision by the Constitutional Court; i ending the effects of a governmental decision, following the removing of a company from the companies registry; j total replacement of the title and object of a regulation through the law for the approval of an ordinance. Accordingly, the cases of ending effects of normative acts are wider than the three main modalities, as well as the institution of ending legal effects of normative acts is broader than the institution of repealing of those acts.

  15. Normative aspects of climate adaptation policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.P.J.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change is a complex process of societal change and should be studied as such. Attention to issues of climate adaptation has increased considerably over the past few years. Until now, less attention has been paid to questions concerning normative issues of societal change. In

  16. On the normative implications of social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleen Salles

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decades, brain science has been offering new insights into the relationship among diverse psychological processes and the neural correlates of our moral thought and behavior. Despite the distinction between the explanatory/descriptive nature of science and the normative nature of morality, some neuroethicists have claimed that neuroscientific findings have normative implications. In this paper, I identify three interpretations of the claim. The first focuses on neuroscience’s role in explaining the origin of morality and of moral values and how neurobiology is the bases of moral behavior. A second version is about the role that neuroscientific knowledge can play in showing the psychological plausibility of the moral psychology underlying some ethical approaches. Finally, a third version advances that neuroscience could play a role in determining the moral plausibility of some normative approaches. My aim is to delineate each version and highlight the issues raised to suggest that while neuroscience might provide information regarding the nature of moral reasoning, its role in the normative discussion itself is still quite limited.

  17. Sustainable livestock farming as normative practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, Corné J.; Glas, Gerrit; Jochemsen, Henk

    2017-01-01

    We argue that an understanding of livestock farming as normative practice clarifies how sustainability is to be understood in livestock farming. The sustainability of livestock farming is first approached by investigating its identity. We argue that the economic aspect qualifies and the formative

  18. Equity, normative disapproval, and extramarital relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, K.S.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    This study examined the extent to which inequity, normative disapproval and marital dissatisfaction were related to involvement in extramarital sexual relationships. The study was conducted among 82 married men and 132 married women with a mean age of 41. Of the sample, 30 percent had been involved

  19. On the Normative Function of Metatheoretical Endeavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Stein

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available I reconstruct an historical understanding of metatheory that emphasizes its normative function. The pioneering work of James Mark Baldwin inspires an account of how metatheoretical constructs emerge developmentally and come to serve a discourse-regulative function—overseeing, organizing, and regulating whole fields of discourse. Then I look to Charles S. Peirce as an exemplary normatively oriented metatheorist and explain how both continue a philosophical tradition concerned with the normative function of humanity more broadly. Thus, while I think it is valuable to pursue a variety of metatheoretical endeavors, including descriptive and empirical ones—mapping the terrain of various discourses, or summarizing their contributions—I argue for a specific vision of metatheory as a normative endeavor with rich intellectual and historical precedence. Unpacking some of the implications involved with this way of viewing and doing metatheory lead to considerations about the differences between two general types of metatheory (scholastic-reductionist and cosmopolitan-comprehensivist, the role of philosophical interlocutors in the public-sphere, and the trajectory of human evolution in the coming decades.

  20. Strategic entrepreneurial internationalization : A normative framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autio, Erkko

    Much of the literature on international new ventures (INVs) tends to focus on early internationalization and view it as the expression of firm-specific advantages that existed prior to internationalization. This paper presents a normative framework that articulates how INVs can leverage

  1. Odor threshold determination for 2-nitropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G N; Garrison, R P; McFee, D R

    1984-02-01

    The odor threshold of 2-nitropropane (2-NP) has been characterized as not capable of providing warning that air concentrations possibly exceed acceptable guidelines. However, recent testing indicates that the odor threshold is significantly lower than previously thought. In particular, the odor threshold has been indicated by this study to be below the current TLV for 2-NP.

  2. Clinical interpretation of a masticatory normative indicator analysis of masticatory function in subjects with different occlusal and prosthodontic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Woda, A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the masticatory function of subjects characterised by different occlusal and prosthodontic status. Using Optosil((R)) as a test food, the masticatory normative indicator (MNIOPT) was used to differentiate between sufficient ('normal') and impaired masticatory function.

  3. Do Normative Judgements Aim to Represent the World?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streumer, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Many philosophers think that normative judgements do not aim to represent the world. In this paper, I argue that this view is incompatible with the thought that when two people make conflicting normative judgements, at most one of these judgements is correct. I argue that this shows that normative

  4. CARA Risk Assessment Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Warning remediation threshold (Red threshold): Pc level at which warnings are issued, and active remediation considered and usually executed. Analysis threshold (Green to Yellow threshold): Pc level at which analysis of event is indicated, including seeking additional information if warranted. Post-remediation threshold: Pc level to which remediation maneuvers are sized in order to achieve event remediation and obviate any need for immediate follow-up maneuvers. Maneuver screening threshold: Pc compliance level for routine maneuver screenings (more demanding than regular Red threshold due to additional maneuver uncertainty).

  5. Tactile thresholds in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Moharić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of sensory thresholds provides a method of examining the function of peripheral nerve fibers and their central connections. Quantitative sensory testing is a variant of conventional sensory testing wherein the goal is the quantification of the level of stimulation needed to produce a particular sensation. While thermal and vibratory testing are established methods in assessment of sensory thresholds, assessment of tactile thresholds with monofilaments is not used routinely. The purpose of this study was to assess the tactile thresholds in normal healthy population.Methods: In 39 healthy volunteers (19 men aged 21 to 71 years, tactile thresholds were assessed with von Frey’s hair in 7 parts of the body bilaterally.Results: We found touch sensitivity not to be dependent on age or gender. The right side was significantly more sensitive in the lateral part of the leg (p=0.011 and the left side in the medial part of the arm (p=0.022. There were also significant differences between sites (p<0.001, whereby distal parts of the body were more sensitive.Conclusions: Von Frey filaments allow the estimation of tactile thresholds without the need for complicated instrumentation.

  6. Are first ventilatory threshold and 6-minute walk test heart rate interchangeable? A pilot study in healthy elderlies and cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, M D; Bosquet, L; Laroche, D; Joussain, C; Besson, D; Deley, G; Casillas, J M; Gremeaux, V

    2015-04-01

    Heart rate (HR) at the ventilatory threshold (VT) is often used to prescribe exercise intensity in cardiac rehabilitation. Some studies have reported no significant difference between HR at VT and HR measured at the end of a 6-min walk test (6-MWT) in cardiac patients. The aim of this work was to assess the potential equivalence between those parameters at the individual level. Three groups of subjects performed a stress test and a 6-MWT: 22 healthy elderlies (GES, 77 ± 3.7 years), 10 stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients (GMI, 50.9 ± 4.2 years) and 30 patients with chronic heart failure (GHF, 63.3 ± 10 years). We analyzed the correlation, mean bias, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the mean bias and the magnitude of the bias between 6-MWT-HR and VT-HR. There was a significant difference between 6-MWT and VT-HR in GHF (99.1 ± 8.8 vs 91.6 ± 18.6 bpm, P=0.016) but not in GES and GMI. The correlation between those 2 parameters was high for GMI (r=0.78, P30%) in GES and GHF and acceptable in GMI (8-12%). 6-MWT-HR and VT-HR do not appear interchangeable at the individual level in healthy elderlies and CHF patients. In CAD patients, further larger studies and/or the development of other walk tests could help in confirming the interest of a training prescription based on walking performance, after an exhaustive study of their cardiometabolic requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Normative Values of Physical Examinations Commonly Used for Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seung Jun; Choi, Young; Chung, Chin Youb; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Cho, Byung Chae; Chung, Myung Ki; Kim, Jaeyoung; Yoo, Mi Sun; Lee, Hyung Min; Park, Moon Seok

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normative values and to identify age-related change in physical examinations that are commonly used while evaluating patients with cerebral palsy (CP). One hundred four healthy volunteers (mean age 36 years, standard deviation 15 years) were enrolled and divided into four age groups: 13-20, 21-35, 36-50, and 51 years and older. The eighteen physical examination tests for CP were selected by five orthopedic surgeons in consensus-building session. The measurements were taken by three orthopedic surgeons. There was no significant difference in the measures of physical examination among all the age groups, except for the Staheli test (p=0.002). The post hoc test revealed that the mean hip extension was 2.7° higher in the 13-20-year-old group than in the other age groups. The bilateral popliteal angle had a tendency to increase in those over 36-years-old. There were 31 participants (30%) with a unilateral popliteal angle greater than 40°. We documented normative values that can be widely used for evaluating CP in patients 13 years and older.

  8. Normative, reliability, and validity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateu Servera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La atención sostenida ha demostrado estar relacionada con diferentes problemas clínicos, tales como el trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH y los trastornos de aprendizaje. La atención sostenida puede estudiarse desde dos paradigmas relacionados pero independientes representados por los tests de ejecución continua (CPT y las tareas de vigilancia. La Tarea de Atención Sostenida en la Infancia (CSAT es una tarea de vigilancia. El propósito de este estudio instrumental es analizar algunas de sus propiedades psicométricas, relacionadas con la estandarización, fiabilidad y validez de constructo. La CSAT se administró a una muestra de 584 niños de entre 6 y 11 años, que fueron clasificados en cuatro grupos de edad. Las variables dependientes fueron el rendimiento académico y las medidas de inatención y sobreactividad de la Edelbrock’s Child Attention Problems Scale. Los resultados muestran que con la edad mejoran todas las puntuaciones de la CSAT, sin que se observen diferencias por género. La fiabilidad test-retest fluctuó entre 0,59 y 0,88. Las medidas de la CSAT (especialmente los aciertos, d’ y A’, tal y como se hipotetizó, mostraron más implicaciones con la inatención y el rendimiento que con la sobreactividad. En resumen, la CSAT ha demostrado buenos índices psicométricos y se propone su utilización en futuros estudios clínicos o aplicados.

  9. The Cannabis Abuse Screening Test and the DSM-5 in the general population: Optimal thresholds and underlying common structure using multiple factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleye, Stéphane

    2017-11-10

    The Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) aims at screening the problematic use of cannabis. It has never been validated against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 and its relationships with this latter have never been studied. We used a probabilistic telephone survey collected in 2014 (1351 past-year cannabis users aged 15-64) implementing the CAST and a DSM-5 adaptation of the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessing cannabis use disorders. Data were weighted, and CAST items were considered categorical. Factorial structures were assessed with confirmatory factor analyses; the relationships between the instruments were studied with multiple factor analysis (MFA). One factor for the DSM-5 and two correlated factors for the CAST were the best confirmatory factor analyses solutions. The CAST thresholds for screening moderate/severe and severe cannabis use disorders were 5 (sensitivity = 78.2% and specificity = 79.6%) and 8 (sensitivity = 86.0% and specificity = 86.7%), respectively. The MFA identified two orthogonal dimensions: The first was equally shared by both instruments; the second was the second CAST dimension (extreme frequencies of use before midday and alone, memory problems, and reproaches from friends/family). The CAST structure and screening properties were confirmed. The MFA explains its screening performances by its first dimension and identified the problematic patterns (the second dimension) that are not captured by the DSM-5. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The Politics of Normative Childhoods and Non-Normative Parenting: A Response to Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Amy; Saltmarsh, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a consideration of the ways that the politics of normative childhoods are shaped by discourses of happiness predicated on heteronormativity. Responding to the work of Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson (2013, this issue), the authors argue that non-normative families and in particular, non-normative parenting, are obliged to…

  11. A Normative Database for Quantitative Motor Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Paula; Kincaid, Clay; Charles, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    We created a Quantitative Motor Assessment (QMA) to assess neuromuscular health and to identify motor deficits that affect human performance. Using custom software and an inexpensive novel motion capture sensor, we adapted and automated traditional subjective motor assessments in an integrated system that is quick, lowcost, and highly sensitive. We administered the QMA to 104 (53 males and 51 females) healthy individuals 18-50 years old in order to establish a normative database of unimpaired...

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE NORMATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR ENSURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva VELIČKOVÁ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the process of electrostatic powder coating in coating booths, there is a probability of the risk of explosion. Compliance with the normative requirements referred to in the legislation in force minimize the hazards associated with the risk of explosion. This article focuses on the analysis of the current security level of coating booths in terms of the risk of explosion in relation to the lower explosive limit of the selected powder paints.

  13. Electrophysiological study of the bulbocavernosus reflex: normative data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Giuseppe; Padua, Luca; Rossi, Fabiana; De Franco, Paola; Coraci, Daniele; Rossi, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Summary In the clinical setting the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) is elicited by squeezing the glans penis and digitally palpating the contraction of the bulbocavernosus (BC) muscle. In neurophysiology the BCR is obtained by stimulating the dorsal nerve of the penis or clitoris and by recording the response from BC muscle and it should be performed in selected patients with suspected urinary, bowel, or sexual neurogenic dysfunction. The BCR is considered one of the sacral neurophysiological tests of the greatest clinical utility. Previous normative data were obtained on small samples. The aim of this study was to determine normative values for the BCR in a large sample of men. We studied a large population (105 men; mean age 53 years, range 19–73 years) without central or peripheral neurological diseases. In each subject the sacral reflex was elicited by electrical stimulation of the base of the dorsum penis and recorded using a surface electrode from the BC muscle. We recorded the latency, calculated at onset, and the maximal amplitude of response, calculated peak to peak. We were able to detect the BCR in all the men. No correlation between BCR latency and age was found (r=0.136; p=0.160). The mean onset latency value was 33.0±4.85 ms (mean±2SD, range 26.8–39.4). The mean amplitude value was 16.53±12.21 μV (mean±2SD, range 4.2–43.6). Our normative data on the BCR were similar to previously published data. PMID:24598398

  14. Normative evidence accumulation in unpredictable environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Christopher M; Kable, Joseph W; Gold, Joshua I

    2015-01-01

    In our dynamic world, decisions about noisy stimuli can require temporal accumulation of evidence to identify steady signals, differentiation to detect unpredictable changes in those signals, or both. Normative models can account for learning in these environments but have not yet been applied to faster decision processes. We present a novel, normative formulation of adaptive learning models that forms decisions by acting as a leaky accumulator with non-absorbing bounds. These dynamics, derived for both discrete and continuous cases, depend on the expected rate of change of the statistics of the evidence and balance signal identification and change detection. We found that, for two different tasks, human subjects learned these expectations, albeit imperfectly, then used them to make decisions in accordance with the normative model. The results represent a unified, empirically supported account of decision-making in unpredictable environments that provides new insights into the expectation-driven dynamics of the underlying neural signals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08825.001 PMID:26322383

  15. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  16. Pressure and cold pain threshold reference values in a large, young adult, pain-free population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Robert; Smith, Anne Julia; O'Sullivan, Peter Bruce; Slater, Helen; Sterling, Michele; McVeigh, Joanne Alexandra; Straker, Leon Melville

    2016-10-01

    Currently there is a lack of large population studies that have investigated pain sensitivity distributions in healthy pain free people. The aims of this study were: (1) to provide sex-specific reference values of pressure and cold pain thresholds in young pain-free adults; (2) to examine the association of potential correlates of pain sensitivity with pain threshold values. This study investigated sex specific pressure and cold pain threshold estimates for young pain free adults aged 21-24 years. A cross-sectional design was utilised using participants (n=617) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study at the 22-year follow-up. The association of site, sex, height, weight, smoking, health related quality of life, psychological measures and activity with pain threshold values was examined. Pressure pain threshold (lumbar spine, tibialis anterior, neck and dorsal wrist) and cold pain threshold (dorsal wrist) were assessed using standardised quantitative sensory testing protocols. Reference values for pressure pain threshold (four body sites) stratified by sex and site, and cold pain threshold (dorsal wrist) stratified by sex are provided. Statistically significant, independent correlates of increased pressure pain sensitivity measures were site (neck, dorsal wrist), sex (female), higher waist-hip ratio and poorer mental health. Statistically significant, independent correlates of increased cold pain sensitivity measures were, sex (female), poorer mental health and smoking. These data provide the most comprehensive and robust sex specific reference values for pressure pain threshold specific to four body sites and cold pain threshold at the dorsal wrist for young adults aged 21-24 years. Establishing normative values in this young age group is important given that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical temporal period during which trajectories for persistent pain can be established. These data will provide an important research

  17. Comparing four non-invasive methods to determine the ventilatory anaerobic threshold during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children with congenital heart or lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, Naomi C A; Hulzebos, Erik H; van Brussel, Marco; Takken, Tim

    2015-11-01

    The ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) is an important method to assess the aerobic fitness in patients with cardiopulmonary disease. Several methods exist to determine the VAT; however, there is no consensus which of these methods is the most accurate. To compare four different non-invasive methods for the determination of the VAT via respiratory gas exchange analysis during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). A secondary objective is to determine the interobserver reliability of the VAT. CPET data of 30 children diagnosed with either cystic fibrosis (CF; N = 15) or with a surgically corrected dextro-transposition of the great arteries (asoTGA; N = 15) were included. No significant differences were found between conditions or among testers. The RER = 1 method differed the most compared to the other methods, showing significant higher results in all six variables. The PET-O2 method differed significantly on five of six and four of six exercise variables with the V-slope method and the VentEq method, respectively. The V-slope and the VentEq method differed significantly on one of six exercise variables. Ten of thirteen ICCs that were >0.80 had a 95% CI > 0.70. The RER = 1 method and the V-slope method had the highest number of significant ICCs and 95% CIs. The V-slope method, the ventilatory equivalent method and the PET-O2 method are comparable and reliable methods to determine the VAT during CPET in children with CF or asoTGA. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Heuristics and biases: interactions among numeracy, ability, and reflectiveness predict normative responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaczynski, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    In Stanovich's (2009a, 2011) dual-process theory, analytic processing occurs in the algorithmic and reflective minds. Thinking dispositions, indexes of reflective mind functioning, are believed to regulate operations at the algorithmic level, indexed by general cognitive ability. General limitations at the algorithmic level impose constraints on, and affect the adequacy of, specific strategies and abilities (e.g., numeracy). In a study of 216 undergraduates, the hypothesis that thinking dispositions and general ability moderate the relationship between numeracy (understanding of mathematical concepts and attention to numerical information) and normative responses on probabilistic heuristics and biases (HB) problems was tested. Although all three individual difference measures predicted normative responses, the numeracy-normative response association depended on thinking dispositions and general ability. Specifically, numeracy directly affected normative responding only at relatively high levels of thinking dispositions and general ability. At low levels of thinking dispositions, neither general ability nor numeric skills related to normative responses. Discussion focuses on the consistency of these findings with the hypothesis that the implementation of specific skills is constrained by limitations at both the reflective level and the algorithmic level, methodological limitations that prohibit definitive conclusions, and alternative explanations.

  19. Heuristics and biases: interactions among numeracy, ability, and reflectiveness predict normative responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaczynski, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In Stanovich's (2009a, 2011) dual-process theory, analytic processing occurs in the algorithmic and reflective minds. Thinking dispositions, indexes of reflective mind functioning, are believed to regulate operations at the algorithmic level, indexed by general cognitive ability. General limitations at the algorithmic level impose constraints on, and affect the adequacy of, specific strategies and abilities (e.g., numeracy). In a study of 216 undergraduates, the hypothesis that thinking dispositions and general ability moderate the relationship between numeracy (understanding of mathematical concepts and attention to numerical information) and normative responses on probabilistic heuristics and biases (HB) problems was tested. Although all three individual difference measures predicted normative responses, the numeracy-normative response association depended on thinking dispositions and general ability. Specifically, numeracy directly affected normative responding only at relatively high levels of thinking dispositions and general ability. At low levels of thinking dispositions, neither general ability nor numeric skills related to normative responses. Discussion focuses on the consistency of these findings with the hypothesis that the implementation of specific skills is constrained by limitations at both the reflective level and the algorithmic level, methodological limitations that prohibit definitive conclusions, and alternative explanations. PMID:25071639

  20. The effect of normative feedback on stability and efficacy of some selected muscles in a balancing task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ashrafpoor Navaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of normative feedback on stability and efficacy of some selected muscles at different task difficulty levels in novice individuals. Thirty participants (age Mean= 22.60, SD=1.89 years were randomly assigned into three groups of positive, negative normative feedback and control.  The experimental groups participated in 160 acquisition trials (16 blocks of 10trials for 4 consecutive days (40 per day. Post test was performed after last practice session. The result of ANOVA-repeated measure test indicated that positive normative feedback group outperformed the other groups in stability indices of overall stability (P=0.004, anterior-posterior (P=0.01 and medial-lateral (P=0.001. In addition, the result of Covariance test at electromyography indices of the Soleus and Peroneus brevis showed significant differences in the favor of positive normative feedback in post-test. The findings of the present study showed that normative feedback has functional motivation affect that directly influences physiological changes level of stability control. KEY WORDS: Electromyography, knowledge of result, normative feedback, performance, stability control.

  1. Normative Study of Rorschach (Parisian School for Brazilian Adolescents

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    Maria Luísa Casillo Jardim-Maran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAmong the projective methods of psychological assessment, the relevance of the Rorschach method stands out in the investigation of personality, albeit without normative references in the Parisian School for adolescents in Brazil. This study addresses this gap by developing normative standards of the Rorschach method (Parisian School for this age group, evaluating specificities of production associated with sex, age and school system. The Rorschach tests were individually administered to 180 students aged from 15 to 17 years old, with typical signs of development. Data considering the 54 Rorschach's variables were descriptively and inferentially examined. The main average results were: (a productivity: R = 17.7; (b modes of apperception: G = 35.0%, D = 33.4%, Dd = 30.3% and Dd = 1.1%; (c determinants and formal indexes: F% = 54.5%, F+% = 55.6% and F+ext% = 57.3%; (d predominant content: A% = 51.0% and H% = 20.9%; (e Ban = 17.0%. Specificities of production according to sex, age and school system were identified, which supports the analysis and interpretation of Rorschach's variables with contemporary Brazilian adolescents.

  2. Exact Threshold Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    with the well-studied corresponding hierarchies defined using ordinary threshold gates. A major open problem in Boolean circuit complexity is to provide an explicit super-polynomial lower bound for depth two threshold circuits. We identify the class of depth two exact threshold circuits as a natural subclass...

  3. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  4. Sub-threshold synchronizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Ashouei, M.; Kinniment, D.; Huisken, J.; Russell, G.; Yakovlev, A.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-threshold operation has been proven to be very effective to reduce the power consumption of circuits when high performance is not required. Future low power systems on chip are likely to consist of many sub-systems operating at different frequencies and VDDs from super-threshold to sub-threshold

  5. What is popular? Distinguishing bullying and aggression as status correlates within specific peer normative contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Palacios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study tested social status correlates of aggression and bullying and how these are influenced by peer groups’ normative beliefs about aggression and prosocial behavior among 1165 fourth, fifth and sixth graders in Chile. Associations between aggression and popularity (positive and social preference (negative were confirmed, whereas bullying was negatively associated with both dimensions. Normative beliefs about aggression and prosocial behavior were assessed at the group level, while social status was assessed at the classroom level through peer nominations. Hierarchical Linear Analyses showed that in groups with a higher value associated with aggression, classmates rated aggressive peers as less popular but also less disliked. The status correlates of bullying remained unaffected by peer normative beliefs. The discussion focuses on the social function of aggression as compared to the social sanction associated with bullying, and on the specificity of these associations at different layers of the social ecology.

  6. Italian Right Hemisphere Language Battery: the normative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, S; Bryan, K; De Luca, G; Bava, A

    2005-04-01

    Clinical neurolinguistics still lacks consolidated and standardised tools for the assessment of impairments of pragmatics of verbal communication. In the present paper we present norms of the Italian version of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery (Batteria del Linguaggio dell'Emisfero Destro, BaLED) originally devised by Bryan. The normative study has been conducted with the recruitment of 440 healthy subjects. The battery of tests was not intended to be cognitively oriented, by providing evidence of the cognitive impairments underpinning verbal pragmatic deficits; on the contrary, it permits the detection of the presence/absence of impairments in processing the main pragmatic features of verbal communication traditionally associated with right hemisphere lesions. Thus, apart from being a clinical tool for diagnosing pragmatic impairments of verbal communication, the BaLED represents a useful initial battery of tests for clinical assessment and for selecting specific populations of neurological patients suitable for investigation in further experimental studies.

  7. Intelligence and Creativity: Over the Threshold Together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Marisete Maria; Jaarsveld, Saskia; van Leeuwen, Cees; Lachmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Threshold theory predicts a positive correlation between IQ and creativity scores up to an IQ level of 120 and no correlation above this threshold. Primary school children were tested at beginning (N = 98) and ending (N = 70) of the school year. Participants performed the standard progressive matrices (SPM) and the Test of Creative…

  8. On the Normative Justification for Information Gain in Wason's Selection Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Karl Christoph

    1999-01-01

    Argues that selecting data according to expected information gain, as proposed by M. Oaksford and N. Chater (1994, 1996), leads to suboptimal performance in Bayesian hypothesis testing. Procedures are presented that are better justified normatively, their psychological implications are explored, and a number of novel predictions are derived under…

  9. Some Varieties of Normative Social Critique

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    Carl-Göran Heidegren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article distinguishes between different forms of normative social critique: an external, an internal or immanent, and a disclosing form of critique. Whereas the external and internal critique appeal to or rely upon a certain standard or yardstick of critique, the disclosing form of critique aims at opening up our eyes to new ways of seeing social reality, and in the light of which our way of life can be seen as deficient or pathological. Depending upon the circumstances each form of critique may be a legitimate means to bring about a change.

  10. The normative trap in ethnopolitical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel; Schläpfer, Basil

    2016-01-01

    try to avoid possible biases, and discuss how their data and results might influence politics and the public debate. We warn against any practice that would lead to self-censorship of research results that conflict with the dominant normative views of scholars or society. The debate about ethnic...... communities (Kymlicka, 1995 Kymlicka, W. (1995). Multicultural citizenship. Oxford: Oxford University Press., pp. 14–15). In contrast, the French ‘republican’ model is blind to ethnicity, all citizens are viewed as French above all. In this view, any distinction by identity would divide and discriminate...

  11. A normative model for assessing competitive strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungerer, Gerard David

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The hyper-competitive nature of e-business has raised the need for a generic way to appraise the merit of a developed business strategy. Although progress has been made in the domain of strategy evaluation, the established literature differs over the ‘tests’ that a strategy must pass to be considered well-constructed. This paper therefore investigates the existing strategy-evaluation literature to propose a more integrated and comprehensive normative strategic assessment that can be used to evaluate and refine a business’ s competitive strategy , adding to its robustness and survivability.

  12. Comparing four non-invasive methods to determine the ventilatory anaerobic threshold during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children with congenital heart or lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschers, Naomi C A; Hulzebos, Erik H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304818224; van Brussel, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481962X; Takken, Tim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/184586674

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) is an important method to assess the aerobic fitness in patients with cardiopulmonary disease. Several methods exist to determine the VAT; however, there is no consensus which of these methods is the most accurate. Objective: To compare four

  13. Normative expectations : Employing "communities of practice" models for assessing journalism's normative claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eldridge, Scott; Steel, John

    2016-01-01

    Journalism's relationship with the public has historically rested on an assumption of its Fourth Estate roles and as fulfilling democratic imperatives. The normative dimensions of these ideals have also long been taken as given in journalism studies, serving as a starting point for discussions of

  14. The Sources of Normativity: Young Children's Awareness of the Normative Structure of Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, the authors investigated 2- and 3-year-old children's awareness of the normative structure of conventional games. In the target conditions, an experimenter showed a child how to play a simple rule game. After the child and the experimenter had played for a while, a puppet came (controlled by a 2nd experimenter), asked to join in,…

  15. Book Review: Genocide: A Normative Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Academics studying genocide are required, amid the exigency of predicting and preventing further instances of this crime, to extend their efforts so as to connect with policy makers, provide vital information, respond to particular instances of genocide or state-inspired genocidal campaigns, and prompt a political will to intervene at any stage in this crime. May starts by placing genocide studies in the normative foundation of this discipline. In this work, which stands as the fourth volume of a broader project that assesses the “conceptual and normative underpinnings of this ‘crime of crimes’”, genocide is treated as the most serious of all international crimes. May calls for additional work to be performed to include other forms and conceptualizations of genocide such as cultural genocide and ethnic cleansing. The book outlines the fundamental concepts behind the crime, its study, and the discipline, while offering a unique presentation of “special problems of genocide”. It also considers steps that should be taken forward with the view of facilitating reconciliation. May refers to war as the final response to genocidal situations, not the first, stating that, “there are situations where there is not unambiguous groups of victims”. Thus, humanitarian intervention, as a viable approach to mitigating acts of genocide, is still difficult to justify.

  16. Specific and social fears in children and adolescents: separating normative fears from problem indicators and phobias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola P. Laporte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To distinguish normative fears from problematic fears and phobias. Methods: We investigated 2,512 children and adolescents from a large community school-based study, the High Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders. Parent reports of 18 fears and psychiatric diagnosis were investigated. We used two analytical approaches: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA/item response theory (IRT and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. Results: According to IRT and ROC analyses, social fears are more likely to indicate problems and phobias than specific fears. Most specific fears were normative when mild; all specific fears indicate problems when pervasive. In addition, the situational fear of toilets and people who look unusual were highly indicative of specific phobia. Among social fears, those not restricted to performance and fear of writing in front of others indicate problems when mild. All social fears indicate problems and are highly indicative of social phobia when pervasive. Conclusion: These preliminary findings provide guidance for clinicians and researchers to determine the boundaries that separate normative fears from problem indicators in children and adolescents, and indicate a differential severity threshold for specific and social fears.

  17. Specific and social fears in children and adolescents: separating normative fears from problem indicators and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Paola P; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Mauricio S; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Rohde, Luis A; Miguel, Euripedes C; Pine, Daniel S; Manfro, Gisele G; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    To distinguish normative fears from problematic fears and phobias. We investigated 2,512 children and adolescents from a large community school-based study, the High Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders. Parent reports of 18 fears and psychiatric diagnosis were investigated. We used two analytical approaches: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)/item response theory (IRT) and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. According to IRT and ROC analyses, social fears are more likely to indicate problems and phobias than specific fears. Most specific fears were normative when mild; all specific fears indicate problems when pervasive. In addition, the situational fear of toilets and people who look unusual were highly indicative of specific phobia. Among social fears, those not restricted to performance and fear of writing in front of others indicate problems when mild. All social fears indicate problems and are highly indicative of social phobia when pervasive. These preliminary findings provide guidance for clinicians and researchers to determine the boundaries that separate normative fears from problem indicators in children and adolescents, and indicate a differential severity threshold for specific and social fears.

  18. Polynomial threshold functions and Boolean threshold circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    We study the complexity of computing Boolean functions on general Boolean domains by polynomial threshold functions (PTFs). A typical example of a general Boolean domain is 12n . We are mainly interested in the length (the number of monomials) of PTFs, with their degree and weight being of second......We study the complexity of computing Boolean functions on general Boolean domains by polynomial threshold functions (PTFs). A typical example of a general Boolean domain is 12n . We are mainly interested in the length (the number of monomials) of PTFs, with their degree and weight being...

  19. Resistive Threshold Logic

    OpenAIRE

    James, A. P.; Francis, L. R. V. J.; Kumar, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report a resistance based threshold logic family useful for mimicking brain like large variable logic functions in VLSI. A universal Boolean logic cell based on an analog resistive divider and threshold logic circuit is presented. The resistive divider is implemented using memristors and provides output voltage as a summation of weighted product of input voltages. The output of resistive divider is converted into a binary value by a threshold operation implemented by CMOS inverter and/or O...

  20. Parametric bootstrap for testing model fitting of threshold and grouped data models: an application to the analysis of calving ease of Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrés, J; Fina, M; Piedrafita, J

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of the threshold models with homoscedasticity or heteroscedasticity and the grouped data model for the analysis of calving ease in beef cattle by using a parametric bootstrap procedure. Field data included 8,205 records of the Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle breed in the Pyrenean mountain areas of Catalonia (Spain). The actual distribution was 81.81% of calvings without assistance, 11.02% slightly assisted by the farmer, 5.12% strongly assisted by the farmer, 0.89% assisted by the veterinarian, and 1.16% cesarean, but these percentages were very different in the different herds. This can be explained partially by the different subjective way of scoring of each farmer. Primiparous cows had a greater (P data were analyzed using 3 different models: the threshold models with homoscedasticity or heteroscedasticity and the grouped data model. The bootstrap comparison among models suggested that the threshold models, even allowing for heteroscedasticity, did not fit the herd effects well. In contrast, fitting deficiencies were not observed for the grouped data model in any factor. The variance of direct effect of the calf was estimated using the 3 models, and the heritability estimate ranged from 0.165 for the grouped data model to 0.185 for the hereroscedastic threshold model. This heritability was moderate, but it would justify the inclusion of direct effects of the calf on calving ease in the breeding objective. Overall, results highlighted the flexibility of the grouped data model for the analysis of discrete traits, like calving ease of beef calves.

  1. Stretching and Exploiting Thresholds for High-Order War: How Russia, China, and Iran are Eroding American Influence Using Time-Tested Measures Short of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    representative of standard—and long- standing—practices in international behavior.6 The bilateral, nuclear- era Cold War theories of military escalation that...4 Stretching and Exploiting Thresholds for High-Order War of-war actions that Russian president Vladimir Putin has been willing to take in Crimea...the realist precept of international anarchy. Various schools of realism describe this differently, but, at its core, realism views interstate

  2. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Nielsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory capacity and the visual...... perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of visual short-term memory based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates are presented at total sample level as well as at gender level. The estimates were modelled from input from a whole-report assessment based on A Theory...... speed of Visual Short-term Memory (VTSM) but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular....

  3. Air and Bone Conduction Click and Tone-Burst Auditory Brainstem Thresholds Using Kalman Adaptive Processing in Nonsedated Normal-Hearing Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Alaaeldin M; Hunter, Lisa L; Keefe, Douglas H; Feeney, M Patrick; Brown, David K; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen K; Baroch, Kelly; Sullivan-Mahoney, Maureen; Francis, Kara; Schaid, Leigh G

    2015-01-01

    To study normative thresholds and latencies for click and tone-burst auditory brainstem response (TB-ABR) for air and bone conduction in normal infants and those discharged from neonatal intensive care units, who passed newborn hearing screening and follow-up distortion product otoacoustic emission. An evoked potential system (Vivosonic Integrity) that incorporates Bluetooth electrical isolation and Kalman-weighted adaptive processing to improve signal to noise ratios was employed for this study. Results were compared with other published data. One hundred forty-five infants who passed two-stage hearing screening with transient-evoked otoacoustic emission or automated auditory brainstem response were assessed with clicks at 70 dB nHL and threshold TB-ABR. Tone bursts at frequencies between 500 and 4000 Hz were used for air and bone conduction auditory brainstem response testing using a specified staircase threshold search to establish threshold levels and wave V peak latencies. Median air conduction hearing thresholds using TB-ABR ranged from 0 to 20 dB nHL, depending on stimulus frequency. Median bone conduction thresholds were 10 dB nHL across all frequencies, and median air-bone gaps were 0 dB across all frequencies. There was no significant threshold difference between left and right ears and no significant relationship between thresholds and hearing loss risk factors, ethnicity, or gender. Older age was related to decreased latency for air conduction. Compared with previous studies, mean air conduction thresholds were found at slightly lower (better) levels, while bone conduction levels were better at 2000 Hz and higher at 500 Hz. Latency values were longer at 500 Hz than previous studies using other instrumentation. Sleep state did not affect air or bone conduction thresholds. This study demonstrated slightly better wave V thresholds for air conduction than previous infant studies. The differences found in the present study, while statistically significant

  4. Pain assessment in patellar tendinopathy using pain pressure threshold algometry: : An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregel, Jeroen; van Wilgen, Cornelis Paul; Zwerver, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    ObjectiveAssessing pain in patellar tendinopathy (PT) is difficult to perform in a standardized way. With this study, we measured pain in athletes with PT by means of pain pressure threshold (PPT) algometry in a standardized manner. Subsequently, the goal of this study is to determine normative

  5. Reciprocity as a Threshold Concept for Faculty Who Are Learning to Teach with Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Barbara; Clayton, Patti H.

    2012-01-01

    Requiring and fostering shifts in perspective, practice, and identity, the counter-normative pedagogy of service-learning can be challenging for faculty to learn. Meyer and Land's (2003, 2005) work on threshold concepts may enhance understanding of the troublesome yet transformative nature of learning to collaborate reciprocally with students and…

  6. [The normative combined therapy for recurrent sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bengang; Sun, Yiqing; Miao, Xutao; Wang, Xin; Li, Wenjun

    2014-06-01

    To assess the treatment outcome after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) in patients with recurrent sinusitis and to research which factors could influence the clinical outcome. Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in 55 patients. The clinical outcome and epithelization of mucosa after ESS were evaluated by Chinese ENT Association criteria. The total cure rate was 81.82%, effective rate was 92.73%. The mean period of epithelization after operation was 13.2 weeks. No serious complication occurred. The treatment efficacy can be greatly improved by the normative combined therapy which include the standard and orderly perioperative treatment ,the overall shape and nasalization of nasal cavity, postoperative follow-up and clearing cav ity after ESS.

  7. Users’ encounter with normative discourses on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    2016-01-01

    This study asks whether users’ encounter with normative discourses of lifestyle, consumption, and health on social media such as Facebook gives rise to agency. The theoretical framework draws on reception analysis, for its implied, but central interest in agency that lies at the intersection...... an explicit focus on the socio-cultural practices of ordinary audiences in their encounters with media discourses. The study investigates user agency on seven Facebook groups and pages with the help of a three-pronged perspective based on the notion of the media–audience relationship as (1) power structure......, (2) nexus, and (3) reception. The analysis reveals that the structure at play on these Facebook groups and pages does not encourage user agency. However, user agency manifests itself through user interactions and expressive sense-making processes associated with reception. The benefits...

  8. The normative basis of the Precautionary Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomberg, Rene von [European Commission, Directorate General for Research, Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    Precautionary measures are provisional measures by nature, and need to be regularly reviewed when scientific information either calls for relaxation or strengthening of those measures. Within the EU context, these provisional measures do not have a prefixed 'expiry' date: one can only lift precautionary measures if scientific knowledge has progressed to a point that one would be able to translate (former) uncertainties in terms of risk and adverse effects in terms of defined, consensual levels of harm/damage. Precautionary frameworks facilitate in particular deliberation at the science/policy/society interfaces to which risk management is fully connected. Applying the precautionary principle is to be seen as a normative risk management exercise which builds upon scientific risk assessments. An ongoing scientific and normative deliberation at the science/policy interface involves a shift in science centred debates on the probability of risks towards a science informed debate on uncertainties and plausible adverse effects: this means that decisions should not only be based on available data but on a broad scientific knowledge base including a variety of scientific disciplines. The invocation, implementation and application of the precautionary principle follows a progressive line of different levels of deliberations (which obviously can be interconnected to each other but are distinguished here for analytical purposes). I have listed these levels of deliberation in a table. The table provides a model for guiding all the relevant normative levels of deliberation which are all needed in order to eventually make the legitimate conclusions on the acceptability of products or processes. The table provides a progressive line of those levels of deliberations from the initial invocation of the precautionary principle at the political level down to level of risk management decisions but at the same time show their inter relatedness. Although the table may suggest a

  9. Managing Normative Criteria in Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    2014-01-01

    experiences from an action research project in a healthcare infrastructural setting. I use these experiences as a basis for appraising the normative crite- ria for rigor and relevance that are enacted in IS action research literature. I argue that while these criteria originally had important contributions......, there are also weaknesses with norma- tive approaches. Specifically, these norms of action research leave relatively little space for understanding and managing emerging empirical uncertainties. These norms are important because they have implications not only on how we conduct action research in practice...... frameworks found in some IS action research literature with a reflexive framework that encourages researchers to investigate critically how their methods are enacted and practiced in the field. The contribution of this paper lies in pro- viding a reflexive analysis of the situated and emergent challenges...

  10. Managing Normative Criteria in Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    2014-01-01

    experiences from an action research project in a healthcare infrastructural setting. I use these experiences as a basis for appraising the normative crite- ria for rigor and relevance that are enacted in IS action research literature. I argue that while these criteria originally had important contributions...... frameworks found in some IS action research literature with a reflexive framework that encourages researchers to investigate critically how their methods are enacted and practiced in the field. The contribution of this paper lies in pro- viding a reflexive analysis of the situated and emergent challenges......A much revisited question within the field of Information Systems is how research- ers can intervene in the context of large-scale, complex and heterogeneous information in- frastructures, while ensuring impact on field settings. To explore this question, I draw upon my interventions and fieldwork...

  11. Estimate of the 3,5 MMOL.L-¹ lactate threshold by maximal and submaximal variables during treadmill incremental test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kiss

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In predictive models, there is a lack of studies that have associated maximal and submaximal variables to attain lactate threshold (LT. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to investigate the possibility for predicting 3.5 mmol.l-1 LT velocity (V3.5 using maximal and submaximal variables. The heart rate (HR corresponding to 12 km.h-1 velocity (HR12, the peak heart rate (HRPEAK, the velocity corresponding to HR of 170 bpm (V170 and the peak velocity (VPEAK were the independent variables used. Forty-six runners underwent to progressive test with initial velocity between 6 and 10.8 km.h-1, and increments of 1.2 km.h-1 every three minutes. The subjects were randomly assigned to validation group (n= 30 or cross-validation group (n= 16. Multiple regression analysis (Enter selection resulted in the following predictive equation (p RESUMO Em modelos preditivos, há uma ausência de estudos que tenham associado variáveis máximas e submáximas para a obtenção dos limiares de lactato. Desta maneira, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a possibilidade de estimativa do limiar de lactato, referente à concentração de lactato sangüíneo de 3,5 mmol.l-1 (LL3,5, a partir de variáveis máximas e submáximas obtidas em protocolo progressivo, em esteira rolante. Como variáveis preditoras, foram utilizadas a freqüência cardíaca (FC referente à velocidade de 12 km.h-1 (FC12, a FC de pico (FCPICO, a velocidade correspondente à FC de 170 bpm (VEL170 e a velocidade de pico (VELPICO. Após executar protocolo progressivo, com velocidade inicial entre 6,0 e 10,8 km.h-1, e incrementos de 1,2 km.h-1 a cada estágio de 3 minutos 5, 46 atletas aeróbios foram divididos aleatoriamente em grupo de validação (n= 30 e grupo de validação cruzada (n= 16. A análise de regressão múltipla (método Enter resultou na seguinte equação de predição (p< 0,05: LL3,5 (km.h1= -3,650 + (1,042 x VELPICO, com EPE de 1,2 km.h1 (7,7% e R² de 0,74. Não houve diferen

  12. Probabilistic Threshold Criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresshoff, M; Hrousis, C A

    2010-03-09

    The Probabilistic Shock Threshold Criterion (PSTC) Project at LLNL develops phenomenological criteria for estimating safety or performance margin on high explosive (HE) initiation in the shock initiation regime, creating tools for safety assessment and design of initiation systems and HE trains in general. Until recently, there has been little foundation for probabilistic assessment of HE initiation scenarios. This work attempts to use probabilistic information that is available from both historic and ongoing tests to develop a basis for such assessment. Current PSTC approaches start with the functional form of the James Initiation Criterion as a backbone, and generalize to include varying areas of initiation and provide a probabilistic response based on test data for 1.8 g/cc (Ultrafine) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder). Application of the PSTC methodology is presented investigating the safety and performance of a flying plate detonator and the margin of an Ultrafine TATB booster initiating LX-17.

  13. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer (grade 5 of 5 in the guinea-pig maximization test) that is used in various industrial and consumer applications. To prevent sensitization to cobalt and elicitation of allergic cobalt dermatitis, information about the elicitation threshold level...... of cobalt is important. OBJECTIVE: To identify the dermatitis elicitation threshold levels in cobalt-allergic individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Published patch test dose-response studies were reviewed to determine the elicitation dose (ED) levels in dermatitis patients with a previous positive patch test...... reaction to cobalt. A logistic dose-response model was applied to data collected from the published literature to estimate ED values. The 95% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of mean doses that can elicit a reaction in 10% (ED(10)) of a population was calculated with Fieller's method. RESULTS...

  14. Indian Elites and the EU as a Normative Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rajendra K. Jain; Shreya Pandey

    2013-01-01

    ... of the EU’s normative identity. It clearly outlines the expansion of the varied roles played by the EU in the course of assuming responsibilities in the capacity of civilian, ethical and normative power of Europe both within its borders and abroad...

  15. The EU's Normative Power in Changing World Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    global order: 1) what is the concept of normative power in world politics?; 2) what is an effective EU toolbox for tackling new challenges?; 3) how does the EU go beyond self-perception and rhetoric?; 4) what is the raison d'etre of the EU?; and 5) how might normative power in EU external policies lead...... to a more just global order?...

  16. A Proposal for More Sophisticated Normative Principles in Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Introductory textbooks teach a simple normative story about the importance of maximizing economic surplus that supports common policy claims. There is little defense of the claim that maximizing surplus is normatively important, which is not obvious to non-economists. Difficulties with the claim that society should maximize surplus are generally…

  17. Tracing how normative messages may influence physical activity intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normative messages have been shown to increase intention to do physical activity (PA). We traced how 'positive' and 'negative' normative messages influenced PA intention by comparing constructs of the model of goal-directed behaviour with descriptive norms (MGDB+DN) across control and treatment grou...

  18. Attitudinal and Normative Variables as Predictors of Cheating Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enker, Myrna S.

    1987-01-01

    Predictors of cheating behavior in American and Israeli society were studied. Predictors in American society were attitudes, normative beliefs, or both together; friends and classmates were stronger influences than families. In Israeli society, normative beliefs were the significant predictors, and family norms influenced cheating behavior. (VM)

  19. Normative data on Benton Visual Form Discrimination Test for older adults and impaired scores in Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5 participants: community-based study. The Osaki-Tajiri Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Mari; Ishizaki, Junichi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yamadori, Atsushi; Meguro, Kenichi

    2009-02-01

    The Benton Visual Form Discrimination test (VFD) is one of the non-verbal tests to assess the capacity for complex visual form discrimination. The purposes of the present study were to investigate the effects of age and education level of the VFD in healthy elderly subjects, rigorously excluding participants with Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) 0.5, and the characteristics of VFD patterns in CDR 0.5 participants. The 597 participants included CDR 0 (healthy elderly, n = 405), CDR 0.5 (mild cognitive impairment, n = 161), and CDR 1 and 2 (dementia, n = 31). The VFD, Digit Forwards, Digit Backwards and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) copying were used for neuropsychological assessment. There were significant effects of age and education level on the VFD in healthy participants, and the CDR 0.5 group had a lower score on the VFD than the healthy group. Low performance on the VFD was associated with Digit Backward and RCFT copying in both healthy and CDR 0.5 participants. CDR 0.5 participants exhibit deficits of visual form discrimination related to attention, visual construction and organization.

  20. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  1. Focus Groups as Social Arenas for the Negotiation of Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, T. M.; Gronkjaer, M.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: This article aims to demonstrate how focus group discussions act as a social arena for the negotiation of social norms and normativity and to discuss the implications for the analysis of focus group discussions. Participants and methods: We have used sequences of group interactions from...... a focus group study on everyday life and chronic illness to demonstrate how methodological tools from conversation analysis and discursive psychology can be used to facilitate a systematic analysis of the negotiation and legitimization of social norms and normativity in focus groups. The empirical data...... consisted of six focus groups with a total of 32 participants. Results: The analysis demonstrated negotiations on normativity concerning four central aspects related to living with chronic illness: negotiating normativity about adjustment to the disease, negotiating normativity about being a dutiful...

  2. Assessing normative cut points through differential item functioning analysis: An example from the adaptation of the Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS for use as a cognitive screening test in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutlay Sehim

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS was developed as a screening test to detect cognitive impairment in the elderly. It includes 12 subtests, each having a 'pass score'. A series of tasks were undertaken to adapt the measure for use in the adult population in Turkey and to determine the validity of existing cut points for passing subtests, given the wide range of educational level in the Turkish population. This study focuses on identifying and validating the scoring system of the MEAMS for Turkish adult population. Methods After the translation procedure, 350 normal subjects and 158 acquired brain injury patients were assessed by the Turkish version of MEAMS. Initially, appropriate pass scores for the normal population were determined through ANOVA post-hoc tests according to age, gender and education. Rasch analysis was then used to test the internal construct validity of the scale and the validity of the cut points for pass scores on the pooled data by using Differential Item Functioning (DIF analysis within the framework of the Rasch model. Results Data with the initially modified pass scores were analyzed. DIF was found for certain subtests by age and education, but not for gender. Following this, pass scores were further adjusted and data re-fitted to the model. All subtests were found to fit the Rasch model (mean item fit 0.184, SD 0.319; person fit -0.224, SD 0.557 and DIF was then found to be absent. Thus the final pass scores for all subtests were determined. Conclusion The MEAMS offers a valid assessment of cognitive state for the adult Turkish population, and the revised cut points accommodate for age and education. Further studies are required to ascertain the validity in different diagnostic groups.

  3. Normative pelvic floor parameters in children assessed by transabdominal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, W F; Chase, J W; Stillman, B C

    2006-07-01

    Successful management of dysfunctional voiding in children hinges on retraining inappropriate pelvic floor muscle recruitment. Recently dynamic pelvic floor muscle activity was visualized in adults using transabdominal ultrasound. We evaluated transabdominal ultrasound for visualizing and measuring pelvic floor muscle activity in normative children. A total of 21 volunteers, including 10 boys and 11 girls 7 to 16 years old (mean age 11.6) who were free of bladder disorders consented to participate in the study. Subjects were screened and demonstrated normative bladder emptying before being imaged while supine and standing using a sagittal curved linear array 2 to 5 MHz transducer over the suprapubic region. After pelvic floor muscle contraction was explained 4 parameters were measured 3 times each, including the direction of movement/displacement from freeze-frame ultrasound images, and endurance and coordination from ultrasound movie loops. The methodology for digitizing movie data were developed, tested and found to be reliable. New variables of endurance as a percent of maximum coordination amplitude and coordination as the amplitude between maximum and minimum effort were created. Overall 66% and 71% of subjects demonstrated anterior displacement of the pelvic floor during voluntary contraction while lying and standing, respectively, with no significant difference in lying vs standing. However, coordination displacement was greater while lying than standing. During 20-second contractions pelvic floor muscle activity attained peak amplitude at 5.5 seconds, followed by a marked decay with 1 or more cycles of muscular re-recruitment. It was observed that fatigue led to repeat recruitment of the rectus and oblique abdominal muscles. In children free of voiding dysfunction pelvic floor displacement and coordination are highly variable. Noninvasive ultrasound of the pelvic floor provided visual assessment of muscular activity, a biofeedback component for the patient

  4. Normative values for corneal nerve morphology assessed using corneal confocal microscopy: a multinational normative data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mitra; Ferdousi, Maryam; Petropoulos, Ioannis N; Morris, Julie; Pritchard, Nicola; Zhivov, Andrey; Ziegler, Dan; Pacaud, Danièle; Romanchuk, Kenneth; Perkins, Bruce A; Lovblom, Leif E; Bril, Vera; Singleton, J Robinson; Smith, Gordon; Boulton, Andrew J M; Efron, Nathan; Malik, Rayaz A

    2015-05-01

    Corneal confocal microscopy is a novel diagnostic technique for the detection of nerve damage and repair in a range of peripheral neuropathies, in particular diabetic neuropathy. Normative reference values are required to enable clinical translation and wider use of this technique. We have therefore undertaken a multicenter collaboration to provide worldwide age-adjusted normative values of corneal nerve fiber parameters. A total of 1,965 corneal nerve images from 343 healthy volunteers were pooled from six clinical academic centers. All subjects underwent examination with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph corneal confocal microscope. Images of the central corneal subbasal nerve plexus were acquired by each center using a standard protocol and analyzed by three trained examiners using manual tracing and semiautomated software (CCMetrics). Age trends were established using simple linear regression, and normative corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), corneal nerve fiber branch density (CNBD), corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL), and corneal nerve fiber tortuosity (CNFT) reference values were calculated using quantile regression analysis. There was a significant linear age-dependent decrease in CNFD (-0.164 no./mm(2) per year for men, P < 0.01, and -0.161 no./mm(2) per year for women, P < 0.01). There was no change with age in CNBD (0.192 no./mm(2) per year for men, P = 0.26, and -0.050 no./mm(2) per year for women, P = 0.78). CNFL decreased in men (-0.045 mm/mm(2) per year, P = 0.07) and women (-0.060 mm/mm(2) per year, P = 0.02). CNFT increased with age in men (0.044 per year, P < 0.01) and women (0.046 per year, P < 0.01). Height, weight, and BMI did not influence the 5th percentile normative values for any corneal nerve parameter. This study provides robust worldwide normative reference values for corneal nerve parameters to be used in research and clinical practice in the study of diabetic and other peripheral neuropathies. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association

  5. Screening for dementia in Arabic: normative data from an elderly Lebanese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Mrad, Fadi; Chelune, Gordon; Zamrini, Edward; Tarabey, Lubna; Hayek, Maryse; Fadel, Patricia

    2017-02-23

    Prevention and treatment of dementia is a global concern that requires involvement of international samples. The purpose of this study is to develop culturally sensitive norms based on normal older Lebanese adults using multiple cognitive screening measures translated into Arabic for regional use. Participants were 164 community dwelling older Lebanese adults without cognitive complaints. They were administered the following cognitive measures in Arabic: Alzheimer's Disease 8-item questionnaire, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Mini Mental Status Exam, Modified Mini Mental Status, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Lebanese Digit Span, Cross-Linguistic Naming Test, and phonemic and semantic fluency tests. Sample characteristics and descriptive statistics for the demographically unadjusted raw scores are first presented (N = 164). Same-form test-retest reliability for each test were computed for 24 participants retested over 2-5 weeks, with reliabilities ranging from .55 to .90; Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from .34 to .93. Two sets of normative data were constructed. First, base-rates for demographically unadjusted raw scores for the 5th, 10th and 15th percentiles are presented to identify relatively rare occurring performances. Second, using standardized regression-based procedures demographically corrected normative information adjusted for age, education and sex were generated for normative interpretation. Adapting cognitive tests for use in culturally and linguistically diverse regions of the world not only requires careful translation of test instructions and materials, but construction of culturally sensitive local norms. Our normative data should allow for more accurate identification of cognitive impairment and dementia in Arabic-speaking patients, especially those living in Lebanon.

  6. Threshold concepts in prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Curriculum documents identify key concepts within learning prosthetics. Threshold concepts provide an alternative way of viewing the curriculum, focussing on the ways of thinking and practicing within prosthetics. Threshold concepts can be described as an opening to a different way of viewing a concept. This article forms part of a larger study exploring what students and staff experience as difficult in learning about prosthetics. To explore possible threshold concepts within prosthetics. Qualitative, interpretative phenomenological analysis. Data from 18 students and 8 staff at two universities with undergraduate prosthetics and orthotics programmes were generated through interviews and questionnaires. The data were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. Three possible threshold concepts arose from the data: 'how we walk', 'learning to talk' and 'considering the person'. Three potential threshold concepts in prosthetics are suggested with possible implications for prosthetics education. These possible threshold concepts involve changes in both conceptual and ontological knowledge, integrating into the persona of the individual. This integration occurs through the development of memories associated with procedural concepts that combine with disciplinary concepts. Considering the prosthetics curriculum through the lens of threshold concepts enables a focus on how students learn to become prosthetists. Clinical relevance This study provides new insights into how prosthetists learn. This has implications for curriculum design in prosthetics education.

  7. The Yamaguchi fox/pigeon-imitation test, a brief cognitive performance rating tool, in a community-dwelling population: normative data for Japanese subjects – a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishioka M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Masamichi Ishioka,1 Norio Sugawara,1 Ayako Kaneda,1 Noriyuki Okubo,2 Kaori Iwane,2 Ippei Takahashi,2 Norio Yasui-Furukori1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, 2Department of Social Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, JapanIntroduction: Screening tools for dementia should be valid and easy to complete and have a low psychological burden. Consistent with these principles, the Yamaguchi fox/pigeon-imitation test (YFPIT has been developed. However, there is little information on the utility of the YFPIT for preclinical populations, although the detection of proven prodromal and preclinical states is important.Materials and methods: We recruited 392 volunteers who were at least 60 years old (139 men and 253 women and had participated in the Iwaki Health Promotion Project. The YFPIT was administered to all participants.Results: Most subjects succeeded in imitating the fox gesture regardless of their cognitive function impairment, while the success rates for the pigeon gesture were 75.3% in the normal group and 56.3% in the cognitive impairment group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PV+, and negative predictive value (PV- were 43.8%, 75.3%, 7.0%, and 97.0%, respectively. The greatest significant difference between the imitation of the pigeon gesture and cognitive impairment was found in females with subjective memory impairments (P=0.001. In that group, the sensitivity, specificity, PV+, and PV- were 100%, 81.9%, 18.8%, and 100%, respectively.Conclusion: This study suggests that the utility of the YFPIT is limited in the general population, but that it is a useful tool in females with subjective memory impairments in a community-dwelling population.Keywords: dementia, gesture imitation, brief screening

  8. Existentialist Freedom, Distorted Normativity, and Emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Baiasu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Usually associated with a view of freedom as absolute, Sartre’s philosophy seems particularly able to account for the indeterminacy that we experience today in most areas of human experience that have a normative dimension. Without denying that this is a plausible reading, it will be argued here that it is nevertheless a problematic interpretation. On this reading, existentialism seems unable to account for the fact that we are powerfully conditioned by a significant number of factors, which limit our freedom and, in certain situations, make emancipation a normative requirement. It is held here that this problem can be addressed and a less problematic interpretation of Sartre can be defended, once we start to acknowledge that in Sartre we have a variety of notions of freedom that can provide a robust account of our freedom, of authentic choice and of responsibility. Habitualmente asociada a una visión de la libertad como un concepto absoluto, la filosofía de Sartre parece especialmente capaz de representar la indeterminación que experimentamos hoy en día en la mayoría de las áreas de la experiencia humana que tienen una dimensión normativa. Sin negar que ésta es una lectura convincente, no obstante, se va a argumentar que es una interpretación problemática. Con esta lectura parece que el existencialismo es incapaz de representar el hecho de que estamos fuertemente condicionados por un número importante de factores que limitan nuestra libertad y, en algunas situaciones, hacen de la emancipación una necesidad normativa. En este artículo se defiende que se puede abordar este problema, y se puede defender una interpretación de Sartre menos problemática, una vez empecemos a reconocer que en Sartre se pueden encontrar una variedad de nociones de libertad que permiten ofrecer una explicación sólida de nuestra libertad, de elección auténtica y de responsabilidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2622045

  9. Non-verbal memory measured by Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure B: normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, Simona; Pesallaccia, Martina; Fabi, Katia; Muti, Marco; Viticchi, Giovanna; Provinciali, Leandro; Piccirilli, Massimo

    2011-12-01

    One of the major problems that clinical neuropsychology has had in memory clinics is to apply ecological, easily administrable and sensitive tests that can make the diagnosis of dementia both precocious and reliable. Often the choice of the best neuropsychological test is hard because of a number of variables that can influence a subject's performance. In this regard, tests originally devised to investigate cognitive functions in healthy adults are not often appropriate to analyze cognitive performance in old subjects with low education because of their intrinsically complex nature. In the present paper, we present normative values for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure B Test (ROCF-B) a simple test that explores constructional praxis and visuospatial memory. We collected normative data of copy, immediate and delayed recall of the ROCF-B in a group of 346 normal Italian subjects above 40 years. A multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential effect of age, sex, and education on the three tasks administered to the subjects. Age and education had a significant effect on copying, immediate recall, and delayed recall as well as on the rate of forgetting. Correction grids and equivalent scores with cut-off values relative to each task are available. The availability of normative values can make the ROCF-B a valid instrument to assess non-verbal memory in adults and in the elderly for whom the commonly used ROCF-A is too demanding.

  10. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod

    2006-01-01

    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  11. Threshold concepts in prosthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Curriculum documents identify key concepts within learning prosthetics. Threshold concepts provide an alternative way of viewing the curriculum, focussing on the ways of thinking and practicing within prosthetics. Threshold concepts can be described as an opening to a different way of viewing a concept. This article forms part of a larger study exploring what students and staff experience as difficult in learning about prosthetics. Objectives: To explore possible thresh...

  12. Normative data of cortical excitability measurements obtained by transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Ana Sofia; Galhardoni, Ricardo; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Parravano, Daniella Cardoso; Correa, Guilherme; Araujo, Haniel; Cecilio, Sofia Barros; Raicher, Irina; Toledo, Diego; Silva, Valquíria; Marcolin, Marco Antonio; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of cortical excitability (CE) measurements has been increasingly used in neuropsychiatric research. However, there is scant information on the normative values of these measurements, as well as the possible effect of hemisphere laterality, gender and age on these variables. To obtain normative data for CE measurements by transcranial magnetic stimulation, to assess inter-/intra-investigator variability and the influence of sex, age and oral contraception use. A sample of 216 healthy volunteers matched according to age and gender was evaluated. Bilateral rest motor thresholds, motor evoked potentials (MEP), intracortical inhibition and facilitation were measured in the first dorsal interosseous muscle area representation of the primary motor cortex with a circular transcranial magnetic stimulation coil delivering biphasic pulses. Normative data were obtained for 200 participants (in a 1:1 male:female ratio) in a balanced proportion between five age groups (18-30; 31-40; 41-50; 51-60; >60 years). Inter/intra-investigator variability was assessed in 20 healthy volunteers in two sessions performed within a 30-minute interval. Measurements were also performed in a subgroup of 16 healthy female volunteers, using oral contraception and during the menstrual phase. Age had a dichotomous effect on CE measurements, providing significantly different normative data for subjects 50 years old, with smaller MEP's and intracortical inhibition in older individuals. There were no differences between genders or between left and right hemispheres. Also, CE parameters did not significantly differ with use of contraceptive treatment compared to the menstrual phase of the cycle. The inter-/intra-investigator reliability assessment showed some variability that may not be clinically significant. Age had a non-linear effect on CE. There were non-significant differences between genders, hemispheres or with use of oral contraceptives. There was good inter

  13. Normative consent and organ donation: a vindication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Ben

    2011-06-01

    In an earlier article, I argued that David Estlund's notion of 'normative consent' could provide justification for an opt-out system of organ donation that does not involve presumptions about the deceased donor's consent. Where it would be wrong of someone to refuse their consent, then the fact that they have not actually given it is irrelevant, though an explicit denial of consent (as in opting out) may still be binding. My argument has recently been criticised by Potts et al, who argue that such a policy would involve taking organs from people whose organs should not be taken and would be a recipe for totalitarianism. The present response seeks to rebut both the ethical and political objections. I argue that people can indeed be under a moral obligation to donate their organs, even if they are not technically dead at the time and their donation does not save anyone else's life. Moreover, I argue that an opt-out system-unlike mandatory donation-is not totalitarian because it preserves the right of individuals to act morally wrongly, by opting out when they have no good moral reason to do so. The policy I propose is neither immoral nor totalitarian.

  14. GOOD GOVERNANCE: NORMATIVE VS. DESCRIPTIVE DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian IFTIMOAEI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “good governance” was used for the first time in the 1989 World Bank Report – Sub-Saharan Africa: From Crisis to Sustainable Growth. A Long-Term Perspective Study – and has already made history in international studies, especially after the breakdown of the communist regimes. The governance has to do with authority, decision-making and accountability.The good governance is defined as the capacity of the government to manage a nation’s affaires, to provide economic development, welfare for citizens, and social protection for the poor. In this article,the concept of good governance is analysed according to two main dimensions: the normative dimension which comprises principles, values and norms that are guiding the international community and the governments in the management of policymaking process;the descriptive dimension which refers to the practical aspects of implementing the good governance’s standards as policies, programmes and structural reforms with the aim of solving or ameliorating the problems of developing countries.

  15. A normative ethical framework in climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, M. [Dipartimento di Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Edificio U7, via Bicocca degli Arcimboldi 8, 20126 Milan (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    The article spells out four domains of international distributive justice and the consequent criteria of equity, the purpose being to identify a pluralistic normative ethical framework for climate mitigation and adaptation strategies. Justice and equity should play a major role in favouring collective action against climate change, because the more the various dimensions of such action are just, the more any international climate initiative is feasible in principle. As far as mitigation is concerned, the definition of a just initial allocation of endowments focuses on the criterion of differentiated equality, taking account of undeserved inequalities as suggested by Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. With regard to the subsequent exchange of endowments, the Pareto principle, supplemented by the envy-freeness one, is a viable option. Possibly a sound reference for the just financing of adaptation activities is the criterion of differentiated historical responsibility, backed by Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. As regards the allocation of adaptation resources, the criterion of lack of human security, as substantiated in Sen's capability approach, seems promising.

  16. Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

  17. Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI: A Normative Database Created from Control Datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie R. de Vent

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI, datasets of several research groups are combined into a single database, containing scores on neuropsychological tests from healthy participants. For most popular neuropsychological tests the quantity and range of these data surpasses that of traditional normative data, thereby enabling more accurate neuropsychological assessment. Because of the unique structure of the database, it facilitates normative comparison methods that were not feasible before, in particular those in which entire profiles of scores are evaluated. In this article, we describe the steps that were necessary to combine the separate datasets into a single database. These steps involve matching variables from multiple datasets, removing outlying values, determining the influence of demographic variables, and finding appropriate transformations to normality. Also, a brief description of the current contents of the ANDI database is given.

  18. Is One Trial Sufficient to Obtain Excellent Pressure Pain Threshold Reliability in the Low Back of Asymptomatic Individuals? A Test-Retest Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguier, Romain; Madeleine, Pascal; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of pressure pain threshold (PPT) provides a quantitative value related to the mechanical sensitivity to pain of deep structures. Although excellent reliability of PPT has been reported in numerous anatomical locations, its absolute and relative reliability in the lower back region remains to be determined. Because of the high prevalence of low back pain in the general population and because low back pain is one of the leading causes of disability in industrialized countries, assessing pressure pain thresholds over the low back is particularly of interest. The purpose of this study study was (1) to evaluate the intra- and inter- absolute and relative reliability of PPT within 14 locations covering the low back region of asymptomatic individuals and (2) to determine the number of trial required to ensure reliable PPT measurements. Fifteen asymptomatic subjects were included in this study. PPTs were assessed among 14 anatomical locations in the low back region over two sessions separated by one hour interval. For the two sessions, three PPT assessments were performed on each location. Reliability was assessed computing intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimum detectable change (MDC) for all possible combinations between trials and sessions. Bland-Altman plots were also generated to assess potential bias in the dataset. Relative reliability for both intra- and inter- session was almost perfect with ICC ranged from 0.85 to 0.99. With respect to the intra-session, no statistical difference was reported for ICCs and SEM regardless of the conducted comparisons between trials. Conversely, for inter-session, ICCs and SEM values were significantly larger when two consecutive PPT measurements were used for data analysis. No significant difference was observed for the comparison between two consecutive measurements and three measurements. Excellent relative and absolute reliabilities were reported for both intra

  19. Is One Trial Sufficient to Obtain Excellent Pressure Pain Threshold Reliability in the Low Back of Asymptomatic Individuals? A Test-Retest Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Balaguier

    Full Text Available The assessment of pressure pain threshold (PPT provides a quantitative value related to the mechanical sensitivity to pain of deep structures. Although excellent reliability of PPT has been reported in numerous anatomical locations, its absolute and relative reliability in the lower back region remains to be determined. Because of the high prevalence of low back pain in the general population and because low back pain is one of the leading causes of disability in industrialized countries, assessing pressure pain thresholds over the low back is particularly of interest. The purpose of this study study was (1 to evaluate the intra- and inter- absolute and relative reliability of PPT within 14 locations covering the low back region of asymptomatic individuals and (2 to determine the number of trial required to ensure reliable PPT measurements. Fifteen asymptomatic subjects were included in this study. PPTs were assessed among 14 anatomical locations in the low back region over two sessions separated by one hour interval. For the two sessions, three PPT assessments were performed on each location. Reliability was assessed computing intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, standard error of measurement (SEM and minimum detectable change (MDC for all possible combinations between trials and sessions. Bland-Altman plots were also generated to assess potential bias in the dataset. Relative reliability for both intra- and inter- session was almost perfect with ICC ranged from 0.85 to 0.99. With respect to the intra-session, no statistical difference was reported for ICCs and SEM regardless of the conducted comparisons between trials. Conversely, for inter-session, ICCs and SEM values were significantly larger when two consecutive PPT measurements were used for data analysis. No significant difference was observed for the comparison between two consecutive measurements and three measurements. Excellent relative and absolute reliabilities were reported

  20. Anaerobic Threshold and Salivary α-amylase during Incremental Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Yazaki, Syouichirou; Echizenya, Yuki; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the validity of salivary α-amylase as a method of quickly estimating anaerobic threshold and to establish the relationship between salivary α-amylase and double-product breakpoint in order to create a way to adjust exercise intensity to a safe and effective range. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adults performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer. During the incremental exercise test, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and ventilatory equivalent were measured using a breath-by-breath gas analyzer. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured to calculate the double product, from which double-product breakpoint was determined. Salivary α-amylase was measured to calculate the salivary threshold. [Results] One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences among workloads at the anaerobic threshold, double-product breakpoint, and salivary threshold. Significant correlations were found between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold and between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. [Conclusion] As a method for estimating anaerobic threshold, salivary threshold was as good as or better than determination of double-product breakpoint because the correlation between anaerobic threshold and salivary threshold was higher than the correlation between anaerobic threshold and double-product breakpoint. Therefore, salivary threshold is a useful index of anaerobic threshold during an incremental workload.

  1. The European Union’s normative power in global politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    it possible to explain, understand, and judge the EU in global politics by rethinking the nature of power and actorness in a globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era. The EU uses normative power in global politics but the question is whether it is more prone than other actors to do so? In areas......How can we best understand the European Union (EU) in global politics? The most popular approaches to this question seek to answer it in a number of ways – by comparing it with other actors such states, regional organisations or international organisations – or by declaring it unique and beyond...... comparison. Both political and scholarly assessments argue that ‘we are one of the most important, if not the most important, normative powers in the world’ (Barroso in Peterson, 2008: 69) and that ‘Europe has tremendous normative power’ (Moravcsik, 2010: 18). The normative power approach set out here makes...

  2. Informational and Normative Influences in Conformity from a Neurocomputational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelch, Ulf; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-10-01

    We consider two distinct influences that drive conformity behaviour. Whereas informational influences facilitate adaptive and accurate responses, normative influences bias decisions to enhance social acceptance. We explore these influences from a perspective of perceptual and value-based decision-making models and apply these models to classical works on conformity. We argue that an informational account predicts a surprising tendency to conform. Moreover, we detail how normative influences fit into this framework and interact with social influences. Finally, we explore potential neuronal substrates for informational and normative influences based on a consideration of the neurobiological literature, highlighting conceptual shortcomings particularly with regard to a failure to segregate informational and normative influences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stimulus and transducer effects on threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, Gregory A; Geda, Kyle; McGregor, Kara D; Wyllys, Krista; Deiters, Kristy K; Murphy, William J; Stephenson, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    This study examined differences in thresholds obtained under Sennheiser HDA200 circumaural earphones using pure tone, equivalent rectangular noise bands, and 1/3 octave noise bands relative to thresholds obtained using Telephonics TDH-39P supra-aural earphones. Thresholds were obtained via each transducer and stimulus condition six times within a 10-day period. Forty-nine adults were selected from a prior study to represent low, moderate, and high threshold reliability. The results suggested that (1) only small adjustments were needed to reach equivalent TDH-39P thresholds, (2) pure-tone thresholds obtained with HDA200 circumaural earphones had reliability equal to or better than those obtained using TDH-39P earphones, (3) the reliability of noise-band thresholds improved with broader stimulus bandwidth and was either equal to or better than pure-tone thresholds, and (4) frequency-specificity declined with stimulus bandwidths greater than one equivalent rectangular band, which could complicate early detection of hearing changes that occur within a narrow frequency range. These data suggest that circumaural earphones such as the HDA200 headphones provide better reliability for audiometric testing as compared to the TDH-39P earphones. These data support the use of noise bands, preferably ERB noises, as stimuli for audiometric monitoring.

  4. Sociological foundations of normative institutionalism in political science

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Dušan

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses sociological foundations of normative institutionalism in political science. Section 1 introduces different types of institutionalism. Section 3 compares the old with the new institutionalism. Since new institutionalism is sociological in nature, section 4 links new institutionalism with social behavior. Section 5 discusses common features of all types of institutionalism. Sections 6-8 lays out main elements of normative institutionalism. Section 9 concludes by highlight...

  5. Sociological foundations of normative institutionalism in political science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dušan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses sociological foundations of normative institutionalism in political science. Section 1 introduces different types of institutionalism. Section 3 compares the old with the new institutionalism. Since new institutionalism is sociological in nature, section 4 links new institutionalism with social behavior. Section 5 discusses common features of all types of institutionalism. Sections 6-8 lays out main elements of normative institutionalism. Section 9 concludes by highlighting the relevance of new institutionalism for political science. .

  6. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between descript......The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...

  7. Distribution Characteristics of Normal Pure-Tone Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Robert H.; Wilson, Richard H.; Popelka, Gerald R.; Eikelboom, Robert H.; Swanepoel, De Wet; Saly, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the statistical properties of normal air-conduction thresholds obtained with automated and manual audiometry to test the hypothesis that thresholds are normally distributed and to examine the distributions for evidence of bias in manual testing. Design Four databases were mined for normal thresholds. One contained audiograms obtained with an automated method. The other three were obtained with manual audiometry. Frequency distributions were examined for four test frequencies (250, 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz). Study Sample The analysis is based on 317,569 threshold determinations of 80,547 subjects from four clinical databases. Results Frequency distributions of thresholds obtained with automated audiometry are normal in form. Corrected for age, the mean thresholds are within 1.5 dB of Reference Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels. Frequency distributions of thresholds obtained by manual audiometry are shifted toward higher thresholds. Two of the three datasets obtained by manual audiometry are positively skewed. Conclusions The positive shift and skew of the manual audiometry data may result from tester bias. The striking scarcity of thresholds below 0 dB HL suggests that audiologists place less importance on identifying low thresholds than they do for higher-level thresholds. We refer to this as the Good Enough Bias and suggest that it may be responsible for differences in distributions of thresholds obtained by automated and manual audiometry. PMID:25938502

  8. Normative Functional Performance Values in High School Athletes: The Functional Pre-Participation Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A; Starkel, Cambrie; Clifton, Daniel R

    2018-01-09

      The fourth edition of the Preparticipation Physical Evaluation recommends functional testing for the musculoskeletal portion of the examination; however, normative data across sex and grade level are limited.3 Establishing normative data can provide clinicians reference points with which to compare their patients, potentially aiding in the development of future injury-risk assessments and injury-mitigation programs.   To establish normative functional performance and limb-symmetry data for high school-aged male and female athletes in the United States.   Cross-sectional study.   Athletic training facilities and gymnasiums across the United States.   A total of 3951 male and female athletes who participated on high school-sponsored basketball, football, lacrosse, or soccer teams enrolled in this nationwide study.   Functional performance testing consisted of 3 evaluations. Ankle-joint range of motion, balance, and lower extremity muscular power and landing control were assessed via the weight-bearing ankle-dorsiflexion- lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and anterior single-legged hop-for-distance (SLHOP) test, respectively. We used 2-way analyses of variance and χ2 analyses to examine the effects of sex and grade level on ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and SLHOP performance and symmetry.   The SLHOP performance differed between sexes (males = 187.8% ± 33.1% of limb length, females = 157.5% ± 27.8% of limb length; t = 30.3, P performance. We observed differences for SLHOP and ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge performance between grade levels, but these differences were not clinically meaningful.   We demonstrated differences in normative data for lower extremity functional performance during preparticipation physical evaluations across sex and grade levels. The results of this study will allow clinicians to compare sex- and grade-specific functional performances and implement approaches for preventing musculoskeletal injuries

  9. The Framingham Heart Study clock drawing performance: normative data from the offspring cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyborn, Justin A; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Devine, Sherral A; Du, Yangchun; Kaplan, Edith; O'Connor, Maureen K; Rinn, William E; Denison, Helen S; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A; Au, Rhoda

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Although the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a popular tool used to assess cognitive function, limited normative data on CDT performance exist. The objective of the current study was to provide normative data on an expanded version of previous CDT scoring protocols from a large community-based sample of middle to older adults (aged 43 to 91) from the Framingham Heart Study. The CDT was administered to 1476 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants using a scoring protocol that assigned error scores to drawn features. Total error scores were computed, as well as for subscales pertaining to outline, numeral placement, time-setting, center, and "other." Higher levels of education were significantly associated with fewer errors for time-setting (Command: p numerals (Command: p numerals (Command: p system allows detection of preclinical symptoms of future risk for dementia.

  10. Cumulative lead exposure and age-related hearing loss: the VA Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Kyun; Elmarsafawy, Sahar; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S; Nie, Huiling; Weisskopf, Marc G; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2010-10-01

    Although lead has been associated with hearing loss in occupational settings and in children, little epidemiologic research has been conducted on the impact of cumulative lead exposure on age-related hearing loss in the general population. We determined whether bone lead levels, a marker of cumulative lead exposure, are associated with decreased hearing ability in 448 men from the Normative Aging Study, seen between 1962 and 1996 (2264 total observations). Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured at 0.25-8 kHz and pure-tone averages (PTA) (mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) were computed. Tibia and patella lead levels were measured using K X-ray fluorescence between 1991 and 1996. In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for potential confounders including occupational noise, patella lead levels were significantly associated with poorer hearing thresholds at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz and PTA. The odds of hearing loss significantly increased with patella lead levels. We also found significant positive associations between tibia lead and the rate change in hearing thresholds at 1, 2, and 8 kHz and PTA in longitudinal analyses. Our results suggest that chronic low-level lead exposure may be an important risk factor for age-related hearing loss and reduction of lead exposure could help prevent or delay development of age-related hearing loss.

  11. Correction and transformation of normative neurophysiological data: is there added value in the diagnosis of distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mchugh, John C

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite theoretical advantages, the practical impact of mathematical correction of normative electrodiagnostic data is poorly quantified. METHODS: One hundred five healthy volunteers had clinical and neurophysiological assessment. The effects of age, height, gender, weight, and body mass index were explored using stepwise regression modeling. Reference values were derived from raw and adjusted data, which were transformed to allow appropriate use of parametric statistics. The diagnostic accuracy of derived limits was tested in patients at risk of distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) from chemotherapy. RESULTS: The variability of our normative data was reduced by up to 69% through the use of regression modeling, but the overall benefits of mathematical correction were marginal. The most accurate reference limits were established using the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the raw data. CONCLUSIONS: Stepwise statistical regression and mathematical transformation improve the distribution of normative data, but their practical impact for diagnosis of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is small.

  12. Perspective: Uses and misuses of thresholds in diagnostic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jeremy L; Najarian, Robert M; Tierney, Lawrence M

    2010-03-01

    The concept of thresholds plays a vital role in decisions involving the initiation, continuation, and completion of diagnostic testing. Much research has focused on the development of explicit thresholds, in the form of practice guidelines and decision analyses. However, these tools are used infrequently; most medical decisions are made at the bedside, using implicit thresholds. Study of these thresholds can lead to a deeper understanding of clinical decision making. The authors examine some factors constituting individual clinicians' implicit thresholds. They propose a model for static thresholds using the concept of situational gravity to explain why some thresholds are high, and some low. Next, they consider the hypothetical effects of incorrect placement of thresholds (miscalibration) and changes to thresholds during diagnosis (manipulation). They demonstrate these concepts using common clinical scenarios. Through analysis of miscalibration of thresholds, the authors demonstrate some common maladaptive clinical behaviors, which are nevertheless internally consistent. They then explain how manipulation of thresholds gives rise to common cognitive heuristics including premature closure and anchoring. They also discuss the case where no threshold has been exceeded despite exhaustive collection of data, which commonly leads to application of the availability or representativeness heuristics. Awareness of implicit thresholds allows for a more effective understanding of the processes of medical decision making and, possibly, to the avoidance of detrimental heuristics and their associated medical errors. Research toward accurately defining these thresholds for individual physicians and toward determining their dynamic properties during the diagnostic process may yield valuable insights.

  13. AULA-Advanced Virtual Reality Tool for the Assessment of Attention: Normative Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Yahaira; Diaz-Orueta, Unai; Cueto, Eduardo; Irazustabarrena, Paula; Banterla, Flavio; Climent, Gema

    2016-06-01

    The present study describes the obtention of normative data for the AULA test, a virtual reality tool designed to evaluate attention problems, especially in children and adolescents. The normative sample comprised 1,272 participants (48.2% female) with an age range from 6 to 16 years (M = 10.25, SD = 2.83). The AULA test administered to them shows both visual and auditory stimuli, while randomized distractors of ecological nature appear progressively. Variables provided by AULA were clustered in different categories for their posterior analysis. Differences by age and gender were analyzed, resulting in 14 groups, 7 per sex group. Differences between visual and auditory attention were also obtained. Obtained normative data are relevant for the use of AULA for evaluating attention in Spanish children and adolescents in a more ecological way. Further studies will be needed to determine sensitivity and specificity of AULA to measure attention in different clinical populations. (J. of Att. Dis. 2016; 20(6) 542-568). © The Author(s) 2012.

  14. Eye-tracking measurements and their link to a normative model of monitoring behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, Catrin; Bruder, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Increasing automation necessitates operators monitoring appropriately (OMA) and raises the question of how to identify them in future selections. A normative model was developed providing criteria for the identification of OMA. According to this model, the monitoring process comprises distinct monitoring phases (orientation, anticipation, detection and recheck) in which attention should be focused on relevant areas. The current study tests the normative model on the basis of eye tracking. The eye-tracking data revealed increased concentration on relevant areas during the orientation and anticipation phase in comparison to the other phases. For the assessment of monitoring behaviour in the context of personnel selection, this implies that the anticipation and orientation phases should be considered separately as they appear to be more important in the context of monitoring than the other phases. A normative model was developed for the assessment of monitoring behaviour. Using the eye-tracking method, this model was tested with applicants for an Air Traffic Controller training programme. The results are relevant for the future selection of human operators, who will have to monitor highly automated systems.

  15. Normative data of F-wave measures in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hua; Lin, Jinxi; Chen, Na; Jian, Fan; Zhang, Zaiqiang; Ding, Zeyu; Wang, Yongjun; Nobrega, João Antonio Maciel; Kohara, Nobuo; Cui, Liying; Kimura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    To establish normal ranges of F-wave measures in China as compared to published data in Brazil and Japan. We studied F waves in 127 healthy Chinese subjects, aged 21-78 years old, stimulating the median, ulnar, tibial and peroneal nerves distally and proximaly. The F-wave latencies had a linear correlation to the subject height in all nerves tested, showing a steeper (P China and Japan for the tibial nerve. The Chinese population also had a higher distally elicited F-wave persistence and faster F wave conduction velocities than previously reported for both ulnar and tibial nerves. These values showed significant difference (P Japan. F-wave latencies show a linear correlation to subject height, although the slope of regression lines varies among countries, reflecting the difference in F-wave persistence and F-wave conduction velocity. Our study provides a rational for the use of a latency-height nomogram in clinical studies and underscores the importance of developing country specific normative data. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. To the Problem of Normative Data in Pathopsychological Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultanova A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the question of the actuality level of normative data. This kind of data is necessary to compare the results of experimental studies with it, according to the traditions of Russian psychology. It can be assumed that the social changes that took place in the last decades should reflect on the process of forming of thinking and other mental functions. A pilot study for identifying the features of performing of classical pathopsychological techniques by healthy subjects was conducted. The study involved mentally healthy and socially adapted people of 20-39 years old, graduated or undergraduated. We used next several techniques: "Classification of objects", "Pictogram", filling in words missed in the text (Ebbinghaus test, "Interpretation of proverbs". The results of the experiment made it possible to identify two areas in which the changes were most significant. These spheres are emotional-motivational (personality and thinking. Many subjects were characterized by: a wary-anxious attitude to the experiment, increased emotional - personal attitude to the stimuli material, a decrease in criticality to the results of their activities, neurodynamic disorders, inconsistency of thinking, versatility of thinking, a tendency to resonate, self-centered thinking (according to the authors these features are manifested in the form of "pathopsychology of everyday life" in everyday lifestyle. It is necessary to conduct special large-scale scientific research devoted to this problem.

  17. Normative data for passive ankle plantarflexion--dorsiflexion flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, A M; Crosbie, J; Adams, R

    2001-07-01

    To describe the normal distribution parameters for measures of passive ankle plantarflexion-dorsiflexion flexibility obtained from a large sample of able-bodied young adult subjects. Seven variables were assessed and descriptive analyses were conducted. While assessment of plantarflexion-dorsiflexion flexibility is an important component of a clinical examination of plantarflexion contracture, there is limited normative data available that can be used as a reference for clinical decision-making. Data were collected from 300 able-bodied male and female subjects aged between 15 and 34 years. Both ankles were measured. Load-displacement curves were collected using a manually controlled instrumented footplate. Six variables were extracted from these curves: passive torque at zero and 10 deg, passive stiffness at zero and 10 deg, and two coefficients from an equation fitted to the curve (i.e., k and b). The seventh variable, passive dorsiflexion range of motion, was quantified using a clinical procedure. Flexibility variables did not differ between the left and right ankles, nor between the dominant and non-dominant legs. All variables were normally distributed. These distributions can, therefore, be adequately described using their mean and standard deviation values. This study has substantially increased the available database on plantarflexion-dorsiflexion flexibility and forms the basis of norm-referenced clinical tests.

  18. Hadron production near threshold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Final state interaction effects in → + and → 3He reactions are explored near threshold to study the sensitivity of the cross-sections to the potential and the scattering matrix. The final state scattering wave functions between and and and 3He are described rigorously. The production is ...

  19. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  20. Can we Identify the Heart Rate Deflection Point and Rating of Perceived Exertion Threshold during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 in University Basketball Players? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymczak Conde Juan Henrique

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to identify the heart rate deflection point (HRDP and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE threshold (DmaxRPE during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1 in university basketball players. Methods. Eleven male university basketball athletes performed two incremental tests, interspersed by seven days, in a random crossover pattern: (1 the treadmill test with the initial velocity of 6 km ‧ h-1, increments of 1 km ‧ h-1 each 2 minutes, and pauses of 15 seconds between the stages; (2 the Yo-Yo IR1. Results. During the Yo-Yo IR1, the HRDP and the DmaxRPE were identified only in six and seven subjects, respectively. In the treadmill test, the HRDP and the DmaxRPE were found in 11 and 10 individuals, respectively. Additionally, there were no differences between the velocity of occurrence of the HRDP and the DmaxRPE recognized in the treadmill test and in the Yo-Yo IR1 (p > 0.05. Conclusions. The results suggest that if the goal is to determine aerobic capacity by the HRDP and the DmaxRPE, Yo-Yo IR1 should not be used. Instead, the treadmill test is a reliable tool.

  1. International Neurocognitive Normative Study: Neurocognitive Comparison Data in Diverse Resource Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, SR; Marra, CM; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, TB; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N; La Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L.; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-01-01

    Summary ACTG A5271 collected neurocognitive normative comparison test data in 2400 at-risk HIV seronegative participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe. The participants were enrolled in strata by site (10 levels), age (2 levels), education (2 levels), and gender (2 levels). These data provide necessary normative data infrastructure for future clinical research and care in these diverse resource limited settings. Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impede research and clinical care. Here we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel, and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At 10 sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n=240), India (n=480), Malawi (n=481), Peru (n=239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n=240) and Zimbabwe (n=240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline, and 770 at six-months. Participants were enrolled in 8 strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 years and ≥ 10 years), and age (<35 years and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the six-month follow up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p<.0001). There was variation between the age, gender and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the

  2. The assessment of sensory detection thresholds on the perineum and breast compared with control body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeau, Dany; Bélanger, Marc; Beaulieu-Prévost, Dominic; Courtois, Frédérique

    2014-07-01

    Few studies explored multiple sensory detection thresholds on the perineum and breast, but these normative data may provide standards for clinical conditions such as aging, genital and breast surgeries, pathological conditions affecting the genitals, and sexual function. The aim of this study was to provide normative data on sensory detection thresholds of three sensory modalities on the perineum and breast. Thirty healthy women aged between 18 and 35 years were assessed on the perineum (clitoris, labia minora, vaginal, and anal margin), breast (lateral, areola, nipple), and control body locations (neck, forearm, abdomen) for three sensory modalities (light touch, pressure, vibration). Average detection thresholds for each body location and sensory modality and statistical comparisons between the primary genital, secondary sexual, and neutral zones were the main outcome measures. Average detection thresholds for light touch suggest that the neck, forearm, and vaginal margin are most sensitive, and areola least sensitive. No statistical difference is found between the primary and secondary sexual zones, but the secondary sexual zone is significantly more sensitive than the neutral zone. Average detection thresholds for pressure suggest that the clitoris and nipple are most sensitive, and the lateral breast and abdomen least sensitive. No statistical difference is found between the primary and secondary sexual zone, but they are both significantly more sensitive than the neutral zone. Average detection thresholds for vibration suggest that the clitoris and nipple are most sensitive. The secondary sexual zone is significantly more sensitive than the primary and neutral zone, but the latter two show no difference. The current normative data from sensory detection threshold are discussed in terms of providing standard values for research and clinical conditions. Additional analysis from breast volume, body mass index, hormonal contraception, menstrual cycle, and sexual

  3. Determining lower threshold concentrations for synergistic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Kretschmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    on synergistic interactions between the pyrethroid insecticide, alpha-cypermethrin, and one of the three azole fungicides prochloraz, propiconazole or epoxiconazole measured on Daphnia magna immobilization. Three different experimental setups were applied: A standard 48h acute toxicity test, an adapted 48h test...... of immobile organisms increased more than two-fold above what was predicted by independent action (vertical assessment). All three tests confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of a lower azole threshold concentration below which no synergistic interaction was observed. The lower threshold concentration...

  4. Color difference thresholds in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravina, Rade D; Ghinea, Razvan; Herrera, Luis J; Bona, Alvaro D; Igiel, Christopher; Linninger, Mercedes; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tashkandi, Esam; Perez, Maria del Mar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine 50:50% perceptibility threshold (PT) and 50:50% acceptability threshold (AT) of dental ceramic under simulated clinical settings. The spectral radiance of 63 monochromatic ceramic specimens was determined using a non-contact spectroradiometer. A total of 60 specimen pairs, divided into 3 sets of 20 specimen pairs (medium to light shades, medium to dark shades, and dark shades), were selected for psychophysical experiment. The coordinating center and seven research sites obtained the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals prior the beginning of the experiment. Each research site had 25 observers, divided into five groups of five observers: dentists-D, dental students-S, dental auxiliaries-A, dental technicians-T, and lay persons-L. There were 35 observers per group (five observers per group at each site ×7 sites), for a total of 175 observers. Visual color comparisons were performed using a viewing booth. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy approximation was used for fitting the data points. The 50:50% PT and 50:50% AT were determined in CIELAB and CIEDE2000. The t-test was used to evaluate the statistical significance in thresholds differences. The CIELAB 50:50% PT was ΔEab  = 1.2, whereas 50:50% AT was ΔEab  = 2.7. Corresponding CIEDE2000 (ΔE00 ) values were 0.8 and 1.8, respectively. 50:50% PT by the observer group revealed differences among groups D, A, T, and L as compared with 50:50% PT for all observers. The 50:50% AT for all observers was statistically different than 50:50% AT in groups T and L. A 50:50% perceptibility and ATs were significantly different. The same is true for differences between two color difference formulas ΔE00 /ΔEab . Observer groups and sites showed high level of statistical difference in all thresholds. Visual color difference thresholds can serve as a quality control tool to guide the selection of esthetic dental materials, evaluate clinical performance, and

  5. Stroke rehabilitation reaches a threshold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol E Han

    2008-08-01

    spontaneous use. Below this threshold, motor training is "in vain": there is little spontaneous arm use after training, the model exhibits learned nonuse, and compensatory movements with the less affected hand are reinforced. By exploring the nonlinear dynamics of stroke recovery using a biologically plausible neural model that accounts for reversal of the loss of motor cortex representation following rehabilitation or the lack thereof, respectively, we can explain previously hard to reconcile data on spontaneous arm use in stroke recovery. Further, our threshold prediction could be tested with an adaptive train-wait-train paradigm: if spontaneous arm use has increased in the "wait" period, then the threshold has been reached, and rehabilitation can be stopped. If spontaneous arm use is still low or has decreased, then another bout of rehabilitation is to be provided.

  6. Evaluation of Cognitive Functions through the Systemic Lisbon Battery: Normative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, P; Oliveira, J; Brito, R; Lopes, P; Rodelo, L; Pinto, L; Morais, D

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Methodologies, Models and Algorithms for Patients Rehabilitation". ICT is an emerging alternative to paper-and-pencil tests for the assessment of cognitive functions, allowing for the monitoring of participants' behavior while they perform simulations of instrumental activities of daily life (IADLs) in a virtual reality (VR) scenario. This requires normative values for each VR task, so that deviations to normality can be identified as indicators of cognitive impairment. To identify normative data for several IADL tasks that are available on the Systemic Lisbon Battery (SLB). Fifty-nine participants performed a series of VR tasks that require the use of the memory and executive function dimensions of cognitive functionality. Normative data for the different subsets and total score of the SLB, based on proportion of correct hits per execution time, were identified. Age and experience with video games affect (respectively, negatively and positively) performance on the SLB and should be taken into account in assessment; on the other hand, gender and education do not. Overall results suggest that the SLB may be useful to assess cognitive functioning during the execution of activities of daily living, but larger studies and with clinical samples are needed.

  7. Can auscultatory blood pressure normative values be used for evaluation of oscillometric blood pressure in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuláková, Terezie; Šuláková, Astrida; Strnadel, Jiří; Pavlíček, Jan; Obermannová, Barbora; Feber, Janusz

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze whether auscultatory normative values (Fourth Task Force [4TF]) can be applied to blood pressure (BP) obtained by oscillometric devices. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of oscillometric office BP and ambulatory BP monitoring in 229 children (116 boys), median age 15.31 years. Office systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) values were converted into Z scores using 4TF and oscillometric (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescent [KiGGS]) reference values. There was good correlation between the two normative methods (r=0.9773 for SBP, r=0.9627 for DBP). Results from Bland-Altman test revealed only minimal differences in Z scores between 4TF and KiGGS for SBP, but a significant proportional error for DBP. 4TF and KiGGS Z scores were equally predictive of ambulatory hypertension. In conclusion, auscultatory and oscillometric normative data are interchangeable for SBP but not for DBP. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Normative need for orthodontic treatment and perception of the need for such treatment among Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karla de Almeida Pinto Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the normative need for orthodontic treatment and the perception of such need among students aged 11-14 years. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 346 students, randomly selected from public and private schools. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI was used to evaluate the normative need for orthodontic treatment (NNOT. The perceived need for treatment among students was assessed by a previously validated questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Pearson’s Chi-squared test (α = 5%. Results: The prevalence of malocclusion and NNOT was 65.6%. Of the sample, 73.7% felt they needed treatment, 66.2% wanted orthodontic treatment and 62.7% were satisfied with their dental aesthetics. A statistically significant association was observed between NNOT and the perception of the need for treatment among the students (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a high prevalence of malocclusion, which was reflected in the high normative need for orthodontic treatment. The opinion of patients regarding their expectations of orthodontic treatment should be valued. The students perceived a need for orthodontic treatment.

  9. Bystanders' responses to offline bullying and cyberbullying: The role of empathy and normative beliefs about aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machackova, Hana; Pfetsch, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Cyberbullying often takes place with the virtual presence or knowledge of bystanders. While we have some evidence about the determinants of bystanders' responses to offline bullying, we lack empirical studies concerning the variables that influence bystanders' responses to cyberbullying. The current study examines bystanders' responses to offline bullying and cyberbullying incidents. Two types of responses were captured: support toward the victims and the reinforcement of bullies' actions. Using data from 321 German adolescents (ages 12-18; M = 14.99; 44% girls), the association between bystanders' responses and normative beliefs about verbal aggression and cyberaggression, and affective and cognitive empathy, were tested in a path model. Both types of normative beliefs positively predicted the reinforcement of bullies, and normative belief about verbal aggression also predicted support for the victims of offline bullying. Both types of empathy predicted support in offline bullying, but only affective empathy predicted support in cyberbullying. There was no link between affective or cognitive empathy to the reinforcement of bullies. Moreover, bystanders' tendencies to respond supportively to the victim or to reinforce the bully were rather consistent in both cyber- and offline bullying, but there was no link between support and reinforcement. The findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention and intervention efforts. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The MMPI-2: a contemporary normative study of midwestern family medicine outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colligan, Robert C; Rasmussen, Norman H; Agerter, David C; Offord, Kenneth P; Malinchoc, Michael; O'Byrne, Megan M; Benson, Joanne T

    2008-06-01

    For more than 60 years it has been known that profiles from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), obtained from medical patients, are elevated when scores are plotted using general population norms. These elevations have been most apparent on the neurotic triad (NTd), the first 3 clinical scales on the MMPI profile. More than 45 years have passed since a nonreferred, normative sample of MMPIs was established from 50,000 consecutive medical outpatients. We present comparable but contemporary normative data for the revised MMPI (MMPI-2) based on a nonreferred sample of 1,243 family medicine outpatients (590 women; 653 men). As true for the original MMPI, contemporary medical outpatients have profiles that are significantly different, clinically and statistically, from the general population norms for the MMPI-2. This is particularly evident in elevations on the NTd. New normative tables of uniform medical T (UMT) scores were developed following the procedures used to create the uniform T scores for the MMPI-2. Measures of internal consistency are reported; test-retest reliability was established over a mean of 3.7 weeks, and results characterizing the stability of the validity and clinical scales are presented.

  11. New Normative Standards of Conditional Reasoning and the Dual-Source Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik eSingmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning towards Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998 for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer & Kleiter, 2005, 2010 exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer, Beller, & Hütter, 2010 is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task.

  12. Hadron production near threshold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Final state interaction effects in pp → pΛK+ and pd → 3He η reactions are explored near threshold to study the sensitivity of the cross-sections to the pΛ potential and the ηN scattering matrix. The final state scattering wave functions between Λ and p and η and 3He are described rigorously. The Λ production is ...

  13. Physical Discipline and Children's Adjustment: Cultural Normativeness as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Palmérus, Kerstin; Bacchini, Dario; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Zelli, Arnaldo; Tapanya, Sombat; Chaudhary, Nandita; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Manke, Beth; Quinn, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 336 mother – child dyads (children's ages ranged from 6 to 17 years; mothers' ages ranged from 20 to 59 years) in China, India, Italy, Kenya, the Philippines, and Thailand to examine whether normativeness of physical discipline moderates the link between mothers' use of physical discipline and children's adjustment. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that physical discipline was less strongly associated with adverse child outcomes in conditions of greater perceived normativeness, but physical discipline was also associated with more adverse outcomes regardless of its perceived normativeness. Countries with the lowest use of physical discipline showed the strongest association between mothers' use and children's behavior problems, but in all countries higher use of physical discipline was associated with more aggression and anxiety. PMID:16274437

  14. RECASTING THE NATURALISM–NORMATIVITY DEBATE: NEUROSCIENCE, NEUROPHILOSOPHY, NEUROETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nythamar de Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Assuming that there is a "neuroscientific turn" in moral philosophy, I will be discussing in this paper how neurophilosophy could shed light on the normative problems raised by a naturalistic project of ethical and social research, particularly related to the question of the articulation between the biological evolution of human species and the social and historical evolution of society and social groups. Taking a critical approach to naturalism and normative theories, I argue that there is a neurophenomenological deficit in naturalism (particularly in the versions of naturalism that follow the program of a naturalized epistemology and in the normative theories (particularly in the critical theory and I put forward a version of social constructivism that combines the neuroscientific and neurophilosophical models of Antonio Damasio and Jesse Prinz.

  15. Normative arguments from experts and peers reduce delay discounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Senecal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available When making decisions that involve tradeoffs between the quality and timing of desirable outcomes, people consistently discount the value of future outcomes. A puzzling finding regarding such decisions is the extremely high rate at which people discount future monetary outcomes. Most economists would argue that decision-makers should turn down only rates of return that are lower than those available to them elsewhere. Yet the vast majority of studies find discount rates that are significantly higher than market interest rates (Frederick et al., 2002. Here we ask whether a lack of knowledge about the normative strategy can explain high discount rates. In an initial experiment, nearly half of subjects did not spontaneously cite elements of the normative strategy when asked how people should make intertemporal monetary decisions. In two follow-up experiments, after subjects read a ``financial guide'' detailing the normative strategy, discount rates declined by up to 85%, but were still higher than market interest rates. This decline persisted, though attenuated, for at least one month. In a final experiment, peer-generated advice influenced discount rates in a similar manner to ``expert'' advice, and arguments focusing on normative considerations were at least as effective as others. These studies show that part of the explanation for high discount rates is a lack of knowledge regarding the normative strategy, and they quantify how much discount rates are reduced in response to normative arguments. Given the high level of discounting that remains, however, there are other contributing factors to high discount rates that remain to be quantified.

  16. Normative arguments from experts and peers reduce delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senecal, Nicole; Wang, Teresa; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kable, Joseph W

    2012-09-01

    When making decisions that involve tradeoffs between the quality and timing of desirable outcomes, people consistently discount the value of future outcomes. A puzzling finding regarding such decisions is the extremely high rate at which people discount future monetary outcomes. Most economists would argue that decision-makers should only turn down rates of return that are lower than those available to them elsewhere. Yet the vast majority of studies find discount rates that are significantly higher than market interest rates (Frederick et al., 2002). Here we ask whether a lack of knowledge about the normative strategy can explain high discount rates. In an initial experiment, we find that nearly half of subjects do not spontaneously cite elements of the normative strategy when asked how people should make intertemporal monetary decisions. In two follow-up experiments, we find that after subjects read a "financial guide" detailing the normative strategy, discount rates declined by up to 85%, but were still higher than market interest rates. This decline persisted, though attenuated, for at least one month. In a final experiment, we find that peer-generated advice influences discount rates in a similar manner to "expert" advice, and that arguments focusing on normative considerations are at least as effective as others. These studies show that part of the explanation for high discount rates is a lack of knowledge regarding the normative strategy, and quantify how much discount rates are reduced in response to normative arguments. Given the high level of discounting that remains, however, there are other contributing factors to high discount rates that remain to be quantified.

  17. Normative values of eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Ramskov; Pedersen, Mette Broen; Kastrup, Kristrian

    2014-01-01

    normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. METHODS: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. The demographic variables...... associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength from a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. Based on the results from the regression model, a regression equation for normative hip abduction strength is presented. RESULTS: A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN MAXIMAL...

  18. The European Union's Normative Power in a more Global Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era requires a reconsideration of the nature of European Union (EU) power and actorness in a more global era. The article does this by first looking at the study of the EU in a more global era. Second, the normative power approach will be exa......The globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era requires a reconsideration of the nature of European Union (EU) power and actorness in a more global era. The article does this by first looking at the study of the EU in a more global era. Second, the normative power approach...

  19. Threshold Concepts in Research Education and Evidence of Threshold Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, Margaret; Wisker, Gina

    2009-01-01

    Most work on threshold concepts has hitherto related to discipline-specific undergraduate education, however, the idea of generic doctoral-level threshold concepts appeared to us to provide a strong and useful framework to support research learning and teaching at the graduate level. The early work regarding research-level threshold concepts is…

  20. Hidden dangers revealed by misdiagnosed diabetic neuropathy: A comparison of simple clinical tests for the screening of vibration perception threshold at primary care level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Kurt; Gatt, Alfred; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Formosa, Cynthia

    2017-10-10

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is an important complication and contributes to the morbidity of diabetes mellitus. Evidence indicates early detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy results in fewer foot ulcers and amputations. The aim of this study was to compare different screening modalities in the detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a primary care setting. A prospective non-experimental comparative multi-centre cross sectional study was conducted in various Primary Health Centres. One hundred participants living with Type 2 diabetes for at least 10 years were recruited using a convenience sampling method. The Vibratip, 128Hz tuning fork and neurothesiometer were compared in the detection of vibration perception. This study showed different results of diabetic peripheral neuropathy screening tests, even in the same group of participants. This study has shown that the percentage of participants who did not perceive vibrations was highest when using the VibraTip (28.5%). This was followed by the neurothesiometer (21%) and the 128Hz tuning fork (12%) (pneuropathy in patients with diabetes is crucial. This study demonstrates that some instruments are more sensitive to vibration perception than others. We recommend that different modalities should be used in patients with diabetes and when results do not concur, further neurological evaluation should be performed. This would significantly reduce the proportion of patients with diabetes who would be falsely identified as having no peripheral neuropathy and subsequently denied the benefit of beneficial and effective secondary risk factor control. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Self-Efficacy on Healthy Eating Depends on Normative Support: a Prospective Study of Long-Haul Truck Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-08-28

    Fruit and vegetable intake (FV) is insufficient in industrialized nations and there is excess of discretionary food choices (DC; foods high in fat, sugar, and salt). Long-haul truck drivers are considered a particularly at-risk group given the limited food choices and normatively reinforced eating habits at truck rest-stops. Self-efficacy and normative support are key determinants of eating behavior yet the processes underlying their effects on behavior are not well understood. We tested the direct and interactive effects of self-efficacy and normative support on healthy eating behaviors in long-haul truck drivers in a prospective correlational study. Long-haul truck drivers (N = 82) completed an initial survey containing self-report measures of behavioral intentions, perceived normative support, and self-efficacy for their FV and DC behaviors. Participants completed a follow-up survey 1 week later in which they self-reported their FV and DC behavior. A mediated moderation analysis identified an interactive effect of self-efficacy and normative support on behavior mediated by intention for FV and DC behavior. Specifically, we confirmed a compensation effect in which self-efficacy was more likely to have an effect on FV and DC behavior through intentions in participants with low normative support. Results indicate the importance of self-efficacy in predicting FV and DC intentions and behavior in the absence of a supportive normative environment. The compensatory effect of self-efficacy beliefs on behavior through intentions when normative support is low should be confirmed using experimental methods.

  2. Regional Organizations and Responsibility to Protect: Normative Reframing or Normative Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Barqueiro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the principle of the Responsibility to Protect (RtoP by all United Nations General Assembly (UNGA member states in 2005, and its reaffirmation in dozens of United Nations Security Council (UNSC resolutions, indicate that there is a growing consensus around the world that egregious human rights violations necessitate a cooperative and decisive international response. But just as the political debates raged surrounding the precise articulation of RtoP between 2001 and 2005, so too goes the contemporary debate surrounding the implementation of RtoP. Regional divergences in RtoP implementation, in particular, have been noted by many scholars, as regional organizations implement those elements of RtoP that best suit their policy goals. This paper will apply recent scholarship on norm-lifecycles, specifically on “norm localization” to the operationalization of RtoP by regional organizations. We seek to explore regional divergences on RtoP implementation between the European Union (EU, League of Arab States (LAS, and the African Union (AU on Libya and Syria. From this assessment, three main arguments will be put forward: (1 regional organizations remain politicized, reframing RtoP in divergent ways that dilute the strength of the norm, (2 politicization of the RtoP discourse constrains regional norm localization processes, (3 politicization and reframing of RtoP inhibit regional normative change and limit the potential for timely and decisive responses to protect civilians.

  3. Glaucoma affects steady state VEP contrast thresholds before psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaegan; Rahman, Anmar M A; Sanderson, Gordon F

    2008-07-01

    Frequency doubling technology (FDT) is a recent psychophysical test for glaucoma. It measures the contrast threshold to low spatial frequency, high temporal frequency sinusoidal luminance profile bars. We wanted to confirm, with stricter controls, Vaegan and Hollow's report that contrast thresholds of steady state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) to a stimulus resembling the central field of the FDT test was more sensitive to glaucoma than the subjective threshold to the same stimulus and to start to optimize the technique. A double masked trial using 57 eyes of 42 subjects. Both thresholds were estimated by modified binary search. In psychophysical testing, subjects were given a two alternative forced choice task. In ssVEP testing a significant signal in any one of eight channels was deemed to be a detection. In some subjects electrode positions were compared, both eyes were tested, tests were repeated to estimate reliability, stimulus frequencies were varied or full contrast functions were obtained. Thresholds and percent abnormal increased as a function of glaucoma severity for ssVEPs but not for psychophysics. Both threshold measures were reliable. Interocular correlations were low. SsVEP amplitude against contrast functions had similar thresholds to those found by modified binary search. The data was too irregular for individual thresholds to be estimated from a fitted exponential. Amplitudes were greatest at 7 to 10 Hz, psychophysical thresholds at 18.29 Hz, when formal controls were used, as they had in a less controlled previous study at 7.14 Hz.

  4. Lowering the CUORE energy threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copello, S.; Alduino, C.; Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T., III.; Azzolini, O.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Branca, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; D'Addabbo, A.; Dafinei, I.; Davis, C. J.; Dell'Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gladstone, L.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Leder, A.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maino, M.; Marini, L.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P. J.; Napolitano, T.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, c. C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Singh, V.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.

    2017-09-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale double beta decay experiment based on TeO2 cryogenic bolometers and is currently in the last construction stage at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS). Its primary goal is to observe neutrino-less double beta decay of 130Te, however thanks to the ultra-low background and large projected exposure it could also be suitable for other rare event searches, as the detection of solar axions, neutrinos from type II supernovae or direct detection of dark matter. The sensitivity for these searches will depend on the performance achieved at the low energy threshold. For this reason a trigger algorithm based on continuous data filtering has been developed which will allow lowering the threshold down to the few keV region. The new trigger has been tested in CUORE-0, a single-tower CUORE prototype consisting of 52 TeO2 bolometers and recently concluded, and here we present the results in terms of trigger efficiency, data selection and low-energy calibration.

  5. Toward a Practical and Normative Ethics for Librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Just about everything that librarians do as professionals carries ethical implications. Matters of intellectual freedom are most commonly recognized as loci for ethics-based decision making, but the totality of individual and collective conduct is in need of practical, normative ethical structure. What is argued for here is a framework founded on…

  6. Motivating a Productive Discussion of Normative Issues through Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a way of using in-class debates to discuss contentious issues and help students develop critical thinking skills. Three elements were incorporated into an undergraduate public finance course: a presentation of ethical approaches in order to formally discuss normative issues, class debates which required…

  7. Normative values of eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, D; Pedersen, M B; Kastrup, K

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish norma...

  8. Normative ultrasound values of renal parenchymal thickness among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reduction in renal length was found to be an insufficient independent indicator of chronic renal disease. Objective: To determine the ultrasound normative values of renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) among adults and correlate them with age and somatometric parameters. Methods: This was a prospective ...

  9. Existentialist Voluntarism as a Source of Normativity | Cohen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I defend a neo-Kantian view wherein we are capable of being completely autonomous and impartial and argue that this ability can ground normativity. As this view includes an existentialist conception of the self, I defend radical choice, a primary component of that conception, against arguments many take to be definitive.

  10. The normative study of acoustic parameters in normal Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yehia A. Abo-Ras

    2013-03-21

    Mar 21, 2013 ... Abstract The study of normative data of childhood voice is very important to aid in the identifi- cation of pathological voices in this age group. Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish a database of the normal acoustic parameters in children aged 4–12 years. Methods: The study was carried out at ...

  11. The normative study of acoustic parameters in normal Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of normative data of childhood voice is very important to aid in the identification of pathological voices in this age group. Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish a database of the normal acoustic parameters in children aged 4–12 years. Methods: The study was carried out at the Unit of Phoniatrics, ...

  12. Normative ultrasound values of renal parenchymal thickness among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excretory urography7, computed tomography8, and ultrasound9 have been used for the development of normative standards of RPT in children. Both excretory urography and CT techniques use ionizing radiation in contrast to ultrasound which can be performed beside and is readily available. Renal parenchymal thickness.

  13. Normative Development of Physical Aggression from 8 to 26 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naerde, Ane; Ogden, Terje; Janson, Harald; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the normative use and developmental course of physical aggression (PA), defined as use of physical force such as hitting, biting, and kicking, from 8 to 26 months and predictors thereof. We used data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study, comprising 1,159 children (559 girls and 600 boys). Both mothers and…

  14. Normative Behavior of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyeva, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents, organizing their behavior in the space of school should take into account the system of rules existing in the institution. The development of normative behavior allows the teenager to understand their inner world and people around them. Failure to understand the regulatory requirements reduces the possibilities of social adaptation of…

  15. Childhood dental fear in the Netherlands: prevalence and normative data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berge, M.; Hoogstraten, J.; Prins, P.J.M.; Veerkamp, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present normative data on dental fear for the Dutch child population, by identifying not only highly fearful children but also children at risk for developing this high dental fear. METHODS: Fear distribution of samples of high and low fearful children was studied,

  16. Actors, actions, and initiative in normative system specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Meyer, J.-J.Ch.

    1993-01-01

    The logic of norms, called deontic logic, has been used to specify normative constraints for information systems. For example, one can specify in deontic logic the constraints that a book borrowed from a library should be returned within three weeks, and that if it is not returned, the library

  17. Autism and normative sexual development : A narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanweesenbeeck, I.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and objectives To explore the existing knowledge on sexuality and autism spectrum disorders. To this end, the concept of normative sexual development was used as an organising framework. Background Sexual health can be seen as a developmental task for all children, adolescents and adults. Core

  18. Autism and normative sexual development: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; van Nieuwenhuizen, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To explore the existing knowledge on sexuality and autism spectrum disorders. To this end, the concept of normative sexual development was used as an organising framework. Background: Sexual health can be seen as a developmental task for all children, adolescents and adults.

  19. The Normative Basis for Decision on the Merits in Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the extent of party autonomy in determining the norms that apply to the substance of a commercial dispute in arbitration. Particularly, it analyses 'principles of law,' the normative basis for arbitration under Ethiopian law. The article further explores whether parties to arbitration are at liberty to mandate ...

  20. Normative standards for wildlife viewing in parks and protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Anderson; Robert Manning; William Valliere; Jeffrey. Hallo

    2010-01-01

    With increasing public interest in wildlife watching, there is a need to develop methods to inform the management of high-quality viewing opportunities. In this study, normative methods using indicators and standards of quality were applied at a national park in Alaska and a wildlife refuge in New Hampshire. Four potential indicators of quality are identified that can...

  1. Identities of the political theory: among science, normativity and history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present a brief overview of the evolving debates on the problem of the identity of political theory, mainly in the Anglophone academic context since the end of the 1950’s. At least three ways of identifying the nature of political theory have shaped those de-bates: the scientistic, the normative and the historical.

  2. Normative data on mental and motor development in Nigerian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa at large, there has been heavy reliance on the “Caucasian data” in the developmental assessment of children. Hence, this study set out to establish normative data for psychomotor development on Nigerian children. Study design: One hundred and twenty eight children ...

  3. JO Famakinwa Revisiting Professor Gyekye's Critique of Normative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JO Famakinwa

    An examination of Gyekye's objections to normative cultural relativism is important because as a communitarian, he would ordinarily be expected to support the methodology traditionally favoured by communitarians. Most communitarians support socio-historical contextualism (MacIntyre 1981, 2; MacIntyre 2000, 205;.

  4. Toward a Normative Theory of Freedom of the Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dwight Wm.

    In considering the possibility of a normative theory of freedom of the press, this paper examines arguments about such freedom in the Third World and elsewhere. Some of the arguments discussed in the paper are derived from the theories of John Locke and Karl Marx; others are drawn from the concepts of divine rights, elitism, liberal democracy, and…

  5. Between Tunnel Vision and a Sliding Scale: Power, Normativity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between Tunnel Vision and a Sliding Scale: Power, Normativity and Justice in the Praxis of the International Criminal Court. Obiora Chinedu Okafor* and. Uchechukwu Ngwaba**. Abstract. This article examines the relatively extensive, liberal and increasing deployment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) as the central ...

  6. Individual and Peer Group Normative Beliefs about Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Hill, Laura G.

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational…

  7. Normative nasalance data in Ugandan english-speaking children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van Lierde; Anke Luyten; G. Galiwango; A. Hodges; T. Boudolfsen; E. D'haeseleer; H. Vermeersch

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to obtain normative nasalance values for typically developing Ugandan English-speaking children as a reference point for clinical practice and further research. METHODS: Sixty-nine typically developing Ugandan children (35 males and 34 females, 2.7-13.5 years of age)

  8. Evaluation of clinical ethics support services and its normativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schildmann, J.; Molewijk, A.C.; Benaroyo, L.; Forde, R.; Neitzke, G.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of clinical ethics support services (CESS) has attracted considerable interest in recent decades. However, few evaluation studies are explicit about normative presuppositions which underlie the goals and the research design of CESS evaluation. In this paper, we provide an account of

  9. Normative values and anthropometric determinants of lung function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    Ekanem EE. Normative values and anthropometric determinants of lung function indices in rural. Nigerian children: A pilot survey. Accepted: 15th February 2013. Oloyede IP. Department of Paediatrics,. Ekrikpo UE. Department of ..... Agaba PA, Thacher TD, Angyo. IA, Agaba EI. Peak expiratory flow rates in healthy Nigerian.

  10. Normativity II – Towards an Integral Perspective | Strauss | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basic assumption of this alternative view is found in the idea of ontic normativity which is rooted in a non-reductionist ontology. Against this broader background shortcomings in Kelsen's theory of law are briefly traced to the dialectic of the causal and non-causal, before a positive characterization of the concept of a ...

  11. A survey of evolutionary policy: normative and positive dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Kallis, G.

    2013-01-01

    We explore public policy from the perspective of evolutionary analysis. Potential entry points for developing a normative evolutionary policy theory are examined, which involves a critical examination of the related idea of "evolutionary progress". The meaning of evolutionary policy is next studied

  12. A Universal Model for the Normative Evaluation of Internet Information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with the initial premise that as the Internet has a global character, the paper will argue that the normative evaluation of digital information on the Internet necessitates an evaluative model that is itself universal and global in character (I agree, therefore, with Gorniak- Kocikowska’s

  13. Normative isokinetic peak torque values for elbow flexion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to compare the results of an isokinetic evaluation, there should be some norm or ideal set of values. The purpose of this study was to establish normative isokinetic torque values for concentric elbow flexion and extension. One hundred and ninety nine (199) healthy South African males were used as subjects.

  14. Normative and Legal Challenges to UN Peacekeeping Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, O.

    2015-01-01

    The application of law and norms in military operations is complex. This article provides an overview of legal and normative aspects in un peace operations. It will focus on key challenges to un peace operations. First, it will review un peacekeeping from the perspective of international law. After

  15. Threshold improvement and acoustic gain with hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, B E; Kasten, R N

    1976-01-01

    Aided speech reception thresholds were obtained from 20 hearing-impaired listeners with three hearing aids adjusted to confort settings, and with the aids adjusted to deliver 40 dB of acoustic gain. The aided speech reception threshold under each condition was substracted from the unaided speech reception threshold to yield a measure of threshold improvement. Threshold improvement and acoustic gain comparisons revealed that, at comfort setting, these two measures were quite similar. However, at the 40-dB gain setting, acoustic gain exceeded threshold improvement by an average of 5.6 dB. For the high-gain condition, it appeared that the threshold improvement obtained by subjects with relatively good unaided sensitivity was limited by the ambient noise in the test chamber.

  16. Nasometry normative data for young Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heijden, P.; Hobbel, H. H. F.; Van der Laan, B. F. A. M.; Korsten-Meijer, A. G. W.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S. M.

    Objective: Hypernasality is a common problem in cleft care. It should be treated before the age of six, because of the impact it can have on speech sound development in young children. An objective method of nasalance evaluation is nasometry. To decide whether a nasometer test result is normal or

  17. Political legitimacy and European monetary union: contracts, constitutionalism and the normative logic of two-level games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Richard; Weale, Albert

    2015-02-07

    The crisis of the euro area has severely tested the political authority of the European Union (EU). The crisis raises questions of normative legitimacy both because the EU is a normative order and because the construction of economic and monetary union (EMU) rested upon a theory that stressed the normative value of the depoliticization of money. However, this theory neglected the normative logic of the two-level game implicit in EMU. It also neglected the need for an impartial and publically acceptable constitutional order to acknowledge reasonable disagreements. By contrast, we contend that any reconstruction of the EU's economic constitution has to pay attention to reconciling a European monetary order with the legitimacy of member state governance. The EU requires a two-level contract to meet this standard. Member states must treat each other as equals and be representative of and accountable to their citizens on an equitable basis. These criteria entail that the EU's political legitimacy requires a form of demoi cracy that we call 'republican intergovernmentalism'. Only rules that could be acceptable as the product of a political constitution among the peoples of Europe can ultimately meet the required standards of political legitimacy. Such a political constitution could be brought about through empowering national parliaments in EU decision-making.

  18. Political legitimacy and European monetary union: contracts, constitutionalism and the normative logic of two-level games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Richard; Weale, Albert

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The crisis of the euro area has severely tested the political authority of the European Union (EU). The crisis raises questions of normative legitimacy both because the EU is a normative order and because the construction of economic and monetary union (EMU) rested upon a theory that stressed the normative value of the depoliticization of money. However, this theory neglected the normative logic of the two-level game implicit in EMU. It also neglected the need for an impartial and publically acceptable constitutional order to acknowledge reasonable disagreements. By contrast, we contend that any reconstruction of the EU's economic constitution has to pay attention to reconciling a European monetary order with the legitimacy of member state governance. The EU requires a two-level contract to meet this standard. Member states must treat each other as equals and be representative of and accountable to their citizens on an equitable basis. These criteria entail that the EU's political legitimacy requires a form of demoicracy that we call ‘republican intergovernmentalism’. Only rules that could be acceptable as the product of a political constitution among the peoples of Europe can ultimately meet the required standards of political legitimacy. Such a political constitution could be brought about through empowering national parliaments in EU decision-making. PMID:26924935

  19. 20 The Tools - 07 Threshold Concepts - Threshold Concepts: Staff perspectives (Tutor Interviews)

    OpenAIRE

    TfLN-Transforming Perspectives project

    2007-01-01

    Part of a toolkit used in the Transforming Perspectives project, looking at using 'threshold concepts' as a framework for identifying areas of conceptual difficulty in disciplinary curricula. This document gives an outline for interviewing staff to determine what they feel might be threshold concepts - are these the concepts about which students most often ask questions? Are these the concepts that students regularly score badly on in tests? Are they the concepts that you have to put most eff...

  20. Normative data for the Functional Movement Screen in male Gaelic field sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Domhnaill; O'Malley, Edwenia; Blake, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    To determine normative values for the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) in Elite and Sub-Elite male Gaelic Football and Hurling players. A cross sectional study of functional movement in Gaelic games at Elite and Sub-Elite level. Players were video recorded completing the Functional Movement Screen Tool and scored post-test. Comparisons were analysed using Mann-Whitney U tests. Field testing in team gym facility and university biomechanics laboratory. A total of 62 players were tested. This consisted of 41 Hurling, and 21 Gaelic Football players. 30 of these participants were deemed Elite and 32 were deemed Sub-Elite. The mean age of the sample was 22.15 ± 3.02 years. Functional Movement Screen (FMS). The FMS mean score for the sample was 15.56 ± 1.46. The Elite group (15.8 ± 1.58) scored higher than the Sub-Elite group (15.34 ± 1.31) but there was no significant difference between groups. This study provides normative reference values for Gaelic Players. Elite Gaelic Players perform no better than a young, active population in the FMS indicating a potential problem with the FMS as a measure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Limiar anaeróbico (V4 e frequência cardíaca de cavalos Crioulos condicionados para prova funcional Anaerobic threshold (V4 and heart rate of Crioulo horses conditioned for functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Amaral

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o limiar anaeróbico (V4 de 23 cavalos Crioulos hígidos em treinamento. Os animais selecionados foram submetidos a testes de desempenho, composto por três etapas de velocidade progressiva de 6m/s, 8m/s e 10m/s, com duração de cinco minutos cada etapa, até que fosse atingida a concentração de 4mmol/dL de lactato sanguíneo. As concentrações de lactato sanguíneo elevaram-se a partir da velocidade de exercício de 6,0m/s, sendo que 20 animais (90% atingiram 4mmol/L de lactato na velocidade entre 6 - 8m/s, com média de frequência cardíaca que variou de 121 a 140bpm. Concluiu-se que a V4 do cavalo Crioulo está entre as velocidades de 6 - 8m/s e a frequência cardíaca entre 121 - 140bpm.The anaerobic threshold (V4 while running on a track is used in many breeds to evaluate physical conditioning and to establish a training regimen, but these data have not been obtained for the Crioulo breed. This study evaluated 23 healthy Crioulo horses to determine the anaerobic threshold (V4 during training. The selected animals were subjected to a performance test on a track. The test consisted of three five minute stages with increasing speeds of 6m/s, 8 m/s and 10m/s until the blood lactate concentration reached 4mmol/dL. Blood lactate concentrations began to increase at the exercise speed of 6m/s, and 90% (n=20 of the animals reached 4mmol/dL lactate between 6-8m/s, with an average heart rate ranging from 121 to 140bpm at these speeds. Our results demonstrate that the V4 of the Crioulo horse is between 6-8m/s at a heart rate between 121 and 140bpm.

  2. Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs…

  3. Normative Beliefs, Expectancies, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students; Implications for Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnow-Kenny, Melodie D.; Wyrick, David L.; Hansen, William B.; Dyreg, Doug; Beau, Dan B.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation (1) examined interrelations among normative beliefs, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related problems, and (2) investigated whether alcohol-related expectancies mediate associations between normative beliefs and alcohol-related problems. Analyses revealed that alcohol expectancies mediate the relationship between normative beliefs…

  4. Hearing thresholds, threshold repeatability, and attenuation values for passive noise-reducing earphone enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T; Greer, A C; Magistro, D M

    1997-11-01

    Passive noise-reducing earphone enclosures contain a supra-aural earphone mounted in a plastic dome. These enclosures are used to prevent the elevation of hearing thresholds due to masking from high levels of ambient noise. This research determined normal hearing threshold levels, threshold repeatability, and attenuation values for an Audiocup, Auraldome II, AudioMate, and Madsen ME-70 enclosure. In Study I hearing thresholds were obtained for 30 normally hearing adults from 500 to 6000 Hz in four test sessions for each enclosure and a supra-aural earphone attached to a headband. The hearing thresholds and repeatability for the Audiocup and Auraldome were similar but the thresholds were higher and repeatability was poorer for the AudioMate and Madsen ME-70 compared with the supra-aural earphone. In Study II real-ear attenuation values were obtained for each enclosure using 24 normally hearing subjects. The Audiocup and Auraldome II provided less low-frequency attenuation compared with the AudioMate and Madsen ME-70. The findings were related to the coupling of the supra-aural earphone in each enclosure to the ear and the coupling of each enclosure to the head. If an enclosure is used as an alternative to a supra-aural earphone for hearing testing in high ambient noise environments, hearing thresholds and threshold repeatability should be similar to a supra-aural earphone, and the enclosures should provide adequate attenuation of ambient noise. Since none of the enclosures met all of these requirements their use is not recommended for hearing testing.

  5. Normative values and functional fitness in 60-to-69 year-old men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ferreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop normative reference of functional fitnessand an overall functional fitness index (OFFI for 60- to 69-year-old men. A total of 112 oldermen living in Florianópolis/SC and Rio Claro/SP, who had been participating in structured andsupervised physical activities on a regular basis for the past 6 months, were evaluated by theAAHPERD test battery. This battery consists of five tests that evaluate flexibility, coordination,balance and agility, muscle strength, and aerobic capacity. Percentile scores were calculated forthe raw scores obtained in each test and the sum of percentiles was used as the OFFI. The 20th,40th, 60th and 80th percentiles were taken as limits to classify the components and OFFI asvery weak, weak, fair, good, and very good, respectively. The development of normative referencemight be useful for professionals to improve the evaluation, supervision and prescriptionof physical activity to older men.

  6. Accurate reporting of adherence to inhaled therapies in adults with cystic fibrosis: methods to calculate normative adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoo ZH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhe Hui Hoo,1,2 Rachael Curley,1,2 Michael J Campbell,1 Stephen J Walters,1 Daniel Hind,3 Martin J Wildman1,2 1School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, 2Sheffield Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, 3Sheffield Clinical Trials Research Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Preventative inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis will only be effective in maintaining lung health if used appropriately. An accurate adherence index should therefore reflect treatment effectiveness, but the standard method of reporting adherence, that is, as a percentage of the agreed regimen between clinicians and people with cystic fibrosis, does not account for the appropriateness of the treatment regimen. We describe two different indices of inhaled therapy adherence for adults with cystic fibrosis which take into account effectiveness, that is, “simple” and “sophisticated” normative adherence. Methods to calculate normative adherence: Denominator adjustment involves fixing a minimum appropriate value based on the recommended therapy given a person’s characteristics. For simple normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status. For sophisticated normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status and history of pulmonary exacerbations over the previous year. Numerator adjustment involves capping the daily maximum inhaled therapy use at 100% so that medication overuse does not artificially inflate the adherence level. Three illustrative cases: Case A is an example of inhaled therapy under prescription based on Pseudomonas status resulting in lower simple normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence. Case B is an example of inhaled therapy under-prescription based on previous exacerbation history resulting in lower sophisticated normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence and simple normative adherence

  7. Chemical dispersion among Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Graham; Steele, Alison

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalts for major and minor elements suggests that the hypothesis that the coarser-grained varieties (olivine microgabbros) consist of two chemical groups is incorrect. Instead, it is found that there is a single group including vesicular, coarse-grained, and fine-grained basalts. For the entire suite, the dispersion of compositions along the olivine trend is too great to be explained by short-range unmixing of an unfractionated flow. It is suggested that the general trend for the suite is olivine separation, probably through crystal settling. The textures, mineralogical characteristics, and chemical variation of the olivine-normative basalts are shown to be consistent with a sequence of thin fractionating flows, all from a common parent.

  8. The normative structure of mathematization in systematic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Beckett; Lidgard, Scott

    2014-06-01

    We argue that the mathematization of science should be understood as a normative activity of advocating for a particular methodology with its own criteria for evaluating good research. As a case study, we examine the mathematization of taxonomic classification in systematic biology. We show how mathematization is a normative activity by contrasting its distinctive features in numerical taxonomy in the 1960s with an earlier reform advocated by Ernst Mayr starting in the 1940s. Both Mayr and the numerical taxonomists sought to formalize the work of classification, but Mayr introduced a qualitative formalism based on human judgment for determining the taxonomic rank of populations, while the numerical taxonomists introduced a quantitative formalism based on automated procedures for computing classifications. The key contrast between Mayr and the numerical taxonomists is how they conceptualized the temporal structure of the workflow of classification, specifically where they allowed meta-level discourse about difficulties in producing the classification. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Functional movement screen normative values in a young, active population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Anthony G; Davidsson, Asa; Hörman, Elvira; Sullivan, S John

    2011-06-01

    The Functional Movement Screen(TM) (FMS(TM)) is a screening instrument which evaluates selective fundamental movement patterns to determine potential injury risk. However, despite its global use, there are currently no normative values available for the FMS(TM). To establish normative values for the FMS(TM) in a population of active, healthy individuals. Secondary aims were to investigate whether performance differed between males and females, between those with and without a previous history of injury, and to establish real-time inter-rater reliability of the FMS(TM). Two hundred and nine (108 females and 101 males) physically active individuals, aged between 18 and 40 years, with no recent (screening athletes for musculoskeletal injury and performance factors.

  10. Practical Intersubjectivity and Normative Guidance: Bratman on Shared Agency

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    Roth Abraham Sesshu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an important new book on shared agency, Michael Bratman develops an account of the normative demand for the coordination of intentions amongst participants in shared agency. Bratman seeks to understand this form of normative guidance in terms of that associated with individual planning intentions. I give reasons to resist his form of reductionism. In addition, I note how Bratman’s discussion raises the interesting issue of the function or purpose of shared intention and of shared agency more generally. According to Bratman, the function of shared intention is to promote interpersonal coordination of intention and action. I suggest that power sharing amongst participants must also be included as a function of shared intention.

  11. Learning foraging thresholds for lizards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, L.A. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computer Science; Hart, W.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, D.B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-01-12

    This work gives a proof of convergence for a randomized learning algorithm that describes how anoles (lizards found in the Carribean) learn a foraging threshold distance. This model assumes that an anole will pursue a prey if and only if it is within this threshold of the anole`s perch. This learning algorithm was proposed by the biologist Roughgarden and his colleagues. They experimentally confirmed that this algorithm quickly converges to the foraging threshold that is predicted by optimal foraging theory our analysis provides an analytic confirmation that the learning algorithm converses to this optimal foraging threshold with high probability.

  12. Albania - Thresholds I and II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — From 2006 to 2011, the government of Albania (GOA) received two Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Programs totaling $29.6 million. Albania received...

  13. Using empirical research to formulate normative ethical principles in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesen, Mette; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2007-03-01

    Bioethical research has tended to focus on theoretical discussion of the principles on which the analysis of ethical issues in biomedicine should be based. But this discussion often seems remote from biomedical practice where researchers and physicians confront ethical problems. On the other hand, published empirical research on the ethical reasoning of health care professionals offer only descriptions of how physicians and nurses actually reason ethically. The question remains whether these descriptions have any normative implications for nurses and physicians? In this article, we illustrate an approach that integrates empirical research into the formulation of normative ethical principles using the moral-philosophical method of Wide Reflective Equilibrium (WRE). The research method discussed in this article was developed in connection with the project 'Bioethics in Theory and Practice'. The purpose of this project is to investigate ethical reasoning in biomedical practice in Denmark empirically. In this article, we take the research method as our point of departure, but we exclusively discuss the theoretical framework of the method, not its empirical results. We argue that the descriptive phenomenological hermeneutical method developed by Lindseth and Norberg (2004) and Pedersen (1999) can be combined with the theory of WRE to arrive at a decision procedure and thus a foundation for the formulation of normative ethical principles. This could provide health care professionals and biomedical researchers with normative principles about how to analyse, reason and act in ethically difficult situations in their practice. We also show how to use existing bioethical principles as inspiration for interpreting the empirical findings of qualitative studies. This may help researchers design their own empirical studies in the field of ethics.

  14. Educational Expenditure Needs of Large Indian States: A Normative View

    OpenAIRE

    Allen roy; B. KAMAIAH; M.Govinda Rao

    2000-01-01

    Utilizing the pooled data for 15 large Indian states spanning over six years from 1992-93 to 1997-98, this study employs panel data modes to estimate the normative (average) levels of expenditure on primary, secondary and higher education for providing the average standards of educational services. The findings of the study revel that the actual spending on educational services in low-income states is found to be lower than their 'needs'. This finding implies that the existing fiscal equaliza...

  15. Normative and Cataclysmic Career Transitions: A Nurse's Memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Gloria F

    Drawn from 54 years of experience as a nursing professional, this author gives a personal account of 2 types of career transitions: (1) normative transitions/stages, which include position changes, educational pursuits, and promotion; and (2) cataclysmic transitions, such as dismissal, bankruptcy, and mergers, that arise out of disruptive work situations that dramatically influence one's beliefs, actions, and perspective over time and ultimately shape a career. The importance of influencers throughout a career and lessons learned along the way are also explored.

  16. Demographically Corrected Normative Standards for the Spanish Language Version of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Umlauf, Anya; Marquine, Maria; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Mungas, Daniel; Gershon, Richard; Slotkin, Jerry; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Heaton, Robert K

    2016-03-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing ethnicity in the United States, yet there are limited well-validated neuropsychological tools in Spanish, and an even greater paucity of normative standards representing this population. The Spanish NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) is a novel neurocognitive screener; however, the original norms were developed combining Spanish- and English-versions of the battery. We developed normative standards for the Spanish NIHTB-CB, fully adjusting for demographic variables and based entirely on a Spanish-speaking sample. A total of 408 Spanish-speaking neurologically healthy adults (ages 18-85 years) and 496 children (ages 3-7 years) completed the NIH Toolbox norming project. We developed three types of scores: uncorrected based on the entire Spanish-speaking cohort, age-corrected, and fully demographically corrected (age, education, sex) scores for each of the seven NIHTB-CB tests and three composites (Fluid, Crystallized, Total Composites). Corrected scores were developed using polynomial regression models. Demographic factors demonstrated medium-to-large effects on uncorrected NIHTB-CB scores in a pattern that differed from that observed on the English NIHTB-CB. For example, in Spanish-speaking adults, education was more strongly associated with Fluid scores, but showed the strongest association with Crystallized scores among English-speaking adults. Demographic factors were no longer associated with fully corrected scores. The original norms were not successful in eliminating demographic effects, overestimating children's performances, and underestimating adults' performances on the Spanish NIHTB-CB. The disparate pattern of demographic associations on the Spanish versus English NIHTB-CB supports the need for distinct normative standards developed separately for each population. Fully adjusted scores presented here will aid in more accurately characterizing acquired brain dysfunction among U.S. Spanish-speakers.

  17. Normative data for critical speed and D' for high-level male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Mark; Clark, Ida E; Jamnick, Nick; Strom, Cody; Pettitt, Robert W

    2017-03-08

    The critical speed (CS) concept helps characterize the aerobic and anaerobic fitness of an athlete. Rugby players should hypothetically have modest CS values but extremely high curvature constant (D') values, yet, normative data are currently unavailable. To develop normative data of CS and D' for high-level male rugby players, a total of 30 male rugby players, were recruited from the Eastern Cape of South Africa. All subjects performed the running 3-min all-out exercise test (3 MT) using global positioning system (GPS) technology to determine CS and D'. The GPS data were used to determine the total distance and velocities performed, and to examine for pacing affects. Summary statistics of mean ± SD are provided. High total running speeds for the initial 150 s (S150s = 5.79 ± 0.59 m/s) and total distance (3 MT distance = 871.5 ± 71.9 m) were observed. A total of 13 of 30 subjects surpassed the 300 m D' value (mean D' = 288.2 ± 49.1 m). The CS of the total group was 3.87 ± 0.55 m/s. All 3MT-derived data was categorized using stanine tables that allowed for the generation of normative data to which future performances, performances across similar sporting domains and more accurate contrasts across the literature can be compared. Skewing of CS and D' was observed between forwards and backs, therefore between-group differences in neither CS nor D' were observed (p > 0.05). Comparisons with previous literature indicate male rugby players have higher CS values than female rugby players. When compared with Olympic distance runners, male rugby players have markedly higher D' values and markedly lower CS values. The 3 MT provides a useful procedure for assessing and prescribing high-intensity interval training for rugby athletes.

  18. The concept of the European Union’s normative power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savorskaya Ekaterina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, studies into a state’s foreign policy focus on the international situation and national interests of the parties. However, such approach does not completely conform to the objectives of studies into the foreign policy of the European Union – an example of unique integration of states. One of the modern approaches aimed to describe the nature of the EU as an actor in world politics is the concept of the EU’s ‘normative power’ arguing that the ‘power’ of the EU lies in the ability to change the international community’s idea of the ‘norm’. The concept of the EU’s ‘normative power’ is the focus of the article. The author describes the historical background of EU’s foreign (and to a degree, domestic policy, assuming that the policy is a ‘product’ of its time. The article examines three approaches to understanding these concepts and analyses the correlation between the ‘normative’ and ‘soft power’ as well as related contradictions. In conclusion, the author identifies prospects of studies into the сoncept of ‘normative power’ of the European Union.

  19. Normative identity construction among women diagnosed with a gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Peled, Einat; Ajzenstadt, Mimi

    2015-03-01

    Women with a gambling problem bear a negative social stigma. Based on the theory of symbolic interactionism, this study examined the construction of social identities by 17 Israeli women diagnosed with a gambling disorder. Interpretive interactionist analysis revealed how they construct their identity through correspondence with patterns of behavior that are perceived as normative, and identified 3 major themes: "I'm not actually a gambler" (the presentation of a multidimensional identity comprising other identities besides that of a gambler); "Staying normative during gambling"; and "I have changed" (reformed gamblers' presentation of themselves as having changed for the better). The findings underscore the complex dialogue behind the identity construction put forward by women with a gambling problem, their yearning to be perceived by society as normative women and to fit in despite their stigmatized behavior, and the tension they feel in society's relationship toward them. The findings also suggest that practitioners who work with women gamblers may want to pay attention to the power relations shaping identity construction in an interview setting, and look more closely at the women's awareness of the stigma they bear and the complex processes that make up their multidimensional identity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Normative nasalance data in Ugandan english-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, A; D'haeseleer, E; Hodges, A; Galiwango, G; Budolfsen, T; Vermeersch, H; Van Lierde, K

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain normative nasalance values for typically developing Ugandan English-speaking children as a reference point for clinical practice and further research. Sixty-nine typically developing Ugandan children (35 males and 34 females, 2.7-13.5 years of age) participated in the study. Nasalance scores were obtained with the Nasometer while children repeated 4 sustained sounds, 14 repeated syllables, 15 sentences (12 oral, 3 nasal) and 2 texts ('Rainbow Passage' and 'Zoo Passage'). Data were analyzed for gender and age dependence. No significant effects of age or gender on nasalance values were obtained; hence, normative values for the overall group were reported. The average nasalance scores for Ugandan English-speaking children were 17 and 64% for the oral and nasal sentences and 33 and 14% for the oronasal and oral text, respectively. The normative values are important as a reference point to assess the impact of several surgical procedures and several surgical timing strategies on speech in Uganda. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Hungers that Need Feeding: On the Normativity of Mindful Nourishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Else

    2017-08-01

    Drawing on participant observation in a 'mindful weight loss' course offered in the Netherlands, this paper explores the normative register through which mindfulness techniques cast people in relation to concerns with overeating and body weight. The women seeking out mindfulness use eating to cope with troubles in their lives and are hindered by a preoccupation with the size of their bodies. Mindfulness coaches aim to help them let go of this 'struggle with eating' by posing as the central question: 'what do I really hunger after?' The self's hungers include 'belly hunger' but also stem from mouths, hearts, heads, noses and eyes. They cannot all be fed by food. The techniques detailed in this paper focus on recognizing and disentangling one's hungers; developing self-knowledge of and a sensitivity to what 'feeds' one's life; and the way one positions oneself in relation to oneself and the world. While introducing new norms, the course configures 'goods' and 'bads' in different ways altogether, shaping the worlds people come to inhabit through engaging in self-care. In particular, the hungering body is foregrounded as the medium through which life is lived. Taking a material semiotic approach, this paper makes an intervention by articulating the normative register of nourishment in contrast to normalization. Thus, it highlights anthropologists' potential strengthening of different ways of doing normativity.

  2. Practicing vaginistic femininity: Doing bodies, enacting normative heterosexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Stelko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaginismus is a female sexual pain disorder, characterized by contractions of the pubococcygeus (PC muscle that surrounds the outer third of the vagina, which makes penetrative penile-vaginal intercourse (coitus, insertion of a finger or tampon and gynecological examinations hard or impossible, and painful for the woman. The condition is believed to be associated with negative beliefs, attitudes or experiences related to sex. Vaginismus has important social repercussions in everyday life, which acquire meaning in the context of hegemonic heterosexuality. In line with theories of performativity, heterosexuality and gender are normatively and performatively linked sets of practices, with coitus being the central practice of heterosexuality and thus defining for one’s gender. Thus, the inability of vaginistic women to perform coitus impairs their performance of normative heterogender. In this article I address gender experiences of women with primary vaginismus, by looking at social and bodily practices they engage in. In the first part of the article, I explore how women with primary vaginismus do (vaginistic heterogender. In the second part I address the practices they do in order to ‘overcome’ vaginismus, thus improving their performance of normative heterogender, and argue that these practices are gendering themselves.

  3. Normative data of frontal plane patellar alignment in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Luciana De Michelis; Ocarino, Juliana Melo; Bittencourt, Natália Franco Netto; Santos, Thiago Ribeiro Teles; Barreto, Rafael Almeida; Fonseca, Sérgio Teixeira

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to provide normative data of frontal plane patellar alignment according to McConnell and Arno angles, verify the association between theses angles and identify the presence of patellar rotation in different sports. Cross-sectional. Nine participants (18 knees) were assessed in a preliminary study to verify the intra and inter-examiner reliabilities of the patellar alignment measures. In the main study, 230 volleyball, basketball, gymnastics and soccer athletes (460 knees) were evaluated in order to obtain normative data of patellar alignment. Frontal plane patellar alignment (McConnell and Arno angles) measured in standing position by means of photogrammetry. The standardized method demonstrated intra and inter-examiner reliability coefficients varying from .85 to .98. The mean McConnell and Arno angles were 2.05° (±5.9) and 2.89° (±7.57), respectively. A low association was observed (r = .189, p angles. There was a difference in distribution of medial and lateral rotations, according to the McConnell angle, between different sports (p angles proved to be highly reliable. This made possible the establishment of normative data in a large sample of healthy athletes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Normative perceptions of alcohol-related consequences among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Emma I; Leavens, Eleanor L; Miller, Mary Beth; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-07-01

    College students in the U.S. continue to drink in hazardous ways and experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs), which often include normative components comparing personal drinking to that of similar peers, have been effective in reducing alcohol outcomes among college students. Though normative perceptions of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use have been examined in many studies, norms for alcohol-related consequences have received less attention. The current study examined self-other discrepancies (SODs) for alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants overestimated how often alcohol-related consequences are experienced by other same-sex students on campus and rated consequences as more acceptable for others to experience than themselves. No differences in SODs were found between those who did and did not report alcohol use. Future studies should examine the efficacy of PFIs that incorporate normative feedback on alcohol-related consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Standards of Ombudsman Assessment: A New Normative Concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Remac

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, an ombudsman is a traditional component of democratic legal systems. Generally, reports of the ombudsman are not legally binding. Due to this fact, the ombudsman can rely only on his own persuasiveness, on his acceptance by individuals and state institutions, on the understanding of the administration and on the accessibility and transparency of rules that underpin his reports. During investigations, ombudsmen assess whether the administration has acted in accordance with certain legal or extra-legal standards. Depending on the legal system, ombudsmen can investigate whether there is an instance of maladministration in the activities of administrative bodies, whether the administration has acted ‘properly’, whether it has acted in accordance with the law, whether administrative actions have breached the human rights of complainants or whether the actions of the administration were in accordance with anti-corruption rules etc. Regardless of the legislative standard of an ombudsman’s control, the ombudsman should consider and assess the situation described in complaints against certain criteria or against certain normative standards. A distinct set of standards which ombudsmen use during their investigation, or at least a clear statement of their assessment criteria, can increase the transparency of their procedures and the persuasiveness of their reports. Are the normative standards used by different ombudsmen the same? Do they possibly create a new normative concept? And can it possibly lead to a higher acceptance of their reports by the administration?

  6. Normative perceptions and past-year consequences as predictors of subjective evaluations and weekly drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R

    2013-11-01

    Problem drinking during the college years continues to be an important area of study. Subjective evaluations of consequences have recently been demonstrated to predict future drinking behavior; however, what predicts those evaluations is yet unknown. Social Learning Theory (SLT) provides a guiding framework in this study. Primary aims are to investigate whether individual differences in past experience with alcohol consequences and normative perceptions of alcohol consequences predict subjective evaluations (i.e., the extent to which consequences are perceived as negative, aversive, or severe) and weekly drinking behavior. We also test whether evaluations mediate the influence of past consequences and norms on weekly drinking behavior. Following a baseline assessment, participants (N = 96 regularly drinking college students, 52% female) completed ten weekly web-based surveys on previous week alcohol use, consequences, and subjective evaluations of those consequences. A series of hierarchical linear models were used to test hypotheses. Most mediational pathways were not supported - weekly level evaluations do not appear to fully explain the effect of norms or past experience on weekly level drinking behavior. However, results demonstrated that normative perceptions of and past experience with consequences were associated with both weekly drinking behavior and subjective evaluations, and evaluations remained significant predictors of alcohol use behavior after accounting for these important between-person influences. Findings support the importance placed by SLT on cognition in drinking behavior, and suggest that norms for consequences and subjective evaluations may be appropriate targets of intervention in college students. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks: normative data for elderly Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Silva Esteves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on the performance of older people on two tasks of verbal fluency and provide normative data for a Brazilian population of healthy elderly individuals with different educational levels. The initial sample included 521 individuals aged from 60 years, participating in the Program Family Health Strategy. Participants who had scores suggestive of cognitive decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination, depressive symptoms in Geriatric Depression Scale and self-reported neurological or psychiatric disorders were excluded. The final sample consisted of 218 participants in phonemic verbal fluency task (letters F, A and S and 265 participants for semantic verbal fluency task (animals. The performance in both tests was associated with age and education, but not with sex. Still, the education variable was shown to have a greater impact on scores in phonemic and semantic tests than age in both forms of evocation. The results of this study suggest the importance of providing normative data for elderly Brazilians appropriate to age and education on verbal fluency tasks.

  8. Relationship between boys' normative beliefs about aggression and their physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Si Huan; Ang, Rebecca P

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of general normative beliefs about aggression and specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression in predicting physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. Two hundred and forty-nine Grade 4 and Grade 5 boys completed the Normative Beliefs about Aggression Scale (NOBAGS) and provided self-reports on the frequency of their physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that general normative beliefs about aggression contributed significantly in predicting all three types of aggressive behaviors. When general normative beliefs about aggression were controlled for, specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression against males but not specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression against females, contributed significantly to predict physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. Implications for intervention programs are discussed.

  9. Optimal Threshold Functions for Fault Detection and Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.; Harbo, Anders La-Cour

    2003-01-01

    Fault diagnosis systems usually comprises two parts: a filtering part and a decision part, the latter typically based on threshold functions. In this paper, systematic ways to choose the threshold values are proposed. Two different test functions for the filtered signals are discussed and a method...

  10. Auricular Acupressure Can Modulate Pain Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Santoro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to investigate if auriculotherapy (AT can modulate pain threshold. In our experiments, AT consisted of placing Vaccaria seeds over the “fingers point” of one ear. Two groups of healthy volunteers were enrolled for the study. Each subject was asked to perform an autoalgometric test developed by our group on three occasions: before, 1 hour after, AT and 24 hours after AT. Participants of the first group received a 2-minute long session of AT, while participants of the second group received a 2-minute long session of sham treatment, consisting of a puncture/massage above the skin of the neck. The autoalgometric test consisted of applying an increasing pressure with the finger-tips and finger-backs of four fingers by the subjects themselves (i.e., eight sites were evaluated against a round-shaped needle for two times: until a minimum pain sensation (first time, minimal test or a maximally tolerable pain sensation (second time, maximal test. Our results showed a significant higher pain threshold in the maximal test at 24 hours after AT compared to sham treatment. This result indicates for the first time that AT can increase pain tolerability, rather than affecting the minimal pain threshold.

  11. Auricular Acupressure Can Modulate Pain Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Antonietta; Nori, Stefania Lucia; Lorusso, Letizia; Secondulfo, Carmine; Monda, Marcellino; Viggiano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate if auriculotherapy (AT) can modulate pain threshold. In our experiments, AT consisted of placing Vaccaria seeds over the "fingers point" of one ear. Two groups of healthy volunteers were enrolled for the study. Each subject was asked to perform an autoalgometric test developed by our group on three occasions: before, 1 hour after, AT and 24 hours after AT. Participants of the first group received a 2-minute long session of AT, while participants of the second group received a 2-minute long session of sham treatment, consisting of a puncture/massage above the skin of the neck. The autoalgometric test consisted of applying an increasing pressure with the finger-tips and finger-backs of four fingers by the subjects themselves (i.e., eight sites were evaluated) against a round-shaped needle for two times: until a minimum pain sensation (first time, minimal test) or a maximally tolerable pain sensation (second time, maximal test). Our results showed a significant higher pain threshold in the maximal test at 24 hours after AT compared to sham treatment. This result indicates for the first time that AT can increase pain tolerability, rather than affecting the minimal pain threshold.

  12. Percolation thresholds on elongated lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrink, S.J.; Knackstedt, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the percolation thresholds of both random and invasion percolation in two and three dimensions on elongated lattices; lattices with a geometry of L^(d−1) × nL in d dimensions, where n denotes the aspect ratio of the lattice. Scaling laws for the threshold and spanning cluster density

  13. Threshold Hypothesis: Fact or Artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Maciej; Gralewski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The threshold hypothesis (TH) assumes the existence of complex relations between creative abilities and intelligence: linear associations below 120 points of IQ and weaker or lack of associations above the threshold. However, diverse results have been obtained over the last six decades--some confirmed the hypothesis and some rejected it. In this…

  14. Threshold Concepts and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lori; Brunetti, Korey; Hofer, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    What do we teach when we teach information literacy in higher education? This paper describes a pedagogical approach to information literacy that helps instructors focus content around transformative learning thresholds. The threshold concept framework holds promise for librarians because it grounds the instructor in the big ideas and underlying…

  15. Sport concussion assessment tool-Third edition normative reference values for professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, G W; Govind, O; Tucker, R; Raftery, M

    2017-08-02

    To establish normative reference data for the SCAT3 in professional Rugby Union players. A cross sectional study in professional Rugby Union players competing in national and international professional competitions between 2015 and 2016. The SCAT3 was administered pre-season or prior to tournaments. Data was collected electronically using a custom tablet application. SCAT3 subcomponents distributions were described and normative ranges determined using percentile cut-offs for average, unusually low/high, and extremely low/high scores. The association between player characteristics and performance in SCAT3 subcomponents was also investigated in exploratory analyses. A total of 3611 professional Rugby Union players were included. The most common baseline symptom was fatigue (14%). The symptom score median (md) was 0 (interquartile range (IQR)=0-1). Symptom severity md was 0 (IQR=0-1). The md of the SAC score was 28 (IQR=26-29). The md of the MBESS was 2 (IQR=0-4). The Tandem gait md was 11.1s (IQR=10.0-12.7s). Upper limb coordination was normal in 98.4%. Younger age and lower educational level were associated with worse performance on delayed recall and reverse month sub-components of the SCAT3 (pvalues for the SCAT3 among professional Rugby Union players are provided. Baseline performance on concentration and delayed recall tests may be lower in younger athletes or in those with lower educational level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Imaginaries, biomedicine and normativity: an answer to the processes of HIV stigma and discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Martina Passerino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available HIV treatment, as a problematic concerning collective health, requires new theoretical perspectives for its analysis. Objective: to reconstruct some imaginary matrixes, that shapes HIV infection, associated to normativity processes and formation of clinical knowledge; to exhibit consequen- ces; to articulate these matrixes with discrimination and stigmatization issues implicated in the diagnosis. Materials and methods: in-depth interviews were made to young people between 18 and 35 years and health professionals dedicated to the HIV/AIDS treatment in public hospitals, inthecitiesofSantaFeandParaná(Argentina.Results:biomedicaldiscourse essentialasnorm requirement and guarantor of standardization exercise in individuals and populations from the binomial normal/pathologic affects the diagnosis appropriation and coping with the infection. Conclusion: from the results, it is possible to understand stigmatization and discrimination pro- cesses, like privileged mechanisms that mediate in the configuration of HIV normativity dis- cursive. Moreover, it is clear that the prevalent rejection in young people to undergo diagnostic test, and the difficulties in accessing health services, is a consequence of the indicated processes.

  17. Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey Questionnaire: normative data for Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burholt, Vanessa; Nash, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) is used to indicate the health status of particular populations, to help with service planning and to measure the impact of clinical and social interventions. Culture-specific data are required to calculate SF-36 norm-based scores. Currently, in the UK normative sources are nearly two decades old, Anglocentric and lack data on the older population. We draw on raw data from the Welsh Health Survey (2007) to provide population norms for the eight SF-36 dimensions for Wales and its regions. We test the SF-36 dimensions for reliability and rating scaling assumptions and construct validity. We compare the Wales' norms to those reported in existing UK sources and examine the data between countries and by region. The scale is reliable and has content validity. The relationships found between the SF-36 domains and a range of variables known to be related to health also demonstrate construct validity. There are differences in population health norms between England and Wales and between the regions of Wales. The results suggest that it is imperative that the accurate normative data provided in this paper is used in population studies in Wales to provide an indication of the health status of particular populations.

  18. Clinical assessment of countermovement jump landing kinematics in early adolescence: Sex differences and normative values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Sinéad; Boreham, Colin; Doherty, Cailbhe; Wang, Dan; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    Adolescent females have been reported to have a higher risk of non-contact knee joint injuries compared to their male counterparts, with deficiencies in neuromuscular control being purported to be the primary differentiating factor. As such, assessment of movement quality during functional screening tests in this population is warranted. Widespread implementation of such screening requires clinically accessible screening measures and normative data. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide normative data for clinical analysis of landing kinematics in early adolescent male and female athletes, with a corollary of determining whether a difference between the sexes is evident with such screening. Ninety seven male and 84 female athletes (mean age=13±1.41years) in the first year of high school participated. Each participant performed 3 countermovement jump trials. Frontal and sagittal plane knee joint angles were recorded by video cameras for both dominant and non-dominant limbs. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the effect of sex on the dependent variables. Males displayed significantly greater knee flexion prior to initial contact (Pdifferences were observed between males and females for max knee flexion (P>0.05). Early adolescent female athletes demonstrate less desirable landing biomechanics than their male peers. The first year in high school, when early adolescent females are first exposed to high school sports, may be an ideal time to assess movement quality during functional tasks and intervene with injury prevention programs if necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High-power electron beam tests of a liquid-lithium target and characterization study of (7)Li(p,n) near-threshold neutrons for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Cohen, D; Eliyahu, I; Kijel, D; Mardor, I; Silverman, I

    2014-06-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The target is intended to demonstrate liquid-lithium target capabilities to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals. The lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power >5kW generated by high-intensity proton beams, necessary for sufficient therapeutic neutron flux. In preliminary experiments liquid lithium was flown through the target loop and generated a stable jet on the concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power densities of more than 4kW/cm(2) and volumetric power density around 2MW/cm(3) at a lithium flow of ~4m/s, while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. These power densities correspond to a narrow (σ=~2mm) 1.91MeV, 3mA proton beam. A high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5MeV, 2mA) is being commissioned at the SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator. In order to determine the conditions of LiLiT proton irradiation for BNCT and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum, a characterization of near threshold (~1.91MeV) (7)Li(p,n) neutrons is in progress based on Monte-Carlo (MCNP and Geant4) simulation and on low-intensity experiments with solid LiF targets. In-phantom dosimetry measurements are performed using special designed dosimeters based on CR-39 track detectors. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chromatic-contrast threshold impairment in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregear, S J; Knowles, P J; Ripley, L G; Casswell, A G

    1997-01-01

    A prospective study was carried out to investigate acquired colour-vision deficits in diabetics using an automated, computer-controlled, cathode-ray-tube based test of chromatic contrast. Chromatic-contrast thresholds estimates were measured along both a red/ green (constant S-cone) confusion axis and a tritan (constant M/L-cone) confusion axis for 305 eyes of 305 diabetics. The diabetic data were partitioned into groups based on a clinical categorisation of retinopathy. The diabetic data were compared with both age-matched and 'lens-equated' control data obtained from a bank of 347 normal subjects. Further analysis of differences between diabetic-status groups was performed. Associations between chromatic contrast threshold estimates and age, duration of disease, and severity of both macular oedema and ischaemia were investigated. The diabetic group was found to have significantly reduced chromatic-contrast threshold estimates when compared with normal controls, even in the absence of retinopathy. This reduction in chromatic contrast was predominantly tritanopic in nature. Interestingly, no reduction in red/green chromatic-contrast threshold estimate was found in diabetics without retinopathy. The tritan deficit seen in diabetics without retinopathy was strongly correlated with duration of disease, but when adjustments were made to account for the effects of duration-dependent lens yellowing, the tritan deficit was no longer apparent. A correlation between both the severity of macular oedema and severity of ischaemia with chromatic-contrast loss was established. Acquired reductions in both red/green and tritan chromatic-contrast threshold estimates seen in diabetics are strongly correlated with the severity of retinopathy. The results provide evidence that the specific tritan deficits seen in diabetics can be explained by the effects of lens yellowing rather than by selective damage of the blue cone system as has been hypothesised by other groups. The results

  1. Normative ethics does not need a foundation: it needs more science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintelier, Katinka; Van Speybroeck, Linda; Braeckman, Johan

    2011-03-01

    The impact of science on ethics forms since long the subject of intense debate. Although there is a growing consensus that science can describe morality and explain its evolutionary origins, there is less consensus about the ability of science to provide input to the normative domain of ethics. Whereas defenders of a scientific normative ethics appeal to naturalism, its critics either see the naturalistic fallacy committed or argue that the relevance of science to normative ethics remains undemonstrated. In this paper, we argue that current scientific normative ethicists commit no fallacy, that criticisms of scientific ethics contradict each other, and that scientific insights are relevant to normative inquiries by informing ethics about the options open to the ethical debate. Moreover, when conceiving normative ethics as being a nonfoundational ethics, science can be used to evaluate every possible norm. This stands in contrast to foundational ethics in which some norms remain beyond scientific inquiry. Finally, we state that a difference in conception of normative ethics underlies the disagreement between proponents and opponents of a scientific ethics. Our argument is based on and preceded by a reconsideration of the notions naturalistic fallacy and foundational ethics. This argument differs from previous work in scientific ethics: whereas before the philosophical project of naturalizing the normative has been stressed, here we focus on concrete consequences of biological findings for normative decisions or on the day-to-day normative relevance of these scientific insights.

  2. Difference thresholds for interaural intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafter, E.R.; Dye, R.H.; Neutzel, J.M.; Aronow, H.

    1977-03-01

    In an earlier paper, we examined the distribution of binaural resolvings power by measuring threshold increments of interaural delay as a function of overall delay (E. R. Hafter and J. Demaio, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 181--187 (1975)). In the current study, similar measures were made for interaural increments of intensity. As before, the stimuli were bandpass clicks of either low (0. 1--2 kHz) or higsh (3--4 kHz) frequency. For overall interaural differences as great as 24 dB, it seems that performance was based on the interaural differences, and not on the monaural increments/decrements that are concommitant with a binaural change in level. As was the case with time, sensitivity to interaural intensity was reasonably constant across the range tested; thus unlike the case for vision, spatial resolution in the auditory system is not concentrated in the center. A simple binaural trading ratio which converts intensity to time can be shown to fit the data for low-frequency clicks quite well. However, the fit to high frequencies is so poor as to suggest that separate mechanisms were used for detecting time and intensity. Finally, a number like the binaural masking-level difference (MLD) was computed for the two kinds of clicks. Surprisingly, the MLD's for low and high frequencies were a similar 7.2 and 8.0 dB.

  3. Longitudinal changes in hearing sensitivity among men: the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echt, Katharina V; Smith, Sherri L; Burridge, Andrea Backscheider; Spiro, Avron

    2010-10-01

    Over 35 years (1962-1996), participants of the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (NAS), a study of healthy aging in men, completed up to eight audiometric assessments. This report describes the age-related hearing trajectories of screened men (n=953) aged 23 to 81 years at enrollment, estimates the typical rate of change per decade in hearing sensitivity, and compares longitudinal and cross-sectional estimates of change in hearing sensitivity. The men were followed 14 years on average. The hearing trajectories, based on a mixed-effects model analytical approach to the data, provide converging evidence that hearing loss in aging is pervasive and progressive even among men initially selected for good physical health. Typically the men accrued early losses (>25 dB HL) in hearing sensitivity at the higher frequencies beginning in the early 40s, but maintained hearing thresholds better than 25 dB HL for lower frequencies into old age. The average rate of change per year across frequencies and age was 0.69 dB. Predicted cross-sectional estimates of change in hearing sensitivity reliably approximated longitudinal trajectories, with slight misestimations in the 8th decade.

  4. Psychometric properties and normative data for the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) in high school and collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Melissa A; McCrea, Michael A; Nelson, Lindsay D

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of emotional functioning is important in sport-related concussion (SRC) management, although few standardized measures have been validated in this population, and appropriate normative data are lacking. We investigated the psychometric properties of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) in high school and collegiate athletes at risk of SRC and compiled normative data. Athletes (n = 2,031) completed the BSI-18 and other measures of concussion symptoms, cognition, and psychological functioning. A subset of healthy individuals was re-evaluated at approximately 7, 30, 45, and 165 days. Psychometric analyses of test-retest reliability, internal consistency reliability, and concurrent validity were performed. Given significant differences between sexes and education levels (high school or college student) on the BSI-18 Global Severity Index and all subscales, normative conversion tables were produced after stratifying by these variables. The BSI-18 showed good internal consistency, fair to poor test-retest reliability, and good convergent validity with other measures of emotional functioning. These data indicate that the BSI-18 may be a valuable measure of emotional state in concussed athletes and may provide unique information beyond post-concussive symptoms for research on the role of psychological factors in SRC recovery. The limited divergent validity of the BSI-18 depression and anxiety scales implies that they tap into general distress more so than specific mood or anxiety symptoms; therefore, BSI-18 scores should be not relied upon for differential diagnosis of mood and anxiety disorders. Normative data provided can be readily applied to clinical cases with high school and collegiate athletes.

  5. Preservation of the Semantic Verbal Fluency Advantage in a Large Population-Based Sample: Normative Data from the TILDA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Roisin M; Coen, Robert F; Kenny, RoseAnne; Lawlor, Brian A

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that phonemic fluency is more difficult than naming exemplars from a semantic category. Normative data in this regard are scarce, and there is considerable disagreement in the literature regarding the pattern in normal ageing and neurodegenerative conditions. Our objective was to provide normative data for semantic phonemic discrepancy scores from a large sample of older adults. A total of 5780 community-dwelling older adults were included in this prospective, longitudinal study. Discrepancy scores were calculated by subtracting phonemic fluency score from semantic fluency score for each participant. Quantile regression was used to estimate normative values stratified for age. Subjects did better on testing of semantic fluency. The average discrepancy score was 9.18±6.89 words, (range, -20 to 37; n=5780). At the fiftieth percentile, those in their fifth decade produced 10 more "animals" than "letter F" words. Subjects scored one word less per decade, with an average of seven more "animal" words produced by those in their eighth decade. Our study is the first to provide normative data and confirms that, for animal versus letter F fluency, the semantic advantage persists into later life in a population-based sample of community-dwelling older adults. Given that a majority of clinical samples have confirmed a reverse of this pattern in Alzheimer's dementia (i.e., loss of semantic advantage in Alzheimer's disease, yielding a phonemic advantage), our findings support the clinical utility of brief fluency tests and encourage further research into their use in diagnosis and prediction of progression to dementia.

  6. Runoff thresholds in derived flood frequency distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gioia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, different mechanisms may be identified as responsible of runoff generation during ordinary events or extraordinary events at the basin scale. In a simplified scheme these mechanisms may be represented by different runoff thresholds. In this context, the derived flood frequency model, based on the effect of partial contributing areas on peak flow, proposed by Iacobellis and Fiorentino (2000, was generalized by providing a new formulation of the derived distribution where two runoff components are explicitly considered. The model was tested on a group of basins in Southern Italy characterized by annual maximum flood distributions highly skewed. The application of the proposed model provided good results in terms of descriptive ability. Model parameters were also found to be well correlated with geomorphological basin descriptors. Two different threshold mechanisms, associated respectively to ordinary and extraordinary events, were identified. In fact, we found that ordinary floods are mostly due to rainfall events exceeding a threshold infiltration rate in a small source area, while the so-called outlier events, responsible of the high skewness of flood distributions, are triggered when severe rainfalls exceed a threshold storage in a large portion of the basin.

  7. Runoff thresholds in derived flood frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, A.; Iacobellis, V.; Manfreda, S.; Fiorentino, M.

    2008-12-01

    In general, different mechanisms may be identified as responsible of runoff generation during ordinary events or extraordinary events at the basin scale. In a simplified scheme these mechanisms may be represented by different runoff thresholds. In this context, the derived flood frequency model, based on the effect of partial contributing areas on peak flow, proposed by Iacobellis and Fiorentino (2000), was generalized by providing a new formulation of the derived distribution where two runoff components are explicitly considered. The model was tested on a group of basins in Southern Italy characterized by annual maximum flood distributions highly skewed. The application of the proposed model provided good results in terms of descriptive ability. Model parameters were also found to be well correlated with geomorphological basin descriptors. Two different threshold mechanisms, associated respectively to ordinary and extraordinary events, were identified. In fact, we found that ordinary floods are mostly due to rainfall events exceeding a threshold infiltration rate in a small source area, while the so-called outlier events, responsible of the high skewness of flood distributions, are triggered when severe rainfalls exceed a threshold storage in a large portion of the basin.

  8. Italian normative data for a stroke specific cognitive screening tool: the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, M; Varalta, V; Sardella, L; Capitani, D; Zoccolotti, P; Antonucci, G

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive deficits occur in most stroke patients and cognitive impairment is an important predictor of adverse long term outcome. However, current screening measures, such as the Mini Mental State Examination or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, do not provide information tuned for evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment in the early phase after stroke. The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) represents an important new development in this regard. The OCS is now available for assessment of Italian individuals and the aim of this study is to standardize the OCS on a large sample of healthy Italian participants stratified for age, gender and education level. Results confirmed the influence of these factors in several of the OCS tasks. Age-, education- and gender-adjusted norms are provided for the ten sub-tests of the test. The availability of normative data represents an important prerequite for the reliable use of OCS with stroke patients.

  9. Normative nasalance scores for Vietnamese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thai; Lehes, Lagle; Truong, Thi Thuy Hang; Hoang, Thi Van Anh; Jagomägi, Triin

    2017-10-26

    The Nasometer is increasingly being used to complement auditory perceptual assessment of nasality. Nasalance scores which are obtained from the Nasometer vary across languages. Normative nasalance scores have been established for many languages but not for the Vietnamese language. The objective of this study was to obtain the normative nasalance scores for Vietnamese-speaking children. In this study, 102 healthy Vietnamese children speaking in the central regional dialect aged from 7 to 9 years (45 boys, 57 girls; mean age = 7.5 years) at a primary school in Hue, Vietnam participated. Three speech stimuli, which were specific for the Vietnamese language, were designed: oral stimuli (19 words and 18 sentences), oro-nasal stimuli (eight sentences) and nasal stimuli (seven sentences). The children were asked to repeat these stimuli after the examiner. The Nasometer II (model 6450) was used to obtain the nasalance scores. The procedure took about 10 minutes for each child. The mean nasalance scores and the standard deviation of each stimulus were: 13.1 ± 5.8 (oral stimuli), 30.7 ± 6.6 (oro-nasal stimuli) and 56.9 ± 9.2 (nasal stimuli). No significant differences between the genders were found. The normative nasalance scores provide essential reference information for clinicians who deal with nasalance disorders, especially patients with cleft palate. The nasalance scores in this study were established for Vietnamese children speaking in the central regional dialect and can be applied to both genders.

  10. Towards a unifying basis of auditory thresholds: binaural summation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Absolute auditory threshold decreases with increasing sound duration, a phenomenon explainable by the assumptions that the sound evokes neural events whose probabilities of occurrence are proportional to the sound's amplitude raised to an exponent of about 3 and that a constant number of events are required for threshold (Heil and Neubauer, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:6151-6156, 2003). Based on this probabilistic model and on the assumption of perfect binaural summation, an equation is derived here that provides an explicit expression of the binaural threshold as a function of the two monaural thresholds, irrespective of whether they are equal or unequal, and of the exponent in the model. For exponents >0, the predicted binaural advantage is largest when the two monaural thresholds are equal and decreases towards zero as the monaural threshold difference increases. This equation is tested and the exponent derived by comparing binaural thresholds with those predicted on the basis of the two monaural thresholds for different values of the exponent. The thresholds, measured in a large sample of human subjects with equal and unequal monaural thresholds and for stimuli with different temporal envelopes, are compatible only with an exponent close to 3. An exponent of 3 predicts a binaural advantage of 2 dB when the two ears are equally sensitive. Thus, listening with two (equally sensitive) ears rather than one has the same effect on absolute threshold as doubling duration. The data suggest that perfect binaural summation occurs at threshold and that peripheral neural signals are governed by an exponent close to 3. They might also shed new light on mechanisms underlying binaural summation of loudness.

  11. The normative alterology, an efficient and helpful decision making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... ... inter- et péri-tropicales, apparaît alors comme un outil approprié d'aide à la décision de sélection. Mots clés: Altération météorique - Bilans d'altération - Altérologie normative - Convergence - Matériaux argileux. - Matériaux de construction - Céramique fine - Réfractaires - Caoutchouc - Papier - Peinture ...

  12. Life Quality Index – an empirical or a normative concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    the construction of the LQI one may ask whether the LQI is built on empirical evidence of social behavior that implies the modeled balance between the free time and the work time. Even if so, one may ask whether the invariance principle is a fact of social life or a normative principle of ethical social behavior......The Life Quality Index introduced by Nathwani, Lind and Pandey is a social indicator that by invariance serves the purpose of allocating a balanced and ethically reasonable part of the Gross Domestic Product of a country to life saving initiatives. In the attempts to understand the reasoning behind...

  13. A Normative Foundation for Equity-sensitive Health Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2017-01-01

    We explore in this paper the relationship between equity-sensitive population health evaluation measures and normative concerns for relative comparisons of health gains. Such a relationship allows us to characterize focal equity-sensitive models for the evaluation of population health. Instances...... are the so-called multiplicative Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and multiplicative Healthy Years Equivalents (HYEs), as well as generalizations of the two. Our axiomatic approach assumes social preferences over distributions of individual health states experienced in a given period of time. It conveys...

  14. A normative frame of reference for the metrology function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Pierre

    Metrology is discussed and reasons for the necessity of it being exact, its original appearance in the legal domain, its development up until the use of digital techniques, and existing metrological documentation, are discussed. Exact measurements are necessary since the security of individuals or installations depends on the results of such operations. The incertitude of a measurement is determined through comparisons to standards. The metrological documentation includes information on the metrological obligations of certain industries, and means of assuring quality measurements. This documentation contains the norms supplied by a normative reference frame which serves as an information base to facilitate the installation of metrological functions in industries.

  15. Parton distributions with threshold resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca; Ubiali, Maria; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Hartland, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a set of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in which fixed-order NLO and NNLO calculations are supplemented with soft-gluon (threshold) resummation up to NLL and NNLL accuracy respectively, suitable for use in conjunction with any QCD calculation in which threshold resummation is included at the level of partonic cross sections. These resummed PDF sets, based on the NNPDF3.0 analysis, are extracted from deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan, and top quark pair production data, for which resummed calculations can be consistently used. We find that, close to threshold, the inclusion of resummed PDFs can partially compensate the enhancement in resummed matrix elements, leading to resummed hadronic cross-sections closer to the fixed-order calculation. On the other hand, far from threshold, resummed PDFs reduce to their fixed-order counterparts. Our results demonstrate the need for a consistent use of resummed PDFs in resummed calculations.

  16. Empirical and normative ethics: a synthesis relating to the care of older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte; Liss, Per-Erik; Westerlind, Björn; Berterö, Carina

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize the concepts from empirical studies and analyze, compare and interrelate them with normative ethics. The International Council of Nurses (ICN) and the Health and Medical Service Act are normative ethics. Five concepts were used in the analysis; three from the grounded theory studies and two from the theoretical framework on normative ethics. A simultaneous concept analysis resulted in five outcomes: interconnectedness, interdependence, corroboratedness, completeness and good care are all related to the empirical perspective of the nurse's interaction with the older patient, and the normative perspective, i.e. that found in ICN code and SFS law. Empirical ethics and normative ethics are intertwined according to the findings of this study. Normative ethics influence the nurse's practical performance and could be supporting documents for nurses as professionals.

  17. Local Adaptive Thresholding Pada Preprocessing Citra Lontar Aksara Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Sutramiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Balinesse lontar digitalization generates image file which acquired through a scanner or camera. Lontar image has noise because the results of the acquisition of the original lontar contained brown color that exist on the leaves. Therefore this paper focuses on improving the quality of the image to remove noise contained in the image by thresholding process. The method used in this paper is a Local Adaptive Thresholding. The test results in this paper generates the best image with the window (W=70 and the threshold value (C=0.05 which proved to remove noise at most of the few testing that has been done in this paper

  18. Functional fitness in older women from southern brazil: normative scores and comparison with different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional fitness loss during aging may compromise the quality of life and independence of older subjects. It is important to evaluate and diagnose the functional fitness of the elderly population. This study proposed normative functional fitness scores for a sample of elderly women from southern Brazil and compared values to their counterparts in the US, Extremadura (Spain, Taiwan (China and Spain. The study sample consisted of 1,783 older women aged 60.0 to 84.9 years (mean 68.7 years; standard deviation 6.3 years who performed the proposed motor tests of the “Senior Fitness Test” for functional fitness in older women. The percentile values specific to each age group were calculated based on the seven functional fitness components: body mass index, 6-minute walk, arm curl, 30-s chair stand, chair sit-and-reach, backscratch, and 8-feet up-and-go. The non-parametric binomial test compared the 50th percentile value of Brazilian older women with those from other countries. Older women´s performance in the functional capacity tests decreased across age groups. The mean BMI varied among age groups from 29.11 to 26.76 kg/m2, 6-minute walk from 572.94 to 486.95 m, arm curl from 17.51 to 15.11 repetitions, 30-schair stand from 15.62 to 14.30 repetitions, chair sit-and-reach from 1.01 to – 0.47 cm, back scratch from -4.92 to -10.52 cm and 8-feet up-and-go from 5.96 to 6.83 sec. Functional fitness scores among older women in different countries differed significantly. However, the direction and magnitude of differences were specific to the functional fitness component. Significant differences were observed in the normative scores, suggesting that the use of international normative scores in Brazilian older women may underestimate or overestimate potential functional limitations.

  19. Functional fitness in older women from southern brazil: normative scores and comparison with different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Cristina Vagetti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n4p472   Functional fitness loss during aging may compromise the quality of life and independence of older subjects. It is important to evaluate and diagnose the functional fitness of the elderly population. This study proposed normative functional fitness scores for a sample of elderly women from southern Brazil and compared values to their counterparts in the US, Extremadura (Spain, Taiwan (China and Spain. The study sample consisted of 1,783 older women aged 60.0 to 84.9 years (mean 68.7 years; standard deviation 6.3 years who performed the proposed motor tests of the “Senior Fitness Test” for functional fitness in older women. The percentile values specific to each age group were calculated based on the seven functional fitness components: body mass index, 6-minute walk, arm curl, 30-s chair stand, chair sit-and-reach, backscratch, and 8-feet up-and-go. The non-parametric binomial test compared the 50th percentile value of Brazilian older women with those from other countries. Older women´s performance in the functional capacity tests decreased across age groups. The mean BMI varied among age groups from 29.11 to 26.76 kg/m2, 6-minute walk from 572.94 to 486.95 m, arm curl from 17.51 to 15.11 repetitions, 30-schair stand from 15.62 to 14.30 repetitions, chair sit-and-reach from 1.01 to – 0.47 cm, back scratch from -4.92 to -10.52 cm and 8-feet up-and-go from 5.96 to 6.83 sec. Functional fitness scores among older women in different countries differed significantly. However, the direction and magnitude of differences were specific to the functional fitness component. Significant differences were observed in the normative scores, suggesting that the use of international normative scores in Brazilian older women may underestimate or overestimate potential functional limitations.

  20. Uncertainty in determining extreme precipitation thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingjun; Chen, Junfan; Chen, Xiaohong; Lian, Yanqing; Wu, Lili

    2013-10-01

    Extreme precipitation events are rare and occur mostly on a relatively small and local scale, which makes it difficult to set the thresholds for extreme precipitations in a large basin. Based on the long term daily precipitation data from 62 observation stations in the Pearl River Basin, this study has assessed the applicability of the non-parametric, parametric, and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) methods in determining extreme precipitation threshold (EPT) and the certainty to EPTs from each method. Analyses from this study show the non-parametric absolute critical value method is easy to use, but unable to reflect the difference of spatial rainfall distribution. The non-parametric percentile method can account for the spatial distribution feature of precipitation, but the problem with this method is that the threshold value is sensitive to the size of rainfall data series and is subjected to the selection of a percentile thus make it difficult to determine reasonable threshold values for a large basin. The parametric method can provide the most apt description of extreme precipitations by fitting extreme precipitation distributions with probability distribution functions; however, selections of probability distribution functions, the goodness-of-fit tests, and the size of the rainfall data series can greatly affect the fitting accuracy. In contrast to the non-parametric and the parametric methods which are unable to provide information for EPTs with certainty, the DFA method although involving complicated computational processes has proven to be the most appropriate method that is able to provide a unique set of EPTs for a large basin with uneven spatio-temporal precipitation distribution. The consistency between the spatial distribution of DFA-based thresholds with the annual average precipitation, the coefficient of variation (CV), and the coefficient of skewness (CS) for the daily precipitation further proves that EPTs determined by the DFA method

  1. Automated Smartphone Threshold Audiometry: Validity and Time Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tonder, Jessica; Swanepoel, De Wet; Mahomed-Asmail, Faheema; Myburgh, Hermanus; Eikelboom, Robert H

    2017-03-01

    Smartphone-based threshold audiometry with automated testing has the potential to provide affordable access to audiometry in underserved contexts. To validate the threshold version (hearTest) of the validated hearScreen™ smartphone-based application using inexpensive smartphones (Android operating system) and calibrated supra-aural headphones. A repeated measures within-participant study design was employed to compare air-conduction thresholds (0.5-8 kHz) obtained through automated smartphone audiometry to thresholds obtained through conventional audiometry. A total of 95 participants were included in the study. Of these, 30 were adults, who had known bilateral hearing losses of varying degrees (mean age = 59 yr, standard deviation [SD] = 21.8; 56.7% female), and 65 were adolescents (mean age = 16.5 yr, SD = 1.2; 70.8% female), of which 61 had normal hearing and the remaining 4 had mild hearing losses. Threshold comparisons were made between the two test procedures. The Wilcoxon signed-ranked test was used for comparison of threshold correspondence between manual and smartphone thresholds and the paired samples t test was used to compare test time. Within the adult sample, 94.4% of thresholds obtained through smartphone and conventional audiometry corresponded within 10 dB or less. There was no significant difference between smartphone (6.75-min average, SD = 1.5) and conventional audiometry test duration (6.65-min average, SD = 2.5). Within the adolescent sample, 84.7% of thresholds obtained at 0.5, 2, and 4 kHz with hearTest and conventional audiometry corresponded within ≤5 dB. At 1 kHz, 79.3% of the thresholds differed by ≤10 dB. There was a significant difference (p audiometry test duration (3.23 min, SD = 0.6). The hearTest application with calibrated supra-aural headphones provides a cost-effective option to determine valid air-conduction hearing thresholds.

  2. Credibility Assessments as 'Normative Leakage': Asylum Applications, Gender and Class

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    Hanna Wikström

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assumption that credibility assessments function as 'normative leakage' within the asylum process, we analyse how narratives of gender and class are articulated, rendered meaningful, or silenced in credibility assessments. Two cases concerning male applicants are selected in order to illustrate these processes. In relation to the existing concepts of internal/external credibility, we wish to introduce the concept of social credibility, which focuses on how the assessors read different socio-cultural narratives. While previous research has shown that the postcolonial will to protect women favours women as victims of patriarchal cultures, we wish to point out the continuity of this line of argumentation in relation to male and female applicants by adopting a theoretical generalization: male applicants instead become situated at the other end of the spectrum of postcolonial notions of modernity as non-victims, victims of other circumstances or perpetrators. We argue that these processes are accentuated in relation to credibility assessments. In order to prevent processes of social exclusion and to enhance inclusive practice, authorities need to acknowledge the 'normative leakage' associated with the assessment process.

  3. Median Nerve Conduction in Healthy Nigerians: Normative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, L F; Adebisi, S S; Danborno, B S; Buraimoh, A A

    2016-01-01

    Because of lack of local normative data, electrodiagnostic laboratories in Nigeria apply standard values generated in the USA and Europe to diagnose different median nerve abnormalities. To develop normative values for motor and sensory median nerve conduction studies (NCSs) in Nigerian population. In a cross-sectional study design, a total of 200 healthy volunteers were selected after clinical evaluation to exclude systemic or neuromuscular disorders. NCS of the median nerves was conducted on all the healthy volunteers according to a standardized protocol. The data included in the final analysis were amplitude, latency, and nerve conduction velocity. Ethical approval was obtained for the study. The reference range for median nerve (motor) velocity, distal latency, and amplitude were 49.48-66.92, 1.95-4.52, and 4.3-11.3, respectively. The reference range for median nerve F-wave latency was 44.8-70.5. The reference range for median nerve (sensory) velocity, distal latency, and amplitude were 44.8-70.5, 1.98-4.52, and 16.6-58.4, respectively. Reference values for the nerve conduction parameters of the median (motor and sensory) in the study population were similar to those obtained in the literature.

  4. Normative data on functional grip strength of elderly in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Jais, Ita Suzana; Chan, Kai Li; Loke, Mun Kitt Austin; Abdul Rahim, Saleem; Tay, Shian Chao

    2017-02-21

    Cross-sectional study for clinical measurement. Most daily tasks require individuals to exert grip strength with torque, which can be challenging for elderly as their strength diminishes with age. We postulate that to assess the functional capacity of an individual, it is important to evaluate the functional grip strength instead of the maximal static grip strength. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to establish normative data for the functional grip strength of elderly aged 60 years and older in the Singapore population. In this study, 233 healthy subjects aged 60 years and older were recruited. Using a custom-made hand strength measurement device, the following measurements were recorded: grip strength at neutral position, grip strength with resistive pronation torque, and grip strength with resistive supination torque. Grip strengths measured for both genders decreased by 13% and 16% for males and females respectively, when pronation torque was exerted, and with supination torque, the strength decreased by 18% and 17% for males and females respectively. Normative data for the elderly population in Singapore had been established. The findings from this study can complement the existing ergonomic hand data in designing better assistive tools to improve the independent living of elderly. NA. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. International biomedical law in search for its normative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Atina

    2012-01-01

    The broad and multifaceted problem of global health law and global health governance has been attracting increasing attention in the last few decades. The global community has failed to establish international legal regime that deals comprehensively with the 'technological revolution'. The latter has posed complex questions to regions of the world with widely differing cultural perspectives. At the same time, an increasing number of governmental and non-state actors have become significantly involved in the sector. They use legal, political, and other forms of decision-making that result in regulatory instruments of contrasting normative status. Law created in this heterogeneous environment has been said to be fragmented, inconsistent, and exacerbating uncertainties. Therefore, claims have been made that a centralised and institutionalised system would help address the problems of transparency, legitimacy and efficiency. Nevertheless, little scholarly consideration is paid to the normative status of international biomedical law. This paper explores whether formalisation and "constitutionalisation" of biomedical law are indeed inevitable for its establishment as a separate regulatory regime. It does so by analysing the proliferation of biomedical law in light of two the theory of fragmentation and the theory of global legal pluralism. Investigating the problem in this way helps determine the theoretical framework and methodology of future studies of biomedical law at the international level. This in turn should help its future development in a more consistent and harmonised manner.

  6. Normative Bone Mineral Density values in Isfahani women

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    Z Sayed Bonakdar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMDmeasurement by dual energy x ray absorptiometry(DEXA requires a population specific reference range. We collected data on age 20-35 years to obtain reference values of BMD for Isfahani women in order to make a population specific diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods: In 660 healthy Isfahani women Volunteers (20-35 years without illness, use of drugs or predisposing conditions to osteoporosis, the BMD (gr/cm² of lumbar spine and non-dominant femur was measured by lunar DPX –IQ machine. Results: The mean BMD and its standard deviations at each site were calculated and compared with normative data from Caucasian US/North European women. No significant differences were detected between them. Conclusions: Bone mineral density measurements of these 660 healthy Isfahani women can serve as a reference guide for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Isfahani women. Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Normative data, DEXA

  7. Normative Power and the Future of EU Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Whitman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The emphasis in this chapter is on the future of EU public diplomacy in a more globalised, mulitipolar, multilateral world. The chapter does not seek to explore the role of EU member states within this future shift but clearly, as Mai’a Davis Cross discusses in her chapter, if the EU and its member...... states are to have a future role at all, they must develop synergies not antergies in external actions and public diplomacy. As the next five sections set out, this fundamental shift in the role of the EU in global politics requires a recognition of how the EU has ‘“gone global’” (section II); how EU...... diplomacy is ‘“going public’” (section III); and how EU public diplomacy needs to consider ‘“sharing minds’” (section IV); how the normative power of public diplomacy can ensure the EU is ‘“remaining distinctive’” in global politics (section V); and before concluding on the normative power approach...

  8. Normative Data and Dialectical Effects on Nasalance in Flemish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Bettens, Kim; De Mets, Sarah; De Moor, Valerie; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of dialect and gender and to obtain normative nasalance values for Flemish adults as measured with the Nasometer II. One hundred and sixty-four adult subjects from the five regions in Flanders corresponding to different dialects were included in the study. The group consisted of 71 adult men and 93 adult women with a mean age of 43 years and an age range between 20 and 82 years (SD 16). Nasalance scores of connected speech using an oral, an oronasal and a nasal text were measured with the Nasometer II model 6450. The nasalance scores for the oral, oronasal and nasal texts are provided in this study. No significant differences were found across the five dialects and between men and women. This study provides new Flemish normative data as measured with the Nasometer II model 6450. The results of this study are very important for clinical purposes and for future Flemish studies collecting nasalance scores of subjects with different dialects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. IMPROVEMENT OF NORMATIVE METHOD OF ACCOUNTING AND MONITORING COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomennikova E. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The normative method for accounting of costs and calculating has been known for a long time and is widely used by foreign companies. While in the practice of Russian enterprises it is used quite rarely because of difficulties of its use. The article suggests ways to improve the normative method of accounting and control of costs: for the normalization, divide the indirect costs for guild, general factory and commercial expenses according to the elements of the cost estimate and places from the occurrence; for a detailed analysis of deviations, form a matrix whose columns show the division, and the rows cost element, and the value in the cells shows the amount of the deviation, which will allow the management to identify more objectively the perpetrators of the occurrence of adverse deviations and apply adequate penalties to them. It is proposed to create a single center for the development of norms and standards that will allow the organization of end-to-end management of a newly identified management entity, in which the specific cost norms for types of products and deviations for them in the production and sale of products. Such centers should be built into organizational structures of Russian industrial enterprises operating in the enterprise, which will allow enterprise managers to choose the option of a comprehensive use of the standard method of accounting and control of costs.

  10. Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the paper (sec. 1-4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5-7), I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general vs. locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions that should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological) rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve within a dual account of rationality.

  11. Cognitive Success: Instrumental Justifications of Normative Systems of Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard eSchurz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper (sec. 1-4, I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011 distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological versus teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based versus a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5-7, I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general versus locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve a dual account of rationality.

  12. Analysis of four recruitment methods for obtaining normative data through a Web-based questionnaire: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Michael T; Shauver, Melissa J; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-09-01

    Quality normative data requires a diverse sample of participants and plays an important role in the appropriate use of health outcomes. Using social media and other online resources for survey recruitment is a tempting prospect, but the effectiveness of these methods in collecting a diverse sample is unknown. The purpose of this study is to pilot test four methods of recruitment to determine their ability to produce a sample representative of the general US population. This project is part of a larger study to gather normative data for the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ). We used flyers, e-mail, Facebook, and an institution-specific clinical research recruitment Web site to direct participants to complete an online version of the MHQ. Participants also provided comorbidity and demographic information. The institution-specific recruitment Web site yielded the greatest number of respondents in an age distribution that mirrored the US population. Facebook was effective for recruiting young adults, and e-mail was successful for recruiting the older adults. None of the methods was successful in reaching an ethnically diverse sample. Obtaining normative data that is truly representative of the US population is a difficult task. The use of any one recruitment method is unlikely to result in a representative sample, but a greater understanding of these methods will empower researchers to use them to target specific populations. This pilot analysis provides support for the use of Facebook and clinical research sites in addition to traditional methods of e-mail and paper flyers.

  13. Frequency of normative word associations in the speech of individuals at familial high-risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manschreck, T C; Merrill, A M; Jabbar, G; Chun, J; Delisi, L E

    2012-09-01

    The intrusion of associations into speech in schizophrenia disrupts coherence and comprehensibility, a feature of formal thought disorder referred to as loosened associations. We have previously proposed that loosened associations may result from hyperactivity in semantic association networks, leading to an increased frequency of associated words appearing in speech. Using Computed Associations in Sequential Text (CAST) software to quantify the frequency of such associations in speech, we have reported more frequent normative associations in language samples from patients with schizophrenia and in individuals with schizotypal characteristics. The present study further examined this deviance in schizophrenia by studying normative associations in those who share genes with an individual with schizophrenia, (i.e. first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia; HR) but who do not have an illness. Familial high-risk participants (n=22), and controls (n=24) provided verbal responses to cards from the Thematic Apperception Test. CAST analysis revealed that HR used more associated words in their speech compared to controls. Furthermore, the frequency of normative word associations was positively correlated with dimensional and total scores of schizotypy derived from ratings of the structured interview for schizotypy, which confirms past research showing a relationship between schizotypy and hyperassociations. Our results suggest that some language disturbances in schizophrenia likely arise from an underlying psychopathological mechanism, hyperactivity of semantic associations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-Cultural Normative Assessment: Translation and Adaptation Issues Influencing the Normative Interpretation of Assessment Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisinger, Kurt F.

    1994-01-01

    Issues affecting measures that are translated or adapted from an initial language or culture to a new one are described. Notions of test validation, fairness, and norms are addressed, and it is argued that such adaptations may be necessary when assessing members of subpopulations of the U.S. culture. (SLD)

  15. Health behaviours, knowledge, life satisfaction and wellbeing in people with mental illness across four countries and comparisons with normative sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Parletta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: People with chronic mental illness have poorer physical health and higher mortality than the general population. We investigated lifestyle factors in people with mental illness across four countries and compared with a normative sample. Design and methods: Data were collected from N=672 people (Germany, n=375; Palestine, n=192; London, n=63; Australia, n=42 with substance abuse disorder (n=224, schizophrenia (n=158, mood disorders (n=227 and somatoform disorders (n=63. The General Health Behaviour Questionnaire measured behaviours and knowledge related to nutrition, physical activity, alcohol, smoking, sleep, life satisfaction and wellbeing. The normative sample were derived from a German population (N=1,019. Data were analysed using ANOVAs and t-tests. Results: The Palestine sample did not differ from the Western samples on reported life satisfaction and wellbeing. However they reported unhealthier diets, less physical activity, and lower knowledge about the impact of diet, physical activity, smoking and sleep on health than the Western samples. Comparing the Western and normative samples, people with mental illness reported lower intake of healthy foods/drinks, higher intake of unhealthy foods, higher exercise, higher alcohol consumption, smoked less cigarettes, had less sleep and reported more sleep problems. Their knowledge was lower for nutrition, physical activity, and smoking. All participants reported lower life satisfaction and wellbeing than the normative sample (P values <0.001. Conclusions: Education on health-related lifestyle factors present important targets for primary care, quality of life and prevention of illness in people with mental illness. Further research will clarify specific predictors of health behaviours in each country.

  16. Health Behaviors, Knowledge, Life Satisfaction, and Wellbeing in People with Mental Illness across Four Countries and Comparisons with Normative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parletta, Natalie; Aljeesh, Yousef; Baune, Bernhard T

    2016-01-01

    People with chronic mental illness have poorer physical health and higher mortality than the general population. We investigated lifestyle factors in people with mental illness across four countries and compared with a normative sample. Data were collected from N = 672 people (Germany, n = 375; Palestine, n = 192; London, n = 63; Australia, n = 42) with substance abuse disorder (n = 224), schizophrenia (n = 158), mood disorders (n = 227), and somatoform disorders (n = 63). The General Health Behaviour Questionnaire measured behaviors and knowledge related to nutrition, physical activity, alcohol, smoking, sleep, life satisfaction, and wellbeing. The normative samples were derived from a German population (N = 1,019). Data were analyzed using ANOVAs and t-tests. The Palestine sample did not differ from the Western samples on reported life satisfaction and wellbeing. However, they reported unhealthier diets, less physical activity, and lower knowledge about the impact of diet, physical activity, smoking, and sleep on health than the Western samples. Comparing the Western and normative samples, people with mental illness reported lower intake of healthy foods/drinks, higher intake of unhealthy foods, higher exercise, higher alcohol consumption, less cigarettes, less sleep, and more sleep problems. Their knowledge was lower for nutrition, physical activity, and smoking. All participants reported lower life satisfaction and wellbeing than the normative sample (P-values health-related lifestyle factors present important targets for primary care, quality of life and prevention of illness in people with mental illness. Further research will clarify specific predictors of health behaviors in each country.

  17. Normative Feedback for Parents of College Students: Piloting a Parent Based Intervention to Correct Misperceptions of Students’ Alcohol Use and Other Parents’ Approval of Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Napper, Lucy E.; Hummer, Justin F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Multi-component parent-based interventions (PBIs) provide a promising avenue for targeting alcohol use and related consequences in college students. Parents of college-aged children can have a significant influence on their children’s alcohol use decisions. However, parents tend to underestimate their own child’s alcohol use and overestimate other similar parents’ approval of student drinking. These misperceptions could have important implications for parents’ own attitudes and alcohol-related communication with their student. Targeting these misperceptions through normative feedback could help promote greater and more in-depth alcohol-related communication. The present study examines the potential efficacy of web-based alcohol-related normative feedback for parents of college students. Method A sample of 144 parents of college students received web-based normative feedback about students’ alcohol use and approval, as well as other same-college parents’ alcohol approval. Parents completed measures of perceived student alcohol use, student alcohol approval, other-parent alcohol approval, and intentions to discuss alcohol use both pre- and post-normative feedback. Results Post-feedback, parents reported stronger intentions to talk to their student about alcohol, were less confident in their knowledge of their students’ alcohol use, and believed that their student drank in greater quantity and more frequently than pre-feedback. Parents also perceived other parents to be less approving of alcohol use after viewing normative feedback. Conclusions These findings provide preliminary support for the use of web-based normative feedback for parents of college students. Given these promising results, further research developing and testing this approach merits attention. PMID:24099892

  18. Normative feedback for parents of college students: piloting a parent based intervention to correct misperceptions of students' alcohol use and other parents' approval of drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Joseph W; Napper, Lucy E; Hummer, Justin F

    2014-01-01

    Multi-component parent-based interventions (PBIs) provide a promising avenue for targeting alcohol use and related consequences in college students. Parents of college-aged children can have a significant influence on their children's alcohol use decisions. However, parents tend to underestimate their own child's alcohol use and overestimate other similar parents' approval of student drinking. These misperceptions could have important implications for parents' own attitudes and alcohol-related communication with their student. Targeting these misperceptions through normative feedback could help promote greater and more in-depth alcohol-related communication. The present study examines the potential efficacy of web-based alcohol-related normative feedback for parents of college students. A sample of 144 parents of college students received web-based normative feedback about students' alcohol use and approval, as well as other same-college parents' alcohol approval. Parents completed measures of perceived student alcohol use, student alcohol approval, other-parent alcohol approval, and intentions to discuss alcohol use both pre- and post-normative feedback. Post-feedback, parents reported stronger intentions to talk to their student about alcohol, were less confident in their knowledge of their students' alcohol use, and believed that their student drank in greater quantity and more frequently than pre-feedback. Parents also perceived other parents to be less approving of alcohol use after viewing normative feedback. These findings provide preliminary support for the use of web-based normative feedback for parents of college students. Given these promising results, further research developing and testing this approach merits attention. © 2013.

  19. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  20. Analysis of PEDI Normative Data Between Spain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-Vázquez, Montserrat; Maturana, Ana María Águila; Blanco, Valeriana Guijo

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the applicability of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) to the Spanish population, and to assess the influence of demographic variables on the functional performance of the child. The Spanish version of the PEDI was administered via interview representing a sample of 199 children without disability. The applicability of the PEDI was analyzed with the Welch t test and differences between the variables were analyzed using single-factor analysis of variance. Significant differences in overall and domain-specific performance were found between Spanish and American samples. The Spanish sample's average score was lower than the American sample. Differences in performance within the Spanish sample were found by age, sex, and rural/urban living environment. The normative values of the PEDI should be applied with caution in the Spanish population until further data are available; however, the PEDI remains a useful instrument for monitoring functional change.