WorldWideScience

Sample records for testing nonlinear evolution

  1. Nonlinear evolution equations and Painlevé test

    CERN Document Server

    Steeb, Willi-Hans

    1988-01-01

    This book is an edited version of lectures given by the authors at a seminar at the Rand Afrikaans University. It gives a survey on the Painlevé test, Painlevé property and integrability. Both ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations are considered.

  2. Nonlinear evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Uraltseva, N N

    1995-01-01

    This collection focuses on nonlinear problems in partial differential equations. Most of the papers are based on lectures presented at the seminar on partial differential equations and mathematical physics at St. Petersburg University. Among the topics explored are the existence and properties of solutions of various classes of nonlinear evolution equations, nonlinear imbedding theorems, bifurcations of solutions, and equations of mathematical physics (Navier-Stokes type equations and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation). The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students working in p

  3. Nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.; Dory, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A 3-D nonlinear MHD computer code was used to study the time evolution of internal instabilities. Velocity vortex cells are observed to persist into the nonlinear evolution. Pressure and density profiles convect around these cells for a weak localized instability, or convect into the wall for a strong instability. (U.S.)

  4. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, H.; Fuller, G. M.; Carlson, J.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle θ13.

  5. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, H [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Fuller, G M [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Carlson, J [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: hduan@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: gfuller@ucsd.edu, E-mail: carlson@lanl.gov

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}.

  6. Nonlinear Evolution of Alfvenic Wave Packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, B.; Jayanti, V.; Vinas, A. F.; Ghosh, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Roberts, D. A.; Lakhina, G. S.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1998-01-01

    Alfven waves are a ubiquitous feature of the solar wind. One approach to studying the evolution of such waves has been to study exact solutions to approximate evolution equations. Here we compare soliton solutions of the Derivative Nonlinear Schrodinger evolution equation (DNLS) to solutions of the compressible MHD equations.

  7. Saturation at Low X and Nonlinear Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasto, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this talk the results of the analytical and numerical analysis of the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation are presented. The characteristic BFKL diffusion into infrared regime is suppressed by the generation of the saturation scale Q s . We identify the scaling and linear regimes for the solution. We also study the impact of subleading corrections onto the nonlinear evolution. (author)

  8. Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmit, P.F.; Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size Δ during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches Δ. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.

  9. Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.F. Schmit, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch

    2011-05-27

    Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.

  10. Correlations and discreteness in nonlinear QCD evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armesto, N.; Milhano, J.

    2006-01-01

    We consider modifications of the standard nonlinear QCD evolution in an attempt to account for some of the missing ingredients discussed recently, such as correlations, discreteness in gluon emission and Pomeron loops. The evolution is numerically performed using the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation on individual configurations defined by a given initial value of the saturation scale, for reduced rapidities y=(α s N c /π)Y<10. We consider the effects of averaging over configurations as a way to implement correlations, using three types of Gaussian averaging around a mean saturation scale. Further, we heuristically mimic discreteness in gluon emission by considering a modified evolution in which the tails of the gluon distributions are cut off. The approach to scaling and the behavior of the saturation scale with rapidity in these modified evolutions are studied and compared with the standard mean-field results. For the large but finite values of rapidity explored, no strong quantitative difference in scaling for transverse momenta around the saturation scale is observed. At larger transverse momenta, the influence of the modifications in the evolution seems most noticeable in the first steps of the evolution. No influence on the rapidity behavior of the saturation scale due to the averaging procedure is found. In the cutoff evolution the rapidity evolution of the saturation scale is slowed down and strongly depends on the value of the cutoff. Our results stress the need to go beyond simple modifications of evolution by developing proper theoretical tools that implement such recently discussed ingredients

  11. Nonlinear evolution of astrophysical Alfven waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear Alfven waves were studied using the derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation as a model. The evolution of initial conditions, such as envelope solitons, amplitude-modulated waves, and band-limited noise was investigated. The last two furnish models for naturally occurring Alfven waves in an astrophysical plasma. A collapse instability in which a wave packet becomes more intense and of smaller spatial extent was analyzed. It is argued that this instability leads to enhanced plasma heating. In studies in which the waves are amplified by an electron beam, the instability tends to modestly inhibit wave growth.

  12. Nonlinear evolution equations having a physical meaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakach, R.

    1976-06-01

    The non stationary self-similar solutions of the nonlinear evolution equations which can be solved by the inverse scattering method are studied. It turns out, as shown by means of several examples, that when the L linear operator associated with these equations, is of second order and only then, the self-similar solutions can be expressed in terms of the various Painleve's transcendents [fr

  13. 3-D nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.

    1977-03-01

    The nonlinear evolution of ideal MHD internal instabilities is investigated in straight cylindrical geometry by means of a 3-D initial-value computer code. These instabilities are characterized by pairs of velocity vortex cells rolling off each other and helically twisted down the plasma column. The cells persist until the poloidal velocity saturates at a few tenths of the Alfven velocity. The nonlinear phase is characterized by convection around these essentially fixed vortex cells. For example, the initially centrally peaked temperature profile is convected out and around to form an annulus of high temperature surrounding a small region of lower temperature. Weak, centrally localized instabilities do not alter the edge of the plasma. Strong, large-scale instabilities, resulting from a stronger longitudinal equilibrium current, drive the plasma against the wall. After three examples of instability are analyzed in detail, the numerical methods and their verification are discussed

  14. Decomposition of a hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Xianguo

    2003-01-01

    The generalized Hamiltonian structures for a hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are established with the aid of the trace identity. Using the nonlinearization approach, the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations is decomposed into a class of new finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. The generating function of integrals and their generator are presented, based on which the finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems are proved to be completely integrable in the Liouville sense. As an application, solutions for the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are reduced to solving the compatible Hamiltonian systems of ordinary differential equations

  15. On a new series of integrable nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.; Wadati, Miki; Konno, Kimiaki; Shimizu, Tohru.

    1980-10-01

    Recent results of our research are surveyed in this report. The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the circular polarized Alfven wave admits the spiky soliton solutions for the plane wave boundary condition. The nonlinear equation for complex amplitude associated with the carrier wave is shown to be a generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation, having the ordinary cubic nonlinear term and the derivative of cubic nonlinear term. A generalized scheme of the inverse scattering transformation has confirmed that superposition of the A-K-N-S scheme and the K-N scheme for the component equations valids for the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Then, two types of new integrable nonlinear evolution equation have been derived from our scheme of the inverse scattering transformation. One is the type of nonlinear Schroedinger equation, while the other is the type of Korteweg-de Vries equation. Brief discussions are presented for physical phenomena, which could be accounted by the second type of the new integrable nonlinear evolution equation. Lastly, the stationary solitary wave solutions have been constructed for the integrable nonlinear evolution equation of the second type. These solutions have peculiar structure that they are singular and discrete. It is a new challenge to construct singular potentials by the inverse scattering transformation. (author)

  16. Nonlinear evolutions of bosonic clouds around black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Hirotada

    2015-01-01

    Black holes are a laboratory not only for testing the theory of gravity but also for exploring the properties of fundamental fields. Fundamental fields around a supermassive black hole give rise to extremely long-lived quasi-bound states which can in principle extract the energy and angular momentum from the black hole. To investigate the final state of such a system, the backreaction onto the spacetime becomes important because of the nonlinearity of the Einstein equation. In this paper, we review the numerical method to trace the evolution of massive scalar fields in the vicinity of black holes, how such a system originates from scalar clouds initially in the absence of black holes or from the capture of scalar clouds by a black hole, and the evolution of quasi-bound states around both a non-rotating black hole and a rotating black hole including the backreaction. (paper)

  17. Analytic treatment of nonlinear evolution equations using first ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. — journal of. July 2012 physics pp. 3–17. Analytic treatment of nonlinear evolution ... Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Art-Science Faculty, Department of Mathematics, ... (2.2) is integrated where integration constants are considered zeros.

  18. Approximate viability for nonlinear evolution inclusions with application to controllability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Benniche

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate approximate viability for a graph with respect to fully nonlinear quasi-autonomous evolution inclusions. As application, an approximate null controllability result is given.

  19. Hamiltonian structures of some non-linear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, G.Z.

    1983-06-01

    The Hamiltonian structure of the O(2,1) non-linear sigma model, generalized AKNS equations, are discussed. By reducing the O(2,1) non-linear sigma model to its Hamiltonian form some new conservation laws are derived. A new hierarchy of non-linear evolution equations is proposed and shown to be generalized Hamiltonian equations with an infinite number of conservation laws. (author)

  20. Topological soliton solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bekir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the topological soliton solutions of nonlinear evolution equations are obtained by the solitary wave ansatz method. Under some parameter conditions, exact solitary wave solutions are obtained. Note that it is always useful and desirable to construct exact solutions especially soliton-type (dark, bright, kink, anti-kink, etc. envelope for the understanding of most nonlinear physical phenomena.

  1. Direct approach for solving nonlinear evolution and two-point

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Time-delayed nonlinear evolution equations and boundary value problems have a wide range of applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we implement the differential transform method to solve the nonlinear delay differential equation and boundary value problems. Also, we present some numerical examples ...

  2. New travelling wave solutions for nonlinear stochastic evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nonlinear stochastic evolution equations have a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry, biology, economics and finance from various points of view. In this paper, the (′/)-expansion method is implemented for obtaining new travelling wave solutions of the nonlinear (2 + 1)-dimensional stochastic ...

  3. Prolongation Structure of Semi-discrete Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yongqiang; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong; Guo Hanying

    2007-01-01

    Based on noncommutative differential calculus, we present a theory of prolongation structure for semi-discrete nonlinear evolution equations. As an illustrative example, a semi-discrete model of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is discussed in terms of this theory and the corresponding Lax pairs are also given.

  4. Long wavelength limit of evolution of nonlinear cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    In the general matter composition where the multiple scalar fields and the multiple perfect fluids coexist, in the leading order of the gradient expansion, we construct all of the solutions of the nonlinear evolutions of the locally homogeneous universe. From the momentum constraint, we derive the constraints which the solution constants of the locally homogeneous universe must satisfy. We construct the gauge invariant perturbation variables in the arbitrarily higher order nonlinear cosmological perturbation theory around the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We construct the nonlinear long wavelength limit formula representing the long wavelength limit of the evolution of the nonlinear gauge invariant perturbation variables in terms of perturbations of the evolutions of the locally homogeneous universe. By using the long wavelength limit formula, we investigate the evolution of nonlinear cosmological perturbations in the universe dominated by the multiple slow rolling scalar fields with an arbitrary potential. The τ function and the N potential introduced in this paper make it possible to write the evolution of the multiple slow rolling scalar fields with an arbitrary interaction potential and the arbitrarily higher order nonlinear Bardeen parameter at the end of the slow rolling phase analytically. It is shown that the nonlinear parameters such as f NL and g NL are suppressed by the slow rolling expansion parameters.

  5. Energy dependence of the Cronin effect from nonlinear QCD evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Armesto, Nestor; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Kovner, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of dense partonic systems has been suggested as a novel physics mechanism relevant for the dynamics of p-A and A-A collisions at collider energies. Here we study to what extent the description of Cronin enhancement in the framework of this nonlinear evolution is consistent with the recent observation in √(s)=200 GeV d-Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We solve the Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation numerically for several initial conditions encoding Cronin enhancement. We find that the properly normalized nuclear gluon distribution is suppressed at all momenta relative to that of a single nucleon. For the resulting spectrum of produced gluons in p-A and A-A collisions, the nonlinear QCD evolution is unable to generate a Cronin-type enhancement, and it quickly erases any such enhancement which may be present at lower energies

  6. Initial evolution of nonlinear magnetic islands in high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.

    1988-06-01

    The evolution of nonlinear magnetic islands is computed in the kinetic collisionality regime called the semicollisional regime, which is appropriate to present fusion confinement devices. Realistic effects are included, such as the presence of small external field errors, radial electric fields, and omega. When present simultaneously, these effects can greatly change the stability of small amplitude nonlinear islands. Islands with Δ' > O can sometimes be prevented from growing to macroscopic size; it is also possible to produce moderate mode-number nonlinear instabilities in the plasma edge. Furthermore, island growth can be prevented by application of external fields with suitably chosen amplitude and frequency

  7. Nonlinear evolution equations for waves in random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelinovsky, E.; Talipova, T.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to highlight the main ideas of asymptotical methods applying in modern approaches of description of nonlinear wave propagation in random media. We start with the discussion of the classical conception of ''mean field''. Then an exactly solvable model describing nonlinear wave propagation in the medium with fluctuating parameters is considered in order to demonstrate that the ''mean field'' method is not correct. We develop new asymptotic procedures of obtaining the nonlinear evolution equations for the wave fields in random media. (author). 16 refs

  8. Shear flows induced by nonlinear evolution of double tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengxiong; Kishimoto, Y.; Li, J. Q.; Wang Xiaogang; Dong, J. Q.

    2008-01-01

    Shear flows induced by nonlinear evolution of double tearing modes are investigated in a resistive magnetohydrodynamic model with slab geometry. It is found that intensive and thin poloidal shear flow layers are generated in the magnetic island region driven by coupled reconnection process at both rational surfaces. The structure of the flow layers keeps evolving after the merging of magnetic separatrices and forms a few narrow vortices along the open field lines in the final stage of magnetic reconnection. The effects of the distance between both rational surfaces and the initial magnetic shear on the nonlinear evolution of the plasma flows are also taken into consideration and the relevant mechanism is discussed

  9. Nonlinear second order evolution inclusions with noncoercive viscosity term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S.; Rădulescu, Vicenţiu D.; Repovš, Dušan D.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we deal with a second order nonlinear evolution inclusion, with a nonmonotone, noncoercive viscosity term. Using a parabolic regularization (approximation) of the problem and a priori bounds that permit passing to the limit, we prove that the problem has a solution.

  10. Weierstrass Elliptic Function Solutions to Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jianping; Sun Yongli

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the relations between projection Riccati equations and Weierstrass elliptic equation, combined with the Groebner bases in the symbolic computation. Then the novel method for constructing the Weierstrass elliptic solutions to the nonlinear evolution equations is given by using the above relations

  11. Nonlinear evolution of the sausage instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, D.L.; Ott, E.; Lampe, M.

    1976-01-01

    Sausage instabilities of an incompressible, uniform, perfectly conducting Z pinch are studied in the nonlinear regime. In the long wavelength limit (analogous to the ''shallow water theory'' of hydrodynamics), a simplified set of universal fluid equations is derived, with no radial dependence, and with all parameters scaled out. Analytic and numerical solutions of these one-dimensional equations show that an initially sinusoidal perturbation grows into a ''spindle'' or cylindrical ''spike and bubble'' shape, with sharp radial maxima. In the short wavelength limit, the problem is shown to be mathematically equivalent to the planar semi-infinite Rayleigh--Taylor instability, which also grows into a spike-and-bubble shape. Since the spindle shape is common to both limits, it is concluded that it probably obtains in all cases. The results are in agreement with dense plasma focus experiments

  12. Space and time evolution of two nonlinearly coupled variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, H.; Totsuji, H.; Wilhelmsson, H.

    1976-12-01

    The system of two coupled linear differential equations are studied assuming that the coupling terms are proportional to the product of the dependent variables, representing e.g. intensities or populations. It is furthermore assumed that these variables experience different linear dissipation or growth. The derivations account for space as well as time dependence of the variables. It is found that certain particular solutions can be obtained to this system, whereas a full solution in space and time as an initial value problem is outside the scope of the present paper. The system has a nonlinear equilibrium solution for which the nonlinear coupling terms balance the terms of linear dissipation. The case of space and time evolution of a small perturbation of the nonlinear equilibrium state, given the initial one-dimensional spatial distribution of the perturbation, is also considered in some detail. (auth.)

  13. Loss of Energy Concentration in Nonlinear Evolution Beam Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrione, Maurizio; Gazzola, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the oscillations that were seen at the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, we introduce the notion of solutions with a prevailing mode for the nonlinear evolution beam equation u_{tt} + u_{xxxx} + f(u)= g(x, t) in bounded space-time intervals. We give a new definition of instability for these particular solutions, based on the loss of energy concentration on their prevailing mode. We distinguish between two different forms of energy transfer, one physiological (unavoidable and depending on the nonlinearity) and one due to the insurgence of instability. We then prove a theoretical result allowing to reduce the study of this kind of infinite-dimensional stability to that of a finite-dimensional approximation. With this background, we study the occurrence of instability for three different kinds of nonlinearities f and for some forcing terms g, highlighting some of their structural properties and performing some numerical simulations.

  14. Nonlinear evolution inclusions arising from phase change models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colli, P.; Krejčí, Pavel; Rocca, E.; Sprekels, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2007), s. 1067-1098 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/1058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : nonlinear and nonlocal evolution equations * Cahn-Hilliard type dynamics * phase transitions models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.155, year: 2007 http://www.dml.cz/bitstream/handle/10338.dmlcz/128228/CzechMathJ_57-2007-4_2.pdf

  15. Nonlinear evolution of single spike in Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Y.; Nishihara, K.; Wouchuk, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Nonlinear evolution of single spike structure and vortex in the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated with the use of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code. It is shown that singularity appears in the vorticity left by transmitted and reflected shocks at a corrugated interface. This singularity results in opposite sign of vorticity along the interface that causes double spiral structure of the spike. (authors)

  16. Nonlinear evolution of Mack modes in a hypersonic boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokani, Ndaona

    2005-01-01

    In hypersonic boundary layer flows the nonlinear disturbance evolution occurs relatively slowly over a very long length scale and has a profound effect on boundary layer transition. In the case of low-level freestream disturbances and negligible surface roughness, the transition is due to the modal growth of exponentially growing Mack modes that are destabilized by wall cooling. Cross-bicoherence measurements, derived from hot-wire data acquired in a quiet hypersonic tunnel, are used to identify and quantify phase-locked, quadratic sum and difference interactions involving the Mack modes. In the early stages of the nonlinear disturbance evolution, cross-bicoherence measurements indicate that the energy exchange between the Mack mode and the mean flow first occurs to broaden the sidebands; this is immediately followed by a sum interaction of the Mack mode to generate the first harmonic. In the next stages of the nonlinear disturbance evolution, there is a difference interaction of the first harmonic, which is also thought to contribute to the mean flow distortion. This difference interaction, in the latter stages, is also accompanied by a difference interaction between Mack mode and first harmonic, and a sum interaction, which forces the second harmonic. Analysis using the digital complex demodulation technique, shows that the low-frequency, phase-locked interaction that is identified in the cross bicoherence when the Mack mode and first harmonic have large amplitudes, arises due to the amplitude modulation of Mack mode and first harmonic.

  17. The Relationship between Nonconservative Schemes and Initial Values of Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林万涛

    2004-01-01

    For the nonconservative schemes of the nonlinear evolution equations, taking the one-dimensional shallow water wave equation as an example, the necessary conditions of computational stability are given.Based on numerical tests, the relationship between the nonlinear computational stability and the construction of difference schemes, as well as the form of initial values, is further discussed. It is proved through both theoretical analysis and numerical tests that if the construction of difference schemes is definite, the computational stability of nonconservative schemes is decided by the form of initial values.

  18. The presentation of explicit analytical solutions of a class of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jinshun; Guo Mingpu; Yuan Deyou

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a function set Ω m . There is a conjecture that an arbitrary explicit travelling-wave analytical solution of a real constant coefficient nonlinear evolution equation is necessarily a linear (or nonlinear) combination of the product of some elements in Ω m . A widespread applicable approach for solving a class of nonlinear evolution equations is established. The new analytical solutions to two kinds of nonlinear evolution equations are described with the aid of the guess.

  19. Spectral transform and solvability of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degasperis, A.

    1979-01-01

    These lectures deal with an exciting development of the last decade, namely the resolving method based on the spectral transform which can be considered as an extension of the Fourier analysis to nonlinear evolution equations. Since many important physical phenomena are modeled by nonlinear partial wave equations this method is certainly a major breakthrough in mathematical physics. We follow the approach, introduced by Calogero, which generalizes the usual Wronskian relations for solutions of a Sturm-Liouville problem. Its application to the multichannel Schroedinger problem will be the subject of these lectures. We will focus upon dynamical systems described at time t by a multicomponent field depending on one space coordinate only. After recalling the Fourier technique for linear evolution equations we introduce the spectral transform method taking the integral equations of potential scattering as an example. The second part contains all the basic functional relationships between the fields and their spectral transforms as derived from the Wronskian approach. In the third part we discuss a particular class of solutions of nonlinear evolution equations, solitons, which are considered by many physicists as a first step towards an elementary particle theory, because of their particle-like behaviour. The effect of the polarization time-dependence on the motion of the soliton is studied by means of the corresponding spectral transform, leading to new concepts such as the 'boomeron' and the 'trappon'. The rich dynamic structure is illustrated by a brief report on the main results of boomeron-boomeron and boomeron-trappon collisions. In the final section we discuss further results concerning important properties of the solutions of basic nonlinear equations. We introduce the Baecklund transform for the special case of scalar fields and demonstrate how it can be used to generate multisoliton solutions and how the conservation laws are obtained. (HJ)

  20. Nonlinear evolution of magnetic islands in a two fluid torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, L.E.; Park, W.

    1996-01-01

    A numerical model MH3D-T for the two fluid description of macroscopic evolution in a full three dimensional torus has been developed. Based on the perturbative drift ordering, generalized to arbitrary perturbation size, the model follows the full temperature evolution, including the thermal equilibration along the magnetic field. It contains the diamagnetic drifts, ion gyroviscous stress tensor, and the Hall term in Ohm's law. Electron inertia is neglected. The numerical model solves the same equations in a torus and in several simplified configurations. It has been benchmarked against the diamagnetic ω* i stabilization of the resistive m = 1, n = 1 reconnecting mode in a cylinder. The nonlinear evolution of resistive magnetic islands with m,n ≠ 1,1 in a cylinder is found to agree with previous analytic and reduced-torus results, which show that the diamagnetic rotation vanishes early in the island evolution and the saturated island size is determined by the same external driving factor Δ' as in MHD. The two fluid evolution in a full torus, however, differs from that in a cylinder and from the resistive MHD evolution. The poloidal rotation velocity undergoes a degree of poloidal momentum damping in the torus, even without neoclassical effects. The two fluid magnetic island grows faster, nonlinearly, than the resistive MHD island, and also couples different toroidal harmonics more effectively. Plasma compressibility and processes operating along the magnetic field play a much more important role than in MHD or in simple geometry. The two fluid model contains all the important neoclassical fluid effects except for the b circ ∇ circ Π parallelj viscous force terms. The addition of these terms is in progress

  1. A New Nonlinear Unit Root Test with Fourier Function

    OpenAIRE

    Güriş, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Traditional unit root tests display a tendency to be nonstationary in the case of structural breaks and nonlinearity. To eliminate this problem this paper proposes a new flexible Fourier form nonlinear unit root test. This test eliminates this problem to add structural breaks and nonlinearity together to the test procedure. In this test procedure, structural breaks are modeled by means of a Fourier function and nonlinear adjustment is modeled by means of an Exponential Smooth Threshold Autore...

  2. Lectures on nonlinear evolution equations initial value problems

    CERN Document Server

    Racke, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    This book mainly serves as an elementary, self-contained introduction to several important aspects of the theory of global solutions to initial value problems for nonlinear evolution equations. The book employs the classical method of continuation of local solutions with the help of a priori estimates obtained for small data. The existence and uniqueness of small, smooth solutions that are defined for all values of the time parameter are investigated. Moreover, the asymptotic behavior of the solutions is described as time tends to infinity. The methods for nonlinear wave equations are discussed in detail. Other examples include the equations of elasticity, heat equations, the equations of thermoelasticity, Schrödinger equations, Klein-Gordon equations, Maxwell equations and plate equations. To emphasize the importance of studying the conditions under which small data problems offer global solutions, some blow-up results are briefly described. Moreover, the prospects for corresponding initial-boundary value p...

  3. New methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaboob, B.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Mokeshrayalu, G.; Balasiddamuni, P.

    2017-11-01

    This research paper discusses the method of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative Nonlinear Least Squares (NLLS) estimator. Takeshi Amemiya [1] explained this method. However in the present research paper, a modified Wald test statistic due to Engle, Robert [6] is proposed to test the nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator. An alternative method for testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear studentized residuals has been proposed. In this research article an innovative method of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative restricted NLLS estimator is derived. Pesaran and Deaton [10] explained the methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis. This paper uses asymptotic properties of nonlinear least squares estimator proposed by Jenrich [8]. The main purpose of this paper is to provide very innovative methods of testing nonlinear hypothesis using iterative NLLS estimator, iterative NLLS estimator based on nonlinear studentized residuals and iterative restricted NLLS estimator. Eakambaram et al. [12] discussed least absolute deviation estimations versus nonlinear regression model with heteroscedastic errors and also they studied the problem of heteroscedasticity with reference to nonlinear regression models with suitable illustration. William Grene [13] examined the interaction effect in nonlinear models disused by Ai and Norton [14] and suggested ways to examine the effects that do not involve statistical testing. Peter [15] provided guidelines for identifying composite hypothesis and addressing the probability of false rejection for multiple hypotheses.

  4. The non-linear evolution of edge localized modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenninger, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) are instabilities in the edge of tokamak plasmas in the high confinement regime (H-mode). Without them the edge transport in ordinary H-mode plasmas is too low to establish a stationary situation. However in a future device large unmitigated ELMs are believed to cause divertor power flux densities far in excess of tolerable material limits. Hence the size of energy loss per ELM and the resulting ELM frequency must be controlled. To proceed in understanding how the ELM size is determined and how ELM mitigation methods work it is necessary to characterize the non-linear evolution of pedestal erosion. In order to achieve this experimental data is compared to the results of ELM simulations with the code JOREK (reduced MHD, non-linear) applying a specially developed synthetic magnetic diagnostic. The experimental data are acquired by several fast sampling diagnostics at the experiments ASDEX Upgrade and TCV at a large number of toroidal/poloidal positions. A central element of the presented work is the detailed characterization of dominant magnetic perturbations during ELMs. These footprints of the instability can be observed most intensely in close temporal vicinity to the onset of pedestal erosion. Dominant magnetic perturbations are caused by current perturbations located at or inside the last closed flux surface. In ASDEX Upgrade under certain conditions dominant magnetic perturbations like other H-mode edge instabilities display a similarity to solitons. Furthermore - as expected - they are often observed to be correlated to a perturbation of electron temperature. In TCV it is possible to characterize the evolution of the toroidal structure of dominant magnetic perturbations. Between growing above the level of background fluctuations and the maximum perturbation level for all time instance a similar toroidal structure is observed. This rigid mode-structure is an indication for non-linear coupling. Most frequently the dominant toroidal

  5. The non-linear evolution of edge localized modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenninger, Ronald

    2013-01-09

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) are instabilities in the edge of tokamak plasmas in the high confinement regime (H-mode). Without them the edge transport in ordinary H-mode plasmas is too low to establish a stationary situation. However in a future device large unmitigated ELMs are believed to cause divertor power flux densities far in excess of tolerable material limits. Hence the size of energy loss per ELM and the resulting ELM frequency must be controlled. To proceed in understanding how the ELM size is determined and how ELM mitigation methods work it is necessary to characterize the non-linear evolution of pedestal erosion. In order to achieve this experimental data is compared to the results of ELM simulations with the code JOREK (reduced MHD, non-linear) applying a specially developed synthetic magnetic diagnostic. The experimental data are acquired by several fast sampling diagnostics at the experiments ASDEX Upgrade and TCV at a large number of toroidal/poloidal positions. A central element of the presented work is the detailed characterization of dominant magnetic perturbations during ELMs. These footprints of the instability can be observed most intensely in close temporal vicinity to the onset of pedestal erosion. Dominant magnetic perturbations are caused by current perturbations located at or inside the last closed flux surface. In ASDEX Upgrade under certain conditions dominant magnetic perturbations like other H-mode edge instabilities display a similarity to solitons. Furthermore - as expected - they are often observed to be correlated to a perturbation of electron temperature. In TCV it is possible to characterize the evolution of the toroidal structure of dominant magnetic perturbations. Between growing above the level of background fluctuations and the maximum perturbation level for all time instance a similar toroidal structure is observed. This rigid mode-structure is an indication for non-linear coupling. Most frequently the dominant toroidal

  6. Reconstructing a nonlinear dynamical framework for testing quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, T.F.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear generalization of quantum dynamics constructed by Weinberg as a basis for experimental tests is reconstructed in terms of density-matrix elements to allow independent dynamics for subsystems. Dynamics is generated with a Lie bracket and a nonlinear Hamiltonian function. It takes density matrices to density matrices and pure states to pure states. Each density matrix has a Hamiltonian operator that makes its evolution for an infinitesimal time, but the Hamiltonian operator may be different for different density matrices and may change in time as the density matrix changes. A Hamiltonian function for a subsystem serves also for the entire system. Independence of separate subsystems is confirmed by seeing that brackets are zero for functions from different subsystems and by looking at the Hamiltonian operator for each density matrix. Scaling properties of Hamiltonian functions are found to be important in connection with locality. An example of all this is obtained from every one of the local nonlinear Schroedinger equations described by Bialynicki-Birula and Mycielski. Examples are worked out for spins coupled together or to fields, demonstrating Hamiltonian functions and equations of motion written directly in terms of physical mean values. Observables and states are taken to be the same as in ordinary quantum mechanics. An attempt to find nonlinear representations of observables by characterizing propositions as functions equal to their squares yields a negative result. Sharper interpretation of mixed states is proposed. In a mixture of parts that are prepared separately, time dependence must be calculated separately for each part so different mixtures that yield the same density matrix can be distinguished. No criticism has shown that a consistent interpretation cannot be made this way. Thus, nonlinearity remains a viable hypothesis for experimental tests. 16 refs

  7. Nonlinear evolution of f(R) cosmologies. I. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyaizu, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the method and the implementation of a cosmological simulation of a class of metric-variation f(R) models that accelerate the cosmological expansion without a cosmological constant and evade solar-system bounds of small-field deviations to general relativity. Such simulations are shown to reduce to solving a nonlinear Poisson equation for the scalar degree of freedom introduced by the f(R) modifications. We detail the method to efficiently solve the nonlinear Poisson equation by using a Newton-Gauss-Seidel relaxation scheme coupled with the multigrid method to accelerate the convergence. The simulations are shown to satisfy tests comparing the simulated outcome to analytical solutions for simple situations, and the dynamics of the simulations are tested with orbital and Zeldovich collapse tests. Finally, we present several static and dynamical simulations using realistic cosmological parameters to highlight the differences between standard physics and f(R) physics. In general, we find that the f(R) modifications result in stronger gravitational attraction that enhances the dark matter power spectrum by ∼20% for large but observationally allowed f(R) modifications. A more detailed study of the nonlinear f(R) effects on the power spectrum are presented in a companion paper.

  8. Symbolic computation of exact solutions for a nonlinear evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yinping; Li Zhibin; Wang Kuncheng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, by means of the Jacobi elliptic function method, exact double periodic wave solutions and solitary wave solutions of a nonlinear evolution equation are presented. It can be shown that not only the obtained solitary wave solutions have the property of loop-shaped, cusp-shaped and hump-shaped for different values of parameters, but also different types of double periodic wave solutions are possible, namely periodic loop-shaped wave solutions, periodic hump-shaped wave solutions or periodic cusp-shaped wave solutions. Furthermore, periodic loop-shaped wave solutions will be degenerated to loop-shaped solitary wave solutions for the same values of parameters. So do cusp-shaped solutions and hump-shaped solutions. All these solutions are new and first reported here

  9. Green's function-stochastic methods framework for probing nonlinear evolution problems: Burger's equation, the nonlinear Schroedinger's equation, and hydrodynamic organization of near-molecular-scale vorticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keanini, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Systematic approach for physically probing nonlinear and random evolution problems. → Evolution of vortex sheets corresponds to evolution of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. → Organization of near-molecular scale vorticity mediated by hydrodynamic modes. → Framework allows calculation of vorticity evolution within random strain fields. - Abstract: A framework which combines Green's function (GF) methods and techniques from the theory of stochastic processes is proposed for tackling nonlinear evolution problems. The framework, established by a series of easy-to-derive equivalences between Green's function and stochastic representative solutions of linear drift-diffusion problems, provides a flexible structure within which nonlinear evolution problems can be analyzed and physically probed. As a preliminary test bed, two canonical, nonlinear evolution problems - Burgers' equation and the nonlinear Schroedinger's equation - are first treated. In the first case, the framework provides a rigorous, probabilistic derivation of the well known Cole-Hopf ansatz. Likewise, in the second, the machinery allows systematic recovery of a known soliton solution. The framework is then applied to a fairly extensive exploration of physical features underlying evolution of randomly stretched and advected Burger's vortex sheets. Here, the governing vorticity equation corresponds to the Fokker-Planck equation of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, a correspondence that motivates an investigation of sub-sheet vorticity evolution and organization. Under the assumption that weak hydrodynamic fluctuations organize disordered, near-molecular-scale, sub-sheet vorticity, it is shown that these modes consist of two weakly damped counter-propagating cross-sheet acoustic modes, a diffusive cross-sheet shear mode, and a diffusive cross-sheet entropy mode. Once a consistent picture of in-sheet vorticity evolution is established, a number of analytical results, describing the

  10. Nonlinear evolution of f(R) cosmologies. II. Power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyaizu, Hiroaki; Hu, Wayne; Lima, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    We carry out a suite of cosmological simulations of modified action f(R) models where cosmic acceleration arises from an alteration of gravity instead of dark energy. These models introduce an extra scalar degree of freedom which enhances the force of gravity below the inverse mass or Compton scale of the scalar. The simulations exhibit the so-called chameleon mechanism, necessary for satisfying local constraints on gravity, where this scale depends on environment, in particular, the depth of the local gravitational potential. We find that the chameleon mechanism can substantially suppress the enhancement of power spectrum in the nonlinear regime if the background field value is comparable to or smaller than the depth of the gravitational potentials of typical structures. Nonetheless power spectrum enhancements at intermediate scales remain at a measurable level for models even when the expansion history is indistinguishable from a cosmological constant, cold dark matter model. Simple scaling relations that take the linear power spectrum into a nonlinear spectrum fail to capture the modifications of f(R) due to the change in collapsed structures, the chameleon mechanism, and the time evolution of the modifications.

  11. Non-linear Evolution of the Transverse Instability of Plane-Envelope Solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1983-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the transverse instability of plane envelope soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is investigated. For the case where the spatial derivatives in the two‐dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation are elliptic a critical transverse wavenumber is found...

  12. Radio Evolution of Supernova Remnants Including Nonlinear Particle Acceleration: Insights from Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Marko Z.; Urošević, Dejan; Arbutina, Bojan; Orlando, Salvatore; Maxted, Nigel; Filipović, Miroslav D.

    2018-01-01

    We present a model for the radio evolution of supernova remnants (SNRs) obtained by using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with nonlinear kinetic theory of cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration in SNRs. We model the radio evolution of SNRs on a global level by performing simulations for a wide range of the relevant physical parameters, such as the ambient density, supernova (SN) explosion energy, acceleration efficiency, and magnetic field amplification (MFA) efficiency. We attribute the observed spread of radio surface brightnesses for corresponding SNR diameters to the spread of these parameters. In addition to our simulations of Type Ia SNRs, we also considered SNR radio evolution in denser, nonuniform circumstellar environments modified by the progenitor star wind. These simulations start with the mass of the ejecta substantially higher than in the case of a Type Ia SN and presumably lower shock speed. The magnetic field is understandably seen as very important for the radio evolution of SNRs. In terms of MFA, we include both resonant and nonresonant modes in our large-scale simulations by implementing models obtained from first-principles, particle-in-cell simulations and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamical simulations. We test the quality and reliability of our models on a sample consisting of Galactic and extragalactic SNRs. Our simulations give Σ ‑ D slopes between ‑4 and ‑6 for the full Sedov regime. Recent empirical slopes obtained for the Galactic samples are around ‑5, while those for the extragalactic samples are around ‑4.

  13. The Power of Unit Root Tests Against Nonlinear Local Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Matei; Kruse, Robinson

    of Econometrics 112, 359-379) in comparison to the linear Dickey-Fuller test. To this end, we consider different adjustment schemes for deterministic terms. We provide asymptotic results which imply that the error variance has a severe impact on the behavior of the tests in the nonlinear case; the reason...... for such behavior is the interplay of nonstationarity and nonlinearity. In particular, we show that nonlinearity of the data generating process can be asymptotically negligible when the error variance is moderate or large (compared to the "amount of nonlinearity"), rendering the linear test more powerful than...

  14. Nonlinear evolution of large-scale structure in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenk, C.S.; White, S.D.M.; Davis, M.

    1983-01-01

    Using N-body simulations we study the nonlinear development of primordial density perturbation in an Einstein--de Sitter universe. We compare the evolution of an initial distribution without small-scale density fluctuations to evolution from a random Poisson distribution. These initial conditions mimic the assumptions of the adiabatic and isothermal theories of galaxy formation. The large-scale structures which form in the two cases are markedly dissimilar. In particular, the correlation function xi(r) and the visual appearance of our adiabatic (or ''pancake'') models match better the observed distribution of galaxies. This distribution is characterized by large-scale filamentary structure. Because the pancake models do not evolve in a self-similar fashion, the slope of xi(r) steepens with time; as a result there is a unique epoch at which these models fit the galaxy observations. We find the ratio of cutoff length to correlation length at this time to be lambda/sub min//r 0 = 5.1; its expected value in a neutrino dominated universe is 4(Ωh) -1 (H 0 = 100h km s -1 Mpc -1 ). At early epochs these models predict a negligible amplitude for xi(r) and could explain the lack of measurable clustering in the Lyα absorption lines of high-redshift quasars. However, large-scale structure in our models collapses after z = 2. If this collapse precedes galaxy formation as in the usual pancake theory, galaxies formed uncomfortably recently. The extent of this problem may depend on the cosmological model used; the present series of experiments should be extended in the future to include models with Ω<1

  15. Observations of linear and nonlinear processes in the foreshock wave evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Waves in the foreshock region are studied on the basis of a hypothesis that the linear process first excites the waves and further wave-wave nonlinearities distribute scatter the energy of the primary waves into a number of daughter waves. To examine this wave evolution scenario, the dispersion relations, the wave number spectra of the magnetic field energy, and the dimensionless cross helicity are determined from the observations made by the four Cluster spacecraft. The results confirm that the linear process is the ion/ion right-hand resonant instability, but the wave-wave interactions are not clearly identified. We discuss various reasons why the test for the wave-wave nonlinearities fails, and conclude that the higher order statistics would provide a direct evidence for the wave coupling phenomena.

  16. A procedure to construct exact solutions of nonlinear evolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Exact solutions; the functional variable method; nonlinear wave equations. PACS Nos 02.30. ... computer science, directly searching for solutions of nonlinear differential equations has become more and ... Right after this pioneer work, this ...

  17. Linear vs non-linear QCD evolution: from HERA data to LHC phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Albacete, J L; Quiroga-Arias, P; Rojo, J

    2012-01-01

    The very precise combined HERA data provides a testing ground in which the relevance of novel QCD regimes, other than the successful linear DGLAP evolution, in small-x inclusive DIS data can be ascertained. We present a study of the dependence of the AAMQS fits, based on the running coupling BK non-linear evolution equations (rcBK), on the fitted dataset. This allows for the identification of the kinematical region where rcBK accurately describes the data, and thus for the determination of its applicability boundary. We compare the rcBK results with NNLO DGLAP fits, obtained with the NNPDF methodology with analogous kinematical cuts. Further, we explore the impact on LHC phenomenology of applying stringent kinematical cuts to the low-x HERA data in a DGLAP fit.

  18. Inverse scattering solution of non-linear evolution equations in one space dimension: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the inverse scattering solution of certain non-linear evolution equations of physical interest in one space dimension is presented. We explain in some detail the interrelated techniques which allow to linearize exactly the following equations: (1) the Korteweg and de Vries equation; (2) the non-linear Schrodinger equation; (3) the modified Korteweg and de Vries equation; (4) the Sine-Gordon equation. We concentrate in discussing the pairs of linear operators which accomplish such an exact linearization and the solution of the associated initial value problem. The application of the method to other non-linear evolution equations is reviewed very briefly

  19. Nonlinear evolution equations and solving algebraic systems: the importance of computer algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.; Kostov, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper we study the application of computer algebra to solve the nonlinear polynomial systems which arise in investigation of nonlinear evolution equations. We consider several systems which are obtained in classification of integrable nonlinear evolution equations with uniform rank. Other polynomial systems are related with the finding of algebraic curves for finite-gap elliptic potentials of Lame type and generalizations. All systems under consideration are solved using the method based on construction of the Groebner basis for corresponding polynomial ideals. The computations have been carried out using computer algebra systems. 20 refs

  20. A novel algebraic procedure for solving non-linear evolution equations of higher order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    We report here a systematic approach that can easily be used for solving non-linear partial differential equations (nPDE), especially of higher order. We restrict the analysis to the so called evolution equations describing any wave propagation. The proposed new algebraic approach leads us to traveling wave solutions and moreover, new class of solution can be obtained. The crucial step of our method is the basic assumption that the solutions satisfy an ordinary differential equation (ODE) of first order that can be easily integrated. The validity and reliability of the method is tested by its application to some non-linear evolution equations. The important aspect of this paper however is the fact that we are able to calculate distinctive class of solutions which cannot be found in the current literature. In other words, using this new algebraic method the solution manifold is augmented to new class of solution functions. Simultaneously we would like to stress the necessity of such sophisticated methods since a general theory of nPDE does not exist. Otherwise, for practical use the algebraic construction of new class of solutions is of fundamental interest

  1. Evolution of a Test Item

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaan, Mary

    2007-01-01

    This article follows the development of test items (see "Language Assessment Quarterly", Volume 3 Issue 1, pp. 71-79 for the article "Test and Item Specifications Development"), beginning with a review of test and item specifications, then proceeding to writing and editing of items, pretesting and analysis, and finally selection of an item for a…

  2. Direct approach for solving nonlinear evolution and two-point ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-01

    Dec 1, 2013 ... 1School of Mathematics and Applied Statistics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong,. NSW 2522 ... the nonlinear phenomena as well as their further applications in the real-life situations, it is ... concentration gradient. Thus ...

  3. New travelling wave solutions for nonlinear stochastic evolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    expansion method to look for travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. It is interesting to mention that, in this method the sign of the parameters can be used to judge the numbers and types of travelling wave solutions.

  4. Solitary wave solutions to nonlinear evolution equations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Computer Engineering Technique Department, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, ... applied to extract solutions are tan–cot method and functional variable approaches. ... Consider the nonlinear partial differential equation in the form.

  5. Seismic testing and analysis of a prototypic nonlinear piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barta, D.A.; Anderson, M.J.; Severud, L.K.

    1982-11-01

    A series of seismic tests and analyses of a nonlinear Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) prototypic piping system are described, and measured responses are compared with analytical predictions. The test loop was representative of a typical LMFBR insulated small bore piping system and it was supported from a rigid test frame by prototypic dead weight supports, mechanical snubbers and pipe clamps. Various piping support configurations were tested and analyzed to evaluate the effects of free play and other nonlinear stiffness characteristics on the piping system response

  6. A general nonlinear evolution equation for irreversible conservative approach to stable equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses a mathematical problem relevant to the question of nonequilibrium and irreversibility, namely, that of ''designing'' a general evolution equation capable of describing irreversible but conservative relaxtion towards equilibrium. The objective is to present an interesting mathematical solution to this design problem, namely, a new nonlinear evolution equation that satisfies a set of very stringent relevant requirements. Three different frameworks are defined from which the new equation could be adopted, with entirely different interpretations. Some useful well-known mathematics involving Gram determinants are presented and a nonlinear evolution equation is given which meets the stringent design specifications

  7. Resonant Column Tests and Nonlinear Elasticity in Simulated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Resmi; Sitharam, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    Rocks are generally regarded as linearly elastic even though the manifestations of nonlinearity are prominent. The variations of elastic constants with varying strain levels and stress conditions, disagreement between static and dynamic moduli, etc., are some of the examples of nonlinear elasticity in rocks. The grain-to-grain contact, presence of pores and joints along with other compliant features induce the nonlinear behavior in rocks. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is demonstrated through resonant column tests and numerical simulations in this paper. Resonant column tests on intact and jointed gypsum samples across varying strain levels have been performed in laboratory and using numerical simulations. The paper shows the application of resonant column apparatus to obtain the wave velocities of stiff samples at various strain levels under long wavelength condition, after performing checks and incorporating corrections to the obtained resonant frequencies. The numerical simulation and validation of the resonant column tests using distinct element method are presented. The stiffness reductions of testing samples under torsional and flexural vibrations with increasing strain levels have been analyzed. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is reflected in the results, which is enhanced by the presence of joints. The significance of joint orientation and influence of joint spacing during wave propagation have also been assessed and presented using the numerical simulations. It has been found that rock joints also exhibit nonlinear behavior within the elastic limit.

  8. Accurate detection of hierarchical communities in complex networks based on nonlinear dynamical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Zhao; Cai, Shi-Min; Tang, Ming; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    One of the most challenging problems in network science is to accurately detect communities at distinct hierarchical scales. Most existing methods are based on structural analysis and manipulation, which are NP-hard. We articulate an alternative, dynamical evolution-based approach to the problem. The basic principle is to computationally implement a nonlinear dynamical process on all nodes in the network with a general coupling scheme, creating a networked dynamical system. Under a proper system setting and with an adjustable control parameter, the community structure of the network would "come out" or emerge naturally from the dynamical evolution of the system. As the control parameter is systematically varied, the community hierarchies at different scales can be revealed. As a concrete example of this general principle, we exploit clustered synchronization as a dynamical mechanism through which the hierarchical community structure can be uncovered. In particular, for quite arbitrary choices of the nonlinear nodal dynamics and coupling scheme, decreasing the coupling parameter from the global synchronization regime, in which the dynamical states of all nodes are perfectly synchronized, can lead to a weaker type of synchronization organized as clusters. We demonstrate the existence of optimal choices of the coupling parameter for which the synchronization clusters encode accurate information about the hierarchical community structure of the network. We test and validate our method using a standard class of benchmark modular networks with two distinct hierarchies of communities and a number of empirical networks arising from the real world. Our method is computationally extremely efficient, eliminating completely the NP-hard difficulty associated with previous methods. The basic principle of exploiting dynamical evolution to uncover hidden community organizations at different scales represents a "game-change" type of approach to addressing the problem of community

  9. Testing and Inference in Nonlinear Cointegrating Vector Error Correction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dennis; Rahbæk, Anders

    In this paper, we consider a general class of vector error correction models which allow for asymmetric and non-linear error correction. We provide asymptotic results for (quasi-)maximum likelihood (QML) based estimators and tests. General hypothesis testing is considered, where testing...... of non-stationary non-linear time series models. Thus the paper provides a full asymptotic theory for estimators as well as standard and non-standard test statistics. The derived asymptotic results prove to be new compared to results found elsewhere in the literature due to the impact of the estimated...... symmetric non-linear error correction considered. A simulation study shows that the fi…nite sample properties of the bootstrapped tests are satisfactory with good size and power properties for reasonable sample sizes....

  10. Testing and Inference in Nonlinear Cointegrating Vector Error Correction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dennis; Rahbek, Anders

    In this paper, we consider a general class of vector error correction models which allow for asymmetric and non-linear error correction. We provide asymptotic results for (quasi-)maximum likelihood (QML) based estimators and tests. General hypothesis testing is considered, where testing...... of non-stationary non-linear time series models. Thus the paper provides a full asymptotic theory for estimators as well as standard and non-standard test statistics. The derived asymptotic results prove to be new compared to results found elsewhere in the literature due to the impact of the estimated...... symmetric non-linear error correction are considered. A simulation study shows that the finite sample properties of the bootstrapped tests are satisfactory with good size and power properties for reasonable sample sizes....

  11. NONLINEAR EVOLUTION OF GLOBAL HYDRODYNAMIC SHALLOW-WATER INSTABILITY IN THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikpati, Mausumi

    2012-01-01

    We present a fully nonlinear hydrodynamic 'shallow-water' model of the solar tachocline. The model consists of a global spherical shell of differentially rotating fluid, which has a deformable top, thus allowing motions in radial directions along with latitudinal and longitudinal directions. When the system is perturbed, in the course of its nonlinear evolution it can generate unstable low-frequency shallow-water shear modes from the differential rotation, high-frequency gravity waves, and their interactions. Radiative and overshoot tachoclines are characterized in this model by high and low effective gravity values, respectively. Building a semi-implicit spectral scheme containing very low numerical diffusion, we perform nonlinear evolution of shallow-water modes. Our first results show that (1) high-latitude jets or polar spin-up occurs due to nonlinear evolution of unstable hydrodynamic shallow-water disturbances and differential rotation, (2) Reynolds stresses in the disturbances together with changing shell thickness and meridional flow are responsible for the evolution of differential rotation, (3) disturbance energy primarily remains concentrated in the lowest longitudinal wavenumbers, (4) an oscillation in energy between perturbed and unperturbed states occurs due to evolution of these modes in a nearly dissipation-free system, and (5) disturbances are geostrophic, but occasional nonadjustment in geostrophic balance can occur, particularly in the case of high effective gravity, leading to generation of gravity waves. We also find that a linearly stable differential rotation profile remains nonlinearly stable.

  12. A variational approach to nonlinear evolution equations in optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    optics. D ANDERSON, M LISAK and A BERNTSON£. Department of Electromagnetics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Göteborg, Sweden. £Ericsson Telcom ... Many works in nonlinear optics have made efficient ...... focusing dynamics of a laser beam (or a Bose–Einstein condensate) in a parabolic external.

  13. NONLINEAR EVOLUTION OF BEAM-PLASMA INSTABILITY IN INHOMOGENEOUS MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Pavan, J.; Yoon, P. H.; Gaelzer, R.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of electron-beam propagation in inhomogeneous solar wind is intimately related to the solar type II and/or type III radio bursts. Many scientists have addressed this issue in the past by means of quasi-linear theory, but in order to fully characterize the nonlinear dynamics, one must employ weak-turbulence theory. Available numerical solutions of the weak-turbulence theory either rely on only one nonlinear process (either decay or scattering), or when both nonlinear terms are included, the inhomogeneity effect is generally ignored. The present paper reports the full solution of weak-turbulence theory that includes both decay and scattering processes, and also incorporating the effects of density gradient. It is found that the quasi-linear effect sufficiently accounts for the primary Langmuir waves, but to properly characterize the back-scattered Langmuir wave, which is important for eventual radiation generation, it is found that both nonlinear decay and scattering processes make comparable contributions. Such a finding may be important in the quantitative analysis of the plasma emission process with application to solar type II and/or type III radio bursts.

  14. Canonical structure of evolution equations with non-linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dispersion produced is compensated by non-linear effects resulting in the formation of exponentially localized .... determining the values of Lagrange's multipliers αis. We postulate that a slightly .... c3 «w2x -v. (36). To include the effect of the secondary constraint c3 in the total Hamiltonian H we modify. (33) as. 104.

  15. Soliton solutions of some nonlinear evolution equations with time ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we obtain exact soliton solutions of the modified KdV equation, inho- mogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger equation and G(m, n) equation with variable coefficients using solitary wave ansatz. The constraint conditions among the time-dependent coefficients turn out as necessary conditions for the ...

  16. Jet-like long spike in nonlinear evolution of ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Wenhua; He Xiantu; Wang Lifeng

    2010-01-01

    We report the formation of jet-like long spike in the nonlinear evolution of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability (ARTI) experiments by numerical simulations. A preheating model κ(T) = κ SH [1 + f(T)], where κ SH is the Spitzer-Haerm (SH) electron conductivity and f(T) interprets the preheating tongue effect in the cold plasma ahead of the ablative front [Phys. Rev. E 65 (2002) 57401], is introduced in simulations. The simulation results of the nonlinear evolution of the ARTI are in general agreement with the experiment results. It is found that two factors, i.e., the suppressing of ablative Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (AKHI) and the heat flow cone in the spike tips, contribute to the formation of jet-like long spike in the nonlinear evolution of the ARTI. (authors)

  17. Exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations using Exp-function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekir, Ahmet; Boz, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, the Exp-function method is used to construct solitary and soliton solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The Klein-Gordon, Burger-Fisher and Sharma-Tasso-Olver equations are chosen to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. The method is straightforward and concise, and its applications are promising. The Exp-function method presents a wider applicability for handling nonlinear wave equations

  18. Application of Exp-function method for (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekir, Ahmet; Boz, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the Exp-function method is used to construct solitary and soliton solutions of (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations. (2 + 1)-dimensional breaking soliton (Calogero) equation, modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov and Konopelchenko-Dubrovsky equations are chosen to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. The method is straightforward and concise, and its applications are promising. The Exp-function method presents a wider applicability for handling nonlinear wave equations.

  19. Network evolution by nonlinear preferential rewiring of edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Jian; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-Jie

    2011-06-01

    The mathematical framework for small-world networks proposed in a seminal paper by Watts and Strogatz sparked a widespread interest in modeling complex networks in the past decade. However, most of research contributing to static models is in contrast to real-world dynamic networks, such as social and biological networks, which are characterized by rearrangements of connections among agents. In this paper, we study dynamic networks evolved by nonlinear preferential rewiring of edges. The total numbers of vertices and edges of the network are conserved, but edges are continuously rewired according to the nonlinear preference. Assuming power-law kernels with exponents α and β, the network structures in stationary states display a distinct behavior, depending only on β. For β>1, the network is highly heterogeneous with the emergence of starlike structures. For β<1, the network is widely homogeneous with a typical connectivity. At β=1, the network is scale free with an exponential cutoff.

  20. New generalized and improved (G′/G-expansion method for nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibun Naher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, new extension of the generalized and improved (G′/G-expansion method is proposed for constructing more general and a rich class of new exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. To demonstrate the novelty and motivation of the proposed method, we implement it to the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV equation. The new method is oriented toward the ease of utilize and capability of computer algebraic system and provides a more systematic, convenient handling of the solution process of nonlinear equations. Further, obtained solutions disclose a wider range of applicability for handling a large variety of nonlinear partial differential equations.

  1. Testing and inference in nonlinear cointegrating vector error correction models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, D.; Rahbek, A.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze estimators and tests for a general class of vector error correction models that allows for asymmetric and nonlinear error correction. For a given number of cointegration relationships, general hypothesis testing is considered, where testing for linearity is of particular interest. Under...... the null of linearity, parameters of nonlinear components vanish, leading to a nonstandard testing problem. We apply so-called sup-tests to resolve this issue, which requires development of new(uniform) functional central limit theory and results for convergence of stochastic integrals. We provide a full...... asymptotic theory for estimators and test statistics. The derived asymptotic results prove to be nonstandard compared to results found elsewhere in the literature due to the impact of the estimated cointegration relations. This complicates implementation of tests motivating the introduction of bootstrap...

  2. Nonlinear evolution of tearing and coalescence instability with free boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malara, F.; Veltri, P.; Carbone, V.

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of a reconnection instability in a plane current sheet is described. In particular, the appearance of coalescence instability was studied, which follows the formation of a chain of magnetic islands due to the tearing instability. In order to describe realistically this phonemenon, the time evolution of all the unstable modes which are present in the spectrum at the same time is considered. Moreover, this study allows to investigate the turbulent energy cascade which forms owing to the nonlinear coupling between such modes. (R.P.) 9 refs.; 6 figs

  3. Rogue waves and rational solutions of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhaqilao,

    2013-01-01

    A simple symbolic computation approach for finding the rogue waves and rational solutions to the nonlinear evolution equation is proposed. It turns out that many rational solutions with real and complex forms of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation are obtained. Some features of rogue waves and rational solutions are graphically discussed. -- Highlights: •A simple symbolic computation approach for finding the rational solutions to the NEE is proposed. •Some rogue waves and rational solutions with real and complex forms of a (3+1)-D NEE are obtained. •Some features of rogue waves are graphically discussed

  4. Rogue waves and rational solutions of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaqilao,, E-mail: zhaqilao@imnu.edu.cn

    2013-12-06

    A simple symbolic computation approach for finding the rogue waves and rational solutions to the nonlinear evolution equation is proposed. It turns out that many rational solutions with real and complex forms of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation are obtained. Some features of rogue waves and rational solutions are graphically discussed. -- Highlights: •A simple symbolic computation approach for finding the rational solutions to the NEE is proposed. •Some rogue waves and rational solutions with real and complex forms of a (3+1)-D NEE are obtained. •Some features of rogue waves are graphically discussed.

  5. Solving nonlinear evolution equation system using two different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Melike; Bekir, Ahmet; Ozer, Mehmet N.

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with constructing more general exact solutions of the coupled Higgs equation by using the (G0/G, 1/G)-expansion and (1/G0)-expansion methods. The obtained solutions are expressed by three types of functions: hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational functions with free parameters. It has been shown that the suggested methods are productive and will be used to solve nonlinear partial differential equations in applied mathematics and engineering. Throughout the paper, all the calculations are made with the aid of the Maple software.

  6. Preliminary Test for Nonlinear Input Output Relations in SISO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses and develops preliminary statistical tests for detecting nonlinearities in the deterministic part of SISO systems with noise. The most referenced method is unreliable for common noise processes as e.g.\\ colored. Therefore two new methods based on superposition and sinus input...

  7. On nonlinear evolution variational inequalities involving variable exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqi Xiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss a class of quasilinear evolution variational inequalities with variable exponent growth conditions in a generalized Sobolev space. We obtain the existence of weak solutions by means of penalty method. Moreover, we study the extinction properties of weak solutions to parabolic inequalities and provide a sufficient condition that makes the weak solutions vanish in a finite time. The existence of global attractors for weak solutions is also obtained via the theories of multi-valued semiflow.

  8. Power-induced evolution and increased dimensionality of nonlinear modes in reorientational soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudyn, Urszula A; Jung, Paweł S; Zegadło, Krzysztof B; Karpierz, Miroslaw A; Assanto, Gaetano

    2014-11-15

    We demonstrate the evolution of higher order one-dimensional guided modes into two-dimensional solitary waves in a reorientational medium. The observations, carried out at two different wavelengths in chiral nematic liquid crystals, are in good agreement with a simple nonlocal nonlinear model.

  9. Strongly nonlinear evolution of low-frequency wave packets in a dispersive plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Bernard J.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of strongly nonlinear, strongly modulated wave packets is investigated in a dispersive plasma using a hybrid numerical code. These wave packets have amplitudes exceeding the strength of the external magnetic field, along which they propagate. Alfven (left helicity) wave packets show strong steepening for p Schrodinger (DNLS) equation.

  10. Nonlinear wave evolution in VLASOV plasma: a lie-transform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, J.R.

    1979-08-01

    Nonlinear wave evolution in Vlasov plasma is analyzed using the Lie transform, a powerful mathematical tool which is applicable to Hamiltonian systems. The first part of this thesis is an exposition of the Lie transform. Dewar's general Lie transform theory is explained and is used to construct Deprit's Lie transform perturbation technique. The basic theory is illustrated by simple examples

  11. Exact solitary wave solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations via Exp-function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebaid, A.

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Exp-function method, exact solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations are obtained. The KdV equation, Burgers' equation and the combined KdV-mKdV equation are chosen to illustrate the effectiveness of the method

  12. Is Current Account of Turkey Sustainable ? Evidence from Nonlinear Unit Root Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Taştan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, current account sustainability of Turkey is analyzed in a nonlinear framework. Various nonlinear unit root tests have been used to test for structural break, sign and size nonlinearity. We have tested structural break and size nonlinearity separately and structural break-sign and size-sign nonlinearities simultaneously. Only considering the size nonlinearity, we have found that the current account of Turkey is sustainable. Thus, the size nonlinearity, in other words the speed of reversion to equilibrium, is essential for the current account sustainability of Turkey. We have also found that the speed of adjustment towards equilibrium is symmetric, while considering size and sign nonlinearities simultaneously.

  13. A Bivariate Chebyshev Spectral Collocation Quasilinearization Method for Nonlinear Evolution Parabolic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Motsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for solving higher order nonlinear evolution partial differential equations (NPDEs. The method combines quasilinearisation, the Chebyshev spectral collocation method, and bivariate Lagrange interpolation. In this paper, we use the method to solve several nonlinear evolution equations, such as the modified KdV-Burgers equation, highly nonlinear modified KdV equation, Fisher's equation, Burgers-Fisher equation, Burgers-Huxley equation, and the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation. The results are compared with known exact analytical solutions from literature to confirm accuracy, convergence, and effectiveness of the method. There is congruence between the numerical results and the exact solutions to a high order of accuracy. Tables were generated to present the order of accuracy of the method; convergence graphs to verify convergence of the method and error graphs are presented to show the excellent agreement between the results from this study and the known results from literature.

  14. A bivariate Chebyshev spectral collocation quasilinearization method for nonlinear evolution parabolic equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsa, S S; Magagula, V M; Sibanda, P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for solving higher order nonlinear evolution partial differential equations (NPDEs). The method combines quasilinearisation, the Chebyshev spectral collocation method, and bivariate Lagrange interpolation. In this paper, we use the method to solve several nonlinear evolution equations, such as the modified KdV-Burgers equation, highly nonlinear modified KdV equation, Fisher's equation, Burgers-Fisher equation, Burgers-Huxley equation, and the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation. The results are compared with known exact analytical solutions from literature to confirm accuracy, convergence, and effectiveness of the method. There is congruence between the numerical results and the exact solutions to a high order of accuracy. Tables were generated to present the order of accuracy of the method; convergence graphs to verify convergence of the method and error graphs are presented to show the excellent agreement between the results from this study and the known results from literature.

  15. Universal and integrable nonlinear evolution systems of equations in 2+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccari, A.

    1997-01-01

    Integrable systems of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) are obtained from integrable equations in 2+1 dimensions, by means of a reduction method of broad applicability based on Fourier expansion and spatio endash temporal rescalings, which is asymptotically exact in the limit of weak nonlinearity. The integrability by the spectral transform is explicitly demonstrated, because the corresponding Lax pairs have been derived, applying the same reduction method to the Lax pair of the initial equation. These systems of nonlinear PDEs are likely to be of applicative relevance and have a open-quotes universalclose quotes character, inasmuch as they may be derived from a very large class of nonlinear evolution equations with a linear dispersive part. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Time evolution of absorption process in nonlinear metallic photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R.; Hatef, Ali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    The time evolution of the absorption coefficient in metallic photonic crystals has been studied numerically. These crystals are made from metallic spheres which are arranged periodically in air. The refractive index of the metallic spheres depends on the plasma frequency. Probe and pump fields are applied to monitor the absorption process. Ensembles of three-level particles are embedded in the crystal. Nanoparticles are interacting with the metallic crystals via the electron-photon interaction. It is found that when the resonance states lie away from the band edges system goes to transparent state. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Traveling wave solutions for two nonlinear evolution equations with nonlinear terms of any order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qing-Hua; Zhang Yao-Ming; Meng Fan-Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, based on the known first integral method and the Riccati sub-ordinary differential equation (ODE) method, we try to seek the exact solutions of the general Gardner equation and the general Benjamin—Bona—Mahoney equation. As a result, some traveling wave solutions for the two nonlinear equations are established successfully. Also we make a comparison between the two methods. It turns out that the Riccati sub-ODE method is more effective than the first integral method in handling the proposed problems, and more general solutions are constructed by the Riccati sub-ODE method. (general)

  18. Dispersive Evolution of Nonlinear Fast Magnetoacoustic Wave Trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M., E-mail: D.J.Pascoe@warwick.ac.uk [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-01

    Quasi-periodic rapidly propagating wave trains are frequently observed in extreme ultraviolet observations of the solar corona, or are inferred by the quasi-periodic modulation of radio emission. The dispersive nature of fast magnetohydrodynamic waves in coronal structures provides a robust mechanism to explain the detected quasi-periodic patterns. We perform 2D numerical simulations of impulsively generated wave trains in coronal plasma slabs and investigate how the behavior of the trapped and leaky components depend on the properties of the initial perturbation. For large amplitude compressive perturbations, the geometrical dispersion associated with the waveguide suppresses the nonlinear steepening for the trapped wave train. The wave train formed by the leaky components does not experience dispersion once it leaves the waveguide and so can steepen and form shocks. The mechanism we consider can lead to the formation of multiple shock fronts by a single, large amplitude, impulsive event and so can account for quasi-periodic features observed in radio spectra.

  19. A 'Turing' Test for Landscape Evolution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, A. J.; Wise, S. M.; Wainwright, J.; Swift, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    Resolving the interactions among tectonics, climate and surface processes at long timescales has benefited from the development of computer models of landscape evolution. However, testing these Landscape Evolution Models (LEMs) has been piecemeal and partial. We argue that a more systematic approach is required. What is needed is a test that will establish how 'realistic' an LEM is and thus the extent to which its predictions may be trusted. We propose a test based upon the Turing Test of artificial intelligence as a way forward. In 1950 Alan Turing posed the question of whether a machine could think. Rather than attempt to address the question directly he proposed a test in which an interrogator asked questions of a person and a machine, with no means of telling which was which. If the machine's answer could not be distinguished from those of the human, the machine could be said to demonstrate artificial intelligence. By analogy, if an LEM cannot be distinguished from a real landscape it can be deemed to be realistic. The Turing test of intelligence is a test of the way in which a computer behaves. The analogy in the case of an LEM is that it should show realistic behaviour in terms of form and process, both at a given moment in time (punctual) and in the way both form and process evolve over time (dynamic). For some of these behaviours, tests already exist. For example there are numerous morphometric tests of punctual form and measurements of punctual process. The test discussed in this paper provides new ways of assessing dynamic behaviour of an LEM over realistically long timescales. However challenges remain in developing an appropriate suite of challenging tests, in applying these tests to current LEMs and in developing LEMs that pass them.

  20. Algebraic dynamics solutions and algebraic dynamics algorithm for nonlinear partial differential evolution equations of dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using functional derivative technique in quantum field theory, the algebraic dy-namics approach for solution of ordinary differential evolution equations was gen-eralized to treat partial differential evolution equations. The partial differential evo-lution equations were lifted to the corresponding functional partial differential equations in functional space by introducing the time translation operator. The functional partial differential evolution equations were solved by algebraic dynam-ics. The algebraic dynamics solutions are analytical in Taylor series in terms of both initial functions and time. Based on the exact analytical solutions, a new nu-merical algorithm—algebraic dynamics algorithm was proposed for partial differ-ential evolution equations. The difficulty of and the way out for the algorithm were discussed. The application of the approach to and computer numerical experi-ments on the nonlinear Burgers equation and meteorological advection equation indicate that the algebraic dynamics approach and algebraic dynamics algorithm are effective to the solution of nonlinear partial differential evolution equations both analytically and numerically.

  1. Traveling solitary wave solutions to evolution equations with nonlinear terms of any order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhaosheng

    2003-01-01

    Many physical phenomena in one- or higher-dimensional space can be described by nonlinear evolution equations, which can be reduced to ordinary differential equations such as the Lienard equation. Thus, to study those ordinary differential equations is of significance not only in mathematics itself, but also in physics. In this paper, a kind of explicit exact solutions to the Lienard equation is obtained. The applications of the solutions to the nonlinear RR-equation and the compound KdV-type equation are presented, which extend the results obtained in the previous literature

  2. Symplectic and Hamiltonian structures of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfman, I.Y.

    1993-01-01

    A Hamiltonian structure on a finite-dimensional manifold can be introduced either by endowing it with a (pre)symplectic structure, or by describing the Poisson bracket with the help of a tensor with two upper indices named the Poisson structure. Under the assumption of nondegeneracy, the Poisson structure is nothing else than the inverse of the symplectic structure. Also in the degenerate case the distinction between the two approaches is almost insignificant, because both presymplectic and Poisson structures split into symplectic structures on leaves of appropriately chosen foliations. Hamiltonian structures that arise in the theory of evolution equations demonstrate something new in this respect: trying to operate in local terms, one is induced to develop both approaches independently. Hamiltonian operators, being the infinite-dimensional counterparts of Poisson structures, were the first to become the subject of investigations. A considerable period of time passed before the papers initiated research in the theory of symplectic operators, being the counterparts of presymplectic structures. In what follows, we focus on the main achievements in this field

  3. A linear evolution for non-linear dynamics and correlations in realistic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, E.; Lublinsky, M.

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to high energy evolution based on a linear equation for QCD generating functional is developed. This approach opens a possibility for systematic study of correlations inside targets, and, in particular, inside realistic nuclei. Our results are presented as three new equations. The first one is a linear equation for QCD generating functional (and for scattering amplitude) that sums the 'fan' diagrams. For the amplitude this equation is equivalent to the non-linear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. The second equation is a generalization of the Balitsky-Kovchegov non-linear equation to interactions with realistic nuclei. It includes a new correlation parameter which incorporates, in a model-dependent way, correlations inside the nuclei. The third equation is a non-linear equation for QCD generating functional (and for scattering amplitude) that in addition to the 'fan' diagrams sums the Glauber-Mueller multiple rescatterings

  4. Analysis and classification of nonlinear dispersive evolution equations in the potential representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichmann, U.A.; Draayer, J.P.; Ludu, A.

    2002-01-01

    A potential representation for the subset of travelling solutions of nonlinear dispersive evolution equations is introduced. The procedure involves reduction of a third-order partial differential equation to a first-order ordinary differential equation. The potential representation allows us to deduce certain properties of the solutions without the actual need to solve the underlying evolution equation. In particular, the paper deals with the so-called K(n, m) equations. Starting from their respective potential representations it is shown that these equations can be classified according to a simple point transformation. As a result, e.g., all equations with linear dispersion join the same equivalence class with the Korteweg-deVries equation being its representative, and all soliton solutions of higher order nonlinear equations are thus equivalent to the KdV soliton. Certain equations with both linear and quadratic dispersions can also be treated within this equivalence class. (author)

  5. Evolution of nonlinear perturbations inside Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donets, E.E.; Tentyukov, M.N.; Tsulaya, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    We present our results on numerical study of evolution of nonlinear perturbations inside spherically symmetric black holes in the SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) theory. Recent developments demonstrate a new type of the behaviour of the metric for EYM black hole interiors; the generic metric exhibits an infinitely oscillating approach to the singularity, which is a spacelike but not of the mixmaster type. The evolution of various types of spherically symmetric perturbations, propagating from the internal vicinity of the external horizon towards the singularity is investigated in a self-consistent way using an adaptive numerical algorithm. The obtained results give strong numerical evidence in favor of nonlinear stability of the generic EYM black hole interiors. Alternatively, the EYM black hole interiors of S (schwarzschild)-type, which form only a zero measure subset in the space of all internal solutions are found to be unstable and transform to the generic type as perturbations are developed

  6. Deterministic and stochastic evolution equations for fully dispersive and weakly nonlinear waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldeberky, Y.; Madsen, Per A.

    1999-01-01

    and stochastic formulations are solved numerically for the case of cross shore motion of unidirectional waves and the results are verified against laboratory data for wave propagation over submerged bars and over a plane slope. Outside the surf zone the two model predictions are generally in good agreement......This paper presents a new and more accurate set of deterministic evolution equations for the propagation of fully dispersive, weakly nonlinear, irregular, multidirectional waves. The equations are derived directly from the Laplace equation with leading order nonlinearity in the surface boundary...... is significantly underestimated for larger wave numbers. In the present work we correct this inconsistency. In addition to the improved deterministic formulation, we present improved stochastic evolution equations in terms of the energy spectrum and the bispectrum for multidirectional waves. The deterministic...

  7. Three-dimensional, nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability of a thin layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manheimer, W.; Colombant, D.; Ott, E.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical simulation scheme is developed to examine the nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability of a thin sheet in three dimensions. It is shown that the erosion of mass at the top of the bubble is approximately as described by two-dimensional simulations. However, mass is lost into spikes more slowly in three-dimensional than in two-dimensional simulations

  8. Influence of asymmetric magnetic perturbation on the nonlinear evolution of double tearing modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, G. Z.; Wang, L.; Li, X. Q.; Liu, H. F.; Tang, C. J.; Huang, J.; Zhang, X.; Wang, X. Q.

    2017-06-01

    The effects of asymmetric magnetic perturbation on the triggering and evolution of double tearing modes (DTMs) are investigated using nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics simulations in a slab geometry. We find that for reversed magnetic shear plasmas the resistive reconnection process induced by the initial perturbation at one rational surface can drive a new island at the other rational surface with the same mode number. The four typical states of the mode for the time evolution are found, and include: (i) a linear growth stage; (ii) a linear/nonlinear stable stage; (iii) an interactively driving stage; and (iv) a symmetric DTM stage. These differ from previous simulation results. Moreover, nonlinear DTM growth is found to strongly depend on the asymmetric magnetic perturbation, particularly in the early nonlinear phase. The initial perturbation strength scale of island width suggests that the left island enters into a Sweet-Parker growth process when the right island is sufficiently large to effectively drive the other. These results predict that although externally applied magnetic perturbations can suppress the neoclassical tearing mode they can also trigger new instabilities such as asymmetric DTMs.

  9. Influence of asymmetric magnetic perturbation on the nonlinear evolution of double tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, G Z; Liu, H F; Huang, J; Wang, X Q; Wang, L; Li, X Q; Tang, C J; Zhang, X

    2017-01-01

    The effects of asymmetric magnetic perturbation on the triggering and evolution of double tearing modes (DTMs) are investigated using nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics simulations in a slab geometry. We find that for reversed magnetic shear plasmas the resistive reconnection process induced by the initial perturbation at one rational surface can drive a new island at the other rational surface with the same mode number. The four typical states of the mode for the time evolution are found, and include: (i) a linear growth stage; (ii) a linear/nonlinear stable stage; (iii) an interactively driving stage; and (iv) a symmetric DTM stage. These differ from previous simulation results. Moreover, nonlinear DTM growth is found to strongly depend on the asymmetric magnetic perturbation, particularly in the early nonlinear phase. The initial perturbation strength scale of island width suggests that the left island enters into a Sweet–Parker growth process when the right island is sufficiently large to effectively drive the other. These results predict that although externally applied magnetic perturbations can suppress the neoclassical tearing mode they can also trigger new instabilities such as asymmetric DTMs. (paper)

  10. A test to evaluation non-linear soil structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, T.; Kitada, Y.

    2005-01-01

    JNES is planning a new project to study non-linear soil-structure interaction (SSI) effect under large earthquake ground motions equivalent to and/or over a design earthquake ground motion of S2. Concerning the SSI test, it is pointed out that handling of the scale effect of the specimen taking into account the surrounding soil on the earthquake response evaluation to the actual structure is essential issue for the scaled model test. Thus, for the test, the largest specimen possible and the biggest input motion possible are necessary. Taking into account the above issues, new test methodology, which utilizes artificial earthquake ground motion, is considered desirable if it can be performed at a realistic cost. With this motivation, we have studied the test methodology which applying blasting power as for a big earthquake ground motion. The information from a coalmine company in the U.S.A. indicates that the works performed in the surface coalmine to blast a rock covering a coal layer generates a big artificial ground motion, which is similar to earthquake ground motion. Application of this artificial earthquake ground motion for the SSI test is considered very promising because the blasting work is carried out periodically for mining coal so that we can apply artificial motions generated by the work if we construct a building model at a closed point to the blasting work area. The major purposes of the test are to understand (a) basic earthquake response characteristics of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) reactor building when a large earthquake strikes the NPP site and (b) nonlinear characteristics of SSI phenomenon during a big earthquake. In the paper of ICONE-13, we will introduce the test method and basic characteristics of measured artificial ground motions generated by the blasting works on an actual site. (authors)

  11. Eigenvalue problem and nonlinear evolution of kink modes in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, T.; Takeda, S.; Sanuki, H.; Kamimura, T.

    1979-04-01

    The internal kink modes of a cylindrical plasma are investigated by a linear eigen value problem and their nonlinear evolution is studied by 3-dimensional MHD simulation based on the rectangular column model under the fixed boundary condition. The growth rates in two cases, namely uniform and diffused current profiles are analyzed in detail, which agree with the analytical estimation by Shafranov. The time evolution of the m = 1 mode showed that q > 1 is satisfied at the relaxation time (q safety factor), a stable configuration like a horse shoe (a new equilibrium) was formed. Also, the time evolution of the pressure p for the m = 2 mode showed that a stable configuration like a pair of anchors was formed. (author)

  12. Population ecology, nonlinear dynamics, and social evolution. I. Associations among nonrelatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés, Leticia; Abbot, Patrick; Cutter, Asher D

    2002-02-01

    Using an individual-based and genetically explicit simulation model, we explore the evolution of sociality within a population-ecology and nonlinear-dynamics framework. Assuming that individual fitness is a unimodal function of group size and that cooperation may carry a relative fitness cost, we consider the evolution of one-generation breeding associations among nonrelatives. We explore how parameters such as the intrinsic rate of growth and group and global carrying capacities may influence social evolution and how social evolution may, in turn, influence and be influenced by emerging group-level and population-wide dynamics. We find that group living and cooperation evolve under a wide range of parameter values, even when cooperation is costly and the interactions can be defined as altruistic. Greater levels of cooperation, however, did evolve when cooperation carried a low or no relative fitness cost. Larger group carrying capacities allowed the evolution of larger groups but also resulted in lower cooperative tendencies. When the intrinsic rate of growth was not too small and control of the global population size was density dependent, the evolution of large cooperative tendencies resulted in dynamically unstable groups and populations. These results are consistent with the existence and typical group sizes of organisms ranging from the pleometrotic ants to the colonial birds and the global population outbreaks and crashes characteristic of organisms such as the migratory locusts and the tree-killing bark beetles.

  13. Applications of Automation Methods for Nonlinear Fracture Test Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wells, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Using automated and standardized computer tools to calculate the pertinent test result values has several advantages such as: 1. allowing high-fidelity solutions to complex nonlinear phenomena that would be impractical to express in written equation form, 2. eliminating errors associated with the interpretation and programing of analysis procedures from the text of test standards, 3. lessening the need for expertise in the areas of solid mechanics, fracture mechanics, numerical methods, and/or finite element modeling, to achieve sound results, 4. and providing one computer tool and/or one set of solutions for all users for a more "standardized" answer. In summary, this approach allows a non-expert with rudimentary training to get the best practical solution based on the latest understanding with minimum difficulty.Other existing ASTM standards that cover complicated phenomena use standard computer programs: 1. ASTM C1340/C1340M-10- Standard Practice for Estimation of Heat Gain or Loss Through Ceilings Under Attics Containing Radiant Barriers by Use of a Computer Program 2. ASTM F 2815 - Standard Practice for Chemical Permeation through Protective Clothing Materials: Testing Data Analysis by Use of a Computer Program 3. ASTM E2807 - Standard Specification for 3D Imaging Data Exchange, Version 1.0 The verification, validation, and round-robin processes required of a computer tool closely parallel the methods that are used to ensure the solution validity for equations included in test standard. The use of automated analysis tools allows the creation and practical implementation of advanced fracture mechanics test standards that capture the physics of a nonlinear fracture mechanics problem without adding undue burden or expense to the user. The presented approach forms a bridge between the equation-based fracture testing standards of today and the next generation of standards solving complex problems through analysis automation.

  14. Nonlinear evolution of the mode structure of ELMs in realistic ASDEX Upgrade geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Isabel; Hoelzl, Matthias; Lackner, Karl; Guenter, Sibylle [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2013-07-01

    Edge-localized modes (ELMs) are edge instabilities in H-mode plasmas, which eject particles and energy. The suitability of the H-mode for future fusion reactors depends crucially on the exact ELM dynamics as they can damage plasma facing components if too large. We have simulated ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade geometry using the nonlinear MHD code JOREK. Emphasis was put on the mode structure evolution in the early ELM phase which is characterized by the exponential growth of the unstable toroidal Fourier harmonics followed by a phase of saturation. In the linear phase, toroidal harmonics grow independently, whereas at larger amplitudes, the nonlinear interaction between the toroidal harmonics influences their growth and structure. Prior to mode saturation, the evolution of the mode structure can be reproduced well by a simple quadratic mode-interaction model, which yields a possible explanation for the strong n=1 component of type-I ELMs observed in ASDEX Upgrade. In the linear phase of the simulations, intermediate toroidal mode numbers (n 6-14) are most unstable as predicted by the peeling-ballooning model. But non-linearly, the n=1 component becomes important due to an energy transfer from pairs of linearly dominant toroidal harmonics with neighboring mode numbers to the n=1. The latter thereby changes its spatial structure.

  15. The spectral transform as a tool for solving nonlinear discrete evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, D.

    1979-01-01

    In this contribution we study nonlinear differential difference equations which became important to the description of an increasing number of problems in natural science. Difference equations arise for instance in the study of electrical networks, in statistical problems, in queueing problems, in ecological problems, as computer models for differential equations and as models for wave excitation in plasma or vibrations of particles in an anharmonic lattice. We shall first review the passages necessary to solve linear discrete evolution equations by the discrete Fourier transfrom, then, starting from the Zakharov-Shabat discretized eigenvalue, problem, we shall introduce the spectral transform. In the following part we obtain the correlation between the evolution of the potentials and scattering data through the Wronskian technique, giving at the same time many other properties as, for example, the Baecklund transformations. Finally we recover some of the important equations belonging to this class of nonlinear discrete evolution equations and extend the method to equations with n-dependent coefficients. (HJ)

  16. Some applications of nonlinear diffusion to processing of dynamic evolution images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goltsov, Alexey N.; Nikishov, Sergey A.

    1997-01-01

    Model nonlinear diffusion equation with the most simple Landau-Ginzburg free energy functional was applied to locate boundaries between meaningful regions of low-level images. The method is oriented to processing images of objects that are a result of dynamic evolution: images of different organs and tissues obtained by radiography and NMR methods, electron microscope images of morphogenesis fields, etc. In the methods developed by us, parameters of the nonlinear diffusion model are chosen on the basis of the preliminary treatment of the images. The parameters of the Landau-Ginzburg free energy functional are extracted from the structure factor of the images. Owing to such a choice of the model parameters, the image to be processed is located in the vicinity of the steady-state of the diffusion equation. The suggested method allows one to separate distinct structures having specific space characteristics from the whole image. The method was applied to processing X-ray images of the lung

  17. Nonlinear evolution of single spike structure and vortex in Richtmeyer-Meshkov instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Yuko O.; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Okamoto, Masayo; Nagatomo, Hideo; Matsuoka, Chihiro; Ishizaki, Ryuichi; Sakagami, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    Nonlinear evolution of single spike structure and vortex in the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated for two dimensional case, and axial symmetric and non axial symmetric cases with the use of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic code. It is shown that singularity appears in the vorticity left by transmitted and reflected shocks at a corrugated interface. This singularity results in opposite sign of vorticity along the interface that causes double spiral structure of the spike. Difference of nonlinear growth rate and double spiral structure among three cases is also discussed by visualization of simulation data. In a case that there is no slip-off of initial spike axis, vorticity ring is relatively stable, but phase rotation occurs. (author)

  18. Nonlinear NDT: A Route to Conventional Ultrasonic Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Solodov

    2016-01-01

    The bottleneck problem of nonlinear NDT is a low efficiency of conversion from fundamental frequency to nonlinear frequency components. In this paper, it is proposed to use a combination of nonlinearity with Local Defect Resonance (LDR) to enhance substantially the input-output conversion. Since LDR is an efficient resonance “amplifier” of the local vibrations, it manifests a profound nonlinearity even at moderate ultrasonic excitation level. As the driving frequency matches the LDR-frequency...

  19. Differential Evolution-Based PID Control of Nonlinear Full-Car Electrohydraulic Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimoh O. Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a differential-evolution- (DE- optimized, independent multiloop proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller design for full-car nonlinear, electrohydraulic suspension systems. The multiloop PID control stabilises the actuator via force feedback and also improves the system performance. Controller gains are computed using manual tuning and through DE optimization to minimise a performance index, which addresses suspension travel, road holding, vehicle handling, ride comfort, and power consumption constraints. Simulation results showed superior performance of the DE-optimized PID-controlled active vehicle suspension system (AVSS over the manually tuned PID-controlled AVSS and the passive vehicle suspension system (PVSS.

  20. The relation among the hyperbolic-function-type exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunping; Liu Xiaoping

    2004-01-01

    First, we investigate the solitary wave solutions of the Burgers equation and the KdV equation, which are obtained by using the hyperbolic function method. Then we present a theorem which will not only give us a clear relation among the hyperbolic-function-type exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations, but also provide us an approach to construct new exact solutions in complex scalar field. Finally, we apply the theorem to the KdV-Burgers equation and obtain its new exact solutions

  1. Modelling of the nonlinear evolution of 2D waves and vortices in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranov, V.B.

    1998-01-01

    In this report an antisymmetric lattice formed by standing waves of vorticity is considered. For small but finite amplitudes multiple-time-scale analysis is performed, higher harmonics generation and frequency shifts are evaluated analytically and critical amplitude for perturbation theory is determined. For amplitudes bigger than critical numerical simulations are carried out taking into account vortex nonlinearity, drift and dispersion effects. Numerical code is developed which allows to study long-term evolution of two-dimensional spatially periodic waves and vortex structures

  2. A class of periodic solutions of nonlinear wave and evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashcheev, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    For the case of 1+1 dimensions a new heuristic method is proposed for deriving dels-similar solutions to nonlinear autonomous differential equations. If the differential function f is a polynomial, then: (i) in the case of even derivatives in f the solution is the ratio of two polynomials from the Weierstrass elliptic functions; (ii) in the case of any order derivatives in f the solution is the ratio of two polynomials from simple exponents. Numerous examples are given constructing such periodic solutions to the wave and evolution equations

  3. Nonlinear Analysis and Preliminary Testing Results of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2015-01-01

    A large test article was recently designed, analyzed, fabricated, and successfully tested up to the representative design ultimate loads to demonstrate that stiffened composite panels with through-the-thickness reinforcement are a viable option for the next generation large transport category aircraft, including non-conventional configurations such as the hybrid wing body. This paper focuses on finite element analysis and test data correlation of the hybrid wing body center section test article under mechanical, pressure and combined load conditions. Good agreement between predictive nonlinear finite element analysis and test data is found. Results indicate that a geometrically nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately capture the behavior of the non-circular pressurized and highly-stressed structure when the design approach permits local buckling.

  4. Research on Fatigue Damage of Compressor Blade Steel KMN-I Using Nonlinear Ultrasonic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue damage of compressor blade steel KMN-I was investigated using nonlinear ultrasonic testing and the relation curve between the material nonlinearity parameter β and the fatigue life was obtained. The results showed that the nonlinearity parameter increased first and then decreased with the increase of the fatigue cycles. The microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that some small defects like holes and pits appeared in the material matrix with the increase of the fatigue cycles, and the nonlinearity parameter increased correspondingly. The nonlinearity parameter reached the peak value when the microcracks initiated, and the nonlinearity parameter began to decrease when the microcracks further propagated to macrocracks. Therefore, it is proved that the nonlinearity parameter can be used to characterize the initiation of microcracks at the early stage of fatigue, and a method of evaluating the fatigue life of materials by nonlinear ultrasonic testing is proposed.

  5. Fast and local non-linear evolution of steep wave-groups on deep water: A comparison of approximate models to fully non-linear simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, T. A. A.; Taylor, P. H.

    2016-01-01

    The non-linear Schrödinger equation and its higher order extensions are routinely used for analysis of extreme ocean waves. This paper compares the evolution of individual wave-packets modelled using non-linear Schrödinger type equations with packets modelled using fully non-linear potential flow models. The modified non-linear Schrödinger Equation accurately models the relatively large scale non-linear changes to the shape of wave-groups, with a dramatic contraction of the group along the mean propagation direction and a corresponding extension of the width of the wave-crests. In addition, as extreme wave form, there is a local non-linear contraction of the wave-group around the crest which leads to a localised broadening of the wave spectrum which the bandwidth limited non-linear Schrödinger Equations struggle to capture. This limitation occurs for waves of moderate steepness and a narrow underlying spectrum

  6. Thin layer model for nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, K. G.; Wang, L. F.; Xue, C.; Ye, W. H.; Wu, J. F.; Ding, Y. K.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2018-03-01

    On the basis of the thin layer approximation [Ott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1429 (1972)], a revised thin layer model for incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability has been developed to describe the deformation and nonlinear evolution of the perturbed interface. The differential equations for motion are obtained by analyzing the forces (the gravity and pressure difference) of fluid elements (i.e., Newton's second law). The positions of the perturbed interface are obtained from the numerical solution of the motion equations. For the case of vacuum on both sides of the layer, the positions of the upper and lower interfaces obtained from the revised thin layer approximation agree with that from the weakly nonlinear (WN) model of a finite-thickness fluid layer [Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 122710 (2014)]. For the case considering the fluids on both sides of the layer, the bubble-spike amplitude from the revised thin layer model agrees with that from the WN model [Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 052305 (2010)] and the expanded Layzer's theory [Goncharov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 134502 (2002)] in the early nonlinear growth regime. Note that the revised thin layer model can be applied to investigate the perturbation growth at arbitrary Atwood numbers. In addition, the large deformation (the large perturbed amplitude and the arbitrary perturbed distributions) in the initial stage can also be described by the present model.

  7. Multiple travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations using a unified algebraic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui

    2002-01-01

    A new direct and unified algebraic method for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions of general nonlinear evolution equations is presented and implemented in a computer algebraic system. Compared with most of the existing tanh methods, the Jacobi elliptic function method or other sophisticated methods, the proposed method not only gives new and more general solutions, but also provides a guideline to classify the various types of the travelling wave solutions according to the values of some parameters. The solutions obtained in this paper include (a) kink-shaped and bell-shaped soliton solutions, (b) rational solutions, (c) triangular periodic solutions and (d) Jacobi and Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. Among them, the Jacobi elliptic periodic wave solutions exactly degenerate to the soliton solutions at a certain limit condition. The efficiency of the method can be demonstrated on a large variety of nonlinear evolution equations such as those considered in this paper, KdV-MKdV, Ito's fifth MKdV, Hirota, Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov, Broer-Kaup, generalized coupled Hirota-Satsuma, coupled Schroedinger-KdV, (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave, (2+1)-dimensional Davey-Stewartson equations. In addition, as an illustrative sample, the properties of the soliton solutions and Jacobi doubly periodic solutions for the Hirota equation are shown by some figures. The links among our proposed method, the tanh method, extended tanh method and the Jacobi elliptic function method are clarified generally. (author)

  8. Comparison of a nonlinear dynamic model of a piping system to test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, K.D.; Howard, G.E.; Walton, W.B.; Johnson, B.A.; Chitty, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Response of a nonlinear finite element model of the Heissdampfreaktor recirculation piping loop (URL) was compared to measured data, representing the physical benchmarking of a nonlinear model. Analysis-test comparisons of piping response are presented for snapback tests that induced extreme nonlinear behavior of the URL system. Nonlinearities in the system are due to twelve swaybraces (pipe supports) that possessed nonlinear force-deflection characteristics. These nonlinearities distorted system damping estimates made by using the half-power bandwidth method on Fourier transforms of measured accelerations, with the severity of distortion increasing with increasing degree of nonlinearity. Time domain methods, which are not so severely affected by the presence of nonlinearities, were used to compute system damping ratios. Nonlinear dynamic analyses were accurately and efficiently performed using the pseudo-force technique and the finite element program MSC/NASTRAN. Measured damping was incorporated into the model for snapback simulations. Acceleration time histories, acceleration Fourier transforms, and swaybrace force time histories of the nonlinear model, plus several linear models, were compared to test measurements. The nonlinear model predicted three-fourths of the measured peak accelerations to within 50%, half of the accelerations to within 25%, and one-fifth of the accelerations to within 10%. This nonlinear model predicted accelerations (in the time and frequency domains) and swaybrace forces much better than did any of the linear models, demonstrating the increased accuracy resulting from properly simulating nonlinear support behavior. In addition, earthquake response comparisons were made between the experimentally validated nonlinear model and a linear model. Significantly lower element stresses were predicted for the nonlinear model, indicating the potential usefulness of nonlinear simulations in piping design assessments. (orig.)

  9. An analytical method for solving exact solutions of a nonlinear evolution equation describing the dynamics of ionic currents along microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nur Alam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a variety of solitary wave solutions are observed for microtubules (MTs. We approach the problem by treating the solutions as nonlinear RLC transmission lines and then find exact solutions of Nonlinear Evolution Equations (NLEEs involving parameters of special interest in nanobiosciences and biophysics. We determine hyperbolic, trigonometric, rational and exponential function solutions and obtain soliton-like pulse solutions for these equations. A comparative study against other methods demonstrates the validity of the technique that we developed and demonstrates that our method provides additional solutions. Finally, using suitable parameter values, we plot 2D and 3D graphics of the exact solutions that we observed using our method. Keywords: Analytical method, Exact solutions, Nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs of microtubules, Nonlinear RLC transmission lines

  10. Testing the Granger noncausality hypothesis in stationary nonlinear models of unknown functional form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Péguin-Feissolle, Anne; Strikholm, Birgit; Teräsvirta, Timo

    In this paper we propose a general method for testing the Granger noncausality hypothesis in stationary nonlinear models of unknown functional form. These tests are based on a Taylor expansion of the nonlinear model around a given point in the sample space. We study the performance of our tests b...

  11. A Nonlinear Unit Root Test in the Presence of an Unknown Break

    OpenAIRE

    Popp, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    The Perron test is the most commonly applied procedure to test for a unit root in the presence of a structural break of unknown timing in the trend function. Deriving the Perron-type test regression from an unobserved component model, it is shown that the test regression in fact is nonlinear in coefficient. Taking account of the nonlinearity leads to a test with properties that are exclusively assigned to Schmidt-Phillips LM-type unit root tests.

  12. Are Current Accounts of Asian Economies Mean-reverting?: Nonlinear Unit Root Test Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonghan Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the mean reverting property of current account in the financial crisis-affected 5 counties of southeast Asia using nonlinear unit root tests of Park and shintani(2004. Our approach is based on the idea that a conventional unit root test has lower power in detecting the nonlinear mean reverting behavior if the current account follows a nonlinear mean reversion process. We obtained following empirical results. First, for the pre-crisis period (1981Q1-1996Q4, the current accounts of Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines are mean-reverting but those of Korea and Thailand are not mean-reverting. Second, for the full sample period (1981Q1-2003Q4, the ADF test fails to reject the unit root of the current account in all countries except Philippines. However, unit root is rejected in favor of nonlinear mean reversion except Thailand. This nonlinear unit root test result implies that crisis-affected Asian countries except Thailand have sustainable paths of current accounts. Third, when the current accounts of East Asian countries are nonlinear mean-reverting, the mean reverting process can be well described by the ESTAR model, instead of the DTAR or DLSTAR model. The nonlinear unit root test results imply smooth nonlinear mean-reversion behaviors of East Asian current accounts. Finally, the shape of estimated impulse response functions becomes steeper as the size of shock increases, which is the very characteristic of the nonlinear process.

  13. Testing nonlinearities between Brazilian exchange rate and inflation volatilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane R. Albuquerque

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies, directly addressing exchange rate and inflation volatilities, and lack of consensus among them. However, this kind of study is necessary, especially under an inflation-targeting system where the monetary authority must know well price behavior. This article analyses the relation between exchange rate and inflation volatilities using a bivariate GARCH model, and therefore modeling conditional volatilities, fact largely unexplored by the literature. We find a semi-concave relation between those series, and this nonlinearity may explain their apparently disconnection under a floating exchange rate system. The article also shows that traditional tests, with non-conditional volatilities, are not robust.Existem poucos estudos, e pouco consenso, sobre a relação entre as volatilidades cambial e da inflação. Todavia, tais estudos são necessários, especialmente em um regime de metas de inflação onde a autoridade monetária deve conhecer detalhadamente o comportamento dos preços. Existem poucos estudos, e pouco consenso, sobre a relação entre as volatilidades cambial e da inflação. Todavia, tais estudos são necessários, especialmente em um regime de metas de inflação onde a autoridade monetária deve conhecer detalhadamente o comportamento dos preços. Este artigo analisa a relação entre aquelas volatilidades usando um modelo Garch bivariado, modelando, portanto, as volatilidades condicionais, enfoque pouco explorado pela literatura. Encontramos uma relação semi-côncava entre as séries, e esta não-linearidade pode explicar o aparente descolamento das mesmas em períodos de regime cambial flutuante. O artigo também mostra que os testes tradicionais, com volatilidades não-condicionais, não são robustos.

  14. Nonlinear evolution dynamics of holographic superconductor model with scalar self-interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zi, Tieguang; Zhang, Hongbao

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the holographic superconductor model that is described by the Einstein-Maxwell theory with the self-interaction term λ |Ψ |4 of complex scalar field in asymptotic anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Below critical temperature Tc, the planar Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole is unstable due to the near-horizon scalar condensation instability. We study the full nonlinear development of this instability by numerically solving the gravitational dynamics in the asymptotic AdS spacetime, and observe a dynamical process from the perturbed Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole to a hairy black hole when the initial black hole temperature T process is then holographically dual to the dynamical superconducting phase transition process in the boundary theory. Furthermore, we also study the effect of the scalar self-interaction on time evolution of superconducting condensate operator, event and apparent horizon areas of the final hairy black hole.

  15. Response and reliability analysis of nonlinear uncertain dynamical structures by the probability density evolution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Peng, Yongbo; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the response and reliability analysis of hysteretic or geometric nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems of arbitrary dimensionality driven by stochastic processes. The approach is based on the probability density evolution method proposed by Li and Chen (Stochastic dynamics...... of structures, 1st edn. Wiley, London, 2009; Probab Eng Mech 20(1):33–44, 2005), which circumvents the dimensional curse of traditional methods for the determination of non-stationary probability densities based on Markov process assumptions and the numerical solution of the related Fokker–Planck and Kolmogorov......–Feller equations. The main obstacle of the method is that a multi-dimensional convolution integral needs to be carried out over the sample space of a set of basic random variables, for which reason the number of these need to be relatively low. In order to handle this problem an approach is suggested, which...

  16. Identification of time-varying nonlinear systems using differential evolution algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Green, Peter L; Worden, Keith

    2013-01-01

    (DE) algorithm for the identification of time-varying systems. DE is an evolutionary optimisation method developed to perform direct search in a continuous space without requiring any derivative estimation. DE is modified so that the objective function changes with time to account for the continuing......, thus identification of time-varying systems with nonlinearities can be a very challenging task. In order to avoid conventional least squares and gradient identification methods which require uni-modal and double differentiable objective functions, this work proposes a modified differential evolution...... inclusion of new data within an error metric. This paper presents results of identification of a time-varying SDOF system with Coulomb friction using simulated noise-free and noisy data for the case of time-varying friction coefficient, stiffness and damping. The obtained results are promising and the focus...

  17. A Simple Approach to Derive a Novel N-Soliton Solution for a (3+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianping

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Hirota bilinear form, a simple approach without employing the standard perturbation technique, is presented for constructing a novel N-soliton solution for a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation. Moreover, the novel N-soliton solution is shown to have resonant behavior with the aid of Mathematica. (general)

  18. The relation between the kink-type solution and the kink-bell-type solution of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunping

    2003-01-01

    Using a direct algebraic method, more new exact solutions of the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation are presented by formula form. Then a theorem concerning the relation between the kink-type solution and the kink-bell-type solution of nonlinear evolution equations is given. Finally, the applications of the theorem to several well-known equations in physics are also discussed

  19. Examining the Islamic stock market efficiency: Evidence from nonlinear ESTAR unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Heru Setianto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the efficient market hypothesis (EMH in the Islamic stock market namely Jakarta Islamic Index by emphasizing on the random walk behavior and nonlinearity. In the first step, we employ Brock et al. (1996 test to examine the presence of nonlinear behavior in Jakarta Islamic Index. The evidence of nonlinear behavior in the indices, motivate us to use nonlinear ESTAR unit root test procedure recently developed by Kapetanios et al. (2003 and Kruse (2011. The nonlinear unit root test procedure fail to rejects the null hypothesis of unit root for the indices, suggesting that Jakarta Islamic Index characterized by random walk process supporting the theory of efficient market hypothesis. In addition, Lumsdaine and Papel (LP test identified significant structural breaks in the index series.

  20. Testing Weak Form Market Efficiency for Emerging Economies: A Nonlinear Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Omay, Nazli C.; Karadagli, Ece C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we address weak form stock market efficiency of Emerging Economies, by testing whether the price series of these markets contain unit root. Nonlinear behavior of stock prices is well documented in the literature, and thus linear unit root tests may not be appropriate in this case. For this purpose, we employ the nonlinear unit root test procedure recently developed by Kapetanios et al. (2003) and nonlinear panel unit root test Ucar and Omay (2009) that has a better power than s...

  1. Rethinking developmental toxicity testing: Evolution or revolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Daston, George; Chen, Connie; Coder, Prägati S; Euling, Susan Y; Foreman, Jennifer; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia; Knudsen, Thomas; Makris, Susan L; Morford, LaRonda; Piersma, Aldert H; Stanislaus, Dinesh; Thompson, Kary E

    2018-01-01

    Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental

  2. Curve Evolution in Subspaces and Exploring the Metameric Class of Histogram of Gradient Orientation based Features using Nonlinear Projection Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatu, Aditya Jayant

    This thesis deals with two unrelated issues, restricting curve evolution to subspaces and computing image patches in the equivalence class of Histogram of Gradient orientation based features using nonlinear projection methods. Curve evolution is a well known method used in various applications like...... tracking interfaces, active contour based segmentation methods and others. It can also be used to study shape spaces, as deforming a shape can be thought of as evolving its boundary curve. During curve evolution a curve traces out a path in the infinite dimensional space of curves. Due to application...... specific requirements like shape priors or a given data model, and due to limitations of the computer, the computed curve evolution forms a path in some finite dimensional subspace of the space of curves. We give methods to restrict the curve evolution to a finite dimensional linear or implicitly defined...

  3. Nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with delay: some theorems, test problems, exact and numerical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanin, A. D.; Sorokin, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with one or several delays. We formulate theorems that allow constructing exact solutions for some classes of these equations, which depend on several arbitrary functions. Examples of application of these theorems for obtaining new exact solutions in elementary functions are provided. We state basic principles of construction, selection, and use of test problems for nonlinear partial differential equations with delay. Some test problems which can be suitable for estimating accuracy of approximate analytical and numerical methods of solving reaction-diffusion equations with delay are presented. Some examples of numerical solutions of nonlinear test problems with delay are considered.

  4. Geostrophic tripolar vortices in a two-layer fluid: Linear stability and nonlinear evolution of equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinaud, J. N.; Sokolovskiy, M. A.; Carton, X.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate equilibrium solutions for tripolar vortices in a two-layer quasi-geostrophic flow. Two of the vortices are like-signed and lie in one layer. An opposite-signed vortex lies in the other layer. The families of equilibria can be spanned by the distance (called separation) between the two like-signed vortices. Two equilibrium configurations are possible when the opposite-signed vortex lies between the two other vortices. In the first configuration (called ordinary roundabout), the opposite signed vortex is equidistant to the two other vortices. In the second configuration (eccentric roundabouts), the distances are unequal. We determine the equilibria numerically and describe their characteristics for various internal deformation radii. The two branches of equilibria can co-exist and intersect for small deformation radii. Then, the eccentric roundabouts are stable while unstable ordinary roundabouts can be found. Indeed, ordinary roundabouts exist at smaller separations than eccentric roundabouts do, thus inducing stronger vortex interactions. However, for larger deformation radii, eccentric roundabouts can also be unstable. Then, the two branches of equilibria do not cross. The branch of eccentric roundabouts only exists for large separations. Near the end of the branch of eccentric roundabouts (at the smallest separation), one of the like-signed vortices exhibits a sharp inner corner where instabilities can be triggered. Finally, we investigate the nonlinear evolution of a few selected cases of tripoles.

  5. Non-linear macro evolution of a dc driven micro atmospheric glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S. F.; Zhong, X. X., E-mail: xxzhong@sjtu.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory on Fiber Optic Local Area, Communication Networks and Advanced Optical Communication Systems, Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-10-15

    We studied the macro evolution of the micro atmospheric glow discharge generated between a micro argon jet into ambient air and static water. The micro discharge behaves similarly to a complex ecosystem. Non-linear behaviors are found for the micro discharge when the water acts as a cathode, different from the discharge when water behaves as an anode. Groups of snapshots of the micro discharge formed at different discharge currents are captured by an intensified charge-coupled device with controlled exposure time, and each group consisted of 256 images taken in succession. Edge detection methods are used to identify the water surface and then the total brightness is defined by adding up the signal counts over the area of the micro discharge. Motions of the water surface at different discharge currents show that the water surface lowers increasingly rapidly when the water acts as a cathode. In contrast, the water surface lowers at a constant speed when the water behaves as an anode. The light curves are similar to logistic growth curves, suggesting that a self-inhibition process occurs in the micro discharge. Meanwhile, the total brightness increases linearly during the same time when the water acts as an anode. Discharge-water interactions cause the micro discharge to evolve. The charged particle bomb process is probably responsible for the different behaviors of the micro discharges when the water acts as cathode and anode.

  6. Scenarios for the nonlinear evolution of alpha particle induced Alfven wave instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Ye, Huanchun.

    1992-03-01

    Various nonlinear scenarios are given for the evolution of energetic particles that are slowing down in a background plasma and simultaneously causing instability of the background plasma waves. If the background damping is sufficiently weak, a steady-state wave is established as described by Berk and Breizman. For larger background damping rate pulsations develop. Saturation occurs when the wave amplitude rises to where the wave trapping frequency equals the growth rate. The wave then damps due to the small background dissipation present and a relatively long quiet interval exists between bursts while the free energy of the distribution is refilled by classical transport. In this scenario the anomalous energy loss of energetic particles due to diffusion is small compared to the classical collisional energy exchange with the background plasma. However, if at the trapping frequency, the wave amplitude is large enough to cause orbit stochasticity, a phase space ''explosion'' occurs where the wave amplitudes rise to higher levels which leads to rapid loss of energetic particles

  7. Nonlinear evolution-type equations and their exact solutions using inverse variational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, A H; Khalique, C M

    2005-01-01

    We present the role of invariants in obtaining exact solutions of differential equations. Firstly, conserved vectors of a partial differential equation (p.d.e.) allow us to obtain reduced forms of the p.d.e. for which some of the Lie point symmetries (in vector field form) are easily concluded and, therefore, provide a mechanism for further reduction. Secondly, invariants of reduced forms of a p.d.e. are obtainable from a variational principle even though the p.d.e. itself does not admit a Lagrangian. In this latter case, the reductions carry all the usual advantages regarding Noether symmetries and double reductions. The examples we consider are nonlinear evolution-type equations such as the Korteweg-deVries equation, but a detailed analysis is made on the Fisher equation (which describes reaction-diffusion waves in biology, inter alia). Other diffusion-type equations lend themselves well to the method we describe (e.g., the Fitzhugh Nagumo equation, which is briefly discussed). Some aspects of Painleve properties are also suggested

  8. Influence of helical external driven current on nonlinear resistive tearing mode evolution and saturation in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Wang, S.; Ma, Z. W.

    2017-06-01

    The influences of helical driven currents on nonlinear resistive tearing mode evolution and saturation are studied by using a three-dimensional toroidal resistive magnetohydrodynamic code (CLT). We carried out three types of helical driven currents: stationary, time-dependent amplitude, and thickness. It is found that the helical driven current is much more efficient than the Gaussian driven current used in our previous study [S. Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 23(5), 052503 (2016)]. The stationary helical driven current cannot persistently control tearing mode instabilities. For the time-dependent helical driven current with f c d = 0.01 and δ c d < 0.04 , the island size can be reduced to its saturated level that is about one third of the initial island size. However, if the total driven current increases to about 7% of the total plasma current, tearing mode instabilities will rebound again due to the excitation of the triple tearing mode. For the helical driven current with time dependent strength and thickness, the reduction speed of the radial perturbation component of the magnetic field increases with an increase in the driven current and then saturates at a quite low level. The tearing mode is always controlled even for a large driven current.

  9. Approach in Theory of Nonlinear Evolution Equations: The Vakhnenko-Parkes Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Vakhnenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of methods for examining the properties and solutions of nonlinear evolution equations are explored by using the Vakhnenko equation (VE as an example. The VE, which arises in modelling the propagation of high-frequency waves in a relaxing medium, has periodic and solitary traveling wave solutions some of which are loop-like in nature. The VE can be written in an alternative form, known as the Vakhnenko-Parkes equation (VPE, by a change of independent variables. The VPE has an N-soliton solution which is discussed in detail. Individual solitons are hump-like in nature whereas the corresponding solution to the VE comprises N-loop-like solitons. Aspects of the inverse scattering transform (IST method, as applied originally to the KdV equation, are used to find one- and two-soliton solutions to the VPE even though the VPE’s spectral equation is third-order and not second-order. A Bäcklund transformation for the VPE is used to construct conservation laws. The standard IST method for third-order spectral problems is used to investigate solutions corresponding to bound states of the spectrum and to a continuous spectrum. This leads to N-soliton solutions and M-mode periodic solutions, respectively. Interactions between these types of solutions are investigated.

  10. BNL NONLINEAR PRE TEST SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR THE NUPEC ULTIMATE STRENGTH PIPING TEST PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEGRASSI, G.; HOFMAYER, C.; MURPHY, C.; SUZUKI, K.; NAMITA, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has been conducting a multi-year research program to investigate the behavior of nuclear power plant piping systems under large seismic loads. The objectives of the program are: to develop a better understanding of the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping; to ascertain the seismic safety margin of current piping design codes; and to assess new piping code allowable stress rules. Under this program, NUPEC has performed a large-scale seismic proving test of a representative nuclear power plant piping system. In support of the proving test, a series of materials tests, static and dynamic piping component tests, and seismic tests of simplified piping systems have also been performed. As part of collaborative efforts between the United States and Japan on seismic issues, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and its contractor, the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this research program by performing pre-test and post-test analyses, and by evaluating the significance of the program results with regard to safety margins. This paper describes BNL's pre-test analysis to predict the elasto-plastic response for one of NUPEC's simplified piping system seismic tests. The capability to simulate the anticipated ratcheting response of the system was of particular interest. Analyses were performed using classical bilinear and multilinear kinematic hardening models as well as a nonlinear kinematic hardening model. Comparisons of analysis results for each plasticity model against test results for a static cycling elbow component test and for a simplified piping system seismic test are presented in the paper

  11. The non-linear evolution of magnetic flux ropes: 3. effects of dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the evolution (expansion or oscillation of cylindrically symmetric magnetic flux ropes when the energy dissipation is due to a drag force proportional to the product of the plasma density and the radial speed of expansion. The problem is reduced to a single, second-order, ordinary differential equation for a damped, non-linear oscillator. Motivated by recent work on the interplanetary medium and the solar corona, we consider polytropes whose index, γ, may be less than unity. Numerical analysis shows that, in contrast to the small-amplitude case, large-amplitude oscillations are quasi-periodic with frequencies substantially higher than those of undamped oscillators. The asymptotic behaviour described by the momentum equation is determined by a balance between the drag force and the gradient of the gas pressure, leading to a velocity of expansion of the flux rope which may be expressed as (1/2γr/t, where r is the radial coordinate and t is the time. In the absence of a drag force, we found in earlier work that the evolution depends both on the polytropic index and on a dimensionless parameter, κ. Parameter κ was found to have a critical value above which oscillations are impossible, and below which they can exist only for energies less than a certain energy threshold. In the presence of a drag force, the concept of a critical κ remains valid, and when κ is above critical, the oscillatory mode disappears altogether. Furthermore, critical κ remains dependent only on γ and is, in particular, independent of the normalized drag coefficient, ν*. Below critical κ, however, the energy required for the flux rope to escape to infinity depends not only on κ (as in the conservative force case but also on ν*. This work indicates how under certain conditions a small change in the viscous drag coefficient or the initial energy may alter the evolution drastically. It is thus important to determine ν* and κ from observations.

  12. Nonlinear Schrodinger equation: A testing ground for the quantization of nonlinear waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.; Krejs, F.

    1976-01-01

    Quantization of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is carried out by the method due to Kerman and Klein. A viable procedure is inferred from the quantum interpretation of the classical (soliton) solution. The ground-state energy for a system with n particles is calculated to an accuracy which includes the first quantum correction to the semiclassical result. It is demonstrated that the exact answer can be obtained systematically only at the next level of approximation. For the calculation of the first quantum correction, the quantum theory of the stability of periodic orbits in field theory is developed and discussed. Since one is dealing with a finite many-body problem, the field theory can be written so that no infinite terms are encountered, but the Hamiltonian can also be artificially rearranged so as to destory this feature. For learning purposes the calculations are carried out with the various alternatives, and our methods prove capable of providing a uniform final result

  13. TESTING NONLINEAR INFLATION CONVERGENCE FOR THE CENTRAL AFRICAN ECONOMIC AND MONETARY COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Anoruo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses nonlinear unit root testing procedures to examine the issue of inflation convergence for the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC member states including Cameron, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The results from nonlinear STAR unit root tests suggest that inflation differentials for the sample countries are nonlinear and mean reverting processes. These results provide evidence of inflation convergence among countries within CEMAC. The finding of inflation convergence indicates the feasibility of a common monetary policy and/or inflation targeting regime within CEMAC.

  14. Evolution of seismic shock test qualification of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriaud, C.

    1979-01-01

    From the first nuclear power plants a new industrial problem is appeared: the seismic test qualification of equipment. Nothing was existing in this range. Methods and test experiments were to be studied and perfected in order to obtain safe results. This paper presents the evolution of this question up to now [fr

  15. Prick test: evolution towards automated reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, X; Díaz, I; Gil, J J; Gastaminza, G

    2016-08-01

    The prick test is one of the most common medical methods for diagnosing allergies, and it has been carried out in a similar and laborious manner over many decades. In an attempt to standardize the reading of the test, many researchers have tried to automate the process of measuring the allergic reactions found by developing systems and algorithms based on multiple technologies. This work reviews the techniques for automatic wheal measurement with the aim of pointing out their advantages and disadvantages and the progress in the field. Furthermore, it provides a classification scheme for the different technologies applied. The works discussed herein provide evidence that significant challenges still exist for the development of an automatic wheal measurement system that not only helps allergists in their medical practice but also allows for the standardization of the reading and data exchange. As such, the aim of the work was to serve as guideline for the development of a proper and feasible system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Microstructure evolution of titanium after tensile test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronski, S.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Jędrychowski, M.; Tarasiuk, J; Wronski, M.; Baczmanski, A.; Bacroix, B.

    2016-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative behavior of titanium T40 during tensile loading with a special emphasis on the presence of deformation twins in the observed microstructures is described. The samples for tensile tests were cut out from the rolled titanium sheet along the rolling and transverse directions. Several microstructure maps were determined using Electron Backscatter Diffraction technique (EBSD). These data were used to obtain crystallographic textures, misorientation distributions, grain size, twin boundary length, grain orientation spread, low and high angle boundary fractions and Schmid and Taylor factors. The deformation mechanisms and microstructure characteristics are different in the samples stretched along rolling and transverse directions. A strong appearance of tensile twins was observed in the samples deformed along transverse direction. On the other hand, more frequent subgrain formation and higher orientation spread was observed in the sample deformed along rolling direction, which caused’‘orientation blurring’ leading to an increase of grain size with deformation, as determined from OIM analysis.

  17. Empirical investigation of purchasing power parity for Turkey: Evidence from recent nonlinear unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilem Yıldırım

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the empirical validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP hypothesis between Turkey and its four major trading partners, the European Union, Russia, China and the US. Accounting for the nonlinear nature of real exchange rates, we employ a battery of recently developed nonlinear unit root tests. Our empirical results reveal that nonlinear unit root tests deliver stronger evidence in favour of the PPP hypothesis when compared to the conventional unit root tests only if nonlinearities in real exchange rates are correctly specified. Furthermore, it emerges from our findings that the real exchange rates of the countries having a free trade agreement are more likely to behave as linear stationary processes.

  18. A unit root test based on smooth transitions and nonlinear adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Hepsag, Aycan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new unit root testing procedure which considers jointly for structural breaks and nonlinear adjustment. The structural breaks are modelled by means of a logistic smooth transition function and nonlinear adjustment is modelled by means of an ESTAR model. The empirical size of test is quite close to the nominal one and in terms of power; the new unit root test is generally superior to the alternative test. The new unit root test presents good size properties and does...

  19. Nonlinearity and intraday efficiency tests on energy futures markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Using high frequency data, this paper first time comprehensively examines the intraday efficiency of four major energy (crude oil, heating oil, gasoline, natural gas) futures markets. In contrast to earlier studies which focus on in-sample evidence and assume linearity, the paper employs various nonlinear models and several model evaluation criteria to examine market efficiency in an out-of-sample forecasting context. Overall, there is evidence for intraday market inefficiency of two of the four energy future markets (heating oil and natural gas), which exists particularly during the bull market condition but not during the bear market condition. The evidence is also robust against the data-snooping bias and the model overfitting problem, and its economic significance can be very substantial. (author)

  20. Nonlinearity and intraday efficiency tests on energy futures markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao [Department of Economics, Queens College and the Graduate Center, The City University of New York, Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Yang, Jian [The Business School, PO Box 173364, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO 80217-3364 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Using high frequency data, this paper first time comprehensively examines the intraday efficiency of four major energy (crude oil, heating oil, gasoline, natural gas) futures markets. In contrast to earlier studies which focus on in-sample evidence and assume linearity, the paper employs various nonlinear models and several model evaluation criteria to examine market efficiency in an out-of-sample forecasting context. Overall, there is evidence for intraday market inefficiency of two of the four energy future markets (heating oil and natural gas), which exists particularly during the bull market condition but not during the bear market condition. The evidence is also robust against the data-snooping bias and the model overfitting problem, and its economic significance can be very substantial. (author)

  1. Nonlinear evolution in Quantum Chromodynamics and its application to neutrinos production at very high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasto, A.

    2004-09-01

    This work is a study of the phenomenon of partonic saturation in the high energy collisions of elementary particles. We have observed the geometric scaling property of the deep inelastic electron-proton cross section which can be interpreted as a signal of partonic saturation. This scaling means that the cross section depends only on one scaling variable τ ≅ Q 2 /Q 2 s (x) which is a ratio of the photon virtuality Q 2 and the saturation scale Q 2 s (x) which depends power-like on Bjorken x. The properties of the solution to the linear DGLAP evolution equations have been investigated in the presence of the scaling initial conditions. These conditions are given on the critical line defined as Q 0 =Q 4 s (x). In the fixed strong coupling case scaling is preserved by the DGLAP evolution. When strong coupling is running, geometric scaling is violated because of presence of additional scale Λ QCD . The coefficient responsible for geometric scaling violations has been extracted, which vanishes for very small values of Bjorken x such that Q 2 4 s (x)=Λ 2 QCD . We have analysed numerically nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, which takes into account diagrams responsible for the gluon recombination and describes partonic saturation. The solution to this equation in the case of the infinitely large target has been obtained (1 + 1 dimensions). In the linear case, the solution is plagued by the strong diffusion of the transverse momenta. It turns out that in the nonlinear equation the diffusion to infrared region is strongly suppressed due to the presence of the saturation scale Q s (x). We have also investigated the impact of the nonleading in x effects in this equation such as running coupling and the consistency constraint. In the case of solution to the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation in 3+1 dimensions the power behaviour in impact parameter is present, even if the initial conditions are exponentially falling. This feature causes violation of the Froissart-Martin bound

  2. Nonlinear susceptibility: A direct test of the quadrupolar Kondo effect in UBe13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.P.; Chandra, P.; Coleman, P.; Fisk, Z.; Smith, J.L.; Ott, H.R.

    1994-01-01

    We present the nonlinear susceptibility as a direct test of the quadrupolar Kondo scenario for heavy fermion behavior, and apply it to the case of cubic crystal-field symmetry. Within a single-ion model we compute the nonlinear susceptibility resulting from low-lying Γ 3 (5f 2 ) and Kramers (5f 3 ) doublets. We find that nonlinear susceptibility measurements on single-crystal UBe 13 are inconsistent with a quadrupolar (5f 2 ) ground state of the uranium ion; the experimental data indicate that the low-lying magnetic excitations of UBe 13 are predominantly dipolar in character

  3. Testing for Nonlinear Granger Causality in the Price-Volume Relations of Taiwan's Stock and Foreign Exchange Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Shyh-Wei Chen; Chun-Wei Chen

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the price-volume relationships of Taiwan's stock and foreign exchange markets. We first adopt the traditional linear Granger causality test to achieve this goal. In addition, the nonlinearity feature is also taken into account. We employ the nonlinear Granger causality test, championed by Hiemstra and Jones (1994), to detect the nonlinear relationships among stock and foreign exchange markets. The empirical results show that there do exist nonlinear price-volume relati...

  4. Experimental tests of coherence and entanglement conservation under unitary evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černoch, Antonín; Bartkiewicz, Karol; Lemr, Karel; Soubusta, Jan

    2018-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the migration of coherence between composite quantum systems and their subsystems. The quantum systems are implemented using polarization states of photons in two experimental setups. The first setup is based on a linear optical controlled-phase quantum gate and the second scheme utilizes effects of nonlinear optics. Our experiment allows one to verify the relation between correlations of the subsystems and the coherence of the composite system, which was given in terms of a conservation law for maximal accessible coherence by Svozilík et al. [J. Svozilík et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 220501 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.220501]. We observe that the maximal accessible coherence is conserved for the implemented class of global evolutions of the composite system.

  5. Testing numerical evolution with the shifted gauge wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuc, Maria C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Szilagyi, Bela [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Golm (Germany); Winicour, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2006-08-21

    Computational methods are essential to provide waveforms from coalescing black holes, which are expected to produce strong signals for the gravitational wave observatories being developed. Although partial simulations of the coalescence have been reported, scientifically useful waveforms have so far not been delivered. The goal of the AppleswithApples (AwA) Alliance is to design, coordinate and document standardized code tests for comparing numerical relativity codes. The first round of AwA tests has now been completed and the results are being analysed. These initial tests are based upon the periodic boundary conditions designed to isolate performance of the main evolution code. Here we describe and carry out an additional test with periodic boundary conditions which deals with an essential feature of the black hole excision problem, namely a non-vanishing shift. The test is a shifted version of the existing AwA gauge wave test. We show how a shift introduces an exponentially growing instability which violates the constraints of a standard harmonic formulation of Einstein's equations. We analyse the Cauchy problem in a harmonic gauge and discuss particular options for suppressing instabilities in the gauge wave tests. We implement these techniques in a finite difference evolution algorithm and present test results. Although our application here is limited to a model problem, the techniques should benefit the simulation of black holes using harmonic evolution codes.

  6. Development of nonperturbative nonlinear optics models including effects of high order nonlinearities and of free electron plasma: Maxwell–Schrödinger equations coupled with evolution equations for polarization effects, and the SFA-like nonlinear optics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorin, E; Bandrauk, A D; Lytova, M; Memarian, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the exploration of non-conventional nonlinear optics models for intense and short electromagnetic fields propagating in a gas. When an intense field interacts with a gas, usual nonlinear optics models, such as cubic nonlinear Maxwell, wave and Schrödinger equations, derived by perturbation theory may become inaccurate or even irrelevant. As a consequence, and to include in particular the effect of free electrons generated by laser–molecule interaction, several heuristic models, such as UPPE, HOKE models, etc, coupled with Drude-like models [1, 2], were derived. The goal of this paper is to present alternative approaches based on non-heuristic principles. This work is in particular motivated by the on-going debate in the filamentation community, about the effect of high order nonlinearities versus plasma effects due to free electrons, in pulse defocusing occurring in laser filaments [3–9]. The motivation of our work goes beyond filamentation modeling, and is more generally related to the interaction of any external intense and (short) pulse with a gas. In this paper, two different strategies are developed. The first one is based on the derivation of an evolution equation on the polarization, in order to determine the response of the medium (polarization) subject to a short and intense electromagnetic field. Then, we derive a combined semi-heuristic model, based on Lewenstein’s strong field approximation model and the usual perturbative modeling in nonlinear optics. The proposed model allows for inclusion of high order nonlinearities as well as free electron plasma effects. (paper)

  7. Evolution of a Computer-Based Testing Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Patrick; Caldwell, Richard; Ellis, Taylor

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, faced with increasing growth in technology-based and large-enrollment courses, the College of Business Administration at the University of Central Florida opened a computer-based testing lab to facilitate administration of course examinations. Patrick Moskal, Richard Caldwell, and Taylor Ellis describe the development and evolution of the…

  8. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Pull-Out Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saabye Ottesen, N

    1981-01-01

    A specific pull-out test used to determine in-situ concrete compressive strength is analyzed. This test consists of a steel disc that is extracted from the structure. The finite element analysis considers cracking as well as strain hardening and softening in the pre- and post-failure region...

  9. Tests for nonlinearity in short stationary time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.; Sauer, T.; Schiff, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    To compare direct tests for detecting determinism in chaotic time series, data from Henon, Lorenz, and Mackey--Glass equations were contaminated with various levels of additive colored noise. These data were analyzed with a variety of recently developed tests for determinism, and the results compared

  10. Excitation power quantities in phase resonance testing of nonlinear systems with phase-locked-loop excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Simon; Leine, Remco I.

    2017-11-01

    Phase resonance testing is one method for the experimental extraction of nonlinear normal modes. This paper proposes a novel method for nonlinear phase resonance testing. Firstly, the issue of appropriate excitation is approached on the basis of excitation power considerations. Therefore, power quantities known from nonlinear systems theory in electrical engineering are transferred to nonlinear structural dynamics applications. A new power-based nonlinear mode indicator function is derived, which is generally applicable, reliable and easy to implement in experiments. Secondly, the tuning of the excitation phase is automated by the use of a Phase-Locked-Loop controller. This method provides a very user-friendly and fast way for obtaining the backbone curve. Furthermore, the method allows to exploit specific advantages of phase control such as the robustness for lightly damped systems and the stabilization of unstable branches of the frequency response. The reduced tuning time for the excitation makes the commonly used free-decay measurements for the extraction of backbone curves unnecessary. Instead, steady-state measurements for every point of the curve are obtained. In conjunction with the new mode indicator function, the correlation of every measured point with the associated nonlinear normal mode of the underlying conservative system can be evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that the analysis of the excitation power helps to locate sources of inaccuracies in the force appropriation process. The method is illustrated by a numerical example and its functionality in experiments is demonstrated on a benchmark beam structure.

  11. Unit Root Testing and Estimation in Nonlinear ESTAR Models with Normal and Non-Normal Errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Khalil

    Full Text Available Exponential Smooth Transition Autoregressive (ESTAR models can capture non-linear adjustment of the deviations from equilibrium conditions which may explain the economic behavior of many variables that appear non stationary from a linear viewpoint. Many researchers employ the Kapetanios test which has a unit root as the null and a stationary nonlinear model as the alternative. However this test statistics is based on the assumption of normally distributed errors in the DGP. Cook has analyzed the size of the nonlinear unit root of this test in the presence of heavy-tailed innovation process and obtained the critical values for both finite variance and infinite variance cases. However the test statistics of Cook are oversized. It has been found by researchers that using conventional tests is dangerous though the best performance among these is a HCCME. The over sizing for LM tests can be reduced by employing fixed design wild bootstrap remedies which provide a valuable alternative to the conventional tests. In this paper the size of the Kapetanios test statistic employing hetroscedastic consistent covariance matrices has been derived and the results are reported for various sample sizes in which size distortion is reduced. The properties for estimates of ESTAR models have been investigated when errors are assumed non-normal. We compare the results obtained through the fitting of nonlinear least square with that of the quantile regression fitting in the presence of outliers and the error distribution was considered to be from t-distribution for various sample sizes.

  12. Long-term evolution of electron distribution function due to nonlinear resonant interaction with whistler mode waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, Anton V.; Neishtadt, Anatoly I.; Vasiliev, Alexei A.

    2018-04-01

    Accurately modelling and forecasting of the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts with the available computer resources represents an important challenge that still requires significant advances in the theoretical plasma physics field of wave-particle resonant interaction. Energetic electron acceleration or scattering into the Earth's atmosphere are essentially controlled by their resonances with electromagnetic whistler mode waves. The quasi-linear diffusion equation describes well this resonant interaction for low intensity waves. During the last decade, however, spacecraft observations in the radiation belts have revealed a large number of whistler mode waves with sufficiently high intensity to interact with electrons in the nonlinear regime. A kinetic equation including such nonlinear wave-particle interactions and describing the long-term evolution of the electron distribution is the focus of the present paper. Using the Hamiltonian theory of resonant phenomena, we describe individual electron resonance with an intense coherent whistler mode wave. The derived characteristics of such a resonance are incorporated into a generalized kinetic equation which includes non-local transport in energy space. This transport is produced by resonant electron trapping and nonlinear acceleration. We describe the methods allowing the construction of nonlinear resonant terms in the kinetic equation and discuss possible applications of this equation.

  13. Optimal the tilt angles for photovoltaic modules using PSO method with nonlinear time-varying evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ying-Pin

    2010-01-01

    A particle-swarm optimization method with nonlinear time-varying evolution (PSO-NTVE) is employed in determining the tilt angle of photovoltaic (PV) modules in Taiwan. The objective is to maximize the output electrical energy of the modules. In this study, seven Taiwanese cities were selected for analysis. First, the sun's position at any time and location was predicted by the mathematical procedure of Julian dating, and then the solar irradiation was obtained at each site under a clear sky. By combining the temperature effect, the PSO-NTVE method is adopted to calculate the optimal tilt angles for fixed south-facing PV modules. In this method, the parameters are determined by using matrix experiments with an orthogonal array, in which a minimal number of experiments have an effect that approximates the full factorial experiments. Statistical error analysis was performed to compare the results between the four PSO methods and experimental results. Hengchun city in which the minimum total error value of 6.12% the reasons for the weather more stability and less building shade. A comparison of the measurement results in electrical energy between the four PSO methods and the PV modules set a six tilt angles. Obviously four types of PSO methods simulation of electrical energy value from 231.12 kWh/m 2 for Taipei to 233.81 kWh/m 2 for Hengchun greater than the measurement values from 224.71 kWh/m 2 for Taichung to 228.47 kWh/m 2 for Hengchun by PV module which is due to instability caused by climate change. Finally, the results show that the annual optimal angle for the Taipei area is 18.16 o ; for Taichung, 17.3 o ; for Tainan, 16.15 o ; for Kaosiung, 15.79 o ; for Hengchung, 15.17 o ; for Hualian, 17.16 o ; and for Taitung, 15.94 o . It is evident that the authorized Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) recommends that tilt angle of 23.5 o was not an appropriate use of Taiwan's seven cities. PV modules with the installation of the tilt angle should be

  14. Structural Dynamic Analyses And Test Predictions For Spacecraft Structures With Non-Linearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergniaud, Jean-Baptiste; Soula, Laurent; Newerla, Alfred

    2012-07-01

    The overall objective of the mechanical development and verification process is to ensure that the spacecraft structure is able to sustain the mechanical environments encountered during launch. In general the spacecraft structures are a-priori assumed to behave linear, i.e. the responses to a static load or dynamic excitation, respectively, will increase or decrease proportionally to the amplitude of the load or excitation induced. However, past experiences have shown that various non-linearities might exist in spacecraft structures and the consequences of their dynamic effects can significantly affect the development and verification process. Current processes are mainly adapted to linear spacecraft structure behaviour. No clear rules exist for dealing with major structure non-linearities. They are handled outside the process by individual analysis and margin policy, and analyses after tests to justify the CLA coverage. Non-linearities can primarily affect the current spacecraft development and verification process on two aspects. Prediction of flights loads by launcher/satellite coupled loads analyses (CLA): only linear satellite models are delivered for performing CLA and no well-established rules exist how to properly linearize a model when non- linearities are present. The potential impact of the linearization on the results of the CLA has not yet been properly analyzed. There are thus difficulties to assess that CLA results will cover actual flight levels. Management of satellite verification tests: the CLA results generated with a linear satellite FEM are assumed flight representative. If the internal non- linearities are present in the tested satellite then there might be difficulties to determine which input level must be passed to cover satellite internal loads. The non-linear behaviour can also disturb the shaker control, putting the satellite at risk by potentially imposing too high levels. This paper presents the results of a test campaign performed in

  15. Lie symmetry analysis, explicit solutions and conservation laws for the space-time fractional nonlinear evolution equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inc, Mustafa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the symmetry analysis, explicit solutions, convergence analysis, and conservation laws (Cls) for two different space-time fractional nonlinear evolution equations with Riemann-Liouville (RL) derivative. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) of fractional order using their Lie point symmetries. In the reduced equations, the derivative is in Erdelyi-Kober (EK) sense, power series technique is applied to derive an explicit solutions for the reduced fractional ODEs. The convergence of the obtained power series solutions is also presented. Moreover, the new conservation theorem and the generalization of the Noether operators are developed to construct the nonlocal Cls for the equations . Some interesting figures for the obtained explicit solutions are presented.

  16. Oscillating patterns in image processing and nonlinear evolution equations the fifteenth Dean Jacqueline B. Lewis memorial lectures

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Yves

    2001-01-01

    Image compression, the Navier-Stokes equations, and detection of gravitational waves are three seemingly unrelated scientific problems that, remarkably, can be studied from one perspective. The notion that unifies the three problems is that of "oscillating patterns", which are present in many natural images, help to explain nonlinear equations, and are pivotal in studying chirps and frequency-modulated signals. The first chapter of this book considers image processing, more precisely algorithms of image compression and denoising. This research is motivated in particular by the new standard for compression of still images known as JPEG-2000. The second chapter has new results on the Navier-Stokes and other nonlinear evolution equations. Frequency-modulated signals and their use in the detection of gravitational waves are covered in the final chapter. In the book, the author describes both what the oscillating patterns are and the mathematics necessary for their analysis. It turns out that this mathematics invo...

  17. Strain transfer through film-substrate interface and surface curvature evolution during a tensile test

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Han, Meidong; Goudeau, Philippe; Bourhis, Eric Le; Renault, Pierre-Olivier; Wang, Shibin; Li, Lin-an

    2018-03-01

    Uniaxial tensile tests on polyimide-supported thin metal films are performed to respectively study the macroscopic strain transfer through an interface and the surface curvature evolution. With a dual digital image correlation (DIC) system, the strains of the film and the substrate can be simultaneously measured in situ during the tensile test. For the true strains below 2% (far beyond the films' elastic limit), a complete longitudinal strain transfer is present irrespective of the film thickness, residual stresses and microstructure. By means of an optical surface profiler, the three-dimensional (3D) topography of film surface can be obtained during straining. As expected, the profile of the specimen center remains almost flat in the tensile direction. Nevertheless, a relatively significant curvature evolution (of the same order with the initial curvature induced by residual stresses) is observed along the transverse direction as a result of a Poisson's ratio mismatch between the film and the substrate. Furthermore, finite element method (FEM) has been performed to simulate the curvature evolution considering the geometric nonlinearity and the perfect strain transfer at the interface, which agrees well with the experimental results.

  18. Econometric testing on linear and nonlinear dynamic relation between stock prices and macroeconomy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjigin, Sumuya; Yang, Yating; Yang, Xiaoguang; Sun, Leilei

    2018-03-01

    Many researchers have realized that there is a strong correlation between stock prices and macroeconomy. In order to make this relationship clear, a lot of studies have been done. However, the causal relationship between stock prices and macroeconomy has still not been well explained. A key point is that, most of the existing research adopts linear and stable models to investigate the correlation of stock prices and macroeconomy, while the real causality of that may be nonlinear and dynamic. To fill this research gap, we investigate the nonlinear and dynamic causal relationships between stock prices and macroeconomy. Based on the case of China's stock prices and acroeconomy measures from January 1992 to March 2017, we compare the linear Granger causality test models with nonlinear ones. Results demonstrate that the nonlinear dynamic Granger causality is much stronger than linear Granger causality. From the perspective of nonlinear dynamic Granger causality, China's stock prices can be viewed as "national economic barometer". On the one hand, this study will encourage researchers to take nonlinearity and dynamics into account when they investigate the correlation of stock prices and macroeconomy; on the other hand, our research can guide regulators and investors to make better decisions.

  19. Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics and Plasticity of the Split Cylinder Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, John Forbes; Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    properties. This implies that the linear elastic interpretation of the ultimate splitting force in term of the uniaxial tensile strength of the material is only valid for special situations, e.g. for very large cylinders. Furthermore, the numerical analysis suggests that the split cylinder test is not well...... models are presented, a simple semi-analytical model based on analytical solutions for the crack propagation in a rectangular prismatic body, and a finite element model including plasticity in bulk material as well as crack propagation in interface elements. A numerical study applying these models...... demonstrates the influence of varying geometry or constitutive properties. For a split cylinder test in load control it is shown how the ultimate load is either plasticity dominated or fracture mechanics dominated. The transition between the two modes is related to changes in geometry or constitutive...

  20. Study of the thickness evolution during SPT Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sánchez-Ávila

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Small Punch Test (SPT is an increasingly expanding test used to obtain different mechanical data, such as strength, fracture, creep, etc…especially when there is little material available. However, the SPT test is more complicated than the uniaxial tensile test due to its non-linearity, which makes it difficult to relate the data obtained with the tensile tests. In fact, in the literature there is no clear model linking these tests and a different calibration should be used for each material. The complication of the SPT test is that the reduction of the sample thickness is not homogeneous in its gauge volume. In this work we proceeded to determine the variation of the SPT specimen thickness at several points, especially at the center and at the rupture zone, by means of the use of finite elements in COMSOL, taking a SLM AM (selective laser melting additive manufactured 316L stainless steel as the base material for modelling. For the appropriate modelling in COMSOL, the mechanical parameters of two 316L extreme thermomechanical treatments have been implemented, one annealed to a minimum hardness and another heavily work-hardened. The sample thickness variation results allow advancing in the theoretical modeling of the SPT behavior in order to obtain more accurate correlations with tensile tests data.

  1. Monitoring microstructural evolution of alloy 617 with non-linear acoustics for remaining useful life prediction; multiaxial creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissenden, Cliff [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Hassan, Tasnin [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Rangari, Vijaya [Tuskegee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States)

    2014-10-30

    The research built upon a prior investigation to develop a unified constitutive model for design-­by-­analysis of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design of next generation nuclear plants (NGNPs). Model development requires a set of failure data from complex mechanical experiments to characterize the material behavior. Therefore uniaxial and multiaxial creep-­fatigue and creep-­ratcheting tests were conducted on the nickel-­base Alloy 617 at 850 and 950°C. The time dependence of material behavior, and the interaction of time dependent behavior (e.g., creep) with ratcheting, which is an increase in the cyclic mean strain under load-­controlled cycling, are major concerns for NGNP design. This research project aimed at characterizing the microstructure evolution mechanisms activated in Alloy 617 by mechanical loading and dwell times at elevated temperature. The acoustic harmonic generation method was researched for microstructural characterization. It is a nonlinear acoustics method with excellent potential for nondestructive evaluation, and even online continuous monitoring once high temperature sensors become available. It is unique because it has the ability to quantitatively characterize microstructural features well before macroscale defects (e.g., cracks) form. The nonlinear acoustics beta parameter was shown to correlate with microstructural evolution using a systematic approach to handle the complexity of multiaxial creep-­fatigue and creep-­ratcheting deformation. Mechanical testing was conducted to provide a full spectrum of data for: thermal aging, tensile creep, uniaxial fatigue, uniaxial creep-­fatigue, uniaxial creep-ratcheting, multiaxial creep-fatigue, and multiaxial creep-­ratcheting. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Optical Microscopy were conducted to correlate the beta parameter with individual microstructure mechanisms. We researched

  2. Monitoring microstructural evolution of alloy 617 with non-linear acoustics for remaining useful life prediction; multiaxial creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissenden, Cliff; Hassan, Tasnin; Rangari, Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    The research built upon a prior investigation to develop a unified constitutive model for design-@by-@analysis of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design of next generation nuclear plants (NGNPs). Model development requires a set of failure data from complex mechanical experiments to characterize the material behavior. Therefore uniaxial and multiaxial creep-@fatigue and creep-@ratcheting tests were conducted on the nickel base Alloy 617 at 850 and 950°C. The time dependence of material behavior, and the interaction of time dependent behavior (e.g., creep) with ratcheting, which is an increase in the cyclic mean strain under load-@controlled cycling, are major concerns for NGNP design. This research project aimed at characterizing the microstructure evolution mechanisms activated in Alloy 617 by mechanical loading and dwell times at elevated temperature. The acoustic harmonic generation method was researched for microstructural characterization. It is a nonlinear acoustics method with excellent potential for nondestructive evaluation, and even online continuous monitoring once high temperature sensors become available. It is unique because it has the ability to quantitatively characterize microstructural features well before macroscale defects (e.g., cracks) form. The nonlinear acoustics beta parameter was shown to correlate with microstructural evolution using a systematic approach to handle the complexity of multiaxial creep-@fatigue and creep-@ratcheting deformation. Mechanical testing was conducted to provide a full spectrum of data for: thermal aging, tensile creep, uniaxial fatigue, uniaxial creep-@fatigue, uniaxial creep-ratcheting, multiaxial creep-fatigue, and multiaxial creep-@ratcheting. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Optical Microscopy were conducted to correlate the beta parameter with individual microstructure mechanisms. We researched application of the

  3. Artificial boundary conditions for certain evolution PDEs with cubic nonlinearity for non-compactly supported initial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaibhav, V.

    2011-04-01

    The paper addresses the problem of constructing non-reflecting boundary conditions for two types of one dimensional evolution equations, namely, the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, ∂tu+Lu-iχ|u|2u=0 with L≡-i∂x2, and the equation obtained by letting L≡∂x3. The usual restriction of compact support of the initial data is relaxed by allowing it to have a constant amplitude along with a linear phase variation outside a compact domain. We adapt the pseudo-differential approach developed by Antoine et al. (2006) [5] for the NLS equation to the second type of evolution equation, and further, extend the scheme to the aforementioned class of initial data for both of the equations. In addition, we discuss efficient numerical implementation of our scheme and produce the results of several numerical experiments demonstrating its effectiveness.

  4. Testing inferences in developmental evolution: the forensic evidence principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Hans C E; Wagner, Günter P

    2012-09-01

    Developmental evolution (DE) examines the influence of developmental mechanisms on biological evolution. Here we consider the question: "what is the evidence that allows us to decide whether a certain developmental scenario for an evolutionary change is in fact "correct" or at least falsifiable?" We argue that the comparative method linked with what we call the "forensic evidence principle" (FEP) is sufficient to conduct rigorous tests of DE scenarios. The FEP states that different genetically mediated developmental causes of an evolutionary transformation will leave different signatures in the development of the derived character. Although similar inference rules have been used in practically every empirical science, we expand this approach here in two ways: (1) we justify the validity of this principle with reference to a well-known result from mathematical physics, known as the symmetry principle, and (2) propose a specific form of the FEP for DE: given two or more developmental explanations for a certain evolutionary event, say an evolutionary novelty, then the evidence discriminating between these hypotheses will be found in the most proximal internal drivers of the derived character. Hence, a detailed description of the ancestral and derived states, and their most proximal developmental drivers are necessary to discriminate between various evolutionary developmental hypotheses. We discuss how this stepwise order of testing is necessary, establishes a formal test, and how skipping this order of examination may violate a more accurate examination of DE. We illustrate the approach with an example from avian digit evolution. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nonlinear evolution of the matter power spectrum in modified theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Taruya, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    We present a formalism to calculate the nonlinear matter power spectrum in modified gravity models that explain the late-time acceleration of the Universe without dark energy. Any successful modified gravity models should contain a mechanism to recover general relativity (GR) on small scales in order to avoid the stringent constrains on deviations from GR at solar system scales. Based on our formalism, the quasi-nonlinear power spectrum in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porratti braneworld models and f(R) gravity models are derived by taking into account the mechanism to recover GR properly. We also extrapolate our predictions to fully nonlinear scales using the parametrized post-Friedmann framework. In the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porratti and f(R) gravity models, the predicted nonlinear power spectrum is shown to reproduce N-body results. We find that the mechanism to recover GR suppresses the difference between the modified gravity models and dark energy models with the same expansion history, but the difference remains large at the weakly nonlinear regime in these models. Our formalism is applicable to a wide variety of modified gravity models and it is ready to use once consistent models for modified gravity are developed.

  6. Design of Test Wrapper Scan Chain Based on Differential Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Circuit has entered the era of design of the IP-based SoC (System on Chip, which makes the IP core reuse become a key issue. SoC test wrapper design for scan chain is a NP Hard problem, we propose an algorithm based on Differential Evolution (DE to design wrapper scan chain. Through group’s mutation, crossover and selection operations, the design of test wrapper scan chain is achieved. Experimental verification is carried out according to the international standard benchmark ITC’02. The results show that the algorithm can obtain shorter longest wrapper scan chains, compared with other algorithms.

  7. Comments on "Testing for nonlinear structure and chaos in economic time series"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.H.; Manzan, S.

    2006-01-01

    This short paper is a comment on "Univariate tests for nonlinear structure" by Catherine Kyrtsou and Apostolos Serletis. We summarize their main results and discuss some of their conclusions concerning the role of outliers and noisy chaos. In particular, we include some new simulations to

  8. Test for Nonlinear Input Output Relations in SISO Systems by Preliminary Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses and develops preliminary statistical tests for detecting nonlinearities in the deterministic part of SISO systems with noise. The most referenced method is unreliable for common noise processes as e.g.\\ colored. Therefore two new methods based on superposition and sinus input...

  9. Improved Minimum Entropy Filtering for Continuous Nonlinear Non-Gaussian Systems Using a Generalized Density Evolution Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Xu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the filtering problem for multivariate continuous nonlinear non-Gaussian systems based on an improved minimum error entropy (MEE criterion. The system is described by a set of nonlinear continuous equations with non-Gaussian system noises and measurement noises. The recently developed generalized density evolution equation is utilized to formulate the joint probability density function (PDF of the estimation errors. Combining the entropy of the estimation error with the mean squared error, a novel performance index is constructed to ensure the estimation error not only has small uncertainty but also approaches to zero. According to the conjugate gradient method, the optimal filter gain matrix is then obtained by minimizing the improved minimum error entropy criterion. In addition, the condition is proposed to guarantee that the estimation error dynamics is exponentially bounded in the mean square sense. Finally, the comparative simulation results are presented to show that the proposed MEE filter is superior to nonlinear unscented Kalman filter (UKF.

  10. Non-Linear Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Ferri, Francesco; Beatty, S.

    2014-01-01

    the calculation of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment by a cubic polynomial function fit to laboratory test results. Moreover, moments due to viscous drag are evaluated on the oscillating hemisphere considering the horizontal and vertical drag force components. The influence on the motions of this non.......e. H/λ≤0.02. For steep waves, H/λ≥0.04 however, the relative velocities between the body and the waves increase thus requiring inclusion of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment to effectively predict the dynamics of the wave energy converter. For operation of the device with a passively damping...

  11. Modelling the nonlinear behaviour of an underplatform damper test rig for turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, L.; Salles, L.; Jones, A.; Green, J. S.; Schwingshackl, C. W.

    2017-02-01

    Underplatform dampers (UPD) are commonly used in aircraft engines to mitigate the risk of high-cycle fatigue failure of turbine blades. The energy dissipated at the friction contact interface of the damper reduces the vibration amplitude significantly, and the couplings of the blades can also lead to significant shifts of the resonance frequencies of the bladed disk. The highly nonlinear behaviour of bladed discs constrained by UPDs requires an advanced modelling approach to ensure that the correct damper geometry is selected during the design of the turbine, and that no unexpected resonance frequencies and amplitudes will occur in operation. Approaches based on an explicit model of the damper in combination with multi-harmonic balance solvers have emerged as a promising way to predict the nonlinear behaviour of UPDs correctly, however rigorous experimental validations are required before approaches of this type can be used with confidence. In this study, a nonlinear analysis based on an updated explicit damper model having different levels of detail is performed, and the results are evaluated against a newly-developed UPD test rig. Detailed linear finite element models are used as input for the nonlinear analysis, allowing the inclusion of damper flexibility and inertia effects. The nonlinear friction interface between the blades and the damper is described with a dense grid of 3D friction contact elements which allow accurate capturing of the underlying nonlinear mechanism that drives the global nonlinear behaviour. The introduced explicit damper model showed a great dependence on the correct contact pressure distribution. The use of an accurate, measurement based, distribution, better matched the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of the test rig. Good agreement with the measured frequency response data could only be reached when the zero harmonic term (constant term) was included in the multi-harmonic expansion of the nonlinear problem, highlighting its importance

  12. Efficient Market Hypothesis in South Africa: Evidence from Linear and Nonlinear Unit Root Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the weak form efficient market hypothesis (EMH for five generalized stock indices in the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE using weekly data collected from 31st January 2000 to 16th December 2014. In particular, we test for weak form market efficiency using a battery of linear and nonlinear unit root testing procedures comprising of the classical augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF tests, the two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR unit root tests described in Enders and Granger (1998 as well as the three-regime unit root tests described in Bec, Salem, and Carrasco (2004. Based on our empirical analysis, we are able to demonstrate that whilst the linear unit root tests advocate for unit roots within the time series, the nonlinear unit root tests suggest that most stock indices are threshold stationary processes. These results bridge two opposing contentions obtained from previous studies by concluding that under a linear framework the JSE stock indices offer support in favour of weak form market efficiency whereas when nonlinearity is accounted for, a majority of the indices violate the weak form EMH.

  13. Purchasing power parity in OECD countries: nonlinear unit root tests revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Cuestas; Paulo José Regis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide additional evidence on the purchasing power parity empirical fulfillment in a pool of OECD countries. We apply the Harvey et al. (2008) linearity test and the Kruse (2010) nonlinear unit root test. The results point to the fact that the purchasing power parity theory holds in a greater number of countries than has been reported in previous studies.

  14. Self-consistent simulations of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics and profile evolution in stellarator configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlutt, M. G.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Held, E. D. [Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States); Kruger, S. E. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Ave., Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Self-consistent extended MHD framework is used to investigate nonlinear macroscopic dynamics of stellarator configurations. In these calculations, initial conditions are given by analytical 3-D vacuum solutions. Finite beta discharges in a straight stellarator are simulated. Vacuum magnetic fields are applied to produce stellarator-like rotational transform profiles with iota(0) ≤ 0.5 and iota(0) ≥ 0.5. The vacuum magnetic fields are either helically symmetric or spoiled by the presence of magnetic harmonics of incommensurate helicity. As heat is added to the system, pressure-driven instabilities are excited when a critical β is exceeded. These instabilities may grow to large amplitude and effectively terminate the discharge, or they may saturate nonlinearly as the configuration evolves. In all of these studies, anisotropic heat conduction is allowed with κ{sub ∥}/κ{sub ⊥}=10{sup 4}−10{sup 7}.

  15. A Nonlinear Growth Analysis of Integrated Device Manufacturers’ Evolution to the Nanotechnology Manufacturing Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chi Hsiao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing cost of setting up a semiconductor fabrication facility, coupled with significant costs of developing a leading nanotechnology process, aggressive outsourcing (asset-light business models via working more closely with foundry companies is how semiconductor manufacturing firms are looking to strengthen their sustainable competitive advantages. This study aims to construct a market intelligence framework for developing a wafer demand forecasting model based on long-term trend detection to facilitate decision makers in capacity planning. The proposed framework modifies market variables by employing inventory factors and uses a top-down forecasting approach with nonlinear least square method to estimate the forecast parameters. The nonlinear mathematical approaches could not only be used to examine forecasting performance, but also to anticipate future growth of the semiconductor industry. The results demonstrated the practical viability of this long-term demand forecast framework.

  16. The evolution of a localized nonlinear wave of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazzo, Annagrazia; Hoepffner, Jérôme

    2012-11-01

    At the interface between two fluids of different density and in the presence of gravity, there are well known periodic surface waves which can propagate for long distances with little attenuation, as it is for instance the case at the surface of the sea. If wind is present, these waves progressively accumulate energy as they propagate and grow to large sizes—this is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. On the other hand, we show in this paper that for a given wind strength, there is potential for the growth of a localized nonlinear wave. This wave can reach a size such that the hydrostatic pressure drop from top to bottom equals the stagnation pressure of the wind. This process for the disruption of the flat interface is localized and nonlinear. We study the properties of this wave using numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations.

  17. Nonlinear effects in evolution - an ab initio study: A model in which the classical theory of evolution occurs as a special case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Daryl G

    2016-07-21

    An ab initio approach was used to study the molecular-level interactions that connect gene-mutation to changes in an organism׳s phenotype. The study provides new insights into the evolutionary process and presents a simplification whereby changes in phenotypic properties may be studied in terms of the binding affinities of the chemical interactions affected by mutation, rather than by correlation to the genes. The study also reports the role that nonlinear effects play in the progression of organs, and how those effects relate to the classical theory of evolution. Results indicate that the classical theory of evolution occurs as a special case within the ab initio model - a case having two attributes. The first attribute: proteins and promoter regions are not shared among organs. The second attribute: continuous limiting behavior exists in the physical properties of organs as well as in the binding affinity of the associated chemical interactions, with respect to displacements in the chemical properties of proteins and promoter regions induced by mutation. Outside of the special case, second-order coupling contributions are significant and nonlinear effects play an important role, a result corroborated by analyses of published activity levels in binding and transactivation assays. Further, gradations in the state of perfection of an organ may be small or large depending on the type of mutation, and not necessarily closely-separated as maintained by the classical theory. Results also indicate that organs progress with varying degrees of interdependence, the likelihood of successful mutation decreases with increasing complexity of the affected chemical system, and differences between the ab initio model and the classical theory increase with increasing complexity of the organism. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The evolution of test size in the Planktic Foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraass, A.; Huber, B. T.; Kelly, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Planktic foraminifera are vital tools for understanding paleoceanography, paleoclimate, and evolution. A dataset of measurements from all planktic foraminiferal species is used here to investigate how their size changes through the late Jurassic to Recent. The mean test size of planktic foraminifera increases in the Cretaceous and the Cenozoic, with substantial drops at the Aptian/Albian boundary, in the Coniacian and Santonian, with the end-Cretaceous extinction, and across the Paleocene/Eocene boundary. The Oligocene contains only a small drop in mean size, which is surprising given the substantial extinction of planktic foraminifera at that boundary. There is a qualitative connection between mean and median size and paleoceanographic events, but several key issues remain before rigorous quantitative interrogation of the dataset can be undertaken. In general, species that originate early in a family's range are smaller than those evolving later, though this is a weak relationship. Individual families do not always conform to that finding, however, and have both increasing and decreasing family age-size relationships. The 'three faunas' concept for foraminiferal evolution fails with respect to mean and median size; each diversification has a unique rate of increase and character. Lastly, through comparison with the Schmidt et al. (2004) population-level test size dataset, the size response to climate in the low-latitudes is at the species-level. In the high-latitude regions, however, the response to climate is at the population level. Thus, methods for uncovering climate responses in planktic foraminifera must be specific to the region. Taxonomic or macroevolutionary responses dominate the tropics and global signals, while the polar regions appear to have a unique, and more microevolutionary response.Schmidt, D., Thierstein, H., Bollmann, J., & Schiebel, R. (2004). Abiotic Forcing of Plankton Evolution in the Cenozoic. Science, 303(5655), 207-210.

  19. Installation, test and non-linear vibratory analysis of an experiment with four fuel assembly models under axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The present study is in the scope of pressurized water reactors (PWR) core response to earthquakes. The goal of this thesis is to measure the coupling between fuel assemblies caused an axial water flow. The design, production and installation a new test facility named ICARE EXPERIMENTAL are presented. ICARE EXPERIMENTAL was built in order to measure simultaneously the vibrations of four fuel assemblies (2 x 2) under an axial flow. Vibrations are produced by imposing the dynamic of one of the fuel assemblies and the displacements of the three others, induced by the fluid, are measured in the horizontal plane at grids level. A new data analysis method combining time-frequency analysis and orthogonal mode decomposition (POD) is described. This method, named Sliding Window POD (SWPOD), allows analysing multicomponent data, of which spatial repartition of energy and frequency content are time dependent. In the case of mechanical systems (linear and nonlinear), the link between the proper orthogonal modes obtained through SWPOD and the normal modes (linear and nonlinear) is studied. The SWPOD is applied to experimental tests of a steam generators U-tube, showing the appearance of internal resonances. The method is also applied to dynamic experimental tests of a fuel assembly under axial flow, the evolution of its normal modes is obtained as a function of the fluid velocity. The measures acquired with the ICARE EXPERIMENTAL installation are analysed using the SWPOD. The first results show characteristic behavior of the free fuel assemblies at their resonances. The coupling between fuel assemblies, induced by the fluid, is reproduced by simulations performed using the COEUR3D code. This code is based on a porous media model in order to simulate a fuel assemblies network under axial flow. (author) [fr

  20. On a nonlinear integrodifferential evolution inclusion with nonlocal initial conditions in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuomao Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the existence results for a class of nnlinear integrodifferential evolution inclusions with nonlocal initial conditions in Banach spaces. Our results are based on a fixed point theorem for condensing maps due to Martelli and the resolvent operators combined with approximation techniques.

  1. Persistence of solutions to nonlinear evolution equations in weighted Sobolev spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Carvajal Paredes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove that the initial value problem associated with the Korteweg-de Vries equation is well-posed in weighted Sobolev spaces $mathcal{X}^{s,heta}$, for $s geq 2heta ge 2$ and the initial value problem associated with the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is well-posed in weighted Sobolev spaces $mathcal{X}^{s,heta}$, for $s geq heta geq 1$. Persistence property has been proved by approximation of the solutions and using a priori estimates.

  2. Numerical studies of non-linear evolution of kink and tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.; Monticello, D.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Strauss, H.; Kadomtsev, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    A set of numerical techniques for investigating the full nonlinear unstable behavior of low β kink modes of given helical symmetry in Tokamaks is presented. Uniform current density plasmas display complicated deformations including the formation of large vacuum bubbles provided that the safety factor q is sufficiently close to integral. Fairly large m = 1 deformations, but not bubble formation, persist for a plasma with a parabolic current density profile (and hence shear). Deformations for m greater than or equal to 2 are, however, greatly suppressed. (auth)

  3. Testing nonlinear electrodynamics in waveguides: the effect of magnetostatic fields on the transmitted power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Rafael, E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-05-14

    In Born-Infeld theory and other nonlinear electrodynamics, the presence of a magnetostatic field modifies the dispersion relation and the energy velocity of waves propagating in a hollow waveguide. As a consequence, the transmitted power along a waveguide suffers slight changes when a magnetostatic field is switched on and off. This tiny effect could be better tested by operating the waveguide at a frequency close to the cutoff frequency.

  4. Testing nonlinear electrodynamics in waveguides: the effect of magnetostatic fields on the transmitted power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In Born-Infeld theory and other nonlinear electrodynamics, the presence of a magnetostatic field modifies the dispersion relation and the energy velocity of waves propagating in a hollow waveguide. As a consequence, the transmitted power along a waveguide suffers slight changes when a magnetostatic field is switched on and off. This tiny effect could be better tested by operating the waveguide at a frequency close to the cutoff frequency.

  5. Payoff non-linearity sways the effect of mistakes on the evolution of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2016-09-01

    The existence of cooperation is considered to require explanation, and reciprocity is a potential explanatory mechanism. Animals sometimes fail to cooperate even when they attempt to do so, and a reciprocator has an Achilles' heel: it is vulnerable to error (the interaction between two reciprocators can lead to an endless vendetta.). However, the strategy favored by natural selection is determined also by its interaction with other strategies. The relationship between two reciprocators leading to a collapse of cooperation through error does not straightforwardly imply that mistakes make the conditions under which reciprocity evolves stringent. Hence, mistakes may facilitate the evolution of reciprocity. However, it has been shown through the analysis of the interaction between reciprocators and unconditional defectors that the existence of mistakes makes the conditions for reciprocators stable against invasion by an unconditional defector more stringent, which indicates that mistakes discourage the evolution of reciprocity. However, this result is based on the assumption that the effects of cooperation are additive (payoff is linear), while the game played by real animals does not always display this feature. In such cases, the result may be swayed. In this paper, we remove this assumption, reexamining whether mistakes disturb the evolution of reciprocity. Using the analysis of an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), we show that when extra fitness costs are present in cases where mutual cooperation is established, mistakes can facilitate the evolution of reciprocity; whereas, when the effect of cooperation is additive, mistakes always disturb the evolution of reciprocity, as has been shown previously. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Testing the Law of One Price under Nonlinearity for Egg Market of Selected Provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghahremanzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regarding to the ever-increasing consumption of egg and consequently enhancement of its production during recent years, consideration to this output's market integration has special importance. Considering the fact that information on market integration may provide specific evidence as to the competitiveness of market, the effectiveness of arbitrage and the efficiency of pricing could be, likewise, useful to guide subsequent interventions aimed at improving the performance of market. In this context, in present study, validity of Law of One Price (LOP will be tested in the egg market and among selected provinces. Materials and Methods: Nonlinearity naturally extracted from local market due to existence of transportation and other transaction costs, so common cointegration test results are not suitable for market integration. In this study, at first, for being sure that series follow nonlinear behavior, Luukkonen et al. (1988 and BDS nonlinearity tests were used. Then for testing Law of One price in the egg market, nonlinear unit root test proposed by Emmanouilides and Fousekis (2012, which is an auxiliary regression for ESTAR model, was used. The data are daily retail prices of egg with the sample period ranging from April 2006 to march 2014 for north-west provinces of Iran including West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, Ardebil, Tehran and Zanjan, which were obtained from State Live Stock Affairs Logistics Incorporated Company. Results and Discussion: Based on the DF-GLS unit root test, the null hypothesis of unit root for egg price differentials was rejected. So, all series of price differentials are stationary. In the next step nonlinearity of price differentials of egg between two provinces was examined. In BDS test, at the beginning, an ARMA model was estimated then the test was carried out to the residual of estimated model with embedding dimension (m 2-8 and the dimensional distance (ε chosen equals to 0.5 and 2 times of

  7. Evolution of super-Gaussian pulses in a nonlinear optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugay, Aleksandr N.; Khalyapin, Vyacheslav A.

    2018-04-01

    An analytic and numerical study is carried out of the dynamics of parameters of a super-Gaussian pulse whose spectrum can fit both in the region of normal and anomalous dispersion of the group velocity. An analytical solution is found for the parameter characterizing the evolution of the degree of the super-Gaussian momentum. The loss of profile rectangularity is shown to be much faster than the pulse dispersion broadening, and corresponding characteristic length is determined by explicit formula.

  8. Cost-effective degradation test plan for a nonlinear random-coefficients model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong-Joon; Bae, Suk Joo

    2013-01-01

    The determination of requisite sample size and the inspection schedule considering both testing cost and accuracy has been an important issue in the degradation test. This paper proposes a cost-effective degradation test plan in the context of a nonlinear random-coefficients model, while meeting some precision constraints for failure-time distribution. We introduce a precision measure to quantify the information losses incurred by reducing testing resources. The precision measure is incorporated into time-varying cost functions to reflect real circumstances. We apply a hybrid genetic algorithm to general cost optimization problem with reasonable constraints on the level of testing precision in order to determine a cost-effective inspection scheme. The proposed method is applied to the degradation data of plasma display panels (PDPs) following a bi-exponential degradation model. Finally, sensitivity analysis via simulation is provided to evaluate the robustness of the proposed degradation test plan.

  9. Are fluctuations in oil consumption permanent or transitory? Evidence from linear and nonlinear unit root tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Lean, Hooi Hooi

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the integration properties of the total oil consumption in 57 countries for the period of 1965–2012. A combination of new and powerful linear and nonlinear stationarity tests are employed to achieve the objectives of the study. We find that the oil consumption series in 21 countries follow a nonlinearity path while those in the other countries are linear in nature. Evidence of the presence of a unit root is found for the total oil consumption series in 38 countries while the series is stationary in the remaining 19 countries. An important insight is that the blueprints that were designed to reduce oil consumption are likely to have a permanent effect in most of the countries. - Highlights: • We examine the integration properties of total oil consumption in 57 countries. • We apply new and powerful linear and nonlinear stationarity tests. • Unit root is found in two third of the countries. • Blueprints designed to reduce oil consumption are likely to have permanent effect.

  10. Nonlinear Evolution and Final Fate of Charged Anti-de Sitter Black Hole Superradiant Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Pablo; Green, Stephen R; Lehner, Luis

    2016-04-08

    We describe the full nonlinear development of the superradiant instability for a charged massless scalar field coupled to general relativity and electromagnetism, in the vicinity of a Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter black hole. The presence of the negative cosmological constant provides a natural context for considering perfectly reflecting boundary conditions and studying the dynamics as the scalar field interacts repeatedly with the black hole. At early times, small superradiant perturbations grow as expected from linearized studies. Backreaction then causes the black hole to lose charge and mass until the perturbation becomes nonsuperradiant, with the final state described by a stable hairy black hole. For large gauge coupling, the instability extracts a large amount of charge per unit mass, resulting in greater entropy increase. We discuss the implications of the observed behavior for the general problem of superradiance in black hole spacetimes.

  11. Test computations on the dynamical evolution of star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, L.; Giannone, P.

    1977-01-01

    Test calculations have been carried out on the evolution of star clusters using the fluid-dynamical method devised by Larson (1970). Large systems of stars have been considered with specific concern with globular clusters. With reference to the analogous 'standard' model by Larson, the influence of varying in turn the various free parameters (cluster mass, star mass, tidal radius, mass concentration of the initial model) has been studied for the results. Furthermore, the partial release of some simplifying assumptions with regard to the relaxation time and distribution of the 'target' stars has been considered. The change of the structural properties is discussed, and the variation of the evolutionary time scale is outlined. An indicative agreement of the results obtained here with structural properties of globular clusters as deduced from previous theoretical models is pointed out. (Auth.)

  12. Testing nonlinear-QED at the future linear collider with an intense laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartin, Anthony; Porto, Stefano; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid; Hamburg Univ.

    2014-04-01

    The future linear collider will collide dense e + e - bunches at high energies up to 1 TeV, generating very intense electromagnetic fields at the interaction point (IP). These fields are strong enough to lead to nonlinear effects which affect all IP processes and which are described by strong field physics theory. In order to test this theory, we propose an experiment that will focus an intense laser on the LC electron beam post-IP. Similar experiments at SLAC E144 have investigated nonlinear Compton scattering, Breit-Wheeler pair production using an electron beam of 46.6 GeV. The higher beam energies available at the future LC would allow more precise studies of these phenomena. Mass-shift and spin-dependent effects could also be investigated.

  13. Validity of purchasing power parity for selected Latin American countries: Linear and non-linear unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Roberto Fóffano Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine empirically the validity of PPP in the context of unit root tests based on linear and non-linear models of the real effective exchange rate of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. For this purpose, we apply the Harvey et al. (2008 linearity test and the non-linear unit root test (Kruse, 2011. The results show that the series with linear characteristics are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru and those with non-linear characteristics are Mexico and Venezuela. The linear unit root tests indicate that the real effective exchange rate is stationary for Chile and Peru, and the non-linear unit root tests evidence that Mexico is stationary. In the period analyzed, the results show support for the validity of PPP in only three of the seven countries.

  14. On the development and evolution of nonlinear ion acoustic wave packets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Hamza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple model of ion fluctuations (ion acoustic and ion cyclotron fluctuations for example driven by an electron current which leads to intermittent fluctuations when the linear growth rate exceeds the wave packet dispersion rate is analized. The normalized fluctuation amplitude eφ0/T can be much larger than the mass ratio (me/mi level predicted by the conventional quasilinear theory or Manheimer's theory (see references in this document, and where φ0 represents the amplitude of the main peak of the ion fluctuations. Although the ion motion is linear, intermittency is produced by the strong nonlinear electron response, which causes the electron momentum input to the ion fluctuations to be spatially localized. We treat the 1-D case because it is especially simple from an intuitive and analytical point of view, but it is readily apparent and one can put forward the conjecture that the effect occurs in a three dimensional magnetized plasma. The 1-D analysis, as shown in this manuscript will clearly help identify the subtle difference between turbulence as conventionally understood and intermittency as it occurs in space and laboratory plasmas. Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Turbulence – Ionosphere (Wave-particles interactions – Space plasma physics (Waves and instabilities

  15. Nonlinear Analysis and Post-Test Correlation for a Curved PRSEUS Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Kevin; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Jegley, Dawn; Neal, Albert L.; Linton, Kim, A.; Bergan, Andrew C.; Bakuckas, John G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept, developed by The Boeing Company, has been extensively studied as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA s) Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program. The PRSEUS concept provides a light-weight alternative to aluminum or traditional composite design concepts and is applicable to traditional-shaped fuselage barrels and wings, as well as advanced configurations such as a hybrid wing body or truss braced wings. Therefore, NASA, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and The Boeing Company partnered in an effort to assess the performance and damage arrestments capabilities of a PRSEUS concept panel using a full-scale curved panel in the FAA Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility. Testing was conducted in the FASTER facility by subjecting the panel to axial tension loads applied to the ends of the panel, internal pressure, and combined axial tension and internal pressure loadings. Additionally, reactive hoop loads were applied to the skin and frames of the panel along its edges. The panel successfully supported the required design loads in the pristine condition and with a severed stiffener. The panel also demonstrated that the PRSEUS concept could arrest the progression of damage including crack arrestment and crack turning. This paper presents the nonlinear post-test analysis and correlation with test results for the curved PRSEUS panel. It is shown that nonlinear analysis can accurately calculate the behavior of a PRSEUS panel under tension, pressure and combined loading conditions.

  16. Nonlinear Parameter Estimation in Microbiological Degradation Systems and Statistic Test for Common Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Holst, Helle; Spliid, Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Three identical microbiological experiments were carried out and analysed in order to examine the variability of the parameter estimates. The microbiological system consisted of a substrate (toluene) and a biomass (pure culture) mixed together in an aquifer medium. The degradation of the substrate...... and the growth of the biomass are described by the Monod model consisting of two nonlinear coupled first-order differential equations. The objective of this study was to estimate the kinetic parameters in the Monod model and to test whether the parameters from the three identical experiments have the same values....... Estimation of the parameters was obtained using an iterative maximum likelihood method and the test used was an approximative likelihood ratio test. The test showed that the three sets of parameters were identical only on a 4% alpha level....

  17. Nonlinear Amplitude Evolution During Spontaneous Patterning of Ion-Bombarded Si(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chason, Eric; Erlebacher, Jonah; Aziz, Michael J.; Floro, Jerold A.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    1999-01-01

    The time evolution of the amplitude of periodic nanoscale ripple patterns formed on Ar+ sputtered Si(OOl ) surfaces was examined using a recently developed in situ spectroscopic technique. At sufficiently long times, we find that the amplitude does not continue to grow exponentially as predicted by the standard Bradley-Harper sputter rippling model. In accounting for this discrepancy, we rule out effects related to the concentration of mobile species, high surface curvature, surface energy anisotropy, and ion-surface interactions. We observe that for all wavelengths the amplitude ceases to grow when the width of the topmost terrace of the ripples is reduced to approximately 25 nm. This observation suggests that a short circuit relaxation mechanism limits amplitude . growth. A strategy for influencing the ultimate ripple amplitude is discussed

  18. The nonlinear evolution of ring dark solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Jukui

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of the ring dark soliton in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with thin disc-shaped potential is investigated analytically and numerically. Analytical investigation shows that the ring dark soliton in the radial non-symmetric cylindrical BEC is governed by a cylindrical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, while the ring dark soliton in the radial symmetric cylindrical BEC is governed by a cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries equation. The reduction to the cylindrical KP or KdV equation may be useful to understand the dynamics of a ring dark soliton. The numerical results show that the evolution properties and the snaking of a ring dark soliton are modified significantly by the trapping

  19. The role of collective self-gravity in the nonlinear evolution of viscous overstability in Saturn's rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marius; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the influence of collective self-gravity forces on the nonlinear evolution of the viscous overstability in Saturn's dense rings. Local N-body simulations, incorporating vertical and radial collective self-gravity are performed. Vertical self-gravity is mimicked through an increased frequency of vertical oscillations, while radial self-gravity is approximated by solving the Poisson equation for a thin disk in Fourier space. Direct particle-particle forces are omitted, while the magnitude of radial self gravity is controlled by assigning a variable surface mass density to the system's homogeneous ground state. We compare our simulations with large-scale isothermal and non-isothermal hydrodynamic model calculations, including radial self-gravity and employing transport coefficients derived in Salo et al. (2001). We concentrate on optical depths τ=1.5-2, appropriate to model Saturn's dense rings. Our isothermal and non isothermal hydrodynamic results in the limit of vanishing self-gravity compare very well with the studies of Latter&Ogilvie (2010) and Rein&latter (2013), respectively.With non-vanishing radial self-gravity we find that the wavelengths of saturated overstable wave trains are located in close vicinity of the local minimum of the nonlinear dispersion relation for a particular surface density. Good agreement is found between non-isothermal hydrodynamics and N-body simulations for disks with strong radial self-gravity, while the largest deviations occur for a weak but non-vanishing self-gravity.The resulting saturation wavelengths of the viscous overstability for moderate and strong radial self-gravity (λ~ 200-300m) agree reasonably well with the length scale of periodic micro structure in Saturn's inner A and B ring, as found by Cassini.

  20. Scram and nonlinear reactor system seismic analysis for the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrone, A.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the analysis and results for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor system which was analyzed for both scram times and seismic responses such as bending moments and impact forces. The reactor system was represented with a one-dimensional nonlinear mathematical model with two degrees of freedom per node. The results give time history plots of various seismic responses and plots of scram times as a function of control rod travel distance for the most critical scram initiation times. The total scram time considering the effects of the earthquake was still acceptable but about 4 times longer than that calculated without the earthquake. (U.S.)

  1. New extended (G'/G)-expansion method to solve nonlinear evolution equation: the (3 + 1)-dimensional potential-YTSF equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshid, Harun-Or-; Akbar, M Ali; Alam, Md Nur; Hoque, Md Fazlul; Rahman, Nizhum

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a new extended (G'/G) -expansion method has been proposed for constructing more general exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations with the aid of symbolic computation. In order to illustrate the validity and effectiveness of the method, we pick the (3 + 1)-dimensional potential-YTSF equation. As a result, abundant new and more general exact solutions have been achieved of this equation. It has been shown that the proposed method provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear wave equations in applied mathematics, engineering and mathematical physics.

  2. Nonlinear evolution of a three dimensional longitudinal plasma wavepacket in a hot plasma including the effect of its interaction with an ion-acoustic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, K.P.; Sihi, S.

    1979-01-01

    Assuming amplitudes as slowly varying functions of space and time and using perturbation method three coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are obtained for the nonlinear evolution of a three dimensional longitudinal plasma wave packet in a hot plasma including the effect of its interaction with a long wavelength ion-acoustic wave. These three equations are used to derive the instability conditions of a uniform longitudinal plasma wave train including the effect of its interaction both at resonance and nonresonance, with a long wavelength ion-acoustic wave. (author)

  3. Teaching and Learning Evolution: Testing the Principles of a Constructivist Approach through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Mary

    2011-01-01

    A tenth grade class in an international school studied evolution for four weeks as part of the study of Biology. A diagnostic test was used to determine the main misconceptions students have as they come to the study of evolution. This was followed by a series of explorations of different conceptual models to account for evolution, structured…

  4. The evolution of an unsteady translating nonlinear rossby-wave critical layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Peter H.; Cowley, Stephen J.

    When a monochromatic Rossby wave is forced on a flow which is slowly varying in time, the location of the critical line, where the phase speed of the wave is equal to that of the flow, also slowly changes. It is shown that this translation can play an important role in the vorticity balance near the critical line. The behavior of the translating critical layer is analyzed for various values of y, a parameter which measures the relative importance of nonlinear advection and translation. First, the vorticity equation in the critical layer is solved numerically in an important special case, where the velocity field in the critical layer is independent of the vorticity distribution and constant in time. The solutions reveal a number of new aspects of the behavior which are introduced by the translation, including the formation of a wake behind the critical layer, and the possibility of "trapping" of fluid particles in the critical layer if y exceeds a threshold value. Viewed in a frame of reference moving with the critical line the vorticity distribution may tend to a steady state, except in a "vorticity front" far downstream in the wake. If streamlines in the critical layer are open this steady state may be a predominantly inviscid one; if they are closed a steady state is possible only with non-zero dissipation. For both the unsteady and steady flows the translation allows the "logarithmic phase jump" across the critical layer, 4, to be non-zero and negative. Hence, even when the viscosity is vanishingly small, the critical layer can act as a strong "absorber" of Eliassen-Palm wave activity. Second, steady-state solutions are obtained numerically for a case when the velocity field in the critical layer is not independent of the vorticity distribution there. The interaction restricts the formation of closed streamlines, and an asymptotic open-streamline solution for large y can be found. The critical layer again acts an absorber of wave activity, but with decreasing e

  5. Investigation of Nonlinear Site Response and Seismic Compression from Case History Analysis and Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Eric

    In this thesis I address a series of issues related to ground failure and ground motions during earthquakes. A major component is the evaluation of cyclic volumetric strain behavior of unsaturated soils, more commonly known as seismic compression, from advanced laboratory testing. Another major component is the application of nonlinear and equivalent linear ground response analyses to large-strain problems involving highly nonlinear dynamic soil behavior. These two components are merged in the analysis of a truly unique and crucial field case history of nonlinear site response and seismic compression. My first topic concerns dynamic soil testing for relatively small strain dynamic soil properties such as threshold strains, gammatv. Such testing is often conducted using specialized devices such as dual-specimen simple-shear, as devices configured for large strain testing produce noisy signals in the small strain range. Working with a simple shear device originally developed for large-strain testing, I extend its low-strain capabilities by characterizing noisy signals and utilizing several statistical methods to extract meaningful responses in the small strain range. I utilize linear regression of a transformed variable to estimate the cyclic shear strain from a noisy signal and the confidence interval on its amplitude. I utilize Kernel regression with the Nadaraya-Watson estimator and a Gaussian kernel to evaluate vertical strain response. A practical utilization of these techniques is illustrated by evaluating threshold shear strains for volume change with a procedure that takes into account uncertainties in the measured shear and vertical strains. My second topic concerns the seismic compression characteristics of non-plastic and low-plasticity silty sands with varying fines content (10 ≤ FC ≤ 60%). Simple shear testing was performed on various sand-fines mixtures at a range of modified Proctor relative compaction levels ( RC) and degrees-of-saturation (S

  6. Effects of toroidal coupling on the non-linear evolution of tearing modes and on the stochastisation of the magnetic field topology in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edery, D.; Pellat, R.; Soule, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The resistive MHD equations have been handled in toroidal geometry following the tokamak ordering, in order to obtain a simplified set of non-linear equations. This system of equations is compact, closed, consistent and exact to the first two orders in the expansion in the inverse aspect ratio. Studies of the non-linear evolution of tearing modes in the real geometry of tokamak discharges are now in progress, and quite significant results have been obtained from the numerical code REVE of Fontenay based on our above model. From the analytical results, strong linear coupling between neighbouring modes is expected as is demonstrated by the numerical results in the linear, and non-linear regimes. Moreover, coupling exhibits a stochastic structure of the magnetic field lines, the threshold of which is seen to be easily computed by a simple analytical criterion. (orig.)

  7. EMPIRICAL WEIGHTED MODELLING ON INTER-COUNTY INEQUALITIES EVOLUTION AND TO TEST ECONOMICAL CONVERGENCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia\tMOROIANU‐DUMITRESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the regional convergence process in Europe has attracted a considerable interest as a highly significant issue, especially after EU enlargement with the New Member States from Central and Eastern Europe. The most usual empirical approaches are using the β- and σ-convergence, originally developed by a series of neo-classical models. Up-to-date, the EU integration process was proven to be accompanied by an increase of the regional inequalities. In order to determine the existence of a similar increase of the inequalities between the administrative counties (NUTS3 included in the NUTS2 and NUTS1 regions of Romania, this paper provides an empirical modelling of economic convergence allowing to evaluate the level and evolution of the inter-regional inequalities over more than a decade period lasting from 1995 up to 2011. The paper presents the results of a large cross-sectional study of σ-convergence and weighted coefficient of variation, using GDP and population data obtained from the National Institute of Statistics of Romania. Both graphical representation including non-linear regression and the associated tables summarizing numerical values of the main statistical tests are demonstrating the impact of pre- accession policy on the economic development of all Romanian NUTS types. The clearly emphasised convergence in the middle time subinterval can be correlated with the pre-accession drastic changes on economic, political and social level, and with the opening of the Schengen borders for Romanian labor force in 2002.

  8. Thermal design and test verification of GALAXY evolution explorer (GALEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P. S.; Lee, S. -C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal control design of GALEX, an ultraviolet telescope that investigates the UV properties of local galaxies, history of star formation, and global causes of star formation and evolution.

  9. Shaking table testing of a HTGR reactor core, comparison with the results obtained using a nonlinear mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriaud, C.; Cebe, E.; Livolant, M.; Buland, P.

    1975-01-01

    Two series of horizontal tests have been performed at Saclay on the shaking table VESUVE: sinusoidal test and time history response. Sinusoidal tests have shown the strongly nonlinear dynamic behavior of the core. The resonant frequency of the core is dependent on the level of the excitation. These phenomena have been explained by a computer code, which is a lumped mass nonlinear model. El Centro time history displacement at the level of PCRV was reproduced on the shaking table. The analytical model was applied to this excitation and good comparison was obtained for forces and velocities [fr

  10. Spherical symmetry as a test case for unconstrained hyperboloidal evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vañó-Viñuales, Alex; Husa, Sascha; Hilditch, David

    2015-01-01

    We consider the hyperboloidal initial value problem for the Einstein equations in numerical relativity, motivated by the goal to evolve radiating compact objects such as black hole binaries with a numerical grid that includes null infinity. Unconstrained evolution schemes promise optimal efficiency, but are difficult to regularize at null infinity, where the compactified Einstein equations are formally singular. In this work we treat the spherically symmetric case, which already poses nontrivial problems and constitutes an important first step. We have carried out stable numerical evolutions with the generalized BSSN and Z4 equations coupled to a scalar field. The crucial ingredients have been to find an appropriate evolution equation for the lapse function and to adapt constraint damping terms to handle null infinity. (paper)

  11. Optimal Constant-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test Plans Using Nonlinear Generalized Wiener Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated degradation test (ADT has been widely used to assess highly reliable products’ lifetime. To conduct an ADT, an appropriate degradation model and test plan should be determined in advance. Although many historical studies have proposed quite a few models, there is still room for improvement. Hence we propose a Nonlinear Generalized Wiener Process (NGWP model with consideration of the effects of stress level, product-to-product variability, and measurement errors for a higher estimation accuracy and a wider range of use. Then under the constraints of sample size, test duration, and test cost, the plans of constant-stress ADT (CSADT with multiple stress levels based on the NGWP are designed by minimizing the asymptotic variance of the reliability estimation of the products under normal operation conditions. An optimization algorithm is developed to determine the optimal stress levels, the number of units allocated to each level, inspection frequency, and measurement times simultaneously. In addition, a comparison based on degradation data of LEDs is made to show better goodness-of-fit of the NGWP than that of other models. Finally, optimal two-level and three-level CSADT plans under various constraints and a detailed sensitivity analysis are demonstrated through examples in this paper.

  12. Evolution in a Test Tube: Rise of the Wrinkly Spreaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer H.; Koza, Anna; Moshynets, Olena; Pajor, Radoslaw; Ritchie, Margaret R.; Spiers, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding evolutionary mechanisms is fundamental to a balanced biological education, yet practical demonstrations are rarely considered. In this paper we describe a bacterial liquid microcosm which can be used to demonstrate aspects of evolution, namely adaptive radiation, niche colonisation and competitive fitness. In microcosms inoculated…

  13. Evolution in a test tube: the hatchet before the scalpel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Oliver J

    2008-11-28

    Gene duplication provides an organism with a rich source of genetic material for tinkering by selection during evolution. In this issue, Rancati et al. (2008) report that extensive polyploidy and aneuploidy are the initial evolutionary changes in yeast selected in vitro to overcome defects resulting from the loss of a myosin II protein crucial for normal cytokinesis.

  14. dimensional nonlinear evolution equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in real-life situations, it is important to find their exact solutions. Further, in ... But only little work is done on the high-dimensional equations. .... Similarly, to determine the values of d and q, we balance the linear term of the lowest order in eq.

  15. Testing for Stationarity and Nonlinearity of Daily Streamflow Time Series Based on Different Statistical Tests (Case Study: Upstream Basin Rivers of Zarrineh Roud Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Fathian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Time series models are one of the most important tools for investigating and modeling hydrological processes in order to solve problems related to water resources management. Many hydrological time series shows nonstationary and nonlinear behaviors. One of the important hydrological modeling tasks is determining the existence of nonstationarity and the way through which we can access the stationarity accordingly. On the other hand, streamflow processes are usually considered as nonlinear mechanisms while in many studies linear time series models are used to model streamflow time series. However, it is not clear what kind of nonlinearity is acting underlying the streamflowprocesses and how intensive it is. Materials and Methods: Streamflow time series of 6 hydro-gauge stations located in the upstream basin rivers of ZarrinehRoud dam (located in the southern part of Urmia Lake basin have been considered to investigate stationarity and nonlinearity. All data series used here to startfrom January 1, 1997, and end on December 31, 2011. In this study, stationarity is tested by ADF and KPSS tests and nonlinearity is tested by BDS, Keenan and TLRT tests. The stationarity test is carried out with two methods. Thefirst one method is the augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF unit root test first proposed by Dickey and Fuller (1979 and modified by Said and Dickey (1984, which examinsthe presence of unit roots in time series.The second onemethod is KPSS test, proposed by Kwiatkowski et al. (1992, which examinesthestationarity around a deterministic trend (trend stationarity and the stationarity around a fixed level (level stationarity. The BDS test (Brock et al., 1996 is a nonparametric method for testing the serial independence and nonlinear structure in time series based on the correlation integral of the series. The null hypothesis is the time series sample comes from an independent identically distributed (i.i.d. process. The alternative hypothesis

  16. New evolution equations for the joint response-excitation probability density function of stochastic solutions to first-order nonlinear PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, D.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2012-08-01

    By using functional integral methods we determine new evolution equations satisfied by the joint response-excitation probability density function (PDF) associated with the stochastic solution to first-order nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). The theory is presented for both fully nonlinear and for quasilinear scalar PDEs subject to random boundary conditions, random initial conditions or random forcing terms. Particular applications are discussed for the classical linear and nonlinear advection equations and for the advection-reaction equation. By using a Fourier-Galerkin spectral method we obtain numerical solutions of the proposed response-excitation PDF equations. These numerical solutions are compared against those obtained by using more conventional statistical approaches such as probabilistic collocation and multi-element probabilistic collocation methods. It is found that the response-excitation approach yields accurate predictions of the statistical properties of the system. In addition, it allows to directly ascertain the tails of probabilistic distributions, thus facilitating the assessment of rare events and associated risks. The computational cost of the response-excitation method is order magnitudes smaller than the one of more conventional statistical approaches if the PDE is subject to high-dimensional random boundary or initial conditions. The question of high-dimensionality for evolution equations involving multidimensional joint response-excitation PDFs is also addressed.

  17. Testing the performance of three nonlinear methods of time seriesanalysis for prediction and downscaling of European daily temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Miksovsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the usability of the method of local linear models (LLM, multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP NN and radial basis function neural network (RBF NN for the construction of temporal and spatial transfer functions between different meteorological quantities, and compared the obtained results both mutually and to the results of multiple linear regression (MLR. The tested methods were applied for the short-term prediction of daily mean temperatures and for the downscaling of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, using series of daily mean, minimum and maximum temperatures from 25 European stations as predictands. None of the tested nonlinear methods was recognized to be distinctly superior to the others, but all nonlinear techniques proved to be better than linear regression in the majority of the cases. It is also discussed that the most frequently used nonlinear method, the MLP neural network, may not be the best choice for processing the climatic time series - LLM method or RBF NNs can offer a comparable or slightly better performance and they do not suffer from some of the practical disadvantages of MLPs. Aside from comparing the performance of different methods, we paid attention to geographical and seasonal variations of the results. The forecasting results showed that the nonlinear character of relations between climate variables is well apparent over most of Europe, in contrast to rather weak nonlinearity in the Mediterranean and North Africa. No clear large-scale geographical structure of nonlinearity was identified in the case of downscaling. Nonlinearity also seems to be noticeably stronger in winter than in summer in most locations, for both forecasting and downscaling.

  18. Non-linear advanced control of the LHC inner triplet heat exchanger test unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinuela, E. Blanco; Cubillos, J. Casas; Prada Moraga, C. de; Cristea, S.

    2002-01-01

    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will include eight interaction region final focus magnet systems, the so-called 'Inner Triplet', one on each side of the four beam collision points. The Inner Triplets will be cooled in a static bath of pressurized He II nominally at 1.9 K. This temperature is a control parameter and has very severe constraints in order to avoid the transition from the superconducting to normal resistive state. The main difference in these special zones with respect to a regular LHC cell is higher dynamic heat load unevenly distributed which modifies largely the process characteristics and hence the controller performance. Several control strategies have already been tested at CERN in a pilot plant (LHC String Test) which reproduced a LHC half-cell. In order to validate a common control structure along the whole LHC ring, a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) has been developed and implemented in the Inner Triplet Heat Exchanger Unit (IT-HXTU) at CERN. Automation of the Inner Triplet setup and the advanced control techniques deployed based on the Model Based Predictive Control (MBPC) principle are presented

  19. TESTING MODELS OF MAGNETIC FIELD EVOLUTION OF NEUTRON STARS WITH THE STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF THEIR SPIN EVOLUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuangnan; Xie Yi

    2012-01-01

    We test models for the evolution of neutron star (NS) magnetic fields (B). Our model for the evolution of the NS spin is taken from an analysis of pulsar timing noise presented by Hobbs et al.. We first test the standard model of a pulsar's magnetosphere in which B does not change with time and magnetic dipole radiation is assumed to dominate the pulsar's spin-down. We find that this model fails to predict both the magnitudes and signs of the second derivatives of the spin frequencies (ν-double dot). We then construct a phenomenological model of the evolution of B, which contains a long-term decay (LTD) modulated by short-term oscillations; a pulsar's spin is thus modified by its B-evolution. We find that an exponential LTD is not favored by the observed statistical properties of ν-double dot for young pulsars and fails to explain the fact that ν-double dot is negative for roughly half of the old pulsars. A simple power-law LTD can explain all the observed statistical properties of ν-double dot. Finally, we discuss some physical implications of our results to models of the B-decay of NSs and suggest reliable determination of the true ages of many young NSs is needed, in order to constrain further the physical mechanisms of their B-decay. Our model can be further tested with the measured evolutions of ν-dot and ν-double dot for an individual pulsar; the decay index, oscillation amplitude, and period can also be determined this way for the pulsar.

  20. The evolution time of nucleon spectrum in residual excited nucleus and calculation of the non-linear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenzhebaev, Sh.K.; Djuraev, Sh.H.; Mannanov, D.E.; Khugaev, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    The investigation of nonstationary fermi-gas thermalization of nucleons in the residual excited nucleus as an open nonlinearize system and analytical methods of calculation are presented. (author). 9 refs

  1. Experimentally observed evolution between dynamic patterns and intrinsic localized modes in a driven nonlinear electrical cyclic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shige, S.; Miyasaka, K.; Shi, W.; Soga, Y.; Sato, M.; Sievers, A. J.

    2018-02-01

    Locked intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) and large amplitude lattice spatial modes (LSMs) have been experimentally measured for a driven 1-D nonlinear cyclic electric transmission line, where the nonlinear element is a saturable capacitor. Depending on the number of cells and electrical lattice damping an LSM of fixed shape can be tuned across the modal spectrum. Interestingly, by tuning the driver frequency away from this spectrum the LSM can be continuously converted into ILMs and vice versa. The differences in pattern formation between simulations and experimental findings are due to a low concentration of impurities. Through this novel nonlinear excitation and switching channel in cyclic lattices either energy balanced or unbalanced LSMs and ILMs may occur. Because of the general nature of these dynamical results for nonintegrable lattices applications are to be expected. The ultimate stability of driven aero machinery containing nonlinear periodic structures may be one example.

  2. First Integrals of Evolution Systems and Nonlinear Stability of Stationary Solutions for the Ideal Atmospheric, Oceanic Hydrodynamical and Plasma Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordin, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    First integral of the systems of nonlinear equations governing the behaviour of atmospheric, oceanic and MHD plasma models are determined. The Lyapunov stability conditions for the solutions under small initial disturbances are analyzed. (author)

  3. Experimental tests of linear and nonlinear three-dimensional equilibrium models in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J. D., E-mail: kingjd@fusion.gat.com [Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830-8050 (United States); General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92816-5608 (United States); Strait, E. J.; Ferraro, N. M.; Lanctot, M. J.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92816-5608 (United States); Lazerson, S. A.; Logan, N. C.; Park, J.-K.; Nazikian, R.; Okabayashi, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Haskey, S. R. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, The Australia National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Hanson, J. M. [Columbia University, 2960 Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Liu, Yueqiang [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Shiraki, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    DIII-D experiments using new detailed magnetic diagnostics show that linear, ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory quantitatively describes the magnetic structure (as measured externally) of three-dimensional (3D) equilibria resulting from applied fields with toroidal mode number n = 1, while a nonlinear solution to ideal MHD force balance, using the VMEC code, requires the inclusion of n ≥ 1 to achieve similar agreement. These tests are carried out near ITER baseline parameters, providing a validated basis on which to exploit 3D fields for plasma control development. Scans of the applied poloidal spectrum and edge safety factor confirm that low-pressure, n = 1 non-axisymmetric tokamak equilibria are determined by a single, dominant, stable eigenmode. However, at higher beta, near the ideal kink mode stability limit in the absence of a conducting wall, the qualitative features of the 3D structure are observed to vary in a way that is not captured by ideal MHD.

  4. Validity testing of third-order nonlinear models for synchronous generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjona, M.A. [Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Instituto Tecnologico de La Laguna Torreon, Coah. (Mexico); Escarela-Perez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Energia, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa, C.P. 02200 (Mexico); Espinosa-Perez, G. [Division de Estudios Posgrado de la Facultad de Ingenieria Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Alvarez-Ramirez, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana -Iztapalapa, Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria (Mexico)

    2009-06-15

    Third-order nonlinear models are commonly used in control theory for the analysis of the stability of both open-loop and closed-loop synchronous machines. However, the ability of these models to describe the electrical machine dynamics has not been tested experimentally. This work focuses on this issue by addressing the parameters identification problem for third-order models for synchronous generators. For a third-order model describing the dynamics of power angle {delta}, rotor speed {omega} and quadrature axis transient EMF E{sub q}{sup '}, it is shown that the parameters cannot be identified because of the effects of the unknown initial condition of E{sub q}{sup '}. To avoid this situation, a model that incorporates the measured electrical power dynamics is considered, showing that state measurements guarantee the identification of the model parameters. Data obtained from a 7 kVA lab-scale synchronous generator and from a 150 MVA finite-element simulation were used to show that, at least for the worked examples, the estimated parameters display only moderate variations over the operating region. This suggests that third-order models can suffice to describe the main dynamical features of synchronous generators, and that third-order models can be used to design and tune power system stabilizers and voltage regulators. (author)

  5. Evaluation of unconfined-aquifer parameters from pumping test data by nonlinear least squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Manoutchehr; Wench, Allen

    1997-05-01

    Nonlinear least squares (NLS) with automatic differentiation was used to estimate aquifer parameters from drawdown data obtained from published pumping tests conducted in homogeneous, water-table aquifers. The method is based on a technique that seeks to minimize the squares of residuals between observed and calculated drawdown subject to bounds that are placed on the parameter of interest. The analytical model developed by Neuman for flow to a partially penetrating well of infinitesimal diameter situated in an infinite, homogeneous and anisotropic aquifer was used to obtain calculated drawdown. NLS was first applied to synthetic drawdown data from a hypothetical but realistic aquifer to demonstrate that the relevant hydraulic parameters (storativity, specific yield, and horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity) can be evaluated accurately. Next the method was used to estimate the parameters at three field sites with widely varying hydraulic properties. NLS produced unbiased estimates of the aquifer parameters that are close to the estimates obtained with the same data using a visual curve-matching approach. Small differences in the estimates are a consequence of subjective interpretation introduced in the visual approach.

  6. Testing universal relations of neutron stars with a nonlinear matter-gravity coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sham, Y.-H.; Lin, L.-M.; Leung, P. T.

    2014-01-01

    Due to our ignorance of the equation of state (EOS) beyond nuclear density, there is still no unique theoretical model for neutron stars (NSs). It is therefore surprising that universal EOS-independent relations connecting different physical quantities of NSs can exist. Lau et al. found that the frequency of the f-mode oscillation, the mass, and the moment of inertia are connected by universal relations. More recently, Yagi and Yunes discovered the I-Love-Q universal relations among the mass, the moment of inertia, the Love number, and the quadrupole moment. In this paper, we study these universal relations in the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity. This theory differs from general relativity (GR) significantly only at high densities due to the nonlinear coupling between matter and gravity. It thus provides us an ideal case to test how robust the universal relations of NSs are with respect to the change of the gravity theory. Due to the apparent EOS formulation of EiBI gravity developed recently by Delsate and Steinhoff, we are able to study the universal relations in EiBI gravity using the same techniques as those in GR. We find that the universal relations in EiBI gravity are essentially the same as those in GR. Our work shows that, within the currently viable coupling constant, there exists at least one modified gravity theory that is indistinguishable from GR in view of the unexpected universal relations.

  7. Testing Universal Relations of Neutron Stars with a Nonlinear Matter-Gravity Coupling Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Y.-H.; Lin, L.-M.; Leung, P. T.

    2014-02-01

    Due to our ignorance of the equation of state (EOS) beyond nuclear density, there is still no unique theoretical model for neutron stars (NSs). It is therefore surprising that universal EOS-independent relations connecting different physical quantities of NSs can exist. Lau et al. found that the frequency of the f-mode oscillation, the mass, and the moment of inertia are connected by universal relations. More recently, Yagi and Yunes discovered the I-Love-Q universal relations among the mass, the moment of inertia, the Love number, and the quadrupole moment. In this paper, we study these universal relations in the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity. This theory differs from general relativity (GR) significantly only at high densities due to the nonlinear coupling between matter and gravity. It thus provides us an ideal case to test how robust the universal relations of NSs are with respect to the change of the gravity theory. Due to the apparent EOS formulation of EiBI gravity developed recently by Delsate and Steinhoff, we are able to study the universal relations in EiBI gravity using the same techniques as those in GR. We find that the universal relations in EiBI gravity are essentially the same as those in GR. Our work shows that, within the currently viable coupling constant, there exists at least one modified gravity theory that is indistinguishable from GR in view of the unexpected universal relations.

  8. Open-Air Biowarfare Testing and the Evolution of Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The United States and the United Kingdom ended outdoor biological warfare testing in populated areas nearly half a century ago. Yet, the conduct, health effects, and propriety of those tests remain controversial. The varied views reflect the limits of currently available test information and evolving societal values on research involving human subjects. Western political culture has changed since the early days of the American and British testing programs. People have become less reluctant to question authority, and institutional review boards must now pre-approve research involving human subjects. Further, the heightened stringency of laboratory containment has accentuated the safety gap between a confined test space and one without physical boundaries. All this makes it less likely that masses of people would again be unwittingly subjected to secret open-air biological warfare tests. PMID:27564984

  9. The Max Launch Abort System - Concept, Flight Test, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.

  10. Non-linear thermal evolution of the crystal structure and phase transitions of LaFeO3 investigated by high temperature X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selbach, Sverre M.; Tolchard, Julian R.; Fossdal, Anita; Grande, Tor

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure, anisotropic thermal expansion and structural phase transition of the perovskite LaFeO 3 has been studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction from room temperature to 1533 K. The structural evolution of the orthorhombic phase with space group Pbnm and the rhombohedral phase with R3 ¯ c structure of LaFeO 3 is reported in terms of lattice parameters, thermal expansion coefficients, atomic positions, octahedral rotations and polyhedral volumes. Non-linear lattice expansion across the antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition of LaFeO 3 at T N =735 K was compared to the corresponding behavior of the ferroelectric antiferromagnet BiFeO 3 to gain insight to the magnetoelectric coupling in BiFeO 3 , which is also multiferroic. The first order phase transition of LaFeO 3 from Pbnm to R3 ¯ c was observed at 1228±9 K, and a subsequent transition to Pm3 ¯ m was extrapolated to occur at 2140±30 K. The stability of the Pbnm and R3 ¯ c polymorphs of LaFeO 3 is discussed in terms of the competing enthalpy and entropy of the two crystal polymorphs and the thermal evolution of the polyhedral volume ratio V A /V B . - Graphical abstract: Aniostropic thermal evolution of the lattice parameters and phase transition of LaFeO 3 . Highlights: ► The crystal structure of LaFeO 3 is studied by HTXRD from RT to 1533 K. ► A non-linear expansion across the Néel temperature is observed for LaFeO 3 . ► The ratio V A /V B is used to rationalize the thermal evolution of the structure.

  11. Simulation and measurement of nonlinear behavior in a high-power test cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gerald; Gachagan, Anthony

    2011-04-01

    High-power ultrasound has many diverse uses in process applications in industries ranging from food to pharmaceutical. Because cavitation is frequently a desirable effect within many high-power, low-frequency systems, these systems are commonly expected to feature highly nonlinear acoustic propagation because of the high input levels employed. This generation of harmonics significantly alters the field profile compared with that of a linear system, making accurate field modeling difficult. However, when the short propagation distances involved are considered, it is not unreasonable to assume that these systems may remain largely linear until the onset of cavitation, in terms of classical acoustic propagation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible nonlinear effects within such systems before the onset of cavitation. A theoretical description of nonlinear propagation will be presented and the merits of common analytical models will be discussed. Following this, a numerical model of nonlinearity will be outlined and the advantages it presents for representing nonlinear effects in bounded fields will be discussed. Next, the driving equipment and transducers will be evaluated for linearity to disengage any effects from those formed in the transmission load. Finally, the linearity of the system will be measured using an acoustic hydrophone and compared with finite element analysis to confirm that nonlinear effects are not prevalent in such systems at the onset of cavitation. © 2011 IEEE

  12. Multi-process Late Quaternary landscape evolution modelling reveals lags in climate response over small spatial scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-01-01

    Landscapes evolve in complex, non-linear ways over Quaternary timespans. Integrated geomorphological field studies usually yield plausible hypotheses about timing and impact of process activity. Landscape Evolution Models (LEMs) have the potential to test and falsify these landscape evolution

  13. Evolution of the Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to various legislative mandates, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) formed its Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP), which in turn, implemented a tiered testing strategy to determine the potential of pesticides, commercial chemicals, and...

  14. Evolution of the unsaturated zone testing at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    The evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site has evolved from intensive surface based investigations in the early 1980s to current focus on testing in underground drifts. Different periods of site-characterization activities and prominent issues concerning the unsaturated zone are summarized. Data-collection activities have evolved from mapping of faults and fractures, to estimation of percolation through tuff layers, and to quantification of seepage into drifts. Evaluation of discrete flow paths in drifts has led to fracture-matrix interaction and matrix diffusion tests over different scales. The effects of tuff interfaces and local faults are evaluated in fractured-welded and porous-nonwelded units. Mobilization of matrix water and redistribution of moisture are measured in thermal tests. Lessons learned from underground tests are used to focus on processes needed for additional quantification. Migration through the drift shadow zone and liquid flow through faults are two important issues that have evolved from current knowledge

  15. Stochastic Nonlinear Evolutional Model of the Large-Scaled Neuronal Population and Dynamic Neural Coding Subject to Stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rubin; Yu Wei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the population of neuronal oscillators deals with information and the dynamic evolution of neural coding when the external stimulation acts on it. Numerically computing method is used to describe the evolution process of neural coding in three-dimensioned space. The numerical result proves that only the suitable stimulation can change the coupling structure and plasticity of neurons

  16. Evolution of thermal-hydraulics testing in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, G.H.; Planchon, H.P.; Sackett, J.I.; Singer, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A thermal-hydraulics testing and modeling program has been underway at the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for 12 years. This work culminated in two tests of historical importance to commercial nuclear power, a loss of flow without scram and a loss of heat sink wihout scram, both from 100% initial power. These tests showed that natural processes will shut EBR-II down and maintain cooling without automatic control rod action or operator intervention. Supporting analyses indicate that these results are characteristic of a range of sizes of liquid metal cooled reactors (LMRs), if these reactors use metal driver fuel. This type of fuel is being developed as part of the Integral Fast Reactor Program at Argonne National Laboratory. Work is now underway at EBR-II to exploit the inherent safety of metal-fueled LMRs with regard to development of improved plant control strategies. (orig.)

  17. Why the null matters: statistical tests, random walks and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, H D; Mitchell, C E

    2001-01-01

    A number of statistical tests have been developed to determine what type of dynamics underlie observed changes in morphology in evolutionary time series, based on the pattern of change within the time series. The theory of the 'scaled maximum', the 'log-rate-interval' (LRI) method, and the Hurst exponent all operate on the same principle of comparing the maximum change, or rate of change, in the observed dataset to the maximum change expected of a random walk. Less change in a dataset than expected of a random walk has been interpreted as indicating stabilizing selection, while more change implies directional selection. The 'runs test' in contrast, operates on the sequencing of steps, rather than on excursion. Applications of these tests to computer generated, simulated time series of known dynamical form and various levels of additive noise indicate that there is a fundamental asymmetry in the rate of type II errors of the tests based on excursion: they are all highly sensitive to noise in models of directional selection that result in a linear trend within a time series, but are largely noise immune in the case of a simple model of stabilizing selection. Additionally, the LRI method has a lower sensitivity than originally claimed, due to the large range of LRI rates produced by random walks. Examination of the published results of these tests show that they have seldom produced a conclusion that an observed evolutionary time series was due to directional selection, a result which needs closer examination in light of the asymmetric response of these tests.

  18. Acceptance testing and quality assurance of Simulix evolution radiotherapy simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Ashutosh; Singh, Navin; Gurjar, Om Prakash; Bagdare, Priyusha

    2015-01-01

    The success of radiotherapy depends on precise treatment simulation and proper patient positioning. The simulator is a conventional radiographic and fluoroscopic system which emulates the geometrical positions of radiotherapy treatment unit. Hence, the acceptance tests and quality assurance (QA) of the simulator are important prior to its commissioning for the safe and precise clinical use. The verification of mechanical and optical readouts, field size, isocenter, optical and radiation field congruence were performed. The X-ray beam parameters were tested for kVp, mAs and consistency of radiation output. The flat panel detector performance was checked with respect to resolution, low contrast sensitivity (LCS), automatic dose rate control (ADRC), and gray image resolution (GIR). Gantry, table, and imaging system collision possibility was checked. Radiation survey around the room was also performed. The field size test for digital readout and on graph paper, the results of isocenter checkup for rotation of gantry, collimator, and couch, and the deviations observed in auto stop for various movements were found within the tolerance limits. Optical field and radiation field was found congruent. All the lasers were found aligned with the established isocenter. Maximum deviation for set and measured kV was found to be 3% in fluoro mode. The maximum deviation observed in mAs was 1.5% in 3-point as well as in 2-point film exposed mode. The X-ray output was found consistent. The results of tests for resolution, LCS, ADRC, and GIR of the flat panel detector were within tolerance limits. All the six safety interlocks were found working. Radiation level around the room was found within the acceptable limits. All the tests carried out were found within the tolerance limits. The data which has been taken in this study will provide basic support to the routine QA of the simulator. (author)

  19. Quasi-two-dimensional nonlinear evolution of helical magnetorotational instability in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatsashvili, G.; Stefani, F.; Guseva, A.; Avila, M.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetorotational instability (MRI) is one of the fundamental processes in astrophysics, driving angular momentum transport and mass accretion in a wide variety of cosmic objects. Despite much theoretical/numerical and experimental efforts over the last decades, its saturation mechanism and amplitude, which sets the angular momentum transport rate, remains not well understood, especially in the limit of high resistivity, or small magnetic Prandtl numbers typical to interiors (dead zones) of protoplanetary disks, liquid cores of planets and liquid metals in laboratory. Using direct numerical simulations, in this paper we investigate the nonlinear development and saturation properties of the helical magnetorotational instability (HMRI)—a relative of the standard MRI—in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow at very low magnetic Prandtl number (correspondingly at low magnetic Reynolds number) relevant to liquid metals. For simplicity, the ratio of azimuthal field to axial field is kept fixed. From the linear theory of HMRI, it is known that the Elsasser number, or interaction parameter determines its growth rate and plays a special role in the dynamics. We show that this parameter is also important in the nonlinear problem. By increasing its value, a sudden transition from weakly nonlinear, where the system is slightly above the linear stability threshold, to strongly nonlinear, or turbulent regime occurs. We calculate the azimuthal and axial energy spectra corresponding to these two regimes and show that they differ qualitatively. Remarkably, the nonlinear state remains in all cases nearly axisymmetric suggesting that this HMRI-driven turbulence is quasi two-dimensional in nature. Although the contribution of non-axisymmetric modes increases moderately with the Elsasser number, their total energy remains much smaller than that of the axisymmetric ones.

  20. Evolutions in clinical reasoning assessment: The Evolving Script Concordance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Suzette; Lemay, Jean-François; Beran, Tanya

    2017-08-01

    Script concordance testing (SCT) is a method of assessment of clinical reasoning. We developed a new type of SCT case design, the evolving SCT (E-SCT), whereby the patient's clinical story is "evolving" and with thoughtful integration of new information at each stage, decisions related to clinical decision-making become increasingly clear. We aimed to: (1) determine whether an E-SCT could differentiate clinical reasoning ability among junior residents (JR), senior residents (SR), and pediatricians, (2) evaluate the reliability of an E-SCT, and (3) obtain qualitative feedback from participants to help inform the potential acceptability of the E-SCT. A 12-case E-SCT, embedded within a 24-case pediatric SCT (PaedSCT), was administered to 91 pediatric residents (JR: n = 50; SR: n = 41). A total of 21 pediatricians served on the panel of experts (POE). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted across the levels of experience. Participants' feedback on the E-SCT was obtained with a post-test survey and analyzed using two methods: percentage preference and thematic analysis. Statistical differences existed across levels of training: F = 19.31 (df = 2); p decision-making process. The E-SCT demonstrated very good reliability and was effective in distinguishing clinical reasoning ability across three levels of experience. Participants found the E-SCT engaging and representative of real-life clinical reasoning and decision-making processes. We suggest that further refinement and utilization of the evolving style case will enhance SCT as a robust, engaging, and relevant method for the assessment of clinical reasoning.

  1. The Nonlinear Dynamic Relationship of Exchange Rates: Parametric and Nonparametric Causality testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekiros, S.D.; Diks, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the long-term linear and nonlinear causal linkages among six currencies, namely EUR/USD, GBP/USD, USD/JPY, USD/CHF, AUD/USD and USD/CAD. The prime motivation for choosing these exchange rates comes from the fact that they are the most liquid and widely traded, covering

  2. Direct test of a nonlinear constitutive equation for simple turbulent shear flows using DNS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, François G.

    2007-10-01

    Several nonlinear constitutive equations have been proposed to overcome the limitations of the linear eddy-viscosity models to describe complex turbulent flows. These nonlinear equations have often been compared to experimental data through the outputs of numerical models. Here we perform a priori analysis of nonlinear eddy-viscosity models using direct numerical simulation (DNS) of simple shear flows. In this paper, the constitutive equation is directly checked using a tensor projection which involves several invariants of the flow. This provides a 3 terms development which is exact for 2D flows, and a best approximation for 3D flows. We provide the quadratic nonlinear constitutive equation for the near-wall region of simple shear flows using DNS data, and estimate their coefficients. We show that these coefficients have several common properties for the different simple shear flow databases considered. We also show that in the central region of pipe flows, where the shear rate is very small, the coefficients of the constitutive equation diverge, indicating the failure of this representation for vanishing shears.

  3. Testing the Relationships between Diversification, Species Richness, and Trait Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Kenneth H; Wiens, John J

    2016-11-01

    Understanding which traits drive species diversification is essential for macroevolutionary studies and to understand patterns of species richness among clades. An important tool for testing if traits influence diversification is to estimate rates of net diversification for each clade, and then test for a relationship between traits and diversification rates among clades. However, this general approach has become very controversial. Numerous papers have now stated that it is inappropriate to analyze net diversification rates in groups in which clade richness is not positively correlated with clade age. Similarly, some have stated that variation in net diversification rates does not explain variation in species richness patterns among clades across the Tree of Life. Some authors have also suggested that strong correlations between richness and diversification rates are a statistical artifact and effectively inevitable. If this latter point is true, then correlations between richness and diversification rates would be uninformative (or even misleading) for identifying how much variation in species richness among clades is explained by variation in net diversification rates. Here, we use simulations (based on empirical data for plethodontid salamanders) to address three main questions. First, how is variation in net diversification rates among clades related to the relationship between clade age and species richness? Second, how accurate are these net diversification rate estimators, and does the age-richness relationship have any relevance to their accuracy? Third, is a relationship between species richness and diversification rates an inevitable, statistical artifact? Our simulations show that strong, positive age-richness relationships arise when diversification rates are invariant among clades, whereas realistic variation in diversification rates among clades frequently disrupts this relationship. Thus, a significant age-richness relationship should not be a

  4. Nonlinear smooth orthogonal decomposition of kinematic features of sawing reconstructs muscle fatigue evolution as indicated by electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segala, David B; Gates, Deanna H; Dingwell, Jonathan B; Chelidze, David

    2011-03-01

    Tracking or predicting physiological fatigue is important for developing more robust training protocols and better energy supplements and/or reducing muscle injuries. Current methodologies are usually impractical and/or invasive and may not be realizable outside of laboratory settings. It was recently demonstrated that smooth orthogonal decomposition (SOD) of phase space warping (PSW) features of motion kinematics can identify fatigue in individual muscle groups. We hypothesize that a nonlinear extension of SOD will identify more optimal fatigue coordinates and provide a lower-dimensional reconstruction of local fatigue dynamics than the linear SOD. Both linear and nonlinear SODs were applied to PSW features estimated from measured kinematics to reconstruct muscle fatigue dynamics in subjects performing a sawing motion. Ten healthy young right-handed subjects pushed a weighted handle back and forth until voluntary exhaustion. Three sets of joint kinematic angles were measured from the right upper extremity in addition to surface electromyography (EMG) recordings. The SOD coordinates of kinematic PSW features were compared against independently measured fatigue markers (i.e., mean and median EMG spectrum frequencies of individual muscle groups). This comparison was based on a least-squares linear fit of a fixed number of the dominant SOD coordinates to the appropriate local fatigue markers. Between subject variability showed that at most four to five nonlinear SOD coordinates were needed to reconstruct fatigue in local muscle groups, while on average 15 coordinates were needed for the linear SOD. Thus, the nonlinear coordinates provided a one-order-of-magnitude improvement over the linear ones.

  5. Identification of defect distribution at ferroelectric domain walls from evolution of nonlinear dielectric response during the aging process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mokrý, Pavel; Sluka, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 6 (2016), č. článku 064114. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32228S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nonlinear dielectric response * ferroelectric domain walls * aging process * phase field simulations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016 http://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.93.064114

  6. The evolution of parental care in insects: A test of current hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, James D J; Manica, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Which sex should care for offspring is a fundamental question in evolution. Invertebrates, and insects in particular, show some of the most diverse kinds of parental care of all animals, but to date there has been no broad comparative study of the evolution of parental care in this group. Here, we test existing hypotheses of insect parental care evolution using a literature-compiled phylogeny of over 2000 species. To address substantial uncertainty in the insect phylogeny, we use a brute force approach based on multiple random resolutions of uncertain nodes. The main transitions were between no care (the probable ancestral state) and female care. Male care evolved exclusively from no care, supporting models where mating opportunity costs for caring males are reduced-for example, by caring for multiple broods-but rejecting the "enhanced fecundity" hypothesis that male care is favored because it allows females to avoid care costs. Biparental care largely arose by males joining caring females, and was more labile in Holometabola than in Hemimetabola. Insect care evolution most closely resembled amphibian care in general trajectory. Integrating these findings with the wealth of life history and ecological data in insects will allow testing of a rich vein of existing hypotheses. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Residual Strength Pressure Tests and Nonlinear Analyses of Stringer- and Frame-Stiffened Aluminum Fuselage Panels with Longitudinal Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard D.; Rouse, Marshall; Ambur, Damodar R.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The results of residual strength pressure tests and nonlinear analyses of stringer- and frame-stiffened aluminum fuselage panels with longitudinal cracks are presented. Two types of damage are considered: a longitudinal crack located midway between stringers, and a longitudinal crack adjacent to a stringer and along a row of fasteners in a lap joint that has multiple-site damage (MSD). In both cases, the longitudinal crack is centered on a severed frame. The panels are subjected to internal pressure plus axial tension loads. The axial tension loads are equivalent to a bulkhead pressure load. Nonlinear elastic-plastic residual strength analyses of the fuselage panels are conducted using a finite element program and the crack-tip-opening-angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. Predicted crack growth and residual strength results from nonlinear analyses of the stiffened fuselage panels are compared with experimental measurements and observations. Both the test and analysis results indicate that the presence of MSD affects crack growth stability and reduces the residual strength of stiffened fuselage shells with long cracks.

  8. Evolution of association between renal and liver functions while awaiting heart transplant: An application using a bivariate multiphase nonlinear mixed effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Blackstone, Eugene H; Barnard, John

    2018-07-01

    In many longitudinal follow-up studies, we observe more than one longitudinal outcome. Impaired renal and liver functions are indicators of poor clinical outcomes for patients who are on mechanical circulatory support and awaiting heart transplant. Hence, monitoring organ functions while waiting for heart transplant is an integral part of patient management. Longitudinal measurements of bilirubin can be used as a marker for liver function and glomerular filtration rate for renal function. We derive an approximation to evolution of association between these two organ functions using a bivariate nonlinear mixed effects model for continuous longitudinal measurements, where the two submodels are linked by a common distribution of time-dependent latent variables and a common distribution of measurement errors.

  9. A Generalized National Planning Approach for Admission Capacity in Higher Education: A Nonlinear Integer Goal Programming Model with a Novel Differential Evolution Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Qulity, Said Ali; Mohamed, Ali Wagdy

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a nonlinear integer goal programming model (NIGPM) for solving the general problem of admission capacity planning in a country as a whole. The work aims to satisfy most of the required key objectives of a country related to the enrollment problem for higher education. The system general outlines are developed along with the solution methodology for application to the time horizon in a given plan. The up-to-date data for Saudi Arabia is used as a case study and a novel evolutionary algorithm based on modified differential evolution (DE) algorithm is used to solve the complexity of the NIGPM generated for different goal priorities. The experimental results presented in this paper show their effectiveness in solving the admission capacity for higher education in terms of final solution quality and robustness.

  10. Laser damage metrology in biaxial nonlinear crystals using different test beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Anne; Wagner, Frank R.; Akhouayri, Hassan; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Commandre, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    Laser damage measurements in nonlinear optical crystals, in particular in biaxial crystals, may be influenced by several effects proper to these materials or greatly enhanced in these materials. Before discussion of these effects, we address the topic of error bar determination for probability measurements. Error bars for the damage probabilities are important because nonlinear crystals are often small and expensive, thus only few sites are used for a single damage probability measurement. We present the mathematical basics and a flow diagram for the numerical calculation of error bars for probability measurements that correspond to a chosen confidence level. Effects that possibly modify the maximum intensity in a biaxial nonlinear crystal are: focusing aberration, walk-off and self-focusing. Depending on focusing conditions, propagation direction, polarization of the light and the position of the focus point in the crystal, strong aberrations may change the beam profile and drastically decrease the maximum intensity in the crystal. A correction factor for this effect is proposed, but quantitative corrections are not possible without taking into account the experimental beam profile after the focusing lens. The characteristics of walk-off and self-focusing have quickly been reviewed for the sake of completeness of this article. Finally, parasitic second harmonic generation may influence the laser damage behavior of crystals. The important point for laser damage measurements is that the amount of externally observed SHG after the crystal does not correspond to the maximum amount of second harmonic light inside the crystal.

  11. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  12. Testing Predictions of a Landscape Evolution Model Using the Dragon’s Back Pressure Ridge as a Natural Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perignon, M. C.; Tucker, G. E.; Hilley, G. E.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2009-12-01

    Landscape evolution models use mass transport rules to simulate the temporal development of topography over timescales too long for humans to observe. As such, these models are difficult to test using the decadal time-scale observations of topographic change that can be directly measured. In contrast, natural systems in which driving forces, boundary conditions, and timing of landscape evolution over millennial time-scales can be well constrained may be used to test the ability of mathematical models to reproduce various attributes of the observed topography. The Dragon’s Back pressure ridge, a 4km x 0.5 km x 100 m high area of elevated topography elongate parallel to the south-central San Andreas fault (SAF) in California, serves as a natural laboratory for studying how the timing and spatial distribution of uplift affects patterns of erosion and topography. Geologic mapping and geophysical studies show that, at this location, the Pacific plate is forced over a relatively stationary shallow discontinuity in the SAF, resulting in local uplift. Continued right-lateral motion along the fault results in the movement of material though the uplift zone at the SAF slip rate of 35 mm/yr. This allows for the substitution of space for time when observing topographic change, and can be used to constrain the tectonic conditions to which the surface processes responded and developed the resulting landscape. We used the CHILD model of landscape evolution to recreate the Dragon’s Back pressure ridge system in order to test the reliability of the model predictions and determine the necessary and sufficient conditions to explain the observed topography. To do this, we first ran a Monte Carlo simulation in which we varied the model inputs within a range of plausible values. We then compared the model results with LiDAR topography from the Dragon’s Back pressure ridge to determine which combinations of input parameters best reproduced the observed topography and how well it

  13. Nonlinear numerical analysis and experimental testing for an electrothermal SU-8 microgripper with reduced out-of-plane displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Rodica-Cristina; Zandi, Muaiyd Al; Müller, Raluca; Wang, Changhai

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the results of numerical nonlinear electro-thermo-mechanical analysis and experimental testing of a polymeric microgripper designed using electrothermal actuators. The simulation work was carried out using a finite element method (FEM) and a commercial software (Coventorware 2014). The biocompatible SU-8 polymer was used as structural material for the fabrication of the microgripper. The metallic micro-heater was encapsulated in the polymeric actuation structures of the microgripper to reduce the undesirable out-of-plane displacement of the microgripper tips, and to electrically isolate the micro-heater, and to reduce the mechanical stress as well as to improve the thermal efficiency. The electro- thermo-mechanical analysis of the actuator considers the nonlinear temperature-dependent properties of the SU-8 polymer and the gold thin film layers used for the micro-heater fabrication. An optical characterisation of the microgripper based on an image tracking approach shows the thermal response and the good repeatability. The average deflection is ~11 µm for an actuation current of ~17 mA. The experimentally obtained tip deflection and the heater temperature at different currents are both shown to be in good agreement with the nonlinear electro-thermo-mechanical simulation results. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of the microgripper by capture and manipulation of cotton fibres.

  14. Time evolution of scattering states and velocity increase due to nonlinear processes in the quantum hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, J.; Duport, C.

    1991-01-01

    We report the first numerical results (with realistic parameter values) for the time evolution of a scattered Landau function in a model system. They give a striking illustration for the Hall velocity increase beyond the classical value of the conduction electrons in the quantum Hall regime. This phenomenon, which is crucial for the integer quantum Hall effect, is caused by a special kind of nonclassical particle dynamics induced by disorder and cannot be described by linear response theory

  15. Internal quality evolution of a large test system – an industrial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Attila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our empirical observations related to the evolution of a large automated test system. The system observed is used in the industry as a test tool for complex telecommunication systems, itself consisting of more than one million lines of source code. This study evaluates how different changes during the development have changed the number of observed Code Smells in the test system. We have monitored the development of the test scripts and measured the code quality characteristics over a five years period.

  16. Evolution of a test article handling system for the SP-100 GES test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, E.J.; Schweiger, L.J.; Miller, W.C.; Gluck, R.; Davies, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A simulated space environment test of a flight prototypic SP-100 reactor, control system, and flight shield will be conducted at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The flight prototypic components and the supporting primary heat removal system are collectively known as the nuclear assembly test article (TA). The unique configuration and materials of fabrication for the Test Article require a specialized handling facility to support installation, maintenance, and final disposal operation. The test site operator, working in conjunction with the test article supplier, developed and evaluated several handling concepts resulting in the selection of a reference test article handling system. The development of the reference concept for the handling system is presented

  17. Structure formation in turbulent plasmas - test of nonlinear processes in plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Inagaki, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Recent developments in plasma physics, either in the fusion research in a new era of ITER, or in space and in astro-physics, the world-wide and focused research has been developed on the subject of structural formation in turbulent plasma being associated with electro-magnetic field formation. Keys for the progress were a change of the physics view from the 'linear, local and deterministic' picture to the description based on 'nonlinear instability, nonlocal interaction and probabilistic excitation' for the turbulent state, and the integration of the theory-simulation-experiment. In this presentation, we first briefly summarize the theory of microscopic turbulence and mesoscale fluctuations and selection rules. In addition, the statistical formation of large-scale structure/deformation by turbulence is addressed. Then, the experimental measurements of the mesoscale structures (e.g., zonal flows, zonal fields, streamer and transport interface) and of the nonlinear interactions among them in turbulent plasmas are reported. Confirmations by, and new challenges from, the experiments are overviewed. Work supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Specially-Promoted Research (16002005). (author)

  18. Nonlinear Evolution of Observed Fast Streams in the Solar Wind - Micro-instabilities and Energy Exchange between Protons and Alpha Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y. G.; Poedts, S.

    2017-12-01

    Non-thermal kinetic components such as deformed velocity distributions, temperature anisotropies and relative drifts between the multiple ion populations are frequently observed features in the collisionless fast solar wind streams near the Earth whose origin is still to be better understood. Some of the traditional models consider the formation of the temperature anisotropies through the effect of the solar wind expansion, while others assume in situ heating and particle acceleration by local fluctuations, such as plasma waves, or by spacial structures, such as advected or locally generated current sheets. In this study we consider the evolution of initial ion temperature anisotropies and relative drifts in the presence of plasma oscillations, such as ion-cyclotron and kinetic Alfven waves. We perform 2.5D hybrid simulations to study the evolution of observed fast solar wind plasma parcels, including the development of the plasma micro-instabilities, the field-particle correlations and the energy transfer between the multiple ion species. We consider two distinct cases of highly anisotropic and quickly drifting protons which excite ion-cyclotron waves and of moderately anisotropic slower protons, which co-exist with kinetic Alfven waves. The alpha particles for both cases are slightly anisotropic in the beginning and remain anisotropic throughout the simulation time. Both the imposed magnetic fluctuations and the initial differential streaming decrease in time for both cases, while the minor ions are getting heated. Finally we study the effects of the solar wind expansion and discuss its implications for the nonlinear evolution of the system.

  19. A comparative analysis of particle swarm optimization and differential evolution algorithms for parameter estimation in nonlinear dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Amit; Abu-Mahfouz, Issam

    2014-01-01

    The use of evolutionary algorithms has been popular in recent years for solving the inverse problem of identifying system parameters given the chaotic response of a dynamical system. The inverse problem is reformulated as a minimization problem and population-based optimizers such as evolutionary algorithms have been shown to be efficient solvers of the minimization problem. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no published work that evaluates the efficacy of using the two most popular evolutionary techniques – particle swarm optimization and differential evolution algorithm, on a wide range of parameter estimation problems. In this paper, the two methods along with their variants (for a total of seven algorithms) are applied to fifteen different parameter estimation problems of varying degrees of complexity. Estimation results are analyzed using nonparametric statistical methods to identify if an algorithm is statistically superior to others over the class of problems analyzed. Results based on parameter estimation quality suggest that there are significant differences between the algorithms with the newer, more sophisticated algorithms performing better than their canonical versions. More importantly, significant differences were also found among variants of the particle swarm optimizer and the best performing differential evolution algorithm

  20. The evolution of parental care in insects: A test of current hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, James D J; Manica, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Which sex should care for offspring is a fundamental question in evolution. Invertebrates, and insects in particular, show some of the most diverse kinds of parental care of all animals, but to date there has been no broad comparative study of the evolution of parental care in this group. Here, we test existing hypotheses of insect parental care evolution using a literature-compiled phylogeny of over 2000 species. To address substantial uncertainty in the insect phylogeny, we use a brute force approach based on multiple random resolutions of uncertain nodes. The main transitions were between no care (the probable ancestral state) and female care. Male care evolved exclusively from no care, supporting models where mating opportunity costs for caring males are reduced—for example, by caring for multiple broods—but rejecting the “enhanced fecundity” hypothesis that male care is favored because it allows females to avoid care costs. Biparental care largely arose by males joining caring females, and was more labile in Holometabola than in Hemimetabola. Insect care evolution most closely resembled amphibian care in general trajectory. Integrating these findings with the wealth of life history and ecological data in insects will allow testing of a rich vein of existing hypotheses. PMID:25825047

  1. Evolution of a test article handling system for the SP-100 ground engineering system test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, E.J.; Schweiger, L.J.; Miller, W.C.; Gluck, R.; Devies, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    A simulated space environment test of a flight prototypic SP-100 reactor, control system, and flight shield will be conducted at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The flight prototypic components and the supporting primary heat removal system are collectively known as the Nuclear Assembly Test Article (TA). The unique configuration and materials of fabrication for the Test Article require a specialized handling facility to support installation, maintenance, and final disposal operations. Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Test Site Operator, working in conjunction with General Electric Company, the Test Article supplier, developed and evaluated several handling concepts resulting in the selection of a reference Test Article Handling System. The development of the reference concept for the handling system is presented

  2. Study on the temperature gradient evolution of large size nonlinear crystal based on the fluid-solid coupling theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F. Z.; Zhang, P.; Liang, Y. C.; Lu, L. H.

    2014-09-01

    In the non-critical phase-matching (NCPM) along the Θ =90° direction, ADP and DKDP crystals which have many advantages, including a large effective nonlinear optical coefficient, a small PM angular sensitivity and non beam walk-off, at the non-critical phase-matching become the competitive candidates in the inertial confinement fusion(ICF) facility, so the reasonable temperature control of crystals has become more and more important .In this paper, the fluid-solid coupling models of ADP crystal and DKDP crystal which both have anisotropic thermal conductivity in the states of vacuum and non-vacuum were established firstly, and then simulated using the fluid analysis software Fluent. The results through the analysis show that the crystal surface temperature distribution is a ring shape, the temperature gradients in the direction of the optical axis both the crystals are 0.02°C and 0.01°C due to the air, the lowest temperature points of the crystals are both at the center of surface, and the temperatures are lower than 0.09°C and 0.05°C compared in the vacuum and non-vacuum environment, then propose two designs for heating apparatus.

  3. On the representation of contextual probabilistic dynamics in the complex Hilbert space: Linear and nonlinear evolutions, Schrodinger dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, A.

    2005-01-01

    We constructed the representation of contextual probabilistic dynamics in the complex Hilbert space. Thus dynamics of the wave function can be considered as Hilbert space projection of realistic dynamics in a pre space. The basic condition for representing the pre space-dynamics is the law of statistical conservation of energy-conservation of probabilities. The construction of the dynamical representation is an important step in the development of contextual statistical viewpoint of quantum processes. But the contextual statistical model is essentially more general than the quantum one. Therefore in general the Hilbert space projection of the pre space dynamics can be nonlinear and even irreversible (but it is always unitary). There were found conditions of linearity and reversibility of the Hilbert space dynamical projection. We also found conditions for the conventional Schrodinger dynamics (including time-dependent Hamiltonians). We remark that in general even the Schrodinger dynamics is based just on the statistical conservation of energy; for individual systems the law of conservation of energy can be violated (at least in our theoretical model)

  4. Testing Convergence Versus History: Convergence Dominates Phenotypic Evolution for over 150 Million Years in Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Daniel S; Morlon, Hélène; Wiens, John J

    2016-01-01

    Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning ~160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of

  5. Nonlinear evolution of broad-bandwidth, laser-imprinted nonuniformities in planar targets accelerated by 351-nm laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalyuk, V.A.; Boehly, T.R.; Bradley, D.K.; Goncharov, V.N.; Delettrez, J.A.; Knauer, J.P.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Oron, D.; Shvarts, D.; Srebro, Y.; Town, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Planar, 20 and 40 μm thick CH targets have been accelerated by 351 nm laser beams of the OMEGA laser system [Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Different beam-smoothing techniques were employed including distributed phase plates, smoothing by spectral dispersion, and distributed polarization rotators. The Rayleigh - Taylor evolution of three-dimensional (3D) broadband planar-target perturbations seeded by laser nonuniformities was measured using x-ray radiography at ∼1.3 keV. Fourier analysis shows that the perturbations evolve to longer wavelengths and the shorter wavelengths saturate. The saturation amplitudes and rates of growth of these features are consistent with the predictions of Haan [Phys. Rev. A 39, 5812 (1989)]. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  6. Damage evolution of TBC system under in-phase thermo-mechanical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, R.; Tanaka, M.; Kagawa, Y.; Liu, Y.F.

    2010-01-01

    In-phase thermo-mechanical tests (TMF) of EB-PVD Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 thermal barrier coating (TBC) system (8 wt% Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 /CoNiCrAlY/IN-738 substrate) were done under a through-the-thick-direction thermal gradient from TBC surface temperature at 1150 deg. C to substrate temperature at 1000 deg. C. Deformation and failure behaviors of the TBC system were observed at the macroscopic and microscopic scales and damage evolution of the system under in-phase thermo-mechanical test was discussed. Special attention was paid to TBC layer cracking, thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer formation and void formation in bond coat and substrate. Effect of TMF conditions on the damage evolution behaviors was also discussed.

  7. Damage evolution of TBC system under in-phase thermo-mechanical tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazawa, R.; Tanaka, M.; Kagawa, Y. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Liu, Y.F., E-mail: yfliu@hyper.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    In-phase thermo-mechanical tests (TMF) of EB-PVD Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} thermal barrier coating (TBC) system (8 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}/CoNiCrAlY/IN-738 substrate) were done under a through-the-thick-direction thermal gradient from TBC surface temperature at 1150 deg. C to substrate temperature at 1000 deg. C. Deformation and failure behaviors of the TBC system were observed at the macroscopic and microscopic scales and damage evolution of the system under in-phase thermo-mechanical test was discussed. Special attention was paid to TBC layer cracking, thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer formation and void formation in bond coat and substrate. Effect of TMF conditions on the damage evolution behaviors was also discussed.

  8. Niche evolution and adaptive radiation: Testing the order of trait divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, D.D.; Schwilk, D.W.; Webb, C.O.

    2006-01-01

    In the course of an adaptive radiation, the evolution of niche parameters is of particular interest for understanding modes of speciation and the consequences for coexistence of related species within communities. We pose a general question: In the course of an evolutionary radiation, do traits related to within-community niche differences (?? niche) evolve before or after differentiation of macrohabitat affinity or climatic tolerances (?? niche)? Here we introduce a new test to address this question, based on a modification of the method of independent contrasts. The divergence order test (DOT) is based on the average age of the nodes on a tree, weighted by the absolute magnitude of the contrast at each node for a particular trait. The comparison of these weighted averages reveals whether large divergences for one trait have occurred earlier or later in the course of diversification, relative to a second trait; significance is determined by bootstrapping from maximum-likelihood ancestral state reconstructions. The method is applied to the evolution of Ceanothus, a woody plant group in California, in which co-occurring species exhibit significant differences in a key leaf trait (specific leaf area) associated with contrasting physiological and life history strategies. Co-occurring species differ more for this trait than expected under a null model of community assembly. This ?? niche difference evolved early in the divergence of two major subclades within Ceanothus, whereas climatic distributions (?? niche traits) diversified later within each of the subclades. However, rapid evolution of climate parameters makes inferences of early divergence events highly uncertain, and differentiation of the ?? niche might have taken place throughout the evolution of the group, without leaving a clear phylogenetic signal. Similar patterns observed in several plant and animal groups suggest that early divergence of ?? niche traits might be a common feature of niche evolution in

  9. Exaptation in human evolution: how to test adaptive vs exaptive evolutionary hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pievani, Telmo; Serrelli, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    Palaeontologists, Stephen J. Gould and Elisabeth Vrba, introduced the term "ex-aptation" with the aim of improving and enlarging the scientific language available to researchers studying the evolution of any useful character, instead of calling it an "adaptation" by default, coming up with what Gould named an "extended taxonomy of fitness". With the extension to functional co-optations from non-adaptive structures ("spandrels"), the notion of exaptation expanded and revised the neo-Darwinian concept of "pre-adaptation" (which was misleading, for Gould and Vrba, suggesting foreordination). Exaptation is neither a "saltationist" nor an "anti-Darwinian" concept and, since 1982, has been adopted by many researchers in evolutionary and molecular biology, and particularly in human evolution. Exaptation has also been contested. Objections include the "non-operationality objection".We analyze the possible operationalization of this concept in two recent studies, and identify six directions of empirical research, which are necessary to test "adaptive vs. exaptive" evolutionary hypotheses. We then comment on a comprehensive survey of literature (available online), and on the basis of this we make a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the adoption of the term among scientists who study human evolution. We discuss the epistemic conditions that may have influenced the adoption and appropriate use of exaptation, and comment on the benefits of an "extended taxonomy of fitness" in present and future studies concerning human evolution.

  10. Arboreallty and morphological evolution in ground beetles (Carabidae: Harpalinae): testing the taxon pulse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Karen A

    2003-06-01

    One-third to two-thirds of all tropical carabids, or ground beetles, are arboreal, and evolution of arboreality has been proposed to be a dead end in this group. Many arboreal carabids have unusual morphological features that have been proposed to be adaptations for life on vegetation, including large, hemispheric eyes; an elongated prothorax; long elytra; long legs; bilobed fourth tarsomeres; adhesive setae on tarsi; and pectinate claws. However, correlations between these features and arboreality have not been rigorously tested previously. I examined the evolution of arboreality and morphological features often associated with this habitat in a phylogenetic context. The number and rates of origins and losses of arboreality in carabids in the subfamily Harpalinae were inferred with parsimony and maximum-likelihood on a variety of phylogenetic hypotheses. Correlated evolution in arboreality and morphological characters was tested with concentrated changes tests, maximum-likelihood, and independent contrasts on optimal phylogenies. There is strong evidence that both arboreality and the morphological features examined originated multiple times and can be reversed, and in no case could the hypothesis of equal rates of gains and losses be rejected. Several features are associated with arboreality: adhesive setae on the tarsi, bilobed tarsomeres, and possibly pectinate claws and an elongated prothorax. Bulgy eyes, long legs, and long elytra were not correlated with arboreality and are probably not arboreal adaptations. The evolution of arboreal carabids has not been unidirectional. These beetles have experienced multiple gains and losses of arboreality and the morphological characters commonly associated with the arboreal habitat. The evolutionary process of unidirectional character change may not be as widespread as previously thought and reversal from specialized lifestyles or habitats may be common.

  11. A correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic and the importance of multifield fluctuation measurements for testing nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A E; Schmitz, L; Peebles, W A; Carter, T A; Rhodes, T L; Doyle, E J; Gourdain, P A; Hillesheim, J C; Wang, G; Holland, C; Tynan, G R; Austin, M E; McKee, G R; Shafer, M W; Burrell, K H; Candy, J; DeBoo, J C; Prater, R; Staebler, G M; Waltz, R E; Makowski, M A

    2008-10-01

    A correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) diagnostic has been used to measure local, turbulent fluctuations of the electron temperature in the core of DIII-D plasmas. This paper describes the hardware and testing of the CECE diagnostic and highlights the importance of measurements of multifield fluctuation profiles for the testing and validation of nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. The process of testing and validating such codes is critical for extrapolation to next-step fusion devices. For the first time, the radial profiles of electron temperature and density fluctuations are compared to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The CECE diagnostic at DIII-D uses correlation radiometry to measure the rms amplitude and spectrum of the electron temperature fluctuations. Gaussian optics are used to produce a poloidal spot size with w(o) approximately 1.75 cm in the plasma. The intermediate frequency filters and the natural linewidth of the EC emission determine the radial resolution of the CECE diagnostic, which can be less than 1 cm. Wavenumbers resolved by the CECE diagnostic are k(theta) < or = 1.8 cm(-1) and k(r) < or = 4 cm(-1), relevant for studies of long-wavelength turbulence associated with the trapped electron mode and the ion temperature gradient mode. In neutral beam heated L-mode plasmas, core electron temperature fluctuations in the region 0.5 < r/a < 0.9, increase with radius from approximately 0.5% to approximately 2%, similar to density fluctuations that are measured simultaneously with beam emission spectroscopy. After incorporating "synthetic diagnostics" to effectively filter the code output, the simulations reproduce the characteristics of the turbulence and transport at one radial location r/a = 0.5, but not at a second location, r/a = 0.75. These results illustrate that measurements of the profiles of multiple fluctuating fields can provide a significant constraint on the turbulence models employed by the code.

  12. Dynamic acousto-elastic testing of concrete with a coda-wave probe: comparison with standard linear and nonlinear ultrasonic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Parisa; Rivière, Jacques; Lake, Colton R; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Ulrich, T J

    2017-11-01

    The use of nonlinear acoustic techniques in solids consists in measuring wave distortion arising from compliant features such as cracks, soft intergrain bonds and dislocations. As such, they provide very powerful nondestructive tools to monitor the onset of damage within materials. In particular, a recent technique called dynamic acousto-elasticity testing (DAET) gives unprecedented details on the nonlinear elastic response of materials (classical and non-classical nonlinear features including hysteresis, transient elastic softening and slow relaxation). Here, we provide a comprehensive set of linear and nonlinear acoustic responses on two prismatic concrete specimens; one intact and one pre-compressed to about 70% of its ultimate strength. The two linear techniques used are Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) and Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS), while the nonlinear ones include DAET (fast and slow dynamics) as well as Nonlinear Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS). In addition, the DAET results correspond to a configuration where the (incoherent) coda portion of the ultrasonic record is used to probe the samples, as opposed to a (coherent) first arrival wave in standard DAET tests. We find that the two visually identical specimens are indistinguishable based on parameters measured by linear techniques (UPV and RUS). On the contrary, the extracted nonlinear parameters from NRUS and DAET are consistent and orders of magnitude greater for the damaged specimen than those for the intact one. This compiled set of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic testing data including the most advanced technique (DAET) provides a benchmark comparison for their use in the field of material characterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic algorithm-based optimization of testing and maintenance under uncertain unavailability and cost estimation: A survey of strategies for harmonizing evolution and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, J.F.; Sanchez, A.I.; Carlos, S.; Martorell, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey to show the applicability of an approach based on a combination of distribution-free tolerance interval and genetic algorithms for testing and maintenance optimization of safety-related systems based on unavailability and cost estimation acting as uncertain decision criteria. Several strategies have been checked using a combination of Monte Carlo (simulation)--genetic algorithm (search-evolution). Tolerance intervals for the unavailability and cost estimation are obtained to be used by the genetic algorithms. Both single- and multiple-objective genetic algorithms are used. In general, it is shown that the approach is a robust, fast and powerful tool that performs very favorably in the face of noise in the output (i.e. uncertainty) and it is able to find the optimum over a complicated, high-dimensional nonlinear space in a tiny fraction of the time required for enumeration of the decision space. This approach reduces the computational effort by means of providing appropriate balance between accuracy of simulation and evolution; however, negative effects are also shown when a not well-balanced accuracy-evolution couple is used, which can be avoided or mitigated with the use of a single-objective genetic algorithm or the use of a multiple-objective genetic algorithm with additional statistical information

  14. Darwin's concepts in a test tube: parallels between organismal and in vitro evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Arenas, Carolina; Lehman, Niles

    2009-02-01

    The evolutionary process as imagined by Darwin 150 years ago is evident not only in nature but also in the manner in which naked nucleic acids and proteins experience the "survival of the fittest" in the test tube during in vitro evolution. This review highlights some of the most apparent evolutionary patterns, such as directional selection, purifying selection, disruptive selection, and iterative evolution (recurrence), and draws parallels between what happens in the wild with whole organisms and what happens in the lab with molecules. Advances in molecular selection techniques, particularly with catalytic RNAs and DNAs, have accelerated in the last 20 years to the point where soon any sort of complex differential hereditary event that one can ascribe to natural populations will be observable in molecular populations, and exploitation of these events can even lead to practical applications in some cases.

  15. Identification of non-linear kinematic hardening with bending and unbending tests in anisotropic sheet-metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, M.; Morestin, F.; Godereaux, S.

    2000-01-01

    An inverse identification technique is proposed based on bending-unbending experiments on anisotropic sheet-metal strips. The initial anisotropy theory of plasticity is extended to include the concept of combined isotropic and non-linear kinematic hardening. This theory is adopted to characterise the anisotropic hardening due to loading-unloading which occurs in sheet-metal forming processes. To this end, a specific bending-unbending apparatus has been built to provide experimental moment-curvature curves. The constant bending moment applied over the length of the specimen to determine numerically the strain-stress behaviour but without Finite Element Analysis. Four constitutive parameters have to be identified by an inverse approach. Our identification results show that bending-unbending tests are suitable to model quite accurately the constitutive behaviour of sheet metals under complex loading paths. (author)

  16. Testing for adaptive evolution of the female reproductive protein ZPC in mammals, birds and fishes reveals problems with the M7-M8 likelihood ratio test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Sofia; Smith, Nick G C

    2005-11-10

    Adaptive evolution appears to be a common feature of reproductive proteins across a very wide range of organisms. A promising way of addressing the evolutionary forces responsible for this general phenomenon is to test for adaptive evolution in the same gene but among groups of species, which differ in their reproductive biology. One can then test evolutionary hypotheses by asking whether the variation in adaptive evolution is consistent with the variation in reproductive biology. We have attempted to apply this approach to the study of a female reproductive protein, zona pellucida C (ZPC), which has been previously shown by the use of likelihood ratio tests (LRTs) to be under positive selection in mammals. We tested for evidence of adaptive evolution of ZPC in 15 mammalian species, in 11 avian species and in six fish species using three different LRTs (M1a-M2a, M7-M8, and M8a-M8). The only significant findings of adaptive evolution came from the M7-M8 test in mammals and fishes. Since LRTs of adaptive evolution may yield false positives in some situations, we examined the properties of the LRTs by several different simulation methods. When we simulated data to test the robustness of the LRTs, we found that the pattern of evolution in ZPC generates an excess of false positives for the M7-M8 LRT but not for the M1a-M2a or M8a-M8 LRTs. This bias is strong enough to have generated the significant M7-M8 results for mammals and fishes. We conclude that there is no strong evidence for adaptive evolution of ZPC in any of the vertebrate groups we studied, and that the M7-M8 LRT can be biased towards false inference of adaptive evolution by certain patterns of non-adaptive evolution.

  17. Validity of the reduced-sample insulin modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test using the nonlinear regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Anne E; Luercio, Marcella F; Frempong, Barbara A; Ricks, Madia; Sen, Sabyasachi; Kushner, Harvey; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K

    2009-02-01

    The disposition index, the product of the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) and the acute insulin response to glucose, is linked in African Americans to chromosome 11q. This link was determined with S(I) calculated with the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model and data from the reduced-sample insulin-modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT). However, the application of the nonlinear regression approach to calculate S(I) using data from the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT has been challenged as being not only inaccurate but also having a high failure rate in insulin-resistant subjects. Our goal was to determine the accuracy and failure rate of the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model. With S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT considered the standard and using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model, we compared the agreement between S(I) from the Full- and Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT protocols. One hundred African Americans (body mass index, 31.3 +/- 7.6 kg/m(2) [mean +/- SD]; range, 19.0-56.9 kg/m(2)) had FSIGTs. Glucose (0.3 g/kg) was given at baseline. Insulin was infused from 20 to 25 minutes (total insulin dose, 0.02 U/kg). For the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the glucose and insulin samples taken at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,10, 12, 14, 16, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. For the Reduced-Sample-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the time points that appear in bold. Agreement was determined by Spearman correlation, concordance, and the Bland-Altman method. In addition, for both protocols, the population was divided into tertiles of S(I). Insulin resistance was defined by the lowest tertile of S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT. The distribution of subjects across tertiles was compared by rank order and kappa statistic. We found that the rate of failure of resolution of S(I) by

  18. ALICE EMCal Reconstructable Energy Non-Linearity From Test Beam Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Thomas Michael

    2017-01-01

    Calorimeters play many important roles in modern high energy physics detectors, such as event selection, triggering, and precision energy measurements. EMCal, in the case of the ALICE experiment provides triggering on high energy jets, improves jet quenching study measurement bias and jet energy resolution, and improves electron and photon measurements [3]. With the EMCal detector in the ALICE experiment taking on so many important roles, it is important to fully understand, characterize and model its interactions with particles. In 2010 SPS and PS electron test beam measurements were performed on an EMCal mini-module [2]. Alongside this, the test beam setup and geometry was recreated in Geant4 by Nico [1]. Figure 1 shows the reconstructable energy linearity for the SPS test beam data and that obtained from the test beam monte carlo, indicating the amount of energy deposit as hits in the EMCal module. It can be seen that for energies above ∼ 100 GeV there is a significant drop in the reconstructableenergym...

  19. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Natasha I; Morrow, James M; Chang, Belinda S W; Price, Trevor D

    2015-02-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors-historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20 Ma. During this process, the SWS2 gene accumulated six substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Microstructural evolution in the HAZ of Inconel 718 and correlation with the hot ductility test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. G.; Genculu, S.

    1983-01-01

    The nickel-base alloy 718 was evaluated to study the role of preweld heat treatment in reducing or eliminating heat-affected zone hot cracking. Three heat treatments were studied using the Gleeble hot ductility test. A modified hot ductility test was also used to follow the evolution of microstructure during simulated welding thermal cycles. The microstructural evolution was correlated with the hot ductility data in order to evaluate the mechanism of hot cracking in alloy 718. The correlation of hot ductility with microstructure showed that recrystallization, grain growth, and dissolution of precipitates did not in themselves cause any loss of ductility during cooling. Ductility loss during cooling was not initiated until the constitutional liquation of NbC particles was observed in the microstructure. Laves-type phases were found precipitated in the solidified grain boundaries but were not found to correlate with any ductility loss parameter. Mechanisms are reviewed which help to explain how heat treatment controls the hot crack susceptibility of alloy 718 as measured in the hot ductility test.

  1. Microstructure evolution during cyclic tests on EUROFER 97 at room temperature. TEM observation and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordana, M.F., E-mail: giordana@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, CONICET-UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Giroux, P.-F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Alvarez-Armas, I. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, CONICET-UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Sauzay, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Armas, A. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, CONICET-UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Kruml, T. [CEITEC IPM, Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, Brno, 616 62 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low cycle fatigue test are carried out on EUROFER 97 at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EUROFER 97 shows a pronounced cyclic softening accompanied by microstructural changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cycling induces a decrement in dislocation density and subgrain growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple mean-field model based on crystalline plasticity is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mean subgrain size evolution is predicted by modelling. - Abstract: The 9% Cr quenched and tempered reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel EUROFER 97 is one of the candidates for structural components of fusion reactors. Isothermal, plastic strain-controlled, low-cycle fatigue tests are performed. Tested at room temperature, this steel suffers a cyclic softening effect linked to microstructural changes observed by transmission electron microscopy, such as the decrease of dislocation density inside subgrains or the growth of subgrain size. From the assumed mechanisms of softening a simple mean-field model based on crystalline plasticity is proposed to predict these microstructure evolutions during cycling and monotonic deformation.

  2. Nonlinear modeling and testing of magneto-rheological fluids in low shear rate squeezing flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjoud, Alireza; Ahmadian, Mehdi; Craft, Michael; Mahmoodi, Nima; Zhang, Xinjie

    2011-01-01

    A novel analytical investigation of magneto-rheological (MR) fluids in squeezing flows is performed and the results are validated with experimental test data. The squeeze flow of MR fluids has recently been of great interest to researchers. This is due to the large force capacity of MR fluids in squeeze mode compared to other modes (valve and shear modes), which makes the squeeze mode appropriate for a wide variety of applications such as impact dampers and engine mounts. Tested MR fluids were capable of providing a large range of controllable force along a short stroke in squeeze mode. A mathematical model was developed using perturbation techniques to predict closed-form solutions for velocity field, shear rate distribution, pressure distribution and squeeze force. Therefore, the obtained solutions greatly help with the design process of intelligent devices that use MR fluids in squeeze mode. The mathematical model also reduces the need for complicated and computationally expensive numerical simulations. The analytical results are validated by performing experimental tests on a novel MR device called an 'MR pouch' in an MR squeeze mode rheometer, both designed and built at CVeSS

  3. Nonlinear Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-07

    associated with the lattice background; the nonlinearity is derived from the inclusion of cubic nonlinearity. Often the background potential is periodic...dispersion branch we can find discrete evolution equations for the envelope associated with the lattice NLS equation (1) by looking for solutions of...spatial operator in the above NLS equation can be elliptic, hyperbolic or parabolic . We remark that further reduction is possible by going into a moving

  4. How robust are the constraints on cosmology and galaxy evolution from the lens-redshift test?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelo, Pedro R; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2007-01-01

    The redshift distribution of galaxy lenses in known gravitational lens systems provides a powerful test that can potentially discriminate amongst cosmological models. However, applications of this elegant test have been curtailed by two factors: our ignorance of how galaxies evolve with redshift, and the absence of methods to deal with the effect of incomplete information in lensing systems. In this paper, we investigate both issues in detail. We explore how to extract the properties of evolving galaxies, assuming that the cosmology is well determined by other techniques. We propose a new nested Monte Carlo method to quantify the effects of incomplete data. We apply the lens-redshift test to an improved sample of seventy lens systems derived from recent observations, primarily from the SDSS, SLACS and the CLASS surveys. We find that the limiting factor in applying the lens-redshift test derives from poor statistics, including incomplete information samples and biased sampling. Many lenses that uniformly sample the underlying true image separation distribution will be needed to use this test as a complementary method to measure the value of the cosmological constant or the properties of evolving galaxies. Planned future surveys by missions like the SNAP satellite or LSST are likely to usher in a new era for strong lensing studies that utilize this test. With expected catalogues of thousands of new strong lenses, the lens-redshift test could offer a powerful tool to probe cosmology as well as galaxy evolution

  5. Overview and evolution of the LeRC PMAD DC test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James F.; Frye, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has been developed electrical power system test beds to support the overall design effort. Through this time, the SSFP has changed the design baseline numerous times, however, the test bed effort has endeavored to track these changes. Beginning in August 1989 with the baseline and an all DC system, a test bed was developed to support the design baseline. The LeRC power measurement and distribution (PMAD) DC test bed and the changes in the restructure are described. The changes included the size reduction of primary power channel and various power processing elements. A substantial reduction was also made in the amount of flight software with the subsequent migration of these functions to ground control centers. The impact of these changes on the design of the power hardware, the controller algorithms, the control software, and a description of their current status is presented. An overview of the testing using the test bed is described, which includes investigation of stability and source impedance, primary and secondary fault protection, and performance of a rotary utility transfer device. Finally, information is presented on the evolution of the test bed to support the verification and operational phases of the SSFP in light of these restructure scrubs.

  6. How robust are the constraints on cosmology and galaxy evolution from the lens-redshift test?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelo, Pedro R [Astronomy Department, Yale University, PO Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Natarajan, Priyamvada [Astronomy Department, Yale University, PO Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The redshift distribution of galaxy lenses in known gravitational lens systems provides a powerful test that can potentially discriminate amongst cosmological models. However, applications of this elegant test have been curtailed by two factors: our ignorance of how galaxies evolve with redshift, and the absence of methods to deal with the effect of incomplete information in lensing systems. In this paper, we investigate both issues in detail. We explore how to extract the properties of evolving galaxies, assuming that the cosmology is well determined by other techniques. We propose a new nested Monte Carlo method to quantify the effects of incomplete data. We apply the lens-redshift test to an improved sample of seventy lens systems derived from recent observations, primarily from the SDSS, SLACS and the CLASS surveys. We find that the limiting factor in applying the lens-redshift test derives from poor statistics, including incomplete information samples and biased sampling. Many lenses that uniformly sample the underlying true image separation distribution will be needed to use this test as a complementary method to measure the value of the cosmological constant or the properties of evolving galaxies. Planned future surveys by missions like the SNAP satellite or LSST are likely to usher in a new era for strong lensing studies that utilize this test. With expected catalogues of thousands of new strong lenses, the lens-redshift test could offer a powerful tool to probe cosmology as well as galaxy evolution.

  7. A Novel 100 kW Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Emulation Test Bench for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines with Nonlinear Magnetics

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Alexander; Richter, Jan; Gommeringer, Mario; Wersal, Thomas; Braun, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a high dynamic power hardware-inthe-loop (PHIL) emulation test bench to mimic arbitrary permanent magnet synchronous machines with nonlinear magnetics. The proposed PHIL test bench is composed of a high performance real-time simulation system to calculate the machine behaviour and a seven level modular multiphase multilevel converter to emulate the power flow of the virtual machine. The PHIL test bench is parametrized for an automotive synchronous machine and controlled by...

  8. Experimental test of an eco-evolutionary dynamic feedback loop between evolution and population density in the green peach aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Reznick, David N; Daniel Hare, J

    2013-05-01

    An eco-evolutionary feedback loop is defined as the reciprocal impacts of ecology on evolutionary dynamics and evolution on ecological dynamics on contemporary timescales. We experimentally tested for an eco-evolutionary feedback loop in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, by manipulating initial densities and evolution. We found strong evidence that initial aphid density alters the rate and direction of evolution, as measured by changes in genotype frequencies through time. We also found that evolution of aphids within only 16 days, or approximately three generations, alters the rate of population growth and predicts density compared to nonevolving controls. The impact of evolution on population dynamics also depended on density. In one evolution treatment, evolution accelerated population growth by up to 10.3% at high initial density or reduced it by up to 6.4% at low initial density. The impact of evolution on population growth was as strong as or stronger than that caused by a threefold change in intraspecific density. We found that, taken together, ecological condition, here intraspecific density, alters evolutionary dynamics, which in turn alter concurrent population growth rate (ecological dynamics) in an eco-evolutionary feedback loop. Our results suggest that ignoring evolution in studies predicting population dynamics might lead us to over- or underestimate population density and that we cannot predict the evolutionary outcome within aphid populations without considering population size.

  9. The forced nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaup, D.J.; Hansen, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The nonlinear Schroedinger equation describes the behaviour of a radio frequency wave in the ionosphere near the reflexion point where nonlinear processes are important. A simple model of this phenomenon leads to the forced nonlinear Schroedinger equation in terms of a nonlinear boundary value problem. A WKB analysis of the time evolution equations for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation in the inverse scattering transform formalism gives a crude order of magnitude estimation of the qualitative behaviour of the solutions. This estimation is compared with the numerical solutions. (D.Gy.)

  10. Testing quantum mechanics against macroscopic realism using the output of χ(2) nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podoshvedov, Sergey A.; Kim, Jaewan

    2006-01-01

    We suggest an all-optical scheme to generate entangled superposition of a single photon with macroscopic entangled states for testing macroscopic realism. The scheme consists of source of single photons, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in routes of which a system of coupled-down converters with type-I phase matching is inserted, and a beam splitter for the other auxiliary modes of the scheme. We use quantization of the pumping modes, depletion of the coherent states passing through the system, and interference effect in the pumping modes in the process of erasing which-path information of the single-photon on exit from the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We show the macroscopic fields of the output superposition are distinguishable states. This scheme generates macroscopic entangled state that violates Bell's inequality. Moreover, the detailed analysis concerning change of amplitudes of entangled superposition by means of repeating this process many times is accomplished. We show our scheme works without photon number resolving detection and it is robust to detector inefficiency

  11. MAGNETO-FRICTIONAL MODELING OF CORONAL NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELDS. I. TESTING WITH ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Keppens, R. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Xia, C. [Centre for mathematical Plasma-Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Valori, G., E-mail: guoyang@nju.edu.cn [University College London, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-10

    We report our implementation of the magneto-frictional method in the Message Passing Interface Adaptive Mesh Refinement Versatile Advection Code (MPI-AMRVAC). The method aims at applications where local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is essential to make follow-up dynamical modeling affordable. We quantify its performance in both domain-decomposed uniform grids and block-adaptive AMR computations, using all frequently employed force-free, divergence-free, and other vector comparison metrics. As test cases, we revisit the semi-analytic solution of Low and Lou in both Cartesian and spherical geometries, along with the topologically challenging Titov–Démoulin model. We compare different combinations of spatial and temporal discretizations, and find that the fourth-order central difference with a local Lax–Friedrichs dissipation term in a single-step marching scheme is an optimal combination. The initial condition is provided by the potential field, which is the potential field source surface model in spherical geometry. Various boundary conditions are adopted, ranging from fully prescribed cases where all boundaries are assigned with the semi-analytic models, to solar-like cases where only the magnetic field at the bottom is known. Our results demonstrate that all the metrics compare favorably to previous works in both Cartesian and spherical coordinates. Cases with several AMR levels perform in accordance with their effective resolutions. The magneto-frictional method in MPI-AMRVAC allows us to model a region of interest with high spatial resolution and large field of view simultaneously, as required by observation-constrained extrapolations using vector data provided with modern instruments. The applications of the magneto-frictional method to observations are shown in an accompanying paper.

  12. Report from LHC MDs 1391 and 1483: Tests of new methods for study of nonlinear errors in the LHC experimental insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear errors in experimental insertions can pose a significant challenge to the operability of low-β∗ colliders. Previously such errors in the LHC have been studied via their feed-down to tune and coupling under the influence of the nominal crossing angle bumps. This method has proved useful in validating various components of the magnetic model. To understand and correct those errors where significant discrepancies exist with the magnetic model however, will require further development of this technique, in addition to the application of novel methods. In 2016 studies were performed to test new methods for the study of the IR-nonlinear errors.

  13. Design of a non-linear power take-off simulator for model testing of rotating wave energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M.F.P.; Henriques, J.C.C.; Lopes, Miguel C.; Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC - Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Dente Antonio [CIE3 - Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    Eddy current brakes provide a versatile way of simulating the power take-off system (PTO) in the model testing of wave energy converters at small scale. These are based on the principle that a conductive material moving perpendicularly to a magnetic field generates a braking force proportional to its velocity. This was applied in the design of the PTO simulator of a bottom-hinged flap wave energy converter model, at 1/16 scale. The efforts put into the accurate dynamic simulation of the device led to the development of a controllable PTO simulator, which can be applied to other small scale rotating wave energy device models. A special power source was built to provide the required controllable current intensity to feed the magnetic field generating coils. Different non-linear damping PTO characteristic curves can be simulated by basing the current control on real-time velocity measurement. The calibration of the system was done by connecting the device to a constant rotating speed motor and measuring the resistent torque produced by the PTO with a torquemeter for different values of current intensity through the coils.

  14. Analytic treatment of leading-order parton evolution equations: Theory and tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, Martin M.; Durand, Loyal; McKay, Douglas W.

    2009-01-01

    We recently derived an explicit expression for the gluon distribution function G(x,Q 2 )=xg(x,Q 2 ) in terms of the proton structure function F 2 γp (x,Q 2 ) in leading-order (LO) QCD by solving the LO Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi equation for the Q 2 evolution of F 2 γp (x,Q 2 ) analytically, using a differential-equation method. We showed that accurate experimental knowledge of F 2 γp (x,Q 2 ) in a region of Bjorken x and virtuality Q 2 is all that is needed to determine the gluon distribution in that region. We rederive and extend the results here using a Laplace-transform technique, and show that the singlet quark structure function F S (x,Q 2 ) can be determined directly in terms of G from the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi gluon evolution equation. To illustrate the method and check the consistency of existing LO quark and gluon distributions, we used the published values of the LO quark distributions from the CTEQ5L and MRST2001 LO analyses to form F 2 γp (x,Q 2 ), and then solved analytically for G(x,Q 2 ). We find that the analytic and fitted gluon distributions from MRST2001LO agree well with each other for all x and Q 2 , while those from CTEQ5L differ significantly from each other for large x values, x > or approx. 0.03-0.05, at all Q 2 . We conclude that the published CTEQ5L distributions are incompatible in this region. Using a nonsinglet evolution equation, we obtain a sensitive test of quark distributions which holds in both LO and next-to-leading order perturbative QCD. We find in either case that the CTEQ5 quark distributions satisfy the tests numerically for small x, but fail the tests for x > or approx. 0.03-0.05--their use could potentially lead to significant shifts in predictions of quantities sensitive to large x. We encountered no problems with the MRST2001LO distributions or later CTEQ distributions. We suggest caution in the use of the CTEQ5 distributions.

  15. Modeling the oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise testing of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases using nonlinear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baty, Florent; Ritz, Christian; van Gestel, Arnoldus

    2016-01-01

    describe functionality of the R package medrc that extends the framework of the commonly used packages drc and nlme and allows fitting nonlinear mixed effects models for automated nonlinear regression modeling. The methodology was applied to a data set including 6MWT [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics from 61...... patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (disease severity stage II to IV). The mixed effects approach was compared to a traditional curve-by-curve approach. RESULTS: A six-parameter nonlinear regression model was jointly fitted to the set of [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics. Significant...

  16. Studying the co-evolution of production and test code in open source and industrial developer test processes through repository mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaidman, A.; Van Rompaey, B.; Van Deursen, A.; Demeyer, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many software production processes advocate rigorous development testing alongside functional code writing, which implies that both test code and production code should co-evolve. To gain insight in the nature of this co-evolution, this paper proposes three views (realized by a tool called TeMo)

  17. Microstructural Evolution in Chroming Coatings Friction Pairs under Dry Sliding Test Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures of subsurface layers of 20CrMnTi steel pins against chroming and nonchroming T10 under dry sliding tests were studied by means of OM (optical microscopy, XRD (X-ray diffraction, and SEM (scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the chroming coating strengthened the disc surface and significantly affected microstructural evolution. Three layers—the matrix, deformation layer (DL, and surface layer (SL—formed in 20CrMnTi for the chroming T10. The matrix and deformation layer (DL formed in 20CrMnTi for the nonchroming T10. The formation of the microstructure was considered as a result of the shear deformation.

  18. Test computations on the dynamical evolution of star clusters. [Fluid dynamic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeletti, L; Giannone, P. (Rome Univ. (Italy))

    1977-01-01

    Test calculations have been carried out on the evolution of star clusters using the fluid-dynamical method devised by Larson (1970). Large systems of stars have been considered with specific concern with globular clusters. With reference to the analogous 'standard' model by Larson, the influence of varying in turn the various free parameters (cluster mass, star mass, tidal radius, mass concentration of the initial model) has been studied for the results. Furthermore, the partial release of some simplifying assumptions with regard to the relaxation time and distribution of the 'target' stars has been considered. The change of the structural properties is discussed, and the variation of the evolutionary time scale is outlined. An indicative agreement of the results obtained here with structural properties of globular clusters as deduced from previous theoretical models is pointed out.

  19. An Experimental Evolution Test of the Relationship between Melanism and Desiccation Survival in Insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Rajpurohit

    Full Text Available We used experimental evolution to test the 'melanism-desiccation' hypothesis, which proposes that dark cuticle in several Drosophila species is an adaptation for increased desiccation tolerance. We selected for dark and light body pigmentation in replicated populations of D. melanogaster and assayed several traits related to water balance. We also scored pigmentation and desiccation tolerance in populations selected for desiccation survival. Populations in both selection regimes showed large differences in the traits directly under selection. However, after over 40 generations of pigmentation selection, dark-selected populations were not more desiccation-tolerant than light-selected and control populations, nor did we find significant changes in mass or carbohydrate amounts that could affect desiccation resistance. Body pigmentation of desiccation-selected populations did not differ from control populations after over 140 generations of selection, although selected populations lost water less rapidly. Our results do not support an important role for melanization in Drosophila water balance.

  20. Evolution of strike-slip fault systems and associated geomorphic structures. Model test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Keichi

    2003-01-01

    Sandbox experiments were performed to investigate evolution of fault systems and its associated geomorphic structures caused by strike-slip motion on basement faults. A 200 cm long, 40 cm wide, 25 cm high sandbox was used in a strike-slip fault model test. Computerized X-ray tomography applied to the sandbox experiments made it possible to analyze the kinematic evaluation, as well as the three-dimensional geometry, of the faults. The deformation of the sand pack surface was analyzed by use of a laser method 3D scanner, which is a three-dimensional noncontact surface profiling instrument. A comparison of the experimental results with natural cases of active faults reveals the following: In the left-lateral strike-slip fault experiments, the deformation of the sand pack with increasing basement displacement is observed as follows. 1) In three dimensions, the right-stepping shears that have a cirque'/'shell'/'shipbody' shape develop on both sides of the basement fault. The shears on one side of the basement fault join those on the other side, resulting in helicoidal shaped shear surfaces. Shears reach the surface of the sand near or above the basement fault and en echelon Riedel shears are observed at the surface of the sand. The region between two Riedels is always an up-squeezed block. 2) lower-angle shears generally branch off from the first Riedel shears. 3) Pressure ridges develop within the zone defined by the right-stepping helicoidal shaped lower-angle shears. 4) Grabens develop between the pressure ridges. 5) Y-shears offset the pressure ridges. 6) With displacement concentrated on the central throughgoing fault zone, a liner trough developed directly above the basement fault. R1 shear and P foliation are observed in the liner trough. Such evolution of the shears and its associated structures in the fault model tests agrees well with that of strike-slip fault systems and its associated geomorphic structures. (author)

  1. Microstructural evolution during dry wear test in magnesium and Mg-Y alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somekawa, Hidetoshi, E-mail: SOMEKAWA.Hidetoshi@nims.go.jp [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Maeda, Shunsuke; Hirayama, Tomoko; Matsuoka, Takashi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Miyakodani, Tatara, Kyotanabe 610-0321 (Japan); Inoue, Tadanobu [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Mukai, Toshiji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan)

    2013-01-20

    The friction and wear properties of pure magnesium and the Mg-Y alloy were investigated using the pin-on-disk configuration. The friction and wear resistance of the Mg-Y alloy was superior to those of pure magnesium. The wear mechanism was abrasion under all the conditions. The deformed microstructural evolutions near the surface region were observed by transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The stress and strain states were also evaluated by finite element analysis (FEA). The deformed microstructures of both alloys consisted of the {l_brace}10-12{r_brace} twinning formation and the FEA results showed the occurrence of plastic deformation even at the beginning of the test. The formation of low angle grain boundaries was also confirmed with an increase in the applied load in the Mg-Y alloy. On the other hand, grain refinement due to dynamic recrystallization was observed in pure magnesium as the wear test progressed. The different microstructures resulted from difference in the surface temperature during the wear test, which was estimated to be around 393 K and 363 K for pure magnesium and the Mg-Y alloy, respectively. The high increment temperature in the fine-grained alloys brought about the occurrence of grain boundary sliding, i.e., material softening, which led to a decrease in the friction and wear properties. The present results indicated that one of the methods for enhancing the friction and wear properties is to increase the dynamic recrystallization temperature.

  2. Microstructural evolution of uranium dioxide following compression creep tests: An EBSD and image analysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iltis, X., E-mail: xaviere.iltis@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC, Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Gey, N. [Laboratoire d’Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), CNRS UMR 7239, Université de Lorraine, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex 1 (France); Cagna, C. [CEA, DEN, DEC, Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Hazotte, A. [Laboratoire d’Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), CNRS UMR 7239, Université de Lorraine, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex 1 (France); Sornay, Ph. [CEA, DEN, DEC, Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Image analysis and EBSD are performed on creep tested UO{sub 2} pellets. • Development of intergranular voids, with increasing strain, is quantified. • EBSD evidences a sub-structuration process within the grains and quantifies it. • Creep mechanisms are discussed on the basis of these results. - Abstract: Sintered UO{sub 2} pellets with relatively large grains (∼25 μm) are tested at 1500 °C under a compressive stress of 50 MPa, at different deformation levels up to 12%. Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) is used to follow the evolution, with deformation, of grains (size, shape, orientation) and sub-grains. Image analyses of SEM images are performed to characterize emergence of a population of micron size voids. For the considered microstructure and test conditions, the results show that the deformation process of UO{sub 2} globally corresponds to grain boundary sliding, partly accommodated by a dislocational creep within the grains, leading to a highly sub-structured state.

  3. Degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Favini, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to include in a uniform presentation style several topics related to the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, treated in the mathematical framework of evolution equations with multivalued m-accretive operators in Hilbert spaces. The problems concern nonlinear parabolic equations involving two cases of degeneracy. More precisely, one case is due to the vanishing of the time derivative coefficient and the other is provided by the vanishing of the diffusion coefficient on subsets of positive measure of the domain. From the mathematical point of view the results presented in these notes can be considered as general results in the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations. However, this work does not seek to present an exhaustive study of degenerate diffusion equations, but rather to emphasize some rigorous and efficient techniques for approaching various problems involving degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, such as well-posedness, periodic solutions, asympt...

  4. Cyclic Fiber Push-In Test Monitors Evolution of Interfacial Behavior in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    1998-01-01

    SiC fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites are being developed for high-temperature advanced jet engine applications. Obtaining a strong, tough composite material depends critically on optimizing the mechanical coupling between the reinforcing fibers and the surrounding matrix material. This has usually been accomplished by applying a thin C or BN coating onto the surface of the reinforcing fibers. The performance of these fiber coatings, however, may degrade under cyclic loading conditions or exposure to different environments. Degradation of the coating-controlled interfacial behavior will strongly affect the useful service lifetime of the composite material. Cyclic fiber push-in testing was applied to monitor the evolution of fiber sliding behavior in both C- and BN-coated small-diameter (15-mm) SiC-fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites. The cyclic fiber push-in tests were performed using a desktop fiber push-out apparatus. At the beginning of each test, the fiber to be tested was aligned underneath a 10- mm-diameter diamond punch; then, the applied load was cycled between selected maximum and minimum loads. From the measured response, the fiber sliding distance and frictional sliding stresses were determined for each cycle. Tests were performed in both room air and nitrogen. Cyclic fiber push-in tests of C-coated, SiC-fiber-reinforced SiC showed progressive increases in fiber sliding distances along with decreases in frictional sliding stresses for continued cycling in room air. This rapid degradation in interfacial response was not observed for cycling in nitrogen, indicating that moisture exposure had a large effect in immediately lowering the frictional sliding stresses of C-coated fibers. These results indicate that matrix cracks bridged by C-coated fibers will not be stable, but will rapidly grow in moisture-containing environments. In contrast, cyclic fiber push-in tests of both BN-coated, SiC-fiber-reinforced SiC and BNcoated, Si

  5. Status of geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution at the Tono in-situ tests site, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu; Arthur, R.C.

    1999-12-01

    Hydrochemical investigation of Tertiary sedimentary rocks at JNC's Tono in-situ tests site indicate the groundwaters are: meteoric in origin, chemically reducing at depths greater than a few tens of meters in the sedimentary rock, relatively old [carbon-14 ages of groundwaters collected from the lower part of the sedimentary sequence range from 13,000 to 15,000 years BP (before present)]. Ca-Na-HCO 3 type solutions near the surface, changing to Na-HCO 3 type groundwaters with increasing depth. The chemical evolution of the groundwaters is modeled assuming local equilibrium for selected mineral-fluid reactions, taking into account the rainwater origin of these solutions. Results suggest it is possible to interpret approximately the 'real' groundwater chemistry (i.e., pH, Eh, total dissolved concentrations of Si, Na, Ca, K, Al, carbonate and sulfate) if the following assumptions are adopted: CO 2 concentration in the gas phase contacting pore solutions in the overlying soil zone=10 -1 bar, minerals in the rock zone that control the solubility of respective elements in the groundwater include; chalcedony (Si), albite (Na), kaolinite (Al), calcite (Ca and carbonate), muscovite (K) and pyrite (Eh and sulfate). It is noted, however, that the available field data may not be sufficient to adequately constrain parameters in the groundwater evolution model. In particular, more detailed information characterizing certain site properties (e.g., the actual mineralogy of 'plagioclase', 'clay' and 'zeolite') are needed to improve the model. Alternative conceptual models of key reactions may also be necessary. For this reason, a model that accounts for ion-exchange reactions among clay minerals, and which is based on the results of laboratory experiments, has also been evaluated in the present study. Further improvements of model considering ion-exchange reactions are needed in future, however. (author)

  6. Bird evolution: testing the Metaves clade with six new mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary biologists are often misled by convergence of morphology and this has been common in the study of bird evolution. However, the use of molecular data sets have their own problems and phylogenies based on short DNA sequences have the potential to mislead us too. The relationships among clades and timing of the evolution of modern birds (Neoaves has not yet been well resolved. Evidence of convergence of morphology remain controversial. With six new bird mitochondrial genomes (hummingbird, swift, kagu, rail, flamingo and grebe we test the proposed Metaves/Coronaves division within Neoaves and the parallel radiations in this primary avian clade. Results Our mitochondrial trees did not return the Metaves clade that had been proposed based on one nuclear intron sequence. We suggest that the high number of indels within the seventh intron of the β-fibrinogen gene at this phylogenetic level, which left a dataset with not a single site across the alignment shared by all taxa, resulted in artifacts during analysis. With respect to the overall avian tree, we find the flamingo and grebe are sister taxa and basal to the shorebirds (Charadriiformes. Using a novel site-stripping technique for noise-reduction we found this relationship to be stable. The hummingbird/swift clade is outside the large and very diverse group of raptors, shore and sea birds. Unexpectedly the kagu is not closely related to the rail in our analysis, but because neither the kagu nor the rail have close affinity to any taxa within this dataset of 41 birds, their placement is not yet resolved. Conclusion Our phylogenetic hypothesis based on 41 avian mitochondrial genomes (13,229 bp rejects monophyly of seven Metaves species and we therefore conclude that the members of Metaves do not share a common evolutionary history within the Neoaves.

  7. Ductile fracture evaluation of ductile cast iron and forged steel by nonlinear-fracture-mechanics. Pt. 1. Tensile test by large scaled test pieces with surface crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaki, Akio; Ajima, Tatsuro; Inohara, Yasuto

    1999-01-01

    The ductile fracture tests of Ductile Cast Iron and Forged Steel under a tensile stress condition were conducted using large-scaled flat test specimens with a surface crack and were evaluated by the J-integral values, in order to propose an evaluation method of initiation of ductile fracture of a cask body with crack by nonlinear-fracture-mechanics. Following results were obtained. 1) 1 -strain relations of Ductile Cast Iron and Forged Steel under the tensile stress condition were obtained, which is necessary for the development of J-integral design curves for evaluating the initiation of ductile fracture of the cask body. 2) In case of Ductile Cast Iron, the experimental J-integral values obtained from strain-gauges showed a good agreement with the linear-elastic-theory by Raju and Newman at room temperature, in both elastic and plastic regions. But, at 70degC in plastic region, the experimental i-integral values showed middle values between those predicted by the linear-elastic-theory and by the non- linear-elastic- theory (based on the fully plastic solution by Yagawa et al.). 3) In case of Forged Steel at both -25degC and room temperature, the experimental i-integral values obtained from strain-gauges showed a good agreement with those predicted by the linear-elastic-theory by Raju and Newman, in the elastic region. In the plastic region, however, the experimental i-integral values fell apart from the curve predicted by the linear-elastic-theory by Raju and Newman, and also approached to those by the non-linear-elastic-theory with increasing strain.(author)

  8. Nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  9. The impact of rapid evolution on population dynamics in the wild: experimental test of eco-evolutionary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Reznick, David N; Hare, J Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Rapid evolution challenges the assumption that evolution is too slow to impact short-term ecological dynamics. This insight motivates the study of 'Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics' or how evolution and ecological processes reciprocally interact on short time scales. We tested how rapid evolution impacts concurrent population dynamics using an aphid (Myzus persicae) and an undomesticated host (Hirschfeldia incana) in replicated wild populations. We manipulated evolvability by creating non-evolving (single clone) and potentially evolving (two-clone) aphid populations that contained genetic variation in intrinsic growth rate. We observed significant evolution in two-clone populations whether or not they were exposed to predators and competitors. Evolving populations grew up to 42% faster and attained up to 67% higher density, compared with non-evolving control populations but only in treatments exposed to competitors and predators. Increased density also correlates with relative fitness of competing clones suggesting a full eco-evolutionary dynamic cycle defined as reciprocal interactions between evolution and density. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  10. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  11. Nonlinear modeling, strength-based design, and testing of flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters under large dynamic loads for rotorcraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadenham, Stephen; Erturk, Alper

    2014-04-01

    There has been growing interest in enabling wireless health and usage monitoring for rotorcraft applications, such as helicopter rotor systems. Large dynamic loads and acceleration fluctuations available in these environments make the implementation of vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesters a very promising choice. However, such extreme loads transmitted to the harvester can also be detrimental to piezoelectric laminates and overall system reliability. Particularly flexible resonant cantilever configurations tuned to match the dominant excitation frequency can be subject to very large deformations and failure of brittle piezoelectric laminates due to excessive bending stresses at the root of the harvester. Design of resonant piezoelectric energy harvesters for use in these environments require nonlinear electroelastic dynamic modeling and strength-based analysis to maximize the power output while ensuring that the harvester is still functional. This paper presents a mathematical framework to design and analyze the dynamics of nonlinear flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters under large base acceleration levels. A strength-based limit is imposed to design the piezoelectric energy harvester with a proof mass while accounting for material, geometric, and dissipative nonlinearities, with a focus on two demonstrative case studies having the same linear fundamental resonance frequency but different overhang length and proof mass values. Experiments are conducted at different excitation levels for validation of the nonlinear design approach proposed in this work. The case studies in this work reveal that harvesters exhibiting similar behavior and power generation performance at low excitation levels (e.g. less than 0.1g) can have totally different strength-imposed performance limitations under high excitations (e.g. above 1g). Nonlinear modeling and strength-based design is necessary for such excitation levels especially when using resonant cantilevers with no

  12. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  13. The Trojan-Hilda-KBO connection: An observational test of solar system evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, I.; Brown, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few decades, many theories have been devised to explain the observed solar system architecture. The current paradigm posits that a significant reorganization of the outer Solar System occurred after the end of planet formation. Specifically, it is hypothesized that Jupiter and Saturn crossed a mutual mean motion resonance, leading to a chaotic expansion of the ice giants' orbits that disrupted the large population of planetesimals situated further out. While the majority of these bodies were ejected from the Solar System, a fraction of them were retained as the present-day Kuiper Belt, while others were scattered inward and captured into resonances with Jupiter to become the Trojans and Hildas. Dynamical instability models invariably predict that Trojans, Hildas, and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) were sourced from the same primordial body of outer solar system planetesimals. Therefore, comparison of these minor body populations serves as one of the few available observational tests of our present understanding of solar system evolution. We present the results of a series of studies aimed at synthesizing a detailed picture of Trojans and related asteroid populations. By combining analyses of archival data with new photometric surveys, we have derived the first debiased color distributions of Trojans and KBOs and extended/refined our knowledge of their respective size distributions. In addition, we have explored the peculiar color bimodality attested in the Trojans, Hildas, and KBOs, which indicates the presence of two sub-populations. As part of our continuing efforts to characterize the surface composition of these bodies, we have also obtained new near-infrared spectra of Hildas for comparison with previously published spectra of Trojans covering the same wavelength region. We have utilized the full body of observations to formulate hypotheses regarding the formation, composition, and dynamical/chemical evolution of the primordial outer solar system

  14. Non-linear characterisation of the physical model of an ancient masonry bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragonara, L Zanotti; Ceravolo, R; Matta, E; Quattrone, A; De Stefano, A; Pecorelli, M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the non-linear investigations carried out on a scaled model of a two-span masonry arch bridge. The model has been built in order to study the effect of the central pile settlement due to riverbank erosion. Progressive damage was induced in several steps by applying increasing settlements at the central pier. For each settlement step, harmonic shaker tests were conducted under different excitation levels, this allowing for the non-linear identification of the progressively damaged system. The shaker tests have been performed at resonance with the modal frequency of the structure, which were determined from a previous linear identification. Estimated non-linearity parameters, which result from the systematic application of restoring force based identification algorithms, can corroborate models to be used in the reassessment of existing structures. The method used for non-linear identification allows monitoring the evolution of non-linear parameters or indicators which can be used in damage and safety assessment.

  15. Testing Biological Hypotheses with Embodied Robots: Adaptations, Accidents, and By-Products in the Evolution of Vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Sonia F.; Hirokawa, Jonathan; Rosenblum, Hannah G.; Sakhtah, Hassan; Gutierrez, Andres A.; Porter, Marianne E.; Long, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary robotics allows biologists to test hypotheses about extinct animals. In our case, we modeled some of the first vertebrates, jawless fishes, in order to study the evolution of the trait after which vertebrates are named: vertebrae. We tested the hypothesis that vertebrae are an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance. We created a population of autonomous embodied robots, Preyro, in which the number of vertebrae, N, were free to evolve. In addition, two other trait...

  16. New exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear physical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekir, Ahmet; Cevikel, Adem C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we established abundant travelling wave solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations. This method was used to construct travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The travelling wave solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and the rational functions. The ((G ' )/G )-expansion method presents a wider applicability for handling nonlinear wave equations.

  17. Non-linear beam dynamics tests in the LHC: LHC dynamic aperture MD on Beam 2 (24th of June 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Maclean, E H; Persson, T H B; Redaelli, S; Schmidt, F; Tomas, R; Uythoven, J

    2013-01-01

    This MD note summarizes measurements performed on LHC Beam 2 during the non-linear machine development (MD) of 24 June 2012. The aim of the measurement was to observe the dynamic aperture of LHC Beam 2, and obtain turn-by-turn (TbT) betatron oscillation data, enabling the study of amplitude detuning and resonance driving terms (RDTs). The regular injections required by the MD also represented an opportunity to test a new coupling feedback routine based on the analysis of injection oscillation data. Initial measurements were performed on the nominal state of the LHC at injection. On completion of this study the Landau octupoles were turned off and corrections for higher-order chromaticities were implemented to reduce the non-linearity of the machine as far as possible. A second set of measurements were then performed. All studies were performed using the LHC aperture kicker (MKA).

  18. Microstructure evolution during cyclic tests on EUROFER 97 at room temperature. TEM observation and modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giordana, M. F.; Giroux, P. F.; Alvarez; Armas, I.; Sauzay, M.; Armas, A.; Kruml, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 550, JUL (2012), s. 103-111 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : martensitic steels * softening behaviour * microstructural evolution * modelling Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.108, year: 2012

  19. Replaying Evolution to Test the Cause of Extinction of One Ecotype in an Experimentally Evolved Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline B Turner

    Full Text Available In a long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli, bacteria in one of twelve populations evolved the ability to consume citrate, a previously unexploited resource in a glucose-limited medium. This innovation led to the frequency-dependent coexistence of citrate-consuming (Cit+ and non-consuming (Cit- ecotypes, with Cit-bacteria persisting on the exogenously supplied glucose as well as other carbon molecules released by the Cit+ bacteria. After more than 10,000 generations of coexistence, however, the Cit-lineage went extinct; cells with the Cit-phenotype dropped to levels below detection, and the Cit-clade could not be detected by molecular assays based on its unique genotype. We hypothesized that this extinction was a deterministic outcome of evolutionary change within the population, specifically the appearance of a more-fit Cit+ ecotype that competitively excluded the Cit-ecotype. We tested this hypothesis by re-evolving the population from a frozen population sample taken within 500 generations of the extinction and from another sample taken several thousand generations earlier, in each case for 500 generations and with 20-fold replication. To our surprise, the Cit-type did not go extinct in any of these replays, and Cit-cells also persisted in a single replicate that was propagated for 2,500 generations. Even more unexpectedly, we showed that the Cit-ecotype could reinvade the Cit+ population after its extinction. Taken together, these results indicate that the extinction of the Cit-ecotype was not a deterministic outcome driven by competitive exclusion by the Cit+ ecotype. The extinction also cannot be explained by demographic stochasticity alone, as the population size of the Cit-ecotype should have been many thousands of cells even during the daily transfer events. Instead, we infer that the extinction must have been caused by a rare chance event in which some aspect of the experimental conditions was inadvertently perturbed.

  20. Controls on stream network branching angles, tested using landscape evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoratos, Nikolaos; Seybold, Hansjörg; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-04-01

    Stream networks are striking landscape features. The topology of stream networks has been extensively studied, but their geometry has received limited attention. Analyses of nearly 1 million stream junctions across the contiguous United States [1] have revealed that stream branching angles vary systematically with climate and topographic gradients at continental scale. Stream networks in areas with wet climates and gentle slopes tend to have wider branching angles than in areas with dry climates or steep slopes, but the mechanistic linkages underlying these empirical correlations remain unclear. Under different climatic and topographic conditions different runoff generation mechanisms and, consequently, transport processes are dominant. Models [2] and experiments [3] have shown that the relative strength of channel incision versus diffusive hillslope transport controls the spacing between valleys, an important geometric property of stream networks. We used landscape evolution models (LEMs) to test whether similar factors control network branching angles as well. We simulated stream networks using a wide range of hillslope diffusion and channel incision parameters. The resulting branching angles vary systematically with the parameters, but by much less than the regional variability in real-world stream networks. Our results suggest that the competition between hillslope and channeling processes influences branching angles, but that other mechanisms may also be needed to account for the variability in branching angles observed in the field. References: [1] H. Seybold, D. H. Rothman, and J. W. Kirchner, 2015, Climate's watermark in the geometry of river networks, Submitted manuscript. [2] J. T. Perron, W. E. Dietrich, and J. W. Kirchner, 2008, Controls on the spacing of first-order valleys, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, F04016. [3] K. E. Sweeney, J. J. Roering, and C. Ellis, 2015, Experimental evidence for hillslope control of landscape scale, Science, 349

  1. Weakly nonlinear electron plasma waves in collisional plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecseli, H. L.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Tagare, S. G.

    1986-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of a high frequency plasma wave in a weakly magnetized, collisional plasma is considered. In addition to the ponderomotive-force-nonlinearity the nonlinearity due to the heating of the electrons is taken into account. A set of nonlinear equations including the effect...

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics.   This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects.   Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution  are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.  

  3. Fatigue damage evaluation of austenitic stainless steel using nonlinear ultrasonic waves in low cycle regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Xuan, Fu-Zhen, E-mail: fzxuan@ecust.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Pressurized System and Safety, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2014-05-28

    The interrupted low cycle fatigue test of austenitic stainless steel was conducted and the dislocation structure and fatigue damage was evaluated subsequently by using both transmission electron microscope and nonlinear ultrasonic wave techniques. A “mountain shape” correlation between the nonlinear acoustic parameter and the fatigue life fraction was achieved. This was ascribed to the generation and evolution of planar dislocation structure and nonplanar dislocation structure such as veins, walls, and cells. The “mountain shape” correlation was interpreted successfully by the combined contribution of dislocation monopole and dipole with an internal-stress dependent term of acoustic nonlinearity.

  4. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  5. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  6. Historical Evolution of NASA Standard Materials Testing with Hypergolic Propellants and Ammonia (NASA Standard 6001 Test 15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Benjamin; McClure, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has performed testing of hazardous and reactive aerospace fluids, including hypergolic propellants, with materials since the 1960s with the Apollo program. Amongst other test activities, Test 15 is a NASA standard test for evaluating the reactivity of materials with selected aerospace fluids, in particular hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, uns-dimethylhydrazine, Aerozine 50, dinitrogen tetroxide oxidizers, and ammonia. This manuscript provides an overview of the history of Test 15 over a timeline ranging from prior to its development and first implementation as a NASA standard test in 1974 to its current refinement. Precursor documents to NASA standard tests, as they are currently known, are reviewed. A related supplementary test, international standardization, and enhancements to Test 15 are also discussed. Because WSTF was instrumental in the development and implementation of Test 15, WSTF experience and practices are referred to in this manuscript.

  7. Periodic and solitary wave solutions of cubic–quintic nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hence, most of the real nonlinear physical equations possess variable ... evolution of the system with time and second term represents the convective flux term. The ... Travelling wave solutions of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations are.

  8. Observational tests for the evolution of massive stars in nearby galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitherer, C.

    1990-01-01

    Population synthesis calculations applicable to the massive stellar content in nearby galaxies are presented. Stellar evolution calculations are combined with mass loss, model atmospheres with line blanketing, and a spectral type calibration to compute observable parameters of massive stars as a function of the star formation rate and the initial mass function slope. The number of O stars of given spectral types, the number of W-R stars, supernova rates, and fluxes of ionizing photons are predicted. Important constraints for the theories of stellar atmospheres and stellar evolution can be derived from observations if stellar number counts and ionizing flux data are available. 94 refs

  9. Nonlinear dynamics of resistive electrostatic drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which is pertur......The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which...... polarity, i.e. a pair of electrostatic convective cells....

  10. Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Baseline Control Law: Flight-Test Results for the Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed F/A-18 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    A model reference nonlinear dynamic inversion control law has been developed to provide a baseline controller for research into simple adaptive elements for advanced flight control laws. This controller has been implemented and tested in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation and in flight. The flight results agree well with the simulation predictions and show good handling qualities throughout the tested flight envelope with some noteworthy deficiencies highlighted both by handling qualities metrics and pilot comments. Many design choices and implementation details reflect the requirements placed on the system by the nonlinear flight environment and the desire to keep the system as simple as possible to easily allow the addition of the adaptive elements. The flight-test results and how they compare to the simulation predictions are discussed, along with a discussion about how each element affected pilot opinions. Additionally, aspects of the design that performed better than expected are presented, as well as some simple improvements that will be suggested for follow-on work.

  11. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  12. FRF decoupling of nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaycıoğlu, Taner; Özgüven, H. Nevzat

    2018-03-01

    Structural decoupling problem, i.e. predicting dynamic behavior of a particular substructure from the knowledge of the dynamics of the coupled structure and the other substructure, has been well investigated for three decades and led to several decoupling methods. In spite of the inherent nonlinearities in a structural system in various forms such as clearances, friction and nonlinear stiffness, all decoupling studies are for linear systems. In this study, decoupling problem for nonlinear systems is addressed for the first time. A method, named as FRF Decoupling Method for Nonlinear Systems (FDM-NS), is proposed for calculating FRFs of a substructure decoupled from a coupled nonlinear structure where nonlinearity can be modeled as a single nonlinear element. Depending on where nonlinear element is, i.e., either in the known or unknown subsystem, or at the connection point, the formulation differs. The method requires relative displacement information between two end points of the nonlinear element, in addition to point and transfer FRFs at some points of the known subsystem. However, it is not necessary to excite the system from the unknown subsystem even when the nonlinear element is in that subsystem. The validation of FDM-NS is demonstrated with two different case studies using nonlinear lumped parameter systems. Finally, a nonlinear experimental test structure is used in order to show the real-life application and accuracy of FDM-NS.

  13. Evolution of blind beetles in isolated aquifers: a test of alternative modes of speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leys, R.; Nes, van E.H.; Watts, C.H.; Cooper, S.J.B.; Humphreys, W.F.; Hogendoorn, K.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is growing that not only allopatric but also sympatric speciation can be important in the evolution of species. Sympatric speciation has most convincingly been demonstrated in laboratory experiments with bacteria, but field-based evidence is limited to a few cases. The recently discovered

  14. Testing gradual and speciational models of evolution in extant taxa: the example of ratites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurin, M.; Gussekloo, S.W.S.; Marjanovic, D.; Legendre, L.; Cubo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since Eldredge and Gould proposed their model of punctuated equilibria, evolutionary biologists have debated how often this model is the best description of nature and how important it is compared to the more gradual models of evolution expected from natural selection and the neo-Darwinian

  15. Between a Pod and a Hard Test: The Deep Evolution of Amoebae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kang, S.; Tice, A. K.; Spiegel, F. W.; Silberman, J. D.; Pánek, T.; Čepička, I.; Kostka, Martin; Kosakyan, A.; Alcantara, D. M. C.; Roger, A. J.; Shadwick, L.; Smirnov, A.; Kudryavtsev, A.; Lahr, D. J. G.; Brown, M. W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 9 (2017), s. 2258-2270 ISSN 0737-4038 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : phylogenomics * transcriptomes * Amoebozoa * reductive evolution * phylotranscriptomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 6.202, year: 2016

  16. Nonlinear Theoretical Tools for Fusion-related Microturbulence: Historical Evolution, and Recent Applications to Stochastic Magnetic Fields, Zonal-flow Dynamics, and Intermittency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Krommes

    2009-05-19

    Fusion physics poses an extremely challenging, practically complex problem that does not yield readily to simple paradigms. Nevertheless, various of the theoretical tools and conceptual advances emphasized at the KaufmanFest 2007 have motivated and/or found application to the development of fusion-related plasma turbulence theory. A brief historical commentary is given on some aspects of that specialty, with emphasis on the role (and limitations) of Hamiltonian/symplectic approaches, variational methods, oscillation-center theory, and nonlinear dynamics. It is shown how to extract a renormalized ponderomotive force from the statistical equations of plasma turbulence, and the possibility of a renormalized K-χ theorem is discussed. An unusual application of quasilinear theory to the problem of plasma equilibria in the presence of stochastic magnetic fields is described. The modern problem of zonal-flow dynamics illustrates a confluence of several techniques, including (i) the application of nonlinear-dynamics methods, especially center-manifold theory, to the problem of the transition to plasma turbulence in the face of self-generated zonal flows; and (ii) the use of Hamiltonian formalism to determine the appropriate (Casimir) invariant to be used in a novel wave-kinetic analysis of systems of interacting zonal flows and drift waves. Recent progress in the theory of intermittent chaotic statistics and the generation of coherent structures from turbulence is mentioned, and an appeal is made for some new tools to cope with these interesting and difficult problems in nonlinear plasma physics. Finally, the important influence of the intellectually stimulating research environment fostered by Prof. Allan Kaufman on the author's thinking and teaching methodology is described.

  17. Nonlinear Theoretical Tools for Fusion-related Microturbulence: Historical Evolution, and Recent Applications to Stochastic Magnetic Fields, Zonal-flow Dynamics, and Intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Fusion physics poses an extremely challenging, practically complex problem that does not yield readily to simple paradigms. Nevertheless, various of the theoretical tools and conceptual advances emphasized at the KaufmanFest 2007 have motivated and/or found application to the development of fusion-related plasma turbulence theory. A brief historical commentary is given on some aspects of that specialty, with emphasis on the role (and limitations) of Hamiltonian/symplectic approaches, variational methods, oscillation-center theory, and nonlinear dynamics. It is shown how to extract a renormalized ponderomotive force from the statistical equations of plasma turbulence, and the possibility of a renormalized K-? theorem is discussed. An unusual application of quasilinear theory to the problem of plasma equilibria in the presence of stochastic magnetic fields is described. The modern problem of zonal-flow dynamics illustrates a confluence of several techniques, including (i) the application of nonlinear-dynamics methods, especially center-manifold theory, to the problem of the transition to plasma turbulence in the face of self-generated zonal flows; and (ii) the use of Hamiltonian formalism to determine the appropriate (Casimir) invariant to be used in a novel wave-kinetic analysis of systems of interacting zonal flows and drift waves. Recent progress in the theory of intermittent chaotic statistics and the generation of coherent structures from turbulence is mentioned, and an appeal is made for some new tools to cope with these interesting and difficult problems in nonlinear plasma physics. Finally, the important influence of the intellectually stimulating research environment fostered by Prof. Allan Kaufman on the author's thinking and teaching methodology is described.

  18. The effect of immunodeficiency on the evolution of virulence: an experimental test with the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Victoria C; Kennedy, David A; Weaver, Veronika C; Sim, Derek; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Read, Andrew F

    2014-08-01

    Host immunity plays an important role in the evolution of pathogen virulence and disease emergence. There is increasing theoretical and empirical evidence that enhanced immunity through vaccination may have the unfortunate side effect of selecting for more virulent parasites, but the effect of host immune suppression on pathogen evolution is less clear. Here, we use serial passage experiments in mice to test how immune-suppressed hosts may alter pathogen virulence evolution. We passaged Plasmodium chabaudi through CD4(+) T cell-depleted or control mice every 7 days for 20 weeks and then measured virulence differences during infection of immunologically normal mice. We found that those parasites that had been selected through CD4(+) T cell-depleted mice were more virulent than parasites selected through control mice. Virulence increases during serial passage are believed to be caused by pathogen adaptation to the passage host. These data suggest that immune-suppressed hosts could provide a within-host environment that lowers the barrier to parasite adaptation and promotes the evolution of virulence.

  19. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  20. Evolution of noninvasive tests of liver fibrosis is associated with prognosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergniol, Julien; Boursier, Jérôme; Coutzac, Clélia; Bertrais, Sandrine; Foucher, Juliette; Angel, Camille; Chermak, Faiza; Hubert, Isabelle Fouchard; Merrouche, Wassil; Oberti, Frédéric; de Lédinghen, Victor; Calès, Paul

    2014-07-01

    No data are available about the prediction of long-term survival using repeated noninvasive tests of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We aimed to assess the prognostic value of 3-year liver stiffness measurement (LSM), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis 4 (FIB-4) evolution in CHC. CHC patients with two LSM (1,000-1,500 days interval) were prospectively included. Blood fibrosis tests APRI and FIB-4 were calculated the day of baseline (bLSM) and follow-up (fLSM) LSM. Evolution of fibrosis tests was expressed as delta: (follow-up-baseline results)/duration. Date and cause of death were recorded during follow-up that started the day of fLSM. In all, 1,025 patients were included. Median follow-up after fLSM was 38.0 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 27.7-46.1) during which 35 patients died (14 liver-related death) and seven had liver transplantation. Prognostic accuracy (Harrell C-index) of multivariate models including baseline and delta results was not significantly different between LSM and FIB-4 (P ≥ 0.24), whereas FIB-4 provided more accurate prognostic models than APRI (P = 0.03). By multivariate analysis including LSM variables, overall survival was independently predicted by bLSM, delta (dLSM), and sustained virological response (SVR). Prognosis was excellent in patients having bLSM 0 kPa/year) in ≥ 14 kPa bLSM had the worst prognosis. Baseline and delta FIB-4 also identified patient subgroups with significantly different prognosis. Three-year evolution of noninvasive tests of liver fibrosis has a strong prognostic value in CHC patients. These tests should be repeated to monitor patients and predict their outcome. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Evolution of sexual dichromatism in relation to nesting habits in European passerines: a test of Wallace's hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J J; Moreno, J

    2012-08-01

    Wallace proposed in 1868 that natural rather than sexual selection could explain the striking differences in avian plumage dichromatism. Thus, he predicted that nesting habits, through their association with nest predation, could drive changes in sexual dichromatism by enabling females in cavity nesters to become as conspicuous as males, whereas Darwin (1871, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, John Murray, London) argued that sexual selection was the sole explanation for dichromatism. Sexual dichromatism is currently used as indicating the strength of sexual selection, and therefore testing Wallace's claim with modern phylogentically controlled methodologies is of prime interest for comparing the roles of natural and sexual selection in affecting the evolution of avian coloration. Here, we have related information on nest attendance, sexual dichromatism and nesting habits (open and cavity nesting) to male and female plumage conspicuousness in European passerines. Nest incubation attendance does not explain male or female plumage conspicuousness but nest type does. Moreover, although females of monochromatic and cavity nesting species are more conspicuous than females of other species, males of monochromatic and open nesting species are those with more cryptic plumage. Finally, analyses of character evolution suggest that changes in nesting habits influence the probability of changes in both dichromatism and plumage conspicuousness of males but do not significantly affect those in females. These results strongly suggest a role of nesting habits in the evolution of plumage conspicuousness of males, and a role for sexual selection also in females, both factors affecting the evolution of sexual dichromatism. We discuss our findings in relation to the debate that Darwin and Wallace maintained more than one century ago on the importance of natural and sexual selection in driving the evolution of plumage conspicuousness and sexual dichromatism in birds

  2. Quantitative Test of the Evolution of Geant4 Electron Backscattering Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Basaglia, Tullio; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Sung Hun; Pia, Maria Grazia; Saracco, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Evolutions of Geant4 code have affected the simulation of electron backscattering with respect to previously published results. Their effects are quantified by analyzing the compatibility of the simulated electron backscattering fraction with a large collection of experimental data for a wide set of physics configuration options available in Geant4. Special emphasis is placed on two electron scattering implementations first released in Geant4 version 10.2: the Goudsmit-Saunderson multiple scattering model and a single Coulomb scattering model based on Mott cross section calculation. The new Goudsmit-Saunderson multiple scattering model appears to perform equally or less accurately than the model implemented in previous Geant4 versions, depending on the electron energy. The new Coulomb scattering model was flawed from a physics point of view, but computationally fast in Geant4 version 10.2; the physics correction released in Geant4 version 10.2p01 severely degrades its computational performance. Evolutions in ...

  3. Practical splitting methods for the adaptive integration of nonlinear evolution equations. Part I: Construction of optimized schemes and pairs of schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Auzinger, Winfried; Hofstä tter, Harald; Ketcheson, David I.; Koch, Othmar

    2016-01-01

    We present a number of new contributions to the topic of constructing efficient higher-order splitting methods for the numerical integration of evolution equations. Particular schemes are constructed via setup and solution of polynomial systems for the splitting coefficients. To this end we use and modify a recent approach for generating these systems for a large class of splittings. In particular, various types of pairs of schemes intended for use in adaptive integrators are constructed.

  4. Practical splitting methods for the adaptive integration of nonlinear evolution equations. Part I: Construction of optimized schemes and pairs of schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Auzinger, Winfried

    2016-07-28

    We present a number of new contributions to the topic of constructing efficient higher-order splitting methods for the numerical integration of evolution equations. Particular schemes are constructed via setup and solution of polynomial systems for the splitting coefficients. To this end we use and modify a recent approach for generating these systems for a large class of splittings. In particular, various types of pairs of schemes intended for use in adaptive integrators are constructed.

  5. The evolution of sexes: A specific test of the disruptive selection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jack

    2018-01-01

    The disruptive selection theory of the evolution of anisogamy posits that the evolution of a larger body or greater organismal complexity selects for a larger zygote, which in turn selects for larger gametes. This may provide the opportunity for one mating type to produce more numerous, small gametes, forcing the other mating type to produce fewer, large gametes. Predictions common to this and related theories have been partially upheld. Here, a prediction specific to the disruptive selection theory is derived from a previously published game-theoretic model that represents the most complete description of the theory. The prediction, that the ratio of macrogamete to microgamete size should be above three for anisogamous species, is supported for the volvocine algae. A fully population genetic implementation of the model, involving mutation, genetic drift, and selection, is used to verify the game-theoretic approach and accurately simulates the evolution of gamete sizes in anisogamous species. This model was extended to include a locus for gamete motility and shows that oogamy should evolve whenever there is costly motility. The classic twofold cost of sex may be derived from the fitness functions of these models, showing that this cost is ultimately due to genetic conflict.

  6. Nonlinear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drazin, P. G

    1992-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theories of bifurcation and chaos. It treats the solution of nonlinear equations, especially difference and ordinary differential equations, as a parameter varies...

  7. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasinski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.

  8. Predicting the effect of ionising radiation on biological populations: testing of a non-linear Leslie model applied to a small mammal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the application of a non-linear Leslie model for predicting the effects of ionising radiation on wild populations. The model assumes that, for protracted chronic irradiation, the effect-dose relationship is linear. In particular, the effects of radiation are modelled by relating the increase in the mortality rates of the individuals to the dose rates through a proportionality factor C. The model was tested using independent data and information from a series of experiments that were aimed at assessing the response to radiation of wild populations of meadow voles and whose results were described in the international literature. The comparison of the model results with the data selected from the above mentioned experiments showed that the model overestimated the detrimental effects of radiation on the size of irradiated populations when the values of C were within the range derived from the median lethal dose (L 50 ) for small mammals. The described non-linear model suggests that the non-expressed biotic potential of the species whose growth is limited by processes of environmental resistance, such as the competition among the individuals of the same or of different species for the exploitation of the available resources, can be a factor that determines a more effective response of population to the radiation effects. -- Highlights: • A model to assess the radiation effects on wild population is described. • The model is based on non-linear Leslie matrix. • The model is applied to small mammals living in an irradiated meadow. • Model output is conservative if effect-dose factor estimated from L 50 is used. • Systemic response to stress of populations in competitive conditions may be more effective

  9. The modified alternative (G'/G)-expansion method to nonlinear evolution equation: application to the (1+1)-dimensional Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, M Ali; Mohd Ali, Norhashidah Hj; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, (G'/G)-expansion method is employed to generate traveling wave solutions to various wave equations in mathematical physics. In the present paper, the alternative (G'/G)-expansion method has been further modified by introducing the generalized Riccati equation to construct new exact solutions. In order to illustrate the novelty and advantages of this approach, the (1+1)-dimensional Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson (DSW) equation is considered and abundant new exact traveling wave solutions are obtained in a uniform way. These solutions may be imperative and significant for the explanation of some practical physical phenomena. It is shown that the modified alternative (G'/G)-expansion method an efficient and advance mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics.

  10. Linear and non-linear analyses of Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II discriminate adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from patients with mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Mjeldheim, Kristin; Førland, Wenche; Hansen, Anita L; Syrstad, Vigdis Elin Giæver; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Berle, Jan Øystein

    2016-08-11

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder. Therefore it is important to look for factors that can contribute to better diagnosis and classification of these patients. The aims of the study were to characterize adult psychiatric out-patients with a mixture of mood, anxiety and attentional problems using an objective neuropsychological test of attention combined with an assessment of mood instability. Newly referred patients (n = 99; aged 18-65 years) requiring diagnostic evaluation of ADHD, mood or anxiety disorders were recruited, and were given a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation including the self-report form of the cyclothymic temperament scale and Conner's Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II). In addition to the traditional measures from this test we have extracted raw data and analysed time series using linear and non-linear mathematical methods. Fifty patients fulfilled criteria for ADHD, while 49 did not, and were given other psychiatric diagnoses (clinical controls). When compared to the clinical controls the ADHD patients had more omission and commission errors, and higher reaction time variability. Analyses of response times showed higher values for skewness in the ADHD patients, and lower values for sample entropy and symbolic dynamics. Among the ADHD patients 59 % fulfilled criteria for a cyclothymic temperament, and this group had higher reaction time variability and lower scores on complexity than the group without this temperament. The CPT-II is a useful instrument in the assessment of ADHD in adult patients. Additional information from this test was obtained by analyzing response times using linear and non-linear methods, and this showed that ADHD patients with a cyclothymic temperament were different from those without this temperament.

  11. The Electrical Resistivity and Acoustic Emission Response Law and Damage Evolution of Limestone in Brazilian Split Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinji Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian split test was performed on two groups of limestone samples with loading directions vertical and parallel to the bedding plane, and the response laws of the electrical resistivity and acoustic emission (AE in the two loading modes were obtained. The test results showed that the Brazilian split test with loading directions vertical and parallel to the bedding showed obviously different results and anisotropic characteristics. On the basis of the response laws of the electrical resistivity and AE, the damage variables based on the electrical resistivity and AE properties were modified, and the evolution laws of the damage variables in the Brazilian split test with different loading directions were obtained. It was found that the damage evolution laws varied with the loading direction. Specifically, in the time-varying curve of the damage variable with the loading direction vertical to the bedding, the damage variable based on electrical resistivity properties showed an obvious damage weakening stage while that based on AE properties showed an abrupt increase under low load.

  12. Evolution of resistance and tolerance to herbivores: testing the trade-off hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Kariñho-Betancourt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. To cope with their natural enemies, plants rely on resistance and tolerance as defensive strategies. Evolution of these strategies among natural population can be constrained by the absence of genetic variation or because of the antagonistic genetic correlation (trade-off between them. Also, since plant defenses are integrated by several traits, it has been suggested that trade-offs might occur between specific defense traits.Methodology/Principal Findings. We experimentally assessed (1 the presence of genetic variance in tolerance, total resistance, and leaf trichome density as specific defense trait, (2 the extent of natural selection acting on plant defenses, and (3 the relationship between total resistance and leaf trichome density with tolerance to herbivory in the annual herb Datura stramonium. Full-sib families of D. stramonium were either exposed to natural herbivores (control or protected from them by a systemic insecticide. We detected genetic variance for leaf trichome density, and directional selection acting on this character. However, we did not detect a negative significant correlation between tolerance and total resistance, or between tolerance and leaf trichome density. We argue that low levels of leaf damage by herbivores precluded the detection of a negative genetic correlation between plant defense strategies.Conclusions/Significance. This study provides empirical evidence of the independent evolution of plant defense strategies, and a defensive role of leaf trichomes. The pattern of selection should favor individuals with high trichomes density. Also, because leaf trichome density reduces damage by herbivores and possess genetic variance in the studied population, its evolution is not constrained.

  13. Nonlinear evolutions of an ultra-intense ultra-short laser pulse in a rarefied plasma through a new quasi-static theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, J.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new description of self-consistent wake excitation by an intense short laser pulse, based on applying the quasi-static approximation (slow variations of the pulse-envelope) in the instantaneous Lorentz-boosted pulse co-moving frame (PCMF), and best verify our results through comparison with particle-in-cell simulations. According to this theory, the plasma motion can be treated perturbatively in the PCMF due to its high initial-velocity and produces a quasi-static wakefield in this frame. The pulse envelope, on the other hand, is governed by a form of the Schrödinger equation in the PCMF, in which the wakefield acts as an effective potential. In this context, pulse evolutions are characterized by local conservation laws resulted from this equation and subjected to Lorentz transformation into the laboratory frame. Using these conservation laws, precise formulas are obtained for spatiotemporal pulse evolutions and related wakefield variations at initial stages, and new equations are derived for instantaneous group velocity and carrier frequency. In addition, based on properties of the Schrödinger equation, spectral-evolutions of the pulse are described and the emergence of an anomalous dispersion branch with linear relation ω ≈ ck (c is the light speed) is predicted. Our results are carefully discussed versus previous publications and the significance of our approach is described by showing almost all suggestive definitions of group-velocity based on energy arguments fail to reproduce our formula and correctly describe the instantaneous pulse-velocity.

  14. The development of test beds to support the definition and evolution of the Space Station Freedom power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James F.; Frye, Robert J.; Phillips, Rudy L.

    1991-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International have had extensive efforts underway to develop testbeds to support the definition of the detailed electrical power system design. Because of the extensive redirections that have taken place in the Space Station Freedom Program in the past several years, the test bed effort was forced to accommodate a large number of changes. A short history of these program changes and their impact on the LeRC test beds is presented to understand how the current test bed configuration has evolved. The current test objectives and the development approach for the current DC test bed are discussed. A description of the test bed configuration, along with its power and controller hardware and its software components, is presented. Next, the uses of the test bed during the mature design and verification phase of SSFP are examined. Finally, the uses of the test bed in the operation and evolution of the SSF are addressed.

  15. Pescara benchmarks: nonlinear identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandino, E.; Garibaldi, L.; Marchesiello, S.

    2011-07-01

    Recent nonlinear methods are suitable for identifying large systems with lumped nonlinearities, but in practice most structural nonlinearities are distributed and an ideal nonlinear identification method should cater for them as well. In order to extend the current NSI method to be applied also on realistic large engineering structures, a modal counterpart of the method is proposed in this paper. The modal NSI technique is applied on one of the reinforced concrete beams that have been tested in Pescara, under the project titled "Monitoring and diagnostics of railway bridges by means of the analysis of the dynamic response due to train crossing", financed by Italian Ministry of Research. The beam showed a softening nonlinear behaviour, so that the nonlinearity concerning the first mode is characterized and its force contribution is quantified. Moreover, estimates for the modal parameters are obtained and the model is validated by comparing the measured and the reconstructed output. The identified estimates are also used to accurately predict the behaviour of the same beam, when subject to different initial conditions.

  16. Pescara benchmarks: nonlinear identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandino, E; Garibaldi, L; Marchesiello, S

    2011-01-01

    Recent nonlinear methods are suitable for identifying large systems with lumped nonlinearities, but in practice most structural nonlinearities are distributed and an ideal nonlinear identification method should cater for them as well. In order to extend the current NSI method to be applied also on realistic large engineering structures, a modal counterpart of the method is proposed in this paper. The modal NSI technique is applied on one of the reinforced concrete beams that have been tested in Pescara, under the project titled M onitoring and diagnostics of railway bridges by means of the analysis of the dynamic response due to train crossing , financed by Italian Ministry of Research. The beam showed a softening nonlinear behaviour, so that the nonlinearity concerning the first mode is characterized and its force contribution is quantified. Moreover, estimates for the modal parameters are obtained and the model is validated by comparing the measured and the reconstructed output. The identified estimates are also used to accurately predict the behaviour of the same beam, when subject to different initial conditions.

  17. Lie Algebras for Constructing Nonlinear Integrable Couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yufeng

    2011-01-01

    Two new explicit Lie algebras are introduced for which the nonlinear integrable couplings of the Giachetti-Johnson (GJ) hierarchy and the Yang hierarchy are obtained, respectively. By employing the variational identity their Hamiltonian structures are also generated. The approach presented in the paper can also provide nonlinear integrable couplings of other soliton hierarchies of evolution equations. (general)

  18. On the wave amplitude blow-up in the Berk-Breizman model for nonlinear evolution of a plasma wave driven resonantly by fast ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleśny, Jarosław; Galant, Grzegorz; Berczyński, Paweł; Berczyński, Stefan; Lisak, Mietek

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the Berk-Breizman (BB) model of plasma wave instability arising on the stability threshold is considered. An interesting although physically unacceptable feature of the model is the explosive behaviour occurring in the regime of small values of the collision frequency parameter. We present an analytical description of the explosive solution, based on a fitting to the numerical solution of the BB equation with the collision parameter equal to zero. We find that the chaotic behaviour taking place for small but non-zero values of the collision parameter is absent in this case; therefore, chaotic behaviour seems to be an independent phenomenon not directly related to the blow-up regime. The time and the velocity dependence of the distribution function are found numerically and plotted to better understand what actually happens in the model. It allows us to obtain a good qualitative understanding of the time evolution of the mode amplitude including the linear growth of the amplitude, reaching its maximum and then decreasing towards the zero value. Nevertheless, we have no satisfactory physical explanation of the amplitude evolution when the amplitude vanishes at some time and then revives but with an opposite phase.

  19. REDSHIFT EVOLUTION IN BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS: TESTING C IV-BASED BLACK HOLE MASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Ludwig, Randi R.

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine claims for redshift evolution in black hole-bulge scaling relations based on lensed quasars. In particular, we refine the black hole (BH) mass estimates using measurements of Balmer lines from near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with Triplespec at Apache Point Observatory. In support of previous work, we find a large scatter between Balmer and UV line widths, both Mg IIλλ2796, 2803 and C IVλλ1548, 1550. There is tentative evidence that C III]λ1909, despite being a blend of multiple transitions, may correlate well with Mg II, although a larger sample is needed for a real calibration. Most importantly, we find no systematic changes in the estimated BH masses for the lensed sample based on Balmer lines, providing additional support to the interpretation that black holes were overly massive compared to their host galaxies at high redshift.

  20. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  1. Resonant Capture and Tidal Evolution in Circumbinary Systems: Testing the Case of Kepler-38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Beaugé, C.; Leiva, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Circumbinary planets are thought to form far from the central binary and migrate inwards by interactions with the circumbinary disk, ultimately stopping near their present location either by a planetary trap near the disk inner edge or by resonance capture. Here, we analyze the second possibility, presenting a detailed numerical study on the capture process, resonant dynamics and tidal evolution of circumbinary planets in high-order mean-motion resonances (MMRs). Planetary migration was modeled as an external acceleration in an N-body code, while tidal effects were incorporated with a weak-friction equilibrium tide model. As a working example we chose Kepler-38, a highly evolved system with a planet in the vicinity of the 5/1 MMR. Our simulations show that resonance capture is a high-probability event under a large range of system parameters, although several different resonant configuration are possible. We identified three possible outcomes: aligned librations, anti-aligned librations and chaotic solutions. All were found to be dynamically stable, even after the dissipation of the disk, for time-spans of the order of the system's age. We found that while tidal evolution decreases the binary's separation, the semimajor axis of the planet is driven outwards. Although the net effect is a secular increase in the mean-motion ratio, the system requires a planetary tidal parameter of the order of unity to reproduce the observed orbital configuration. The results presented here open an interesting outlook into the complex dynamics of high-order resonances in circumbinary systems.

  2. Testing the Accuracy of Data-driven MHD Simulations of Active Region Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Schuck, Peter W., E-mail: james.e.leake@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Models for the evolution of the solar coronal magnetic field are vital for understanding solar activity, yet the best measurements of the magnetic field lie at the photosphere, necessitating the development of coronal models which are “data-driven” at the photosphere. We present an investigation to determine the feasibility and accuracy of such methods. Our validation framework uses a simulation of active region (AR) formation, modeling the emergence of magnetic flux from the convection zone to the corona, as a ground-truth data set, to supply both the photospheric information and to perform the validation of the data-driven method. We focus our investigation on how the accuracy of the data-driven model depends on the temporal frequency of the driving data. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory produces full-disk vector magnetic field measurements at a 12-minute cadence. Using our framework we show that ARs that emerge over 25 hr can be modeled by the data-driving method with only ∼1% error in the free magnetic energy, assuming the photospheric information is specified every 12 minutes. However, for rapidly evolving features, under-sampling of the dynamics at this cadence leads to a strobe effect, generating large electric currents and incorrect coronal morphology and energies. We derive a sampling condition for the driving cadence based on the evolution of these small-scale features, and show that higher-cadence driving can lead to acceptable errors. Future work will investigate the source of errors associated with deriving plasma variables from the photospheric magnetograms as well as other sources of errors, such as reduced resolution, instrument bias, and noise.

  3. A pre-crisis vs. crisis analysis of peripheral EU stock markets by means of wavelet transform and a nonlinear causality test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Martínez, J. M.; Fernández-Macho, J.; Neumann, M. B.; Faria, S. H.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of EU peripheral (so-called PIIGS) stock market indices and the S&P Europe 350 index (SPEURO), as a European benchmark market, over the pre-crisis (2004-2007) and crisis (2008-2011) periods. We computed a rolling-window wavelet correlation for the market returns and applied a non-linear Granger causality test to the wavelet decomposition coefficients of these stock market returns. Our results show that the correlation is stronger for the crisis than for the pre-crisis period. The stock market indices from Portugal, Italy and Spain were more interconnected among themselves during the crisis than with the SPEURO. The stock market from Portugal is the most sensitive and vulnerable PIIGS member, whereas the stock market from Greece tends to move away from the European benchmark market since the 2008 financial crisis till 2011. The non-linear causality test indicates that in the first three wavelet scales (intraweek, weekly and fortnightly) the number of uni-directional and bi-directional causalities is greater during the crisis than in the pre-crisis period, because of financial contagion. Furthermore, the causality analysis shows that the direction of the Granger cause-effect for the pre-crisis and crisis periods is not invariant in the considered time-scales, and that the causality directions among the studied stock markets do not seem to have a preferential direction. These results are relevant to better understand the behaviour of vulnerable stock markets, especially for investors and policymakers.

  4. Population Size and the Rate of Language Evolution: A Test Across Indo-European, Austronesian, and Bantu Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Simon J.; Hua, Xia; Welsh, Caela F.; Schneemann, Hilde; Bromham, Lindell

    2018-01-01

    What role does speaker population size play in shaping rates of language evolution? There has been little consensus on the expected relationship between rates and patterns of language change and speaker population size, with some predicting faster rates of change in smaller populations, and others expecting greater change in larger populations. The growth of comparative databases has allowed population size effects to be investigated across a wide range of language groups, with mixed results. One recent study of a group of Polynesian languages revealed greater rates of word gain in larger populations and greater rates of word loss in smaller populations. However, that test was restricted to 20 closely related languages from small Oceanic islands. Here, we test if this pattern is a general feature of language evolution across a larger and more diverse sample of languages from both continental and island populations. We analyzed comparative language data for 153 pairs of closely-related sister languages from three of the world's largest language families: Austronesian, Indo-European, and Niger-Congo. We find some evidence that rates of word loss are significantly greater in smaller languages for the Indo-European comparisons, but we find no significant patterns in the other two language families. These results suggest either that the influence of population size on rates and patterns of language evolution is not universal, or that it is sufficiently weak that it may be overwhelmed by other influences in some cases. Further investigation, for a greater number of language comparisons and a wider range of language features, may determine which of these explanations holds true. PMID:29755387

  5. Phylemon 2.0: a suite of web-tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics, phylogenomics and hypotheses testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Rubén; Serra, François; Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Carbonell, José; Pulido, Luis; de María, Alejandro; Capella-Gutíerrez, Salvador; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Gabaldón, Toni; Dopazo, Joaquín; Dopazo, Hernán

    2011-07-01

    Phylemon 2.0 is a new release of the suite of web tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics, phylogenomics and hypotheses testing. It has been designed as a response to the increasing demand of molecular sequence analyses for experts and non-expert users. Phylemon 2.0 has several unique features that differentiates it from other similar web resources: (i) it offers an integrated environment that enables evolutionary analyses, format conversion, file storage and edition of results; (ii) it suggests further analyses, thereby guiding the users through the web server; and (iii) it allows users to design and save phylogenetic pipelines to be used over multiple genes (phylogenomics). Altogether, Phylemon 2.0 integrates a suite of 30 tools covering sequence alignment reconstruction and trimming; tree reconstruction, visualization and manipulation; and evolutionary hypotheses testing.

  6. Phylemon 2.0: a suite of web-tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics, phylogenomics and hypotheses testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Rubén; Serra, François; Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Carbonell, José; Pulido, Luis; de María, Alejandro; Capella-Gutíerrez, Salvador; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Gabaldón, Toni; Dopazo, Joaquín; Dopazo, Hernán

    2011-01-01

    Phylemon 2.0 is a new release of the suite of web tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics, phylogenomics and hypotheses testing. It has been designed as a response to the increasing demand of molecular sequence analyses for experts and non-expert users. Phylemon 2.0 has several unique features that differentiates it from other similar web resources: (i) it offers an integrated environment that enables evolutionary analyses, format conversion, file storage and edition of results; (ii) it suggests further analyses, thereby guiding the users through the web server; and (iii) it allows users to design and save phylogenetic pipelines to be used over multiple genes (phylogenomics). Altogether, Phylemon 2.0 integrates a suite of 30 tools covering sequence alignment reconstruction and trimming; tree reconstruction, visualization and manipulation; and evolutionary hypotheses testing. PMID:21646336

  7. The future (r)evolution of preimplantation genetic diagnosis/human leukocyte antigen testing: ethical reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wert, Guido; Liebaers, Inge; Van de Velde, Hilde

    2007-09-01

    There has been increasing support for combining preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for specific diseases with a test for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) because the generation of HLA-matched umbilical cord blood cells may save the life of a diseased sibling. To date, this procedure has taken place in the context of conceiving another child--PGD/HLA testing type 1. However, it may well become possible to perform PGD/HLA testing outside this context, that is, to select matched embryos from which embryonic stem cells could be derived and used in cell therapy--PGD/HLA testing type 2. A proactive ethical analysis is needed and is presented in this article. Although PGD/HLA testing type 1 can be morally justified, the risks, pitfalls, and practical limitations of this procedure make it necessary to develop alternative strategies. PGD/HLA testing type 2 may provide an alternative strategy. From an ethical point of view, the controversial issue is that this procedure creates embryos purely for instrumental use. However, given the dominant view that the preimplantation embryo has only limited moral value, this alternative may be as morally justified as PGD/HLA testing type 1.

  8. Chaotic synchronization of two complex nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Gamal M.; Mahmoud, Emad E.; Farghaly, Ahmed A.; Aly, Shaban A.

    2009-01-01

    Synchronization is an important phenomenon commonly observed in nature. It is also often artificially induced because it is desirable for a variety of applications in physics, applied sciences and engineering. In a recent paper [Mahmoud GM, Mohamed AA, Aly SA. Strange attractors and chaos control in periodically forced complex Duffing's oscillators. Physica A 2001;292:193-206], a system of periodically forced complex Duffing's oscillators was introduced and shown to display chaotic behavior and possess strange attractors. Such complex oscillators appear in many problems of physics and engineering, as, for example, nonlinear optics, deep-water wave theory, plasma physics and bimolecular dynamics. Their connection to solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation has also been pointed out. In this paper, we study the remarkable phenomenon of chaotic synchronization on these oscillator systems, using active control and global synchronization techniques. We derive analytical expressions for control functions and show that the dynamics of error evolution is globally stable, by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions. This means that, for a relatively large set initial conditions, the differences between the drive and response systems vanish exponentially and synchronization is achieved. Numerical results are obtained to test the validity of the analytical expressions and illustrate the efficiency of these techniques for inducing chaos synchronization in our nonlinear oscillators.

  9. The evolution of juvenile animal testing for small and large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Recent formalised regulatory requirements for ensuring safe use of new drugs in children has increased the requirement, when considered relevant, to perform juvenile animal testing before commencing paediatric clinical trials. A key goal of this work is to identify or examine for a developmental or toxicity finding not seen in other toxicology testing. With our current knowledge, this paper examines what types of testing are occurring, what novel findings are being seen and their relevance in the safety evaluation process. Furthermore, trends for now and the future in the type of juvenile animal testing will be described including a need for more focused study designs and more published data on modern cross-species postnatal development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Between a Pod and a Hard Test: The Deep Evolution of Amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seungho; Tice, Alexander K; Spiegel, Frederick W; Silberman, Jeffrey D; Pánek, Tomáš; Cepicka, Ivan; Kostka, Martin; Kosakyan, Anush; Alcântara, Daniel M C; Roger, Andrew J; Shadwick, Lora L; Smirnov, Alexey; Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Lahr, Daniel J G; Brown, Matthew W

    2017-09-01

    Amoebozoa is the eukaryotic supergroup sister to Obazoa, the lineage that contains the animals and Fungi, as well as their protistan relatives, and the breviate and apusomonad flagellates. Amoebozoa is extraordinarily diverse, encompassing important model organisms and significant pathogens. Although amoebozoans are integral to global nutrient cycles and present in nearly all environments, they remain vastly understudied. We present a robust phylogeny of Amoebozoa based on broad representative set of taxa in a phylogenomic framework (325 genes). By sampling 61 taxa using culture-based and single-cell transcriptomics, our analyses show two major clades of Amoebozoa, Discosea, and Tevosa. This phylogeny refutes previous studies in major respects. Our results support the hypothesis that the last common ancestor of Amoebozoa was sexual and flagellated, it also may have had the ability to disperse propagules from a sporocarp-type fruiting body. Overall, the main macroevolutionary patterns in Amoebozoa appear to result from the parallel losses of homologous characters of a multiphase life cycle that included flagella, sex, and sporocarps rather than independent acquisition of convergent features. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Fundamental problems and basic tests of stellar evolution theory - the case of carbon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iben, I. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon stars are thought to be in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of evolution, alternately burning hydrogen and helim in shells above an electron-degenerate carbon-oxygen (CO) core. In model stars of large CO core mass, the source of neutrons for producing the neutron-rich isotopes is the 22 Ne(α,n) 25 Mg reaction and the isotopes are produced in the solar system s-process distribution. In models of small core mass, the 13 C(α,n) 16 O reaction is thought to be responsible for the release of neutrons, and the resultant distribution of neutron-rich isotopes is expected to vary considerably from one star to the next, with the distribution in isolated instances possibly resembling the solar system distribution of r-process isotopes. There is qualitative accord between the properties of carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds and properties of model stars, but considerably more theoretical work is required before a quantitative match is achieved. (Auth.)

  12. A new view of avian life-history evolution tested on an incubation paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E

    2002-02-07

    Viewing life-history evolution in birds based on an age-specific mortality framework can explain broad life-history patterns, including the long incubation periods in southern latitudes documented here. I show that incubation periods of species that are matched phylogenetically and ecologically between Argentina and Arizona are longer in Argentina. Long incubation periods have mystified scientists because they increase the accumulated risk of time-dependent mortality to young without providing a clear benefit. I hypothesize that parents of species with low adult mortality accept increased risk of mortality to their young from longer incubation if this allows reduced risk of mortality to themselves. During incubation, songbird parents can reduce risk of mortality to themselves by reducing nest attentiveness (percentage of time on the nest). Here I show that parents of species with lower adult mortality exhibit reduced nest attentiveness and that lower attentiveness is associated with longer incubation periods. However, the incubation period is also modified by juvenile mortality. Clutch size variation is also strongly correlated with age-specific mortality. Ultimately, adult and juvenile mortality explain variation in incubation and other life-history traits better than the historical paradigm.

  13. Testing the molecular clock using mechanistic models of fossil preservation and molecular evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Rachel C M; Yang, Ziheng; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2017-06-28

    Molecular sequence data provide information about relative times only, and fossil-based age constraints are the ultimate source of information about absolute times in molecular clock dating analyses. Thus, fossil calibrations are critical to molecular clock dating, but competing methods are difficult to evaluate empirically because the true evolutionary time scale is never known. Here, we combine mechanistic models of fossil preservation and sequence evolution in simulations to evaluate different approaches to constructing fossil calibrations and their impact on Bayesian molecular clock dating, and the relative impact of fossil versus molecular sampling. We show that divergence time estimation is impacted by the model of fossil preservation, sampling intensity and tree shape. The addition of sequence data may improve molecular clock estimates, but accuracy and precision is dominated by the quality of the fossil calibrations. Posterior means and medians are poor representatives of true divergence times; posterior intervals provide a much more accurate estimate of divergence times, though they may be wide and often do not have high coverage probability. Our results highlight the importance of increased fossil sampling and improved statistical approaches to generating calibrations, which should incorporate the non-uniform nature of ecological and temporal fossil species distributions. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Test particles dynamics in the JOREK 3D non-linear MHD code and application to electron transport in a disruption simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommariva, C.; Nardon, E.; Beyer, P.; Hoelzl, M.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; van Vugt, D.; Contributors, JET

    2018-01-01

    In order to contribute to the understanding of runaway electron generation mechanisms during tokamak disruptions, a test particle tracker is introduced in the JOREK 3D non-linear MHD code, able to compute both full and guiding center relativistic orbits. Tests of the module show good conservation of the invariants of motion and consistency between full orbit and guiding center solutions. A first application is presented where test electron confinement properties are investigated in a massive gas injection-triggered disruption simulation in JET-like geometry. It is found that electron populations initialised before the thermal quench (TQ) are typically not fully deconfined in spite of the global stochasticity of the magnetic field during the TQ. The fraction of ‘survivors’ decreases from a few tens down to a few tenths of percent as the electron energy varies from 1 keV to 10 MeV. The underlying mechanism for electron ‘survival’ is the prompt reformation of closed magnetic surfaces at the plasma core and, to a smaller extent, the subsequent reappearance of a magnetic surface at the edge. It is also found that electrons are less deconfined at 10 MeV than at 1 MeV, which appears consistent with a phase averaging effect due to orbit shifts at high energy.

  15. Cluster evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, R.

    1987-01-01

    The galaxy and cluster luminosity functions are constructed from a model of the mass distribution based on hierarchical clustering at an epoch where the matter distribution is non-linear. These luminosity functions are seen to reproduce the present distribution of objects as can be inferred from the observations. They can be used to deduce the redshift dependence of the cluster distribution and to extrapolate the observations towards the past. The predicted evolution of the cluster distribution is quite strong, although somewhat less rapid than predicted by the linear theory

  16. Epigenetics and sex-specific fitness: an experimental test using male-limited evolution in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jessica K; Innocenti, Paolo; Chippindale, Adam K; Morrow, Edward H

    2013-01-01

    When males and females have different fitness optima for the same trait but share loci, intralocus sexual conflict is likely to occur. Epigenetic mechanisms such as genomic imprinting (in which expression is altered according to parent-of-origin) and sex-specific maternal effects have been suggested as ways by which this conflict can be resolved. However these ideas have not yet been empirically tested. We designed an experimental evolution protocol in Drosophila melanogaster that enabled us to look for epigenetic effects on the X-chromosome-a hotspot for sexually antagonistic loci. We used special compound-X females to enforce father-to-son transmission of the X-chromosome for many generations, and compared fitness and gene expression levels between Control males, males with a Control X-chromosome that had undergone one generation of father-son transmission, and males with an X-chromosome that had undergone many generations of father-son transmission. Fitness differences were dramatic, with experimentally-evolved males approximately 20% greater than controls, and with males inheriting a non-evolved X from their father about 20% lower than controls. These data are consistent with both strong intralocus sexual conflict and misimprinting of the X-chromosome under paternal inheritance. However, expression differences suggested that reduced fitness under paternal X inheritance was largely due to deleterious maternal effects. Our data confirm the sexually-antagonistic nature of Drosophila's X-chromosome and suggest that the response to male-limited X-chromosome evolution entails compensatory evolution for maternal effects, and perhaps modification of other epigenetic effects via coevolution of the sex chromosomes.

  17. Testing cost-benefit models of parental care evolution using lizard populations differing in the expression of maternal care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-San Huang

    Full Text Available Parents are expected to evolve tactics to care for eggs or offspring when providing such care increases fitness above the costs incurred by this behavior. Costs to the parent include the energetic demands of protecting offspring, delaying future fecundity, and increased risk of predation. We used cost-benefit models to test the ecological conditions favoring the evolution of parental care, using lizard populations that differ in whether or not they express maternal care. We found that predators play an important role in the evolution of maternal care because: (1 evolving maternal care is unlikely when care increases predation pressure on the parents; (2 maternal care cannot evolve under low levels of predation pressure on both parents and offspring; and (3 maternal care evolves only when parents are able to successfully defend offspring from predators without increasing predation risk to themselves. Our studies of one of the only known vertebrate species to exhibit interpopulation differences in the expression of maternal care provide clear support for some of the hypothesized circumstances under which maternal care should evolve (e.g., when nests are in exposed locations, parents are able to defend the eggs from predators, and egg incubation periods are brief, but do not support others (e.g., when nest-sites are scarce, life history strategies are "risky", reproductive frequency is low, and environmental conditions are harsh. We conclude that multiple pathways can lead to the evolution of parental care from a non-caring state, even in a single population of a widespread species.

  18. Testing the hypothesis on cognitive evolution of modern humans' learning ability: current status of past-climatic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.

  19. Interaction of Lyapunov vectors in the formulation of the nonlinear extension of the Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatella, Luigi; Trevisan, Anna

    2015-04-01

    When applied to strongly nonlinear chaotic dynamics the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is prone to divergence due to the difficulty of correctly forecasting the forecast error probability density function. In operational forecasting applications ensemble Kalman filters circumvent this problem with empirical procedures such as covariance inflation. This paper presents an extension of the EKF that includes nonlinear terms in the evolution of the forecast error estimate. This is achieved starting from a particular square-root implementation of the EKF with assimilation confined in the unstable subspace (EKF-AUS), that is, the span of the Lyapunov vectors with non-negative exponents. When the error evolution is nonlinear, the space where it is confined is no more restricted to the unstable and neutral subspace causing filter divergence. The algorithm presented here, denominated EKF-AUS-NL, includes the nonlinear terms in the error dynamics: These result from the nonlinear interaction among the leading Lyapunov vectors and account for all directions where the error growth may take place. Numerical results show that with the nonlinear terms included, filter divergence can be avoided. We test the algorithm on the Lorenz96 model, showing very promising results.

  20. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. II. A TEST ON THE NONLINEARITY SCENARIO FOR COLOR BIMODALITY USING THE u-BAND COLORS: THE CASE OF M87 (NGC 4486)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hak-Sub; Cho, Jaeil; Chung, Chul; Sohn, Sangmo T.; Blakeslee, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The optical color distributions of globular clusters (GCs) in most large elliptical galaxies are bimodal. Based on the assumed linear relationship between GC colors and their metallicities, the bimodality has been taken as evidence of two GC subsystems with different metallicities in each galaxy and has led to a number of theories in the context of galaxy formation. More recent observations and modeling of GCs, however, suggests that the color-metallicity relations (CMRs) are inflected, and thus colors likely trace metallicities in a nonlinear manner. The nonlinearity could produce bimodal color distributions from a broad underlying metallicity spread, even if it is unimodal. Despite the far-reaching implications, whether CMRs are nonlinear and whether the nonlinearity indeed causes the color bimodality are still open questions. Given that the spectroscopic refinement of CMRs is still very challenging, we here propose a new photometric technique to probe the possible nonlinear nature of CMRs. In essence, a color distribution of GCs is a 'projected' distribution of their metallicities. Since the form of CMRs hinges on which color is used, the shape of color distributions varies depending significantly on the colors. Among other optical colors, the u-band related colors (e.g., u – g and u – z) are theoretically predicted to exhibit significantly less inflected CMRs than other preferred CMRs (e.g., for g – z). As a case study, we performed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFPC2 archival u-band photometry for the M87 (NGC 4486) GC system with confirmed color bimodality. We show that the u-band color distributions are significantly different from that of g – z and consistent with our model predictions. With more u-band measurements, this method will support or rule out the nonlinear CMR scenario for the origin of GC color bimodality with high confidence. The HST/WFC3 observations in F336W for nearby large elliptical galaxies are highly anticipated in this regard.

  1. Using Association Rules to Study the Co-evolution of Production & Test Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubsen, Z.; Zaidman, A.; Pinzger, M.

    2009-01-01

    Paper accepted for publication in the proceedings of the 6th International Working Conference on Mining Software Repositories (MSR 2009). Unit tests are generally acknowledged as an important aid to produce high quality code, as they provide quick feedback to developers on the correctness of their

  2. Studying Co-evolution of Production and Test Code Using Association Rule Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubsen, Z.; Zaidman, A.; Pinzger, M.

    2009-01-01

    Long version of the short paper accepted for publication in the proceedings of the 6th International Working Conference on Mining Software Repositories (MSR 2009). Unit tests are generally acknowledged as an important aid to produce high quality code, as they provide quick feedback to developers on

  3. Mining Software Repositories to Study Co-Evolution of Production & Test Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaidman, A.E.; Van Rompaey, B.; Demeyer, S.; Van Deursen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: ICST 2008 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Testing, Verification, and Validation, 2008; doi:10.1109/ICST.2008.47 Engineering software systems is a multidisciplinary activity, whereby a number of artifacts must be created — and maintained —

  4. Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a “Toxicity Identification Evaluation” (TIE), which is the focus of this...

  5. Artificial Leaks in Container Closure Integrity Testing: Nonlinear Finite Element Simulation of Aperture Size Originated by a Copper Wire Sandwiched between the Stopper and the Glass Vial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Alejandra; Roehl, Holger; Brown, Helen; Adler, Michael; Chalus, Pascal; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Container closure integrity (CCI) testing is required by different regulatory authorities in order to provide assurance of tightness of the container closure system against possible contamination, for example, by microorganisms. Microbial ingress CCI testing is performed by incubation of the container closure system with microorganisms under specified testing conditions. Physical CCI uses surrogate endpoints, such as coloration by dye solution ingress or gas flow (helium leakage testing). In order to correlate microbial CCI and physical CCI test methods and to evaluate the methods' capability to detect a given leak, artificial leaks are being introduced into the container closure system in a variety of different ways. In our study, artificial leaks were generated using inserted copper wires between the glass vial opening and rubber stopper. However, the insertion of copper wires introduces leaks of unknown size and shape. With nonlinear finite element simulations, the aperture size between the rubber stopper and the glass vial was calculated, depending on wire diameter and capping force. The dependency of the aperture size on the copper wire diameter was quadratic. With the data obtained, we were able to calculate the leak size and model leak shape. Our results suggest that the size as well as the shape of the artificial leaks should be taken into account when evaluating critical leak sizes, as flow rate does not, independently, correlate to hole size. Capping force also affected leak size. An increase in the capping force from 30 to 70 N resulted in a reduction of the aperture (leak size) by approximately 50% for all wire diameters. From 30 to 50 N, the reduction was approximately 33%. Container closure integrity (CCI) testing is required by different regulatory authorities in order to provide assurance of tightness of the container closure system against contamination, for example, by microorganisms. Microbial ingress CCI testing is performed by incubation of the

  6. Empirical tests of pre-main-sequence stellar evolution models with eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassun, Keivan G.; Feiden, Gregory A.; Torres, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    We examine the performance of standard pre-main-sequence (PMS) stellar evolution models against the accurately measured properties of a benchmark sample of 26 PMS stars in 13 eclipsing binary (EB) systems having masses 0.04-4.0 M⊙ and nominal ages ≈1-20 Myr. We provide a definitive compilation of all fundamental properties for the EBs, with a careful and consistent reassessment of observational uncertainties. We also provide a definitive compilation of the various PMS model sets, including physical ingredients and limits of applicability. No set of model isochrones is able to successfully reproduce all of the measured properties of all of the EBs. In the H-R diagram, the masses inferred for the individual stars by the models are accurate to better than 10% at ≳1 M⊙, but below 1 M⊙ they are discrepant by 50-100%. Adjusting the observed radii and temperatures using empirical relations for the effects of magnetic activity helps to resolve the discrepancies in a few cases, but fails as a general solution. We find evidence that the failure of the models to match the data is linked to the triples in the EB sample; at least half of the EBs possess tertiary companions. Excluding the triples, the models reproduce the stellar masses to better than ∼10% in the H-R diagram, down to 0.5 M⊙, below which the current sample is fully contaminated by tertiaries. We consider several mechanisms by which a tertiary might cause changes in the EB properties and thus corrupt the agreement with stellar model predictions. We show that the energies of the tertiary orbits are comparable to that needed to potentially explain the scatter in the EB properties through injection of heat, perhaps involving tidal interaction. It seems from the evidence at hand that this mechanism, however it operates in detail, has more influence on the surface properties of the stars than on their internal structure, as the lithium abundances are broadly in good agreement with model predictions. The

  7. Nonlinearity without superluminality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Quantum theory is compatible with special relativity. In particular, though measurements on entangled systems are correlated in a way that cannot be reproduced by local hidden variables, they cannot be used for superluminal signaling. As Czachor, Gisin, and Polchinski pointed out, this is not generally true of general nonlinear modifications of the Schroedinger equation. Excluding superluminal signaling has thus been taken to rule out most nonlinear versions of quantum theory. The no-superluminal-signaling constraint has also been used for alternative derivations of the optimal fidelities attainable for imperfect quantum cloning and other operations. These results apply to theories satisfying the rule that their predictions for widely separated and slowly moving entangled systems can be approximated by nonrelativistic equations of motion with respect to a preferred time coordinate. This paper describes a natural way in which this rule might fail to hold. In particular, it is shown that quantum readout devices which display the values of localized pure states need not allow superluminal signaling, provided that the devices display the values of the states of entangled subsystems as defined in a nonstandard, although natural, way. It follows that any locally defined nonlinear evolution of pure states can be made consistent with Minkowski causality

  8. Study of the hoop fracture behaviour of nuclear fuel cladding from ring compression tests by means of non-linear optimization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, F.J., E-mail: javier.gomez@amsimulation.com [Advanced Material Simulation, AMS, Bilbao (Spain); Martin Rengel, M.A., E-mail: mamartin.rengel@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/Professor Aranguren SN, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Hervias, J.; Puerta, M.A. [E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/Professor Aranguren SN, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-06-15

    In this work, the hoop fracture toughness of ZIRLO{sup ®} fuel cladding is calculated as a function of three parameters: hydrogen concentration, temperature and displacement rate. To this end, pre-hydrided samples with nominal hydrogen concentrations of 0 (as-received), 150, 250, 500, 1200 and 2000 ppm were prepared. Hydrogen was precipitated as zirconium hydrides in the shape of platelets oriented along the hoop direction. Ring Compression Tests (RCTs) were conducted at three temperatures (20, 135 and 300 °C) and two displacement rates (0.5 and 100 mm/min). A new method has been proposed in this paper which allows the determination of fracture toughness from ring compression tests. The proposed method combines the experimental results, the cohesive crack model, finite elements simulations, numerical calculations and non-linear optimization techniques. The parameters of the cohesive crack model were calculated by minimizing the difference between the experimental data and the numerical results. An almost perfect fitting of the experimental results is achieved by this method. In addition, an estimation of the error in the calculated fracture toughness is also provided.

  9. Nonlinear finite element analysis of a test on the mechanical mechanism of the half-steel-concrete composite beam in HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Feng; Pan Rong

    2014-01-01

    According to a large-span half-steel-concrete (HSC) composited beam in the composited roof in the HTR-PM, a 1:3 scale specimen is investigated by the static load test. By analyzing the loading, deflection, strain and fracture development of the specimen in the process, studying the mechanical characteristics and failure pattern of such components. The ANSYS finite element software is utilized in this paper to analyze the nonlinearity behavior of the HSC beam specimen, and through comparing the experimental results and the numerical simulation, it can be illustrated that the finite element model can simulate the HSC beam accurately. From the test results, it can be concluded that by means of appropriate shear connection and anchorage length, steel plate and concrete can work together very well and the HSC beam has good load carrying capacity and ductility. These conclusions can serve as a preliminary design reference for the large span half-steel-concrete composite beam in NPP. (author)

  10. Synthetic H-R diagrams as an observational test of stellar evolution theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.; Becker, S.A.; Brunish, W.M.

    1983-07-01

    Synthetic H-R diagrams are constructed from a grid of stellar models. These are compared directly with observations of young clusters in the LMC and SMC as a test of the models and as a means to determine the age, age dispersion, and composition of the clusters. Significant discrepancies between the observed and model H-R diagrams indicate the possible influences of convective overshoot, large AGB mass-loss rates, and the best value for the mixing length parameter

  11. Hydrochemical investigation and status of geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution at the Kamaishi in-situ tests site, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu; Arthur, Randolph C.

    1999-07-01

    The results of hydrochemical investigations of groundwaters in the Kurihashi granodiorite at JNC's Kamaishi in-situ tests site indicate that these solutions are: meteoric in origin, chemically reducing (at depths greater than a few hundreds meters), relatively young [residence times in the Kurihashi granodiorite generally less than about 40 years, but groundwaters older than several thousand years BP (before present) are also indicated by preliminary carbon-14 dating of samples obtained from the KH-1 borehole], Ca-HCO 3 type solutions near the surface, changing to Na-HCO 3 type groundwaters with increasing depth. The evolution of groundwater compositions in the Kurihashi granodiorite is modeled assuming local equilibrium for selected mineral-fluid reactions, taking into account the rainwater origin of these solutions. Results suggest it is possible to interpret approximately the 'real' groundwater chemistry (i.e., pH, Eh, total dissolved concentrations of Si, Na, Ca, K, Al, carbonate and sulfate) in the Kurihashi granodiorite if the following assumptions are adopted: CO 2 concentration in the gas phase contacting pore solutions in the overlying soil zone=10 -2 bar, minerals in the rock zone that control the solubility of respective elements in the groundwater include; chalcedony (Si), albite (Na), kaolinite (Al), calcite (Ca and carbonate), microcline (K) and pyrite (Eh and sulfate). Discussions with international experts suggest a systematic approach utilizing reaction-path models of irreversible water-rock interactions in open systems may be needed to more realistically model groundwater evolution at the Kamaishi test site. Detailed information characterizing certain site properties (e.g., fracture mineralogy) may be required to adequately constrain such models, however. (author)

  12. Testing the evolution of crude oil market efficiency: Data have the conn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Xiao-Ming; He, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Utilising a time-varying GAR (1)-TGARCH (1,1) model with different frequency data, we investigate the weak-form efficiency of major global crude oil spot markets in Europe, the US, the UAE and China for the period from December 2001 to August 2013. Our empirical results with weekly data indicate that all four markets have reached efficiency with few brief inefficient periods during the past decade, whereas the daily crude oil returns series suggest intermittent and inconsistent efficiency. We argue that the weekly Friday series fit the data better than the average series in autocorrelation tests. The evidence suggests that all four markets exhibit asymmetries in return-volatility reactions to different information shocks and that they react more strongly to bad news than to good news. The 2008 financial crisis has significantly affected the efficiency of oil markets. Furthermore, a comovement phenomenon and volatility spillover effects exist among the oil markets. Policy recommendations consistent with our empirical results are proposed, which address three issues: implementing prudential regulations, establishing an Asian pricing centre and improving transparency in crude oil spot markets. - Highlights: • We adopt a time-varying model to test the weak-form efficiency of crude oil markets. • Weekly oil returns series have been extremely efficient during the past decade. • Daily oil returns series have presented intermittent and inconsistent efficiency. • Oil markets react asymmetrically to different information shocks. • Policy recommendations are proposed according to the degree of efficiency

  13. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of edge localized mode precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. B., E-mail: guozhipku@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Gwahangno 113, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Lu [SEEE, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang, X. G. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-02-15

    A possible origin of edge-localized-mode (ELM) precursors based on nonlinear ideal peeling-ballooning mode is reported. Via nonlinear variational principle, a nonlinear evolution equation of the radial displacement is derived and solved, analytically. Besides an explosive growth in the initial nonlinear phase, it is found that the local displacement evolves into an oscillating state in the developed nonlinear phase. The nonlinear frequency of the ELM precursors scales as ω{sub pre}∼x{sup 1/3}ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in}{sup 2/3}n, with x position in radial direction, ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in} strength of initial perturbation, and n toroidal mode number.

  14. The core mass-radius relation for giants - A new test of stellar evolution theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joss, P. C.; Rappaport, S.; Lewis, W.

    1987-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that the measurable properties of systems containing degenerate dwarfs can be used as a direct test of the core mass-radius relation for moderate-mass giants if the final stages of the loss of the envelope of the progenitor giant occurred via stable critical lobe overflow. This relation directly probes the internal structure of stars at a relatively advanced evolutionary state and is only modestly influenced by adjustable parameters. The measured properties of six binary systems, including such diverse systems as Sirius and Procyon and two millisecond pulsars, are utilized to derive constraints on the empirical core mass-radius relation, and the constraints are compared to the theoretical relation. The possibility that the final stages of envelope ejection of the giant progenitor of Sirius B occurred via critical lobe overflow in historical times is considered.

  15. Solar wind stream evolution at large heliocentric distances - Experimental demonstration and the test of a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, J. T.; Hundhausen, A. J.; Bame, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A stream propagation model which neglects all dissipation effects except those occurring at shock interfaces, was used to compare Pioneer-10 solar wind speed observations, during the time when Pioneer 10, the earth, and the sun were coaligned, with near-earth Imp-7 observations of the solar wind structure, and with the theoretical predictions of the solar wind structure at Pioneer 10 derived from the Imp-7 measurements, using the model. The comparison provides a graphic illustration of the phenomenon of stream steepening in the solar wind with the attendant formation of forward-reverse shock pairs and the gradual decay of stream amplitudes with increasing heliocentric distance. The comparison also provides a qualitative test of the stream propagation model.

  16. Qutrit squeezing via semiclassical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, Andrei B; Dinani, Hossein Tavakoli; Medendorp, Zachari E D; Guise, Hubert de

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a concept of squeezing in collective qutrit systems through a geometrical picture connected to the deformation of the isotropic fluctuations of su(3) operators when evaluated in a coherent state. This kind of squeezing can be generated by Hamiltonians nonlinear in the generators of su(3) algebra. A simplest model of such a nonlinear evolution is analyzed in terms of semiclassical evolution of the SU(3) Wigner function. (paper)

  17. Nonlinear Elliptic Differential Equations with Multivalued Nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we study nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with monotone and nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearities. First we consider the case of monotone nonlinearities. In the first result we assume that the multivalued nonlinearity is defined on all R R . Assuming the existence of an upper and of a lower ...

  18. New results on the mathematical problems in nonlinear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The main topics treated in this report are: I) Existence of generalized Lagrangians. II) Conserved densities for odd-order polynomial evolution equations and linear evolution systems. III ) Conservation laws for Klein-Gordon, Di rae and Maxwell equations. IV) Stability conditions for finite-energy solutions of a non-linear Klein-Gordon equation. V) Hamiltonian approach to non-linear evolution equations and Backlund transformations. VI) Anharmonic vibrations: Status of results and new possible approaches. (Author) 83 refs

  19. SensorWeb Evolution Using the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Satellite as a Test Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Cappelaere, Pat; Ly, Vuong; Handy, Matthew; Chien, Steve; Grossman, Robert; Tran, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite was launched in November 2000 as a one year technology demonstration mission for a variety of space technologies. After the first year, in addition to collecting science data from its instruments, the EO-1 mission has been used as a testbed for a variety of technologies which provide various automation capabilities and which have been used as a pathfinder for the creation of SensorWebs. A SensorWeb is the integration of variety of space, airborne and ground sensors into a loosely coupled collaborative sensor system that automatically provides useful data products. Typically, a SensorWeb is comprised of heterogeneous sensors tied together with a messaging architecture and web services. This paper provides an overview of the various technologies that were tested and eventually folded into normal operations. As these technologies were folded in, the nature of operations transformed. The SensorWeb software enables easy connectivity for collaboration with sensors, but the side benefit is that it improved the EO-1 operational efficiency. This paper presents the various phases of EO-1 operation over the past 12 years and also presents operational efficiency gains demonstrated by some metrics.

  20. Does morphological convergence imply functional similarity? A test using the evolution of quadrupedalism in ornithischian dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, Susannah C R; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-09-22

    Convergent morphologies are thought to indicate functional similarity, arising because of a limited number of evolutionary or developmental pathways. Extant taxa displaying convergent morphologies are used as analogues to assess function in extinct taxa with similar characteristics. However, functional studies of extant taxa have shown that functional similarity can arise from differing morphologies, calling into question the paradigm that form and function are closely related. We test the hypothesis that convergent skeletal morphology indicates functional similarity in the fossil record using ornithischian dinosaurs. The rare transition from bipedality to quadrupedality occurred at least three times independently in this clade, resulting in a suite of convergent osteological characteristics. We use homology rather than analogy to provide an independent line of evidence about function, reconstructing soft tissues using the extant phylogenetic bracket and applying biomechanical concepts to produce qualitative assessments of muscle leverage. We also optimize character changes to investigate the sequence of character acquisition. Different lineages of quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaur stood and walked differently from each other, falsifying the hypothesis that osteological convergence indicates functional similarity. The acquisition of features correlated with quadrupedalism generally occurs in the same order in each clade, suggesting underlying developmental mechanisms that act as evolutionary constraints.

  1. The evolution of whole field optical diagnostics for external transonic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, K. A.; Bryanston-Cross, P.

    1992-09-01

    The diagnostic use of quantitative laser flow visualization techniques has increased rapidly over recent years. The limitations imposed by conventional single point techniques such as laser Doppler anemometry are addressed and how they have been overcome by the development of a new family of whole field measurement techniques is demonstrated. In particular near instantaneous whole field velocity data was obtained in a relatively hostile, industrial 2.74 m x 2.44 m transonic wind tunnel (TWT) at the Aircraft Research Association (ARA). The techniques were evaluated for their suitability for making quantitative measurements in the wing/pylon region of a model wing and engine combination. Three optical diagnostic techniques were successfully developed within the context of the ARA facility. The first technique, laser light sheet (LLS), combines the operation of a pulse laser and video capture system to provide a 'real time' visualization of the flow, whereas a second pulse laser technique, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) can be used to make specific quantitative whole field instantaneous velocity measurements. The third method, holography, was used to produce a stored three dimensional visualization of the unsteady and shock wave features of the transonic flow in the gully region. A description is made of their installation and operation, and examples are presented of current test results.

  2. Modeling the isotopic evolution of snowpack and snowmelt: Testing a spatially distributed parsimonious approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Aho, Pertti; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; McNamara, James P; Laudon, Hjalmar; Kormos, Patrick; Soulsby, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Use of stable water isotopes has become increasingly popular in quantifying water flow paths and travel times in hydrological systems using tracer-aided modeling. In snow-influenced catchments, snowmelt produces a traceable isotopic signal, which differs from original snowfall isotopic composition because of isotopic fractionation in the snowpack. These fractionation processes in snow are relatively well understood, but representing their spatiotemporal variability in tracer-aided studies remains a challenge. We present a novel, parsimonious modeling method to account for the snowpack isotope fractionation and estimate isotope ratios in snowmelt water in a fully spatially distributed manner. Our model introduces two calibration parameters that alone account for the isotopic fractionation caused by sublimation from interception and ground snow storage, and snowmelt fractionation progressively enriching the snowmelt runoff. The isotope routines are linked to a generic process-based snow interception-accumulation-melt model facilitating simulation of spatially distributed snowmelt runoff. We use a synthetic modeling experiment to demonstrate the functionality of the model algorithms in different landscape locations and under different canopy characteristics. We also provide a proof-of-concept model test and successfully reproduce isotopic ratios in snowmelt runoff sampled with snowmelt lysimeters in two long-term experimental catchment with contrasting winter conditions. To our knowledge, the method is the first such tool to allow estimation of the spatially distributed nature of isotopic fractionation in snowpacks and the resulting isotope ratios in snowmelt runoff. The method can thus provide a useful tool for tracer-aided modeling to better understand the integrated nature of flow, mixing, and transport processes in snow-influenced catchments.

  3. The application of cryogenics to high Reynolds number testing in wind tunnels. I - Evolution, theory, and advantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Dress, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    During the time which has passed since the construction of the first wind tunnel in 1870, wind tunnels have been developed to a high degree of sophistication. However, their development has consistently failed to keep pace with the demands placed on them. One of the more serious problems to be found with existing transonic wind tunnels is their inability to test subscale aircraft models at Reynolds numbers sufficiently near full-scale values to ensure the validity of using the wind tunnel data to predict flight characteristics. The Reynolds number capability of a wind tunnel may be increased by a number of different approaches. However, the best solution in terms of model, balance, and model support loads, as well as in terms of capital and operating cost appears to be related to the reduction of the temperature of the test gas to cryogenic temperatures. The present paper has the objective to review the evolution of the cryogenic wind tunnel concept and to describe its more important advantages.

  4. Nonlinear Plasma Response to Resonant Magnetic Perturbation in Rutherford Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Yan, Xingting; Huang, Wenlong

    2017-10-01

    Recently a common analytic relation for both the locked mode and the nonlinear plasma response in the Rutherford regime has been developed based on the steady-state solution to the coupled dynamic system of magnetic island evolution and torque balance equations. The analytic relation predicts the threshold and the island size for the full penetration of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). It also rigorously proves a screening effect of the equilibrium toroidal flow. In this work, we test the theory by solving for the nonlinear plasma response to a single-helicity RMP of a circular-shaped limiter tokamak equilibrium with a constant toroidal flow, using the initial-value, full MHD simulation code NIMROD. Time evolution of the parallel flow or ``slip frequency'' profile and its asymptotic approach to steady state obtained from the NIMROD simulations qualitatively agree with the theory predictions. Further comparisons are carried out for the saturated island size, the threshold for full mode penetration, as well as the screening effects of equilibrium toroidal flow in order to understand the physics of nonlinear plasma response in the Rutherford regime. Supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China Grants 2014GB124002 and 2015GB101004, the 100 Talent Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and U.S. Department of Energy Grants DE-FG02-86ER53218 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.

  5. Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Gurbatov, S N; Saichev, A I

    2012-01-01

    "Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media: General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics” is devoted completely to nonlinear structures. The general theory is given here in parallel with mathematical models. Many concrete examples illustrate the general analysis of Part I. Part II is devoted to applications to nonlinear acoustics, including specific nonlinear models and exact solutions, physical mechanisms of nonlinearity, sawtooth-shaped wave propagation, self-action phenomena, nonlinear resonances and engineering application (medicine, nondestructive testing, geophysics, etc.). This book is designed for graduate and postgraduate students studying the theory of nonlinear waves of various physical nature. It may also be useful as a handbook for engineers and researchers who encounter the necessity of taking nonlinear wave effects into account of their work. Dr. Gurbatov S.N. is the head of Department, and Vice Rector for Research of Nizhny Novgorod State University. Dr. Rudenko O.V. is...

  6. Threshold condition for nonlinear tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabiego, M.F.; Callen, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    Low-mode-number tearing, mode nonlinear evolution is analyzed emphasizing the need for a threshold condition, to account for observations in tokamaks. The discussion is illustrated by two models recently introduced in the literature. The models can be compared with the available data and/or serve as a basis for planning some experiments in order to either test theory (by means of beta-limit scaling laws, as proposed in this paper) or attempt to control undesirable tearing modes. Introducing a threshold condition in the tearing mode stability analysis is found to reveal some bifurcation points and thus domains of intrinsic stability in the island dynamics operational space

  7. Nonlinear Waves in the Terrestrial Quasiparallel Foreshock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B; Kolotkov, D Y; O'Connell, D; Nakariakov, V M; Rowlands, G

    2016-12-02

    We provide strongly conclusive evidence that the cubic nonlinearity plays an important part in the evolution of the large amplitude magnetic structures in the terrestrial foreshock. Large amplitude nonlinear wave trains at frequencies above the proton cyclotron frequency are identified after nonharmonic slow variations are filtered out by applying the empirical mode decomposition. Numerical solutions of the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, predicted analytically by the use of a pseudopotential approach, are found to be consistent with the observed wave forms. The approximate phase speed of these nonlinear waves, indicated by the parameters of numerical solutions, is of the order of the local Alfvén speed. We suggest that the feedback of the large amplitude fluctuations on background plasma is reflected in the evolution of the pseudopotential.

  8. Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.

  9. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  10. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Erica G.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30-80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible.

  11. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, Erica G; Wereley, Norman M

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30–80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible. (paper)

  12. Nonlinear damping of drift waves by strong flow curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidikman, K.L.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Diamond, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    A single-equation model has been used to study the effect of a fixed poloidal flow (V 0 ) on turbulent drift waves. The electron dynamics come from a laminar kinetic equation in the dissipative trapped-electron regime. In the past, the authors have assumed that the mode frequency is close to the drift-wave frequency. Trapped-electron density fluctuations are then related to potential fluctuations by an open-quotes iδclose quotes term. Flow shear (V 0 ') and curvature (V 0 double-prime) both have a stabilizing effect on linear modes for this open-quotes iδclose quotes model. However, in the nonlinear regime, single-helicity effects inhibit the flow damping. Neither V 0 ' nor V 0 double-prime produces a nonlinear damping effect. The above assumption on the frequency can be relaxed by including the electron time-response in the linear part of the evolution. In this time-dependent model, instability drive due to trapped electrons is reduced when mode frequency is greater than drift-wave frequency. Since V 0 double-prime produces such a frequency shift, its linear effect is enhanced. There is also nonlinear damping, since single-helicity effects do not eliminate the shift. Renormalized theory for this model predicts nonlinear stability for sufficiently large curvature. Single-helicity calculations have already shown nonlinear damping, and this strong V 0 double-prime regime is being explored. In the theory, the Gaussian shape of the nonlinear diffusivity is expanded to obtain a quadratic potential. The implications of this assumption will be tested by solving the full renormalized equation using a shooting method

  13. Comment on connections between nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchssteiner, B.; Hefter, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    An open problem raised in a recent paper by Chodos is treated. We explain the reason for the interrelation between the conservation laws of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and sine-Gordon equations. We point out that it is due to a corresponding connection between the infinite-dimensional Abelian symmetry groups of these equations. While it has been known for a long time that a Baecklund transformation (in this case the Miura transformation) connects corresponding members of the KdV and the sine-Gordon families, it is quite obvious that no Baecklund transformation can exist between different members of these families. And since the KdV and sine-Gordon equations do not correspond to each other, one cannot expect a Baecklund transformation between them; nevertheless we can give explicit relations between their two-soliton solutions. No inverse scattering techniques are used in this paper

  14. Evolution of dislocation structure and fatigue crack behavior in Fe-Si alloys during cyclic bending test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushioda, Kohsaku; Takebayashi, Shigeto; Goto, Shoji; Komatsu, Yoshinari; Hoshino, Akinori

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of dislocation structures was investigated by means of TEM in Fe-Si alloys with 0, 0.5 and 1.0 mass% Si during a cyclic bending test in conjunction with fatigue crack behavior. The addition of Si increased the fatigue strength. In steel without Si the cell structure develops, whereas in steel with 1%Si the vein structure evolves, which is considered to lead to the increased fatigue strength. The cell structure in 0%Si steel is postulated to be caused by the easy cross slip of dislocations, whereas the vein structure in the steels with Si is inferred to be caused by the difficulty in cross slip presumably due to the decrease in stacking fault energy. Furthermore, the steel containing Si shows a dislocation free zone (DFZ) along grain boundaries. A transgranular fracture takes place in 0%Si steel, while in 1%Si steel many intergranular cracks were observed just beneath the top surface, which was thought to be caused by the fact that a) strains are dispersed within grains owing to the vein structure and b) micro cracks are initiated and propagated along a DFZ.

  15. Fluctuations in Nonlinear Systems: A Short Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubia, F.J. de la; Buceta, J.; Cabrera, J.L.; Olarrea, J.; Parrondo, J.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We review some results that illustrate the constructive role of noise in nonlinear systems. Several phenomena are briefly discussed: optimal localization of orbits in a system with limit cycle behavior and perturbed by colored noise; stochastic branch selection at secondary bifurcations; noise- induced order/disorder transitions and pattern formation in spatially extended systems. In all cases the presence of noise is crucial, and the results reinforce the modern view of the importance of noise in the evolution of nonlinear systems. (author)

  16. The Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap in Grades K-3: The Fragility of Results. NBER Working Paper No. 17960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Timothy N.; Lang, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Although both economists and psychometricians typically treat them as interval scales, test scores are reported using ordinal scales. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey, we examine the effect of order-preserving scale transformations on the evolution of the black-white reading test…

  17. Testing biological hypotheses with embodied robots: adaptations, accidents, and by-products in the evolution of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia F Roberts

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary robotics allows biologists to test hypotheses about extinct animals. We modeled some of the first vertebrates, jawless fishes, in order to study the evolution of the trait after which vertebrates are named: vertebrae. We tested the hypothesis that vertebrae are an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance. We created a population of autonomous embodied robots, Preyro, in which the number of vertebrae, N, were free to evolve. In addition, two other traits, the span of the caudal fin, b, and the predator detection threshold, ζ, a proxy for the lateral line sensory system, were also allowed to evolve. These three traits were chosen because they evolved early in vertebrates, are all potentially important in feeding and fleeing, and vary in form among species. Preyro took on individual identities in a given generation as defined by the population’s six diploid genotypes, Gi. Each Gi was a 3-tuple, with each element an integer specifying N, b, and, ζ. The small size of the population allowed for genetic drift to operate in concert with random mutation and mating; the presence of these mechanisms of chance provided an opportunity for N to evolve by accident. The presence of three evolvable traits provided an opportunity for direct selection on b and/or ζ to evolve N as a by-product linked trait correlation. In selection trials, different Gi embodied in Preyro attempted to feed at a light source and then flee to avoid a predator robot in pursuit. The fitness of each Gi was calculated from five different types of performance: speed, acceleration, distance to the light, distance to the predator, and the number of predator escapes initiated. In each generation, we measured the selection differential, the selection gradient, the strength of chance, and the indirect correlation selection gradient. These metrics allowed us to understand the relative contributions of the three mechanisms: direct selection, chance, and indirect

  18. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday's law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm's law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile

  19. An Autonomous System for Experimental Evolution of Microbial Cultures: Test Results Using Ultraviolet-C Radiation and Escherichia Coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouandji, Cynthia; Wang, Jonathan; Arismendi, Dillon; Lee, Alonzo; Blaich, Justin; Gentry, Diana

    2017-01-01

    At its core, the field of microbial experimental evolution seeks to elucidate the natural laws governing the history of microbial life by understanding its underlying driving mechanisms. However, observing evolution in nature is complex, as environmental conditions are difficult to control. Laboratory-based experiments for observing population evolution provide more control, but manually culturing and studying multiple generations of microorganisms can be time consuming, labor intensive, and prone to inconsistency. We have constructed a prototype, closed system device that automates the process of directed evolution experiments in microorganisms. It is compatible with any liquid microbial culture, including polycultures and field samples, provides flow control and adjustable agitation, continuously monitors optical density (OD), and can dynamically control environmental pressures such as ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation and temperature. Here, the results of the prototype are compared to iterative exposure and survival assays conducted using a traditional hood, UV-C lamp, and shutter system.

  20. Nonlinear QED effects in X-ray emission of pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakeri, Soroush [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghighat, Mansour [Department of Physics, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71946-84795 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Xue, She-Sheng, E-mail: Soroush.Shakeri@ph.iut.ac.ir, E-mail: m.haghighat@shirazu.ac.ir, E-mail: xue@icra.it [ICRANet, Piazzale della Repubblica 10, 65122, Pescara (Italy)

    2017-10-01

    In the presence of strong magnetic fields near pulsars, the QED vacuum becomes a birefringent medium due to nonlinear QED interactions. Here, we explore the impact of the effective photon-photon interaction on the polarization evolution of photons propagating through the magnetized QED vacuum of a pulsar. We solve the quantum Boltzmann equation within the framework of the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian to find the evolution of the Stokes parameters. We find that linearly polarized X-ray photons propagating outward in the magnetosphere of a rotating neutron star can acquire high values for the circular polarization parameter. Meanwhile, it is shown that the polarization characteristics of photons besides photon energy depend strongly on parameters of the pulsars such as magnetic field strength, inclination angle and rotational period. Our results are clear predictions of QED vacuum polarization effects in the near vicinity of magnetic stars which can be tested with the upcoming X-ray polarimetric observations.

  1. Nonlinear Mirror and Weibel modes: peculiarities of quasi-linear dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pokhotelov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A theory for nonlinear evolution of the mirror modes near the instability threshold is developed. It is shown that during initial stage the major instability saturation is provided by the flattening of the velocity distribution function in the vicinity of small parallel ion velocities. The relaxation scenario in this case is accompanied by rapid attenuation of resonant particle interaction which is replaced by a weaker adiabatic interaction with mirror modes. The saturated plasma state can be considered as a magnetic counterpart to electrostatic BGK modes. After quasi-linear saturation a further nonlinear scenario is controlled by the mode coupling effects and nonlinear variation of the ion Larmor radius. Our analytical model is verified by relevant numerical simulations. Test particle and PIC simulations indeed show that it is a modification of distribution function at small parallel velocities that results in fading away of free energy driving the mirror mode. The similarity with resonant Weibel instability is discussed.

  2. Multi-symplectic variational integrators for nonlinear Schrödinger equations with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Cui-Cui; Cui Jin-Chao; Liang Jiu-Zhen; Ding Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a variational integrator for nonlinear Schrödinger equations with variable coefficients. It is shown that our variational integrator is naturally multi-symplectic. The discrete multi-symplectic structure of the integrator is presented by a multi-symplectic form formula that can be derived from the discrete Lagrangian boundary function. As two examples of nonlinear Schrödinger equations with variable coefficients, cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equations and Gross–Pitaevskii equations are extensively studied by the proposed integrator. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that the integrator is capable of preserving the mass, momentum, and energy conservation during time evolutions. Convergence tests are presented to verify that our integrator has second-order accuracy both in time and space. (paper)

  3. Constitutive behavior and microstructure evolution of the as-extruded AE21 magnesium alloy during hot compression testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.-X. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fang, G., E-mail: fangg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Leeflang, M.A.; Duszczyk, J.; Zhou, J. [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Constitutive equation of magnesium alloy AE21 for hot deformation is established. • Material processing history affects the activation energy for deformation. • Zener-Hollomon parameter is used to distinguish the shapes of flow stress curves. • Kink band plays an important role in causing a concave shape of the flow curve of AE21. - Abstract: Magnesium alloys containing rare earth elements possess improved corrosion resistance and mechanical properties and therefore have great potential for a wide range of applications including biomedical applications. Hot forming is meant not only for shaping but also for microstructure modification and performance enhancement. It is of great importance to define optimum forming conditions on the basis of a fundamental understanding of the response of magnesium alloys to deformation. The present study aimed at characterizing the hot deformation behavior of the as-extruded AE21 magnesium alloy by performing isothermal compression tests over a temperature range of 350-480 °C and a strain rate range of 0.001-10 s{sup -1}. Flow stress data obtained were intended for establishing a constitutive equation, which would be indispensable for the prediction of the response of the material to hot deformation, for example, by means of numerical simulation. The true stress-strain curves obtained from the experiments were analyzed, considering different mechanisms of microstructure evolution operating during compression testing at different stages. The Sellar and Tegart model was used to establish the constitutive equation of the alloy during the steady-state deformation. The differences in activation energy value between the present as-extruded magnesium alloy and other wrought magnesium alloys were found and attributed to materials processing history. The Zener-Hollomon parameter was used to correlate the deformation condition with the response of the material to deformation, reflected in the shape of the true stress

  4. Nonlinear effects in water waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, P.A.E.M.

    1989-05-01

    This set of lecture notes on nonlinear effects in water waves was written on the occasion of the first ICTP course on Ocean Waves and Tides held from 26 September until 28 October 1988 in Trieste, Italy. It presents a summary and unification of my knowledge on nonlinear effects of gravity waves on an incompressible fluid without vorticity. The starting point of the theory is the Hamiltonian for water waves. The evolution equations of both weakly nonlinear, shallow water and deep water gravity waves are derived by suitable approximation of the energy of the waves, resulting in the Korteweg-de Vries equation and the Zakharov equation, respectively. Next, interesting properties of the KdV equation (solitons) and the Zakharov equation (instability of a finite amplitude wave train) are discussed in some detail. Finally, the evolution of a homogeneous, random wave field due to resonant four wave processes is considered and the importance of this process for ocean wave prediction is pointed out. 38 refs, 21 figs

  5. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  6. ON THE PAPER BY L.S. KONEV ET AL. “SIMULATING EVOLUTION OF FORWARD AND BACKWARD WAVES OF FEW-CYCLE PULSES PROPAGATING IN AN OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE WITH DISPERSION AND CUBIC NONLINEARITY OF ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRONIC-VIBRATION NATURE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Rosanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement ill-posedness in the paper by L.S. Konev et al. devoted to formation of backward wave at short laser pulse propagation in nonlinear media or fibers is specified. It is inconceivable in the correct problem statement to consider the radiation field at the medium entrance as a given function of time due to generation of backward wave in the medium, when the backward wave characteristics are target values. The proper evolution variable is time, and it is convenient to use the adopted finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method for backward wave calculation.

  7. Nonlinear optimal control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Berkovitz, Leonard David

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Optimal Control Theory presents a deep, wide-ranging introduction to the mathematical theory of the optimal control of processes governed by ordinary differential equations and certain types of differential equations with memory. Many examples illustrate the mathematical issues that need to be addressed when using optimal control techniques in diverse areas. Drawing on classroom-tested material from Purdue University and North Carolina State University, the book gives a unified account of bounded state problems governed by ordinary, integrodifferential, and delay systems. It also dis

  8. Halo Mitigation Using Nonlinear Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnad, Kiran G

    2005-01-01

    This work shows that halos in beams with space charge effects can be controlled by combining nonlinear focusing and collimation. The study relies on Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations for a one dimensional, continuous focusing model. The PIC simulation results show that nonlinear focusing leads to damping of the beam oscillations thereby reducing the mismatch. It is well established that reduced mismatch leads to reduced halo formation. However, the nonlinear damping is accompanied by emittance growth causing the beam to spread in phase space. As a result, inducing nonlinear damping alone cannot help mitigate the halo. To compensate for this expansion in phase space, the beam is collimated in the simulation and further evolution of the beam shows that the halo is not regenerated. The focusing model used in the PIC is analysed using the Lie Transform perturbation theory showing that by averaging over a lattice period, one can reuduce the focusing force to a form that is identical to that used in the PIC simula...

  9. A nonlinear bounce kinetic equation for trapped electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, F.Y.

    1990-03-01

    A nonlinear bounce averaged drift kinetic equation for trapped electrons is derived. This equation enables one to compute the nonlinear response of the trapped electron distribution function in terms of the field-line projection of a potential fluctuation left-angle e -inqθ φ n right-angle b . It is useful for both analytical and computational studies of the nonlinear evolution of short wavelength (n much-gt 1) trapped electron mode-driven turbulence. 7 refs

  10. Nonlinear wave beams in a piezo semiconducting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdoev, A.G.; Shekoyan, A.V.; Danoyan, Z.N.

    1997-01-01

    The propagation of quasi-monochromatic nonlinear wave in a piezo semiconducting layer taking into account electron-concentration nonlinearity is considered. For such medium the evolution equations for incoming and reflected waves are derived. Nonlinear Schroedinger equations and solutions for narrow beams are obtained. It is shown that symmetry of incoming and reflected waves does not take place. The focusing of beams is investigated.18 refs

  11. Nonlinear transverse vibrations of elastic beams under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.; Konno, Kimiaki; Wadati, Miki.

    1980-02-01

    Nonlinear transverse vibrations of elastic beams under end-thrust have been examined with full account of the rigorous nonlinear relation of curvature and deformation of elastic beams. When the beams are subject to tension, the derived equation is shown to be reduced to one of the new integrable evolution equations discovered by us. (author)

  12. Nonlinear theory of the free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.-L.; Padua Brito Serbeto, A. de.

    1984-01-01

    A theory of Raman free-electron laser using a circularly polarized electromagnetic pump is investigated. Coupled wave equations that describe both linear and nonlinear evolution of stimulated Raman scattering are derived. The dispersion relation and the growth rate for the parametric instability are obtained. Nonlinear processes that may lead to saturation of the free-electron laser are discussed. (Author) [pt

  13. Influence of the heat losses and accumulated heat upon the evolution of the thermohydraulic processes in the transients as applied to the ISB-WWER integral test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gashenko, I.V.; Melikhov, O.I.; Shmal, I.I.; Kouznetsov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    The results of the calculational study using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 thermalhydraulic code performed on the influence of the heat losses to the ambient and the heat accumulated in the pipelines walls upon the evolution of the thermalhydraulic processes in the primary circuit of the integral test facility ISB-WWER when simulating the transients caused by the loss of the coolant are presented in the paper. (authors)

  14. Multi-parameter crack tip stress state description for evaluation of nonlinear zone width in silicate composite specimens in component splitting/bending test geometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, V.; Frantík, P.; Sopek, J.; Malíková, L.; Seitl, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 2 (2015), s. 200-214 ISSN 8756-758X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/11/0833 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : near-crack tip fields * Williams series * higher-order terms * stress field * failure criterion * nonlinear zone * quasi-brittle fracture * splitting-bending geometry Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2015

  15. Nonlinear PT-symmetric plaquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kai; Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, Boris A; Günther, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    We introduce four basic two-dimensional (2D) plaquette configurations with onsite cubic nonlinearities, which may be used as building blocks for 2D PT-symmetric lattices. For each configuration, we develop a dynamical model and examine its PTsymmetry. The corresponding nonlinear modes are analyzed starting from the Hamiltonian limit, with zero value of the gain–loss coefficient, γ. Once the relevant waveforms have been identified (chiefly, in an analytical form), their stability is examined by means of linearization in the vicinity of stationary points. This reveals diverse and, occasionally, fairly complex bifurcations. The evolution of unstable modes is explored by means of direct simulations. In particular, stable localized modes are found in these systems, although the majority of identified solutions are unstable. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)

  16. An efficient nonlinear Feshbach engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fogarty, Thomás; Campbell, Steve; Chen, Xi; Busch, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    We investigate a thermodynamic cycle using a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with nonlinear interactions as the working medium. Exploiting Feshbach resonances to change the interaction strength of the BEC allows us to produce work by expanding and compressing the gas. To ensure a large power output from this engine these strokes must be performed on a short timescale, however such non-adiabatic strokes can create irreversible work which degrades the engine’s efficiency. To combat this, we design a shortcut to adiabaticity which can achieve an adiabatic-like evolution within a finite time, therefore significantly reducing the out-of-equilibrium excitations in the BEC. We investigate the effect of the shortcut to adiabaticity on the efficiency and power output of the engine and show that the tunable nonlinearity strength, modulated by Feshbach resonances, serves as a useful tool to enhance the system’s performance.

  17. Can uncertain landscape evolution models discriminate between landscape responses to stable and changing future climate? A millennial-scale test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Baartman, J.E.M.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the light of increasing societal interest in the effects of climate change, geomorphologists face the task of discriminating between natural landscape changes and landscape changes that result from human-induced climate change. Landscape Evolution Models (LEMs) are available for this purpose, but

  18. Some nonlinear challenges in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosconi, Francesco; Julou, Thomas; Desprat, Nicolas; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Allemand, Jean-François; Croquette, Vincent; Bensimon, David

    2008-01-01

    Driven by a deluge of data, biology is undergoing a transition to a more quantitative science. Making sense of the data, building new models, asking the right questions and designing smart experiments to answer them are becoming ever more relevant. In this endeavour, nonlinear approaches can play a fundamental role. The biochemical reactions that underlie life are very often nonlinear. The functional features exhibited by biological systems at all levels (from the activity of an enzyme to the organization of a colony of ants, via the development of an organism or a functional module like the one responsible for chemotaxis in bacteria) are dynamically robust. They are often unaffected by order of magnitude variations in the dynamical parameters, in the number or concentrations of actors (molecules, cells, organisms) or external inputs (food, temperature, pH, etc). This type of structural robustness is also a common feature of nonlinear systems, exemplified by the fundamental role played by dynamical fixed points and attractors and by the use of generic equations (logistic map, Fisher–Kolmogorov equation, the Stefan problem, etc.) in the study of a plethora of nonlinear phenomena. However, biological systems differ from these examples in two important ways: the intrinsic stochasticity arising from the often very small number of actors and the role played by evolution. On an evolutionary time scale, nothing in biology is frozen. The systems observed today have evolved from solutions adopted in the past and they will have to adapt in response to future conditions. The evolvability of biological system uniquely characterizes them and is central to biology. As the great biologist T Dobzhansky once wrote: 'nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution'. (open problem)

  19. Nonlinear models for autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teräsvirta, Timo

    This paper contains a brief survey of nonlinear models of autore- gressive conditional heteroskedasticity. The models in question are parametric nonlinear extensions of the original model by Engle (1982). After presenting the individual models, linearity testing and parameter estimation are discu...

  20. On data transformations and evidence of nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Bruin (Paul); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine the interaction between data transformation and the empirical evidence obtained when testing for (non-)linearity. For this purpose we examine nonlinear features in 64 monthly and 53 quarterly US macroeconomic variables for a range of Box-Cox data

  1. SIMULATION OF FORWARD AND BACKWARD WAVES EVOLUTION OF FEW-CYCLE PULSES PROPAGATING IN AN OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE WITH DISPERSION AND CUBIC NONLINEARITY OF ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRONIC-VIBRATION NATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Konev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical method for calculation of forward and backward waves of intense few-cycle laser pulses propagating in an optical waveguide with dispersion and cubic nonlinearity of electronic and electronic-vibration nature is described. Simulations made with the implemented algorithm show that accounting for Raman nonlinearity does not lead to qualitative changes in behavior of the backward wave. Speaking about quantitative changes, the increase of efficiency of energy transfer from the forward wave to the backward wave is observed. Presented method can be also used to simulate interaction of counterpropagating pulses.

  2. The non-linear power spectrum of the Lyman alpha forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Viel, Matteo; Cen, Renyue

    2015-01-01

    The Lyman alpha forest power spectrum has been measured on large scales by the BOSS survey in SDSS-III at z∼ 2.3, has been shown to agree well with linear theory predictions, and has provided the first measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at this redshift. However, the power at small scales, affected by non-linearities, has not been well examined so far. We present results from a variety of hydrodynamic simulations to predict the redshift space non-linear power spectrum of the Lyα transmission for several models, testing the dependence on resolution and box size. A new fitting formula is introduced to facilitate the comparison of our simulation results with observations and other simulations. The non-linear power spectrum has a generic shape determined by a transition scale from linear to non-linear anisotropy, and a Jeans scale below which the power drops rapidly. In addition, we predict the two linear bias factors of the Lyα forest and provide a better physical interpretation of their values and redshift evolution. The dependence of these bias factors and the non-linear power on the amplitude and slope of the primordial fluctuations power spectrum, the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium, and the mean Lyα transmission, as well as the redshift evolution, is investigated and discussed in detail. A preliminary comparison to the observations shows that the predicted redshift distortion parameter is in good agreement with the recent determination of Blomqvist et al., but the density bias factor is lower than observed. We make all our results publicly available in the form of tables of the non-linear power spectrum that is directly obtained from all our simulations, and parameters of our fitting formula

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of intense EM pulses in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Ranju; Gill, Tarsem Singh; Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of laser beam in underdense/overdense plasma medium which is key to understanding of several nonlinear processes and underlying physics is governed by nonlinear parabolic equation. The nonlinearity considered here is of relativistic as well as of ponderomotive type. We have set Lagrangian for the problem and reduced Lagrangian problem is solved using appropriate trial function. Equation for the beam width and phase are derived. Further, these equations are used to solve eigenvalue problem for the stability of laser beam evolution and Hurwitz condition is satisfied.

  4. Evolution of oxidation in soybean oil and its biodiesel under the conditions of the oxidation stability test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to know the evolution of the oxidation of soybean oil and biodiesel under the conditions of the oxidation stability test (110 °C using the Rancimat apparatus. Samples were analyzed at different periods of time until the end of the induction period. The analytical determinations related to the changes in oxidation include peroxide value, anisidine value, natural tocopherols and polar compounds. Acid value, kinematic viscosity, polymers and ester content were also analyzed because of their relevance in the evaluation of biodiesel quality. Results showed that only peroxide value and the group of polar compounds including hydroperoxides, i.e. oxidized monomeric TAG in the oil and oxidized monomeric FAME in the biodiesel increased significantly during the early oxidation stage. The end of the induction period was marked by a rapid increase in polymerization compounds and the exhaustion of tocopherols. Significant changes in acid value, viscosity and ester content were only observed after the end of the induction period.El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la evolución de la oxidación del aceite de soja y de su biodiesel a 110 °C en las condiciones del método estándar para la determinación de la estabilidad oxidativa, usando el aparato Rancimat. Las muestras se analizaron en diferentes períodos de tiempo hasta que el período de inducción fue sobrepasado. Se determinaron los índices de peróxidos y anisidina, los tocoferoles y los compuestos polares cuyos cambios están relacionados con el desarrollo de la alteración oxidativa. Además, fueron determinados el índice de acidez, la viscosidad y el contenido en ésteres, de interés en el análisis de la calidad del biodiesel. Los resultados indicaron que sólo el índice de peróxidos y el grupo de compuestos polares que incluye los hidroperóxidos (triglicéridos oxidados monómeros en el aceite y ésteres metílicos oxidados monómeros en el biodiesel

  5. Nanostructural evolution in surveillance test specimens of a commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessel studied by three-dimensional atom probe and positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, T.; Nagai, Y.; Tang, Z.; Hasegawa, M.; Almazouzi, A.; Walle, E. van; Gerard, R.

    2007-01-01

    The nanostructural evolution of irradiation-induced Cu-rich nanoprecipitates (CRNPs) and vacancy clusters in surveillance test specimens of in-service commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel welds of Doel-1 and Doel-2 are revealed by combining the three-dimensional local electrode atom probe and positron annihilation techniques. In both medium (0.13 wt.%) and high (0.30 wt.%) Cu welds, the CRNPs are found to form readily at the very beginning of the reactor lifetime. Thereafter, during the subsequent 30 years of operation, the residual Cu concentration in the matrix shows a slight decrease while the CRNPs coarsen. On the other hand, small vacancy clusters of V 3 -V 4 start appearing after the initial Cu precipitation and accumulate steadily with increasing neutron dose. The observed nanostructural evolution is shown to provide unique and fundamental information about the mechanisms of the irradiation-induced embrittlement of these specific materials

  6. Small-χ singlet structure functions from the nonlinear GLR equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, V.T.; Ryskin, M.G.

    1991-06-01

    The effect of absorptive corrections in the nonlinear GLR evolution equation is considered. A simple method how to estimate the corrections numerically is described. In the case of the parametrization based on semihard hadron phenomenology developed earlier a visible difference between linear and nonlinear evolution is expected at HERA energies. (orig.)

  7. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  8. Correlation between ultrasonic nonlinearity and elastic nonlinearity in heat-treated aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The nonlinear ultrasonic technique is a potential nondestructive method to evaluate material degradation, in which the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is usually measured. The ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is defined by the elastic nonlinearity coefficients of the nonlinear Hooke’s equation. Therefore, even though the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is not equal to the elastic nonlinearity parameter, they have a close relationship. However, there has been no experimental verification of the relationship between the ultrasonic and elastic nonlinearity parameters. In this study, the relationship is experimentally verified for a heat-treated aluminum alloy. Specimens of the aluminum alloy were heat-treated at 300°C for different periods of time (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 h). The relative ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter of each specimen was then measured, and the elastic nonlinearity parameter was determined by fitting the stress-strain curve obtained from a tensile test to the 5th-order-polynomial nonlinear Hooke’s equation. The results showed that the variations in these parameters were in good agreement with each other.

  9. Nonlinear analysis of pupillary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Francesco; Mainardi, Luca Tommaso; Sirca, Fabiola; Russo, Vincenzo; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    Pupil size reflects autonomic response to different environmental and behavioral stimuli, and its dynamics have been linked to other autonomic correlates such as cardiac and respiratory rhythms. The aim of this study is to assess the nonlinear characteristics of pupil size of 25 normal subjects who participated in a psychophysiological experimental protocol with four experimental conditions, namely “baseline”, “anger”, “joy”, and “sadness”. Nonlinear measures, such as sample entropy, correlation dimension, and largest Lyapunov exponent, were computed on reconstructed signals of spontaneous fluctuations of pupil dilation. Nonparametric statistical tests were performed on surrogate data to verify that the nonlinear measures are an intrinsic characteristic of the signals. We then developed and applied a piecewise linear regression model to detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Two joinpoints and three scaling intervals were identified: slope α0, at slow time scales, represents a persistent nonstationary long-range correlation, whereas α1 and α2, at middle and fast time scales, respectively, represent long-range power-law correlations, similarly to DFA applied to heart rate variability signals. Of the computed complexity measures, α0 showed statistically significant differences among experimental conditions (pnonlinear dynamics, (b) three well-defined and distinct long-memory processes exist at different time scales, and (c) autonomic stimulation is partially reflected in nonlinear dynamics. (c) autonomic stimulation is partially reflected in nonlinear dynamics.

  10. Analysis of nonlinear systems using ARMA [autoregressive moving average] models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, N.F. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    While many vibration systems exhibit primarily linear behavior, a significant percentage of the systems encountered in vibration and model testing are mildly to severely nonlinear. Analysis methods for such nonlinear systems are not yet well developed and the response of such systems is not accurately predicted by linear models. Nonlinear ARMA (autoregressive moving average) models are one method for the analysis and response prediction of nonlinear vibratory systems. In this paper we review the background of linear and nonlinear ARMA models, and illustrate the application of these models to nonlinear vibration systems. We conclude by summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of ARMA models and emphasizing prospects for future development. 14 refs., 11 figs

  11. Nonlinear correction to the longitudinal structure function at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroun, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    We computed the longitudinal proton structure function F L , using the nonlinear Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (NLDGLAP) evolution equation approach at small x. For the gluon distribution, the nonlinear effects are related to the longitudinal structure function. As the very small-x behavior of the gluon distribution is obtained by solving the Gribov, Levin, Ryskin, Mueller and Qiu (GLR-MQ) evolution equation with the nonlinear shadowing term incorporated, we show that the strong rise that corresponds to the linear QCD evolution equations can be tamed by screening effects. Consequently, the obtained longitudinal structure function shows a tamed growth at small x. We computed the predictions for all details of the nonlinear longitudinal structure function in the kinematic range where it has been measured by the H1 Collaboration and made comparisons with the computation by Moch, Vermaseren and Vogt at the second order with input data from the MRST QCD fit. (orig.)

  12. The periodic structure of the natural record, and nonlinear dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses how nonlinear dynamics can contribute to interpretations of the geologic record and evolutionary processes. Background is given to explain why nonlinear concepts are important. A resume of personal research is offered to illustrate why I think nonlinear processes fit with observations on geological and cosmological time series data. The fabric of universal periodicity arrays generated by nonlinear processes is illustrated by means of a simple computer mode. I conclude with implications concerning patterns of evolution, stratigraphic boundary events, and close correlations of major geologically instantaneous events (such as impacts or massive volcanic episodes) with any sharply defined boundary in the geologic column. - from Author

  13. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  14. Testing Convergent Evolution in Auditory Processing Genes between Echolocating Mammals and the Aye-Aye, a Percussive-Foraging Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Richard J; Jerjos, Michael; Hohman, Baily; Lauterbur, M Elise; Kistler, Logan; Perry, George H

    2017-07-01

    Several taxonomically distinct mammalian groups-certain microbats and cetaceans (e.g., dolphins)-share both morphological adaptations related to echolocation behavior and strong signatures of convergent evolution at the amino acid level across seven genes related to auditory processing. Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) are nocturnal lemurs with a specialized auditory processing system. Aye-ayes tap rapidly along the surfaces of trees, listening to reverberations to identify the mines of wood-boring insect larvae; this behavior has been hypothesized to functionally mimic echolocation. Here we investigated whether there are signals of convergence in auditory processing genes between aye-ayes and known mammalian echolocators. We developed a computational pipeline (Basic Exon Assembly Tool) that produces consensus sequences for regions of interest from shotgun genomic sequencing data for nonmodel organisms without requiring de novo genome assembly. We reconstructed complete coding region sequences for the seven convergent echolocating bat-dolphin genes for aye-ayes and another lemur. We compared sequences from these two lemurs in a phylogenetic framework with those of bat and dolphin echolocators and appropriate nonecholocating outgroups. Our analysis reaffirms the existence of amino acid convergence at these loci among echolocating bats and dolphins; some methods also detected signals of convergence between echolocating bats and both mice and elephants. However, we observed no significant signal of amino acid convergence between aye-ayes and echolocating bats and dolphins, suggesting that aye-aye tap-foraging auditory adaptations represent distinct evolutionary innovations. These results are also consistent with a developing consensus that convergent behavioral ecology does not reliably predict convergent molecular evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Identification of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Possessing Some Non-linearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Pavlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is the problem of identification of nonlinear dynamic systems based on the experimental data obtained by applying test signals to the system. The goal is to determinate coefficients of differential equations of systems by experimental frequency hodographs and separate similar, but different, in essence, forces: dissipative forces with the square of the first derivative in the motion equations and dissipative force from the action of dry friction. There was a proposal to use the harmonic linearization method to approximate each of the nonlinearity of "quadratic friction" and "dry friction" by linear friction with the appropriate harmonic linearization coefficient.Assume that a frequency transfer function of the identified system has a known form. Assume as well that there are disturbances while obtaining frequency characteristics of the realworld system. As a result, the points of experimentally obtained hodograph move randomly. Searching for solution of the identification problem was in the hodograph class, specified by the system model, which has the form of the frequency transfer function the same as the form of the frequency transfer function of the system identified. Minimizing a proximity criterion (measure of the experimentally obtained system hodograph and the system hodograph model for all the experimental points described and previously published by one of the authors allowed searching for the unknown coefficients of the frequenc ransfer function of the system model. The paper shows the possibility to identify a nonlinear dynamic system with multiple nonlinearities, obtained on the experimental samples of the frequency system hodograph. The proposed algorithm allows to select the nonlinearity of the type "quadratic friction" and "dry friction", i.e. also in the case where the nonlinearity is dependent on the same dynamic parameter, in particular, on the derivative of the system output value. For the dynamic

  16. Mathematical problems in non-linear Physics: some results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The basic results presented in this report are the following: 1) Characterization of the range and Kernel of the variational derivative. 2) Determination of general conservation laws in linear evolution equations, as well as bounds for the number of polynomial conserved densities in non-linear evolution equations in two independent variables of even order. 3) Construction of the most general evolution equation which has a given family of conserved densities. 4) Regularity conditions for the validity of the Lie invariance method. 5) A simple class of perturbations in non-linear wave equations. 6) Soliton solutions in generalized KdV equations. (author)

  17. Quantum Nonlinear Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Hanamura, Eiichi; Yamanaka, Akio

    2007-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook gives an introductory overview of the fundamentals of quantum nonlinear optics. Based on the quantum theory of radiation, Quantum Nonlinear Optics incorporates the exciting developments in novel nonlinear responses of materials (plus laser oscillation and superradiance) developed over the past decade. It deals with the organization of radiation field, interaction between electronic system and radiation field, statistics of light, mutual manipulation of light and matter, laser oscillation, dynamics of light, nonlinear optical response, and nonlinear spectroscopy, as well as ultrashort and ultrastrong laser pulse. Also considered are Q-switching, mode locking and pulse compression. Experimental and theoretical aspects are intertwined throughout.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  19. Evolution of Quality Assurance for Clinical Immunohistochemistry in the Era of Precision Medicine - Part 2: Immunohistochemistry Test Performance Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torlakovic, E.E.; Cheung, C.C.; D'Arrigo, C.; Dietel, M.; Francis, G.D.; Gilks, C.B.; Hall, J.A.; Hornick, J.L.; IBRAHIM, M.; Marchetti, A.; Miller, K.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Nielsen, S.; Swanson, P.E.; Vyberg, M.; Zhou, X.; Taylor, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    All laboratory tests have test performance characteristics (TPCs), whether or not they are explicitly known to the laboratorian or the pathologist. TPCs are thus also an integral characteristic of immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests and other in situ, cell-based molecular assays such as DNA or RNA in

  20. Testing the neutral theory of molecular evolution using genomic data: a comparison of the human and bovine transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch Alan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite growing evidence of rapid evolution in protein coding genes, the contribution of positive selection to intra- and interspecific differences in protein coding regions of the genome is unclear. We attempted to see if genes coding for secreted proteins and genes with narrow expression, specifically those preferentially expressed in the mammary gland, have diverged at a faster rate between domestic cattle (Bos taurus and humans (Homo sapiens than other genes and whether positive selection is responsible. Using a large data set, we identified groups of genes based on secretion and expression patterns and compared them for the rate of nonsynonymous (dN and synonymous (dS substitutions per site and the number of radical (Dr and conservative (Dc amino acid substitutions. We found evidence of rapid evolution in genes with narrow expression, especially for those expressed in the liver and mammary gland and for genes coding for secreted proteins. We compared common human polymorphism data with human-cattle divergence and found that genes with high evolutionary rates in human-cattle divergence also had a large number of common human polymorphisms. This argues against positive selection causing rapid divergence in these groups of genes. In most cases dN/dS ratios were lower in human-cattle divergence than in common human polymorphism presumably due to differences in the effectiveness of purifying selection between long-term divergence and short-term polymorphism.

  1. Costs of reproduction can explain the correlated evolution of semelparity and egg size: theory and a test with salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvater, Holly K; Braun, Douglas C; Otto, Sarah P; Reynolds, John D

    2016-06-01

    Species' life history traits, including maturation age, number of reproductive bouts, offspring size and number, reflect adaptations to diverse biotic and abiotic selection pressures. A striking example of divergent life histories is the evolution of either iteroparity (breeding multiple times) or semelparity (breed once and die). We analysed published data on salmonid fishes and found that semelparous species produce larger eggs, that egg size and number increase with salmonid body size among populations and species and that migratory behaviour and parity interact. We developed three hypotheses that might explain the patterns in our data and evaluated them in a stage-structured modelling framework accounting for different growth and survival scenarios. Our models predict the observation of small eggs in iteroparous species when egg size is costly to maternal survival or egg number is constrained. By exploring trait co-variation in salmonids, we generate new hypotheses for the evolution of trade-offs among life history traits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Nonlinear Dynamics of a Diffusing Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Walter M. B.

    2001-01-01

    Excitation of two miscible-viscous liquids inside a bounded enclosure in a microgravity environment has shown the evolution of quasi-stationary waves of various modes for a range of parameters. We examine computationally the nonlinear dynamics of the system as the interface breakup and bifurcates to resonance structures typified by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism. Results show that when the mean steady field is much smaller than the amplitude of the sinusoidal excitation, the system behaves linearly, and growth of quasi-stationary waves occurs through the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mechanism. However, as the amplitude of excitation increases, nonlinearity occurs through subharmonic bifurcation prior to broadband chaos.

  3. Investigando a hipótese da paridade do poder de compra: um enfoque não linear Testing the long-run purchasing power parity hypothesis: a nonlinear approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André M. Marques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A hipótese da Paridade do Poder de Compra (PPP é investigada analisando-se a dinâmica de longo prazo da taxa de câmbio real efetiva no Brasil. Com dados mensais, o objetivo principal do estudo é testar a hipótese da PPP com um enfoque não linear. A metodologia empregada baseou-se na aplicação de testes gerais (Keenan, 1985; Tsay, 1986 e específicos para não linearidade do tipo Threshold (Chan, 1990. Seguindo-se a metodologia de Hansen (1999, o estágio seguinte consistiu em testar o número de regimes necessários para descrever a dinâmica não linear da taxa de câmbio real. Os resultados das estimações sugerem a ocorrência de apenas dois regimes distintos, com persistência e volatilidade diferentes. Conclui-se que a hipótese da PPP é apoiada pelos resultados.We consider a threshold time series model in order to test the PPP hypothesis with Brazilian effective real exchange rate dataset in the long run. By following Keenan (1985, Tsay (1986 and Chan (1990, we test Brazilian dataset for several types of nonlinearities. So, after apply Hansen's test to infer about the number of regimes, we apply the more recent methodology of Self-Exciting Threshold Autoregressive (SETAR model to point out some threshold to which a signal of turning point could be given in the states of the exchange rate dynamics. All the tests suggest that the Brazilian real exchange rate is highly nonlinear. The skeleton of the SETAR models fitted shows that PPP hypothesis is supported in the long run in spite the deviations from short run.

  4. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    of bound states of out of phase bright solitons and dark solitons. Also, the newly introduced analogy between the nonlocal cubic nonlinear and the quadratic nonlinear media, presented in paper B and Chapter 3 is discussed. In particular it supplies intuitive physical meaning of the formation of solitons...... in quadratic nonlinear media. In the second part of the report (Chapter 4), the possibility to obtain light with ultrabroad spectrum due to the interplay of many nonlinear effects based on cubic nonlinearity is investigated thoroughly. The contribution of stimulated Raman scattering, a delayed nonlinear...... a modified nonlinear Schroedinger model equation. Chapter 4 and papers D and E are dedicated to this part of the research....

  5. Design of a nonlinear torsional vibration absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Ammaar Bin

    Tuned mass dampers (TMD) utilizing linear spring mechanisms to mitigate destructive vibrations are commonly used in practice. A TMD is usually tuned for a specific resonant frequency or an operating frequency of a system. Recently, nonlinear vibration absorbers attracted attention of researchers due to some potential advantages they possess over the TMDs. The nonlinear vibration absorber, or the nonlinear energy sink (NES), has an advantage of being effective over a broad range of excitation frequencies, which makes it more suitable for systems with several resonant frequencies, or for a system with varying excitation frequency. Vibration dissipation mechanism in an NES is passive and ensures that there is no energy backflow to the primary system. In this study, an experimental setup of a rotational system has been designed for validation of the concept of nonlinear torsional vibration absorber with geometrically induced cubic stiffness nonlinearity. Dimensions of the primary system have been optimized so as to get the first natural frequency of the system to be fairly low. This was done in order to excite the dynamic system for torsional vibration response by the available motor. Experiments have been performed to obtain the modal parameters of the system. Based on the obtained modal parameters, the design optimization of the nonlinear torsional vibration absorber was carried out using an equivalent 2-DOF modal model. The optimality criterion was chosen to be maximization of energy dissipation in the nonlinear absorber attached to the equivalent 2-DOF system. The optimized design parameters of the nonlinear absorber were tested on the original 5-DOF system numerically. A comparison was made between the performance of linear and nonlinear absorbers using the numerical models. The comparison showed the superiority of the nonlinear absorber over its linear counterpart for the given set of primary system parameters as the vibration energy dissipation in the former is

  6. The evolution of sex differences in mate searching when females benefit: new theory and a comparative test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, J; Kokko, H; Heller, K-G; Gwynne, D T

    2012-03-22

    Sexual selection is thought to have led to searching as a profitable, but risky way of males obtaining mates. While there is great variation in which sex searches, previous theory has not considered search evolution when both males and females benefit from multiple mating. We present new theory and link it with data to bridge this gap. Two different search protocols exist between species in the bush-cricket genus Poecilimon (Orthoptera): females search for calling males, or males search for calling females. Poecilimon males also transfer a costly nuptial food gift to their mates during mating. We relate variations in searching protocols to variation in nuptial gift size among 32 Poecilimon taxa. As predicted, taxa where females search produce significantly larger nuptial gifts than those where males search. Our model and results show that search roles can reverse when multiple mating brings about sufficiently strong material benefits to females.

  7. Saturation and stability of nonlinear photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Ortiz, M; Corella-Madueño, A; Rosas-Burgos, R A; Adrian Reyes, J; Avendaño, Carlos G

    2017-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional photonic crystal made by an infinite set of nonlinear nematic films immersed in a linear dielectric medium. The thickness of each equidistant film is negligible and its refraction index depends continuously on the electric field intensity, giving rise to all the involved nonlinear terms, which joints from a starting linear index for negligible amplitudes to a final saturation index for extremely large field intensities. We show that the nonlinear exact solutions of this system form an intensity-dependent band structure which we calculate and analyze. Next, we ponder a finite version of this system; that is, we take a finite array of linear dielectric stacks of the same size separated by the same nonlinear extremely thin nematic slabs and find the reflection coefficients for this arrangement and obtain the dependence on the wave number and intensity of the incident wave. As a final step we analyze the stability of the analytical solutions of the nonlinear crystal by following the evolution of an additive amplitude to the analytical nonlinear solution we have found here. We discuss our results and state our conclusions. (paper)

  8. Numerical tests of evolution systems, gauge conditions, and boundary conditions for 1D colliding gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.; Buchman, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate how the accuracy and stability of numerical relativity simulations of 1D colliding plane waves depends on choices of equation formulations, gauge conditions, boundary conditions, and numerical methods, all in the context of a first-order 3+1 approach to the Einstein equations, with basic variables some combination of first derivatives of the spatial metric and components of the extrinsic curvature tensor. Hyperbolic schemes, specifically variations on schemes proposed by Bona and Masso and Anderson and York, are compared with variations of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formulation. Modifications of the three basic schemes include raising one index in the metric derivative and extrinsic curvature variables and adding a multiple of the energy constraint to the extrinsic curvature evolution equations. Redundant variables in the Bona-Masso formulation may be reset frequently or allowed to evolve freely. Gauge conditions which simplify the dynamical structure of the system are imposed during each time step, but the lapse and shift are reset periodically to control the evolution of the spacetime slicing and the longitudinal part of the metric. We show that physically correct boundary conditions, satisfying the energy and momentum constraint equations, generically require the presence of some ingoing eigenmodes of the characteristic matrix. Numerical methods are developed for the hyperbolic systems based on decomposing flux differences into linear combinations of eigenvectors of the characteristic matrix. These methods are shown to be second-order accurate, and in practice second-order convergent, for smooth solutions, even when the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the characteristic matrix are spatially varying

  9. Monitoring localized cracks on under pressure concrete nuclear containment wall using linear and nonlinear ultrasonic coda wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legland, J.-B.; Abraham, O.; Durand, O.; Henault, J.-M.

    2018-04-01

    Civil engineering is constantly demanding new methods for evaluation and non-destructive testing (NDT), particularly to prevent and monitor serious damage to concrete structures. Tn this work, experimental results are presented on the detection and characterization of cracks using nonlinear modulation of coda waves interferometry (NCWT) [1]. This method consists in mixing high-amplitude low-frequency acoustic waves with multi-scattered probe waves (coda) and analyzing their effects by interferometry. Unlike the classic method of coda analysis (CWT), the NCWT does not require the recording of a coda as a reference before damage to the structure. Tn the framework of the PTA-ENDE project, a 1/3 model of a preconstrained concrete containment (EDF VeRCoRs mock-up) is placed under pressure to study the leakage of the structure. During this evaluation protocol, specific areas are monitored by the NCWT (during 5 days, which correspond to the protocol of nuclear power plant pressurization under maintenance test). The acoustic nonlinear response due to the high amplitude of the acoustic modulation gives pertinent information about the elastic and dissipative nonlinearities of the concrete. Tts effective level is evaluated by two nonlinear observables extracted from the interferometry. The increase of nonlinearities is in agreement with the creation of a crack with a network of microcracks located at its base; however, a change in the dynamics of the evolution of the nonlinearities may indicate the opening of a through crack. Tn addition, as during the experimental campaign, reference codas have been recorded. We used CWT to follow the stress evolution and the gas leaks ratio of the structure. Both CWT and NCWT results are presented in this paper.

  10. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barus, R. P. P., E-mail: rismawan.ppb@gmail.com [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung and Centre for Material and Technical Product, Jalan Sangkuriang No. 14 Bandung (Indonesia); Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E. [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Ismunandar [Chemistry Study, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.

  11. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barus, R. P. P.; Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E.; Ismunandar

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range

  12. Comparing the co-evolution of production and test code in open source and industrial developer test processes through repository mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rompaey, B.; Zaidman, A.E.; Van Deursen, A.; Demeyer, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper represents an extension to our previous work: Mining software repositories to study coevolution of production & test code. Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Testing, Verification, and Validation (ICST), IEEE Computer Society, 2008; doi:10.1109/ICST.2008.47

  13. Boussinesq evolution equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Schaffer, H.; Madsen, Per A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the possibility of using methods and ideas from time domain Boussinesq formulations in the corresponding frequency domain formulations. We term such frequency domain models "evolution equations". First, we demonstrate that the numerical efficiency of the deterministic...... Boussinesq evolution equations of Madsen and Sorensen [Madsen, P.A., Sorensen, O.R., 1993. Bound waves and triad interactions in shallow water. Ocean Eng. 20 359-388] can be improved by using Fast Fourier Transforms to evaluate the nonlinear terms. For a practical example of irregular waves propagating over...... a submerged bar, it is demonstrated that evolution equations utilising FFT can be solved around 100 times faster than the corresponding time domain model. Use of FFT provides an efficient bridge between the frequency domain and the time domain. We utilise this by adapting the surface roller model for wave...

  14. A Numerical Implementation of a Nonlinear Mild Slope Model for Shoaling Directional Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R. Davis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the numerical implementation of a phase-resolving, nonlinear spectral model for shoaling directional waves over a mild sloping beach with straight parallel isobaths. The model accounts for non-linear, quadratic (triad wave interactions as well as shoaling and refraction. The model integrates the coupled, nonlinear hyperbolic evolution equations that describe the transformation of the complex Fourier amplitudes of the deep-water directional wave field. Because typical directional wave spectra (observed or produced by deep-water forecasting models such as WAVEWATCH III™ do not contain phase information, individual realizations are generated by associating a random phase to each Fourier mode. The approach provides a natural extension to the deep-water spectral wave models, and has the advantage of fully describing the shoaling wave stochastic process, i.e., the evolution of both the variance and higher order statistics (phase correlations, the latter related to the evolution of the wave shape. The numerical implementation (a Fortran 95/2003 code includes unidirectional (shore-perpendicular propagation as a special case. Interoperability, both with post-processing programs (e.g., MATLAB/Tecplot 360 and future model coupling (e.g., offshore wave conditions from WAVEWATCH III™, is promoted by using NetCDF-4/HD5 formatted output files. The capabilities of the model are demonstrated using a JONSWAP spectrum with a cos2s directional distribution, for shore-perpendicular and oblique propagation. The simulated wave transformation under combined shoaling, refraction and nonlinear interactions shows the expected generation of directional harmonics of the spectral peak and of infragravity (frequency <0.05 Hz waves. Current development efforts focus on analytic testing, development of additional physics modules essential for applications and validation with laboratory and field observations.

  15. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  16. Nonlinear graphene plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Kelvin J. A.; Tan, Dawn T. H.

    2017-10-01

    The rapid development of graphene has opened up exciting new fields in graphene plasmonics and nonlinear optics. Graphene's unique two-dimensional band structure provides extraordinary linear and nonlinear optical properties, which have led to extreme optical confinement in graphene plasmonics and ultrahigh nonlinear optical coefficients, respectively. The synergy between graphene's linear and nonlinear optical properties gave rise to nonlinear graphene plasmonics, which greatly augments graphene-based nonlinear device performance beyond a billion-fold. This nascent field of research will eventually find far-reaching revolutionary technological applications that require device miniaturization, low power consumption and a broad range of operating wavelengths approaching the far-infrared, such as optical computing, medical instrumentation and security applications.

  17. Chaos, patterns, coherent structures, and turbulence: Reflections on nonlinear science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Robert E

    2015-09-01

    The paradigms of nonlinear science were succinctly articulated over 25 years ago as deterministic chaos, pattern formation, coherent structures, and adaptation/evolution/learning. For chaos, the main unifying concept was universal routes to chaos in general nonlinear dynamical systems, built upon a framework of bifurcation theory. Pattern formation focused on spatially extended nonlinear systems, taking advantage of symmetry properties to develop highly quantitative amplitude equations of the Ginzburg-Landau type to describe early nonlinear phenomena in the vicinity of critical points. Solitons, mathematically precise localized nonlinear wave states, were generalized to a larger and less precise class of coherent structures such as, for example, concentrated regions of vorticity from laboratory wake flows to the Jovian Great Red Spot. The combination of these three ideas was hoped to provide the tools and concepts for the understanding and characterization of the strongly nonlinear problem of fluid turbulence. Although this early promise has been largely unfulfilled, steady progress has been made using the approaches of nonlinear science. I provide a series of examples of bifurcations and chaos, of one-dimensional and two-dimensional pattern formation, and of turbulence to illustrate both the progress and limitations of the nonlinear science approach. As experimental and computational methods continue to improve, the promise of nonlinear science to elucidate fluid turbulence continues to advance in a steady manner, indicative of the grand challenge nature of strongly nonlinear multi-scale dynamical systems.

  18. Follow-up of the evolution of the characteristics and performance of the equipments tested during a KALI campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouaud, J.

    1985-01-01

    One of the four parts of the K1 qualification of the 1E equipments concerns the design basis accidents. The KALI loops allows to create the thermodynamic conditions of these accidents. This paper presents the PROCESS II which concerns the installation of the equipment in conditions representative of those met in nuclear power plants, the control assurance before, during and after the thermodynamic test. A list of qualification tests carried out on the KALI loop is finally given [fr

  19. Multicolour Observations, Inhomogeneity & Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hellaby, Charles

    2000-01-01

    We propose a method of testing source evolution theories that is independent of the effects of inhomogeneity, and thus complementary to other studies of evolution. It is suitable for large scale sky surveys, and the new generation of large telescopes. In an earlier paper it was shown that basic cosmological observations - luminosity versus redshift, area distance versus redshift and number counts versus redshift - cannot separate the effects of cosmic inhomogeneity, cosmic evolution and sourc...

  20. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of considering models with persistent memory we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macrovolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth...