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Sample records for testing mcc-1p evaluation

  1. Glass composition effects on the results of MCC-1, MCC-3 and pulsed-flow leach tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkatt, A.; Adiga, R.; Adel-Hadadi, M.A.; Barkatt, A.; Feng, X.; Sousanpour, W.

    1989-01-01

    Glass composition effects on the results of MCC-1, MCC-3 and pulsed-flow leach tests are summarized. Major components of the glasses studied are included. The leachant in all cases was de-ionized water and the temperature was 90 degree C. Test duration of the MCC-1 and MCC-3 was 28 days. The total time in the pulsed-flow test was 112 days. In the MCC-1 test, the results indicate that the forward rate characteristic of the kinetics of leaching in unsaturated environments is relatively independent (within a factor of 2) of such variations. The MCC-3 results reflect the extent of glass dissolution under conditions where the extent of interaction is large enough to cause the solution in contact with the glass to approach saturation with respect to silica and other scarcely soluble components. The pulsed-flow results show that at longer periods of time the dependence of leachate composition on glass composition decreases again and that leachate concentrations approach stabilization at levels which are much lower than the MCC-3 limits

  2. MCC-15: waste/canister accident testing and analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Scott, P.A.

    1985-02-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing standard tests to characterize the performance of nuclear waste forms under normal and accident conditions. As part of this effort, the MCC is developing MCC-15, Waste/Canister Accident Testing and Analysis. MCC-15 is used to test canisters containing simulated waste forms to provide data on the effects of accidental impacts on the waste form particle size and on canister integrity. The data is used to support the design of transportation and handling equipment and to demonstrate compliance with repository waste acceptance specifications. This paper reviews the requirements that led to the development of MCC-15, describes the test method itself, and presents some early results from tests on canisters representative of those proposed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). 13 references, 6 figures

  3. Diversity in the antibacterial potential of probiotic cultures Bacillus licheniformis MCC2514 and Bacillus licheniformis MCC2512.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobharani, Papanna; Padmaja, Radhakrishnan J; Halami, Prakash M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristic diversity and stability of antimicrobial compounds produced by two probiotic strains of Bacillus licheniformis (MCC2514 and MCC2512). Antimicrobial compounds from the two strains notably varied, related to stability and potency. The inhibitory spectrum of B. licheniformis MCC2512 was higher than MCC2514, but, related to the effect on Micrococcus luteus ATCC9341, MCC2514 (LD50 = 450 AU ml(-1)) was more potent than MCC2512 (LD50 = 750 AU ml(-1)). The compounds were thermo-resistant and stable at a wide range of pH and exhibited considerable resistance to digestive enzymes and bile salts (anionic biological detergents), contributing to their appropriate application in various food systems. The isolate B. licheniformis MCC2512 gave a positive response to Bacillus subtilis-based biosensors BSF2470 and BS168.BS2, confirming the mode of action on the cell wall and subtilin-type, respectively. For B. licheniformis MCC2514, the mode of action was characterized by constructing B. subtilis reporters that interfered in five major biosynthetic pathways, i.e., biosynthesis of DNA, RNA, protein, the cell wall and fatty acids. B. licheniformis MCC2514 responded to the yvgS reporter, indicating it as an RNA synthesis inhibitor. Overall, the investigation reveals variability of the antimicrobial compounds from B. licheniformis of different origins and for their possible application as biopreservative agents. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Large Scale Leach Test Facility: Development of equipment and methods, and comparison to MCC-1 leach tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellarin, D.J.; Bickford, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the test equipment and methods, and documents the results of the first large-scale MCC-1 experiments in the Large Scale Leach Test Facility (LSLTF). Two experiments were performed using 1-ft-long samples sectioned from the middle of canister MS-11. The leachant used in the experiments was ultrapure deionized water - an aggressive and well characterized leachant providing high sensitivity for liquid sample analyses. All the original test plan objectives have been successfully met. Equipment and procedures have been developed for large-sample-size leach testing. The statistical reliability of the method has been determined, and ''bench mark'' data developed to relate small scale leach testing to full size waste forms. The facility is unique, and provides sampling reliability and flexibility not possible in smaller laboratory scale tests. Future use of this facility should simplify and accelerate the development of leaching models and repository specific data. The factor of less than 3 for leachability, corresponding to a 200,000/1 increase in sample volume, enhances the credibility of small scale test data which precedes this work, and supports the ability of the DWPF waste form to meet repository criteria

  5. Characteristics of the oceanic MCC, continental MCC, and coastal MCC over the Indonesian maritime continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trismidianto

    2018-05-01

    This study explains the comparison of mesoscale convective complexes (MCC) characteristics in the oceans, land and in the coast over Indonesian maritime continent (IMC). MCCs were identified and tracked during 15-years (2001-2015) over IMC by infrared satellite imagery using an algorithm that combines criteria of cloud coverage, eccentricity, and cloud lifetime. Infrared satellite imagery was obtained from Himawari generation satellite data. This study showed most of the continental MCC found near the mountains and the high elevation areas. The frequency of MCC occurrences was larger over the land than over the ocean. The oceanic MCCs, which lasted for more than 12 hours, were longer-lived than the continental MCCs. The MCCs with small size most frequently occurred in the continent, in contrast, the MCC with the medium and large size were most concentrated over the ocean. Generally, the continental and coastal MCC initiation occurs in the late afternoon and reach maximum size around midnight before decaying the next morning. In contrast, the oceanic MCC dominantly develops in midnight, and reach maximum size in the morning and then MCC decayed and dissipated from noon until afternoon. The evolution of MCC development in the ocean, land, and in the coast has almost the same stages and ways.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material - ATM-8 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) Approved Testing Material ATM-8 is a borosilicate glass that incorporates elements typical of high-level waste (HLW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Its composition is based upon the simulated HLW glass type 76-68 (Mendel, J.E. et al., 1977, Annual Report of the Characteristics of High-Level Waste Glasses, BNWL-2252, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington), to which depleted uranium, technetium-99, neptunium-237 and plutonium-239 have been added at moderate to low levels. The glass was requested by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. It was produced by the MCC at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute. ATM-8 glass was produced in April of 1984, and is the second in a series of testing materials for NNWSI. This report discusses its fabrication (starting materials, batch and glass preparation, measurement and testing equipment, other equipment, procedures, identification system and materials availability and storage, and characterization (bulk density) measurements, chemical analysis, microscopic examination, and x-ray diffraction analysis. 4 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Leach testing of waste forms: interrelationship of ISO and MCC type tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Leach testing experiments were conducted on SYNROC-D material to examine the parameters which affect leaching results and to measure the activation energy for leaching of elements from SYNROC-D. Measured leach rates were found to be controlled by precipitation of insoluble phases for those tests where the sample surface area to volume of leachant (SA/V) multiplied by leaching time (t) exceeded 0.3 cm -1 d for leach tests at 90 0 C. In these cases the apparent activation energy for leaching was approximately 10 kcal/mole based on Na and Si data. For leach tests at 90 0 C with (Sa/V)(t) less than 0.2 cm -1 d, the activation energy for Na and Si dissolution was 18.5 kcal/mole for sample S29 and 14.5 kcal/mole for sample LSO4. The effect of sample geometry was investigated by leaching a series of crushed samples of different grain size. The results support the view that geometric surface area should be used in leach rate calculations rather than gas adsorption BET surface area. Comparison of results on S29 leaching of crushed samples and monoliths show that data from MCC-1 and ISO type leach tests may be directly compared when the data are examined at constant (SA/V)(t). 5 figures, 13 tables

  8. Polyvinyl Chloride / Attapulgite / Micro-crystalline Cellulose (MCC Composites Preparation and Analysis of the Role of MCC as a Compatibilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the performance of polyvinyl chloride (PVC, composites incorporating polyvinyl chloride (PVC, attapulgite nanoparticles (ANPs, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC were successfully prepared. The composites had higher vicat softening temperatures (VSTs and the MCC had a great influence on mechanical properties of the composites. When MCC was added from 0 to 5 per hundred parts of PVC (phr, the mechanical properties of the composites increased, but the mechanical properties of the composites decreased when the MCC was more than 5 phr. The tensile breaking stress, tensile strength, and impact strength were maximized with increases of 19.76 N (4.1%, 29.66 MPa (15.5%, and 13.8 MPa (7% when 5 phr MCC was added. Infrared spectral analysis indicated that MCC and ANPs were present in the composites. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the composites system was distributed into two phases, which indicated that MCC in composites was dissolved in the PVC matrix, and some of MCC coated the surface of ANPs as a compatibilizer. Overall, this study provided a promising method for PVC modification to improve its performance.

  9. Software Design Document MCC CSCI (1). Volume 1 Sections 1.0-2.18

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    is in a minefield. Note that the minefields ar- searched in reverse chronological order. This algorithm deals correctly with laying down multiple...Development :SiMNET:MCC: __________________I ReconstVehicle Handle ISoc :reconscr.h cStr array of 30 char IStandard C type. pStr array of 30 char...Declared vehicle Ishort IStandard C type. problem char Standard C tye Internal Variables Variable I Type I Where Typedef Declared cStr Iarray of 100 char

  10. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results are presented: the radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach test methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transporation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance

  11. Standardized waste form test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1984-11-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is developing standard tests to characterize nuclear waste forms. Development of the first thirteen tests was originally initiated to provide data to compare different high-level waste (HLW) forms and to characterize their basic performance. The current status of the first thirteen MCC tests and some sample test results is presented: The radiation stability tests (MCC-6 and 12) and the tensile-strength test (MCC-11) are approved; the static leach tests (MCC-1, 2, and 3) are being reviewed for full approval; the thermal stability (MCC-7) and microstructure evaluation (MCC-13) methods are being considered for the first time; and the flowing leach tests methods (MCC-4 and 5), the gas generation methods (MCC-8 and 9), and the brittle fracture method (MCC-10) are indefinitely delayed. Sample static leach test data on the ARM-1 approved reference material are presented. Established tests and proposed new tests will be used to meet new testing needs. For waste form production, tests on stability and composition measurement are needed to provide data to ensure waste form quality. In transportation, data are needed to evaluate the effects of accidents on canisterized waste forms. The new MCC-15 accident test method and some data are presented. Compliance testing needs required by the recent draft repository waste acceptance specifications are described. These specifications will control waste form contents, processing, and performance. 2 references, 2 figures

  12. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligand MCC-555 imparts anti-proliferative response in pancreatic cancer cells by PPARgamma-independent up-regulation of KLF4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Kyung-Won [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zhang, Xiaobo [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100 (China); Imchen, Temjenmongla [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Baek, Seung Joon, E-mail: sbaek2@utk.edu [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    MCC-555 is a novel PPARα/γ dual ligand of the thiazolidinedione class and was recently developed as an anti-diabetic drug with unique properties. MCC-555 also has anti-proliferative activity through growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in several cancer cell types. Our group has shown that MCC-555 targets several proteins in colorectal tumorigenesis including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene (NAG-1) which plays an important role in chemoprevention responsible for chemopreventive compounds. NAG-1 is a member of the TGF-β superfamily and is involved in tumor progression and development; however, NAG-1's roles in pancreatic cancer have not been studied. In this report, we found that MCC-555 alters not only NAG-1 expression, but also p21 and cyclin D1 expression. NAG-1 and p21 expression was not blocked by PPARγ-specific antagonist GW9662, suggesting that MCC-555-induced NAG-1 and p21 expression is independent of PPARγ activation. However, decreasing cyclin D1 by MCC-555 seems to be affected by PPARγ activation. Further, we found that the GC box located in the NAG-1 promoter play an important role in NAG-1 transactivation by MCC-555. Subsequently, we screened several transcription factors that may bind to the GC box region in the NAG-1 promoter and found that KLF4 potentially binds to this region. Expression of KLF4 precedes NAG-1 and p21 expression in the presence of MCC-555, whereas blocking KLF4 expression using specific KLF4 siRNA showed that both NAG-1 and p21 expression by MCC-555 was blocked. In conclusion, MCC-555's actions on anti-proliferation involve both PPARγ-dependent and -independent pathways, thereby enhancing anti-tumorigenesis in pancreatic cancer cells. -- Highlights: ► PPARα/γ ligand MCC-555 exhibits anti-proliferative activity in pancreatic cancer cells. ► MCC-555 affects KLF4 expression following by NAG-1 and p21 expression in a PPARγ independent manner. ► MCC-555 also affects cyclin D1 down

  13. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligand MCC-555 imparts anti-proliferative response in pancreatic cancer cells by PPARgamma-independent up-regulation of KLF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Kyung-Won; Zhang, Xiaobo; Imchen, Temjenmongla; Baek, Seung Joon

    2012-01-01

    MCC-555 is a novel PPARα/γ dual ligand of the thiazolidinedione class and was recently developed as an anti-diabetic drug with unique properties. MCC-555 also has anti-proliferative activity through growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in several cancer cell types. Our group has shown that MCC-555 targets several proteins in colorectal tumorigenesis including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene (NAG-1) which plays an important role in chemoprevention responsible for chemopreventive compounds. NAG-1 is a member of the TGF-β superfamily and is involved in tumor progression and development; however, NAG-1's roles in pancreatic cancer have not been studied. In this report, we found that MCC-555 alters not only NAG-1 expression, but also p21 and cyclin D1 expression. NAG-1 and p21 expression was not blocked by PPARγ-specific antagonist GW9662, suggesting that MCC-555-induced NAG-1 and p21 expression is independent of PPARγ activation. However, decreasing cyclin D1 by MCC-555 seems to be affected by PPARγ activation. Further, we found that the GC box located in the NAG-1 promoter play an important role in NAG-1 transactivation by MCC-555. Subsequently, we screened several transcription factors that may bind to the GC box region in the NAG-1 promoter and found that KLF4 potentially binds to this region. Expression of KLF4 precedes NAG-1 and p21 expression in the presence of MCC-555, whereas blocking KLF4 expression using specific KLF4 siRNA showed that both NAG-1 and p21 expression by MCC-555 was blocked. In conclusion, MCC-555's actions on anti-proliferation involve both PPARγ-dependent and -independent pathways, thereby enhancing anti-tumorigenesis in pancreatic cancer cells. -- Highlights: ► PPARα/γ ligand MCC-555 exhibits anti-proliferative activity in pancreatic cancer cells. ► MCC-555 affects KLF4 expression following by NAG-1 and p21 expression in a PPARγ independent manner. ► MCC-555 also affects cyclin D1 down

  14. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material - ATM-12 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) Approved Testing Material ATM-12 is a borosilicate glass that incorporates elements typical of high-level waste (HLW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuels. The composition has been adjusted to match that predicted for HLW type 76-68 glass at an age of 300 y. Radioactive constituents contained in this glass include depleted uranium, 99 Tc, 237 Np, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. The glass was produced by the MCC at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). ATM-12 glass ws produced from July to November of 1984 at the request of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigations (NNWSI) Program and is the third in a series of glasses produced for NNWSI. Most of the glass produced was in the form of cast bars; special castings and crushed material were also produced. Three kilograms of ATM-12 glass were produced from a feedstock melted in a nitrogen-atmosphere glove box at 1150 0 C in a platinum crucible, and formed into stress-annealed rectangular bars and the special casting shapes requested by NNWSI. Bars of ATM-12 were nominally 1.9 x 1.9 x 10 cm, with an average mass of 111 g each. Nineteen bars and 37 special castings were made. ATM-12 glass has been provided to the NNWSI Program, in the form of bars, crushed powder and special castings. As of August 1985 approximately 590 g of ATM-12 is available for distribution. Requests for materials or services related to this glass should be directed to the Materials Characterization Center Program Office, PNL

  15. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material: ATM-WV/205 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maupin, G.D.; Bowen, W.M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    The ATM-WV/205 glass was produced in accordance with PNL's QA Manual for License-Related Programs, MCC technical procedures, and MCC QA Plan that were in effect during the course of this work. The method and procedure to be used in the fabrication and characterization of the ATM-WV/205 glass were specified in two run plans for glass preparation and a characterization plan. The ATM-WV/205 glass meets all specifications. The elemental composition and oxidation state of the glass are within the sponsor's specifications. Visually, the ATM-WV/205 glass bars appear uniformly glassy and generally without exterior features. Microscopic examination and x-ray diffraction revealed low (about 0.5 wt %) concentrations of 3-μm iron chrome spinel crystals and 1-μm ruthenium inclusions scattered randomly throughout the glassy matrix. Closed porosity, with pores ranging in diameter from 20 to 135 μm, was observed in all samples. 3 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs

  16. Living with Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC): Development of a Conceptual Model of MCC Based on Patient Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Howard L; Dias Barbosa, Carla; Guillemin, Isabelle; Lambert, Jérémy; Mahnke, Lisa; Bharmal, Murtuza

    2018-03-06

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer with limited treatment options at advanced stages. There is a paucity of data available regarding the impact of MCC and its management on patients' lives. This study aimed to address this gap by interviewing patients with metastatic MCC entering a trial of an immunotherapy (avelumab). In a single-arm, open-label, international, phase 2 trial in patients with stage IV, chemotherapy-refractory, histologically confirmed MCC, patients were invited to participate in semi-structured phone interviews. These were conducted before avelumab administration. Interview transcripts were analysed qualitatively to identify concepts important to patients relating to their experience of metastatic MCC and its management. Nineteen patients were interviewed. Most reported MCC to be painless and asymptomatic. They reported being often misdiagnosed and described a long process before receiving the correct diagnosis. They also reported a feeling of "shock" after being informed of the severity and seriousness of their cancer. Overall, patients did not report impaired physical and cognitive capacities or impact on daily lives, either before or after diagnosis. However, patients and their relatives reported feelings of "worry" and "fear" about the unknown outcome of the disease. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy negatively affected patients physically and psychologically in their everyday lives. MCC disease was not perceived by the interviewed patients to result in severe functional limitations or to severely impact everyday activities, but was associated with substantial negative psychological impact. In contrast, chemotherapy and radiotherapy for MCC are highly debilitating and disrupt patients' lives. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02155647.

  17. Spherical resonator for vapor-phase speed of sound and measurements of 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoro-3-methoxypropane (RE347mcc) and trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene [R1234ze(E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Richard A.; McLinden, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A spherical acoustic resonator for gas-phase speed of sound over the range T = (265 to 500) K, p < 10 MPa is described. • The sphere diameter was calibrated with argon and measurements on methane and ethane verified the performance of the system. • The sound speed of RE347mcc was measured over the range T = (325 to 500) K, p < 1.6 MPa. • The sound speed of R1234ze(E) was measured over the range T = (280 to 420) K, p < 2.8 MPa. • The average combined, expanded uncertainties for sound speed were 0.035 m · s"−"1 for RE347mcc and 0.064 m · s"−"1 for R1234ze(E). - Abstract: We describe an apparatus to measure the speed of sound of gas samples at temperatures from (265 to 500) K with pressures up to 10 MPa. The speed of sound was determined from the frequency of the three lowest-order radial resonance modes for the gas in a spherical cavity machined from type 321 stainless steel for corrosion resistance. The spherical resonator was contained in an isothermal copper block that was maintained at the temperature of interest by a multilayer thermostat with vacuum insulation. The dimensions of the spherical cavity were characterized as a function of temperature and pressure though calibration measurements with high-purity argon. The performance of the apparatus was demonstrated with measurements of high-purity methane and ethane. Measurements of the sound speed of 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoro-3-methoxypropane (RE347mcc) are reported at temperatures from (325 to 500) K with pressures up to 1.6 MPa. Measurements on trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (R1234ze(E)) are reported at temperatures from (280 to 420) K with pressures up to 2.8 MPa. The average relative combined expanded uncertainties of the measured sound speed for RE347mcc and R1234ze(E) are (0.029 and 0.041)%, respectively.

  18. Evaluation of Chitosan and Cellulosic Polymers as Binding Adsorbent Materials to Prevent Aflatoxin B1, Fumonisin B1, Ochratoxin, Trichothecene, Deoxynivalenol, and Zearalenone Mycotoxicoses Through an In Vitro Gastrointestinal Model for Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Solís-Cruz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary toxic metabolites that are produced by fungi representing threats to human and animal health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of Chitosan (CHI, and three cellulosic polymers (HPMC, CMC, and MCC, on six mycotoxins (AFB1; FUB1; OTA; T-2; DON; and, ZEA using an in vitro digestive model for poultry. The adsorbent capacity of the materials in the supernatant of each compartment was evaluated by a non-competitive chemiluminescent assay. Control groups with no adsorbent material had an adsorption value of 0.00% against all six mycotoxins that were evaluated. All four materials tested showed significant (p < 0.05 binding activity against all of the mycotoxins when compared with the control non-treated group. However HPMC, CMC, and MCC showed better adsorbent capacity when compared with CHI.

  19. Long-term leaching behavior of simulated Savannah River Plant waste glass: Part 1, MCC-1 leachability results, four-year leaching data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Stone, J.A.; Chandler, G.T.; Williams, S.

    1986-08-01

    Long-term leaching data were obtained on SRP 131/TDS waste glass using MCC-1 or slightly modified MCC-1 standard leaching tests. Experiments were conducted out to four years at 40 0 C and 3-1/2 years at 90 0 C. These experiments have produced the longest standardized leaching data currently available in the waste management community. Long-term leaching data provide important input to modeling of waste glass behavior and ultimate prediction of waste glass performance. In this study, the leaching behavior of SRP waste glass was found to be excellent; leachates based on a variety of elements were not only very low, but also improved with increasing time. In addition to these data, results are also reported from another independent Savannah River study. Leaching behavior at 40 0 C and 90 0 C was assessed not only for a similar SRP 131 waste glass composition, but also for extreme waste glass compositions involving high-iron and high-aluminum waste. In addition, these experiments were performed using not only a standard deionized water leachant, but also simplified brine and silicate groundwater simulations. These two large data bases will be summarized and correlated along with some of the more interesting results recently reported in another study, a two-year leaching program performed on a similar SRP waste glass composition at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories

  20. Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) of Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, K; Hamaloğlu, E

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, agressive, neurocutaneous malignancy with a high potential to metastasize. We present a 59 year-old woman referred to general surgery department with a complaint of epigastric pain. The abdominal computed tomography (CT) performed and revealed amass of 3 cm in the head of the pancreas. The significant debate in the patient's medical history was that she had a MCC in size of 5 cm removed from the left gluteal region 7 months ago. Following preoperative preparation a pancreatic oduodenectomy with Whipple procedure was performed fort hepancreatic head mass. As the tumor showed morphologically similar properties with the patient's primary neoplasm, it was accepted as a metastatic MCC. Following the operation the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and at a 30 months follow-up it was observed that the patient is disease free and has no complications related to the disease progression or recurrence. Although MCC is an aggresive and poor prognostic tumor, good results can be obtained with correct diagnosis and proper surgical treatment. Celsius.

  1. Membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC): specialized functional microdomain of the yeast plasma membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Doudová, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC): specialized functional microdomain of the yeast plasma membrane Yeast plasma membrane is divided into several different compartments. Membrane compartment of Can1 is specific for its protein and lipid composition, furthermore it creates furrow-like invaginations on the plasma membrane. These invaginations are made by multiprotein complexes called eisosomes, which are located in the cytosolic side of MCCs. It was established that this domain plays an importa...

  2. Calibration and validation of a MCC/IMS prototype for exhaled propofol online measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Felix; Walter, Larissa; Geiger, Martin; Baumbach, Jörg Ingo; Sessler, Daniel I; Volk, Thomas; Kreuer, Sascha

    2017-10-25

    Propofol is a commonly used intravenous general anesthetic. Multi-capillary column (MCC) coupled Ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS) can be used to quantify exhaled propofol, and thus estimate plasma drug concentration. Here, we present results of the calibration and analytical validation of a MCC/IMS pre-market prototype for propofol quantification in exhaled air. Calibration with a reference gas generator yielded an R 2 ≥0.99 with a linear array for the calibration curve from 0 to 20 ppb v . The limit of quantification was 0.3 ppb v and the limit of detection was 0.1 ppb v . The device is able to distinguish concentration differences >0.5 ppb v for the concentration range between 2 and 4 ppb v and >0.9 ppb v for the range between 28 and 30 ppb v . The imprecision at 20 ppb v is 11.3% whereas it is 3.5% at a concentration of 40 ppb v . The carry-over duration is 3min. The MCC/IMS we tested provided online quantification of gaseous propofol over the clinically relevant range at measurement frequencies of one measurement each minute. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Orbit Team O1 in MCC Bldg 30 FCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Orbit Team 1 (O1) poses in front of large display screens in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR) for group portrait. Lead Flight Director (FD) Granvil A. Pennington stands next to a model of the James Cook's ship, the Endeavour (left). Astronaut and Spacecraft Communicator (CAPCOM) John H. Casper stands at the right of the model.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of MCC [Materials Characterization Center] approved testing material: ATM-10 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maupin, G.D.; Bowen, W.M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1988-04-01

    The Materials Characterization Center ATM-10 glass represents a reference commercial high-level waste form similar to that which will be produced by the West Valley Nuclear Service Co. Inc., West Valley, New York. The target composition and acceptable range of composition were defined by the sponsor, West Valley Nuclear Service. The ATM-10 glass was produced in accordance with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory QA Manual for License-Related Programs, MCC technical procedures, and MCC QA Plan that were in effect during the course of the work. The method and procedure to be used in the fabrication and characterization of the ATM-10 glass were specified in two run plans for glass preparation and a characterization plan. All of the ATM-10 glass was produced in the form of bars 1.9 /times/ 1.9 /times/ 10 cm nominal size, and 93 g nominal mass. A total of 15 bars of ATM-10 glass weighing 1394 g was produced. The production bars were characterized to determine the mean composition, oxidation state, and microstructure of the ATM-10 product. Table A summarizes the characterization results. The ATM-10 glass meets all specifications. The elemental composition and oxidation state of the glass are within the specifications of the client. Visually, the ATM-10 glass bars appear uniformly glassy and generally without exterior features. Microscopic examination revealed low (less than 2 wt %) concentractions of 3-μm iron-chrome (suspected spinel) crystals and /approximately/0.5-μm ruthenium inclusions scattered randomly throughout the glassy matrix. Closed porosity, with pores ranging in diameter from 5 to 250 μm, was observed in all samples. 4 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs

  5. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material - ATM-1 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    The Materials Characterization Center Approved Testing Material ATM-1 is a borosilicate glass that incorporates nonradioactive constituents and uranium to represent high-level waste (HLW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Its composition is based upon the simulated HLW glass type 76-68 to which depleted uranium has been added as UO 2 . Three separate lots of ATM-1 glass have been fabricated, designated ATM-1a, ATM-1b, and ATM-1c. Limited analyses and microstructural evaluations were conducted on each type. Each lot of ATM-1 glass was produced from a feedstock melted in an air atmosphere at between 1150 to 1200 0 C and cast into stress annealed rectangular bars. Bars of ATM-1a were nominally 1.3 x 1.3 x 7.6 cm (approx.36 g each), bars of ATM-1b were nominally 2 x 2.5 x 17.5 cm (approx.190 g each) and bars of ATM-1c were nominally 1.9 x 1.9 x 15 cm (approx.170 g each). Thirteen bars of ATM-1a, 14 bars of ATM-1b, and 6 bars of ATM-1c were produced. Twelve random samples from each of lots ATM-1a, ATM-1b, and ATM-1c were analyzed. The concentrations (except for U and Cs) were obtained by Inductively-Coupled Argon Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy analysis. Cesium analysis was performed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, while uranium was analyzed by Pulsed Laser Fluorometry. X-ray diffraction analysis of four samples indicated that lot ATM-1a had no detectable crystalline phases (<3 wt %), while ATM-1b and ATM-1c contained approx.3 to 5 wt % iron-chrome spinel crystals. These concentrations of secondary spinel component are not considered uncommon. Scanning electron microscopy examination of fracture surfaces revealed only a random, apparently crystalline, second phase (1-10 μm diam) and a random distribution of small voids or bubbles (approx.1 μm nominal diam)

  6. Efficient p-value evaluation for resampling-based tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, K.

    2011-01-05

    The resampling-based test, which often relies on permutation or bootstrap procedures, has been widely used for statistical hypothesis testing when the asymptotic distribution of the test statistic is unavailable or unreliable. It requires repeated calculations of the test statistic on a large number of simulated data sets for its significance level assessment, and thus it could become very computationally intensive. Here, we propose an efficient p-value evaluation procedure by adapting the stochastic approximation Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. The new procedure can be used easily for estimating the p-value for any resampling-based test. We show through numeric simulations that the proposed procedure can be 100-500 000 times as efficient (in term of computing time) as the standard resampling-based procedure when evaluating a test statistic with a small p-value (e.g. less than 10( - 6)). With its computational burden reduced by this proposed procedure, the versatile resampling-based test would become computationally feasible for a much wider range of applications. We demonstrate the application of the new method by applying it to a large-scale genetic association study of prostate cancer.

  7. Stable MCC binding to the APC/C is required for a functional spindle assembly checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, Jamin B; Nilsson, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    stably to the APC/C. Whether MCC formation per se is sufficient for a functional SAC or MCC association with the APC/C is required remains unclear. Here, we analyze the role of two conserved motifs in Cdc20, IR and C-Box, in binding of the MCC to the APC/C. Mutants in both motifs assemble the MCC....../C is critical for a functional SAC....

  8. A PIC-MCC code RFdinity1d for simulation of discharge initiation by ICRF antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripský, M.; Wauters, T.; Lyssoivan, A.; Bobkov, V.; Schneider, P. A.; Stepanov, I.; Douai, D.; Van Eester, D.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Van Schoor, M.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-12-01

    Discharges produced and sustained by ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves in absence of plasma current will be used on ITER for (ion cyclotron-) wall conditioning (ICWC, Te = 3{-}5 eV, ne 18 m-3 ). In this paper, we present the 1D particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC-MCC) RFdinity1d for the study the breakdown phase of ICRF discharges, and its dependency on the RF discharge parameters (i) antenna input power P i , (ii) RF frequency f, (iii) shape of the electric field and (iv) the neutral gas pressure pH_2 . The code traces the motion of both electrons and ions in a narrow bundle of magnetic field lines close to the antenna straps. The charged particles are accelerated in the parallel direction with respect to the magnetic field B T by two electric fields: (i) the vacuum RF field of the ICRF antenna E_z^RF and (ii) the electrostatic field E_zP determined by the solution of Poisson’s equation. The electron density evolution in simulations follows exponential increase, {\\dot{n_e} ∼ ν_ion t } . The ionization rate varies with increasing electron density as different mechanisms become important. The charged particles are affected solely by the antenna RF field E_z^RF at low electron density ({ne < 1011} m-3 , {≤ft \\vert E_z^RF \\right \\vert \\gg ≤ft \\vert E_zP \\right \\vert } ). At higher densities, when the electrostatic field E_zP is comparable to the antenna RF field E_z^RF , the ionization frequency reaches the maximum. Plasma oscillations propagating toroidally away from the antenna are observed. The simulated energy distributions of ions and electrons at {ne ∼ 1015} m-3 correspond a power-law Kappa energy distribution. This energy distribution was also observed in NPA measurements at ASDEX Upgrade in ICWC experiments.

  9. Linearized vector radiative transfer model MCC++ for a spherical atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postylyakov, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    Application of radiative transfer models has shown that optical remote sensing requires extra characteristics of radiance field in addition to the radiance intensity itself. Simulation of spectral measurements, analysis of retrieval errors and development of retrieval algorithms are in need of derivatives of radiance with respect to atmospheric constituents under investigation. The presented vector spherical radiative transfer model MCC++ was linearized, which allows the calculation of derivatives of all elements of the Stokes vector with respect to the volume absorption coefficient simultaneously with radiance calculation. The model MCC++ employs Monte Carlo algorithm for radiative transfer simulation and takes into account aerosol and molecular scattering, gas and aerosol absorption, and Lambertian surface albedo. The model treats a spherically symmetrical atmosphere. Relation of the estimated derivatives with other forms of radiance derivatives: the weighting functions used in gas retrieval and the air mass factors used in the DOAS retrieval algorithms, is obtained. Validation of the model against other radiative models is overviewed. The computing time of the intensity for the MCC++ model is about that for radiative models treating sphericity of the atmosphere approximately and is significantly shorter than that for the full spherical models used in the comparisons. The simultaneous calculation of all derivatives (i.e. with respect to absorption in all model atmosphere layers) and the intensity is only 1.2-2 times longer than the calculation of the intensity only

  10. Troposphere - ionosphere interaction during tropospheric MCC events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzano, J.R.; Zossi Artigas, M.M. de; Filippi Manzano, A.N. de; Cosio Ragone, A.H. de

    1995-09-01

    The present paper describes the investigation of possible effects of the type of large meteorological events known as Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCC) on the F-region of the ionosphere over Argentina. These warm-season weather systems of huge size are present in the United States (Maddox, 1980) and in South Americal (Velasco and Fritsch, 1987). Their extension can be as large as 1,300,000 Km 2 and they tend to move in different directions over the earth surface. It is expected that these meteorological events should leave its signature in the upper region of the atmosphere. 13 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  11. Site Specific Discrete PEGylation of 124I-Labeled mCC49 Fab′ Fragments Improves Tumor MicroPET/CT Imaging in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haiming; Carlton, Michelle M.; Povoski, Stephen P.; Milum, Keisha; Kumar, Krishan; Kothandaraman, Shankaran; Hinkle, George H.; Colcher, David; Brody, Rich; Davis, Paul D.; Pokora, Alex; Phelps, Mitchell; Martin, Edward W.; Tweedle, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    The tumor-associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) antigen is highly overexpressed in various human adenocarcinomas and anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibodies, and fragments are therefore useful as pharmaceutical targeting vectors. In this study, we investigated the effects of site-specific PEGylation with MW 2–4 kDa discrete, branched PEGylation reagents on mCC49 Fab′ (MW 50 kDa) via in vitro TAG72 binding, and in vivo blood clearance kinetics, biodistribution, and mouse tumor microPET/CT imaging. mCC49Fab′ (Fab′-NEM) was conjugated at a hinge region cysteine with maleimide-dPEG12-(dPEG24COOH)3 acid (Mal-dPEG-A), maleimide-dPEG12-(dPEG12COOH)3 acid (Mal-dPEG-B), or maleimide-dPEG12-(m-dPEG24)3 (Mal-dPEG-C), and then radiolabeled with iodine-124 (124I) in vitro radioligand binding assays and in vivo studies used TAG-72 expressing LS174T human colon carcinoma cells and xenograft mouse tumors. Conjugation of mCC49Fab′ with Mal-dPEG-A (Fab′-A) reduced the binding affinity of the non PEGylated Fab′ by 30%; however, in vivo, Fab′-A significantly lengthened the blood retention vs Fab′-NEM (47.5 vs 28.1%/ID at 1 h, 25.1 vs 8.4%/ID at 5 h, p Fab′-NEM by 70%, blood retention, microPET/CT imaging tumor signal intensity, and residual 72 h tumor concentration by 49% (3.83 ± 1.50 vs 1.97 ± 0.29%ID/g, p < 0.05) and 63% (3.83 ± 1.50 vs 1.42 ± 0.35%ID/g, p < 0.05), respectively. We conclude that remarkably subtle changes in the structure of the PEGylation reagent can create significantly altered biologic behavior. Further study is warranted of conjugates of the triple branched, negatively charged Mal-dPEG-A. PMID:24175669

  12. MCC: the Module Controller Chip for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccherle, R.; Darbo, G.; Gagliardi, G.; Gemme, C.; Morettini, P.; Musico, P.; Osculati, B.; Oppizzi, P.; Pratolongo, F.; Ruscino, E.; Schiavi, C.; Vernocchi, F.; Blanquart, L.; Einsweiler, K.; Meddeler, G.; Richardson, J.; Comes, G.; Fischer, P.; Calvet, D.; Boyd, R.; Sicho, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we describe the architecture of the Module Controller Chip for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. The project started in 1997 with the definition of the system specifications. A first fully-working rad-soft prototype was designed in 1998, while a radiation hard version was submitted in 2000. The 1998 version was used to build pixel detector modules. Results from those modules and from the simulated performance in ATLAS are reported. In the article we also describe the hardware/software tools developed to test the MCC performance at the LHC event rate

  13. Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 Induces Tolerance in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Study of the Mechanisms Involved in the Immunoregulatory Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    MURATA, Kozue; TOMOSADA, Yohsuke; VILLENA, Julio; CHIBA, Eriko; SHIMAZU, Tomoyuki; ASO, Hisashi; IWABUCHI, Noriyuki; XIAO, Jin-zhong; SAITO, Tadao; KITAZAWA, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 is able to significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and to improve IL-10 levels in CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ lymphocytes in response to heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), while the immunoregulatory effect of B. adolescentis ATCC15705 was significantly lower than that observed for the MCC-117 strain. Considering the different capacities of the two bifidobacterium strains to activate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and their differential immunoregulatory activities in PIE and immune cells, we hypothesized that comparative studies with both strains could provide important information regarding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of bifidobacteria. In this work, we demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was achieved by a complex interaction of multiple negative regulators of TLRs as well as inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. We showed that B. breve MCC-117 reduced heat-stable ETEC PAMP-induced NF-κB, p38 MAPK and PI3 K activation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PIE cells. In addition, we demonstrated that B. breve MCC-117 may activate TLR2 synergistically and cooperatively with one or more other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and that interactions may result in a coordinated sum of signals that induce the upregulation of A20, Bcl-3, Tollip and SIGIRR. Upregulation of these negative regulators could have an important physiological impact on maintaining or reestablishing homeostatic TLR signals in PIE cells. Therefore, in the present study, we gained insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117. PMID:24936377

  14. Identification of Mesoscale Convective Complex (MCC) phenomenon with image of Himawari 8 Satellite and WRF ARW Model on Bangka Island (Case Study: 7-8 February 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldy, Nanda; Saragih, Immanuel J. A.; Wandala Putra, Agie; Redha Nugraheni, Imma; Wijaya Yonas, Banu

    2017-12-01

    Based on monitoring on 7th and 8th February 2016 there has been a flood that occurred due to heavy rainfall in a long time in some areas of Bangka Island. Mesoscale Convective Complex (MCC) is one type of Mesoscale Convective System (MCS). Previous research on MCC mentions that MCC can cause heavy rain for a long time. This study aims to identify the phenomenon of MCC in Bangka Island both in the satellite imagery and the output of the model. In addition, this study was also conducted to determine the effect of MCC on the weather conditions in Bangka Island. The study area in this research is Bangka Island with Pangkalpinang Meteorological Station as the centre of research. The data used in this research are FNL (Final Analysis) data from http://rda.ucar.edu/, Satellite Image of Himawari-8 IR1 Channel from BMKG, and meteorological observation data (synoptic and radiosonde) from Pangkalpinang Meteorological Station. The FNL data is simulated using the WRF-ARW model, verified using observation data and then visualized using GrADS. The results of the analysis of Himawari-8 satellite image data showed that two MCCs occurred on 7th and 8th February 2016 on Bangka Island and the MCC was nocturnal, which appeared at night which then continued until extinction in the morning the next day. In a peak cloud temperature review with the coordinates of Pangkalpinang Meteorological Station (-2,163 N 106,137 E) when 1st MCC and 2nd MCC events ranged from -60°C to -80°C. The result of WRF-ARW model output analysis shows that MCC area has high humidity value and positive vertical velocity value which indicates the potential of heavy rain for a long time.

  15. Night shift work and stomach cancer risk in the MCC-Spain study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmati, Georgina; Turner, Michelle C; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Alguacil, Juan; Costas, Laura; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martin Sanchez, Vicente; Ardanaz, Eva; Moreno, Victor; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Fernández-Tardon, Guillermo; Villanueva Ballester, Vicent; Capelo, Rocio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Santibáñez, Miguel; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-08-01

    Night shift work has been classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, based on experimental studies and limited evidence on human breast cancer risk. Evidence at other cancer sites is scarce. We evaluated the association between night shift work and stomach cancer risk in a population-based case-control study. A total of 374 incident stomach adenocarcinoma cases and 2481 population controls were included from the MCC-Spain study. Detailed data on lifetime night shift work were collected including permanent and rotating shifts, and their cumulative duration (years). Adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were used in analysis. A total of 25.7% of cases and 22.5% of controls reported ever being a night shift worker. There was a weak positive, non-significant association between ever having had worked for at least 1 year in permanent night shifts and stomach cancer risk compared to never having worked night shifts (OR=1.2, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.8). However, there was an inverse 'U' shaped relationship with cumulative duration of permanent night shifts, with the highest risk observed in the intermediate duration category (OR 10-20 years=2.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6) (p for trend=0.19). There was no association with ever having had worked in rotating night shifts (OR=0.9, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.2) and no trend according to cumulative duration (p for trend=0.68). We found no clear evidence concerning an association between night shift work and stomach cancer risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. TRAC-P validation test matrix. Revision 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.D.; Boyack, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    This document briefly describes the elements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) software quality assurance program leading to software (code) qualification and identifies a test matrix for qualifying Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC)-Pressurized Water Reactor Version (-P), or TRAC-P, to the NRC's software quality assurance requirements. Code qualification is the outcome of several software life-cycle activities, specifically, (1) Requirements Definition, (2) Design, (3) Implementation, and (4) Qualification Testing. The major objective of this document is to define the TRAC-P Qualification Testing effort

  17. TRAC-P validation test matrix. Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, E.D.; Boyack, B.E.

    1997-09-05

    This document briefly describes the elements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) software quality assurance program leading to software (code) qualification and identifies a test matrix for qualifying Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC)-Pressurized Water Reactor Version (-P), or TRAC-P, to the NRC`s software quality assurance requirements. Code qualification is the outcome of several software life-cycle activities, specifically, (1) Requirements Definition, (2) Design, (3) Implementation, and (4) Qualification Testing. The major objective of this document is to define the TRAC-P Qualification Testing effort.

  18. Validation of IEEE P1547.1 Interconnection Test Procedures: ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  19. Study of Structure-active Relationship for Inhibitors of HIV-1 Integrase LEDGF/p75 Interaction by Machine Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Yanbin; Yan, Aixia

    2017-07-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is a promising target for anti-AIDS therapy, and LEDGF/p75 is proved to enhance the HIV-1 integrase strand transfer activity in vitro. Blocking the interaction between IN and LEDGF/p75 is an effective way to inhibit HIV replication infection. In this work, 274 LEDGF/p75-IN inhibitors were collected as the dataset. Support Vector Machine (SVM), Decision Tree (DT), Function Tree (FT) and Random Forest (RF) were applied to build several computational models for predicting whether a compound is an active or weakly active LEDGF/p75-IN inhibitor. Each compound is represented by MACCS fingerprints and CORINA Symphony descriptors. The prediction accuracies for the test sets of all the models are over 70 %. The best model Model 3B built by FT obtained a prediction accuracy and a Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 81.08 % and 0.62 on test set, respectively. We found that the hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions are important for the bioactivity of an inhibitor. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. LMFBR transducer performance in SLSF tests P1 and P2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, J.J.; Anderson, T.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wilson, R.E.; Pedersen, D.R.; Kaiser, W.C.; Klingler, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability and problem areas of sodium-immersed thermocouples, pressure transducers and flowmeters are presented for experiments P1 and P2 of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF). The SLSF is a doubly-contained sodium loop situated in a core position of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC from Kenaf and Cotton Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Mirehki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC and nanofiber cellulose are the ones of materials which are being used recently as biodegradable filler and reinforcing agent for making composites. In this research, microcrystalline cellulose were prepared from kenaf and cotton bast by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis. The effects of hydrolysis condition on amount of crystallinity and crystal size of MCC were investigated by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results have shown that in both samples increasing the acid ratio increased the crystallinity; however, the size of crystals did not change. SEM results have shown that after hydrolysis the size of sample particles was micro.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of MCC [Materials Characterization Center] approved testing material---ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.

    1988-03-01

    Materials Characterization Center glasses ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 are designed to simulate high-level waste glasses that are likely to result from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuels. The three Approved Testing Materials (ATMs) are borosilicate glasses based upon the MCC-76-68 glass composition. One radioisotope was added to form each ATM. The radioisotopes added to form ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 were 241 Am, 237 Np, and 239 Pu, respectively. Each of the ATM lots was produced in a nominal lot size of 450 g from feed stock melted in a nitrogen-atmosphere glove box at 1200/degree/C in a platinum crucible. Each ATM was then cast into bars. Analyzed compositions of these glasses are listed. The nonradioactive elements were analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP), and the radioisotope analyses were done by alpha energy analysis. Results are discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Fission Yeast Apc15 Stabilizes MCC-Cdc20-APC/C Complexes, Ensuring Efficient Cdc20 Ubiquitination and Checkpoint Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Karen M; Paldi, Flora; Hardwick, Kevin G

    2017-04-24

    During mitosis, cells must segregate the replicated copies of their genome to their daughter cells with extremely high fidelity. Segregation errors lead to an abnormal chromosome number (aneuploidy), which typically results in disease or cell death [1]. Chromosome segregation and anaphase onset are initiated through the action of the multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C [2]). The APC/C is inhibited by the spindle checkpoint in the presence of kinetochore attachment defects [3, 4]. Here we demonstrate that two non-essential APC/C subunits (Apc14 and Apc15) regulate association of spindle checkpoint proteins, in the form of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), with the APC/C. apc14Δ mutants display increased MCC association with the APC/C and are unable to silence the checkpoint efficiently. Conversely, apc15Δ mutants display reduced association between the MCC and APC/C, are defective in poly-ubiquitination of Cdc20, and are checkpoint defective. In vitro reconstitution studies have shown that human MCC-APC/C can contain two molecules of Cdc20 [5-7]. Using a yeast strain expressing two Cdc20 genes with different epitope tags, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that this is true in vivo. MCC binding to the second molecule of Cdc20 is mediated via the C-terminal KEN box in Mad3. Somewhat surprisingly, complexes containing both molecules of Cdc20 accumulate in apc15Δ cells, and the implications of this observation are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical quality of tap water in Madrid: multicase control cancer study in Spain (MCC-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Villanueva, Cristina M; García-Pérez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Goñi-Irigoyen, Fernando; Ulibarrena, Enrique; Rantakokko, Panu; García-Esquinas, Esther; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria

    2017-02-01

    Chronic consumption of water, which contains contaminants, may give rise to adverse health effects. The Madrid region, covered by the population-based multicase-control (MCC-Spain) study, includes two drinking water supply areas. The different sources of the water, coupled together with the possible differences in water management, mean that there may be differences in drinking water quality. In the context of the MCC study, our aims were to describe contaminant concentrations in tap water drawn from various sampling points distributed around the region, assess these concentrations by reference to guideline values and study possible differences between the two supply areas. Tap water samples were collected from 34 sampling points in 7 towns in the Madrid region (19-29 April 2010), and 23 contaminants (metals, nitrates, disinfection by-product and Mutagen X levels) were quantified. We undertook a descriptive analysis of the contaminant concentrations in the water and compared them between the two water supply areas (Wilcoxon test). We created maps representing the distribution of the concentrations observed at water sampling points and assessed the correlations (Spearman's coefficient) between the different parameters measured. The concentrations of the contaminants were below guideline values. There were differences between the two supply areas in concentration of nitrates (p value = 0.0051) and certain disinfection by-products. While there were positive correlations (rho >0.70) among some disinfection by-products, no correlations were found in metals or nitrates. The differences in nitrate levels could be linked to differences in farming/industrial activities in the catchment areas and in disinfection by-products might be related to the existence of different treatment systems or bromine content in source waters.

  5. RB1 is the crucial target of the Merkel cell polyomavirus Large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesbacher, Sonja; Pfitzer, Lisa; Wiedorfer, Katharina; Angermeyer, Sabrina; Borst, Andreas; Haferkamp, Sebastian; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Wobser, Marion; Schrama, David; Houben, Roland

    2016-05-31

    The pocket protein (PP) family consists of the three members RB1, p107 and p130 all possessing tumor suppressive properties. Indeed, the PPs jointly control the G1/S transition mainly by inhibiting E2F transcription factors. Notably, several viral oncoproteins are capable of binding and inhibiting PPs. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is considered as etiological factor for Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) with expression of the viral Large T antigen (LT) harboring an intact PP binding domain being required for proliferation of most MCC cells. Therefore, we analyzed the interaction of MCPyV-LT with the PPs. Co-IP experiments indicate that MCPyV-LT binds potently only to RB1. Moreover, MCPyV-LT knockdown-induced growth arrest in MCC cells can be rescued by knockdown of RB1, but not by p107 or p130 knockdown. Accordingly, cell cycle arrest and E2F target gene repression mediated by the single PPs can only in the case of RB1 be significantly reverted by MCPyV-LT expression. Moreover, data from an MCC patient indicate that loss of RB1 rendered the MCPyV-positive MCC cells LT independent. Thus, our results suggest that RB1 is the dominant tumor suppressor PP in MCC, and that inactivation of RB1 by MCPyV-LT is largely sufficient for its growth supporting function in established MCPyV-positive MCC cells.

  6. Benchmark test of JEF-1 evaluation by calculating fast criticalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, S.

    1986-06-01

    JEF-1 basic evaluation was tested by calculating fast critical experiments using the cross section discrete-ordinates transport code ONEDANT with P/sub 3/S/sub 16/ approximation. In each computation a spherical one dimensional model was used, together with a 174 neutron group VITAMIN-E structured JEF-1 based nuclear data library, generated at EIR with NJOY and TRANSX-CTR. It is found that the JEF-1 evaluation gives accurate results comparable with ENDF/B-V and that eigenvalues agree well within 10 mk whereas reaction rates deviate by up to 10% from the experiment. U-233 total and fission cross sections seem to be underestimated in the JEF-1 evaluation in the fast energy range between 0.1 and 1 MeV. This confirms previous analysis based on diffusion theory with 71 neutron groups, performed by H. Takano and E. Sartori at NEA Data Bank. (author)

  7. Surface Tension and p−ρ−T Data for 1,1,1,3,3-Pentafluorobutane (HFC-365mfc) and 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-Heptafluoro-3-methoxy-propane (HFE-347mcc)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klomfar, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 8 (2013), s. 2316-2325 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/0010 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : surface tension * density * HFC-365mfc * HFE-347mcc Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2013

  8. Application of general multilevel factorial design with formulation of fast disintegrating tablets containing croscaremellose sodium and Disintequick MCC-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaiman, Amanda; Suliman, Ammar Said; Shinde, Swapnil; Naz, Sidra; Elkordy, Amal Ali

    2016-03-30

    Despite the popularity of orally fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs), their formulation can sometimes be challenging, producing tablets with either poor mechanical properties or high disintegration times. The aim of this research was to enhance the properties of FDTs produced by direct compression to have both sufficient hardness to withstand manual handling, and rapid disintegration time. General multilevel factorial design was applied to optimise and evaluate main and interaction effects of independent variables (i) disintegrant concentration, (ii) % filler (Disintequick MCC-25) to mannitol on the responses hardness, tensile strength and disintegration time. In this experiment mannitol was used as a diluent, Disintequick MCC-25 (to best of our knowledge there is no publication available yet for its use with FDTs) was termed in this study as a filler and croscaremellose sodium was used as the superdisintegrant. Seven formulations were prepared following a progressive two-stage approach. Each stage involved the change in the ratio of excipients (Mannitol:Filler) (1:0), (1:0.25), (1:0.50), (1:1), (0.50:1), (0.25:1), (0:1) w/w and concentration of superdisintegrant (1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 10% w/w). All FDTs were tested for different parameters such as diameter, hardness, tensile strength, thickness, friability and disintegration time. The results of multiple linear regression analysis show a good degree of correlation between experimental (R(2):0.84, 0.94, 0.91) and predicted response (R(2):0.83, 0.96, 0.95) for hardness, tensile strength and disintegration time respectively. The optimum formulations (regarding disintegration time with acceptable hardness and friability properties) consisted of: (i) 5% w/w disintegrant and 20% w/w filler to mannitol, showing a disintegration time of 30s, a hardness of 66.6N (6.8 kg/cm(2)) and friability of 2.2%; (ii) 7% or 10% w/w disintegrant with 33.33% w/w filler to mannitol, showing disintegration time of 84 s (for 7% disintegrant) and

  9. Evaluation excitation functions for "2"8Si(n,p)"2"8Al, "3"1P(n,p)"3"1Si, and "1"1"3In(n,γ)"1"1"4"mIn reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, K.I.

    2014-10-01

    Cross section data for "2"8Si(n,p)"2"8Al, "3"1P(n,p)"3"1Si and "1"1"3In(n,γ)"1"1"4"mIn reactions are needed for solving a wide spectrum of scientific and technical tasks. The excitation function of "2"8Si(n,p)"2"8Al reaction refers to the nuclear data involved in fusion reactor design calculations. The "2"8Si(n,p)"2"8Al reaction is interesting also as the monitor reaction for measurements at fusion facilities. Activation detectors on the basis of the 31P(n,p)31Si reaction are commonly used in the reactor dosimetry. The "1"1"3In(n,γ)"1"1"4"mIn reaction is promising regarding reactor dosimetry application for two reasons. First, due to the "1"1"4"mIn decay parameters which are rather suitable for activation measurements. Half-life of "1"1"4"mIn is equal to T_1/_2 = (49.51 ± 0.01) days and gamma spectrum accompanying decay has only one line with energy 190.27 keV and intensity (15.56 ± 0.15)%. Second, the "1"1"3In(n,γ)"1"1"4"mIn reaction rate may be measured by using one activation detector simultaneously with the "1"1"5In(n,γ)"1"1"6"mIn reaction. Preliminary analysis of existing evaluated excitation functions for "2"8Si(n,p)"2"8Al, "3"1P(n,p)"3"1Si and "1"1"3In(n,γ)"1"1"4"mIn reactions show that new evaluations are needed for all above mentioned reactions. This report is devoted to the preparation of the new evaluations of cross sections data and related covariance matrixes of uncertainties for the "2"8Si(n,p)"2"8Al, "3"1P(n,p)"3"1Si and "1"1"3In(n,γ)"1"1"4"mIn reactions.

  10. PD-L1 inhibition with avelumab for metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiser, Maria Rita; Bongiorno, Michelle; Brownell, Isaac

    2018-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer that lacks durable responses to traditional chemotherapy. Areas covered: After MCC was shown to be an immunogenic tumor, small trials revealed high objective response rates to PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors. The JAVELIN Merkel 200 (NCT02155647) trial tested the use of avelumab, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against PD-L1, in metastatic MCC. Avelumab recently became the first approved drug for metastatic MCC. Expert commentary: By conducting broad phase I studies assessing the safety of avelumab and a small phase II study demonstrating efficacy in this rare orphan tumor type, avelumab gained accelerated approval for the treatment of metastatic MCC. Additional studies are needed to determine how the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) competent Fc region of avelumab contributes to disease control. Remaining questions: Longer follow-up will determine the durability of checkpoint blockade in controlling metastatic MCC. Additional studies will assess the utility and safety of adjuvant checkpoint blockade in patients with excised MCC. How to increase response rates by combining PD-1/PD-L1 blockade with other treatment approaches needs to be explored. In addition, treatment options for MCC patients who fail or do not respond to avelumab need to be identified.

  11. Comparison of 200-liter and 40-milliliter leach tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Harvey, C.O.; Roberts, F.P.; Ross, W.A.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    During the past year we have conducted a modified MCC-1 leach test on a 145 kg block of a cast cement waste form. The leach vessel was a 200 liter Teflon-lined drum and contained 97.5 liters of deionized water. The results of this large-scale leach test were compared with the results of standard MC-1 tests (40 ml) on smaller samples of the same waste form. The ratio of leachate volumes between the large and small scale tests was 2500 and the ratio of sample masses was 150,000. The cast cement samples for both tests contained plutonium-doped incinerator ash. The leachates from these tests were analyzed for both plutonium and the matrix elements. Evaluation of plutonium plateout in the large-scale test indicated that the majority of the plutonium leached from the samples deposits onto vessel walls and little ( -12 /sub M/) remains in solution. Comparison of elemental concentrations in the leachates indicates some differences up to 5X in the concentration in the large- and small-scale tests. The differences are attributed to differences in the solubilities of Ca, Si, and Fe at pH 11.5 and at pH 12.5. The higher pH observed for the large-scale test is a result of the larger quantities of sodium in the large block of cement

  12. Reliability of 46,XX results on miscarriage specimens: a review of 1,222 first-trimester miscarriage specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathi, Ruth B; Gustin, Stephanie L F; Keller, Jennifer; Maisenbacher, Melissa K; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Tao, Rosina; Demko, Zach

    2014-01-01

    To examine the rate of maternal contamination in miscarriage specimens. Retrospective review of 1,222 miscarriage specimens submitted for chromosome testing with detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC). Referral centers requesting genetic testing of miscarriage specimens at a single reference laboratory. Women with pregnancy loss who desire complete chromosome analysis of the pregnancy tissue. Analysis of miscarriage specimens using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray technology with bioinformatics program to detect maternal cell contamination. Chromosome content of miscarriages and incidence of 46,XX results due to MCC. Of the 1,222 samples analyzed, 592 had numeric chromosomal abnormalities, and 630 were normal 46,XX or 46,XY (456 and 187, respectively). In 269 of the 46,XX specimens, MCC with no embryonic component was found. With the exclusion of maternal 46,XX results, the chromosomal abnormality rate increased from 48% to 62%, and the ratio for XX to XY results dropped from 2.6 to 1.0. Over half of the normal 46,XX results in miscarriage specimens were due to MCC. The use of SNPs in MCC testing allows for precise identification of chromosomal abnormalities in miscarriage as well as MCC, improving the accuracy of products of conception testing. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. TAPAAL and Reachability Analysis of P/T Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Finnemann; Nielsen, Thomas Søndersø; Østergaard, Lars Kærlund

    2016-01-01

    We discuss selected model checking techniques used in the tool TAPAAL for the reachability analysis of weighted Petri nets with inhibitor arcs. We focus on techniques that had the most significant effect at the 2015 Model Checking Contest (MCC). While the techniques are mostly well known, our...... contribution lies in their adaptation to the MCC reachability queries, their efficient implementation and the evaluation of their performance on a large variety of nets from MCC'15....

  14. Evaluation of mast cell counts and microvessel density in reactive lesions of the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kouhsoltani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reliable immunohistochemical assays to assess the definitive role of mast cells (MCs and angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of oral reactive lesions are generally not available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mast cell counts (MCC and microvessel density (MVD in oral reactive lesions and determine the correlation between MCC and MVD. Methods. Seventy-five cases of reactive lesions of the oral cavity, including pyogenic granuloma, fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, peripheral ossifying fibroma (15 for each category were immunohisto-chemically stained with MC tryptase and CD31. Fifteen cases of normal gingival tissue were considered as the control group. The mean MCC and MVD in superficial and deep connective tissues were assessed and total MCC and MVD was computed for each lesion. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed in MCC and MVD between the study groups (P < 0.001. MC tryptase and CD31 expression increased in the superficial connective tissue of each lesion in comparison to the deep con-nective tissue. A significant negative correlation was not found between MCC and MVD in oral reactive lesions (P < 0.001, r = -0.458. Conclusion. Although MCs were present in the reactive lesions of the oral cavity, a direct correlation between MCC and MVD was not found in these lesions. Therefore, a significant interaction between MCs and endothelial cells and an active role for MCs in the growth of oral reactive lesions was not found in this study.

  15. Inhibiting the NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation with MCC950 Ameliorates Diabetic Encephalopathy in db/db Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Zhai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is associated with a high risk of developing cognitive dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disabilities, and these disease symptomsare termed diabetic encephalopathy (DEP. Inflammation is involved in the development of DEP. The cleavage and maturation of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL-1β is regulated by the NLRP3 inflammasome. Obese and type 2 diabetic db/db mice show anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and cognitive disorders associated with hippocampal inflammation. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in DEP. Results showed that expression levels of inflammasome components including NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC, and caspase-1, as well as IL-1β in the hippocampus of diabetic db/db mice were higher than those of non-diabetic db/m mice. Treatment of db/db mice with NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 ameliorated anxiety- and depression-like behaviors as well as cognitive dysfunction, and reversed increased NLRP3, ASC, and IL-1βexpression levels and caspase-1 activity in hippocampus. Moreover, MCC950 treatment significantly improved insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. These results demonstrate that inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation may prove to be a potential therapeutic approach for DEP treatment.

  16. Evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Turcotte, R.P.; Chikalla, T.D.; Hench, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms requires an understanding of radiation and thermal effects, mechanical properties, volatility, and chemical durability. As a result of nuclear waste research and development programs in many countries, a good understanding of these factors is available for borosilicate glass containing high-level waste. The IAEA through its coordinated research program has contributed to this understanding. Methods used in the evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms are reviewed. In the US, this evaluation has been facilitated by the definition of standard test methods by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC), which was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 1979. The DOE has also established a 20-member Materials Review Board to peer-review the activities of the MCC. In addition to comparing waste forms, testing must be done to evaluate the behavior of waste forms in geologic repositories. Such testing is complex; accelerated tests are required to predict expected behavior for thousands of years. The tests must be multicomponent tests to ensure that all potential interactions between waste form, canister/overpack and corrosion products, backfill, intruding ground water and the repository rock, are accounted for. An overview of the status of such multicomponent testing is presented

  17. Ingested Nitrate and Breast Cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Pollan, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Boldo, Elena; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Altzibar, Jone M; Amiano, Pilar; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Guevara, Marcela; Molina, Antonio J; Barrio, Juan Pablo; Gómez-Acebo, Ines; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Palau, Margarita; Muñoz, Montse; Font-Ribera, Laia; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2016-07-01

    Ingested nitrate leads to endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds that are breast carcinogens in animals, but human evidence is limited. We evaluated ingested nitrate as a risk factor for breast cancer (BC) in a multicase-control study. Hospital-based incident BC cases and population-based controls were recruited in eight Spanish regions in 2008-2013; participants provided residential and water consumption from 18 years of age and information on known BC risk factors. Long-term nitrate levels (1940-2010) were estimated and linked with residential histories and water consumption to calculate waterborne ingested nitrate (milligrams/day). Dietary ingested nitrate (milligrams/day) was calculated using food frequency questionnaires and published dietary nitrate contents. Interactions with endogenous nitrosation factors and other variables were evaluated. A total of 1,245 cases and 1,520 controls were included in the statistical analysis. Among the study regions, average ± SD waterborne ingested nitrate ranged from 2.9 ± 1.9 to 13.5 ± 7.5 mg/day, and dietary ingested nitrate ranged from 88.5 ± 48.7 to 154 ± 87.8 mg/day. Waterborne ingested nitrate was not associated with BC overall, but among postmenopausal women, those with both high nitrate (> 6 vs. nitrate and low red meat intake (adjusted odds ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 2.49; overall interaction p-value = 0.17). No association was found with dietary nitrate. Waterborne ingested nitrate was associated with BC only among postmenopausal women with high red meat consumption. Dietary nitrate was not associated with BC regardless of the animal or vegetable source or of menopausal status. Espejo-Herrera N, Gracia-Lavedan E, Pollan M, Aragonés N, Boldo E, Perez-Gomez B, Altzibar JM, Amiano P, Zabala AJ, Ardanaz E, Guevara M, Molina AJ, Barrio JP, Gómez-Acebo I, Tardón A, Peiró R, Chirlaque MD, Palau M, Muñoz M, Font-Ribera L, Castaño-Vinyals G, Kogevinas M, Villanueva CM. 2016. Ingested

  18. Post-test analysis of PANDA test P4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.; Woudstra, A.; Koning, H.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a post-test analysis of the integral system test P4, which has been executed in the PANDA facility at PSI in Switzerland within the framework of Work Package 2 of the TEPSS project are presented. The post-test analysis comprises an evaluation of the PANDA test P4 and a comparison of the test results with the results of simulations using the RELAPS/MOD3.2, TRAC-BF1, and MELCOR 1.8.4 codes. The PANDA test P4 has provided data about how trapped air released from the drywell later in the transient affects PCCS performance in an adequate manner. The well-defined measurements can serve as an important database for the assessment of thermal hydraulic system analysis codes, especially for conditions that could be met in passively operated advanced reactors, i.e. low pressure and small driving forces. Based on the analysis of the test data, the test acceptance criteria have been met. The test P4 has been successfully completed and the instrument readings were with the permitted ranges. The PCCs showed a favorable and robust performance and a wide margin for decay heat removal from the containment. The PANDA P4 test demonstrated that trapped air, released from the drywell later in the transient, only temporarily and only slightly affected the performance of the passive containment cooling system. The analysis of the results of the RELAPS code showed that the overall behaviour of the test has been calculated quite well with regards to pressure, mass flow rates, and pool boil-down. This accounts both for the pre-test and the post-test simulations. However, due to the one-dimensional, stacked-volume modeling of the PANDA DW, WW, and GDCS vessels, 3D-effects such as in-vessel mixing and recirculation could not be calculated. The post-test MELCOR simulation showed an overall behaviour that is comparable to RELAPS. However, MELCOR calculated almost no air trapping in the PCC tubes that could hinder the steam condensation rate. This resulted in lower calculated

  19. Approved reference and testing materials for use in Nuclear Waste Management Research and Development Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, G.B.; Daniel, J.L.

    1984-12-01

    This document, addressed to members of the waste management research and development community summarizes reference and testing materials available from the Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center (MCC). These materials are furnished under the MCC's charter to distribute reference materials essential for quantitative evaluation of nuclear waste package materials under development in the US. Reference materials with known behavior in various standard waste management related tests are needed to ensure that individual testing programs are correctly performing those tests. Approved testing materials are provided to assist the projects in assembling materials data base of defensible accuracy and precision. This is the second issue of this publication. Eight new Approved Testing Materials are listed, and Spent Fuel is included as a separate section of Standard Materials because of its increasing importance as a potential repository storage form. A summary of current characterization information is provided for each material listed. Future issues will provide updates of the characterization status of the materials presented in this issue, and information about new standard materials as they are acquired. 7 references, 1 figure, 19 tables

  20. Evaluation of pGL1-TNF-alpha therapy in combination with radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Andres, M. L.; Fodor, I.; Nelson, G. A.; Gridley, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    Long-term control of high-grade brain tumors is rarely achieved with current therapeutic regimens. In this study a new plasmid-based human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression vector was synthesized (pGL1-TNF-alpha) and evaluated together with radiation in the aggressive, rapidly growing C6 rat glioma model. pGL1-TNF-alpha was successfully transfected into C6 cells in vitro using a cationic polyamine method. Expression was detected up to 7 days and averaged 0.4 ng of TNF-alpha in the culture medium from 1x10(5) cells. The expressed protein was biologically functional, as evidenced by growth inhibition of L929, a TNF-alpha-susceptible cell line. Using fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies and laser scanning cytometry, we confirmed that both the P55 and P75 receptors for TNF-alpha were present on the C6 cell membrane. However, the receptors were present at low density and P55 was expressed more than the P75 receptor. These findings were in contrast to results obtained with TNF-alpha-susceptible L929 cells. Tests in athymic mice showed that pGL1-TNF-alpha administered intratumorally 16-18 h before radiation (each modality given three times) significantly inhibited C6 tumor progression (Palpha alone did not slow tumor growth and radiation alone had little effect on tumor growth. These results indicate that pGL1-TNF-alpha has potential to augment the antitumor effects of radiation against a tumor type that is virtually incurable.

  1. Comparisons of TRAC-PF-1 calculations with semiscale Mod-3 small-break tests S-SB-P1 and S-SB-P7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahota, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Semiscale Tests S-SB-P1 and S-SB-P7 conducted in the Semiscale Mod-3 facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are analyzed using the latest released version of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-PF1). The results are used to assess TRAC-PF1 predictions of thermal-hydraulic phenomena and the effects of break size and pump operation on system response during slow transients. Tests S-SB-P1 and S-SB-P7 simulated an equivalent pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) 2.5% communicative cold-leg break for early and late pump trips, respectively, with only high-pressure injection (HPI) into the cold legs. The parameters examined include break flow, primary-system pressure response, primary-system mass distribution, and core characteristics

  2. Two-dimensional PIC-MCC simulation of ion extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jiagui; Wang Dewu

    2000-01-01

    To explore more simple and efficient ion extraction methods used in atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), two-dimensional (2D) PIC-MCC simulation code is used to simulate and compare several methods: parallel electrode method, II type electrode method, improved M type electrode method, and radio frequency (RF) resonance method. The simulations show that, the RF resonance method without magnetic field is the best among others, then the improved M type electrode method. The result of simulation of II type electrode method is quite different from that calculated by 2D electron equilibrium model. The RF resonance method with or without magnetic field has guide different results. Strong resonance occurs in the simulation without magnetic field, whereas no significant resonance occurs under weak magnetic field. And that is quite different from the strong resonance phenomena occurring in the 1D PIC simulation with weak magnetic field. As for practical applications, the RF resonance method without magnetic field has pros and cons, compared with the M type electrode method

  3. Analysis of Pharmaceutical Excipient MCC Avicel PH102 Using Compaction Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peciar Peter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the characterization of the tabletting process and analysis one of the most common pharmaceutical excipients MCC Avicel PH102 by Heckel, Kawakita, Cooper-Eaton and Adams compaction equations. Experimental material was determined by measuring its parameters as particle size distribution, angle of wall friction and flow properties and for more detailed characteristics of the material particles, microscopy images of the powder before and after compressing were created.

  4. Balanced and Unbalanced Circulations in a Primitive Equation Simulation of a Midlatitude MCC. Part I: The Numerical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Peter Q.; Cotton, William R.

    1997-02-01

    A midlatitude mesoscale convective complex (MCC), which occurred over the central United States on 23-24 June 1985, was simulated using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The multiply nested-grid simulation agreed reasonably well with surface, upper-air, and satellite observations and ground-based radar plots. The simulated MCC had a typical structure consisting of a leading line of vigorous convection and a trailing region of less intense stratiform rainfall. Several other characteristic MCC circulations were also simulated: a divergent cold pool in the lower troposphere, midlevel convergence coupled with a relatively cool descending rear-inflow jet, and relatively warm updraft structure, and a cold divergent anticyclone in the tropopause region. Early in the MCC simulation, a mesoscale convectively induced vortex (MCV) formed on the eastern edge of the convective line. While frequently associated with MCCs and other mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), MCVs are more typically reported in the mature and decaying stages of the life cycle. Several hours later, a second MCV formed near the opposite end of the convective line, and by the mature phase of the MCC, these MCVs were embedded within a more complex system-wide vortical flow in the lower troposphere.Analysis of the first MCV during its incipient phase indicates that the vortex initially formed near the surface by convergence/stretching of the large low-level ambient vertical vorticity in this region. Vertical advection appeared largely responsible for the upward extension of this MCV to about 3.5 km above the surface, with tilting of horizontal vorticity playing a secondary role. This mechanism of MCV formation is in contrast to recent idealized high-resolution squall line simulations, where MCVs were found to result from the tilting into the vertical of storm-induced horizontal vorticity formed near the top of the cold pool.Another interesting aspect of the simulation was the development of a

  5. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Influence of the sintering temperature on the Sr content in a Ca_(_1_−_x_−_y_)Ce_xSr_yAl_zTi_(_1_−_z_)O_3 perovskite (x = 0.04–0.16) co-doped with Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, Nour-el-hayet; Mouheb, Yasmina; Kamel, Ziane; Moudir, Dalila; Aouchiche, Fairouz; Arabi, Azeddine

    2016-01-01

    A Sr-Ce co-doped perovskite, with the chemical formula: Ca_(_1_−_x_−_y_)Ce_xSr_yAl_zTi_(_1_−_z_)O_3 (y = 0.04, 0.08, 0.12 and 0.16, x = 0.05) is synthesized by sol–gel process. The influence of the sintering temperature, Ts, on the rate of inserted Sr was investigated at 1223, 1373 and 1473 K. The Sr amount sequestered in the perovskite reaches 85% (y = 0.16, 9.50 wt%) for Ts = 1373 K, giving sintering densities between 3.520 and 4.400. XRD analysis reveals an orthorhombic CaTiO_3 structure. The lattice parameters obey to Vegard’s law for Ts = 1373 and 1473 K. SEM analysis shows orthorhombic grains of 0.514 μm × 1 μm mean dimensions. MCC1 and MCC2 tests, performed on minerals sintered at 1373 K, indicate that the most durable one is that containing 9.50 wt% Sr. MCC1 test gave 6.998·10"−"6 g/cm"2 d of Sr, and MCC2 2.143·10"−"4 g/cm"2 d of Ce. The temperature favors the Sr dissolution to the detriment of Ce. The Ca dissolution rate reaches 1.002·10"−"6 to 2.005·10"−"6 g/cm"2 d. - Highlights: • Ca_(_1_−_x_−_y_)Ce_xSr_yAl_zTi_(_1_−_z_)O_3 perovskite is synthesized by sol–gel. • The influence of the sintering temperature, Ts, on the rate of inserted Sr was investigated at 1223, 1373 and 1473 K. • 85% of total Sr was sequestered in the perovskite for Ts = 1373 K. • MCC1 and MCC2 leach tests indicate that the most durable mineral is that containing 9.50 wt.% Sr. • MCC1 test gave 8.10 10"−"1"0 kg/m"2.d Sr. The lower is the leaching temperature the higher is the mineral durability.

  7. Synthesis of ¹³C-lidocaine as a probe of breath test for the evaluation of cytochrome P450 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitome, Hidemichi; Sugiyama, Erika; Sato, Hitoshi; Akira, Kazuki

    2014-01-01

    (13)C-Labeled lidocaine, 2-di[1-(13)C]ethylamino-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide (1), was synthesized from [1-(13)C]acetic acid in six steps, as a probe for a breath test to evaluate in vivo cytochrome P450 activity. The measurement of (13)CO2 in breath was successfully performed following oral administration of (13)C-lidocaine 1 to mice.

  8. OPATs: Omnibus P-value association tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Wei; Yang, Hsin-Chou

    2017-07-10

    Combining statistical significances (P-values) from a set of single-locus association tests in genome-wide association studies is a proof-of-principle method for identifying disease-associated genomic segments, functional genes and biological pathways. We review P-value combinations for genome-wide association studies and introduce an integrated analysis tool, Omnibus P-value Association Tests (OPATs), which provides popular analysis methods of P-value combinations. The software OPATs programmed in R and R graphical user interface features a user-friendly interface. In addition to analysis modules for data quality control and single-locus association tests, OPATs provides three types of set-based association test: window-, gene- and biopathway-based association tests. P-value combinations with or without threshold and rank truncation are provided. The significance of a set-based association test is evaluated by using resampling procedures. Performance of the set-based association tests in OPATs has been evaluated by simulation studies and real data analyses. These set-based association tests help boost the statistical power, alleviate the multiple-testing problem, reduce the impact of genetic heterogeneity, increase the replication efficiency of association tests and facilitate the interpretation of association signals by streamlining the testing procedures and integrating the genetic effects of multiple variants in genomic regions of biological relevance. In summary, P-value combinations facilitate the identification of marker sets associated with disease susceptibility and uncover missing heritability in association studies, thereby establishing a foundation for the genetic dissection of complex diseases and traits. OPATs provides an easy-to-use and statistically powerful analysis tool for P-value combinations. OPATs, examples, and user guide can be downloaded from http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/association/OPATs.htm. © The Author 2017

  9. Property/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses melting at 115 degrees C volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, P.R.; Piepel, G.F.

    1994-12-01

    A Composition Variation study (CVS) is being performed within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project in support of a future high-level nuclear waste vitrification plant at the Hanford site in Washington. From 1989 to 1994, over 120 nonradioactive glasses were melted and properties measured in five statistically-designed experimental phases. Glass composition is represented by the 10 components SiO 2 , B 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Na 2 O, Li 2 O, CaO, MgO, and Others (all remaining components). The properties measured include viscosity (η), electrical conductivity (ε), glass transition temperature (T g ), thermal expansion of solid glass (α s ) and molten glass (α m ), crystallinity (quenched and canister centerline cooled glasses), liquidus temperature (T L ), durability based on normalized elemental releases from the Materials Characterization Center-1 28-day dissolution test (MCC-1, r mi ) and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT, r pi ), and solution pHs from MCC-1 and PCT. Amorphous phase separation was also evaluated. Empirical first- and second-order mixture models were fit using the CVS data to relate the various properties to glass composition. Equations for calculating the uncertainty associated with property values predicted by the models were also developed. The models were validated using both internal and external data. Other modeling approaches (e.g., non-bridging oxygen, free energy of hydration, phase-equilibria T L ) were investigated for specific properties. A preliminary Qualified Composition Region was developed to identify glass compositions with high confidence of being processable in a melter and meeting waste form acceptance criteria

  10. Results from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test: 3 Years at MiraCosta College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbaugh French, Rica

    2007-12-01

    The Astronomy Diagnostic Test 2.0 (ADT) was administered to 26 sections of ASTR 101 at MiraCosta College (MCC) from fall 2004 through summer 2007. MiraCosta is a two-year community college located in Oceanside, CA, USA (roughly 40 miles north of San Diego) with an enrollment of approximately 11,000 students. ASTR 101 is MiraCosta's introductory astronomy survey course for non-science majors and has no math prerequisite. Class sizes ranged from 10 to 38 students. Comparison with the ADT National Project results indicates similar pre- and post-course averages: 31.8% (MCC) vs. 32.4% (National) for pre-course tests and 49.3% (MCC) vs. 47.3% (National) for post-course tests. The sample sizes are 709 and 530 students for the pre- and post-tests, respectively. The normalized gain for the entire data set is 0.256 and the effect size (ES) is 1.04, meaning that approximately 85% of the post-test scores are above the average of the pre-test scores. Previous studies have shown the ADT to be a reliable indicator of pre-course misconceptions while post-course scores are useful for comparing modes of instruction and assessing student learning on a limited number of concepts. Additional analyses of the MCC data probe for trends with variables such as gender, class size, and implementation of materials designed for a more "learner-centered” approach (such as Lecture Tutorials, Ranking Tasks, and Think-Pair-Share questions), as well as gains for a particular subset of concepts.

  11. STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Planning Team in MCC Bldg 30 FCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Planning Team with Flight Director (FD) James M. Heflin, Jr (front right next to ship model) poses in JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Flight Control Room (FCR). The group stands in front of visual displays projecting STS-49 data and ground track map.

  12. Estimating MCC System Dryness Index using the Vineyard Water Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Marco Antônio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dryness Index (DI is one of the three Geoviticulture Multicriteria Climatic Classification System (MCC System indices and its calculation is based on a soil water balance approach. However, other climatic indices can be used for the same purpose. One of them is the Vineyard Water Indicator (VWI that represents the ratio between the total rainfall and the vineyard water requirement during the productive period of the culture. When compared to DI, the VWI presents a simpler calculation methodology. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish a model to estimate DI based on VWI values. Climate data of 80 winegrowing regions in 18 countries were used. Four regression models were evaluated: linear, quadratic, logarithmic and the Mitscherlich model. Real and simulated data were compared using the confidence coefficient (c that corresponds to the product of the correlation coefficient (r by the exactness coefficient (d. The best fit was obtained employing the quadratic model and DI can be calculated using the following equation: DI = −363.84 VWI2+ 834.47 VWI – 257.17 (R2 = 0.93, for VHI <0.905. For VHI values equal to or greater than 0.905, DI is constant and equal to 200.

  13. Influence of the sintering temperature on the Sr content in a Ca{sub (1−x−y)}Ce{sub x}Sr{sub y}Al{sub z}Ti{sub (1−z)}O{sub 3} perovskite (x = 0.04–0.16) co-doped with Ce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, Nour-el-hayet; Mouheb, Yasmina, E-mail: mouhebyascrna@hotmail.com; Kamel, Ziane; Moudir, Dalila; Aouchiche, Fairouz; Arabi, Azeddine

    2016-08-15

    A Sr-Ce co-doped perovskite, with the chemical formula: Ca{sub (1−x−y)}Ce{sub x}Sr{sub y}Al{sub z}Ti{sub (1−z)}O{sub 3} (y = 0.04, 0.08, 0.12 and 0.16, x = 0.05) is synthesized by sol–gel process. The influence of the sintering temperature, Ts, on the rate of inserted Sr was investigated at 1223, 1373 and 1473 K. The Sr amount sequestered in the perovskite reaches 85% (y = 0.16, 9.50 wt%) for Ts = 1373 K, giving sintering densities between 3.520 and 4.400. XRD analysis reveals an orthorhombic CaTiO{sub 3} structure. The lattice parameters obey to Vegard’s law for Ts = 1373 and 1473 K. SEM analysis shows orthorhombic grains of 0.514 μm × 1 μm mean dimensions. MCC1 and MCC2 tests, performed on minerals sintered at 1373 K, indicate that the most durable one is that containing 9.50 wt% Sr. MCC1 test gave 6.998·10{sup −6} g/cm{sup 2} d of Sr, and MCC2 2.143·10{sup −4} g/cm{sup 2} d of Ce. The temperature favors the Sr dissolution to the detriment of Ce. The Ca dissolution rate reaches 1.002·10{sup −6} to 2.005·10{sup −6} g/cm{sup 2} d. - Highlights: • Ca{sub (1−x−y)}Ce{sub x}Sr{sub y}Al{sub z}Ti{sub (1−z)}O{sub 3} perovskite is synthesized by sol–gel. • The influence of the sintering temperature, Ts, on the rate of inserted Sr was investigated at 1223, 1373 and 1473 K. • 85% of total Sr was sequestered in the perovskite for Ts = 1373 K. • MCC1 and MCC2 leach tests indicate that the most durable mineral is that containing 9.50 wt.% Sr. • MCC1 test gave 8.10 10{sup −10} kg/m{sup 2}.d Sr. The lower is the leaching temperature the higher is the mineral durability.

  14. [Role of serum S1P levels during asthma attack in the evaluation of asthma severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunwei; Xu, Yiqin; Li, Shuang; Wei, Yu; Wang, Chunling

    2017-09-01

    To observe the changes of serum sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) level in asthmatic patients with different severity of bronchial asthma, and to explore the evaluation value of S1P on the severity of asthma. A prospective observational study was conducted. Fifty-two patients with asthma admitted to Department of Respiratory Medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University from November 2015 to January 2017 were enrolled. According to the severity of the disease, the patients were divided into mild, moderate and severe groups. In the same period, 25 healthy subjects were served as healthy control group. All the subjects got the peripheral venous blood collection in the morning fasting, the level of serum S1P was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the peripheral blood eosinophil (EOS) was counted, and the pulmonary function test was performed. The correlation among the parameters was analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was plotted, and the value of serum S1P on evaluating the severity of asthma was analyzed. Fifty-two asthma patients were enrolled, including 17 patients of the mild, 19 of the moderate, and 16 of the severe. Compared with the healthy control group, serum S1P level and peripheral blood EOS in different degree asthma groups were significantly increased, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was decreased significantly; and with asthma exacerbations, serum S1P levels and peripheral blood EOS were gradually increased [mild, moderate and severe S1P (nmol/L) were 1 537.0±120.3, 1 980.7±149.5, 2 202.2±117.2 (F = 274.624, P = 0.001); EOS (×10 9 /L) were 0.13±0.06, 0.20±0.07, 0.37±0.14 , respectively (F = 44.093, P = 0.001)], and FEV1 was decreased gradually [mild, moderate and severe were 0.89±0.05, 0.63±0.06, 0.42±0.10, respectively (F = 159.756, P = 0.001)]. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations between serum S1P

  15. Formulation of Peperomia pellucida (L Kunth extract tablet by modified filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Yunarto

    2013-07-01

    in uniform weight such as tablet form. The objective of this research was to get the optimum formula of P. pellucidaextract tablet. Methods: P. pellucida extract tablets were produced with variation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC PH 101 – lactose by wet granulation method in three formulas, formula I (100% MCC PH 101, II (lactose 100%, and III (MCC PH 101: lactose = 50%: 50%. Granules were evaluated their physical characteristics including their flow rate, water absorption and compactibility to obtain the optimum formula by using simplex lattice design and total response. The optimum formula was used to make tablet and tested its physical characteristics (uniformity weight, hardness, and friability and disintegration time. Results:Lactose significantly  influenced by its flow rate, whereas MCC PH 101 influenced  the compactibility and water absorption. Based on the granules physical characteristics and their total responses, the formula combination of MCC PH 101 80% and lactose 20% was concluded to be the most optimum one for tablet filler. This optimum formula tablet had the best physical characteristics with weigth uniformity of 620.84 ± 1.04 mg, hardness of 8.54 ± 0.68 kg, friability of 0.26% ± 0.04 and disintegration time of 4.58 ± 0.17 minutes. Conclusion: The proportion MCC PH 101 80% and lactose of 20% obtained the best optimum formula and passed requirements of the tablet physical characteristics. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:32-6Key words: formulation, P. pellucida extract, optimize

  16. Development of a miniaturized bulge test (small punch test) for post-irradiation mechanical property evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Motokuni; Suzuki, Masahide; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Misawa, Toshihei

    1993-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of the small punch test for evaluating strength and toughness of irradiated ferritic steels, detailed procedures are described aiming at standardization of the test. The statistical approach to analysis of the SP energy as a function of temperature for evaluation of DBTT was also reviewed. The method was then applied to neutron-irradiated ferritic steels, which included F-82, F-82H, HT-9, and 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel. Fluence and irradiation temperatures ranged from 2 to 12 x 10 23 n/m 2 (E ≥ 1 MeV) and from 573 to 673 K, respectively. Comparison of parameters obtained from the small punch test with the properties measured by the conventional method indicated that: (a) the 0.2% offset stress and the ultimate tensile strength at room temperature can be correlated well with the parameters, P y /(t 0 ) 2 and P max /(t 0 ) 2 , respectively. Here, P y and P max are the loads corresponding to the yield and the maximum, and t 0 is the initial thickness of a specimen; (b) fracture toughness, J IC , can be evaluated using equivalent fracture strain, anti ε qf , and the previously established relationship between these values; and (c) DBTT measured by a Charpy test can be predicted from the results of temperature dependence of SP energy determined from the area under the load-deflection curve using a statistical analysis based on a Weibull distribution

  17. The NeBoP score - a clinical prediction test for evaluation of children with Lyme Neuroborreliosis in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogman, Barbro H; Sjöwall, Johanna; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2015-12-17

    The diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in Europe is based on clinical symptoms and laboratory data, such as pleocytosis and anti-Borrelia antibodies in serum and CSF according to guidelines. However, the decision to start antibiotic treatment on admission cannot be based on Borrelia serology since results are not available at the time of lumbar puncture. Therefore, an early prediction test would be useful in clinical practice. The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a clinical prediction test for children with LNB in a relevant European setting. Clinical and laboratory data were collected retrospectively from a cohort of children being evaluated for LNB in Southeast Sweden. A clinical neuroborreliosis prediction test, the NeBoP score, was designed to differentiate between a high and a low risk of having LNB. The NeBoP score was then prospectively validated in a cohort of children being evaluated for LNB in Central and Southeast Sweden (n = 190) and controls with other specific diagnoses (n = 49). The sensitivity of the NeBoP score was 90 % (CI 95 %; 82-99 %) and the specificity was 90 % (CI 95 %; 85-96 %). Thus, the diagnostic accuracy (i.e. how the test correctly discriminates patients from controls) was 90 % and the area under the curve in a ROC analysis was 0.95. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.83 (CI 95 %; 0.75-0.93) and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.95 (CI 95 %; 0.90-0.99). The overall diagnostic performance of the NeBoP score is high (90 %) and the test is suggested to be useful for decision-making about early antibiotic treatment in children being evaluated for LNB in European Lyme endemic areas.

  18. Characterization of a Merkel Cell Polyomavirus-Positive Merkel Cell Carcinoma Cell Line CVG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Celestino; Amako, Yutaka; Harold, Alexis; Toptan, Tuna; Chang, Yuan; Shuda, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) plays a causal role in ∼80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC). MCV is clonally integrated into the MCC tumor genome, which results in persistent expression of large T (LT) and small T (sT) antigen oncoproteins encoded by the early locus. In MCV-positive MCC tumors, LT is truncated by premature stop codons or deletions that lead to loss of the C-terminal origin binding (OBD) and helicase domains important for replication. The N-terminal Rb binding domain remains intact. MCV-positive cell lines derived from MCC explants have been valuable tools to study the molecular mechanism of MCV-induced Merkel cell carcinogenesis. Although all cell lines have integrated MCV and express truncated LT antigens, the molecular sizes of the LT proteins differ between cell lines. The copy number of integrated viral genome also varies across cell lines, leading to significantly different levels of viral protein expression. Nevertheless, these cell lines share phenotypic similarities in cell morphology, growth characteristics, and neuroendocrine marker expression. Several low-passage MCV-positive MCC cell lines have been established since the identification of MCV. We describe a new MCV-positive MCV cell line, CVG-1, with features distinct from previously reported cell lines. CVG-1 tumor cells grow in more discohesive clusters in loose round cell suspension, and individual cells show dramatic size heterogeneity. It is the first cell line to encode an MCV sT polymorphism resulting in a unique leucine (L) to proline (P) substitution mutation at amino acid 144. CVG-1 possesses a LT truncation pattern near identical to that of MKL-1 cells differing by the last two C-terminal amino acids and also shows an LT protein expression level similar to MKL-1. Viral T antigen knockdown reveals that, like other MCV-positive MCC cell lines, CVG-1 requires T antigen expression for cell proliferation.

  19. 75 FR 32484 - Array-Based Cytogenetic Tests: Questions on Performance Evaluation, Result Reporting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...] Array-Based Cytogenetic Tests: Questions on Performance Evaluation, Result Reporting and Interpretation... public meeting: Array-Based Cytogenetic Tests: Questions on Performance Evaluation, Result Reporting and... cytogenetic tests. Date and Time: The meeting will be held on June 30, 2010, from 1:30 p.m. to 5 p.m. Location...

  20. Design, synthesis, X-ray studies, and biological evaluation of novel macrocyclic HIV-1 protease inhibitors involving the P1'-P2' ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Sean Fyvie, W.; Brindisi, Margherita; Steffey, Melinda; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Aoki, Manabu; Amano, Masayuki; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    Design, synthesis, and evaluation of a new class of HIV-1 protease inhibitors containing diverse flexible macrocyclic P1'-P2' tethers are reported. Inhibitor 5a with a pyrrolidinone-derived macrocycle exhibited favorable enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity (Ki = 13.2 nM, IC50 = 22 nM). Further incorporation of heteroatoms in the macrocyclic skeleton provided macrocyclic inhibitors 5m and 5o. These compounds showed excellent HIV-1 protease inhibitory (Ki = 62 pM and 14 pM, respectively) and antiviral activity (IC50 = 5.3 nM and 2.0 nM, respectively). Inhibitor 5o also remained highly potent against a DRV-resistant HIV-1 variant.

  1. Ingested Nitrate and Breast Cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Pollan, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Boldo, Elena; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Altzibar, Jone M.; Amiano, Pilar; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Guevara, Marcela; Molina, Antonio J.; Barrio, Juan Pablo; Gómez-Acebo, Ines; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Palau, Margarita; Muñoz, Montse; Font-Ribera, Laia; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ingested nitrate leads to endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds that are breast carcinogens in animals, but human evidence is limited. Objective: We evaluated ingested nitrate as a risk factor for breast cancer (BC) in a multicase–control study. Methods: Hospital-based incident BC cases and population-based controls were recruited in eight Spanish regions in 2008–2013; participants provided residential and water consumption from 18 years of age and information on known BC risk factors. Long-term nitrate levels (1940–2010) were estimated and linked with residential histories and water consumption to calculate waterborne ingested nitrate (milligrams/day). Dietary ingested nitrate (milligrams/day) was calculated using food frequency questionnaires and published dietary nitrate contents. Interactions with endogenous nitrosation factors and other variables were evaluated. A total of 1,245 cases and 1,520 controls were included in the statistical analysis. Results: Among the study regions, average ± SD waterborne ingested nitrate ranged from 2.9 ± 1.9 to 13.5 ± 7.5 mg/day, and dietary ingested nitrate ranged from 88.5 ± 48.7 to 154 ± 87.8 mg/day. Waterborne ingested nitrate was not associated with BC overall, but among postmenopausal women, those with both high nitrate (> 6 vs. Zabala AJ, Ardanaz E, Guevara M, Molina AJ, Barrio JP, Gómez-Acebo I, Tardón A, Peiró R, Chirlaque MD, Palau M, Muñoz M, Font-Ribera L, Castaño-Vinyals G, Kogevinas M, Villanueva CM. 2016. Ingested nitrate and breast cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain). Environ Health Perspect 124:1042–1049; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510334 PMID:26942716

  2. Materials Characterization Center meeting on impact testing of waste forms. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, M.D.; Atteridge, D.; Dudder, G.

    1981-10-01

    A meeting was held on March 25-26, 1981 to discuss impact test methods for waste form materials to be used in nuclear waste repositories. The purpose of the meeting was to obtain guidance for the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) in preparing the MCC-10 Impact Test Method to be approved by the Materials Review Board. The meeting focused on two essential aspects of the test method, namely the mechanical process, or impact, used to effect rapid fracture of a waste form and the analysis technique(s) used to characterize particulates generated by the impact

  3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of p,p'-dideuteriophenytoin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poupaert, J.H.; Guiot, P.; Dumont, P.

    1988-01-01

    A reaction sequence is described to synthesize p,p'-dideuteriophenytoin in three steps from commercially available starting materials. The deuterium content at best reached 99.2% as measured by mass spectrometry. For materials with isotopic content up to 95%, excellent agreement was found between the data obtained by mass spectrometry and /sup 13/C-nuclear magnetic resonance operated in a NOE-suppression mode. p,p'-Dideuteriophenytoin was evaluated comparatively with phenytoin and p-deuteriophenytoin in the maximal electroshock test. While all three compounds exhibited a high degree of antiepileptic activity, none of them demonstrated significant superiority over the others.

  4. Functionalization of Microcrystalline Cellulose with N,N-dimethyldodecylamine for the Removal of Congo Red Dye from an Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongying Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC was functionalized with quaternary amine groups for use as an adsorbent to remove Congo Red dye (CR from aqueous solution. The ultrasonic pretreatment of MCC was investigated during its functionalization. Characterization was conducted using infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The batch adsorption of the functionalized MCC was studied to evaluate the effects of dye concentration, pH of solution, temperature, and NaCl concentration on the adsorption CR. The adsorbent (FM-1 obtained using ultrasonic pretreatment of MCC under 10.8 kJ•g–1 exhibited an adsorption capacity of 304 mg•g–1 at initial pH under a dose of 0.1 g•L–1 and initial concentration of 80 mg•L–1. After functionalization, the FT-IR and XPS results indicated that the quaternary amine group was successfully grafted onto the cellulose, the surface was transformed to be coarse and porous, and the crystalline structure of the original cellulose was disrupted. FM-1 has been shown to be a promising and efficient adsorbent for the removal of CR from an aqueous solution.

  5. Evaluation report on CCTF core-I reflood test C1-19 (RUN 38)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Yoshio; Fujiki, Kazuo; Akimoto, Hajime

    1983-02-01

    A test named the Evaluation Model (EM) test was performed, whose test conditions were simulated the reflood phase predicted with the safety evaluation analysis. The test results were compared with the blindfold results predicted by Evaluation Model (EM) codes. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The core heat transfer model built in the EM codes gives conservative results. (2) The system models in the present EM codes are found to be well balanced integrally over the system. (3) Conservative items and items to be improved are pointed out. The downcomer slow water accumulation observed in the lower flow rate test was not appeared in the EM test. (author)

  6. The effect of resveratrol in combination with irradiation and chemotherapy. Study using Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiduschka, G.; Lill, C.; Brunner, M.; Thurnher, D.; Seemann, R.; Schmid, R.; Houben, R.; Bigenzahn, J.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, but highly malignant tumor of the skin. In case of systemic disease, possible therapeutic options include irradiation or chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the flavonoid resveratrol enhances the effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy in MCC cell lines. The two MCC cell lines MCC13 and MCC26 were treated with increasing doses of resveratrol. Combination experiments were conducted with cisplatin and etoposide. Colony forming assays were performed after sequential irradiation with 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 Gy and apoptosis was assessed with flow cytometry. Expression of cancer drug targets was analyzed by real-time PCR array. Resveratrol is cytotoxic in MCC cell lines. Cell growth is inhibited by induction of apoptosis. The combination with cisplatin and etoposide resulted in a partially synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation. Resveratrol and irradiation led to a synergistic reduction in colony formation compared to irradiation alone. Evaluation of gene expression did not show significant difference between the cell lines. Due to its radiosensitizing effect, resveratrol seems to be a promising agent in combination with radiation therapy. The amount of chemosensitizing depends on the cell lines tested. (orig.) [de

  7. Validation of a Standardized Multiple-Choice Multicultural Competence Test: Implications for Training, Assessment, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillem, Angela R.; Bartoli, Eleonora; Bertsch, Kristin N.; McCarthy, Maureen A.; Constant, Kerra; Marrero-Meisky, Sheila; Robbins, Steven J.; Bellamy, Scarlett

    2016-01-01

    The Multicultural Counseling and Psychotherapy Test (MCPT), a measure of multicultural counseling competence (MCC), was validated in 2 phases. In Phase 1, the authors administered 451 test items derived from multicultural guidelines in counseling and psychology to 32 multicultural experts and 30 nonexperts. In Phase 2, the authors administered the…

  8. The sit up test to exhaustion as a test for muscular endurance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonino; Lupo, Corrado; Alesi, Marianna; Spina, Serena; Raccuglia, Margherita; Thomas, Ewan; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the sit up test to exhaustion as a field test for muscular endurance evaluation in a sample of sedentary people of both sexes. A cross-sectional study was performed. Three-hundred-eighty-one participants volunteered for the study (28.5 ± 10.0 years; 168.2 ± 8.9 cm; 65.1 ± 11.1 kg), of which 194 males (27.5 ± 10.2 years; 173.6 ± 7.0 cm; 71.2 ± 5.2 kg) and 187 females (29.6 ± 10.1 years; 162.6 ± 7.1 cm; 58.7 ± 8.9 kg). Each subject voluntarily and randomly performed: a sit up test (SUT), a push up test (PUT), and a free weight squat test (ST), all till exhaustion. A multiple regression analysis was adopted for data analysis. Subsequently a percentile model for muscle endurance was developed. The 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile were identified as upper limit for low muscular endurance, average muscular endurance, and lower limit for high muscular endurance, respectively. Considering the sit up test as the dependent variable, the coefficients (R(2) = 0.23; r = 0.49; p squat test, respectively. Gender stratification showed regression coefficients of (R(2) = 0.19; r = 0.44; p < 0.001) for SUT vs. PUT, and (R(2) = 0.30; r = 0.56; p < 0.001) for SUT vs. ST in male; and (R(2) = 0.23; r = 0.49; p < 0.001) for SUT vs. PUT, and (R(2) = 0.34; r = 0.59; p < 0.001) for SUT vs. ST in female. The SUT showed low inter-relation with the other proposed tests indicating that the adoption of a single test for the global evaluation of muscle endurance is not the optimal approach. Moreover, the SUT was found to be inexpensive, safe, and appropriate for core muscle endurance measurement for both male and female.

  9. Evaluation of tube rupture simulation test (TRUST-1) for FBR steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, Yoshihiko; Hamada, Hirotsugu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1996-06-01

    The intermediate water leak in an FBR Steam Generator (SG) causes a high temperature and corrosive sodium-water reaction jet. In such cases, it is necessary to evaluate the wastage and overheating rupture behavior of heat transfer tubes. Especially, in the large SG that aims at high temperature of sodium and high temperature/pressure of water, the establishment of the rational evaluation method is important. In this paper, as a basic experiment to make clear the phenomenon of overheating rupture, tests and analysis of Tube Rupture Simulation Test-1 (TRUST-1) were conducted. TRUST-1 simulates the overheating rupture of the tube made of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel by nitrogen gas pressurization and quick induction heating. The result of TRUST-1 are as follows: (1) The breaking strength predicted by the internal pressure is larger than the tensile strength of the tube material. (2) The margin of the breaking strength from the tensile strength of the tube material has a tendency of decreasing with the heating rate, especially in the lower temperature region. (3) Using an theoretical formula that is deduced from the steady creep model and appropriate experimental coefficients that are determined by the test data, the breaking strength can be reasonably evaluated. (author)

  10. Population-based multicase-control study in common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain): rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Llorca, Javier; Moreno, Victor; Altzibar, Jone M; Ardanaz, Eva; de Sanjosé, Sílvia; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Tardón, Adonina; Alguacil, Juan; Peiró, Rosana; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Navarro, Carmen; Pollán, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-01-01

    We present the protocol of a large population-based case-control study of 5 common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain) that evaluates environmental exposures and genetic factors. Between 2008-2013, 10,183 persons aged 20-85 years were enrolled in 23 hospitals and primary care centres in 12 Spanish provinces including 1,115 cases of a new diagnosis of prostate cancer, 1,750 of breast cancer, 2,171 of colorectal cancer, 492 of gastro-oesophageal cancer, 554 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and 4,101 population-based controls matched by frequency to cases by age, sex and region of residence. Participation rates ranged from 57% (stomach cancer) to 87% (CLL cases) and from 30% to 77% in controls. Participants completed a face-to-face computerized interview on sociodemographic factors, environmental exposures, occupation, medication, lifestyle, and personal and family medical history. In addition, participants completed a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire and telephone interviews. Blood samples were collected from 76% of participants while saliva samples were collected in CLL cases and participants refusing blood extractions. Clinical information was recorded for cases and paraffin blocks and/or fresh tumor samples are available in most collaborating hospitals. Genotyping was done through an exome array enriched with genetic markers in specific pathways. Multiple analyses are planned to assess the association of environmental, personal and genetic risk factors for each tumor and to identify pleiotropic effects. This study, conducted within the Spanish Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), is a unique initiative to evaluate etiological factors for common cancers and will promote cancer research and prevention in Spain. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrical testing and performance evaluation of 1:1 prototype JET ELM control coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanabar, Deven, E-mail: deven@ipr.res.in; Roy, Swati; Ghate, Mahesh; Raj, Piyush; Kundu, Ananya; Kumar, Nitish; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Panchal, Arun; Pradhan, Subrata, E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • An appropriate 1:1 prototype Small and Large ELM coils for JET have been successfully manufactured using indigenous technologies. • ELM coils have been tested extensively to verify and validated their performance with respect to operational requirement of JET. • The test results confirm and validate the electrical performance of ELM coils. - Abstract: Magnet Technology Development Division at Institute for Plasma research is engaged in extensive R & D for appropriate technologies towards manufacturing of Edge Localized Mode (ELM) magnets for Large Tokamak such as Joint European Torus (JET) as well as for Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1). Under this project, manufacturing of 1:1 prototype of Large and Small JET ELM control coils (CC) is completed incorporating indigenously developed manufacturing and insulation technologies. Performance evaluation of both the types of coil has been completed for its current carrying capability and insulation resistance as required by various operational scenarios of JET. Experimental setups, test procedures and measurements for electrical characterization of both type of ELM control coil has been discussed in this paper.

  12. Electrical testing and performance evaluation of 1:1 prototype JET ELM control coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanabar, Deven; Roy, Swati; Ghate, Mahesh; Raj, Piyush; Kundu, Ananya; Kumar, Nitish; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Panchal, Arun; Pradhan, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An appropriate 1:1 prototype Small and Large ELM coils for JET have been successfully manufactured using indigenous technologies. • ELM coils have been tested extensively to verify and validated their performance with respect to operational requirement of JET. • The test results confirm and validate the electrical performance of ELM coils. - Abstract: Magnet Technology Development Division at Institute for Plasma research is engaged in extensive R & D for appropriate technologies towards manufacturing of Edge Localized Mode (ELM) magnets for Large Tokamak such as Joint European Torus (JET) as well as for Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1). Under this project, manufacturing of 1:1 prototype of Large and Small JET ELM control coils (CC) is completed incorporating indigenously developed manufacturing and insulation technologies. Performance evaluation of both the types of coil has been completed for its current carrying capability and insulation resistance as required by various operational scenarios of JET. Experimental setups, test procedures and measurements for electrical characterization of both type of ELM control coil has been discussed in this paper.

  13. Preliminary results of durability testing with borosilicate glass compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adel-Hadadi, M.; Adiga, R.; Barkatt, Aa.

    1987-01-01

    This is a report on the first year of research conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of the Catholic University of America in support of the West Valley Demonstration Project. One objective is the vitrification of liquid waste generated by previous nuclear fuel reprocessing. This work has been directed principally at the problem of glass composition optimization. This has necessitated the development of a coordinated program of glass production, durability measurements, and processability assessment. A small-scale continuous melter has been constructed for melting uranium and thorium containing glasses and for studying glass processing characteristics. Glass viscosities have been measured over a range of temperatures. A large number of glasses have also been produced in small crucible melts. Glass durability has been assessed using four types of leach tests: MCC-3, MCC-1, IAEA/ISO, and pulsed-flow tests. Extensive data from these tests are reported. The data have led to the design of very durable glasses (comparable to the Savannah River Laboratory Defense Waste Reference Glass) which have the requisite waste loading and processing characteristics. 14 refs., 4 figs., 77 tabs

  14. Evaluation of P availability from Fe and A1 labelled (32P) phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittencourt, V.S.

    1975-07-01

    Synthetically Fe and A1 labelled phosphates ( 32 P) show a certain amount of available P to the plants when applied to Sao Paulo State soils. This availability decreases from considered amorphous A1-phosphate (A1-P sub(am)) to A1 phosphate with a certain cristalinity grade (A1-P sub(cr)) and than from this to Fe-P sub(am) followed by Fe-P sub(cr), and it is influenced by both the soil characteristics and mainly by the iron constituents of the samples. In this way, one can not expect that the 0,05 N 2 H SO 4 and the CHANG and JACKSON (1957a) solutions can define properly the available P of these soils. The addition of lime to the soils do not drive to a better P absorption by the plants and its effects are dubious

  15. Calculations of Edwards' pipe blowdown tests using the code TRAC P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, R.

    1979-05-01

    The paper describes the results obtained using the non-thermal equilibrium LOCA code TRAC-P1 for two of a series of Pipe Blowdown Tests. Comparisons are made with the experimental values and RELAP-UK Mark IV predictions. Some discrepancies between prediction and experiment are observed, and certain aspects of the model are considered to warrant possible further attention. (U.K.)

  16. Evaluation of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingole N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTC provide counselling and blood testing facilities for HIV diagnosis. Oral fluid tests provide an alternative for people whodo not want blood to be drawn. Also, it avoids the risk of occupational exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out after ethics committee approval in 250 adult ICTC clients. Blood was collected and tested from these clients for HIV diagnosis as per routine policy and the results were considered as the gold standard. Also, after another written informed consent, oral fluid was collected from the clients and tested for the presence of HIV antibodies. Twenty five clients who had and 25 clients who had not completed their secondary school education (Group A and Group B, respectively were also asked to perform and interpret the test on their own and their findings and experiences were noted. Result: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the oral fluid antibody test were 100%, 98.51%, 94.11% and 100%, respectively. Seventy six percent of clients preferred oral fluid testing. Group B found it difficult to perform the test as compared to Group A and this difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Oral fluid testing can be used as a screening test for HIV diagnosis; however, confirmation of reactive results by blood-based tests is a must.

  17. Hardware in the loop testing and evaluation of seaborne search radars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, JJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available for independent testing and evaluation of radar systems. The CSIR digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) hardware technology is used as the basis of these test systems. DRFM's are traditionally used for EW applications, but processing power of field programmable... environment simulation (RES) on digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) platforms can be utilised to test the performance of a search radar in a sea clutter Y ra n ge X r a n g e S h a p e p a r a m e t e r 0 1 2 3 4 x 1 0 4 - 3 - 2 - 1...

  18. SIRU utilization. Volume 1: Theory, development and test evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musoff, H.

    1974-01-01

    The theory, development, and test evaluations of the Strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (SIRU) are discussed. The statistical failure detection and isolation, single position calibration, and self alignment techniques are emphasized. Circuit diagrams of the system components are provided. Mathematical models are developed to show the performance characteristics of the subsystems. Specific areas of the utilization program are identified as: (1) error source propagation characteristics and (2) local level navigation performance demonstrations.

  19. Quality-by-design (QbD): effects of testing parameters and formulation variables on the segregation tendency of pharmaceutical powder measured by the ASTM D 6940-04 segregation tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lin; Wu, Huiquan; Shen, Meiyu; Augsburger, Larry L; Lyon, Robbe C; Khan, Mansoor A; Hussain, Ajaz S; Hoag, Stephen W

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of testing parameters and formulation variables on the segregation tendency of pharmaceutical powders measured by the ASTM D 6940-04 segregation tester using design of experiments (DOE) approaches. The test blends consisted of 4% aspirin (ASP) and 96% microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with and without magnesium stearate (MgS). The segregation tendency of a blend was determined by measuring the last/first (L/F) ratio, the ratio of aspirin concentrations between the first and last samples discharged from the tester. A 2(2) factorial design was used to determine the effects of measurement parameters [amount of material loaded (W), number of segregation cycles] with number of replicates 6. ANOVA showed that W was a critical parameter for segregation testing. The L/F value deviated further from 1 (greater segregation tendency) with increasing W. A 2(3) full factorial design was used to assess the effects of formulation variables: grade of ASP (unmilled, milled), grade of MCC, and amount of lubricant, MgS. MLR and ANOVA showed that the grade of ASP was the main effect contributing to segregation tendency. Principal Component Regression Analysis established a correlation between L/F and the physical properties of the blend related to ASP and MCC, the ASP/MCC particle size ratio (PSR) and powder cohesion. The physical properties of the blend related to density and flow were not influenced by the grade of ASP and were not related to the segregation tendency of the blend. The direct relationship between L/F and PSR was determined by univariate analysis. Segregation tendency increased as the ASP to MCC particle size increased. This study highlighted critical test parameters for segregation testing and identified critical physical properties of the blends that influence segregation tendency. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  20. una explotación del método MCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Guijarro Garvi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Las cadenas de Markov son una potente herramienta estadística para el estudio de la dinámica temporal y espacial de la movilidad. Sin embargo, su formulación original difícilmente se adecua a la situación que se analiza a consecuencia de los rígidos supuestos de los que parte. En este trabajo se exponen algunos métodos que relajan uno de esos supuestos: el de homogeneidad en el tiempo. En particular, nos detendremos en una técnica que, a pesar de su elevado potencial en el análisis dinámico- espacial, apenas ha recibido atención en la literatura dedicada a procesos estocásticos, que se conoce como método de matrices causativas constantes (MCC, y que será explotado en este trabajo con la intención de captar el efecto diferencial de los desplazamientos intra-regionales en España en la interpretación de los resultados de este modelo.

  1. Glycosylation of DMP1 Is Essential for Chondrogenesis of Condylar Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Y; Liu, Y; Du, H; Li, L; Jing, B; Zhang, Q; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Sun, Y

    2017-12-01

    The mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) shoulders force for the subchondral bone during mastication. The cartilage matrix contains various large molecules, such as type I, II, and X collagens and proteoglycans (PGs), which jointly play essential roles in maintaining cartilage characteristics. PGs play key roles in maintaining the elasticity of cartilage and providing a cushion against mastication forces. In addition to the well-known PGs, DMP1-PG, which is the PG form of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), is a newly identified PG. DMP1 is proteolytically processed in vivo, and the N-terminus is glycosylated into its PG form-that is, DMP1-PG, which is highly expressed not only in tooth and bone but also in the matrix of the MCC. However, the specific functions of DMP1-PG in the MCC remain unclear. In human temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis and hyperocclusion model rat specimens, PGs are significantly downregulated, and DMP1-PG is the most prominently affected PG. To further investigate the role of DMP1-PG in condylar chondrogenesis, a glycosylation site mutant (S 89 -G 89 ) mouse model was established with knock-in methods. In the MCC of the S89G-DMP1 mice, the glycosylation level of DMP1 was significantly downregulated, and a series of abnormal developmental and pathologic changes could be observed. The morphologic changes included thinner cartilage layers, deformations of the MCC, and disordered arrangements of the chondrocytes, and an earlier onset of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis-like changes was observed. In addition, markers of chondrogenesis were downregulated, and the matrix of the MCC displayed OA phenotypes in the S89G-DMP1 mice. Further investigations showed that the transforming growth factor β signaling molecules were affected in the MCC after the loss of DMP1-PG. In addition, the loss of DMP1-PG significantly accelerated the progression of cartilage injuries in the hyperocclusion models. Given these findings, we investigated the significant

  2. Study of effect of grain size on dust charging in an RF plasma using three-dimensional PIC-MCC simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikkurthi, V. R.; Melzer, A.; Matyash, K.; Schneider, R.

    2008-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Particle-Particle Particle-Mesh (P 3 M) code is applied to study the charging process of micrometer size dust grains confined in a capacitive RF discharge. In our model, particles (electrons and ions) are treated kinetically (Particle-in-Cell with Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC-MCC)). In order to accurately resolve the plasma particles' motion close to the dust grain, the PIC technique is supplemented with Molecular Dynamics (MD), employing an an analytic electrostatic potential for the interaction with the dust grain. This allows to self-consistently resolve the dust grain charging due to absorption of plasma electrons and ions. The charging of dust grains confined above lower electrode in a capacitive RF discharge and its dependence on the size and position of the dust is investigated. The results have been compared with laboratory measurements

  3. Sustainable measures for sewage sludge treatment - evaluating the effects on P reaction in soils and plant P uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, Moshe; Einhoren, Hana

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater treatment, whether for water reusing or for releasing into the environment, results in sewage sludge rich in organic matter and nutrients. If free of pathogens and pollutants, this waste material is a widely used as soil amendment and source of valuable nutrients for agronomic use. Nevertheless, its P/N ratio largely exceeds plant P/N demand. Limiting its application rates according to the P demand of crops will largely limit its application rates and its beneficial effect as a soil amendment and as a source for other nutrients. An alternative approach, in which P is stabilized before application, was evaluated in this study. Anaerobically digested fresh sewage sludge (FSS) was stabilized by aluminum sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and calcium oxide (CaO), as well as by composting with shredded woody yard-waste to produce Al-FSS, Fe-FSS, CaO-FSS, and FSS-compost, respectively. Defined organic-P sources (glucose-1-phosphate and inositol-hexa-phosphate) and a P fertilizer (KH2PO4) were included as well and a control with no P amendments was included as a reference. Each material was applied at a fixed P load of 50 mg kg-1 to each of three soils and P speciation and plants P uptake were tested along 112 days of incubation at moderate (near field capacity) water content. Tomato seedlings were used for the P uptake test. The large set of data was used to evaluate the effect of each treatment on P reactions and mechanisms of retention in the tested soils and to correlate various P indices to P availability for plants. Plant P uptake was highly correlated to Olsen-P as well as to water-soluble inorganic-P, but not to water-soluble organic-P and not to total P or other experimentally-defined stable P fractions. We conclude that the P stabilization in the sludge will allow beneficial and sustainable use of sewage sludge as a soil amendment and source of nutrients, but the stabilization method should be selected in accordance with the target soil properties.

  4. Evaluation and enhancement of physical stability of semi-solid dispersions containing piroxicam into hard gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Ayşegül; Bekmezci, Serife

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the physical stability of the semi-solid dispersions into the hard gelatine capsules prepared with Gelucire 44/14, Labrasol and different additives such as microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), mannitol and lactose (alpha-monohydrate) used for enhancing the stability of the formulations. The master dispersion prepared with only Gelucire 44/14 (20% w/w) and Labrasol (80% w/w) was stored in a refrigerator (5 +/- 3 degrees C), while the modified dispersions with the additives (2% w/w) were kept in a climatic chamber (25 +/- 2 degrees C / 60 +/- 5% RH) for 12 months. Dissolution tests of the semi-solid dispersions were performed in media with different pH's immediatly after preparation and after 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. FTIR and DSC studies were also carried out at the same time points. The ideal storage condition for the master dispersion was found to be at 5 degrees C. The addition of MCC, mannitol and lactose (alpha-monohydrate) to the original dispersion afforded a solidification effect on the formulation at room temperature and showed the same dissolution behavior (not less than 85% of piroxicam within 30 min in pH 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8; and water) with the master. The dispersion including lactose was stable at 25 degrees C for 12 months. However, the ideal period of storage for the modified dispersions including MCC and mannitol was 6 months at 25 degrees C. FTIR and DSC results both confirmed the amorphous state of piroxicam in all semi-solid dispersions under storage conditions for 12 months.

  5. pMPES: A Modular Peptide Expression System for the Delivery of Antimicrobial Peptides to the Site of Gastrointestinal Infections Using Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Geldart

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are a promising alternative to traditional antibiotics, but their utility is limited by high production costs and poor bioavailability profiles. Bacterial production and delivery of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs directly at the site of infection may offer a path for effective therapeutic application. In this study, we have developed a vector that can be used for the production and secretion of seven antimicrobial peptides from both Escherichia coli MC1061 F’ and probiotic E.coli Nissle 1917. The vector pMPES (Modular Peptide Expression System employs the Microcin V (MccV secretion system and a powerful synthetic promoter to drive AMP production. Herein, we demonstrate the capacity of pMPES to produce inhibitory levels of MccV, Microcin L (MccL, Microcin N (McnN, Enterocin A (EntA, Enterocin P (EntP, Hiracin JM79 (HirJM79 and Enterocin B (EntB. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of such a broadly-applicable secretion system for AMP production. This type of modular expression system could expedite the development of sorely needed antimicrobial technologies

  6. Fabrication and characterization of regenerated cellulose films obtained from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Amalini, A.; Melina Cheah, M. Y.; Wan Rosli, W. D.; Hayati, S.; Mohamad Haafiz, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Development of regenerated cellulose (RC) derived from underutilized cellulosic biomass has recently gained attention as potential petroleum-based polymer replacers. The objective of this current work is to evaluate the properties of RC films obtained from oil palm empty fruit bunch microcrystalline cellulose (OPEFB-MCC) through environmental process. The RC films were fabricated by using different amounts of OPEFB-MCC (4, 6 and 8 %) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) was used as green OPEFB-MCC dissolving medium. The resultant RC films were then characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, mechanical, thermal and morphological properties by using tensile test, differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. Increase in OPEFB-MCC amounts from 4 to 8 % enhanced the tensile strength and elongation at break of RC by 101 and 78 %, respectively, indicating stronger and more flexible films were formed. It is interesting to note that the Tg (101-154 °C) and Tm(130-187 °C) were found shifted to higher temperature with higher proportions of OPEFB-MCC in RC films. Meanwhile, FTIR analysis showed no new peak presented in RC films, suggesting that BMIMCl is a non-derivatizing solvent to OPEFB-MCC. Conspicuous changes in the spectra of RC films compared to OPEFB-MCC at 3200-3600 cm-1, 1430 cm-1, 1162 cm-1, 1111 cm-1, 1020-1040 cm-1 and 896 cm-1 were associated with transformation of cellulose I to cellulose II structure or/and decrease in crystallinity occurred after regeneration process. SEM micrographs of the RC films revealed that higher OPEFB-MCC contents exhibited smoother and more homogeneous surfaces morphology. Overall, OPEFB-MCC exhibited good film forming ability for RC production and may offer potential application in various industries including food packaging, medical goods and electronic devices.

  7. Evaluation of dengue NS1 antigen rapid tests and ELISA kits using clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhamoy Pal

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV infection can improve clinical outcomes by ensuring close follow-up, initiating appropriate supportive therapies and raising awareness to the potential of hemorrhage or shock. Non-structural glycoprotein-1 (NS1 has proven to be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of dengue. A number of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs targeting NS1 antigen (Ag are now commercially available. Here we evaluated these tests using a well-characterized panel of clinical samples to determine their effectiveness for early diagnosis.Retrospective samples from South America were used to evaluate the following tests: (i "Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP" and (ii "Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag ELISA" (Bio-Rad, France, (iii "Dengue NS1 Detect Rapid Test (1st Generation" and (iv "DENV Detect NS1 ELISA" (InBios International, United States, (v "Panbio Dengue Early Rapid (1st generation" (vi "Panbio Dengue Early ELISA (2nd generation" and (vii "SD Bioline Dengue NS1 Ag Rapid Test" (Alere, United States. Overall, the sensitivity of the RDTs ranged from 71.9%-79.1% while the sensitivity of the ELISAs varied between 85.6-95.9%, using virus isolation as the reference method. Most tests had lower sensitivity for DENV-4 relative to the other three serotypes, were less sensitive in detecting secondary infections, and appeared to be most sensitive on Day 3-4 post symptom onset. The specificity of all evaluated tests ranged from 95%-100%.ELISAs had greater overall sensitivity than RDTs. In conjunction with other parameters, the performance data can help determine which dengue diagnostics should be used during the first few days of illness, when the patients are most likely to present to a clinic seeking care.

  8. Examining publication bias—a simulation-based evaluation of statistical tests on publication bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schneck

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Publication bias is a form of scientific misconduct. It threatens the validity of research results and the credibility of science. Although several tests on publication bias exist, no in-depth evaluations are available that examine which test performs best for different research settings. Methods Four tests on publication bias, Egger’s test (FAT, p-uniform, the test of excess significance (TES, as well as the caliper test, were evaluated in a Monte Carlo simulation. Two different types of publication bias and its degree (0%, 50%, 100% were simulated. The type of publication bias was defined either as file-drawer, meaning the repeated analysis of new datasets, or p-hacking, meaning the inclusion of covariates in order to obtain a significant result. In addition, the underlying effect (β = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, effect heterogeneity, the number of observations in the simulated primary studies (N = 100, 500, and the number of observations for the publication bias tests (K = 100, 1,000 were varied. Results All tests evaluated were able to identify publication bias both in the file-drawer and p-hacking condition. The false positive rates were, with the exception of the 15%- and 20%-caliper test, unbiased. The FAT had the largest statistical power in the file-drawer conditions, whereas under p-hacking the TES was, except under effect heterogeneity, slightly better. The CTs were, however, inferior to the other tests under effect homogeneity and had a decent statistical power only in conditions with 1,000 primary studies. Discussion The FAT is recommended as a test for publication bias in standard meta-analyses with no or only small effect heterogeneity. If two-sided publication bias is suspected as well as under p-hacking the TES is the first alternative to the FAT. The 5%-caliper test is recommended under conditions of effect heterogeneity and a large number of primary studies, which may be found if publication bias is examined in a

  9. Comparison of Akt/mTOR/4E-BP1 pathway signal activation and mutations of PIK3CA in Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive and Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Takeshi; Matsushita, Michiko; Nonaka, Daisuke; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Kato, Masako; Murakami, Ichiro; Nagata, Keiko; Nakajima, Hideki; Sano, Shigetoshi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-02-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrates monoclonally into the genomes of approximately 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs), affecting their clinicopathological features. The molecular mechanisms underlying MCC development after MCPyV infection remain unclear. We investigated the association of MCPyV infection with activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) signaling pathway in MCCs to elucidate the role of these signal transductions and to identify molecular targets for treatment. We analyzed the molecular and pathological characteristics of 41 MCPyV-positive and 27 MCPyV-negative MCCs. Expression of mTOR, TSC1, and TSC2 messenger RNA was significantly higher in MCPyV-negative MCCs, and Akt (T308) phosphorylation also was significantly higher (92% vs 66%; P = .019), whereas 4E-BP1 (S65 and T70) phosphorylation was common in both MCC types (92%-100%). The expression rates of most other tested signals were high (60%-100%) and not significantly correlated with MCPyV large T antigen expression. PIK3CA mutations were observed more frequently in MCPyV-positive MCCs (6/36 [17%] vs 2/20 [10%]). These results suggest that protein expression (activation) of most Akt/mTOR/4E-BP1 pathway signals was not significantly different in MCPyV-positive and MCPyV-negative MCCs, although these 2 types may differ in tumorigenesis, and MCPyV-negative MCCs showed significantly more frequent p-Akt (T308) activation. Therefore, certain Akt/mTOR/4E-BP1 pathway signals could be novel therapeutic targets for MCC regardless of MCPyV infection status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. New test method for the evaluation of the preservation efficacy of soaps at very alkaline pH made by saponification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Témoin-Fardini, S; Servant, J; Sellam, S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a test method to evaluate the preservation efficacy for a specific product, a very high-alkaline liquid soap (pH around 10) made by a saponification process. Several manufacturers have experienced contamination issues with these high-pH soaps despite passing a classic preservative efficacy challenge test or even a multi-inoculation challenge test. Bacteria were isolated from contaminated soaps and were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. High-alkaline-pH unpreserved soaps were tested using the Thor Personal Care internal multichallenge test method (TM206) with classical microorganisms and then with the bacterial strains isolated from various contaminated soaps (TM768). Preservatives were added to these soaps and assessed for their efficacy using the newly developed test. Four different species of bacteria (Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, Dermacoccus sp., Halomonas sp. and Roseomonas sp.) were identified by sequencing among the contaminants of the various soaps tested. Among these, only one bacterial species, Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, appeared to be responsible for the specific contamination of these high-alkaline soaps. Thus, one specific wild-type strain of Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, named as strain 768, was used in a new multi-inoculation test (TM768). Unlike the single inoculation challenge test, the multi-inoculation test using the Nesterenkonia strain 768 was able to predict the sensitivity of a product towards this bacterium. Among the 27 different preservatives tested, 10 were able to protect the formula against contamination with this bacterium. This study enabled the development of a test method to evaluate the efficacy of preservation using a specific bacterium, Nesterenkonia lacusekhoensis, responsible for the contamination of very alkaline soaps made by saponification and identify an appropriate preservative system. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Nupec thermal hydraulic test to evaluate post-DNB characteristics for PWR fuel assemblies (1. general test plan and results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norio, Kono; Kenji, Murai; Kaichiro, Misima; Takayuki, Suemura; Yoshiei, Akiyama; Keiichi, Hori

    2001-01-01

    In the present thermal hydraulic design of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), a departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) under anticipated transient conditions is not allowed. However, it is recognized that the DNB dose not cause a fuel rod failure immediately, and a suitable reactor trip can prevent the core from severe damages. If the fuel rod temperature under the post-DNB conditions can be accurately evaluated, the potentially existing margin in the present design method will be quantitatively assessed. To establish the heat transfer evaluation method on post-DNB event for PWR thermal hydraulic design, Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) started a program, NUPEC Thermal Hydraulic Test to Evaluate Post-DNB Characteristics for PWR Fuel Assemblies (NUPEC-TH-P), in 1995 (hereinafter the year means fiscal year) under the sponsorship of Ministry of Economy, Trade and industry (METI). This program is now under going until 2001. This paper is to show the overall plan and the status of NUPEC-TH-P. (authors)

  12. Role of diagnostic tests in esophageal evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstein, B.D.; Pope, C.E. II

    1980-01-01

    In the evaluation of esophageal disease, the appropriate question must be asked before the correct tests can be selected. Reflux can be demonstrated by radiologic methods, pH testing or radioisotopic techniques. Esophageal mucosal damage is best evaluated by x-ray, endoscopy, or biopsy. Chest pain is demonstrated by acid infusion or by manometry. Two algorithms are presented for the evaluation of chest pain and reflux symptoms

  13. Accurate, Fast and Cost-Effective Diagnostic Test for Monosomy 1p36 Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricila da Silva Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5–0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH, which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs.

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Speech Recognition Test for Persian Speaking Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mosleh

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Method and Materials: This research is carried out for development and evaluation of 25 phonemically balanced word lists for Persian speaking adults in two separate stages: development and evaluation. In the first stage, in order to balance the lists phonemically, frequency -of- occurrences of each 29phonems (6 vowels and 23 Consonants of the Persian language in adults speech are determined. This section showed some significant differences between some phonemes' frequencies. Then, all Persian monosyllabic words extracted from the Mo ‘in Persian dictionary. The semantically difficult words were refused and the appropriate words choosed according to judgment of 5 adult native speakers of Persian with high school diploma. 12 openset 25 word lists are prepared. The lists were recorded on magnetic tapes in an audio studio by a professional speaker of IRIB. "nIn the second stage, in order to evaluate the test's validity and reliability, 60 normal hearing adults (30 male, 30 female, were randomly selected and evaluated as test and retest. Findings: 1- Normal hearing adults obtained 92-1 0O scores for each list at their MCL through test-retest. 2- No significant difference was observed a/ in test-retest scores in each list (‘P>O.05 b/ between the lists at test or retest scores (P>0.05, c/between sex (P>0.05. Conclusion: This research is reliable and valid, the lists are phonemically balanced and equal in difficulty and valuable for evaluation of Persian speaking adults speech recognition.

  15. Association of Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P Receptor-1 Pathway with Cell Proliferation and Survival in Canine Hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A M; Graef, A J; LeVine, D N; Cohen, I R; Modiano, J F; Kim, J-H

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a key biolipid signaling molecule that regulates cell growth and survival, but it has not been studied in tumors from dogs. S1P/S1P1 signaling will contribute to the progression of hemangiosarcoma (HSA). Thirteen spontaneous HSA tissues, 9 HSA cell lines, 8 nonmalignant tissues, including 6 splenic hematomas and 2 livers with vacuolar degeneration, and 1 endothelial cell line derived from a dog with splenic hematoma were used. This was a retrospective case series and in vitro study. Samples were obtained as part of medically necessary diagnostic procedures. Microarray, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblotting were performed to examine S1P1 expression. S1P concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. S1P signaling was evaluated by intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization; proliferation and survival were evaluated using the MTS assay and Annexin V staining. Canine HSA cells expressed higher levels of S1P1 mRNA than nonmalignant endothelial cells. S1P1 protein was present in HSA tissues and cell lines. HSA cells appeared to produce low levels of S1P, but they selectively consumed S1P from the culture media. Exogenous S1P induced an increase in intracellular calcium as well as increased proliferation and viability of HSA cells. Prolonged treatment with FTY720, an inhibitor of S1P1 , decreased S1P1 protein expression and induced apoptosis of HSA cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling pathway functions to maintain HSA cell viability and proliferation. The data suggest that S1P1 or the S1P pathway in general could be targets for therapeutic intervention for dogs with HSA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Stereo Evaluation of CARTOSAT-1 Data on Test Site 5 - First DLR Results

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Manfred; Müller, Rupert; Reinartz, Peter

    2006-01-01

    DLR's Remote Sensing Technology Institute has more than 20 years of history in developing spaceborne stereo scanners (MEOSS, MOMS) and the corresponding stereo evaluation software systems. The institute takes part in CARTOSAT-1 Scientific Assessment Program (C-SAP) as a principal investigator for German (Southeast Bavaria, test site not yet included in the C-SAP list) and Spanish (Catalonia, TS10) test sites for which also PI evaluations for SPOT-5 HRS SAP had been done in 2003-4. As CARTO...

  17. Laboratory-based testing to evaluate abuse-deterrent formulations and satisfy the Food and Drug Administration's recommendation for Category 1 Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Christopher; Kinzler, Eric R; Buchhalter, August R; Cone, Edward J; Costantino, Anthony

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of solid oral dosage forms a public health priority and has outlined a series of premarket studies that should be performed prior to submitting an application to the Agency. Category 1 studies are performed to characterize whether the abuse-deterrent properties of a new formulation can be easily defeated. Study protocols are designed to evaluate common abuse patterns of prescription medications as well as more advanced methods that have been reported on drug abuse websites and forums. Because FDA believes Category 1 testing should fully characterize the abuse-deterrent characteristics of an investigational formulation, Category 1 testing is time consuming and requires specialized laboratory resources as well as advanced knowledge of prescription medication abuse. Recent Advisory Committee meetings at FDA have shown that Category 1 tests play a critical role in FDA's evaluation of an investigational formulation. In this article, we will provide a general overview of the methods of manipulation and routes of administration commonly utilized by prescription drug abusers, how those methods and routes are evaluated in a laboratory setting, and discuss data intake, analysis, and reporting to satisfy FDA's Category 1 testing requirements.

  18. PD-L1 blockade with avelumab: A new paradigm for treating Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkdull, Savannah; Brownell, Isaac

    2017-12-02

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. Until recently, no durable treatment options were available for patients with advanced disease. As an immunogenic cancer, MCC was hypothesized to be a candidate for PD-L1/PD-1 targeted therapy. On March 23, 2017 the US Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval for avelumab, an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, for the treatment of metastatic MCC on the basis of the JAVELIN Merkel 200 trial. Here we examine the results and implications of this pivotal study, published in Lancet Oncology by Kaufman et al., as well as current developments in the use of immune-checkpoint therapies for treating patients with MCC.

  19. Component Fragility Research Program: Phase 1, Demonstration tests: Volume 1, Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.; Shipway, G.D.; Glozman, V.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes tests performed in Phase I of the NRC Component Fragility Research Program. The purpose of these tests was to demonstrate procedures for characterizing the seismic fragility of a selected component, investigating how various parameters affect fragility, and finally using test data to develop practical fragility descriptions suitable for application in probabilistic risk assessments. A three-column motor control center housing motor controllers of various types and sizes as well as relays of different types and manufacturers was subjected to seismic input motions up to 2.5g zero period acceleration. To investigate the effect of base flexibility on the structural behavior of the MCC and on the functional behavior of the electrical devices, multiple tests were performed on each of four mounting configurations: four bolts per column with top bracking, four bolts per column with no top brace, four bolts per column with internal diagonal bracking, and two bolts per column with no top or internal bracking. Device fragility was characterized by contact chatter correlated to local in-cabinet response at the device location. Seismic capacities were developed for each device on the basis of local input motion required to cause chatter; these results were then applied to develop probabilistic fragility curves for each type of device, including estimates of the ''high-confidence low probability of failure'' capacity of each

  20. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  1. Lesotho - Urban and Peri-Urban Water and Metolong Dam

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Early on, MCC and the evaluator decided to focus the Urban and Peri-Urban Water evaluation on Package 1 infrastructure, which benefited Maseru and Mazenod. MCC later...

  2. Demographics and Outcomes of Stage I-II Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treated with Mohs Micrographic Surgery Compared with Wide Local Excision in the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Babu; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Truong, Minh Tam; Sahni, Debjani

    2018-02-03

    The optimal surgical approach (wide local excision (WLE) vs. Mohs micrographic surgery (MOHS)) for treating Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is yet to be determined. To compare survival outcomes in patients with early stage MCC treated with MOHS versus WLE. A retrospective review of all cases in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) of MCC of clinical Stage I-II MCC treated with WLE or MOHS was performed. 1,795 cases of Stage I-II MCC were identified who underwent WLE (N=1,685) or MOHS (N=110). There was no difference in residual tumor on surgical margins between the two treatment groups (p=0.588). On multivariate analysis, there was no difference in overall survival between the treatment modalities (adjusted HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.72-1.45, p=0.897). There was no difference in overall survival between the two groups on propensity score matched analysis. Disease specific survival was not reported as this data in not available in the NCDB. MOHS appears to be as effective as WLE in treating early stage MCC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The effect of resveratrol in combination with irradiation and chemotherapy. Study using Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiduschka, G. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Clinical Pharmacology, Vienna (Austria); Lill, C.; Brunner, M.; Thurnher, D. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Seemann, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Schmid, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Radiotherapy and -biology, Vienna (Austria); Houben, R. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Dermatology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Bigenzahn, J. [CeMM-Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-01-15

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, but highly malignant tumor of the skin. In case of systemic disease, possible therapeutic options include irradiation or chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the flavonoid resveratrol enhances the effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy in MCC cell lines. The two MCC cell lines MCC13 and MCC26 were treated with increasing doses of resveratrol. Combination experiments were conducted with cisplatin and etoposide. Colony forming assays were performed after sequential irradiation with 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 Gy and apoptosis was assessed with flow cytometry. Expression of cancer drug targets was analyzed by real-time PCR array. Resveratrol is cytotoxic in MCC cell lines. Cell growth is inhibited by induction of apoptosis. The combination with cisplatin and etoposide resulted in a partially synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation. Resveratrol and irradiation led to a synergistic reduction in colony formation compared to irradiation alone. Evaluation of gene expression did not show significant difference between the cell lines. Due to its radiosensitizing effect, resveratrol seems to be a promising agent in combination with radiation therapy. The amount of chemosensitizing depends on the cell lines tested. (orig.) [German] Das Merkelzellkarzinom (MCC) ist ein seltener, jedoch hochmaligner Tumor der Haut. Sowohl Strahlentherapie oder Chemotherapie sind moegliche therapeutische Optionen. In dieser Studie wurde untersucht, ob das Flavonoid Resveratrol die Wirkung der Strahlen- oder Chemotherapie in MCC-Zelllinien verbessert. Die beiden MCC-Zelllinien MCC13 und MCC26 wurden mit ansteigenden Dosen von Resveratrol behandelt. Kombinationsexperimente wurden mit Cisplatin und Etoposid durchgefuehrt und die Koloniebildung in ''Colony-Forming''-Assays nach erfolgter sequentieller Bestrahlung mit 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 und 8 Gy gemessen. Desweiteren wurde die Apoptose mittels Durchflusszytometrie bestimmt. Die

  4. Presence of pRI1:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Hasman, Henrik; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the molecular characterization of a small cryptic, mobilizable plasmid (6038 bp) sequenced from an E. faecium 9631160-1 of poultry origin. Sequence analysis of pRI1 revealed seven open reading frames. pRI1 contained an IS 100% identical to ISEfa4. This insertion element...... almost identical to the repA from the pEFNP1 and pKQ10 plasmids from E. faecium was also identified. Presence of the pRI1 replication initiation gene (rep) was analyzed in a panel of 159 E. faecium isolates of human and animal origin from different European countries, of which 60 tested positive...

  5. Merkel Cell Carcinomas Arising in Autoimmune Disease Affected Patients Treated with Biologic Drugs, Including Anti-TNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, John Charles; Bononi, Ilaria; Puozzo, Andrea; Govoni, Marcello; Foschi, Valentina; Lanza, Giovanni; Gafà, Roberta; Gaboriaud, Pauline; Touzé, Françoise Antoine; Selvatici, Rita; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to characterize Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) arisen in patients affected by autoimmune diseases and treated with biologic drugs. Experimental Design: Serum samples from patients with MCC were analyzed for the presence and titer of antibodies against antigens of the oncogenic Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). IgG antibodies against the viral oncoproteins large T (LT) and small T (ST) antigens and the viral capsid protein-1 were analyzed by indirect ELISA. Viral antigens were recombinant LT/ST and virus-like particles (VLP), respectively. MCPyV DNA sequences were studied using PCR methods in MCC tissues and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were carried out in MCC tissues to reveal MCPyV LT oncoprotein. Results: MCPyV DNA sequences identified in MCC tissues showed 100% homology with the European MKL-1 strain. PBMCs from patients tested MCPyV-negative. Viral DNA loads in the three MCC tissues were in the 0.1 to 30 copy/cell range. IgG antibodies against LT/ST were detected in patients 1 and 3, whereas patient 2 did not react to the MCPyV LT/ST antigen. Sera from the three patients with MCC contained IgG antibodies against MCPyV VP1. MCC tissues tested MCPyV LT-antigen-positive in IHC assays, with strong LT expression with diffuse nuclear localization. Normal tissues tested MCPyV LT-negative when employed as control. Conclusions: We investigated three new MCCs in patients affected by rheumatologic diseases treated with biologic drugs, including TNF. A possible cause-effect relationship between pharmacologic immunosuppressive treatment and MCC onset is suggested. Indeed, MCC is associated with MCPyV LT oncoprotein activity. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3929-34. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. IN-MACA-MCC: Integrated Multiple Attractor Cellular Automata with Modified Clonal Classifier for Human Protein Coding and Promoter Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sree Pokkuluri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein coding and promoter region predictions are very important challenges of bioinformatics (Attwood and Teresa, 2000. The identification of these regions plays a crucial role in understanding the genes. Many novel computational and mathematical methods are introduced as well as existing methods that are getting refined for predicting both of the regions separately; still there is a scope for improvement. We propose a classifier that is built with MACA (multiple attractor cellular automata and MCC (modified clonal classifier to predict both regions with a single classifier. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with Fickett and Tung (1992 datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 54, 108, and 162. This classifier is trained and tested with MMCRI datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 252 and 354. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with promoter sequences from DBTSS (Yamashita et al., 2006 dataset and nonpromoters from EID (Saxonov et al., 2000 and UTRdb (Pesole et al., 2002 datasets. The proposed model can predict both regions with an average accuracy of 90.5% for promoter and 89.6% for protein coding region predictions. The specificity and sensitivity values of promoter and protein coding region predictions are 0.89 and 0.92, respectively.

  7. Novel speed test for evaluation of badminton-specific movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Christian M; Karlsen, Anders; Nybo, Lars

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we developed a novel badminton-specific speed test (BST). The test was designed to mimic match play. The test starts in the center of the court and consists of 5 maximal actions to sensors located in each of the 4 corners of the court. The 20 actions are performed in randomized order as dictated by computer screen shots displayed 1 second after completion of the previous action. We assessed day-to-day variation in elite players, and specificity of the test was evaluated by comparing 30-m sprint performance and time to complete the BST in 20 elite players, 21 skilled players, and 20 age-matched physical active subjects (non-badminton players). Sprint performance was similar across groups, whereas the elite players were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) faster in the BST (total test time: 32.3 ± 1.1 seconds; average: 1.6 seconds per action) than the skilled (34.1 ± 2.0 seconds) and non-badminton players (35.7 ± 1.7 seconds). Day-to-day coefficient of variation (CV) of the BST was 0.7% for the elite players, whereas CV for repeated tests on the same day was 1.7% for elite, 2.6% for skilled, and 2.5% for non-badminton players. On this basis, we suggest that the BST may be valuable for evaluation of short-term maximal movement speed in badminton players. Thus, the BST seems to be sport specific, as it may discriminate between groups (elite, less trained players, and non-badminton players) with similar sprinting performance, and the low test-retest variation may allow for using the BST to evaluate longitudinal changes, for example, training effects or seasonal variations.

  8. Evaluation report on CCTF core-I reflood test C1-5 (Run 14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Yoshio; Akimoto, Hajime; Sudoh, Takashi; Okubo, Tsutomu

    1983-02-01

    A study of a cylindrical core test facility (CCTF) test was performed for modeling the system behavior during the reflood phase of a PWR-LOCA and the following conclusions were obtained: 1) With the exception of some points, the observed phenomena are similar to a model derived from an evaluation model for a PWR safety evaluation. 2) The different points are the water accumulation in the upper plenum, the ECC bypass in the downcomer, the reduction of the effective downcomer head and the pressure drop at the broken cold leg nozzle and in the interconnected pipes. (author)

  9. Next-generation non-starch polysaccharide-degrading, multi-carbohydrase complex rich in xylanase and arabinofuranosidase to enhance broiler feed digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozannet, Pierre; Kidd, Michael T; Montanhini Neto, Roberto; Geraert, Pierre-André

    2017-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of a multi-carbohydrase complex (MCC) rich in xylanase (Xyl) and arabinofuranosidase (Abf) on overall broiler feed digestibility in broilers. Energy utilization and digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), protein, starch, fat, and insoluble and soluble fibers were measured using the mass-balance method. The experiment was carried out on 120 broilers (3-week-old chickens). Broilers were distributed over 8 treatments to evaluate the effect of the dietary arabinoxylan content and nutrient density with and without MCC (Rovabio® Advance). The graded content of arabinoxylan (AX) was obtained using different raw materials (wheat, rye, barley, and dried distillers' wheat). Diet-energy density was modified with added fat. Measurements indicated that nutrient density and AX content had a significant effect on most digestibility parameters. Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) was significantly increased (265 kcal kg-1) by MCC. The addition of MCC also resulted in significant improvement in the digestibility of all evaluated nutrients, with average improvements of 3.0, 3.3, 3.2, 3.0, 6.2, 2.9, 5.8, and 3.8% units for DM, OM, protein, starch, fat, insoluble and soluble fibers, and energy utilization, respectively. The interaction between MCC and diet composition was significant for the digestibility of OM, fat, protein, and energy. Nutrient digestibility and diet AME were negatively correlated with AX content (P digestible nutrient (i.e., starch, protein, fat, insoluble and soluble fibers) content with and without MCC (R2 = 0.87; RSD = 78 kcal kg-1). This study confirms that the presence of AX in wheat-based diets and wheat-based diets with other cereals and cereal by-products reduces nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. Furthermore, the dietary addition of MCC, which is rich in Xyn and Abf, reduced deleterious effect of fiber and improved overall nutrient digestibility in broiler diets. © 2017 Poultry

  10. Role of p16 testing in cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J McGrath

    Full Text Available p16 immunohistochemistry is used to evaluate for HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The diagnostic performance of p16 in HIV infection is unclear.Between June-December 2009, HIV-infected women underwent Papanicolaou (Pap smear, human papillomavirus (HPV testing, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA, and colposcopy-directed biopsy as the disease gold standard at a HIV clinic in Kenya. Pap smears were evaluated for p16 expression. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of p16 to detect CIN2/3 on histology and the impact of immunosuppression and ART was assessed.Of 331 cervical samples with p16 expression, p16 sensitivity and specificity to detect CIN2/3 was 54.1% and 72.4% respectively, which was lower than Pap and HPV in sensitivity, but higher in specificity than Pap, HPV, and VIA. Combining tests and p16 reduced sensitivity and increased specificity of Pap from 90.5% to 48.7% and 51.4% to 81.7%; of VIA from 59.5% to 37.8% and 67.6% to 89.9%; and of HPV from 82.4% to 50.0% and 55.3% to 84.8%. Combination p16 increased the PPV of Pap from 34.9% to 43.4%; of HPV from 34.7% to 48.7%; and VIA from 34.9% to 51.9%. Adjunctive p16 did not change AUC (P>0.05. P16 performance was not altered by immunosuppression or ART use. Combining p16 with HPV and VIA reduced the variation in HPV and VIA performance associated with CD4 and ART.As an adjunctive test in HIV-infected women, p16 immunohistochemistry increased specificity and PPV of HPV and VIA for CIN2/3, and was not altered in performance by immunosuppression, ART, or age.

  11. Conjugal transfer of aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia gene from native species and mechanism of regulation and cross resistance in Enterococcus faecalis MCC3063 by real time-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimee, G; Halami, P M

    2017-09-01

    High level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) derived from food animals is detrimental. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization and conjugal transfer of aminoglycoside resistance genes, aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia and aph(3')IIIa in different Enterococcus species. The cross resistance patterns in Enterococcus faecalis MCC3063 to clinically important aminoglycosides by real time PCR were also studied. Southern hybridization experiments revealed the presence of aac(6')Ie-aph(2 ″ )Ia and aph(3')IIIa genes conferring HLAR in high molecular weight plasmids except in Lactobacillus plantarum. The plasmid encoded bifunctional aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia gene was transferable from Enterococcus avium (n = 2), E. cecorum (n = 1), E. faecalis (n = 1) and Pediococcus lolii (n = 1) species into the recipient strain; E. faecalis JH2-2 by filter mating experiments thus indicating the possible risks of gene transfer into pathogenic strains. Molecular analysis of cross resistance patterns in native isolate of E. faecalis MCC3063 carrying aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia and aph(3')IIIa gene was displayed by quantification of the mRNA levels in this study. For this, the culture was induced with increasing concentrations of gentamicin, kanamycin and streptomycin (2048, 4096, 8192, 16384 μg/mL) individually. The increasing concentrations of gentamicin and kanamycin induced the expression of the aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)Ia and aph(3')IIIa resistance genes, respectively. Interestingly, it was observed that induction with streptomycin triggered a significant fold increase in the expression of the aph(3')IIIa gene which otherwise was not known to modify the aminoglycoside. This is noteworthy as streptomycin was found to confer cross resistance to structurally unrelated kanamycin. Also, expression of the aph(3')IIIa gene when induced with streptomycin, revealed that bacteria harbouring this gene will be able to overcome streptomycin bactericidal action at

  12. A pilot study to examine the effect of chronic treatment with immunosuppressive drugs on mucociliary clearance in a vagotomized murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhiram R Bhashyam

    Full Text Available Previously, we have demonstrated that mucociliary clearance (MCC is diminished within the first months after surgery in lung transplant patients and the explanation for the reduction in MCC is unknown. We hypothesized that chronic treatment with a commonly prescribed regimen of immunosuppressive drugs significantly impairs MCC. We tested this hypothesis in a murine model of lung transplantation.Fifteen C57BL/6 mice underwent vagotomy on the right side to simulate denervation associated with lung transplantation in humans. For 6 days, seven mice (controls were intraperitoneally injected with three 100 µL doses of phosphate buffered saline and eight mice (immunosuppressed were injected with three 100 µL injections of tacrolimus (1 mg/kg, mycophenolate mofetil (30 mg/kg, and prednisone (2 mg/kg once daily. Then, mice inhaled the radioisotope (99mtechnetium and underwent gamma camera imaging of their lungs for 6.5 hrs. Counts in the right lung at 1-1.5 hrs and at 6-6.5 hrs were first background-corrected and then decay-corrected to time 0 counts. Decay-corrected counts were then divided by time 0 counts. Retention at each time point was subtracted from 1.00 and multiplied by 100% to obtain percent removed by mucociliary clearance.Although there was a slowing of MCC at 1-1.5 hrs for the immunosuppressed mice, there was no statistical difference in MCC measured at 1-1.5 hrs for the two groups of mice. At 6-6.5 hrs, MCC was significantly slower in the immunosuppressed mice, compared to controls, with 7.78±5.9% cleared versus 23.01±11.7% cleared, respectively (p = 0.006.These preliminary results suggest that chronic treatment with immunosuppressive medications significantly slows MCC in vagotomized C57BL/6 mice. These findings could shed light on why MCC is reduced in lung transplant patients whose lungs are denervated during surgery and who are chronically treated with immunosuppressive drugs post surgery.

  13. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography and biomarkers for early treatment response evaluation in metastatic colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Bodil E.; Loft, Annika; Kjær, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment options for metastatic colon cancer (mCC) are widening. We prospectively evaluated serial 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and measurements of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), carcinoembryonic antigen...... evaluated by PET/CT before treatment, after one and four treatment series. Morphological and metabolic response was independently assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer PET criteria. Plasma TIMP-1, plasma u...

  14. Evaluation of Four Bedside Test Systems for Card Performance, Handling and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Felix; Picker, Susanne M; Gathof, Birgit S

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY: OBJECTIVE: Pretransfusion ABO compatibility testing is a simple and required precaution against ABO-incompatible transfusion, which is one of the greatest threats in transfusion medicine. While distinct agglutination is most important for correct test interpretation, protection against infectious diseases and ease of handling are crucial for accurate test performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate differences in test card design, handling, and user safety. DESIGN: Four different bedside test cards with pre-applied antibodies were evaluated by 100 medical students using packed red blood cells of different ABO blood groups. Criteria of evaluation were: agglutination, labelling, handling, and safety regarding possible user injuries. Criteria were rated subjectively according to German school notes ranging from 1 = very good to 6 = very bad/insufficient. RESULTS: Overall, all cards received very good/good marks. The ABO blood group was identified correctly in all cases. Three cards (no. 1, no. 3, no. 4) received statistically significant (p labelling (1.5 vs. 2.2-2.4), handling (1.9-2.0 vs. 2.5), and user safety (2.5 vs. 3.4). Analysis of card self-explanation revealed no remarkable differences. CONCLUSION: Despite good performance of all card systems tested, the best results when including all criteria evaluated were obtained with card no. 4 (particularly concerning clear agglutination), followed by cards no. 2, no. 1, and no. 3.

  15. Evaluation of psychoacoustic tests and P300 event-related potentials in elderly patients with hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Leines, Sergio; Peñaloza-López, Yolanda R; Serrano-Miranda, Tirzo A; Flores-Ávalos, Blanca; Vidal-Ixta, Martha T; Jiménez-Herrera, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for hearing impairment, neuronal damage and cognitive impairment in elderly patients is controversial and is limited by the small number of studies. The aim of this work was determine if elderly patients detected with hyperhomocysteinemia have an increased risk of developing abnormalities in the central auditory processes as compared with a group of patients with appropriate homocysteine levels, and to define the behaviour of psychoacoustic tests and long latency potentials (P300) in these patients. This was a cross-sectional, comparative and analytical study. We formed a group of patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and a control group with normal levels of homocysteine. All patients underwent audiometry, tympanometry and a selection of psychoacoustic tests (dichotic digits, low-pass filtered words, speech in noise and masking level difference), auditory evoked brainstem potentials and P300. Patients with hyperhomocysteinemia had higher values in the test of masking level difference than did the control group (P=.049) and more protracted latency in P300 (P=.000). Hyperhomocysteinemia is a factor that alters the central auditory functions. Alterations in psychoacoustic tests and disturbances in electrophysiological tests suggest that the central portion of the auditory pathway is affected in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of the Merkel cell polyomavirus in the neuroendocrine component of combined Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervarrec, Thibault; Samimi, Mahtab; Gaboriaud, Pauline; Gheit, Tarik; Beby-Defaux, Agnès; Houben, Roland; Schrama, David; Fromont, Gaëlle; Tommasino, Massimo; Le Corre, Yannick; Hainaut-Wierzbicka, Eva; Aubin, Francois; Bens, Guido; Maillard, Hervé; Furudoï, Adeline; Michenet, Patrick; Touzé, Antoine; Guyétant, Serge

    2018-05-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. The main etiological agent is Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), detected in 80% of cases. About 5% of cases, called combined MCC, feature an admixture of neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine tumor cells. Reports of the presence or absence of MCPyV in combined MCC are conflicting, most favoring the absence, which suggests that combined MCC might have independent etiological factors and pathogenesis. These discrepancies might occur with the use of different virus identification assays, with different sensitivities. In this study, we aimed to determine the viral status of combined MCC by a multimodal approach. We histologically reviewed 128 cases of MCC and sub-classified them as "combined" or "conventional." Both groups were compared by clinical data (age, sex, site, American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] stage, immunosuppression, risk of recurrence, and death during follow-up) and immunochemical features (cytokeratin 20 and 7, thyroid transcription factor 1 [TTF1], p53, large T antigen [CM2B4], CD8 infiltrates). After a first calibration step with 12 conventional MCCs and 12 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas as controls, all eight cases of combined MCC were investigated for MCPyV viral status by combining two independent molecular procedures. Furthermore, on multiplex genotyping assay, the samples were examined for the presence of other polyoma- and papillomaviruses. Combined MCC differed from conventional MCC in earlier AJCC stage, increased risk of recurrence and death, decreased CD8 infiltrates, more frequent TTF1 positivity (5/8), abnormal p53 expression (8/8), and frequent lack of large T antigen expression (7/8). With the molecular procedure, half of the combined MCC cases were positive for MCPyV in the neuroendocrine component. Beta papillomaviruses were detected in 5/8 combined MCC cases and 9/12 conventional MCC cases. In conclusion, the detection of MCPyV DNA in half of

  17. The clinically-tested S1P receptor agonists, FTY720 and BAF312, demonstrate subtype-specific bradycardia (S1P₁ and hypertension (S1P₃ in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Fryer

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P and S1P receptor agonists elicit mechanism-based effects on cardiovascular function in vivo. Indeed, FTY720 (non-selective S1P(X receptor agonist produces modest hypertension in patients (2-3 mmHg in 1-yr trial as well as acute bradycardia independent of changes in blood pressure. However, the precise receptor subtypes responsible is controversial, likely dependent upon the cardiovascular response in question (e.g. bradycardia, hypertension, and perhaps even species-dependent since functional differences in rodent, rabbit, and human have been suggested. Thus, we characterized the S1P receptor subtype specificity for each compound in vitro and, in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of FTY720 and the more selective S1P₁,₅ agonist, BAF312, were tested during acute i.v. infusion in anesthetized rats and after oral administration for 10 days in telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Acute i.v. infusion of FTY720 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg/20 min or BAF312 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/20 min elicited acute bradycardia in anesthetized rats demonstrating an S1P₁ mediated mechanism-of-action. However, while FTY720 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/d elicited dose-dependent hypertension after multiple days of oral administration in rat at clinically relevant plasma concentrations (24-hr mean blood pressure = 8.4, 12.8, 16.2 mmHg above baseline vs. 3 mmHg in vehicle controls, BAF312 (0.3, 3.0, 30.0 mg/kg/d had no significant effect on blood pressure at any dose tested suggesting that hypertension produced by FTY720 is mediated S1P₃ receptors. In summary, in vitro selectivity results in combination with studies performed in anesthetized and conscious rats administered two clinically tested S1P agonists, FTY720 or BAF312, suggest that S1P₁ receptors mediate bradycardia while hypertension is mediated by S1P₃ receptor activation.

  18. A mechanical chest compressor closed-loop controller with an effective trade-off between blood flow improvement and ribs fracture reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang; Wu, Taihu; Song, Zhenxing; Wang, Haitao; Lu, Hengzhi; Wang, Yalin; Wang, Dan; Chen, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Chest compression (CC) is a significant emergency medical procedure for maintaining circulation during cardiac arrest. Although CC produces the necessary blood flow for patients with heart arrest, improperly deep CC will contribute significantly to the risk of chest injury. In this paper, an optimal CC closed-loop controller for a mechanical chest compressor (OCC-MCC) was developed to provide an effective trade-off between the benefit of improved blood perfusion and the risk of ribs fracture. The trade-off performance of the OCC-MCC during real automatic mechanical CCs was evaluated by comparing the OCC-MCC and the traditional mechanical CC method (TMCM) with a human circulation hardware model based on hardware simulations. A benefit factor (BF), risk factor (RF) and benefit versus risk index (BRI) were introduced in this paper for the comprehensive evaluation of risk and benefit. The OCC-MCC was developed using the LabVIEW control platform and the mechanical chest compressor (MCC) controller. PID control is also employed by MCC for effective compression depth regulation. In addition, the physiological parameters model for MCC was built based on a digital signal processor for hardware simulations. A comparison between the OCC-MCC and TMCM was then performed based on the simulation test platform which is composed of the MCC, LabVIEW control platform, physiological parameters model for MCC and the manikin. Compared with the TMCM, the OCC-MCC obtained a better trade-off and a higher BRI in seven out of a total of nine cases. With a higher mean value of cardiac output (1.35 L/min) and partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (15.7 mmHg), the OCC-MCC obtained a larger blood flow and higher BF than TMCM (5.19 vs. 3.41) in six out of a total of nine cases. Although it is relatively difficult to maintain a stable CC depth when the chest is stiff, the OCC-MCC is still superior to the TMCM for performing safe and effective CC during CPR. The OCC-MCC is superior to the TMCM in

  19. Evaluation and application of static headspace-multicapillary column-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry for complex sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denawaka, Chamila J; Fowlis, Ian A; Dean, John R

    2014-04-18

    An evaluation of static headspace-multicapillary column-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (SHS-MCC-GC-IMS) has been undertaken to assess its applicability for the determination of 32 volatile compounds (VCs). The key experimental variables of sample incubation time and temperature have been evaluated alongside the MCC-GC variables of column polarity, syringe temperature, injection temperature, injection volume, column temperature and carrier gas flow rate coupled with the IMS variables of temperature and drift gas flow rate. This evaluation resulted in six sets of experimental variables being required to separate the 32 VCs. The optimum experimental variables for SHS-MCC-GC-IMS, the retention time and drift time operating parameters were determined; to normalise the operating parameters, the relative drift time and normalised reduced ion mobility for each VC were determined. In addition, a full theoretical explanation is provided on the formation of the monomer, dimer and trimer of a VC. The optimum operating condition for each VC calibration data was obtained alongside limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) values. Typical detection limits ranged from 0.1ng bis(methylthio)methane, ethylbutanoate and (E)-2-nonenal to 472ng isovaleric acid with correlation coefficient (R(2)) data ranging from 0.9793 (for the dimer of octanal) through to 0.9990 (for isobutyric acid). Finally, the developed protocols were applied to the analysis of malodour in sock samples. Initial work involved spiking an inert matrix and sock samples with appropriate concentrations of eight VCs. The average recovery from the inert matrix was 101±18% (n=8), while recoveries from the sock samples were lower, that is, 54±30% (n=8) for sock type 1 and 78±24% (n=6) for sock type 2. Finally, SHS-MCC-GC-IMS was applied to sock malodour in a field trial based on 11 volunteers (mixed gender) over a 3-week period. By applying the SHS-MCC-GC-IMS database, four VCs were

  20. Evaluation of LLTR Series II tests A-1A and A-1B test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoopak, B.F.; Amos, J.C.; Norvell, T.J.

    1980-03-01

    The standard methodology, with minor modifications provides conservative yet realistic predictions of leaksite and other sodium system pressures in the LLTR Series II vessel and piping. The good agreement between predicted and measured pressures indicates that the TRANSWRAP/RELAP modeling developed from the Series I tests is applicable to larger scale units prototypical of the Clinch River steam generator design. Calculated sodium system pressures are sensitive to several modeling parameters including rupture disc modeling, acoustic velocity in the test vessel, and flow rate from the rupture tube. The acoustic velocity which produced best agreement with leaksite pressures was calculated based on the shroud diameter and shroud wall thickness. The corresponding rupture tube discharge coefficient was that of the standard design methodology developed from Series I testing. As found in Series I testing, the Series II data suggests that the leading edge of the flow in the relief line is two phase for a single, doubled-ended guillotine tube rupture. The steam generator shroud acts as if it is relatively transparent to the transmission of radial pressures to the vessel wall. Slightly lower sodium system maximum pressures measured during Test A-1b compared to Test A-1a are attributed to premature failure (failure at a lower pressure) of the rupture disc in contact with the sodium for test A-1b. The delay in failure of the second disc in Test A-1b, which was successfully modeled with TRANSWRAP, is attributed to the limited energy in the nitrogen injection

  1. Resilience to audiogenic seizures is associated with p-ERK1/2 dephosphorylation in the subiculum of Fmr1 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eCuria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Young, but not adult, Fmr1 knockout (KO mice display audiogenic seizures (AGS that can be prevented by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In order to identify the cerebral regions involved in these phenomena, we characterized the response to AGS in Fmr1 KO mice and wild type (WT controls at postnatal day (P 45 and P90. To characterize the diverse response to AGS in various cerebral regions, we evaluated the activity markers FosB/ΔFosB and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2. Wild running (100% of tested mice followed by clonic/tonic seizures (30% were observed in P45 Fmr1 KO mice, but not in WT mice. In P90 Fmr1 KO mice, wild running was only present in 25% of tested animals. Basal FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity was higher (P<0.01 vs WT in the CA1 and subiculum of P45 Fmr1 KO mice. Following the AGS test, FosB/ΔFosB expression consistently increased in most of the analyzed regions in both groups at P45, but not at P90. Interestingly, FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity was significantly higher in P45 Fmr1 KO mice in the medial geniculate body (P<0.05 vs WT and CA3 (P<0.01. Neurons presenting with immunopositivity to p-ERK1/2 were more abundant in the subiculum of Fmr1 KO mice in control condition (P<0.05 vs WT, in both age groups. In this region, p-ERK1/2-immunopositive cells significantly decreased (-75%, P<0.01 in P90 Fmr1 KO mice exposed to the AGS test, but no changes were found in P45 mice or in other brain regions. In both age groups of WT mice, p-ERK1/2-immunopositive cells increased in the subiculum after exposure to the acoustic test. Our findings illustrate that FosB/ΔFosB markers are overexpressed in the medial geniculate body and CA3 in Fmr1 KO mice experiencing AGS, and that p-ERK1/2 is markedly decreased in the subiculum of Fmr1 KO mice resistant to AGS induction. These findings suggest that resilience to AGS is associated with dephosphorylation of p-ERK1/2 in the subiculum of mature Fmr1 KO mice.

  2. Mussel-inspired fabrication of konjac glucomannan/microcrystalline cellulose intelligent hydrogel with pH-responsive sustained release behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Du, Yu; Yuan, Yi; Mu, Ruo-Jun; Gong, Jingni; Ni, Yongsheng; Pang, Jie; Wu, Chunhua

    2018-07-01

    Intelligent hydrogels are attractive biomaterials for various applications, however, fabricating a hydrogel with both adequate self-healing ability and mechanical properties remains a challenge. Herein, a series of novel intelligent konjac glucomannan (KGM)/microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) hydrogels were prepared vis the mussel-inspired chemistry. MCC was firstly functionalized by the oxidative polymerization of dopamine, and the intelligent hydrogels were obtained by mixing aqueous solutions of KGM and functionalized MCC (PDMCC). By introducing PDMCC, a more compact interconnected porous structure formed for the resulting hydrogels. The self-healing ability and mechanical properties of intelligent hydrogels were dependence on the PDMCC content. Compared with KGM hydrogels, KGM/PDMCC hydrogels exhibited a more distinct pH sensitivity and a lower initial burst release, which was attributed to the compact structure and strong intermolecular hydrogen bond interaction between PDMCC and KGM. These results suggest that the KGM/PDMCC intelligent hydrogels may be promising carriers for controlled drug delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Patch test dose-response study of p-phenylenediamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    The elicitation response in allergic contact dermatitis for the hair dye substance p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is dose dependent, but threshold concentrations have not previously been investigated. 15 PPD-sensitive patients participated in a serial dilution 48-hr patch test with PPD using 8...... concentrations of PPD ranging from 1 to 10 000 on the upper back. Petrolatum was applied as control. Three concentrations (50, 100 and 500 p.p.m. PPD) were also applied to the retroauricular area and on the lateral aspects of the upper arms. 14 of the 15 participants reacted to one or more of the test samples....... The threshold value for 10% of the tested persons (ED10) based on+or stronger reactions for PPD on the back was 38 p.p.m. (CI: 4.3-100). There were no statistically significant differences in the sensitivity of the three anatomical regions. The upper back is a suitable region for patch testing patients...

  4. Adherence to nutrition-based cancer prevention guidelines and breast, prostate and colorectal cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Dora; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Molinuevo, Amaia; de Batlle, Jordi; Mendez, Michelle; Moreno, Victor; Vidal, Carmen; Castelló, Adela; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Molina, Antonio J; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Guevara, Marcela; Castilla, Jesús; Urtiaga, Carmen; Llorens-Ivorra, Cristóbal; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Tardón, Adonina; Lorca, José Andrés; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Huerta, José María; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jimenez-Moleon, José Juan; Altzibar, Jone; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Núria; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Amiano, Pilar

    2017-07-01

    Prostate, breast and colorectal cancer are the most common tumours in Spain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between adherence to nutrition-based guidelines for cancer prevention and prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, in the MCC-Spain case-control study. A total of 1,718 colorectal, 1,343 breast and 864 prostate cancer cases and 3,431 population-based controls recruited between 2007 and 2012, were included in the present study. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRC/AICR) score based on six recommendations for cancer prevention (on body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods and alcoholic drinks; score range 0-6) was constructed. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. One-point increment in the WCRF/AICR score was associated with 25% (95% CI 19-30%) lower risk of colorectal, and 15% (95% CI 7-22%) lower risk of breast cancer; no association with prostate cancer was detected, except for cases with a Gleason score ≥7 (poorly differentiated/undifferentiated tumours) (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). These results add to the wealth of evidence indicating that a great proportion of common cancer cases could be avoided by adopting healthy lifestyle habits. © 2017 UICC.

  5. Murine K2P5.1 Deficiency Has No Impact on Autoimmune Neuroinflammation due to Compensatory K2P3.1- and KV1.3-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bittner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocytes express potassium channels that regulate physiological cell functions, such as activation, proliferation and migration. Expression levels of K2P5.1 (TASK2; KCNK5 channels belonging to the family of two-pore domain potassium channels have previously been correlated to the activity of autoreactive T lymphocytes in patients with multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. In humans, K2P5.1 channels are upregulated upon T cell stimulation and influence T cell effector functions. However, a further clinical translation of targeting K2P5.1 is currently hampered by a lack of highly selective inhibitors, making it necessary to evaluate the impact of KCNK5 in established preclinical animal disease models. We here demonstrate that K2P5.1 knockout (K2P5.1−/− mice display no significant alterations concerning T cell cytokine production, proliferation rates, surface marker molecules or signaling pathways. In an experimental model of autoimmune neuroinflammation, K2P5.1−/− mice show a comparable disease course to wild-type animals and no major changes in the peripheral immune system or CNS compartment. A compensatory upregulation of the potassium channels K2P3.1 and KV1.3 seems to counterbalance the deletion of K2P5.1. As an alternative model mimicking autoimmune neuroinflammation, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the common marmoset has been proposed, especially for testing the efficacy of new potential drugs. Initial experiments show that K2P5.1 is functionally expressed on marmoset T lymphocytes, opening up the possibility for assessing future K2P5.1-targeting drugs.

  6. Dairy heifer manure management, dietary phosphorus, and soil test P effects on runoff phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, William E; Coblentz, Wayne K; Hoffman, Patrick C

    2012-01-01

    Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of P and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer dietary P, manure application method, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses from two successive simulated rainfall events. Bedded manure (18-21% solids) from dairy heifers fed diets with or without supplemental P was applied on a silt loam soil packed into 1- by 0.2-m sheet metal pans. Manure was either surface-applied or incorporated (Experiment 1) or surface-applied at two rates (Experiment 2) to supply 26 to 63 kg P ha. Experiment 3 evaluated runoff P from four similar nonmanured soils with average Bray P1-extractable P levels of 11, 29, 51, and 75 mg kg. We measured runoff quantity, total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total and volatile solids in runoff collected for 30 min after runoff initiation from two simulated rain events (70 mm h) 3 or 4 d apart. Manure incorporation reduced TP and DRP concentrations and load by 85 to 90% compared with surface application. Doubling the manure rate increased runoff DRP and TP concentrations an average of 36%. In the same experiment, P diet supplementation increased water-extractable P in manure by 100% and increased runoff DRP concentration threefold. Concentrations of solids, TP, and DRP in runoff from Rain 2 were 25 to 75% lower than from Rain 1 in Experiments 1 and 2. Runoff DRP from nonmanured soils increased quadratically with increasing soil test P. These results show that large reductions in P runoff losses can be achieved by incorporation of manure, avoiding unnecessary diet P supplementation, limiting manure application rate, and managing soils to prevent excessive soil test P levels. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. The spin structure function g1p of the proton and a test of the Bjorken sum rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available New results for the double spin asymmetry A1p and the proton longitudinal spin structure function g1p are presented. They were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration using polarised 200 GeV muons scattered off a longitudinally polarised NH3 target. The data were collected in 2011 and complement those recorded in 2007 at 160 GeV, in particular at lower values of x. They improve the statistical precision of g1p(x by about a factor of two in the region x≲0.02. A next-to-leading order QCD fit to the g1 world data is performed. It leads to a new determination of the quark spin contribution to the nucleon spin, ΔΣ, ranging from 0.26 to 0.36, and to a re-evaluation of the first moment of g1p. The uncertainty of ΔΣ is mostly due to the large uncertainty in the present determinations of the gluon helicity distribution. A new evaluation of the Bjorken sum rule based on the COMPASS results for the non-singlet structure function g1NS(x,Q2 yields as ratio of the axial and vector coupling constants |gA/gV|=1.22±0.05 (stat.±0.10 (syst., which validates the sum rule to an accuracy of about 9%.

  8. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for AZ tank farm upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made by the addition of the SN-631 transfer line from the AZ-O1A pit to the AZ-02A pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system's performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation P1 an (TEP). Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities, etc), Factory Tests and Inspections (FTIs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Tests and Inspections (CTIs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation

  9. History of chronic inflammatory disorders increases the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma, but does not correlate with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahi, Helka; Sihto, Harri; Artama, Miia; Koljonen, Virve; Böhling, Tom; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-01-17

    We aimed to assess the connection between chronic inflammatory disorders (CIDs) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Merkel cell carcinoma cases diagnosed in 1978-2009 were extracted from the Finnish Cancer Registry and controls from the Population Registry. Information on reimbursed CIDs was linked to clinicopathological data including Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) status by qPCR and immunohistochemistry for the large T antigen of MCV (LTA), Ki-67 and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. Chronic inflammatory disorders increased the risk of MCC significantly (odds ratio (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.88), specifically connective tissue/systemic diseases (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.09-1.80) and diabetic conditions (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.03-2.22). Chronic inflammatory disorders associated with larger tumour diameter (P=0.02) and higher Ki-67 expression (P=0.005). The expression of LTA was seen significantly more often in the absence of CIDs (P=0.05). Patients with CID are at significantly higher risk for aggressive MCC. Merkel cell polyomavirus positivity is more common in MCC patients unafflicted by CID.

  10. The Spin Structure Function $g_1^{\\rm p}$ of the Proton and a Test of the Bjorken Sum Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.Yu; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2016-02-10

    New results for the double spin asymmetry $A_1^{\\rm p}$ and the proton longitudinal spin structure function $g_1^{\\rm p}$ are presented. They were obtained by the COMPASS collaboration using polarised 200 GeV muons scattered off a longitudinally polarised NH$_3$ target. The data were collected in 2011 and complement those recorded in 2007 at 160\\,GeV, in particular at lower values of $x$. They improve the statistical precision of $g_1^{\\rm p}(x)$ by about a factor of two in the region $x\\lesssim 0.02$. A next-to-leading order QCD fit to the $g_1$ world data is performed. It leads to a new determination of the quark spin contribution to the nucleon spin, $\\Delta \\Sigma$ ranging from 0.26 to 0.36, and to a re-evaluation of the first moment of $g_1^{\\rm p}$. The uncertainty of $\\Delta \\Sigma$ is mostly due to the large uncertainty in the present determinations of the gluon helicity distribution. A new evaluation of the Bjorken sum rule based on the COMPASS results for the non-singlet structure function $g_1^{\\rm...

  11. Patient reported outcome data following influenza A (H1N1p vaccination in the 2009–2010 season: web-based and telephone evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade AG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alan G Wade1, Gordon M Crawford1, Neil Pumford1, Alex McConnachie21Patients Direct, 3 Todd Campus, Glasgow, UK; 2Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UKBackground: There has been worldwide interest in the safety of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1p vaccines, although limited data are available from the vaccine recipients’ perspective. This evaluation was designed to collect data from people who had received an influenza vaccination during the 2009–2010 season using a web-based data collection tool supplemented by telephone reporting (PROBE.Methods: People scheduled to receive the influenza A (H1N1p or seasonal influenza vaccines were recruited through media advertising and campaigns throughout the West of Scotland. Vaccine recipients participated in the evaluation by answering demographic and side effect questions using PROBE methodology on the day of the immunization, after 3 days, 8 days, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 26 weeks.Results: A total of 1103 vaccine recipients including 134 young children (0–4 years participated in the evaluation; 694 (63% received H1N1p vaccine only, 135 (12% seasonal vaccine only, 224 (20% both H1N1p and seasonal vaccines, and 50 (5% received H1N1p or seasonal vaccine with a non-influenza vaccine (eg, travel or pneumococcal. Overall, 42% of recipients reported experiencing a side effect after their baseline vaccination; the most commonly reported were general and arm side effects (>20%. Injection site discomfort/pain and flu-like symptoms were reported by 57% and 24% of recipients, respectively. A significantly higher proportion of the 960 H1N1p vaccine recipients experienced a side effect (44% vs 27%, P < 0.001 or injection site discomfort/pain (61% vs 26%, P < 0.001 than those receiving seasonal influenza vaccines. Female sex and H1N1p vaccination were associated with a significantly higher risk of injection site discomfort/pain, whereas the 70+ age group was associated with a

  12. Acid loading test (pH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  13. Skin sensitization potency and cross-reactivity of p-phenylenediamine and its derivatives evaluated by non-radioactive murine local lymph node assay and guinea-pig maximization test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru

    2009-04-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD)-related chemicals have been used as antioxidants in rubber products, and many cases of contact dermatitis caused by these chemicals have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate relative sensitizing potency and cross-reactivity among PPD derivatives. Five PPD derivatives, p-aminodiphenylamine (PADPA), N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD), N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (IPPD), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMBPPD), N-(1-methylheptyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (MHPPD), and the core chemical PPD were evaluated for their sensitizing potency and cross-reactivity using the non-radioactive murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea-pig maximization test (GPMT). PPD and all the derivatives were identified as primary sensitizers in both tests. The order of potency in the LLNA was as follows: IPPD and PADPA > PPD > DMBPPD and MHPPD > DPPD. In the GPMT, all six groups of animals sensitized with one of these chemicals cross-reacted to four other derivatives. Specifically, the five groups that have a common basic PADPA structure, that is PADPA, DPPD, IPPD, DMBPPD, and MHPPD, all reacted to each other at almost the same scores, while none of them reacted to PPD. The cross-reactivity profile found in the study was to some extent different from that in previous human data, where distinction between cross-reaction and concomitant primary sensitization is not always clear.

  14. Analysis of Semiscale Mod-1 integral test with asymmetrical break (Test S-29-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerman, M.A.

    1977-03-01

    Selected experimental data obtained from Semiscale Mod-1 cold leg break Test S-29-1 and results obtained from analytical codes are analyzed. This test was the first integral blowdown reflood test conducted with the Mod-1 system and was a special test designed specifically to evaluate the sensitivity of the early Mod-1 core thermal response (0 to 5 sec after rupture) to the magnitude and direction of the core flow. To achieve this specific objective in Test S-29-1, the vessel side break area was reduced to approximately one-half the scaled break area associated with a 200 percent cold leg break test. The reduction in break area significantly reduced the core flow reversal that took place immediately after rupture and resulted in periods of positive core flow in the early portion of the test. The results obtained from this test are compared with results obtained from a 200 percent cold leg break test and the effect of core flow on early core thermal response is evaluated. Since Test S-29-1 was the first integral blowdown reflood test conducted with the Mod-1 system, data are also presented through the reflood stage of the test and the results are analyzed. The test data and the core thermal response calculated with the RELAP4 code are also compared

  15. HIV-1 integrase inhibitors are substrates for the multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Andrea

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of diketoacid-containing derivatives as inhibitors of HIV-1 Integrase (IN (IN inhibitors, IINs has played a major role in validating this enzyme as an important target for antiretroviral therapy. Since the in vivo efficacy depends on access of these drugs to intracellular sites where HIV-1 replicates, we determined whether the IINs are recognized by the multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein (P-gp thereby reducing their intracellular accumulation. To address the effect of IINs on drug transport, nine quinolonyl diketo acid (DKA derivatives active on the HIV-1 IN strand transfer (ST step and with EC50 ranging from 1.83 to >50 μm in cell-based assays were tested for their in vitro interaction with P-gp in the CEM-MDR cell system. IINs were investigated for the inhibition and induction of the P-gp function and expression as well as for multidrug resistance (MDR reversing ability. Results The HIV-1 IINs act as genuine P-gp substrates by inhibiting doxorubicin efflux and inducing P-gp functional conformation changes as evaluated by the modulation of UIC2 mAb epitope. Further, IINs chemosensitize MDR cells to vinblastine and induce P-gp expression in drug sensitive revertants of CEM-MDR cells. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that HIV-1 IINs are P-gp substrates. This biological property may influence the absorption, distribution and elimination of these novels anti HIV-1 compounds.

  16. Asporin stably expressed in the surface layer of mandibular condylar cartilage and augmented in the deeper layer with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yutaka; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Wada, Satoshi; Tsuruoka, Sari; Itohiya, Kanako; Kumagai, Kenichi; Hamada, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-12-01

    Mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) exhibits dual roles both articular cartilage and growth center. Of many growth factors, TGF-β has been implicated in the growth of articular cartilage including MCC. Recently, Asporin, decoy to TGF-β, was discovered and it blocks TGF-β signaling. Asporin is expressed in a variety of tissues including osteoarthritic articular cartilage, though there was no report of Asporin expression in MCC. In the present study, we investigated the temporal and spatial expression of Asporin in MCC. Gene expression profile of MCC and epiphyseal cartilage in tibia of 5 weeks old ICR mice were firstly compared with microarray analysis using the laser capture microdissected samples. Variance of gene expression was further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining at 1,3,10, and 20 weeks old. TGF-β and its signaling molecule, phosphorylated Smad-2/3 (p-Smad2/3), were also examined by immunohistochemical staining. Microarray analysis revealed that Asporin was highly expressed in MCC. Real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the fibrous layer of MCC exhibited stable higher Asporin expression at any time points as compared to epiphyseal cartilage. This was also observed in immunohistochemical staining. Deeper layer in MCC augmented Asporin expression with age. Whereas, TGF-β was stably highly observed in the layer. The fibrous layer of MCC exhibited weak staining of p-Smad2/3, though the proliferating layer of MCC was strongly stained as compared to epiphyseal cartilage of tibia at early time point. Consistent with the increase of Asporin expression in the deeper layer of MCC, the intensity of p-Smad-2/3 staining was decreased with age. In conclusion, we discovered that Asporin was stably expressed at the fibrous layer of MCC, which makes it possible to manage both articular cartilage and growth center at the same time.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Spectral Transmittance of Some Welding Glasses with ANSI Z87.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed Rahmani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Welding emits harmful rays to the eyes. We evaluate and compare the UV, blue light and IR transmittance characteristics of some currently available welding safety protectors with ANSI Z87.1 criteria.Materials and Methods: Three type of welding safety protectors (three of each type have been evaluated for spectral transmittance. One-sample T-test was performed to establish is there a statistically significant difference between the standard criteria and UV, blue and IR regions for the welding protectors (α=0.05.Results: In ultraviolet (UV (far and near region, two types of the tested protectors (P1, P2 transmitted lower than the maximum allowable value specified in the standard (P<0.001. In infrared (IR spectrum only one type (P3 transmitted lower than the maximum allowable value specified in the standard (P<0.001. In blue light region, all of the tested protectors transmitted lower than the maximum allowable value specified in the standard (P<0.001.Conclusion: Although all of the tested glasses could meet some parts of the criteria, but none of them could meet the complete spectral transmittance requirements of ANSI Z87.1.

  18. Evaluation of the Eological Management and Enhancement Alernative for Remediation of the K1007-P1 Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-10-31

    An evaluation of the human and ecological risks associated with the P1 Pond and surrounding environs was conducted as part of the ETTP Site-Wide Remedial Investigation. The RI provides the basis for the focus on PCBs as the most important unacceptable risk to human and ecological health in the pond. Other P1 contaminants, media, or pathways of risk to receptors are identified in the RI, but are not addressed as a major risk reduction goal for the ETTP Site-Wide Feasibility Study. Therefore, the goal of the Ecological Management alternative is to reduce unacceptable risks associated with PCBs in fish. Many of the actions proposed for this alternative, however, are likely to reduce risks associated with other contaminants and their pathways. The high PCB concentrations in fish from the P1 Pond are most certainly due in part to the current ecological condition of the pond that maximizes PCB biomagnification. This basic assumption and the factors contributing to it were evaluated by conducting an intensive field study of the P1 Pond in the summer of 2004 (for a thorough presentation of current P1 Pond biological conditions, see Peterson et al. 2005). Major hypotheses regarding the P1 Pond's current fish community, PCB fate and transport processes, pond vegetation, and limnological conditions that contribute to the high PCB levels in fish were validated by the study (Appendix A), The results of the 2004 ecological assessment, in concert with long-term datasets obtained as part of the ETTP Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) and recent abiotic sampling for the RI, provide the basis for the assessment of current conditions.

  19. Standardization of waste acceptance test methods by the Materials Characterization Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the role of standardized test methods in demonstrating the acceptability of high-level waste (HLW) forms for disposal. Key waste acceptance tests are standardized by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC), which the US Department of Energy (DOE) has established as the central agency in the United States for the standardization of test methods for nuclear waste materials. This paper describes the basic three-step process that is used to show that waste is acceptable for disposal and discusses how standardized tests are used in this process. Several of the key test methods and their areas of application are described. Finally, future plans are discussed for using standardized tests to show waste acceptance. 9 refs., 1 tab

  20. 32P-labeling test for DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randerath, K.; Reddy, M.V.; Gupta, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Covalent adducts formed by the reaction of DNA with chemical carcinogens and mutagens may be detected by a 32 P-labeling test. DNA preparations exposed to chemicals known to bind covalently to DNA [N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dimethyl sulfate, formaldehyde, β-propiolactone, propylene oxide, streptozotocin, nitrogen mustard, and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea] were digested to a mixture of deoxynucleoside 3'-monophosphates by incubation with micrococcal endonuclease (EC 3.1.31.1) and spleen exonuclease (EC 3.1.16.1). The digests were treated with [γ- 32 P]ATP and T4 polynucleotide kinase (ATP:5'-dephosphopolynucleotide 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.78) to convert the monophosphates to 5'- 32 P-labeled deoxynucleoside 3',5'-bis-phosphates. These compounds were then separated on polyethyl-eneimine-cellulose thin layers in ammonium formate and ammonium sulfate solutions. Autoradiograms of the chromatograms obtained by this high-resolution procedure showed the presence of nucleotides derived from chemically altered, as well as normal, DNA constituents. Maps from DNA exposed to any of the chemicals used exhibited a spot pattern typical for the particular chemical. This method detected a single adduct in 10 5 DNA nucleotides without requiring that the compound under investigation be radioactive and thus provides a useful test to screen chemicals for their capacity to damage DNA by covalent binding

  1. An evaluation of a new N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine double injection method for acetazolamide testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kentaro; Maeda, Minoru; Asegawa, Satoshi; Masuda, Yoko.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of the cerebrovascular reserve, the acetazolamide test must be used to quantitatively measure the cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after the administration of acetazolamide. Previously, the authors have explained the rationale for using 5 min SPECT images to quantify the CBF with N-isoprophyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP), and in this study they describe how they devised a 123 I-IMP double injection method for use with the acetazolamide test, and report on the clinical results. First, We measured the brain and arterial 123 I concentrations 10 normal subjects after a 123 I-IMP injection, and noted that after 25 minutes the brain and arterial blood activity had plateaued and stabilized. Thus, by using the background substraction method, We found it possible to quantitatively measure the CBF twice in 30 minutes and have called this technique the double injection method. We have clinically used this double injection method for evaluating the CBF in 5 lacunar stroke patients with no major arterial occlusion and found no statistically significant difference in the CBF values between the first and second CBF measurements. They then applied this double injection method for the acetazolamide testing of 10 stroke patients with an arterial occlusion of stenosis and found that the CBF results compared favorably with the CBF results achieved with the use of the separate injection method. It also should be noted the double injection method was successfully used for clinical CBF measurements without acetazolamide testing. (author)

  2. The 1-Minute Sit-to-Stand Test in Adults With Cystic Fibrosis: Correlations With Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test, 6-Minute Walk Test, and Quadriceps Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruet, Mathieu; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Mely, Laurent; Vallier, Jean-Marc

    2016-12-01

    Exercise testing is part of the regular assessment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We aimed to evaluate (1) the convergent validity of the 1-min sit-to-stand (STS) test in CF by investigating its relationships with peak oxygen uptake (peak V̇ O 2 ), quadriceps strength, and quality of life and (2) to compare these associations with those of the 6-min walk test (6MWT). Twenty-five adults with CF (FEV 1 = 59 ± 24%) performed the STS test, the 6MWT, quadriceps strength assessment, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Physical activity level, quality of life, and self-esteem were assessed by questionnaires. STS repetitions, 6-min walk distance, quadriceps strength, and peak V̇ O 2 were, respectively, 71 ± 12, 90 ± 10, 93 ± 29, and 62 ± 16% of predicted. The STS test had moderate associations with peak V̇ O 2 (r = 0.56, P = .004), quadriceps strength (r = 0.52, P = .008), and some questionnaire items (eg, perceived physical strength, r = 0.67, P test was strongly associated with oxygen desaturation during CPET (r = 0.80, P test as compared with CPET (P test cannot be used as a replacement for CPET to accurately assess peak exercise capacity in CF. The STS test may have utility in detecting patients with CF who may exhibit a high level of oxygen desaturation during heavy exercise. Further studies should identify the factors contributing to STS performance to confirm the potential interest of STS repetitions × body weight outcome as a useful submaximal exercise parameter in CF. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Evaluation of Mucociliary Clearance by Three Dimension Micro-CT-SPECT in Guinea Pig: Role of Bitter Taste Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jose Luis; Ortiz, Amparo; Milara, Javier; Armengot, Miguel; Sanz, Celia; Compañ, Desamparados; Morcillo, Esteban; Cortijo, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Different image techniques have been used to analyze mucociliary clearance (MCC) in humans, but current small animal MCC analysis using in vivo imaging has not been well defined. Bitter taste receptor (T2R) agonists increase ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and cause bronchodilation but their effects in vivo are not well understood. This work analyzes in vivo nasal and bronchial MCC in guinea pig animals using three dimension (3D) micro-CT-SPECT images and evaluates the effect of T2R agonists. Intranasal macroaggreggates of albumin-Technetium 99 metastable (MAA-Tc99m) and lung nebulized Tc99m albumin nanocolloids were used to analyze the effect of T2R agonists on nasal and bronchial MCC respectively, using 3D micro-CT-SPECT in guinea pig. MAA-Tc99m showed a nasal mucociliary transport rate of 0.36 mm/min that was increased in presence of T2R agonist to 0.66 mm/min. Tc99m albumin nanocolloids were homogeneously distributed in the lung of guinea pig and cleared with time-dependence through the bronchi and trachea of guinea pig. T2R agonist increased bronchial MCC of Tc99m albumin nanocolloids. T2R agonists increased CBF in human nasal ciliated cells in vitro and induced bronchodilation in human bronchi ex vivo. In summary, T2R agonists increase MCC in vivo as assessed by 3D micro-CT-SPECT analysis.

  4. Evaluation of aseismic integrity in HTTR core-bottom structure. Pt. 1. Aseismic test for core-bottom structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyoku, T.; Futakawa, M.; Ishihara, M.

    1994-01-01

    The aseismic tests were carried out using (1)/(5)-scale and (1)/(3)-scale models of the core-bottom structure of the HTTR to quantitatively evaluate the response of acceleration, strain, impact load etc. The following conclusions are obtained. (i) The frequency response of the keyway strain is correlative with that of the impact acceleration on the hot plenum block. (ii) It was confirmed through (1)/(5)-scale and (1)/(3)-scale model tests that the applied similarity law is valid to evaluate the seismic response characteristics of the core-bottom structure. (ii) The stress of graphite components estimated from the scale model test using S 2 -earthquake excitation was sufficiently lower than the allowable stress used as the design criterion. ((orig.))

  5. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayihan, Gürhan; Özkan, Ali; Köklü, Yusuf; Eyuboğlu, Ender; Akça, Firat; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT) using different formulae. Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST). VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993), Cureton et al. (1995) and Kline et al. (1987) for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982) for the 20-MST. The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000). The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  6. Evaluation of an Immunocapture-Agglutination Test (Brucellacapt) for Serodiagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orduña, Antonio; Almaraz, Ana; Prado, Ana; Gutierrez, M. Purificación; Garcia-Pascual, Agustina; Dueñas, Ana; Cuervo, Milagros; Abad, Ramon; Hernández, Beatriz; Lorenzo, Belen; Bratos, Miguel A.; Torres, Antonio Rodriguez

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the validity and the usefulness of a new test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis based on an immunocapture-agglutination technique. A total of 315 sera from 82 patients with a diagnosis of brucellosis, 157 sera from patients in whom brucellosis was suspected but not confirmed, and 412 sera from people living in rural areas with endemic brucellosis were studied. The seroagglutination test (SAT), Coombs anti-Brucella test, and Brucellacapt test were evaluated. All the initial sera from the 82 patients proved to be positive in Brucellacapt and Coombs tests, while only 75 (91.4%) were positive in the SAT. If a ≥1/160 diagnostic threshold titer was defined for the Brucellacapt test, Coombs test, and SAT, the sensitivities were 95.1, 91.5, and 65.8%, respectively. Taking the same diagnostic threshold titer for the 157 sera from the unconfirmed but suspected patients, the specificities of the Brucellacapt, Coombs, and SAT were 81.5, 96.2, and 100%, respectively; for the 412 control sera, the specificities were 99.0, 99.8, and 100%. The diagnostic efficiency (area below the receiver operating characteristic curve) of Brucellacapt was 0.987852 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95109 to 0.99286), very similar to the diagnostic efficiency of the Coombs test (0.97611; 95% CI, 0.94781 to 0.99146) and higher than that of SAT (0.91013; 95% CI, 0.86649 to 0.94317). The results of the Brucellacapt test were compared with those of the Coombs test (correlation coefficient, 0.956; P = 0.000) and SAT (correlation coefficient, 0.866; P = 0.000). The study shows very good correlation between the Brucellacapt and Coombs tests, with a high concordance between titers obtained in the two tests. Nevertheless, lower correlation and concordance were found between the Brucellacapt and Coombs tests when the results for titers of ≥1/160 were compared (0.692; P = 0.000). In acute brucellosis, the Brucellacapt and Coombs tests render positive titers of ≥1/160. When the titers

  7. NASA Officials in MCC to decide whether to land Apollo 16 or cancel landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    NASA Officials gather around a console in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) in the Mission Control Center (MCC) prior to the making of a decision whether to land Apollo 16 on the moon or to abort the landing. Seated, left to right, are Dr. Christopher C. Kraft Jr., Director of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), and Brig. Gen. James A. McDivitt (USAF), Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program Office, MSC; and standing, left to right, are Dr. Rocco A. Petrone, Apollo Program Director, Office Manned Space Flight (OMSF), NASA HQ.; Capt. John K. Holcolmb (U.S. Navy, Ret.), Director of Apollo Operations, OMSF; Sigurd A. Sjoberg, Deputy Director, MSC; Capt. Chester M. Lee (U.S. Navy, Ret.), Apollo Mission Director, OMSF; Dale D. Myers, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight; and Dr. George M. Low, NASA Deputy Administrator.

  8. Midcingulate cortex: Structure, connections, homologies, functions and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Brent A

    2016-07-01

    Midcingulate cortex (MCC) has risen in prominence as human imaging identifies unique structural and functional activity therein and this is the first review of its structure, connections, functions and disease vulnerabilities. The MCC has two divisions (anterior, aMCC and posterior, pMCC) that represent functional units and the cytoarchitecture, connections and neurocytology of each is shown with immunohistochemistry and receptor binding. The MCC is not a division of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the "dorsal ACC" designation is a misnomer as it incorrectly implies that MCC is a division of ACC. Interpretation of findings among species and developing models of human diseases requires detailed comparative studies which is shown here for five species with flat maps and immunohistochemistry (human, monkey, rabbit, rat, mouse). The largest neurons in human cingulate cortex are in layer Vb of area 24 d in pMCC which project to the spinal cord. This area is part of the caudal cingulate premotor area which is involved in multisensory orientation of the head and body in space and neuron responses are tuned for the force and direction of movement. In contrast, the rostral cingulate premotor area in aMCC is involved in action-reinforcement associations and selection based on the amount of reward or aversive properties of a potential movement. The aMCC is activated by nociceptive information from the midline, mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei which evoke fear and mediates nocifensive behaviors. This subregion also has high dopaminergic afferents and high dopamine-1 receptor binding and is engaged in reward processes. Opposing pain/avoidance and reward/approach functions are selected by assessment of potential outcomes and error detection according to feedback-mediated, decision making. Parietal afferents differentially terminate in MCC and provide for multisensory control in an eye- and head-centric manner. Finally, MCC vulnerability in human disease confirms

  9. Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Gláucia Maria Oliveira de; Silva, Leandro Freitas; Ferreira, José Tarcísio Lima; Gomes, José Antônio da Cunha P; Sathler, Lúcio

    2007-01-01

    It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluated four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil). It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions.

  10. Trial 1 versus Trial 2 of the Test of Memory Malingering: Evaluating accuracy without a "gold standard".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossman, Douglas; Wygant, Dustin B; Gervais, Roger O; Hart, Kathleen J

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), a frequently administered measure for evaluating effort during neurocognitive testing. In the last few years, several authors have suggested that the initial recognition trial of the TOMM (Trial 1) might be a more useful index for detecting feigned or exaggerated impairment than Trial 2, which is the source for inference recommended by the original instruction manual (Tombaugh, 1996). We used latent class modeling (LCM) implemented in a Bayesian framework to evaluate archival Trial 1 and Trial 2 data collected from 1,198 adults who had undergone outpatient forensic evaluations. All subjects were tested with 2 other performance validity tests (the Word Memory Test and the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias), and for 70% of the subjects, data from the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition Forced Choice trial were also available. Our results suggest that not even a perfect score on Trial 1 or Trial 2 justifies saying that an evaluee is definitely responding genuinely, although such scores imply a lower-than-base-rate probability of feigning. If one uses a Trial 2 cut-off higher than the manual's recommendation, Trial 2 does better than Trial 1 at identifying individuals who are almost certainly feigning while maintaining a negligible false positive rate. Using scores from both trials, one can identify a group of definitely feigning and very likely feigning subjects who comprise about 2 thirds of all feigners; only 1% of the members of this group would not be feigning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Including test errors in evaluating surveillance test intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Martorell, S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Technical Specifications require surveillance testing to assure that the standby systems important to safety will start and perform their intended functions in the event of plant abnormality. However, as evidenced by operating experience, the surveillance tests may be adversely impact safety because of their undesirable side effects, such as initiation of plant transients during testing or wearing-out of safety systems due to testing. This paper first defines the concerns, i.e., the potential adverse effects of surveillance testing, from a risk perspective. Then, we present a methodology to evaluate the risk impact of those adverse effects, focusing on two important kinds of adverse impacts of surveillance testing: (1) risk impact of test-caused trips and (2) risk impact of test-caused equipment wear. The quantitative risk methodology is demonstrated with several surveillance tests conducted at boiling water reactors, such as the tests of the main steam isolation valves, the turbine overspeed protection system, and the emergency diesel generators. We present the results of the risk-effectiveness evaluation of surveillance test intervals, which compares the adverse risk impact with the beneficial risk impact of testing from potential failure detection, along with insights from sensitivity studies

  12. Test-retest reliability of the novel 5-HT1B receptor PET radioligand [11C]P943

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saricicek, Aybala; Chen, Jason; Ruf, Barbara; Planeta, Beata; Labaree, David; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Huang, Yiyun; Subramanyam, Kalyani; Maloney, Kathleen; Matuskey, David; Deserno, Lorenz; Neumeister, Alexander; Krystal, John H.; Carson, Richard E.; Bhagwagar, Zubin

    2015-01-01

    [ 11 C]P943 is a novel, highly selective 5-HT 1B PET radioligand. The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of [ 11 C]P943 using two different modeling methods and to perform a power analysis with each quantification technique. Seven healthy volunteers underwent two PET scans on the same day. Regions of interest (ROIs) were the amygdala, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, insula, frontal, anterior cingulate, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, and cerebellum. Two multilinear radioligand quantification techniques were used to estimate binding potential: MA1, using arterial input function data, and the second version of the multilinear reference tissue model analysis (MRTM2), using the cerebellum as the reference region. Between-scan percent variability and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess test-retest reliability. We also performed power analyses to determine the method that would allow the least number of subjects using within-subject or between-subject study designs. A voxel-wise ICC analysis for MRTM2 BP ND was performed for the whole brain and all the ROIs studied. Mean percent variability between two scans across regions ranged between 0.4 % and 12.4 % for MA1 BP ND , 0.5 % and 11.5 % for MA1 BP P , 16.7 % and 28.3 % for MA1 BP F , and between 0.2 % and 5.4 % for MRTM2 BP ND . The power analyses showed a greater number of subjects were required using MA1 BP F compared with other outcome measures for both within-subject and between-subject study designs. ICC values were the highest using MRTM2 BP ND and the lowest with MA1 BP F in ten ROIs. Small regions and regions with low binding had lower ICC values than large regions and regions with high binding. Reliable measures of 5-HT 1B receptor binding can be obtained using the novel PET radioligand [ 11 C]P943. Quantification of 5-HT 1B receptor binding with MRTM2 BP ND and with MA1 BP P provided the least variability and optimal power for within-subject and

  13. Increased expression of EZH2 in Merkel cell carcinoma is associated with disease progression and poorer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Kelly L; Chubb, Heather; Zhao, Lili; Fullen, Douglas R; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Johnson, Timothy M; Carskadon, Shannon; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Harms, Paul W

    2017-09-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a histone methyltransferase that affects tumorigenesis by epigenetic gene silencing. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma that has a high risk of disease progression with nodal and distant metastases. Here, we evaluated EZH2 expression by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 85 MCC tumors (29 primary tumors, 41 lymph node metastases, 13 in-transit metastases, and 2 distant metastases) with clinical follow-up. We show strong/moderate EZH2 expression in 54% of tumors. Importantly, weak expression of EZH2 in the primary tumor, but not nodal metastases, correlated with improved prognosis compared to moderate/strong EZH2 expression (5-year MCC-specific survival of 68% versus 22%, respectively, P=.024). In addition, EZH2 was expressed at higher levels in nodal metastases compared to primary tumors (P=.005). Our data demonstrate that EZH2 has prognostic value and may play an oncogenic role in MCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Test OPTRAN 1-1 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, Z.R.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the OPT 1-1 Test Series was to evaluate the extent of damage and the threshold for failure during simulated BWR anticipated transients. Four power transient tests with progressively higher power levels were performed with preirradiated fuel rods at power ramp rates as high as 550 kW/m per second. Six separately shrouded fuel rods fabricated by the General Electric Co., and preirradiated in the Monticello BWR to burnups of about 5000 to 23,000 MWd/t were tested, four at a time. Four of the fuel rods were of typical GE 8 x 8 design, except for fuel length (0.75 m). Two of the rods included design modifications to improve their PCI-resistant characteristics. A lengthy fuel conditioning preceded the transient testing of the fuel rods

  15. Efficient p-value evaluation for resampling-based tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, K.; Liang, F.; Ciampa, J.; Chatterjee, N.

    2011-01-01

    The resampling-based test, which often relies on permutation or bootstrap procedures, has been widely used for statistical hypothesis testing when the asymptotic distribution of the test statistic is unavailable or unreliable. It requires repeated

  16. Penicillin skin testing is a safe and effective tool for evaluating penicillin allergy in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Stephanie J; Park, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin skin testing has been validated in the evaluation of adult patients with penicillin allergy. However, the commercially available benzylpenicilloyl polylysine (Pre-Pen) is not indicated in the pediatric population. Moreover, the safety and validity of penicillin skin testing in the pediatric population has not been well studied. We describe the safety and validity of penicillin skin testing in the evaluation of children with a history of penicillin allergy. Children (penicillin allergy were evaluated with penicillin skin tests and were reviewed for basic demographics, penicillin skin test results, adverse drug reaction to penicillin after penicillin skin test, and adverse reaction to penicillin skin test. By using the χ(2) test, we compared the differences in the proportion of children and adults with a positive penicillin skin test. P value (penicillin skin testing; 703 of 778 patients had a negative penicillin skin test (90.4%), 66 had a positive test (8.5%), and 9 had an equivocal test (1.1%). Children were more likely to have a positive penicillin skin test (P penicillin skin test (52%) were challenged with penicillin, and 14 of 369 patients (3.8%) had an adverse drug reaction. No adverse reactions to penicillin skin testing were observed. Penicillin skin testing was safe and effective in the evaluation of children with a history of penicillin allergy. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A lifetime measurement of the 1s2p 3P1 level in helium-like Mg and Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, I.A.; Silver, J.D.; Traebert, E.; Oxford Univ.

    1981-01-01

    The lifetimes of the 1s2p 3 P 1 levels of helium-like magnesium and aluminium have been measured by the beam-foil decay curve technique. The 1s 2 -1s2p transitions were observed with a curved-crystal x-ray spectrometer. Decay curves taken under systematically varied conditions have been evaluated using several techniques including a cascade model. The results are in agreement with most of the theoretical predictions. (author)

  18. Test the Overall Significance of p-values by Using Joint Tail Probability of Ordered p-values as Test Statistic

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Yongxiang; Wit, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Fisher’s combined probability test is the most commonly used method to test the overall significance of a set independent p-values. However, it is very obviously that Fisher’s statistic is more sensitive to smaller p-values than to larger p-value and a small p-value may overrule the other p-values and decide the test result. This is, in some cases, viewed as a flaw. In order to overcome this flaw and improve the power of the test, the joint tail probability of a set p-values is proposed as a ...

  19. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL QUALITY OF MARKET MILK SOLD AT TANDOJAM, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. JAVAID, J. A. GADAHI, M. KHASKELI, M. B. BHUTTO, S. KUMBHER AND A. H. PANHWAR

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality of milk sold at Tandojam, Pakistan. A total of 125 milk samples (25 samples from each source collected from five milk marketing agencies viz direct seller (DS, milk collection center(MCC, milk vendor shop (MVS, hotel (HT and buffalo dairy farm (DF, which served as control. Acidity of milk obtained from DS, MCC, MVS and HT averaged 0.13, 0.15, 0.12 and 0.13, respectively compared to 0.14 for DF milk. The pH values of milk from MVS (6.54 and HT (6.53 were significantly different (P0.05 to that of DF milk i.e. 6.65. Viscosity, specific gravity and freezing point of milk procured from DS (1.48, 1.026 and –0.460, respectively, MCC (1.58, 1.026 and –0.470, respectively, MVS (1.34, 1.026 and –0.440, respectively and HT (1.46, 1.027 and –0.480, respectively were significantly (P<0.001 lower than DF milk (1.86, 1.031 and -0.551, respectively. Chemical quality of milk procured from DS, MCC, MVS and HT compared to DF milk (control averaged 13.45, 14.18, 13.19 and 14.06% vs. 16.30% for TS content, 8.25, 8.81, 8.06 and 8.51% vs. 9.79% for SNF content, 5.20, 5.41, 5.13 and 5.54% vs. 6.51% for fat content, 3.85, 3.96, 3.91 and 4.23% vs. 4.35% for protein content, 2.70, 2.77, 2.56 and 3.20% vs. 3.56% for casein content, 3.65, 4.03, 3.34 and 3.52% vs. 4.53% for lactose content and 0.75, 0.78, 0.74 and 0.76% vs. 0.91% for ash content, respectively. All the attributes of chemical quality of milk supplied through four agencies were significantly lower (P<0.05 than DF milk.

  20. Comparative evaluation of Amplicor HIV-1 DNA test, version 1.5, by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test using venous blood sample has been used for many years in low resource settings for early infant diagnosis of HIV infection in children less than 18 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance characteristics of ...

  1. Interchangeability of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines with different carrier proteins in the United Kingdom infant immunisation schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Andrews, Nick J; Waight, Pauline; Hallis, Bassam; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Borrow, Ray; Burbidge, Polly; Pearce, Emma; Goldblatt, David; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-29

    An open, non-randomised study was undertaken in England during 2011-12 to evaluate vaccine antibody responses in infants after completion of the routine primary infant immunisation schedule, which included two doses of meningococcal group C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 3 and 4 months. Any of the three licensed MCC vaccines could be used for either dose, depending on local availability. Healthy term infants registered at participating general practices (GPs) in Hertfordshire and Gloucestershire, UK, were recruited prospectively to provide a single blood sample four weeks after primary immunisation, which was administered by the GP surgery. Vaccination history was obtained at blood sampling. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and IgG antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), pertussis toxin (PT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and thirteen pneumococcal serotypes were analysed according to MCC vaccines received. MenC SBA responses differed significantly (Pvaccine schedule as follows: MenC SBA geometric mean titres (GMTs) were significantly lower in infants receiving a diphtheria cross-reacting material-conjugated MCC (MCC-CRM) vaccine followed by TT-conjugated MCC (MCC-TT) vaccine (82.0; 95% CI, 39-173; n=14) compared to those receiving two MCC-CRM (418; 95% CI, 325-537; n=82), two MCC-TT (277; 95% CI, 223-344; n=79) or MCC-TT followed by MCC-CRM (553; 95% CI, 322-949; n=18). The same group also had the lowest Hib geometric mean concentrations (0.60 μg/mL, 0.27-1.34) compared to 1.85 μg/mL (1.23-2.78), 2.86 μg/mL (2.02-4.05) and 4.26 μg/mL (1.94-9.36), respectively. Our results indicate that MCC vaccines with different carrier proteins are not interchangeable. When several MCC vaccines are available, children requiring more than one dose should receive MCC vaccines with the same carrier protein or, alternatively, receive MCC-TT first wherever possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Post test analysis of TEPSS tests -P2-, -P3-, -P5- and -P7- using the system code RELAP5/MOD 3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luebbesmeyer, D.

    2000-01-01

    For the PANDA-Test-Facility (TEPSS configuration) post-test calculations and analyses have been performed for experiment -P2- (Early Start), -P3- (PCC start up), -P5- (Symmetric case, Two PCCs only) and -P7- (Severe Accident). Post test calculations have been performed with the system code RELAP5/Mod 3.2 using two different nodalization of the PANDA facility namely a basis nodalization and a much reduced one. The general trend of the calculations can be summarised: RELAP5/Mod3.2 calculated the general trends of the experiments sufficiently accurate; Using the reduced nodalization the results seem to be slightly more accurate than for the basic nodalization; On the other hand, calculations based on the reduced nodalization are not significantly faster than those with basic nodalization; The mass error is in the order of 200 to 900 kg. (author)

  3. Immune response to Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 and P116 in patients with atypical pneumonia analyzed by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkelund Svend

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serology is often used for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is important to identify specific antigens that can distinguish between the presence or absence of antibodies against M. pneumoniae. The two proteins, P116 and P1, are found to be immunogenic. By using these in ELISA it is possible to identify an immune response against M. pneumoniae in serum samples. Results A recombinant protein derived from the P116 protein and one from the P1 protein were used in two ELISA tests, rP116-ELISA and rP1-ELISA. Human serum samples from patients with atypical pneumonia were tested and compared to the results of the complement fixation test. There was a good agreement between the two tests but the rP1-ELISA showed the best discrimination between positive and negative samples. Conclusion Two ELISA tests based on recombinant proteins have been analysed and compared to the complement fixation test results. The two ELISA tests were found suitable for use in serodiagnostics of M. pneumoniae infections. The use of specific antigens eliminates the risk of cross reaction to an immune response against other bacteria.

  4. Effects of drought stress on morphological traits in chickpea (Cicer arientinum L. genotypes in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali masoomi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in a research greenhouse at the College of Agriculture in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad to investigate the impact of five drought levels (-0.3, -3, -6, -9 and -12 bar on physiological and morphological characteristics of nine chickpea genotypes including MCC101, MCC174, MCC276, MCC477, MCC327, MCC476, JAM, Karaj12-60-31and ILC482. The experiment used 5×9 factorial laid out in randomized complete design with 4 replications. The genotypes were exposed to drought stress 10 days after emergence. Some traits were measured during growth season (including plant height, leaf number, flower and pod number, length and number of lateral branch that all of them shown significant differences in the first stage of stress between genotypes and then the effects of drought were appeared. In majority of genotypes reduction in the flowering and podding time were observed. Flower number is a favor parameter in the assessment of drought tolerance genotypes. Most measured traits imposed significant differences in all levels of drought stress, genotypes and interaction of them at the end of growth season. The highest amount of all measured parameters were observed in the field capacity (-0.3 bar. Among the levels of water potential tested -3 and -6 bar were the best treatment for evaluating drought stress of chickpea genotypes. Pod and seed weight did not form in heavy drought stress. Among genotypes tested ILC482, MCC276 and MCC 477 were the best genotypes in terms of responsing to drought stress.

  5. Progress on chinese evaluated nuclear parameter library: Pt.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongdi, Su; Zhongfu, Huang; Jianfeng, Liu [and others

    1996-06-01

    The progress on chinese evaluated nuclear parameter library (v) was introduced. Six sub-libraries, MCC, DLS, NLD, GDP, FBP and OMP, including their data files and management-retrieval code systems have all been finished. All six sub-libraries have been used in nuclear model calculations, nuclear data evaluations and other fields in China. The applied results show that our evaluated nuclear parameter library is satisfactory and convenient.

  6. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark......, and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  7. Allergenicity evaluation of p-chloro-m-cresol and p-chloro-m-xylenol by non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay and multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Noda, Tsutomu

    2003-01-01

    p-Chloro-m-cresol (PCMC) and p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX) are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. For risk assessment of skin sensitizers, information on dose-response profiles in the induction and elicitation phases and cross-reactivity with analogous chemicals are important. In the non-radioactive local lymph-node assay (LLNA) using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine instead of 3 H-methyl thymidine, significant effect on lymph node cell proliferation was detected at 10% PCMC and 25% PCMX, while in the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) at least one animal tested in the group was sensitized at a 5 ppm induction dose of either chemical. When mean skin reaction score in an animal group maximally sensitized with each allergen with the GPMT was plotted against log challenge concentration, linear regression lines with high correlations were obtained in both cases. The calculated elicitation threshold was lower for PCMC than PCMX. The area under the linear regression line between the threshold point and 1% of the elicitation concentration, another index of relative elicitation potency, was also greater for PCMC. Bidirectional cross-reactivity between PCMX and PCMC was detected in the GPMT. PCMC was thus identified in both LLNA and GPMT as a stronger sensitizer than PCMX in both the induction and elicitation phases. These results suggest that the non-radioactive LLNA is a simple and useful method for evaluating allergenicity in the induction phase, while the GPMT using a maximally sensitized animal group is more suitable for assessing the dose-response profile and cross-reactivity in the elicitation phase

  8. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masanori, E-mail: ando.masanori@jaea.go.jp; Takaya, Shigeru, E-mail: takaya.shigeru@jaea.go.jp

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  9. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masanori; Takaya, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  10. Initial dissolution rate of a Japanese simulated high-level waste glass P0798 as a function of pH and temperature measured by using micro-channel flow-through test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yaohiro; Makigaki, Hikaru; Idemitsu, Kazuya; Arima, Tatsumi; Mitsui, Sei-ichiro; Noshita, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous dissolution tests were performed for a Japanese type of simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass P0798 by using a newly developed test method of micro-channel flow-through (MCFT) method, and the initial dissolution rate of glass matrix, r 0 , was measured as a function of solution pH (3-11) and temperature (25-90degC) precisely and consistently for systematic evaluation of the dissolution kinetics. The MCFT method using a micro-channel reactor with a coupon shaped glass specimen has the following features to provide precise and consistent data on the glass dissolution rate: (1) any controlled constant solution condition can be provided over the test duration; (2) the glass surface area actually reacting with solution can be determined accurately; and (3) direct and totally quantitative analyses of the reacted glass surface can be performed for confirming consistency of the test results. The present test results indicated that the r 0 shows a 'V-shaped' pH dependence with a minimum at around pH 6 at 25degC, but it changes to a 'U-shaped' one with a flat bottom at neutral pH at elevated temperatures of up to 90degC. The present results also indicated that the r 0 increases with temperature according to an Arrhenius law at any pH, and the apparent activation energy evaluated from Arrhenius relation increases with pH from 54 kJ/mol at pH 3 to 76 kJ/mol at pH 10, which suggests that the dissolution mechanism changes depending on pH. (author)

  11. In Vivo Model to Test Implanted Biosensors for Blood pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Somps, Chris J.; Madou, Marc; Hines, John; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Biosensors for monitoring physiologic data continuously through telemetry are available for heart rate, respiration, and temperature but not for blood pH or ions affected by hydrogen ion concentration. A telemetric biosensor for monitoring blood pH on-line could be used to identify and manage problems in fluid and electrolyte metabolism, cardiac and respiratory function during space flight and the acid-base status of patients without the need for venipuncture in patients on Earth. Critical to the development of biosensors is a method for evaluating their performance after implantation. Mature rats, prepared with jugular, cannulas for repeated blood samples, were exposed to a gas mixture containing high levels of carbon dioxide (7%) in a closed environment to induce mild respiratory acidosis. Serial blood gas and pH measurements in venous blood were compared with electrical responses from sensors implanted in the subcutaneous tissue. Animals became slightly tachypneic after exposure to excess CO2, but remained alert and active. After 5 minutes, basal blood pH decreased from 7.404 +/- 0.013 to 7.289 +/- 0.010 (p less than 0.001)and PC02 increased from 45 +/- 6 to 65 +/- 4 mm. Hg (p les than 0.001). Thereafter pH and blood gas parameters remained stable. Implanted sensors showed a decrease in millivolts (mV) which paralleled the change in pH and averaged 5-6 mV per 0.1 unit pH. Implanted sensors remained sensitive to modest changes in tissue pH for one week. A system for inducing acidosis in rats was developed to test the in vivo performance of pH biosensors. The system provides a method which is sensitive, rapid and reproducible in the same and different animals with full recovery, for testing the performance of sensors implanted in subcutaneous tissues.

  12. Development and Evaluation of a Student-Initiated Test Preparation Program for the USMLE Step 1 Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lindsay F; Lineberry, Matthew; Park, Yoon Soo; Kamin, Carol S; Hyderi, Abbas A

    2018-01-01

    Studies have documented performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE) Step 1 exam as an important factor that residency program directors consider when deciding which applicants to interview and rank. Therefore, success on this exam, though only one aspect of applicant evaluation, is important in determining future career prospects for medical students. Unfortunately, mean test scores at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago (UIC) have historically been below the national average. This retrospective and quasi-experimental mixed-methods study describes the development, evaluation, and effects of a student-initiated USMLE Step 1 preparatory program at UIC. The program provided second year students with First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 at the beginning of the academic year, as well as a six month subscription to the USMLE World question bank midyear. In addition, optional peer review sessions covering basic sciences and organ systems were taught by high-performing upperclassmen. The goals of the program were to raise mean USMLE Step 1 exam scores and increase the percentage of students passing the exam on their first time. The program premiered during the 2012-13 academic year. Data from this cohort as well as four others (N = 830; 2010-2014 examinees) were gathered. Performances between preintervention (2010-12 examinees) and postintervention (2013-14 examinees) cohorts of students were compared. Focus groups and interviews with staff and students were conducted, recorded, and analyzed to investigate the impact that the program had on student interactions and perceptions of the learning environment. There was a significant difference in exam performance pre- versus postintervention, with average USMLE Step 1 scores improving by 8.82 points following the implementation of the student-initiated program, t(5.61) = 828, p Step 1 (odds ratio = 3.08, SE = 1.07, p < .01). Students and staff commented on the sense of community and

  13. Materials Characterization Center workshop on leaching of radioactive waste forms. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Strachan, D.M.; Turcotte, R.P.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    At the first Materials Characterization Center (MCC) workshop, on the leaching of radioactive waste forms, there was general agreement that, after certain revisions, the proposed leach test plan set forth by the MCC can be expected to meet most of the nuclear waste community's waste form durability data requirements. The revisions give a clearer definition of the purposes of each test and the end uses of the data. As a result of the workshop, the format of the test program has been recast to clarify the purposes, limitations, and interrelationships of the individual tests. There was also a recognition that the leach test program must be based on an understanding of the mechanistic principles of leaching, and that further study is needed to ensure that the approved data from the MCC leach tests will be compatible with mechanistic research needs. It was agreed that another meeting of the participants in Working Groups 3 and 4, and perhaps some other experts, should be held as soon as possible to focus just on the definition of leach test requirements for mechanistic research. The MCC plans to hold this meeting in April 1980. Many of the tests that will lead to increased understanding of mechanisms will of necessity be long-term tests, sometimes lasting for several years. But the MCC also faces pressing needs to produce approved data that can be used for the comparison of waste forms in the relative near-term, i.e., in the next 1 to 3 yr. Therefore, it was decided to initiate a round-robin test of the MCC short-term static leach procedure as soon as practicable. The MCC has tentative plans for organization of the round robin in May 1980

  14. CP determination and tests for CP or P violation by the V1V2 decay mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    A decay mode such as phiphi, UPSILONUPSILON, K/sup asterisk+/K/sup asterisk-/, or D/sup asterisk+/D/sup asterisk-/ can be used to distinguish between a neutral spin-0 technipion and a neutral spin-0 Higgs particle. By this generalization of phiphi parity test, the CP eigenvalue γ/sub C/P can be determined for an X particle of any spin J which decays CP invariantly into VV, or VV-bar, where each vector meson either decays into two spin-0 bosons, or is ω. The absence in a VV, or VV-bar, decay channel of sin2phi and sinphi terms in the azimuthal distribution is due to CP invariance and/or P invariance. For a V 1 V 2 decay channel without a V 1 bold-arrow-left-rightV 2 exchange property, and in a mode like K/sup asterisk+/K /sup asterisk0/, such terms would imply that P is violated. For a V 1 V 2 mode such as phiω where each vector meson is its own antiparticle, such terms would imply that both P and CP are violated; when CP invariance holds, the γ/sub C/P(-)/sup J/ eigenvalue of X can be determined provided certain amplitudes do not accidentally vanish

  15. Evaluation of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Campos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, a cohort of 4998 women, 20 years or older, without previous diabetes being treated in prenatal care clinics in Brazil answered a questionnaire and performed a 75-g OGTT including fasting, 1-h and 2-h glucose measurements between their 24th and 28th gestational weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were transcribed from medical registries. GDM was defined according to WHO criteria (fasting: ≥126 mg/dL; 2-h value: ≥140 mg/dL and macrosomia as a birth weight equal to or higher than 4000 g. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC were compared and diagnostic properties of various cut-off points were evaluated. The AUCs for the prediction of macrosomia were 0.606 (0.572-0.637 for the 1-h and 0.589 (0.557-0.622 for the 2-h plasma glucose test. Similar predictability was demonstrable regarding combined adverse outcomes: 0.582 (0.559-0.604 for the 1-h test and 0.572 (0.549-0.595 for the 2-h test. When the 1-h glucose test was evaluated against a diagnosis of GDM defined by the 2-h glucose test, the AUC was 0.903 (0.886-0.919. The cut-off point that maximized sensitivity (83% and specificity (83% was 141 mg/dL, identifying 21% of the women as positive. A cut-off point of 160 mg/dL, with lower sensitivity (62%, had higher specificity (94%, labeling 8.6% as positive. Detection of GDM can be done with a 1-h 75-g OGTT: the value of 160 mg/dL has the same diagnostic performance as the conventional 2-h value (140 mg/dL. The simplification of the test may improve coverage and timing of the diagnosis of GDM.

  16. The 1p-encoded protein stathmin and resistance of malignant gliomas to nitrosoureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Teri-T B; Peng, Tien; Liang, Xing-Jie; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Pastorino, Sandra; Zhang, Wei; Kotliarov, Yuri; Zenklusen, Jean C; Fine, Howard A; Maric, Dragan; Wen, Patrick Y; De Girolami, Umberto; Black, Peter McL; Wu, Wells W; Shen, Rong-Fong; Jeffries, Neal O; Kang, Dong-Won; Park, John K

    2007-04-18

    Malignant gliomas are generally resistant to all conventional therapies. Notable exceptions are anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 1p (1p+/-). Patients with 1p+/- anaplastic oligodendroglioma frequently respond to procarbazine, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-l-nitrosourea, and vincristine. Because the underlying biologic basis for this clinical finding is unclear, we evaluated differentially expressed 1p-encoded proteins in 1p+/- and 1p+/+ malignant glioma cell lines and then examined whether their expression was associated with outcome of patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma. We used a comparative proteomic screen of A172 (1p+/-) and U251 (1p+/+) malignant glioma cell lines to identify differentially expressed 1p-encoded proteins, including stathmin, a microtubule-associated protein. 1p+/- and 1p+/+ anaplastic oligodendroglioma specimens from 24 patients were assessed for stathmin expression by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between stathmin expression and clinical outcome was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analyses. RNA inhibition and cDNA transfection experiments tested effects of stathmin under- and overexpression, respectively, on the in vitro and in vivo resistance of malignant glioma cells to treatment with nitrosourea. For in vivo resistance studies, 36 mice with intracranial and 16 mice with subcutaneous xenograft tumor implants were used (one tumor per mouse). Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis. Immunoblotting was used to assess protein expression. All statistical tests were two-sided. Decreased stathmin expression in tumors was statistically significantly associated with loss of heterozygosity in 1p (Pnitrosourea-treated mice carrying xenograft tumors. Median survival of mice with stathmin+/- tumors was 95 days (95% CI = 68.7 to 121.3 days) and that of mice with stathmin+/+ tumors was 64 days (95% CI = 58.2 to 69.8 days) (difference = 31 days, 95% CI = 4.1 to 57.9 days; PNitrosoureas induced

  17. Gastroesophageal reflux: the acid test, scintigraphy or the pH probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.J.; Byrne, W.J.; Euler, A.R.; Latture, T.; Leach, M.; Campbell, M.

    1983-01-01

    The best established technique for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux in children is the 24 hr esophageal pH probe test. No simultaneous comparison of this technique with radionuclide scans has been reported. Therefore, simultaneous 1 hr pH monitoring and gastroesophageal scintigraphy were performed in 49 infants and children with suspected gastroesophageal reflux. Forty-seven of these patients also were later monitored by the 24 hr pH probe test. Upper gastrointestinal series were performed on all patients. All patients with a positive 1 hr pH monitoring also had positive simultaneous scintigraphy. All patients with positive scintigraphy and pH probe monitoring also had a positive upper gastrointestinal series for reflux. The sensitivity of gastroesophageal scintigraphy, when compared to the 24 hr probe as a standard, was 79%; its specificity was 93%. The sensitivity of the upper gastrointestinal series was 86%, when compared to the 24 hr pH probe test. However, its specificity was only 21%

  18. A New Tool for Nutrition App Quality Evaluation (AQEL): Development, Validation, and Reliability Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Kristen Nicole; Huang, Wenhao; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2017-10-27

    The extensive availability and increasing use of mobile apps for nutrition-based health interventions makes evaluation of the quality of these apps crucial for integration of apps into nutritional counseling. The goal of this research was the development, validation, and reliability testing of the app quality evaluation (AQEL) tool, an instrument for evaluating apps' educational quality and technical functionality. Items for evaluating app quality were adapted from website evaluations, with additional items added to evaluate the specific characteristics of apps, resulting in 79 initial items. Expert panels of nutrition and technology professionals and app users reviewed items for face and content validation. After recommended revisions, nutrition experts completed a second AQEL review to ensure clarity. On the basis of 150 sets of responses using the revised AQEL, principal component analysis was completed, reducing AQEL into 5 factors that underwent reliability testing, including internal consistency, split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, and interrater reliability (IRR). Two additional modifiable constructs for evaluating apps based on the age and needs of the target audience as selected by the evaluator were also tested for construct reliability. IRR testing using intraclass correlations (ICC) with all 7 constructs was conducted, with 15 dietitians evaluating one app. Development and validation resulted in the 51-item AQEL. These were reduced to 25 items in 5 factors after principal component analysis, plus 9 modifiable items in two constructs that were not included in principal component analysis. Internal consistency and split-half reliability of the following constructs derived from principal components analysis was good (Cronbach alpha >.80, Spearman-Brown coefficient >.80): behavior change potential, support of knowledge acquisition, app function, and skill development. App purpose split half-reliability was .65. Test-retest reliability showed no

  19. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) displays sustained S1P1 receptor agonism and signaling through S1P lyase-dependent receptor recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatfield, John; Monnier, Lucile; Studer, Rolf; Bolli, Martin H; Steiner, Beat; Nayler, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) type 1 receptor (S1P1R) is a novel therapeutic target in lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune diseases. S1P1 receptor desensitization caused by synthetic S1P1 receptor agonists prevents T-lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid organs into the circulation. The selective S1P1 receptor agonist ponesimod, which is in development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, efficiently reduces peripheral lymphocyte counts and displays efficacy in animal models of autoimmune disease. Using ponesimod and the natural ligand S1P, we investigated the molecular mechanisms leading to different signaling, desensitization and trafficking behavior of S1P1 receptors. In recombinant S1P1 receptor-expressing cells, ponesimod and S1P triggered Gαi protein-mediated signaling and β-arrestin recruitment with comparable potency and efficiency, but only ponesimod efficiently induced intracellular receptor accumulation. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), ponesimod and S1P triggered translocation of the endogenous S1P1 receptor to the Golgi compartment. However, only ponesimod treatment caused efficient surface receptor depletion, receptor accumulation in the Golgi and degradation. Impedance measurements in HUVEC showed that ponesimod induced only short-lived Gαi protein-mediated signaling followed by resistance to further stimulation, whereas S1P induced sustained Gαi protein-mediated signaling without desensitization. Inhibition of S1P lyase activity in HUVEC rendered S1P an efficient S1P1 receptor internalizing compound and abrogated S1P-mediated sustained signaling. This suggests that S1P lyase - by facilitating S1P1 receptor recycling - is essential for S1P-mediated sustained signaling, and that synthetic agonists are functional antagonists because they are not S1P lyase substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Test the Overall Significance of p-values by Using Joint Tail Probability of Ordered p-values as Test Statistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Yongxiang; Wit, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Fisher’s combined probability test is the most commonly used method to test the overall significance of a set independent p-values. However, it is very obviously that Fisher’s statistic is more sensitive to smaller p-values than to larger p-value and a small p-value may overrule the other p-values

  1. Evaluation on the long-term durability and leachability of cemented waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Lee, Jae Won; Ryue, Young Gerl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-08-01

    The long-term durability and leachability on the cemented waste form containing boric acids produced in domestic nuclear nuclear power plants were evaluated. Compressive strength of waste form after durability test such as thermal stability and water immersion cycle was higher than before test and consistently increased with increasing of test time in range of 83 of 286 kgf/cm{sup 2}. Long-term leachability was evaluated by standard test methods, leach affecting factors, and prediction of long-term leachability with result data of short-term leach test. In all leach tests, the release of Cs-137 was controlled by diffusion, whereas release of Co-60 was not controlled by diffusion. Leach rate of Cs-137 was relatively constant at standard leach test methods such as NAS 16.1, IAEA, ISO-6961, and MCC-1, but that of Co-60 increased with leachant-renewal frequencies. The leach rate of both Cs-137 and Co-60 increased as test temperature raised. The release of Co-137 decreased in simulated seawater as leachant, but increased with increasing leachant volume. The prediciton of long-term release of Cs-137 from large-scale waste form using the results from short-term leach test of small-scale waste form were within {+-} 5% of actual release. The leachability indexes of Cs-137 were between 6.5 and 7.5 and those of Co-60 were ranged from 11.6 to 13.3, increasing as cumulative leaching time increased. (author). 22 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Y-box protein-1/p18 fragment identifies malignancies in patients with chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacke, Frank; Kanig, Nicolas; En-Nia, Abdelaziz; Kaehne, Thilo; Eberhardt, Christiane S; Shpacovitch, Victoria; Trautwein, Christian; Mertens, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Immunohistochemical detection of cold shock proteins is predictive for deleterious outcome in various malignant diseases. We recently described active secretion of a family member, denoted Y-box (YB) protein-1. We tested the clinical and diagnostic value of YB-1 protein fragment p18 (YB-1/p18) detection in blood for malignant diseases. We used a novel monoclonal anti-YB-1 antibody to detect YB-1/p18 by immunoblotting in plasma samples of healthy volunteers (n = 33), patients with non-cancerous, mostly inflammatory diseases (n = 60), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; n = 25) and advanced solid tumors (n = 20). YB-1/p18 was then tested in 111 patients with chronic liver diseases, alongside established tumor markers and various diagnostic measures, during evaluation for potential liver transplantation. We developed a novel immunoblot to detect the 18 kD fragment of secreted YB-1 in human plasma (YB-1/p18) that contains the cold-shock domains (CSD) 1-3 of the full-length protein. YB-1/p18 was detected in 11/25 HCC and 16/20 advanced carcinomas compared to 0/33 healthy volunteers and 10/60 patients with non-cancerous diseases. In 111 patients with chronic liver disease, YB-1/p18 was detected in 20 samples. Its occurrence was not associated with advanced Child stages of liver cirrhosis or liver function. In this cohort, YB-1/p18 was not a good marker for HCC, but proved most powerful in detecting malignancies other than HCC (60% positive) with a lower rate of false-positive results compared to established tumor markers. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was most sensitive in detecting HCC, but simultaneous assessment of AFP, CA19-9 and YB-1/p18 improved overall identification of HCC patients. Plasma YB-1/p18 can identify patients with malignancies, independent of acute inflammation, renal impairment or liver dysfunction. The detection of YB-1/p18 in human plasma may have potential as a tumor marker for screening of high-risk populations, e.g. before organ transplantation, and should

  3. Standard test method for measuring pH of soil for use in corrosion testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the pH of a soil in corrosion testing. The principle use of the test is to supplement soil resistivity measurements and thereby identify conditions under which the corrosion of metals in soil may be accentuated (see G 57 - 78 (1984)). 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Formulation and Evaluation of Ascorbic acid Tablets by Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the tableting properties of microcrystalline starch (MCS) used as a direct compression excipient in the formulation of ascorbic acid tablets and to compare with the properties of tablets produced using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). METHODS: MCS was obtained by partial hydrolysis of cassava ( ...

  5. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P1 receptor by a novel competitive S1P1-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of a newly developed S1P 1 -selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. ► S1P 1 is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. ► S1P 1 -selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. ► S1P 1 -selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. ► The efficacy of S1P 1 -selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P 1 ) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P 1 and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P 1 -selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P 1 antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P 1 is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  6. Multimodal evidence of regional midcingulate gray matter volume underlying conflict monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaz, Muhammad A; Maloney, Thomas; Moeller, Scott J; Malaker, Pias; Konova, Anna B; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have long implicated the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) in conflict monitoring, but it is not clear whether its structural integrity (i.e., the gray matter volume) influences its conflict monitoring function. In this multimodal study, we used T1-weighted MRI scans as well as event-related potentials (ERPs) to test whether the MCC gray matter volume is associated with the electrocortical marker (i.e., No-go N200 ERP component) of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals. The specificity of such a relationship in health was determined in two ways: by (A) acquiring the same data from individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD), known to have deficits in executive function including behavioral monitoring; and (B) acquiring the P300 ERP component that is linked with attention allocation and not specifically with conflict monitoring. Twenty-five (39.1 ± 8.4 years; 8 females) healthy individuals and 25 (42.7 ± 5.9 years; 6 females) individuals with CUD underwent a rewarded Go/No-go task during which the ERP data was collected, and they also underwent a structural MRI scan. The whole brain regression analysis showed a significant correlation between MCC structural integrity and the well-known ERP measure of conflict monitoring (N200, but not the P300) in healthy individuals, which was absent in CUD who were characterized by reduced MCC gray matter volume, N200 abnormalities as well as reduced task accuracy. In individuals with CUD instead, the N200 amplitude was associated with drug addiction symptomatology. These results show that the integrity of MCC volume is directly associated with the electrocortical correlates of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals, and such an association breaks down in psychopathologies that impact these brain processes. Taken together, this MCC-N200 association may serve as a biomarker of improved behavioral monitoring processes in diseased populations.

  7. Aircraft Survivability: Live Fire Test and Evaluation, Spring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    environment. In an earlier LFT series, the LM vulnerability team conducted a wind tunnel test to evaluate F35 aerodynamic performance with partially...altitude of about 2,000 ft @ M0.92) ➤➤ 20Kft, M0.8, 4-G wind -up turn Each of the 31 common cases was judged on the basis of the following criteria...and Exhibit 22–24 March 2010 Washington, DC JASP Spring PMSG P&W 23–25 March 2010 West Palm Beach, FL Personnel Recovery Conference 29 March–1 April

  8. Irradiation effects test series test IE-1 test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Allison, C.M.; Farrar, L.C.; Mehner, A.S.

    1977-03-01

    The report describes the results of the first programmatic test in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Irradiation Effects Test Series. This test (IE-1) used four 0.97m long PWR-type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated Saxton fuel. The objectives of this test were to evaluate the effect of fuel pellet density on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and to evaluate the influence of the irradiated state of the fuel and cladding on rod behavior during film boiling operation. Data are presented on the behavior of irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, a power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of as-fabricated gap size, as-fabricated fuel density, rod power, and power ramp rate on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T2 computer model predictions, and comments on the consequences of sustained film boiling operation on irradiated fuel rod behavior are provided

  9. Anti-liver-kidney microsome antibody type 1 recognizes human cytochrome P450 db1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, M; Yamamoto, A M; Bernard, O; Alvarez, F

    1989-03-15

    Anti-liver-kidney microsome antibody type 1 (LKM1), present in the sera of a group of children with autoimmune hepatitis, was recently shown to recognize a 50 kDa protein identified as rat liver cytochromes P450 db1 and db2. High homology between these two members of the rat P450 IID subfamily and human P450 db1 suggested that anti-LKM1 antibody is directed against this human protein. To test this hypothesis, a human liver cDNA expression library in phage lambda GT-11 was screened using rat P450 db1 cDNA as a probe. Two human cDNA clones were found to be identical to human P450 db1 by restriction mapping. Immunoblot analysis using as antigen, the purified fusion protein from one of the human cDNA clones showed that only anti-LKM1 with anti-50 kDa reactivity recognized the fusion protein. This fusion protein was further used to develop an ELISA test that was shown to be specific for sera of children with this disease. These results: 1) identify the human liver antigen recognized by anti-LKM1 auto-antibodies as cytochrome P450 db1, 2) allow to speculate that mutation on the human P450 db1 gene could alter its expression in the hepatocyte and make it auto-antigenic, 3) provide a simple and specific diagnostic test for this disease.

  10. Radiotherapy is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Susan H; Haydu, Lauren E; Goh, Robin Yeong Hong; Fogarty, Gerald B

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare tumour of skin. This study is a retrospective audit of patients with MCC from St Vincent’s and Mater Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of radiotherapy (RT) on the local and regional control of MCC lesions and survival of patients with MCC. The data bases in anatomical pathology, RT and surgery. We searched for patients having a diagnosis of MCC between 1996 and 2007. Patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were collected and analysed. Univariate survival analysis of categorical variables was conducted with the Kaplan-Meier method together with the Log-Rank test for statistical significance. Continuous variables were assessed using the Cox regression method. Multivariate analysis was performed for significant univariate results. Sixty seven patients were found. Sixty two who were stage I-III and were treated with radical intent were analysed. 68% were male. The median age was 74 years. Forty-two cases (68%) were stage I or II, and 20 cases (32%) were stage III. For the subset of 42 stage I and II patients, those that had RT to their primary site had a 2-year local recurrence free survival of 89% compared with 36% for patients not receiving RT (p<0.001). The cumulative 2-year regional recurrence free survival for patients having adjuvant regional RT was 84% compared with 43% for patients not receiving this treatment (p<0.001). Immune status at initial surgery was a significant predictor for OS and MCCSS. In a multivariate analysis combining macroscopic size (mm) and immune status at initial surgery, only immune status remained a significant predictor of overall survival (HR=2.096, 95% CI: 1.002-4.385, p=0.049). RT is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma. Immunosuppression is an important factor in overall survival

  11. The management-retrieval code of the sub-library of atomic mass and characteristic constants for nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zongdi; Ma Lizhen

    1994-01-01

    The management code of the sub-library of atomic mass and characteristic constants for nuclear ground state (MCC) is used for displaying the basic information on the MCC sub-library on the screen, and retrieving the required data. The MCC data file contains the data of 4800 nuclides ranging from Z 0, A = 1 to Z = 122, A = 318. The MCC sub-library has been set up at Chinese Nuclear Data Center (CNDC), and has been used to provide the atomic masses and characteristic constants of nuclear ground states for the nuclear model calculation, nuclear data evaluations and other fields

  12. Closed expressions for $\\int_{0}^{1} t^{-1} log^{n-1}t log^{p}(1 - t) dt$

    CERN Document Server

    Kölbig, Kurt Siegfried

    1982-01-01

    Closed expressions for the integral integral /sub 0//sup 1/ t/sup -1/ log/sup n-1/t log/sup p/(1-t)dt, whose general form is given elsewhere, are listed for n=1(1)9, p=1(1)9. A formula is derived which allows an easy evaluation of these expressions by formula manipulation on a computer. The majority of the above expressions are given in a microfiche supplement to the paper.

  13. Characterization of the Merkel Cell Carcinoma miRNome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Ning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been implicated in various skin cancers, including melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma; however, the expression of microRNAs and their role in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC have yet to be explored in depth. To identify microRNAs specific to MCC (MCC-miRs, next-generation sequencing (NGS of small RNA libraries was performed on different tissue samples including MCCs, other cutaneous tumors, and normal skin. Comparison of the profiles identified several microRNAs upregulated and downregulated in MCC. For validation, their expression was measured via qRT-PCR in a larger group of MCC and in a comparison group of non-MCC cutaneous tumors and normal skin. Eight microRNAs were upregulated in MCC: miR-502-3p, miR-9, miR-7, miR-340, miR-182, miR-190b, miR-873, and miR-183. Three microRNAs were downregulated: miR-3170, miR-125b, and miR-374c. Many of these MCC-miRs, the miR-183/182/96a cistron in particular, have connections to tumorigenic pathways implicated in MCC pathogenesis. In situ hybridization confirmed that the highly expressed MCC-miR, miR-182, is localized within tumor cells. Furthermore, NGS and qRT-PCR reveal that several of these MCC-miRs are highly expressed in the patient-derived MCC cell line, MS-1. These data indicate that we have identified a set of MCC-miRs with important implications for MCC research.

  14. Combined genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 and P2X3 attenuates colorectal hypersensitivity and afferent sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyatkin, Michael E.; Feng, Bin; Schwartz, Erica S.; Gebhart, G. F.

    2013-01-01

    The ligand-gated channels transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and P2X3 have been reported to facilitate colorectal afferent neuron sensitization, thus contributing to organ hypersensitivity and pain. In the present study, we hypothesized that TRPV1 and P2X3 cooperate to modulate colorectal nociception and afferent sensitivity. To test this hypothesis, we employed TRPV1-P2X3 double knockout (TPDKO) mice and channel-selective pharmacological antagonists and evaluated combined chann...

  15. AFFTC Instruction 99-1, Test and Evaluation Test Plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crane, Roger

    2002-01-01

    .... Test Information Sheets (TISs) are actually appendices to test plans and contain sufficient information for use by a flight test engineer to develop flight test cards and for management to discern the overall technical approach being taken...

  16. Urine pH test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine test Male urinary tract References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney stones. In: Melmed S, Polonsky ... and its influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc . 1995;95(7):791-797. PMID: 7797810 ...

  17. Evaluation of vaginal pH for detection of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Hemalatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Bacterial vaginosis (BV is highly prevalent among women in reproductive age group. Little information exists on routine vaginal p H measurement in women with BV. We undertook this study to assess the utility of vaginal p H determination for initial evaluation of bacterial vaginosis. Methods : In this cross-sectional study vaginal swabs were collected from women with complaints of white discharge, back ache and pain abdomen attending a government hospital and a community health clinic, and subjected to vaginal p H determination, Gram stain, wet mount and whiff test. Nugent score and Amsel criteria were used for BV confirmation. Results : Of the 270 women included in the analysis, 154 had BV based on Nugents′ score. The mean vaginal p H in women with BV measured by p H strips and p H glove was 5 and 4.9, respectively. The vaginal p H was significantly higher in women with BV. Vaginal discharge was prevalent in 84.8 per cent women, however, only 56.8 per cent of these actually had BV by Nugent score (NS. Presence of clue cells and positive whiff test were significant for BV. Vaginal p H >4.5 by p H strips and p H Glove had a sensitivity of 72 and 79 per cent and specificity of 60 and 53 per cent, respectively to detect BV. Among the combination criteria, clue cells and glove p H >4.5 had highest sensitivity and specificity to detect BV. Interpretation & conclusions : Vaginal p H determination is relatively sensitive, but less specific in detecting women with BV. Inclusion of whiff test along with p H test reduced the sensitivity, but improved specificity. Both, the p H strip and p H glove are equally suitable for screening women with BV on outpatient basis.

  18. A multi-state reliability evaluation model for P2P networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hehong; Sun Xiaohan

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of new service types and the convergence tendency of the communication networks have endowed the networks more and more P2P (peer to peer) properties. These networks can be more robust and tolerant for a series of non-perfect operational states due to the non-deterministic server-client distributions. Thus a reliability model taking into account of the multi-state and non-deterministic server-client distribution properties is needed for appropriate evaluation of the networks. In this paper, two new performance measures are defined to quantify the overall and local states of the networks. A new time-evolving state-transition Monte Carlo (TEST-MC) simulation model is presented for the reliability analysis of P2P networks in multiple states. The results show that the model is not only valid for estimating the traditional binary-state network reliability parameters, but also adequate for acquiring the parameters in a series of non-perfect operational states, with good efficiencies, especially for highly reliable networks. Furthermore, the model is versatile for the reliability and maintainability analyses in that both the links and the nodes can be failure-prone with arbitrary life distributions, and various maintainability schemes can be applied.

  19. Z-1 Prototype Space Suit Testing Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Space Suit team of the NASA-Johnson Space Center performed a series of test with the Z-1 prototype space suit in 2012. This paper discusses, at a summary level, the tests performed and results from those tests. The purpose of the tests were two-fold: 1) characterize the suit performance so that the data could be used in the downselection of components for the Z-2 Space Suit and 2) develop interfaces with the suitport and exploration vehicles through pressurized suit evaluations. Tests performed included isolated and functional range of motion data capture, Z-1 waist and hip testing, joint torque testing, CO2 washout testing, fit checks and subject familiarizations, an exploration vehicle aft deck and suitport controls interface evaluation, delta pressure suitport tests including pressurized suit don and doff, and gross mobility and suitport ingress and egress demonstrations in reduced gravity. Lessons learned specific to the Z-1 prototype and to suit testing techniques will be presented.

  20. Sphingosine-1-phosphate promotes extravillous trophoblast cell invasion by activating MEK/ERK/MMP-2 signaling pathways via S1P/S1PR1 axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiwei; Li, Qinghua; Pan, Zhifang

    2014-01-01

    Successful placentation depends on the proper invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells into maternal tissues. Previous reports demonstrated that S1P receptors are expressed in the EVT cells and S1P could regulate migration and function of trophoblast cells via S1P receptors. However, little is known about roles of S1P in the invasion of EVT cells. Our study was performed to investigate S1P effect on the invasion of EVT cells. We used the extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo cells to evaluate the effect. In vitro invasion assay was employed to determine the invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells induced by S1P. MMP-2 enzyme activity and relative level in the supernatants of HTR8/SVneo was assessed by gelatin zymography and western blot. Based on the above, siRNA and specific inhibitors were used for the intervention and study of potential signal pathways, and Real-time qPCR and western blot were used to test the mRNA and protein level of potential signal targets. We found that S1P could promote HTR8/SVneo cell invasion and upregulates activity and level of MMP-2. The promotion requires activation of MEK-ERK and is dependent on the axis of S1P/S1PR1. Our investigation of S1P may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of EVT invasion.

  1. Randomized Trial to Compare the Immunogenicity and Safety of a CRM or TT Conjugated Quadrivalent Meningococcal Vaccine in Teenagers who Received a CRM or TT Conjugated Serogroup C Vaccine at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, David A; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Yung, Chee-Fu; Southern, Jo; Bai, Xilian; Findlow, Helen; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Hallis, Bassam; Findlow, Jamie; Borrow, Ray; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Protection after meningococcal C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccination in early childhood is short-lived. Boosting with a quadrivalent vaccine in teenage years, a high-risk period for MenC disease, should protect against additional serogroups but might compromise MenC response. The carrier protein in the primary MCC vaccine determines the response to MCC booster in toddlers, but the relationship between primary vaccine and booster given later is unclear. This study compared responses to a CRM-conjugated or tetanus toxoid (TT)-conjugated MenACWY vaccine in teenagers primed with different MCC vaccines at preschool age. Ninety-three teenagers (16-19 years), who were previously randomized at age 3-6 years to receive single-dose MCC-CRM or MCC-TT, were randomized to receive either MenACWY-CRM or MenACWY-TT booster. Serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA, protective titer ≥ 8) were measured before, 1 month and 6 or 9 months after boosting. Preboosting, MCC-TT-primed teenagers had significantly higher MenC SBA titers than those MCC-CRM-primed (P = 0.02). Postboosting, both MenACWY vaccines induced protective SBA titers to all 4 serogroups in most participants (≥ 98% at 1 month and ≥ 90% by 9 months postboost). The highest MenC SBA titers were seen in those MCC-TT-primed and MenACWY-TT-boosted [geometric mean titer (GMT) ~ 22,000] followed by those boosted with MenACWY-CRM irrespective of priming (GMT ~ 12,000) and then those MCC-CRM-primed and MenACWY-TT-boosted (GMT ~ 5500). The estimated postbooster MenC SBA decline beyond 1 month was ~40% as time since booster doubles. Both vaccines were well tolerated with no attributable serious adverse events. Both MenACWY vaccines safely induced protective sustained antibody responses against all targeted serogroups in MCC-primed teenagers.

  2. Preparation and characterization of the micro-arc oxidation composite coatings on magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Ge

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnesium alloys attract the light-weight manufacture due to its high strength to weight ratio, however the poor corrosion resistance limits the application in automobile industry. The Micro-arc Composite Ceramic (MCC coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloys were prepared by Micro-arc Oxidation (MAO and electrophoresis technologies. The microstructure, corrosion resistance, abrasion resistance, stone impact resistance and adhesion of MCC coatings were studied respectively. The cross section morphologies showed that the outer organic coating was filled into the hole on surface of MAO coating, and it acted as a shelter against corrosive products. The copper-accelerated acetic acid salt spray Test, abrasion resistance test, stone impact resistance test, thermal shock resistance test and adhesion test were used to evaluate the protective characterization by the third testing organization which approved by GM. The test results showed the composite coatings meet all the requirements. The MCC coating on Mg presents excellent properties, and it is a promising surface treatment technology on magnesium alloys for production vehicles.

  3. A comprehensive evaluation of the sl1p pipeline for 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Fiona J; Surette, Michael G

    2017-08-14

    Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed for detailed, molecular-based studies of microbial communities such as the human gut, soil, and ocean waters. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, specific to prokaryotes, using universal PCR primers has become a common approach to studying the composition of these microbiota. However, the bioinformatic processing of the resulting millions of DNA sequences can be challenging, and a standardized protocol would aid in reproducible analyses. The short-read library 16S rRNA gene sequencing pipeline (sl1p, pronounced "slip") was designed with the purpose of mitigating this lack of reproducibility by combining pre-existing tools into a computational pipeline. This pipeline automates the processing of raw 16S rRNA gene sequencing data to create human-readable tables, graphs, and figures to make the collected data more readily accessible. Data generated from mock communities were compared using eight OTU clustering algorithms, two taxon assignment approaches, and three 16S rRNA gene reference databases. While all of these algorithms and options are available to sl1p users, through testing with human-associated mock communities, AbundantOTU+, the RDP Classifier, and the Greengenes 2011 reference database were chosen as sl1p's defaults based on their ability to best represent the known input communities. sl1p promotes reproducible research by providing a comprehensive log file, and reduces the computational knowledge needed by the user to process next-generation sequencing data. sl1p is freely available at https://bitbucket.org/fwhelan/sl1p .

  4. Emerging differential roles of the pRb tumor suppressor in trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus and Merkel cell polyomavirus pathogeneses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Julie H; Simonette, Rebecca A; Nguyen, Harrison P; Doan, Hung Q; Rady, Peter L; Tyring, Stephen K

    2016-03-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and trichodysplasia spinulosa (TS) are two proliferative cutaneous diseases caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) respectively. Recently, studies have elucidated a key role of the small tumor (sT) antigen in the proliferative pathogenic mechanisms of MCPyV and likely TSPyV. While both sT antigens have demonstrated a capacity in regulating cellular pathways, it remains unknown whether MCPyV and TSPyV sT antigens contribute similarly or differentially to cell proliferation. The present study aims to explore the proliferative potential of MCPyV and TSPyV sT antigens by investigating their regulatory effects on the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) tumor suppressor. Inducible cell lines expressing MCPyV sT or TSPyV sT were created using a lentiviral packaging system. Cellular proteins were extracted and subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot detection and densitometric analysis. Expression of TSPyV sT markedly enhanced the phosphorylation of pRb in Western blot experiments. In contrast, expression of MCPyV sT did not alter pRb phosphorylation under the same experimental conditions. Densitometric analysis revealed that TSPyV sT antigen expression nearly doubled the ratio of phosphorylated to total pRb (P<0.001, Student's T-test), while MCPyV sT antigen expression did not cause significant change in pRb phosphorylation status. Given that hyperphosphorylation of pRb is associated with dysregulation of the cell cycle, S-phase induction, and increased cell proliferation, our findings support an important role of TSPyV-mediated pRb deactivation in the development of TS. The observation that the pRb tumor suppressor is inactivated by TSPyV sT but not MCPyV sT provides further insights into the distinct pathobiological mechanisms of MCC and TS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical durability of simulated nuclear glasses containing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Tomozawa, M.

    1995-04-01

    The chemical durability of simulated nuclear waste glasses having different water contents was studied. Results from the product consistency test (PCT) showed that glass dissolution increased with water content in the glass. This trend was not observed during MCC-1 testing. This difference was attributed to the differences in reactions between glass and water. In the PCT, the glass network dissolution controlled the elemental releases, and water in the glass accelerated the reaction rate. On the other hand, alkali ion exchange with hydronium played an important role in the MCC-1. For the latter, the amount of water introduced into a leached layer from ion-exchange was found to be much greater than that of initially incorporated water in the glass. Hence, the initial water content has no effect on glass dissolution as measured by the MCC-1 test

  6. Evaluation of physicochemical properties of root-end filling materials using conventional and Micro-CT tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferrari Esteves TORRES

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate solubility, dimensional stability, filling ability and volumetric change of root-end filling materials using conventional tests and new Micro-CT-based methods. Material and Methods Solubility (loss of mass after 7 and 30 days, and dimensional stability (in mm were evaluated in accordance with Carvalho-Junior, et al. 7 (2007. The filling ability and volumetric change (in mm3 were evaluated by Micro-CT (Bruker-MicroCT, Kontich, Belgium using resin models with cavities 3 mm deep and 1 mm in diameter. The cavities were filled with materials to evaluate filling ability, and then scanned by Micro-CT. After 7 and 30 days immersed in distilled water, the filled cavities were scanned again to evaluate the volumetric change. MTA Angelus (MTA, Biodentine (BIO and zinc oxide-eugenol cement (ZOE were evaluated. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's test with 5% significance level. Results The results suggested correlated or complementary data between the proposed tests. At 7 days, BIO showed higher solubility and at 30 days, showed higher volumetric change in comparison with MTA (p0.05 at 7 days. At 30 days, they presented similar solubility. BIO and MTA showed higher dimensional stability than ZOE (p<0.05. ZOE and BIO showed higher filling ability (p<0.05. Conclusions ZOE presented a higher dimensional change, and BIO had greater solubility after 7 days. BIO presented filling ability and dimensional stability, but greater volumetric change than MTA after 30 days. Micro-CT can provide important data on the physicochemical properties of materials complementing conventional tests.

  7. Grate Pallet 8232 (GP-8232) Vehicle Pallet, Evaluation Tests MIL-STD-1660, "Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads" and TP-94-01 (REV 1), "Transportability Testing Procedures"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barickman, Philip

    2003-01-01

    .... The testing was conducted for informational purposes only. The GP-8232 Vehicle Pallet was evaluated by the testing procedures set forth in MIL-STD-1660 and TP-94-01 (Rev. 1) testing procedures...

  8. Hanford spent nuclear fuel cold vacuum drying proof of performance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides the test procedure for cold testing of the first article skids for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) process at the Facility. The primary objective of this testing is to confirm design choices and provide data for the initial start-up parameters for the process. The current scope of testing in this document includes design verification, drying cycle determination equipment performance testing of the CVD process and MCC components, heat up and cool-down cycle determination, and thermal model validation

  9. Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Structurally Correlated p-Menthane Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Nalone Andrade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Compounds isolated from essential oils play an important role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Monoterpenes are natural products, and the principal constituents of many essential oils. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic potential of p-menthane derivatives. Additionally, analogues of perillyl alcohol, a monoterpene with known anticancer activity, were evaluated to identify the molecular characteristics which contribute to their cytotoxicity, which was tested against OVCAR-8, HCT-116, and SF-295 human tumor cell lines, using the MTT assay. The results of this study showed that (−-perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide exhibited the highest percentage inhibition of cell proliferation (GI = 96.32%–99.89%. Perillyl alcohol exhibited high cytotoxic activity (90.92%–95.82%, while (+-limonene 1,2-epoxide (GI = 58.48%–93.10%, (−-perillaldehyde (GI = 59.28%–83.03%, and (−-8-hydroxycarvotanacetone (GI = 61.59%–94.01% showed intermediate activity. All of the compounds tested were less cytotoxic than perillyl alcohol, except (−-perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide (IC50 = 1.75–1.03 µL/mg. In general, replacement of C-C double bonds by epoxide groups in addition to the aldehyde group increases cytotoxicity. Furthermore, stereochemistry seems to play an important role in cytotoxicity. We have demonstrated the cytotoxic influence of chemical substituents on the p-menthane structure, and analogues of perillyl alcohol.

  10. Evaluation of RELAP5 MOD 3.1.1 code with GIRAFFE Test Facility: Phase 1, Step 2 nitrogen venting tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, B.D.; Slovik, G.C.; Rohatgl, U.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) proposed by General Electric (GE) is an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) design that utilizes passive safety systems. The PCCS is a series of heat exchangers submerged in water and open to the containment. Since the containment is inerted with nitrogen during normal operation, the PCCS must condense the steam in the presence of noncondensable gases during an accident. To model the transient behavior of the SBWR with a system code, the code should properly simulate the expected phenomena. To validate the applicability of RELAP5 MOD 3.1.1, the data from three Phase 1, Step 2 nitrogen venting tests at Toshiba's Gravity-Driven Integral Full-Height Test for Passive Heat Removal facility and RELAP5 calculations of these tests were compared. The comparison of the GIRAFFE data against the results from the RELAP5 calculations showed that it can predict condensation and gas purging phenomena occurring in the long-term decay heat rejection phase. In this phase of the transient, condensation in the PCCS is the only means to reject heat from the SBWR containment. In the two tests where the nitrogen purge vent line was at its deepest submergence in the Suppression Pool (SIP), the RELAP5 results mirrored the behavior of the containment pressures and of the water levels in the Horizontal Vent (HV) and the nitrogen purge line tube of the GIRAFFE data. However, in the test with the shallowest purge line submergence, there was appreciable direct contact condensation on the pool surface of the HV despite modeling efforts to deter these phenomena. This surface condensation, unobserved in the GIRAFFE tests, was a major cause of RELAP5 predicting early containment depressurization and the subsequent early rise in HV and nitrogen purge line water levels. The present RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 interfacial heat and mass transfer model does not properly degrade direct contact steam condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases sitting on a pool

  11. Test-retest reliability of the novel 5-HT{sub 1B} receptor PET radioligand [{sup 11}C]P943

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saricicek, Aybala [Yale University, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT (United States); Connecticut Mental Health Center, Abraham Ribicoff Research Facilities, New Haven, CT (United States); Izmir Katip Celebi University, Department of Psychiatry, Izmir (Turkey); Chen, Jason; Ruf, Barbara [Yale University, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT (United States); Planeta, Beata; Labaree, David; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Huang, Yiyun [Yale University, PET Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, New Haven, CT (United States); Subramanyam, Kalyani; Maloney, Kathleen [Yale University, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT (United States); Connecticut Mental Health Center, Abraham Ribicoff Research Facilities, New Haven, CT (United States); Matuskey, David [Yale University, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT (United States); Connecticut Mental Health Center, Abraham Ribicoff Research Facilities, New Haven, CT (United States); Yale University, PET Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, New Haven, CT (United States); Deserno, Lorenz [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Berlin (Germany); Neumeister, Alexander [Yale University, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); VA Connecticut Healthcare System, Clinical Neuroscience Division, VA National Center for PTSD, West Haven, CT (United States); Krystal, John H. [Yale University, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT (United States); Connecticut Mental Health Center, Abraham Ribicoff Research Facilities, New Haven, CT (United States); VA Connecticut Healthcare System, Clinical Neuroscience Division, VA National Center for PTSD, West Haven, CT (United States); Carson, Richard E. [Connecticut Mental Health Center, Abraham Ribicoff Research Facilities, New Haven, CT (United States); Bhagwagar, Zubin [Yale University, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT (United States); Connecticut Mental Health Center, Abraham Ribicoff Research Facilities, New Haven, CT (United States); Bristol-Myers Squibb, Wallingford, CT (United States)

    2014-11-27

    [{sup 11}C]P943 is a novel, highly selective 5-HT{sub 1B} PET radioligand. The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of [{sup 11}C]P943 using two different modeling methods and to perform a power analysis with each quantification technique. Seven healthy volunteers underwent two PET scans on the same day. Regions of interest (ROIs) were the amygdala, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, insula, frontal, anterior cingulate, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, and cerebellum. Two multilinear radioligand quantification techniques were used to estimate binding potential: MA1, using arterial input function data, and the second version of the multilinear reference tissue model analysis (MRTM2), using the cerebellum as the reference region. Between-scan percent variability and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess test-retest reliability. We also performed power analyses to determine the method that would allow the least number of subjects using within-subject or between-subject study designs. A voxel-wise ICC analysis for MRTM2 BP{sub ND} was performed for the whole brain and all the ROIs studied. Mean percent variability between two scans across regions ranged between 0.4 % and 12.4 % for MA1 BP{sub ND}, 0.5 % and 11.5 % for MA1 BP{sub P}, 16.7 % and 28.3 % for MA1 BP{sub F}, and between 0.2 % and 5.4 % for MRTM2 BP{sub ND}. The power analyses showed a greater number of subjects were required using MA1 BP{sub F} compared with other outcome measures for both within-subject and between-subject study designs. ICC values were the highest using MRTM2 BP{sub ND} and the lowest with MA1 BP{sub F} in ten ROIs. Small regions and regions with low binding had lower ICC values than large regions and regions with high binding. Reliable measures of 5-HT{sub 1B} receptor binding can be obtained using the novel PET radioligand [{sup 11}C]P943. Quantification of 5-HT{sub 1B} receptor binding with MRTM2 BP{sub ND} and with MA1 BP{sub P

  12. 40 CFR 63.2354 - What performance tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? 63.2354 Section 63.2354 Protection of Environment... tests, design evaluations, and performance evaluations must I conduct? (a)(1) For each performance test... procedures specified in subpart SS of this part. (3) For each performance evaluation of a continuous emission...

  13. Evaluating high pH for control of dreissenid mussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Evans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out using a custom built flow-through laboratory to test the effect of elevated pH on dreissenid musselsas a potential control method. Both experiments tested the ability of dreissenid pediveligers to settle under conditions of elevated pH and thelong-term survival of adult dreissenids under the same conditions. The two experimental sites had different water quality and differentspecies of dreissenids present. The settlement of quagga mussel pediveligers at the lower Colorado River was inhibited with increasing pH.At the maximum achieved pH of 9.1, there was approximately 90% reduction compared to the maximum settlement observed in the controls.Since the settlement was almost as low in pH 8.9 as at pH 9.1, the inhibition in settlement may have been due to the presence of a precipitateformed under high pH conditions rather than the increase in background pH. No mortality of quagga mussel adults was observed in theexperimental pH levels at the lower Colorado River. At San Justo Reservoir, zebra mussel settlement decreased with increasing pH. Newsettlement was almost entirely absent at the highest pH tested (pH 9.6. The observed mortality of adult zebra mussels was low, but did tendto increase with increasing pH. We also tested the response of adult zebra mussels to short-term exposure to very high pH levels (i.e. pH 10,11, and 12. Adult mussels in poor physical condition experienced 90% mortality after 12 hours at pH 12. For unstressed adult zebra mussels,90% mortality was reached after 120 hours at pH 12. Significant mortalities were also observed both at pH 10 and pH 11. From this study,we conclude that pH elevation could be used both as a preventative treatment to eliminate settlement by dreissenid mussels and as an end ofseason treatment to eliminate adults. The high pH treatment would have to be tailored to the site water quality to prevent formation ofprecipitate during treatment and to minimize corrosive

  14. Exploratory research for the development of a computer aided software design environment with the software technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Field studies were conducted by MCC to determine areas of research of mutual interest to MCC and JSC. NASA personnel from the Information Systems Directorate and research faculty from UHCL/RICIS visited MCC in Austin, Texas to examine tools and applications under development in the MCC Software Technology Program. MCC personnel presented workshops in hypermedia, design knowledge capture, and design recovery on site at JSC for ISD personnel. The following programs were installed on workstations in the Software Technology Lab, NASA/JSC: (1) GERM (Graphic Entity Relations Modeler); (2) gIBIS (Graphic Issues Based Information System); and (3) DESIRE (Design Recovery tool). These applications were made available to NASA for inspection and evaluation. Programs developed in the MCC Software Technology Program run on the SUN workstation. The programs do not require special configuration, but they will require larger than usual amounts of disk space and RAM to operate properly.

  15. Prospective evaluation of a new protocol for the provisional use of perfusion imaging with exercise stress testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvall, W.L. [Hartford Hospital, Division of Cardiology (Henry Low Heart Center), Hartford, CT (United States); Mount Sinai Medical Center, Division of Cardiology (Mount Sinai Heart), New York, NY (United States); Savino, John A.; Levine, Elliot J.; Croft, Lori B.; Henzlova, Milena J. [Mount Sinai Medical Center, Division of Cardiology (Mount Sinai Heart), New York, NY (United States); Hermann, Luke K. [Mount Sinai Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Previous literature suggests that myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) adds little to the prognosis of patients who exercise >10 metabolic equivalents (METs) during stress testing. With this in mind, we prospectively tested a provisional injection protocol in emergency department (ED) patients presenting for the evaluation of chest pain in which a patient would not receive an injection of radioisotope if adequate exercise was achieved without symptoms and a negative ECG response. All patients who presented to the ED over a 5-year period who were referred for stress testing as part of their ED evaluation were included. Patients considered for a provisional protocol were: exercise stress, age <65 years, no known coronary artery disease, and an interpretable rest ECG. Criteria for not injecting included a maximal predicted heart rate ≥85 %, ≥10 METs of exercise, no anginal symptoms during stress, and no ECG changes. Groups were compared based on stress test results, all-cause and cardiac mortality, follow-up cardiac testing, subsequent revascularization, and cost. A total of 965 patients were eligible with 192 undergoing exercise-only and 773 having perfusion imaging. After 41.6 ± 19.6 months of follow-up, all-cause mortality was similar in the exercise-only versus the exercise plus imaging group (2.6 % vs. 2.1 %, p = 0.59). There were no cardiac deaths in the exercise-only group. At 1 year there was no difference in the number of repeat functional stress tests (1.6 % vs. 2.1 %, p = 0.43), fewer angiograms (0 % vs. 4.0 %, p = 0.002), and a significantly lower cost (65 ± 332 vs 506 ± 1,991, p = 0.002; values are in US dollars) in the exercise-only group. The radiation exposure in the exercise plus imaging group was 8.4 ± 2.1 mSv. A provisional injection protocol has a very low mortality, few follow-up diagnostic tests, and lower cost compared to standard imaging protocols. If adopted it would decrease radiation exposure, save time and decrease health-care costs

  16. Prospective evaluation of a new protocol for the provisional use of perfusion imaging with exercise stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvall, W.L.; Savino, John A.; Levine, Elliot J.; Croft, Lori B.; Henzlova, Milena J.; Hermann, Luke K.

    2015-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) adds little to the prognosis of patients who exercise >10 metabolic equivalents (METs) during stress testing. With this in mind, we prospectively tested a provisional injection protocol in emergency department (ED) patients presenting for the evaluation of chest pain in which a patient would not receive an injection of radioisotope if adequate exercise was achieved without symptoms and a negative ECG response. All patients who presented to the ED over a 5-year period who were referred for stress testing as part of their ED evaluation were included. Patients considered for a provisional protocol were: exercise stress, age <65 years, no known coronary artery disease, and an interpretable rest ECG. Criteria for not injecting included a maximal predicted heart rate ≥85 %, ≥10 METs of exercise, no anginal symptoms during stress, and no ECG changes. Groups were compared based on stress test results, all-cause and cardiac mortality, follow-up cardiac testing, subsequent revascularization, and cost. A total of 965 patients were eligible with 192 undergoing exercise-only and 773 having perfusion imaging. After 41.6 ± 19.6 months of follow-up, all-cause mortality was similar in the exercise-only versus the exercise plus imaging group (2.6 % vs. 2.1 %, p = 0.59). There were no cardiac deaths in the exercise-only group. At 1 year there was no difference in the number of repeat functional stress tests (1.6 % vs. 2.1 %, p = 0.43), fewer angiograms (0 % vs. 4.0 %, p = 0.002), and a significantly lower cost (65 ± 332 vs 506 ± 1,991, p = 0.002; values are in US dollars) in the exercise-only group. The radiation exposure in the exercise plus imaging group was 8.4 ± 2.1 mSv. A provisional injection protocol has a very low mortality, few follow-up diagnostic tests, and lower cost compared to standard imaging protocols. If adopted it would decrease radiation exposure, save time and decrease health-care costs

  17. Experience With Routine Vaginal pH Testing in a Family Practice Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana J. Pavletic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite recommendations by Centers for Disease Control and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, pH testing is infrequently performed during the evaluation of vaginitis. Consequently, little information exists on its use in a primary care setting.

  18. Newly Developed Neutralized pH Icodextrin Dialysis Fluid: Nonclinical Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Naoya; Miyamoto, Keiichi; Murata, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Eiji; Horiuchi, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    A two-compartment system (NICOPELIQ; NICO, Terumo Co., Tokyo, Japan) has recently been developed to neutralize icodextrin peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). In this study, a nonclinical evaluation of NICO was carried out to evaluate biocompatibility as well as water transport ability. Glucose degradation products (GDPs) in the icodextrin PDFs were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The cell viability of human peritoneal mesothelial cells derived from peritoneal dialysis effluent (PDE-HPMCs) was evaluated as well as the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released after exposure to different PDFs (NICO and EXTRANEAL [EX, Baxter Healthcare Corp., Chicago, IL, USA]) and neutralized pH glucose PDF MIDPELIQ 250 (M250, Terumo). The water transport ability of NICO, EX, and M250 was tested using dialysis tube membranes with various pore sizes: 1, 2, 6-8, and 12-16 kDa. Although cell viability decreased by 30% after 30 min exposure to NICO, it was maintained for 6 h while a significant decrease was observed after 6 h exposure to EX. However, following adjustment of the pH to the same pre-exposure pH value, there was no significant difference in cell viability within the same pH group despite a doubling of the difference in the total amount of GDPs (44.6 ± 8.6 µM in NICO and 91.9 ± 9.5 µM in EX, respectively). In contrast, a significant decrease in cell viability was observed when the pH decreased to less than pH 6. Levels of released LDH, a cytotoxic marker, were within 5% after a 6-h exposure of NICO to PDE-HPMCs. There was no significant difference in water transport ability represented as overall osmotic gradients between NICO and EX. In conclusion, neutralization of icodextrin PDF is beneficial for maintaining cell viability and minimizing LDH release while water transport ability is comparable to the conventional icodextrin PDF. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. QCD and resonance physics. The π-p-A1 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifman, M.A.; Vainshtein, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The QCD sum rules derived earlier are applied to evaluate the leptonic widths and masses of the π, rho, A 1 mesons (the very existence of resonances is taken as granted, however). The mass scale is set by the power corrections to asymptotic freedom which are due to nonperturbative effects in QCD. The main results are expressions for the p → e + e - and π → μν decay widths and a relation between the mass and the power corrections. Estimates of the A 1 leptonic width are also presented. It is argued that the observed difference in the spectra in the in the vector and axial-vector channels (π - rho - A 1 system) provides a very clean test of the power corrections

  20. PPARγ agonists upregulate sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 expression, which in turn reduces S1P-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in renal mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alexander; Völzke, Anja; Puff, Bianca; Blankenbach, Kira; Meyer Zu Heringdorf, Dagmar; Huwiler, Andrea; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2013-11-01

    We previously identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists (thiazolidinediones, TZDs) as modulators of the sphingolipid metabolism in renal mesangial cells. TZDs upregulated sphingosine kinase 1 (SK-1) and increased the formation of intracellular sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which in turn reduced the expression of pro-fibrotic connective tissue growth factor. Since S1P also acts as extracellular ligand at specific S1P receptors (S1PR, S1P1-5), we investigated here the effect of TZDs on S1PR expression in mesangial cells and evaluated the functional consequences by measuring S1P-induced increases in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Treatment with two different TZDs, troglitazone and rosiglitazone, enhanced S1P1 mRNA and protein expression in rat mesangial cells, whereas S1P2-5 expression levels were not altered. Upregulation of S1P1 mRNA upon TZD treatment was also detected in human mesangial cells and mouse glomeruli. PPARγ antagonism and promoter studies revealed that the TZD-dependent S1P1 mRNA induction involved a functional PPAR response element in the S1P1 promoter. Pharmacological approaches disclosed that S1P-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in rat mesangial cells were predominantly mediated by S1P2 and S1P3. Interestingly, the transcriptional upregulation of S1P1 by TZDs resulted in a reduction of S1P-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases, which was reversed by the S1P1/3 antagonist VPC-23019, the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor PKC-412, and by S1P1 siRNA. These data suggest that PPARγ-dependent upregulation of S1P1 leads to an inhibition of S1P-induced Ca(2+) signaling in a PKC-dependent manner. Overall, these results reveal that TZDs not only modulate intracellular S1P levels but also regulate S1PR signaling by increasing S1P1 expression in mesangial cells. © 2013.

  1. Evaluation of melter technologies for vitrification of Hanford site low-level tank waste - phase 1 testing summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.N., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-27

    Following negotiation of the fourth amendment to the Tri- Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, commercially available melter technologies were tested during 1994 and 1995 for vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream to be derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks. Seven vendors were selected for Phase 1 testing to demonstrate vitrification of a high-sodium content liquid LLW simulant. The tested melter technologies included four Joule-heated melters, a carbon electrode melter, a combustion melter, and a plasma melter. Various dry and slurry melter feed preparation processes also were tested. The technologies and Phase 1 testing results were evaluated and a preliminary technology down-selection completed. This report describes the Phase 1 LLW melter vendor testing and the tested technologies, and summarizes the testing results and the preliminary technology recommendations.

  2. Basal cell carcinoma: CD56 and cytokeratin 5/6 staining patterns in the differential diagnosis with Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panse, Gauri; McNiff, Jennifer M; Ko, Christine J

    2017-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) can resemble Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) on histopathological examination and while CK20 is a useful marker in this differential, it is occasionally negative in MCC. CD56, a sensitive marker of neuroendocrine differentiation, is sometimes used to identify MCC, but has been reportedly variably positive in BCC as well. In contrast, CK5/6 consistently labels BCC but is not expressed in neuroendocrine tumors. We evaluated 20 cases of BCC for the pattern of CD56 and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) staining, hypothesizing that these 2 stains could differentiate BCC from MCC in difficult cases. Seventeen cases of MCC previously stained with CD56 were also examined. All BCCs showed patchy expression of CD56 except for 2 cases, which showed staining of greater than 70% of tumor. CK5/6 was diffusely positive in all cases of BCC. Fifteen of 17 MCCs were diffusely positive for CD56. The difference in the pattern of CD56 expression between MCC and BCC (diffuse vs patchy, respectively) was statistically significant (P < .05). BCC typically shows patchy CD56 expression and diffuse CK5/6 positivity. These 2 markers can be used to distinguish between BCC and MCC in challenging cases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Yasuyuki, E-mail: y.fujii@po.rd.taisho.co.jp [Department of Molecular Function and Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-403 Saitama, Saitama 331-9530 (Japan); Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi [Department of Molecular Function and Pharmacology Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1-403 Saitama, Saitama 331-9530 (Japan); Igarashi, Yasuyuki [Laboratory of Biomembrane and Biofunctional Chemistry, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Goitsuka, Ryo [Division of Development and Aging, Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-0022 (Japan)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  4. Is the 1-minute sit-to-stand test a good tool for the evaluation of the impact of pulmonary rehabilitation? Determination of the minimal important difference in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trija Vaidya,1,2 Claire de Bisschop,2 Marc Beaumont,3,4 Hakima Ouksel,5 Véronique Jean,6 François Dessables,7 Arnaud Chambellan,1,8 On behalf of IRSR RéhaEffort cohort group 1Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires, l’institut du thorax, CHU de Nantes, 2Université de Poitiers, Laboratoire MOVE EA 6314, F-86000 Poitiers, 3Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, Morlaix Hospital Centre, 4European University of Occidental Brittany, EA3878, Brest, 5Service de Pneumologie, CHU d’Angers, Angers, 6Service de Réhabilitation Respiratoire, Soins de Suite et Rééducation, CHU de Nantes, 7Service de Réhabilitation Respiratoire, la Tourmaline, UGECAM, 8Université de Nantes, Laboratory EA 4334 “Mouvement, Interactions, Performance,” Nantes, France Background: The 1-minute sit-to-stand (STS test could be valuable to assess the level of exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. There is a need to provide the minimal important difference (MID of this test in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR.Methods: COPD patients undergoing the 1-minute STS test before PR were included. The test was performed at baseline and the end of PR, as well as the 6-minute walk test, and the quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction (QMVC. Home and community-based programs were conducted as recommended. Responsiveness to PR was determined by the difference in the 1-minute STS test between baseline and the end of PR. The MID was evaluated using distribution and anchor-based methods.Results: Forty-eight COPD patients were included. At baseline, the significant predictors of the number of 1-minute STS repetitions were the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD (r=0.574; P<10-3, age (r=-0.453; P=0.001, being on long-term oxygen treatment (r=-0.454; P=0.017, and the QMVC (r=0.424; P=0.031. The multivariate analysis explained 75.8% of the variance of 1-minute STS repetitions. The improvement of the 1-minute STS repetitions at the end of PR was 3.8±4.2 (P<10-3. It was mainly

  5. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) induces COX-2 expression and PGE2 formation via S1P receptor 2 in renal mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völzke, Anja; Koch, Alexander; Meyer Zu Heringdorf, Dagmar; Huwiler, Andrea; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) formation in renal mesangial cells may provide potential therapeutic targets to treat inflammatory glomerular diseases. Thus, we evaluated the S1P-dependent signaling mechanisms which are responsible for enhanced COX-2 expression and PGE2 formation in rat mesangial cells under basal conditions. Furthermore, we investigated whether these mechanisms are operative in the presence of angiotensin II (Ang II) and of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Treatment of rat and human mesangial cells with S1P led to concentration-dependent enhanced expression of COX-2. Pharmacological and molecular biology approaches revealed that the S1P-dependent increase of COX-2 mRNA and protein expression was mediated via activation of S1P receptor 2 (S1P2). Further, inhibition of Gi and p42/p44 MAPK signaling, both downstream of S1P2, abolished the S1P-induced COX-2 expression. In addition, S1P/S1P2-dependent upregulation of COX-2 led to significantly elevated PGE2 levels, which were further potentiated in the presence of Ang II and IL-1β. A functional consequence downstream of S1P/S1P2 signaling is mesangial cell migration that is stimulated by S1P. Interestingly, inhibition of COX-2 by celecoxib and SC-236 completely abolished the migratory response. Overall, our results demonstrate that extracellular S1P induces COX-2 expression via activation of S1P2 and subsequent Gi and p42/p44 MAPK-dependent signaling in renal mesangial cells leading to enhanced PGE2 formation and cell migration that essentially requires COX-2. Thus, targeting S1P/S1P2 signaling pathways might be a novel strategy to treat renal inflammatory diseases. © 2013.

  6. Evaluation of a rapid radiometric differentiation test for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by selective inhibition with p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta-hydroxypropiophenone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, A.; Siddiqi, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of a rapid technique for the differentiation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from other mycobacteria, using p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta- hydroxypropiophenone (NAP) as a selective inhibitory agent. A total of 416 coded cultures, 234 cultures belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex and 182 cultures belonging to 35 other mycobacterial species, were tested in two laboratories for p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta- hydroxypropiophenone inhibition to concentrations of 5 and 10 micrograms of NAP per ml in Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Two testing modes were compared: the indirect, in which a large bacterial inoculum was used from an isolated culture on a solid medium, and the direct, which used a small inoculum from 7H12 medium. A decrease or no increase in daily 14 CO 2 output as measured by a BACTEC system was considered evidence of inhibition. The data presented show that a concentration of 5 micrograms of NAP per ml can effectively separate the M. tuberculosis complex from other mycobacterial species in 4 to 6 days. The direct test data show that, unlike other conventional biochemical tests, it does not require a heavy inoculum of mycobacteria and can therefore be performed soon after growth is detected by the radiometric method

  7. Quasimolecular emission near the Xe(5p 56s 1,3 P 1 - 5p 6 1 S 0) and Kr (4p 55s 1,3 P 1 - 4p 6 1 S 0) resonance lines induced by collisions with He atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, O. S.; Devdariani, A. Z.; Grigorian, G. M.; Lednev, M. G.; Zagrebin, A. L.

    2017-02-01

    This study is devoted to the theoretical investigation of the quasimolecular emission of Xe*-He and Kr*-He collision pairs near the Xe (5p 56s 1,3 P 1 - 5p 6 1 S 0) and Kr (4p 55s 1,3 P 1 - 4p 6 1 S 0) resonance atomic lines. The potential curves of the quasimolecules Xe(5p 56s) + He and Kr(4p 55s) + He have been obtained with the use of the effective Hamiltonian and pseudopotential methods. Based on these potential curves the processes of quasimolecular emission of Xe*+He and Kr*+He mixtures have been considered and the spectral distributions I(ħΔω) of photons emitted have been obtained in the framework of quasistatic approximation.

  8. Evaluation of methods and levels of phosphorus application in F1 hybrid capsicum (Capsicum annum L.) using 32P-labelled superphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    Deep placement of phosphatic fertilizer proximal to the dense distribution of roots has resulted in better absorption and utilization in many crops. The relative efficiency of various methods of fertilizer placement using 32 P-labelled superphosphate has been evaluated in wheat, oats, France bean, okra, brinjal and tomato, cabbage and onion and chilli. In this paper, studies were undertaken to evaluate different methods of superphosphate placements to F 1 hybrid capsicum applied at different levels of recommended P dose

  9. Evaluation of the 8th TNM classification on p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas in the Netherlands, and the importance of additional HPV DNA-testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, I H; Rietbergen, M M; van Bokhoven, A A J D; Bloemena, E; Witte, B I; Heideman, D A M; Baatenburg de Jong, R J; Brakenhoff, R H; Leemans, C R

    2018-02-09

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) are traditionally caused by smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. However, in the last decades high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections play an increasingly important role in tumorigenesis. HPV-driven OPSCCs are known to have a more favorable prognosis, which has led to important and marked changes in the recently released TNM-8. In this edition, OPSCCs are divided based on p16-immunostaining, with p16-overexpression as surrogate marker for the presence of HPV. The aims of this study are to evaluate TNM-8 on a Dutch consecutive cohort of patients with p16-positive OPSCC and to determine the relevance of additional HPV DNA-testing. All OPSCC patients without distant metastases at diagnosis and treated with curative intent at VU University Medical Center (2000-2015) and Erasmus Medical Center (2000-2006) were included (N = 1,204). HPV-status was established by p16-immunostaining followed by HPV DNA-PCR on the p16-immunopositive cases. We compared TNM-7 and TNM-8 using the Harrell's C index. In total, 388 of 1,204 (32.2%) patients were p16-immunopositive. In these patients, TNM-8 had a markedly better predictive prognostic power than TNM-7 (Harrell's C index 0.63 versus 0.53). Of the 388 p16-positive OPSCCs, 48 tumors (12.4%) were HPV DNA-negative. This subgroup had distinct demographic, clinical and morphologic characteristics and showed a significantly worse five-year overall survival compared to the HPV DNA-positive tumors (P HPV DNA-negative subgroup with distinct features and a worse overall survival, indicating the importance to perform additional HPV DNA-testing when predicting prognosis and particularly for selecting patients for de-intensified treatment regimens. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Safety evaluation of pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS): genotoxicity and sub-chronic studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garthoff, J.A.; Heemskerk, S.; Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.; Krul, C.A.; Koeman, J.H.; Speijers, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) are non-digestible carbohydrates to be used in infant formulae and medical nutrition. To support its safety, the genotoxic potential of pAOS was evaluated. pAOS was not mutagenic in the Ames test. Positive results were obtained in the chromosome

  11. Safety evaluation of pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS): Genotoxicity and sub-chronic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garthoff, J.A.; Heemskerk, S.; Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Krul, C.A.M.; Koeman, J.H.; Speijers, G.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) are non-digestible carbohydrates to be used in infant formulae and medical nutrition. To support its safety, the genotoxic potential of pAOS was evaluated. pAOS was not mutagenic in the Ames test. Positive results were obtained in the chromosome

  12. Evaluation of a visual acuity test using closed Landolt-Cs to determine malingering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Nils; Jürgens, Clemens; Kohlmann, Thomas; Tost, Frank

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate a visual acuity test (VAT) with unexpected optotypes to detect malingering. We tested two groups. Group 1 consisted of 20 individuals with normal best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Group 2 included participants with ocular diseases and reduced BCVA. All subjects underwent a VAT proposed by Gräf and Roesen to assess suspected malingering. This test used 36 charts with one Landolt-C per page. The first 20 optotypes were Landolt-Cs, while at positions 21, 26, 30, and 34 closed rings were presented. The testing distance was adapted to 50% of the test person's visual acuity. The test person was requested to name the gap direction of the Landolt-C within 3 s. The complete testing conversation was recorded digitally to determine response latency for each optotype from the audio tracks. The average response time was 0.46 s in group 1 and 0.45 s in group 2 for the first 20 Landolt-Cs. In both groups the response time was significantly extended (p ring compared to the mean of the first 20 Landolt-Cs, (group 1: 2.9 s; group 2: 2.3 s). The following three closed rings had also longer response times. However, these differences were not significant. Our results suggest that the proposed test may be helpful to evaluate ocular malingering. The testing procedure appeared to be feasible and showed good repeatability. The fast training effect may be a limitation for malingering detection.

  13. Cellular and Matrix Response of the Mandibular Condylar Cartilage to Botulinum Toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane H Dutra

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cellular and matrix effects of botulinum toxin type A (Botox on mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC and subchondral bone.Botox (0.3 unit was injected into the right masseter of 5-week-old transgenic mice (Col10a1-RFPcherry at day 1. Left side masseter was used as intra-animal control. The following bone labels were intraperitoneally injected: calcein at day 7, alizarin red at day 14 and calcein at day 21. In addition, EdU was injected 48 and 24 hours before sacrifice. Mice were sacrificed 30 days after Botox injection. Experimental and control side mandibles were dissected and examined by x-ray imaging and micro-CT. Subsequently, MCC along with the subchondral bone was sectioned and stained with tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, EdU, TUNEL, alkaline phosphatase, toluidine blue and safranin O. In addition, we performed immunohistochemistry for pSMAD and VEGF.Bone volume fraction, tissue density and trabecular thickness were significantly decreased on the right side of the subchondral bone and mineralized cartilage (Botox was injected when compared to the left side. There was no significant difference in the mandibular length and condylar head length; however, the condylar width was significantly decreased after Botox injection. Our histology showed decreased numbers of Col10a1 expressing cells, decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis in the subchondral bone and mandibular condylar cartilage, decreased TRAP activity and mineralization of Botox injected side cartilage and subchondral bone. Furthermore, we observed reduced proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan distribution and decreased expression of pSMAD 1/5/8 and VEGF in the MCC of the Botox injected side in comparison to control side.Injection of Botox in masseter muscle leads to decreased mineralization and matrix deposition, reduced chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation and increased cell apoptosis in the MCC and subchondral bone.

  14. Evaluation of piping heat transfer, piping flow regimes, and steam generator heat transfer for the Semiscale Mod-1 isothermal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, R.T.

    1975-08-01

    Selected experimental data pertinent to piping heat transfer, transient fluid flow regimes, and steam generator heat transfer obtained during the Semiscale Mod-1 isothermal blowdown test series (Test Series 1) are analyzed. The tests in this first test series were designed to provide counterparts to the LOFT nonnuclear experiments. The data from the Semiscale Mod-1 intact and broken loop piping are evaluated to determine the surface heat flux and average heat transfer coefficients effective during the blowdown transient and compared with well known heat transfer correlations used in the RELAP4 computer program. Flow regimes in horizontal pipe sections are calculated and compared with data obtained from horizontal and vertical densitometers and with an existing steady state flow map. Effects of steam generator heat transfer are evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. The Semiscale Mod-1 data and the analysis presented in this report are valuable for evaluating the adequacy and improving the predictive capability of analytical models developed to predict system response to piping heat transfer, piping flow regimes, and steam generator heat transfer during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). 16 references. (auth)

  15. Pathophysiological Consequences of a Break in S1P1-Dependent Homeostasis of Vascular Permeability Revealed by S1P1 Competitive Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigaud, Marc; Dincer, Zuhal; Bollbuck, Birgit; Dawson, Janet; Beckmann, Nicolau; Beerli, Christian; Fishli-Cavelti, Gina; Nahler, Michaela; Angst, Daniela; Janser, Philipp; Otto, Heike; Rosner, Elisabeth; Hersperger, Rene; Bruns, Christian; Quancard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Homeostasis of vascular barriers depends upon sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling via the S1P1 receptor. Accordingly, S1P1 competitive antagonism is known to reduce vascular barrier integrity with still unclear pathophysiological consequences. This was explored in the present study using NIBR-0213, a potent and selective S1P1 competitive antagonist. NIBR-0213 was tolerated at the efficacious oral dose of 30 mg/kg BID in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AiA) model, with no sign of labored breathing. However, it induced dose-dependent acute vascular pulmonary leakage and pleural effusion that fully resolved within 3-4 days, as evidenced by MRI monitoring. At the supra-maximal oral dose of 300 mg/kg QD, NIBR-0213 impaired lung function (with increased breathing rate and reduced tidal volume) within the first 24 hrs. Two weeks of NIBR-0213 oral dosing at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg QD induced moderate pulmonary changes, characterized by alveolar wall thickening, macrophage accumulation, fibrosis, micro-hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. In addition to this picture of chronic inflammation, perivascular edema and myofiber degeneration observed in the heart were also indicative of vascular leakage and its consequences. Overall, these observations suggest that, in the rat, the lung is the main target organ for the S1P1 competitive antagonism-induced acute vascular leakage, which appears first as transient and asymptomatic but could lead, upon chronic dosing, to lung remodeling with functional impairments. Hence, this not only raises the question of organ specificity in the homeostasis of vascular barriers, but also provides insight into the pre-clinical evaluation of a potential safety window for S1P1 competitive antagonists as drug candidates.

  16. A Newly Isolated Penicillium oxalicum 16 Cellulase with High Efficient Synergism and High Tolerance of Monosaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi-Hua; Wang, Wei; Tong, Bin; Zhang, Su-Ping; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Compared to Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 cellulase (Trcel), Penicillium oxalicum 16 cellulase (P16cel) from the fermentation supernatant produced a 2-fold higher glucose yield when degrading microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), possessed a 10-fold higher β-glucosidase (BGL) activity, but obtained somewhat lower other cellulase component activities. The optimal temperature and pH of β-1,4-endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and filter paperase from P16cel were 50-60 °C and 4-5, respectively, but those of BGL reached 70 °C and 5. The cellulase cocktail of P16cel and Trcel had a high synergism when solubilizing MCC and generated 1.7-fold and 6.2-fold higher glucose yields than P16cel and Trcel at the same filter paperase loading, respectively. Additional low concentration of fructose enhanced the glucose yield during enzymatic hydrolysis of MCC; however, additional high concentration of monosaccharide (especially glucose) reduced cellulase activities and gave a stronger monosaccharide inhibition on Trcel. These results indicate that P16cel is a more excellent cellulase than Trcel.

  17. Identification of key amino acid residues modulating intracellular and in vitro microcin E492 amyloid formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina eAguilera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcin E492 (MccE492 is a pore-forming bacteriocin produced and exported by Klebsiella pneumoniae RYC492. Besides its antibacterial activity, excreted MccE492 can form amyloid fibrils in vivo as well as in vitro. It has been proposed that bacterial amyloids can be functional playing a biological role, and in the particular case of MccE492 it would control the antibacterial activity. MccE492 amyloid fibril’s morphology and formation kinetics in vitro have been well characterized, however it is not known which amino acid residues determine its amyloidogenic propensity, nor if it forms intracellular amyloid inclusions as has been reported for other bacterial amyloids. In this work we found the conditions in which MccE492 forms intracellular amyloids in E. coli cells, that were visualized as round-shaped inclusion bodies recognized by two amyloidophillic probes, 2-4´-methylaminophenyl benzothiazole and thioflavin-S. We used this property to perform a flow cytometry-based assay to evaluate the aggregation propensity of MccE492 mutants, that were designed using an in silico prediction of putative aggregation hotspots. We established that the predicted amino acid residues 54-63, effectively act as a pro-amyloidogenic stretch. As in the case of other amyloidogenic proteins, this region presented two gatekeeper residues (P57 and P59, which disfavor both intracellular and in vitro MccE492 amyloid formation, preventing an uncontrolled aggregation. Mutants in each of these gatekeeper residues showed faster in vitro aggregation and bactericidal inactivation kinetics, and the two mutants were accumulated as dense amyloid inclusions in more than 80% of E. coli cells expressing these variants. In contrast, the MccE492 mutant lacking residues 54-63 showed a significantly lower intracellular aggregation propensity and slower in vitro polymerization kinetics. Electron microscopy analysis of the amyloids formed in vitro by these mutants revealed that, although

  18. Isokinetic Testing in Evaluation Rehabilitation Outcome After ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetkovic, Dragana Dragicevic; Bijeljac, Sinisa; Palija, Stanislav; Talic, Goran; Radulovic, Tatjana Nozica; Kosanovic, Milkica Glogovac; Manojlovic, Slavko

    2015-02-01

    Numerous rehab protocols have been used in rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. Isokinetic testing is an objective way to evaluate dynamic stability of the knee joint that estimates the quality of rehabilitation outcome after ACL reconstruction. Our investigation goal was to show importance of isokinetic testing in evaluation thigh muscle strength in patients which underwent ACL reconstruction and rehabilitation protocol. In prospective study, we evaluated 40 subjects which were divided into two groups. Experimental group consisted of 20 recreational males which underwent ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon and rehabilitation protocol 6 months before isokinetic testing. Control group (20 subjects) consisted of healthy recreational males. In all subjects knee muscle testing was performed on a Biodex System 4 Pro isokinetic dynamo-meter et velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s. We followed average peak torque to body weight (PT/BW) and classic H/Q ratio. In statistical analysis Student's T test was used. There were statistically significant differences between groups in all evaluated parameters except of the mean value of PT/BW of the quadriceps et velocity of 60°/s (p>0.05). Isokinetic testing of dynamic stabilizers of the knee is need in diagnostic and treatment thigh muscle imbalance. We believe that isokinetic testing is an objective parameter for return to sport activities after ACL reconstruction.

  19. Injection grout for deep repositories - Low-pH cementitious grout for larger fractures. Field testing in Finland, Pilot tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievaeen, U.; Syrjaenen, P.; Ranta-aho, S.

    2005-10-01

    Posiva, SKB and NUMO have cooperated for developing a low pH injection grout for sealing of the deep repositories for spent nuclear fuel. A project 'Injection grout for deep repositories' was divided into four subprojects. The development of low pH cementitious grout for > 100 μm fractures was carried out in Finland. The development of non-cementitious low pH grout for < 100 μm fractures was carried out in Sweden. This report concerns the cementitious grout. Requirements for pH and penetration ability were set for the grouts to be developed. Besides these, the grouts were desired to fulfil certain targets set for viscosity, bleeding, shear strength, yield value, compressive strength and open time. Also durability, availability of the components and known history in practical engineering were given as requirements. The object of the work presented here was to test if the grout properties developed in laboratory can be met in field conditions. Only the most promising binder material combinations, which have fulfilled the main requirements in laboratory, were tested in field. Evaluations of environmental aspects are included in this report. In the pilot test 1, carried out in a multi-purpose tunnel in Helsinki, Portland cement-cilicasystem and blast furnace slag-based system were chosen to be tested. In field conditions, mixed with ordinary mixer, all grout properties achieved in laboratory, were not verified. Penetration ability was typically good, but fluidity and strength development were not satisfying. The main conclusion was that water to dry material ratio should be diminished. In order to get better rheological properties at the same time, superplastizicer was needed in further development of the mixes. Also accurate dosing and mixing seemed to be very important. Blast furnace slag - system was after this pilot test ruled out due to high leaching of sulphide from the product, not due to the bad technical properties. The development work continued with

  20. Evaluation report on CCTF Core-I reflood tests C1-5 (Run 14), C1-7 (Run 16) and C1-14 (Run 23)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun; Muurao, Yoshio

    1983-02-01

    The present report describes the effects of the initial clad temperature on the reflood phenomena observed in the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The evaluation is based on the data of tests C1-5, C1-7 and C1-14 of the CCTF-Core I test series. Nominal initial peak clad temperatures in these tests are 600 0 C, 700 0 C and 800 0 C, respectively. With the higher initial clad temperature, the higher loop mass flow rate and the lower water accumulation in the core and the upper plenum were obtained in an early reflood transient. However, the core inlet flow conditions, which is sensitive to the core cooling, were not much affected by the higher initial clad temperature. The slower quench front propagation was observed with the higher initial clad temperature. However, the heat transfer coefficient was almost identical with each other before the turnaround time, which resulted in the lower temperature rise with the highest initial clad temperature. This qualitatively agreed with the results of the forced feed FLECHT experiment. (author)

  1. Determination of the 1s2{\\ell }2{{\\ell }}^{\\prime } state production ratios {{}^{4}P}^{o}/{}^{2}P, {}^{2}D/{}^{2}P and {{}^{2}P}_{+}/{{}^{2}P}_{-} from fast (1{s}^{2},1s2s\\,{}^{3}S) mixed-state He-like ion beams in collisions with H2 targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benis, E. P.; Zouros, T. J. M.

    2016-12-01

    New results are presented on the ratio {R}m={σ }{T2p}( {}4P)/{σ }{T2p}({}2P) concerning the production cross sections of Li-like 1s2s2p quartet and doublet P states formed in energetic ion-atom collisions by single 2p electron transfer to the metastable 1s2s {}3S component of the He-like ion beam. Spin statistics predict a value of R m = 2 independent of the collision system in disagreement with most reported measurements of {R}m≃ 1{--}9. A new experimental approach is presented for the evaluation of R m having some practical advantages over earlier approaches. It also allows for the determination of the separate contributions of ground- and metastable-state beam components to the measured spectra. Applying our technique to zero-degree Auger projectile spectra from 4.5 MeV {{{B}}}3+ (Benis et al 2002 Phys. Rev. A 65 064701) and 25.3 MeV {{{F}}}7+ (Zamkov et al 2002 Phys. Rev. A 65 062706) mixed state (1{s}2 {}1S,1s2s {}3S) He-like ion collisions with H2 targets, we report new values of {R}m=3.5+/- 0.4 for boron and {R}m=1.8+/- 0.3 for fluorine. In addition, the ratios of {}2D/{}2P and {{}2P}+/{{}2P}- populations from either the metastable and/or ground state beam component, also relevant to this analysis, are evaluated and compared to previously reported results for carbon collisions on helium (Strohschein et al 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 022706) including a critical comparison to theory.

  2. Structural and population-based evaluations of TBC1D1 p.Arg125Trp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G Richardson

    Full Text Available Obesity is now a leading cause of preventable death in the industrialised world. Understanding its genetic influences can enhance insight into molecular pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. A non-synonymous polymorphism (rs35859249, p.Arg125Trp in the N-terminal TBC1D1 phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB domain has shown a replicated association with familial obesity in women. We investigated these findings in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a large European birth cohort of mothers and offspring, and by generating a predicted model of the structure of this domain. Structural prediction involved the use of three separate algorithms; Robetta, HHpred/MODELLER and I-TASSER. We used the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT to investigate familial association in the ALSPAC study cohort (N = 2,292 mother-offspring pairs. Linear regression models were used to examine the association of genotype with mean measurements of adiposity (Body Mass Index (BMI, waist circumference and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA assessed fat mass, and logistic regression was used to examine the association with odds of obesity. Modelling showed that the R125W mutation occurs in a location of the TBC1D1 PTB domain that is predicted to have a function in a putative protein:protein interaction. We did not detect an association between R125W and BMI (mean per allele difference 0.27 kg/m(2 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.00, 0.53 P = 0.05 or obesity (odds ratio 1.01 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.77, 1.31, P = 0.96 in offspring after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that there was familial association between R125W and obesity (χ(2 = 0.06, P = 0.80. Our analysis suggests that R125W in TBC1D1 plays a role in the binding of an effector protein, but we find no evidence that the R125W variant is related to mean BMI or odds of obesity in a general population sample.

  3. The Spin-dependent Structure Function of the Proton $g_{1}^p$ and a Test of the Bjorken Sum Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, M.G.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Chaberny, D.; Cotic, D.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Efremov, A.; El Alaoui, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Friedrich, J.M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hermann, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kafer, W.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konopka, R.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Kramer, M.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.N.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schluter, T.; Schopferer, S.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Siebert, H.W.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takekawa, S.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Vossen, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhao, J.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2010-01-01

    The inclusive double-spin asymmetry, $A_{1}^{p}$, has been measured at COMPASS in deepinelastic polarised muon scattering off a large polarised NH3 target. The data, collected in the year 2007, cover the range Q2 > 1 (GeV/c)^2, 0.004 < x < 0.7 and improve the statistical precision of g_{1}^{p}(x) by a factor of two in the region x < 0.02. The new proton asymmetries are combined with those previously published for the deuteron to extract the non-singlet spin-dependent structure function g_1^NS(x,Q2). The isovector quark density, Delta_q_3(x,Q2), is evaluated from a NLO QCD fit of g_1^NS. The first moment of Delta_q3 is in good agreement with the value predicted by the Bjorken sum rule and corresponds to a ratio of the axial and vector coupling constants g_A/g_V = 1.28+-0.07(stat)+-0.10(syst).

  4. Avelumab and other recent advances in Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommareddy, Praveen K; Kaufman, Howard L

    2017-12-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive form of skin cancer that occurs in the elderly, is associated with UV radiation and immunosuppression. Initial treatment consists of wide excision with adjuvant radiation. Although the tumor is sensitive to chemotherapy, long-term survival is unusual and there had been no US FDA-approved drugs prior to 2017. The recognition that MCC is associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus occurs more commonly in immune-compromised patients and tumors express PD-L1 suggested testing immunotherapy. A study of an anti-PD-L1 antibody, avelumab, in chemotherapy-refractory MCC demonstrated a response rate of 31.8% resulting in FDA approval in March 2017 and EMA in September 2017. This review will discuss the disease, role of avelumab and other emerging treatment strategies for MCC.

  5. FLOW TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF THE FSP-1 EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, Grant L.; Jones, Warren F.; Marcum, Wade; Weiss, Aaron; Howard, Trevor

    2017-06-01

    The U.S. High Performance Research Reactor Conversions fuel development team is focused on developing and qualifying the uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy monolithic fuel to support conversion of domestic research reactors to low enriched uranium. Several previous irradiations have demonstrated the favorable behavior of the monolithic fuel. The Full Scale Plate 1 (FSP-1) fuel plate experiment will be irradiated in the northeast (NE) flux trap of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This fueled experiment contains six aluminum-clad fuel plates consisting of monolithic U-Mo fuel meat. Flow testing experimentation and hydraulic analysis have been performed on the FSP-1 experiment to be irradiated in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A flow test experiment mockup of the FSP-1 experiment was completed at Oregon State University. Results of several flow test experiments are compared with analyses. This paper reports and shows hydraulic analyses are nearly identical to the flow test results. A water velocity of 14.0 meters per second is targeted between the fuel plates. Comparisons between FSP-1 measurements and this target will be discussed. This flow rate dominates the flow characteristics of the experiment and model. Separate branch flows have minimal effect on the overall experiment. A square flow orifice was placed to control the flowrate through the experiment. Four different orifices were tested. A flow versus delta P curve for each orifice is reported herein. Fuel plates with depleted uranium in the fuel meat zone were used in one of the flow tests. This test was performed to evaluate flow test vibration with actual fuel meat densities and reported herein. Fuel plate deformation tests were also performed and reported.

  6. Quantitative analysis of mast cell count and density in chronic periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Surekha; Raj, Anubha; Wanikar, Ishita

    2018-01-01

    Mast cells play a crucial role in activation of acquired immune response to inflammatory conditions of periodontal diseases. They promote inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators and bring about angiogenesis, degeneration of the extracellular matrix, and tissue remodeling. Since there is little literature regarding the role of mast cells in periodontitis, the present study was aimed to evaluate mast cell count (MCC) and density in periodontitis. A total of eighty participants, Group I ( n = 40) healthy participants and Group II ( n = 40) participants with moderate chronic periodontitis, were included in the study. Tissue samples of 5 micron were obtained from each participant and were fixed in 10% formalin. Inflammation assessment was carried out after staining the sections with hematoxylin/eosin (H and E) followed by toluidine blue and mast cells were counted. MCC in healthy group (1.32 ± 0.43) was significantly smaller than periodontitis group (10.28 ± 1.15) and also mast cell density in healthy group (98.08 ± 37.40) was smaller than periodontitis group (803.43 ± 89.94) with P < 0.0001. It could be concluded that participants with chronic periodontitis have a higher MCC and density when compared with healthy participants.

  7. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo-Ospina, A.; Dao, Thanh H.; Van Kessel, J.A.; Reeves, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213 g L -1 , in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m -1 ). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP s ) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP s ) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP s = 0.471 x MRP s + 1102 (r 2 = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r 2 = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH ≤ 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r 2 ) for the MRP s and RQFlex-DP s relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r 2 = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r 2 = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. - The dissolved phosphorous quick test can provide real-time information on soluble manure nutrient control

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of the four tests (p16 immunochemistry, PCR, DNA and RNA In situ Hybridization) to evaluate a Human Papillomavirus infection in head and neck cancers: a cohort of 348 French squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Jérémy; Outh-Gauer, Sophie; Mandavit, Marion; Gasne, Cassandre; Grard, Ophélie; Denize, Thomas; Nervo, Marine; Mirghani, Haïtham; Laccourreye, Ollivier; Bonfils, Pierre; Bruneval, Patrick; Veyer, David; Péré, Hélène; Tartour, Eric; Badoual, Cécile

    2018-04-20

    It is now established that HPV plays a role in the development of a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), notably oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). However, it is not clear which test one should use to detect HPV in oropharyngeal (OP) and non-OP SCCs. In this study, using 348 HNSCCs (126 OP SCCs and 222 non-OP SCCs), we evaluated diagnostic performances of different HPV tests in OP and non-OP SCCs: PCR, p16 immunostaining, in situ hybridization targeting DNA (DNA-CISH) and RNA (RNA-CISH), combined p16 + DNA-CISH, and combined p16 + RNA-CISH. HPV DNA (PCR) was detected in 26% of all tumors (44% of OP SCCs and 17% of non-OP SCCs). For OP SCCs, RNA-CISH was the most sensitive standalone test (88%), but p16 + RNA-CISH was even more sensitive (95%). Specificities were the same for RNA-CISH and DNA-CISH (97%) but it was better for p16 + RNA-CISH (100%). For non-OP SCCs, all tests had sensitivities below 50%, and RNA-CISH, DNA-CISH and p16 + DNA-CISH had respectively 100%, 97% and 99% specificities. As a standalone test, RNA-CISH is the most performant assay to detect HPV in OP SCCs, and combined p16 + RNA-CISH test slightly improves its performances. However, RNA-CISH has the advantage of being one single test. Like p16 and DNA-CISH, RNA-CISH performances are poor in non-OP SCCs to detect HPV, and combining tests does not improve performances. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. On the role of API in determining porosity, pore structure and bulk modulus of the skeletal material in pharmaceutical tablets formed with MCC as sole excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Cathy; Bawuah, Prince; Markl, Daniel; Zeitler, J Axel; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Gane, Patrick

    2017-06-30

    The physical properties and mechanical integrity of pharmaceutical tablets are of major importance when loading with active pharmaceutical ingredient(s) (API) in order to ensure ease of processing, control of dosage and stability during transportation and handling prior to patient consumption. The interaction between API and excipient, acting as functional extender and binder, however, is little understood in this context. The API indomethacin is combined in this study with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) at increasing loading levels. Tablets from the defined API/MCC ratios are made under conditions of controlled porosity and tablet thickness, resulting from different compression conditions, and thus compaction levels. Mercury intrusion porosimetry is used to establish the accessible pore volume, pore size distribution and, adopting the observed region of elastic intrusion-extrusion at high pressure, an elastic bulk modulus of the skeletal material is recorded. Porosity values are compared to previously published values derived from terahertz (THz) refractive index data obtained from exactly the same tablet sample sets. It is shown that the elastic bulk modulus is dependent on API wt% loading under constant tablet preparation conditions delivering equal dimensions and porosity. The findings are considered of novel value in respect to establishing consistency of tablet production and optimisation of physical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Randomized Comparative Study Evaluating Various Cough Stress Tests and 24-Hour Pad Test with Urodynamics in the Diagnosis of Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joseph W; Kane, Sarah M; Mangel, Jeffrey M; Kikano, Elias G; Garibay, Jorge A; Pollard, Robert R; Mahajan, Sangeeta T; Debanne, Sara M; Hijaz, Adonis K

    2018-06-01

    The cough stress test is a common and accepted tool to evaluate stress urinary incontinence but there is no agreement on how the test should be performed. We assessed the diagnostic ability of different cough stress tests performed when varying patient position and bladder volume using urodynamic stress urinary incontinence as the gold standard. The 24-hour pad test was also evaluated. We recruited women who presented to specialty outpatient clinics with the complaint of urinary incontinence and who were recommended to undergo urodynamic testing. A total of 140 patients were randomized to 4 cough stress test groups, including group 1-a comfortably full bladder, group 2-an empty bladder, group 3- a bladder infused with 200 cc saline and group 4-a bladder filled to half functional capacity. The sequence of standing and sitting was randomly assigned. The groups were compared by 1-way ANOVA or the generalized Fisher exact test. The κ statistic was used to evaluate agreement between the sitting and standing positions. The 95% CIs of sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the Wilson method. ROC analysis was done to evaluate the performance of the 24-hour pad test. The cough stress test performed with a bladder filled to half functional capacity was the best performing test with 83% sensitivity and 90% specificity. There was no statistically significant evidence that the sensitivity or specificity of 1 cough stress test differed from that of the others. The pad test had no significant predictive ability to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence (AUC 0.60, p = 0.08). Cough stress tests were accurate to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. The 24-hour pad test was not predictive of urodynamic stress urinary incontinence and not helpful when used in conjunction with the cough stress test. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. How do different tests evaluate sensation in the lower urinary tract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laet, Kevin; De Wachter, Stefan; Van Meel, Tom; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2010-04-01

    Different tests can be used to evaluate lower urinary tract (LUT) sensation. The purpose of this study is to compare sensory tests in patients with voiding disorders. Seventy patients with various functional disorders of the LUT were admitted for a cystometry and an electrical perception threshold test of the bladder (bEPT) and distal urethra (uEPT). A pudendal EPT (pEPT) and pudendal somatosensory evoked potentials (pSSEP) were also determined. Correlations were calculated for somatosensory (uEPT, pEPT and pSSEP latency) and viscerosensory tests (volumes at filling sensations and bEPT). Fifty of the 70 patients (71%) had normal bladder filling sensations, with abnormal bEPT in 21/50 (41%), including 11 (22%) with no sensation at maximal electrical stimulation. Twenty out of 70 (29%) had an abnormal pattern of filling sensation, with increased bEPT in 13/20 (65%) and no sensation at electrical stimulation in 8/13 (40%). No significant correlation exists between filling sensation and bladder electrical perception thresholds (r 0.243). pEPT correlated with uEPT and SSEP (r > 0.035, p sensation. No significant correlation exists between volumes of filling sensations and bEPT (r 0.243). Therefore, both tests provide complementary information. Somatosensory tests of the pudendal nerve are correlated, so performing SSEP, pEPT and uEPT provides poor additional information to one of these tests alone. Somatosensory pudendal tests cannot be used to quantify filling sensation.

  12. The effect of the bioactive sphingolipids S1P and C1P on multipotent stromal cells--new opportunities in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Jeleń, Marta; Chrząstek, Klaudia; Grzesiak, Jakub; Meissner, Justyna

    2015-09-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) belong to a family of bioactive sphingolipids that act as important extracellular signaling molecules and chemoattractants. This study investigated the influence of S1P and C1P on the morphology, proliferation activity and osteogenic properties of rat multipotent stromal cells derived from bone marrow (BMSCs) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASCs). We show that S1P and C1P can influence mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), each in a different manner. S1P stimulation promoted the formation of cellular aggregates of BMSCs and ASCs, while C1P had an effect on the regular growth pattern and expanded intercellular connections, thereby increasing the proliferative activity. Although osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was enhanced by the addition of S1P, the effectiveness of osteoblast differentiation was more evident in BMSCs, particularly when biochemical and molecular marker levels were considered. The results of the functional osteogenic differentiation assay, which includes an evaluation of the efficiency of extracellular matrix mineralization (SEM-EDX), revealed the formation of numerous mineral aggregates in BMSC cultures stimulated with S1P. Our data demonstrated that in an appropriate combination, the bioactive sphingolipids S1P and C1P may find wide application in regenerative medicine, particularly in bone regeneration with the use of MSCs.

  13. Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests Using Information Theory for Multi-Class Diagnostic Problems and its Application for the Detection of Occlusal Caries Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Arslan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several methods are available to evaluate the performance of the tests when the purpose of the diagnostic test is to discriminate between two possible disease states. However multi-class diagnostic problems frequently appear in many areas of medical science. Hence, there is a need for methods which will enable us to characterize the accuracy of diagnostic tests when there are more than two possible disease states. Aims: To show that two information theory measures, information content (IC and proportional reduction in diagnostic uncertainty (PRDU, can be used for the evaluation of the performance of diagnostic tests for multi-class diagnostic problems that may appear in different areas of medical science. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods: Sixty freshly extracted permanent human molar and premolar teeth suspected to have occlusal caries lesions were selected for the study and were assessed by two experienced examiners. Each examiner performed two evaluations. Histological examination was used as the gold standard. The scores of the histological examination were defined as sound (n=11, enamel caries (n=22 and dentin caries (n=27. Diagnostic performance of i visual inspection, ii radiography, iii laser fluorescence (LF and iv micro-computed tomography (M-CT caries detection methods was evaluated by calculating IC and PRDU. Results: Micro-computed tomography examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the diagnosis of occlusal caries in terms of both IC and PRDU. M-CT examination supplied the maximum diagnostic information about the diagnosis of occlusal caries in the first (IC: 1.056; p<0.05, (PRDU: 70.5% and second evaluation (IC: 1.105; p<0.05, (PRDU: 73.8% for the first examiner. M-CT examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the second examiner in both the first (IC:1.105; p<0.05, (PRDU:73.8% and second evaluation (IC:1.061; p<0.05, (PRDU:70.8%. IC and PRDU were

  14. Computer aided instrumented Charpy test applied dynamic fracture toughness evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Toshiro; Niinomi, Mitsuo

    1986-01-01

    Micro computer aided data treatment system and personal computer aided data analysis system were applied to the traditional instrumented Charpy impact test system. The analysis of Charpy absorbed energy (E i , E p , E t ) and load (P y , P m ), and the evaluation of dynamic toughness through whole fracture process, i.e. J Id , J R curve and T mat was examined using newly developed computer aided instrumented Charpy impact test system. E i , E p , E t , P y and P m were effectively analyzed using moving average method and printed out automatically by micro computer aided data treatment system. J Id , J R curve and T mat could be measured by stop block test method. Then, J Id , J R curve and T mat were effectively estimated using compliance changing rate method and key curve method on the load-load point displacement curve of single fatigue cracked specimen by personal computer aided data analysis system. (author)

  15. pH/Ultrasound Dual-Responsive Gas Generator for Ultrasound Imaging-Guided Therapeutic Inertial Cavitation and Sonodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qianhua; Zhang, Wanxia; Yang, Xuemei; Li, Yuzhen; Hao, Yongwei; Zhang, Hongling; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2018-03-01

    Herein, a pH/ultrasound dual-responsive gas generator is reported, which is based on mesoporous calcium carbonate (MCC) nanoparticles by loading sonosensitizer (hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)) and modifying surface hyaluronic acid (HA). After pinpointing tumor regions with prominent targeting efficiency, HMME/MCC-HA decomposes instantaneously under the cotriggering of tumoral inherent acidic condition and ultrasound (US) irradiation, concurrently accompanying with CO 2 generation and HMME release with spatial/temporal resolution. Afterward, the CO 2 bubbling and bursting effect under US stimulus results in cavitation-mediated irreversible cell necrosis, as well as the blood vessel destruction to further occlude the blood supply, providing a "bystander effect." Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species generated from HMME can target the apoptotic pathways for effective sonodynamic therapy. Thus, the combination of apoptosis/necrosis with multimechanisms consequently results in a remarkable antitumor therapeutic efficacy, simultaneously minimizing the side effects on major organs. Moreover, the echogenic property of CO 2 make the nanoplatform as a powerful ultrasound contrast agent to identify cancerous lesions. Based on the above findings, such all-in-one drug delivery platform of HMME/MCC-HA is utilized to provide the US imaging guidance for therapeutic inertial cavitation and sonodynamic therapy simultaneously, which highlights possibilities of advancing cancer theranostics in biomedical fields. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Deficiency of G1 regulators P53, P21Cip1 and/or pRb decreases hepatocyte sensitivity to TGFβ cell cycle arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison David J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGFβ is critical to control hepatocyte proliferation by inducing G1-growth arrest through multiple pathways leading to inhibition of E2F transcription activity. The retinoblastoma protein pRb is a key controller of E2F activity and G1/S transition which can be inhibited in viral hepatitis. It is not known whether the impairment of pRb would alter the growth inhibitory potential of TGFβ in disease. We asked how Rb-deficiency would affect responses to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest. Results Primary hepatocytes isolated from Rb-floxed mice were infected with an adenovirus expressing CRE-recombinase to delete the Rb gene. In control cells treatment with TGFβ prevented cells to enter S phase via decreased cMYC activity, activation of P16INK4A and P21Cip and reduction of E2F activity. In Rb-null hepatocytes, cMYC activity decreased slightly but P16INK4A was not activated and the great majority of cells continued cycling. Rb is therefore central to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes. However some Rb-null hepatocytes remained sensitive to TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest. As these hepatocytes expressed very high levels of P21Cip1 and P53 we investigated whether these proteins regulate pRb-independent signaling to cell cycle arrest by evaluating the consequences of disruption of p53 and p21Cip1. Hepatocytes deficient in p53 or p21Cip1 showed diminished growth inhibition by TGFβ. Double deficiency had a similar impact showing that in cells containing functional pRb; P21Cip and P53 work through the same pathway to regulate G1/S in response to TGFβ. In Rb-deficient cells however, p53 but not p21Cip deficiency had an additive effect highlighting a pRb-independent-P53-dependent effector pathway of inhibition of E2F activity. Conclusion The present results show that otherwise genetically normal hepatocytes with disabled p53, p21Cip1 or Rb genes respond less well to the antiproliferative effects of TGFβ. As the function of

  17. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  18. Evaluation of a Positive Youth Development Program Based on the Repertory Grid Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The repertory grid test, based on personal construct psychology, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes in Hong Kong. One hundred and four program participants (n=104 were randomly invited to complete a repertory grid based on personal construct theory in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative data for measuring self-identity changes after joining the program. Findings generally showed that the participants perceived that they understood themselves better and had stronger resilience after joining the program. Participants also saw themselves as closer to their ideal selves and other positive role figures (but farther away from a loser after joining the program. This study provides additional support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S. in the Chinese context. This study also shows that the repertory grid test is a useful evaluation method to measure self-identity changes in participants in positive youth development programs.

  19. Critical evaluation of a badminton-specific endurance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Michael; Faude, Oliver; Wegmann, Melissa; Meyer, Tim

    2014-03-01

    To overcome the limitations of traditional 1-dimensional fitness tests in analyzing physiological properties of badminton players, a badminton-specific endurance test (BST) was created. This study aimed at analyzing the influence of various fitness dimensions on BST performance. 18 internationally competing male German badminton players (22.4 ± 3.2 y, 79.2 ± 7.7 kg, 1.84 ± 0.06 m, world-ranking position [WRP] 21-501) completed a straight-sprint test, a change-of-direction speed test, various jump tests (countermovement jump, drop jump, standing long jump), a multistage running test (MST), and the BST. During this on-court field test players have to respond to a computerized sign indicating direction and speed of badminton-specific movements by moving into the corresponding corners. Significant correlations were found between performance in MST and BST (individual anaerobic threshold [IAT], r = .63, P = .005; maximum velocity [Vmax], r = .60, P = .009). A negative correlation (r = -.59, P = .014) was observed between IAT in BST and drop-jump contact time. No further associations between performance indices could be detected. Apart from a small portion explained by MST results (IAT, R2 = .40; Vmax, R2 = .36), the majority of BST performance cannot be explained by the determined physiological correlates. Moreover, it was impossible to predict the WRP of a player on the basis of BST results (r = -.15, P = .55). Neither discipline-specific performance nor basic physiological properties were appropriately reflected by a BST in elite badminton players. This does not substantiate its validity for regular use as a testing tool. However, it may be useful for monitoring on-court training sessions.

  20. Tropomyosin Receptor Kinase A Expression on Merkel Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehkamp, Ulrike; Stern, Sophie; Krüger, Sandra; Hauschild, Axel; Röcken, Christoph; Egberts, Friederike

    2017-11-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a malignant neuroendocrine skin tumor frequently associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus. Immune checkpoint therapy showed remarkable results, although not all patients are responsive to this therapy. Anti-tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA)-targeted treatment has shown promising results in several tumor entities. To determine TrkA expression in MCC as a rationale for potential targeted therapy. This case series study investigated the MCC specimens of 55 patients treated at the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany, from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2015. Thirty-nine of the 55 samples were suitable for further histopathologic examination. Expression of TrkA was explored by immunohistochemical analysis. Diagnosis of MCC was confirmed by staining positive for cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and synaptophysin. Expression of TrkA on the tumor cells. Specimens of 39 patients (21 women and 18 men; mean [SD] age, 75.0 [7.8] years) underwent immunohistochemical investigation. Thirty-eight of 38 specimens expressed CK20 and synaptophysin on the MCC tumor cells (100% expression). Merkel cell polyomavirus was detected in 32 of 38 specimens (84%). Tropomyosin receptor kinase A was found in all 36 evaluable specimens on the tumor cells; 34 (94%) showed a weak and 2 (6%) showed a strong cytoplasmic expression. In addition, strongly positive perinuclear dots were observed in 30 of 36 specimens (83%). Tropomyosin receptor kinase A was expressed on MCC tumor cells in 100% of evaluable specimens. This result may lead to the exploration of new targeted treatment options in MCC, especially for patients who do not respond to anti-programmed cell death protein 1 treatment.

  1. G-tunnel pressurized slot-testing evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Sifre-Soto, C.; Mann, K.L.; Bellman, R.A. Jr.; Luker, S.; Dodds, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Designers and analysts of radioactive waste repositories must be able to predict the mechanical behavior of the host rock. Sandia National Laboratories elected to conduct a development program to enhance mechanical-type measurements. The program was focused on pressurized slot testing and featured (1) development of an improved method to cut slots using a chain saw with diamond-tipped cutters, (2) measurements useful for determining in situ stresses normal to slots, (3) measurements applicable for determining the in situ modulus of deformation parallel to a drift surface, and (4) evaluations of pressurized slot strength testing results and methods. This report contains data interpretation and evaluations. Included are recommendations for future efforts. This third report contains the interpretations of the testing with emphasis on the measurement results as they apply to describing rock behavior. In particular, emphases are placed on (1) normal stress determinations using the flatjack cancellation (FC) method, (2) modulus of deformation determinations, and (3) high pressure investigations. Most of the material in the first two reports is not repeated here. Appropriate data are repeated in tabular form

  2. Discussion on muon collider parameters at center of mass energies from 0.1 TeV to 100 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The main motivation for research and development efforts on muon collider technology is the assertion that affordably priced muon colliders might provide lepton-lepton collisions at much higher center of mass (CoM) energies than is feasible for electron colliders, and perhaps eventually explore the spectrum of elementary particles at mass scales inaccessible even to hadron colliders. This paper attempts to present some justification for these assertions through discussion and evaluation of the self-consistent muon collider parameter sets given in table 1 at CoM energies ranging from 0.1 to 100 TeV. The parameter set at 0.1 TeV CoM energy was included as a lower energy reference point and was constrained to essentially reproduce one of the sets of parameters currently under study by the Muon Collider Collaboration (MCC). In contrast, the other parameter sets represent speculation by the author on how the parameters might evolve with CoM energy and they have not been studied or discussed in detail within the MCC

  3. Feasibility of test-bolus DCE-MRI using CAIPIRINHA-VIBE for the evaluation of pancreatic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Jimi; Seo, Nieun; Kim, Bohyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoonseok; Woo, Dong-Cheol; Lee, Chang Kyung [Asan Medical Center, Bioimaging Center, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Seong [Siemens Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nickel, Dominik [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Kim, Kyung Won [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Asan Medical Center, Bioimaging Center, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of test-bolus dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI with CAIPIRINHA-VIBE for pancreatic malignancies. Thirty-two patients underwent DCE-MRI with CAIPIRINHA-VIBE after injection of 2 mL gadolinium. From the resulting time-intensity curve (TIC), we estimated the arterial (AP) and portal venous phase (PVP) scan timing for subsequent multiphasic MRI. DCE-MRI perfusion maps were generated, and perfusion parameters were calculated. The image quality was rated on a 5-point scale (1: poor, 5: excellent). Goodness-of-fit of the TIC was evaluated by Pearson's χ{sup 2} test. Test-bolus DCE-MRIs with high temporal (3 s) and spatial resolution (1 x 1 x 4 mm{sup 3}) were acquired with good-quality perfusion maps of Ktrans and iAUC (mean score 4.313 ± 0.535 and 4.125 ± 0.554, respectively). The mean χ{sup 2} values for fitted TICs were 0.115 ± 0.082 for the pancreatic parenchyma and 0.784 ± 0.074 for pancreatic malignancies, indicating an acceptable goodness-of-fit. Test-bolus DCE-MRI was highly accurate in estimating the proper timing of AP (90.6 %) and PVP (100 %) of subsequent multiphasic MRI. Between pancreatic adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine tumours, there were significant differences in the Ktrans (0.073 ± 0.058 vs. 0.308 ± 0.062, respectively; p = 0.007) and iAUC (1.501 ± 0.828 vs. 3.378 ± 0.378, respectively; p = 0.045). Test-bolus DCE-MRI using CAIPIRINHA-VIBE is feasible for incorporating perfusion analysis of pancreatic tumours into routine multiphasic MRI. (orig.)

  4. Meiotic and pedigree segregation analyses in carriers of t(4;8)(p16;p23.1) differing in localization of breakpoint positions at 4p subband 4p16.3 and 4p16.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midro, Alina T; Zollino, Marcella; Wiland, Ewa; Panasiuk, Barbara; Iwanowski, Piotr S; Murdolo, Marina; Śmigiel, Robert; Sąsiadek, Maria; Pilch, Jacek; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare meiotic segregation in sperm cells from two carriers with t(4;8)(p16;p23.1) reciprocal chromosome translocations (RCTs), differing in localization of the breakpoint positions at the 4p subband-namely, 4p16.3 (carrier 1) and 4p16.1 (carrier 2)-and to compare data of the pedigree analyses performed by direct method. Three-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm cells and FISH mapping for the evaluation of the breakpoint positions, data from pedigrees, and direct segregation analysis of the pedigrees were performed. Similar proportions of normal/balanced and unbalanced sperm cells were found in both carriers. The most common was an alternate type of segregation (about 52 % and about 48 %, respectively). Unbalanced adjacent I and adjacent II karyotypes were found in similar proportions about 15 %. The direct segregation analysis (following Stengel-Rutkowski) of the pedigree of carriers of t(4;8)(p16.1;p23.1) was performed and results were compared with the data of the pedigree segregation analysis obtained earlier through the indirect method. The probability of live-born progeny with unbalanced karyotype for carriers of t(4;8)(p16.1;p23.1) was moderately high at 18.8 %-comparable to the value obtained using the indirect method for the same carriership, which was 12 %. This was, however, markedly lower than the value of 41.2 % obtained through the pedigree segregation indirect analysis estimated for carriers of t(4;8)(p16.3;p23.1), perhaps due to the unique composition of genes present within the 4p16.1-4p 16.3 region. Revealed differences in pedigree segregation analysis did not correspond to the very similar profile of meiotic segregation patterns presented by carrier 1 and carrier 2. Most probably, such discordances may be due to differences in embryo survival rates arising from different genetic backgrounds.

  5. Proficiency tests, Evaluating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cofino, W.P.; Molenaar, J.; Torfs, P.J.J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Marine monitoring programs provide data that are essential for marine management. The reliability of such data is underpinned by proficiency tests. In the context of Quasimeme, a proficiency testing program for the marine environment, a statistical model has been developed in 2000 to evaluate data

  6. The 5th surveillance testing for Kori unit 1 reactor vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwun Jae; Gong, Un Sik; Chang, Jong Hwa; Joo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Joon Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-08-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 5th surveillance testing was performed primarily by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and Westinhouse corporation partially involved in testing and calculation data evaluation in order to obtain reliable test result. Fast neutron fluences for capsule V, T, S, R and P were 5.087E+18, 1.115E+19, 1.228E+19, 2.988E+19, and 3.938E+19n/cm2, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.940 for the 1st through 5th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 7% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide DG-1053, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.9846E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 17th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 24, 32, 40 and 48EFPY would reach 3.0593E+19, 4.0695E+19, 5.0797E+19 and 6.0900E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. PTS analysis for Kori unit 1 showed that 27.93EFPY was the threshold value for 300 deg F requirement. 71 refs., 33 figs., 52 tabs. (Author)

  7. Evaluation Of ARG-1 Samples Prepared By Cesium Carbonate Dissolution During The Isolok SME Acceptability Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. The Mechanical Systems and Custom Equipment Development (MS and CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently completed the evaluation of one of these opportunities - the possibility of using an Isolok sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard valve for taking DWPF process samples at the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). The use of an Isolok for SME sampling has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time, and decrease CPC cycle time. The SME acceptability testing for the Isolok was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 and was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNLRP-2011-00145. RW-0333P QA requirements applied to the task, and the results from the investigation were documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00693. Measurement of the chemical composition of study samples was a critical component of the SME acceptability testing of the Isolok. A sampling and analytical plan supported the investigation with the analytical plan directing that the study samples be prepared by a cesium carbonate (Cs 2 CO 3 ) fusion dissolution method and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The use of the cesium carbonate preparation method for the Isolok testing provided an opportunity for an additional assessment of this dissolution method, which is being investigated as a potential replacement for the two methods (i.e., sodium peroxide fusion and mixed acid dissolution) that have been used at the DWPF for the analysis of SME samples. Earlier testing of the Cs 2 CO 3 method yielded promising results which led to a TTR from Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) to SRNL for additional support and an associated TTQAP to direct the SRNL efforts. A technical report resulting from this

  8. Multimodal evidence of regional midcingulate gray matter volume underlying conflict monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Maloney, Thomas; Moeller, Scott J.; Malaker, Pias; Konova, Anna B.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have long implicated the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) in conflict monitoring, but it is not clear whether its structural integrity (i.e., the gray matter volume) influences its conflict monitoring function. In this multimodal study, we used T1-weighted MRI scans as well as event-related potentials (ERPs) to test whether the MCC gray matter volume is associated with the electrocortical marker (i.e., No-go N200 ERP component) of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals. The specificity of such a relationship in health was determined in two ways: by (A) acquiring the same data from individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD), known to have deficits in executive function including behavioral monitoring; and (B) acquiring the P300 ERP component that is linked with attention allocation and not specifically with conflict monitoring. Twenty-five (39.1 ± 8.4 years; 8 females) healthy individuals and 25 (42.7 ± 5.9 years; 6 females) individuals with CUD underwent a rewarded Go/No-go task during which the ERP data was collected, and they also underwent a structural MRI scan. The whole brain regression analysis showed a significant correlation between MCC structural integrity and the well-known ERP measure of conflict monitoring (N200, but not the P300) in healthy individuals, which was absent in CUD who were characterized by reduced MCC gray matter volume, N200 abnormalities as well as reduced task accuracy. In individuals with CUD instead, the N200 amplitude was associated with drug addiction symptomatology. These results show that the integrity of MCC volume is directly associated with the electrocortical correlates of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals, and such an association breaks down in psychopathologies that impact these brain processes. Taken together, this MCC–N200 association may serve as a biomarker of improved behavioral monitoring processes in diseased populations. PMID:24918068

  9. Multimodal evidence of regional midcingulate gray matter volume underlying conflict monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Parvaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies have long implicated the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC in conflict monitoring, but it is not clear whether its structural integrity (i.e., the gray matter volume influences its conflict monitoring function. In this multimodal study, we used T1-weighted MRI scans as well as event-related potentials (ERPs to test whether the MCC gray matter volume is associated with the electrocortical marker (i.e., No-go N200 ERP component of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals. The specificity of such a relationship in health was determined in two ways: by (A acquiring the same data from individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD, known to have deficits in executive function including behavioral monitoring; and (B acquiring the P300 ERP component that is linked with attention allocation and not specifically with conflict monitoring. Twenty-five (39.1 ± 8.4 years; 8 females healthy individuals and 25 (42.7 ± 5.9 years; 6 females individuals with CUD underwent a rewarded Go/No-go task during which the ERP data was collected, and they also underwent a structural MRI scan. The whole brain regression analysis showed a significant correlation between MCC structural integrity and the well-known ERP measure of conflict monitoring (N200, but not the P300 in healthy individuals, which was absent in CUD who were characterized by reduced MCC gray matter volume, N200 abnormalities as well as reduced task accuracy. In individuals with CUD instead, the N200 amplitude was associated with drug addiction symptomatology. These results show that the integrity of MCC volume is directly associated with the electrocortical correlates of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals, and such an association breaks down in psychopathologies that impact these brain processes. Taken together, this MCC–N200 association may serve as a biomarker of improved behavioral monitoring processes in diseased populations.

  10. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24 antigen in U.S. blood donors--an assessment of the efficacy of testing in donor screening. The HIV-Antigen Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, H J; Epstein, J S; Swenson, S G; VanRaden, M J; Ward, J W; Kaslow, R A; Menitove, J E; Klein, H G; Sandler, S G; Sayers, M H

    1990-11-08

    We performed a multicenter study in 1989 to determine whether screening whole-blood donors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p24 antigen would improve transfusion safety by identifying carriers of the virus who are seronegative for HIV-1 antibody. More than 500,000 donations were tested at 13 U.S. blood centers with test kits from two manufacturers. Units found repeatedly reactive were retested in a central laboratory; if the results were positive, they were confirmed by a neutralization assay. A subgroup of units was also tested for HIV-1 by the polymerase chain reaction. Selected donors confirmed or not confirmed as having p24 antigen were contacted for follow-up interviews to identify risk factors and undergo retesting for HIV-1 markers. Positive tests for p24 antigen were confirmed by neutralization in five donors (0.001 percent of all donations tested), all of whom were also positive for HIV-1 antibody and HIV-1 by polymerase chain reaction. Three of the antigen-positive donors had other markers of infectious disease that would have resulted in the exclusion of their blood; two had risk factors for HIV-1 that should have led to self-exclusion. Of 220 blood units with repeatedly reactive p24 antigen whose presence could not be confirmed by neutralization (0.04 percent of the donations studied), none were positive for HIV-1 antibody, HIV-1 by polymerase chain reaction (120 units tested), or virus culture (76 units tested)--attesting to the specificity of confirmatory neutralization. The finding that no donation studied was positive for p24 antigen and negative for HIV-1 antibody suggests that screening donors for p24 antigen with tests of the current level of sensitivity would not add substantially to the safety of the U.S. blood supply.

  11. Evaluation of a portable urinary pH meter and reagent strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coninck, Vincent; Keller, Etienne Xavier; Rodríguez-Monsalve, María; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Doizi, Steeve; Traxer, Olivier

    2018-04-27

    To evaluate a portable electronic pH meter and to put its accuracy in perspective with reagent strips read by a layperson, a healthcare professional and an electronic reading device. Based on a pre-analysis on 20 patients, a sample size of 77 urine aliquots from healthy volunteers was necessary to obtain sufficient study power. Measurements of urinary pH were obtained by use of reagent strips, a portable pH meter and a laboratory pH meter (gold standard). Reagents strips were read by a professional experienced in interpreting strips, a layperson, and an electronic strip reader. The mean matched pair difference between measurement methods was analyzed by the paired t-test. The degree of correlation and agreement were evaluated by the Pearson's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots, respectively. The mean matched pair difference between the gold standard and all other pH measurement methods was the smallest with the portable electronic pH meter (bias 0.01, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.08; p=0.89), followed by strips read by a professional (bias -0.09, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.02; p=0.10), layperson (bias -0.17, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.04; p=0.015) and electronic strip reader (bias -0.29, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.16; pmeter achieved the highest Pearson's correlation coefficient and narrowest 95% limits of agreement, followed by strip interpretation by a professional, the electronic strip reader and the layperson. In order to quantify the ability of pH measurement methods to correctly classify values within a predefined urinary pH target range, we performed classification tests for several stones. The portable electronic pH meter outperformed all other measurement methods for negative predictive values. Findings of the current study support that the portable electronic pH meter is a reliable pH measuring device. It seems to be more accurate compared to reagent strips readings.

  12. Materials characterization center workshop on the irradiation effects in nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, F.P.; Turcotte, R.P.; Weber, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Workshop on Irradiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Forms sponsored by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) brought together experts in radiation damage in materials and waste-management technology to review the problems associated with irradiation effects on waste-form integrity and to evaluate standard methods for generating data to be included in the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. The workshop reached the following conclusions: the concept of Standard Test for the Effects of Alpha-Decay in Nuclear Waste Solids, (MCC-6) for evaluating the effects of alpha decay is valid and useful, and as a result of the workshop, modifications to the proposed procedure will be incorpoated in a revised version of MCC-6; the MCC-6 test is not applicable to the evaluation of radiation damage in spent fuel; plutonium-238 is recommended as the dopant for transuranic and defense high-level waste forms, and when high doses are required, as in the case of commercial high-level waste forms, 244 Cm can be used; among the important property changes caused by irradiation are those that lead to greater leachability, and additionally, radiolysis of the leachant may increase leach rates; research is needed in this area; ionization-induced changes in physical properties can be as important as displacement damage in some materials, and a synergism is also likely to exist from the combined effects of ionization and displacement damage; and the effect of changing the temperature and dose rates on property changes induced by radiation damage needs to be determined

  13. Crushing strength of concrete using maize cob ash cement as binder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dried product was burnt at temperature of 12500C. Four categories of MCC were prepared by varying the lime slurry in the mixture. The fineness, setting time and soundness tests were carried out on the MCC while workability and strength tests were carried out on the maize cob concrete. For each category of MCC, ...

  14. Psychometric evaluation of 3-set 4P questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, Eva; Fridlund, Bengt; Samuelson, Karin; Baigi, Amir; Ersson, Anders

    2013-02-01

    This is a further development of a specific questionnaire, the 3-set 4P, to be used for measuring former ICU patients' physical and psychosocial problems after intensive care and the need for follow-up. The aim was to psychometrically test and evaluate the 3-set 4P questionnaire in a larger population. The questionnaire consists of three sets: "physical", "psychosocial" and "follow-up". The questionnaires were sent by mail to all patients with more than 24-hour length of stay on four ICUs in Sweden. Construct validity was measured with exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation. This resulted in three factors for the "physical set", five factors for the "psychosocial set" and four factors for the "follow-up set" with strong factor loadings and a total explained variance of 62-77.5%. Thirteen questions in the SF-36 were used for concurrent validity showing Spearman's r(s) 0.3-0.6 in eight questions and less than 0.2 in five. Test-retest was used for stability reliability. In set follow-up the correlation was strong to moderate and in physical and psychosocial sets the correlations were moderate to fair. This may have been because the physical and psychosocial status changed rapidly during the test period. All three sets had good homogeneity. In conclusion, the 3-set 4P showed overall acceptable results, but it has to be further modified in different cultures before being considered a fully operational instrument for use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay sets of points in P^1 x P^1

    CERN Document Server

    Guardo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents a solution to the interpolation problem for arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay (ACM) sets of points in the multiprojective space P^1 x P^1.  It collects the various current threads in the literature on this topic with the aim of providing a self-contained, unified introduction while also advancing some new ideas.  The relevant constructions related to multiprojective spaces are reviewed first, followed by the basic properties of points in P^1 x P^1, the bigraded Hilbert function, and ACM sets of points.  The authors then show how, using a combinatorial description of ACM points in P^1 x P^1, the bigraded Hilbert function can be computed and, as a result, solve the interpolation problem.  In subsequent chapters, they consider fat points and double points in P^1 x P^1 and demonstrate how to use their results to answer questions and problems of interest in commutative algebra.  Throughout the book, chapters end with a brief historical overview, citations of related results, and, where relevan...

  16. Beam test of novel n-in-p strip sensors for high radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T.; Kishida, T.; Jinnouchi, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Unno, Y.; Terada, S.; Mitsui, S.; Tamii, A.; Aoi, T.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Kimura, N.; Takashima, R.; Takubo, Y.; Tojo, J.; Nagai, K.; Nakano, I.; Yorita, K.

    2013-12-01

    Highly radiation tolerant n-in-p strip sensors have been developed for the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). This paper reports the results of measurements with 392 MeV kinetic energy proton beam at RCNP in December 2011. The data was taken with a new DAQ system consisting of an universal read-out board ‘SEABAS’ and beam tracking telescopes whose spacial resolution is better than 5 μm. The aim of this beam test is to evaluate the new 1 cm×1 cm n-in-p miniature sensors before and after 1015 neq cm-2 irradiation. The median charge of un-irradiated sensor is 6.2 fC at full depletion voltage, while the median charge after 1015 neq cm-2 irradiation of the sensor is 4.2 fC. The novel Punch-Through-Protection (PTP) has been implemented in these sensors. The length of active region of the sensor around PTP is observed to be decreased by 12 μm in the irradiated sensors at 1015 neq cm-2.

  17. A methodology of SiP testing based on boundary scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, He; Quan, Haiyang; Han, Yifei; Zhu, Tianrui; Zheng, Tuo

    2017-10-01

    System in Package (SiP) play an important role in portable, aerospace and military electronic with the microminiaturization, light weight, high density, and high reliability. At present, SiP system test has encountered the problem on system complexity and malfunction location with the system scale exponentially increase. For SiP system, this paper proposed a testing methodology and testing process based on the boundary scan technology. Combining the character of SiP system and referencing the boundary scan theory of PCB circuit and embedded core test, the specific testing methodology and process has been proposed. The hardware requirement of the under test SiP system has been provided, and the hardware platform of the testing has been constructed. The testing methodology has the character of high test efficiency and accurate malfunction location.

  18. Study of TiO2(1 1 0)-p(1x1), p(1x2) and p(1x3) surface structures by impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (ICISS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, E.; Souda, R.

    2000-01-01

    The surface structure of TiO 2 (1 1 0)-p(1x1), p(1x2) and p(1x3) were studied using impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (ICISS). We found that (i) the height of bridging oxygen for the p(1x1) is comparative to that of bulk structure, (ii) the p(1x2) surface has the added Ti 2 O 3 unit rows proposed by Onishi et al. and also the oxygen atoms rows between Ti 2 O 3 unit rows and (iii) the p(1x3) surface is constructed with the same added Ti 2 O 3 unit rows as that in the p(1x2) surface, but the bridging oxygen rows exist between the Ti 2 O 3 unit rows

  19. Attenuated Expression of DFFB is a Hallmark of Oligodendrogliomas with 1p-Allelic Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Gregory N

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allelic loss of chromosome 1p is frequently observed in oligodendroglioma. We screened 177 oligodendroglial tumors for 1p deletions and found 6 tumors with localized 1p36 deletions. Several apoptosis regulation genes have been mapped to this region, including Tumor Protein 73 (p73, DNA Fragmentation Factor subunits alpha (DFFA and beta (DFFB, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Members 9 and 25 (TNFRSF9, TNFRSF25. We compared expression levels of these 5 genes in pairs of 1p-loss and 1p-intact tumors using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (QRTPCR to test if 1p deletions had an effect on expression. Only the DFFB gene demonstrated decreased expression in all tumor pairs tested. Mutational analysis did not reveal DFFB mutations in 12 tested samples. However, it is possible that DFFB haploinsufficiency from 1p allelic loss is a contributing factor in oligodendroglioma development.

  20. Validation Study on the MCC-based Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sungkeun; Lee, Dowhan; Kang, Shincheul; Choi, Hyunwoo; Chai, Jangbom

    2006-01-01

    KEPRI and M and D Corporation has developed a methodology, called the NEST I (Non-intrusive Evaluation of Stem Thrust), for determining the stem thrust for a Motor Operated Valve (MOV) based on the motor torque and the stem displacement. The motor torque is determined using another method called NEET (Non-intrusive Evaluation of Electric Torque) which uses the voltage and current data from three phases to obtain the motor torque. The stem displacement is obtained from the voltage and current data along with the nameplate information of the motor, actuator and stem. The motor data (voltage, current and coil current) are measured using MOVIDS (Motor Operated Valve Intelligent Diagnostic System). The motor torque is determined using a NEET algorithm and the stem thrust is calculated using the NEST I method. The goal of this testing was to obtain data from operation of a MOV and to compare the actual measured thrust with the thrust calculated using the NEET / NEST I methods and therefore validate the NEET / NEST I methods

  1. Biochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant allergen Lol p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, E; Faccini, S; Lidholm, J; Svensson, M; Brandazza, A; Longhi, R; Groenlund, H; Sidoli, A; Arosio, P

    1997-11-01

    Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), a major cause of type-I allergy worldwide, contains a complex mixture of allergenic proteins among which Lol p 1 is one of the most important. We describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p 1 overproduced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant allergen, expressed in high yields and purified in milligram amounts, bound to specific IgE antibodies from human sera, induced histamine release from sensitized human basophils, and elicited rabbit antisera that recognize specifically recombinant Lol p 1 and natural Lol p 1 of pollen extract. Recombinant Lol p 1 was used to develop ImmunoCAP assays for analysis of 150 sera that were Radioallergosorbent test positive to L. perenne pollen. In 130 of them (87%) the assay detected a significant level of IgE antibodies to Lol p 1, reaching on average 37% of the level obtained with a test for IgE to the whole grass pollen extract. To map epitopes on Lol p 1, we produced three deletion mutants [des-(116-240)-Lol p 1, des-(1-88)-Lol p 1 and des-(133-189)-Lol p 1], which were efficiently expressed in bacteria. These all showed a strong reactivity with the specific rabbit IgG antibodies, but lacked most or all the allergenic properties of recombinant Lol p 1. A study of the antigenic structure of Lol p 1 was performed using the three deletion mutants and a set of 17-18-residue overlapping synthetic peptides covering the whole allergen sequence. The results indicate that human IgE and rabbit IgG antibodies bind to distinct regions of Lol p 1, and that at least some important IgE epitopes are mainly conformational. The findings suggest that recombinant allergens constitute useful reagents for further development of serological diagnosis of allergy, and that it should be possible to produce immunogenic fragments of allergenic proteins without allergenic properties.

  2. Merkel cell carcinoma: histopathologic and prognostic features according to the immunohistochemical expression of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen correlated with viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux-Kozal, Valérie; Lévêque, Nicolas; Brodard, Véronique; Lesage, Candice; Dudez, Oriane; Makeieff, Marc; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Diebold, Marie-Danièle

    2015-03-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a neuroendocrine skin malignancy frequently associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), which is suspected to be oncogenic. In a series of MCC patients, we compared clinical, histopathologic, and prognostic features according to the expression of viral large T antigen (LTA) correlated with viral load. We evaluated the LTA expression by immunohistochemistry using CM2B4 antibody and quantified viral load by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We analyzed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples (n = 36) and corresponding fresh-frozen biopsies when available (n = 12), of the primary tumor and/or metastasis from 24 patients. MCPyV was detected in 88% and 58% of MCC patients by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The relevance of viral load measurements was demonstrated by the strong consistency of viral load level between FFPE and corresponding frozen tissues as well as between primary tumor and metastases. From FFPE samples, 2 MCC subgroups were distinguished based on a viral load threshold defined by the positivity of CM2B4 immunostaining. In the LTA-negative subgroup with no or low viral load (nonsignificant), tumor cells showed more anisokaryosis (P = .01), and a solar elastosis around the tumor was more frequently observed (P = .03). LTA-positive MCCs with significant viral load had a lower proliferation index (P = .03) and a longer survival of corresponding patients (P = .008). Depending on MCPyV involvement, 2 MCC subgroups can be distinguished on histopathologic criteria, and the CM2B4 antibody is able to differentiate them reliably. Furthermore, the presence of a significant viral load in tumors is predictive of better prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregenual Anterior Cingulate Dysfunction Associated with Depression in OCD: An Integrated Multimodal fMRI/1H MRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayonnejad, Reza; Deshpande, Rangaprakash; Ajilore, Olusola; Moody, Teena; Morfini, Francesca; Ly, Ronald; O'Neill, Joseph; Feusner, Jamie D

    2018-04-01

    Depression is a commonly occurring symptom in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and is associated with worse functional impairment, poorer quality of life, and poorer treatment response. Understanding the underlying neurochemical and connectivity-based brain mechanisms of this important symptom domain in OCD is necessary for development of novel, more globally effective treatments. To investigate biopsychological mechanisms of comorbid depression in OCD, we examined effective connectivity and neurochemical signatures in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC), a structure known to be involved in both OCD and depression. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data were obtained from participants with OCD (n=49) and healthy individuals of equivalent age and sex (n=25). Granger causality-based effective (directed) connectivity was used to define causal networks involving the right and left pACC. The interplay between fMRI connectivity, 1 H MRS and clinical data was explored by applying moderation and mediation analyses. We found that the causal influence of the right dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (daMCC) on the right pACC was significantly lower in the OCD group and showed significant correlation with depressive symptom severity in the OCD group. Lower and moderate levels of glutamate (Glu) in the right pACC significantly moderated the interaction between right daMCC-pACC connectivity and depression severity. Our results suggest a biochemical-connectivity-psychological model of pACC dysfunction contributing to depression in OCD, particularly involving intracingulate connectivity and glutamate levels in the pACC. These findings have implications for potential molecular and network targets for treatment of this multi-faceted psychiatric condition.

  4. Evaluation of Medical Education virtual Program: P3 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Rita; Shokrpour, Nasrin; Boroumand, Maryam

    2016-10-01

    In e-learning, people get involved in a process and create the content (product) and make it available for virtual learners. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the first virtual master program in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences according to P3 Model. This is an evaluation research study with post single group design used to determine how effective this program was. All students 60 who participated more than one year in this virtual program and 21 experts including teachers and directors participated in this evaluation project. Based on the P3 e-learning model, an evaluation tool with 5-point Likert rating scale was designed and applied to collect the descriptive data. Students reported storyboard and course design as the most desirable element of learning environment (2.30±0.76), but they declared technical support as the less desirable part (1.17±1.23). Presence of such framework in this regard and using it within the format of appropriate tools for evaluation of e-learning in universities and higher education institutes, which present e-learning curricula in the country, may contribute to implementation of the present and future e-learning curricula efficiently and guarantee its implementation in an appropriate way.

  5. Steric exclusion and protein conformation determine the localization of plasma membrane transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Frans; Syga, Łukasz; Moiset, Gemma; Spakman, Dian; Schavemaker, Paul E; Punter, Christiaan M; Seinen, Anne-Bart; van Oijen, Antoine M; Robinson, Andrew; Poolman, Bert

    2018-02-05

    The plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains membrane compartments, MCC/eisosomes and MCPs, named after the protein residents Can1 and Pma1, respectively. Using high-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques we show that Can1 and the homologous transporter Lyp1 are able to diffuse into the MCC/eisosomes, where a limited number of proteins are conditionally trapped at the (outer) edge of the compartment. Upon addition of substrate, the immobilized proteins diffuse away from the MCC/eisosomes, presumably after taking a different conformation in the substrate-bound state. Our data indicate that the mobile fraction of all integral plasma membrane proteins tested shows extremely slow Brownian diffusion through most of the PM. We also show that proteins with large cytoplasmic domains, such as Pma1 and synthetic chimera of Can1 and Lyp1, are excluded from the MCC/eisosomes. We hypothesize that the distinct localization patterns found for these integral membrane proteins in S. cerevisiae arises from a combination of slow lateral diffusion, steric exclusion, and conditional trapping in membrane compartments.

  6. Impact of total radiotherapy dose on survival for head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma after resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sagar A; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Mak, Kimberley S; Sahni, Debjani; Giacalone, Nicholas J; Ezzat, Waleed; Jalisi, Scharukh; Truong, Minh Tam

    2017-07-01

    Head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is commonly treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for high-risk features. The optimal radiation dose is unknown. One thousand six hundred twenty-five eligible patients with head and neck MCC were identified in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Radiation dose was divided into 3 groups: 30 to 55-70 Gy. Cox regression was used to compare overall survival (OS) between groups, accounting for age, sex, stage, surgery type, margin status, comorbidities, and use of chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 33.5 months, 3-year OS was 48.9%, 70.3%, and 58.7% for 30 to 55-70 Gy, respectively (P 55-70 Gy (adjusted HR 1.21; 95% CI 1.0-1.46; P = .06) were associated with worse survival. Adjuvant radiation doses within 50-55 Gy may be optimal for head and neck MCC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of the residual effect of P fertilizer`s on plant P nutrition using isotopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardeau, J.C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Physiologie Vegetale et Ecosystemes; Kato, N. [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Zapata, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria). Laboratories

    1994-12-31

    The residual effect of P fertilizers previously applied to a soil on plant P nutrition was examined by both the isotopic dilution method (pot experiment) and isotopic exchange method (laboratory test) using {sup 32}p as a tracer. The fraction of P derived from a fertilizer in plant (%Pdff in plant) was compared with the fraction of P derived from fertilizer in soil solution (%Pdff in soil solution) which is a new laboratory index proposed by Morel and Fardeau to predict %Pdff in plant. Four soil samples of a Humic Andosol from long-term experimental plots, which received no fertilizer (A1 soil), a readily soluble fertilizer (A2 soil), the same readily soluble fertilizer (RSF) plus a fused magnesium phosphate (A3 soil), and combination of RSF with Florida phosphate rock (A4 soil), were tested. In the pot experiment, maize (Zea mays) was grown during 38 days and dry shoot weight, P uptake and specific radioactivity were measured. Dry shoot weight, P uptake and L-value were the highest in A3 soil, followed by A4, A2 and A1 soils. %Pdff in plant were 71,9%, 51,9% and 15,4% in A3, A4 and A2 soils respectively. A laboratory study using {sup 32}p isotopic exchange kinetics was carried out to examine three status parameters of soil P, intensity, quantity and capacity factors. Goof agreement was obtained between quantity factor (E{sub 1}-value), and the pot experimental data; i.e. P uptake and L-value. %Pdff in soil solution were similar to those %Pdff in plant except for A4 soil. The enhancement of P uptake by the plant from the phosphate rock obtained in A4 soil could be attributed to specific plant factors and soil moisture conditions. (authors).

  8. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  9. Optical properties of lattice matched InxGa1-xP1-yNy heteroepitaxial layers on GaP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, T.; Wakahara, A.; Kim, S.M.; Yonezu, H.; Furukawa, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Optical constants and band structure of In x Ga 1-x P 1-y N y lattice matched to GaP (100) substrate are investigated. Nitrogen concentration in the film estimated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, was 1.4%, 1.8% and 3.5%. Refractive index and transition critical points E 0 (Γ v to Γ c ), E 1 (L v to L c ) and E 2 (X v to X c ) are evaluated by spectroscopic ellipsometry. When N composition increases from 1.4% to 3.5%, both photoluminescence (PL) peak energy, E PL , and E 0 shift to lower energy, and the energy difference ΔE=E 0 -E PL decrease from 380 meV to 110 meV. The large red-sift of E PL from the E 0 suggest that the luminescence is of defect-related luminescence, and crossover point of indirect band structure estimated by the extrapolation of N-composition dependence of ΔE is estimated to be around in In 0.1 Ga 0.9 P 0.96 N 0.04 . (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. PIE on Safety-Tested AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morris, Robert Noel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldwin, Charles A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gerczak, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). AGR-1 was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation experiments initiated in 2006 under the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program; this work continues to be funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) initiative. AGR-1 fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 and irradiated for three years in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. PIE is being performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to examine fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing of irradiated AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1 in the ORNL Core Conduction Cooldown Test Facility (CCCTF) and post-safety testing PIE.

  11. Hyperoxia-induced p47phox activation and ROS generation is mediated through S1P transporter Spns2, and S1P/S1P1&2 signaling axis in lung endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harijith, Anantha; Pendyala, Srikanth; Ebenezer, David L; Ha, Alison W; Fu, Panfeng; Wang, Yue-Ting; Ma, Ke; Toth, Peter T; Berdyshev, Evgeny V; Kanteti, Prasad; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2016-08-01

    Hyperoxia-induced lung injury adversely affects ICU patients and neonates on ventilator assisted breathing. The underlying culprit appears to be reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced lung damage. The major contributor of hyperoxia-induced ROS is activation of the multiprotein enzyme complex NADPH oxidase. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling is known to be involved in hyperoxia-mediated ROS generation; however, the mechanism(s) of S1P-induced NADPH oxidase activation is unclear. Here, we investigated various steps in the S1P signaling pathway mediating ROS production in response to hyperoxia in lung endothelium. Of the two closely related sphingosine kinases (SphKs)1 and 2, which synthesize S1P from sphingosine, only Sphk1(-/-) mice conferred protection against hyperoxia-induced lung injury. S1P is metabolized predominantly by S1P lyase and partial deletion of Sgpl1 (Sgpl1(+/-)) in mice accentuated lung injury. Hyperoxia stimulated S1P accumulation in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs), and downregulation of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) or S1P receptors S1P1&2, but not S1P3, using specific siRNA attenuated hyperoxia-induced p47(phox) translocation to cell periphery and ROS generation in HLMVECs. These results suggest a role for Spns2 and S1P1&2 in hyperoxia-mediated ROS generation. In addition, p47(phox) (phox:phagocyte oxidase) activation and ROS generation was also reduced by PF543, a specific SphK1 inhibitor in HLMVECs. Our data indicate a novel role for Spns2 and S1P1&2 in the activation of p47(phox) and production of ROS involved in hyperoxia-mediated lung injury in neonatal and adult mice. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Familial partial duplication (1)(p21p31)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoechstetter, L.; Soukup, S.; Schorry, E.K. [Children`s Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-11-20

    A partial duplication (1)(p21p31), resulting from a maternal direct insertion (13,1) (q22p21p31), was found in a 30-year-old woman with mental retardation, cleft palate, and multiple minor anomalies. Two other affected and deceased relatives were presumed to have the same chromosome imbalance. Duplication 1p cases are reviewed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Evaluation of HIV-1 rapid tests and identification of alternative testing algorithms for use in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kitandwe, Paul Kato; Lutalo, Tom; Kigozi, Aminah; Watera, Christine; Nanteza, Mary Bridget; Hughes, Peter; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Downing, Robert; Mbidde, Edward Katongole

    2018-02-27

    The World Health Organization recommends that countries conduct two phase evaluations of HIV rapid tests (RTs) in order to come up with the best algorithms. In this report, we present the first ever such evaluation in Uganda, involving both blood and oral based RTs. The role of weak positive (WP) bands on the accuracy of the individual RT and on the algorithms was also investigated. In total 11 blood based and 3 oral transudate kits were evaluated. All together 2746 participants from seven sites, covering the four different regions of Uganda participated. Two enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) run in parallel were used as the gold standard. The performance and cost of the different algorithms was calculated, with a pre-determined price cut-off of either cheaper or within 20% price of the current algorithm of Determine + Statpak + Unigold. In the second phase, the three best algorithms selected in phase I were used at the point of care for purposes of quality control using finger stick whole blood. We identified three algorithms; Determine + SD Bioline + Statpak; Determine + Statpak + SD Bioline, both with the same sensitivity and specificity of 99.2% and 99.1% respectively and Determine + Statpak + Insti, with sensitivity and specificity of 99.1% and 99% respectively as having performed better and met the cost requirements. There were 15 other algorithms that performed better than the current one but rated more than the 20% price. None of the 3 oral mucosal transudate kits were suitable for inclusion in an algorithm because of their low sensitivities. Band intensity affected the performance of individual RTs but not the final algorithms. We have come up with three algorithms we recommend for public or Government procurement based on accuracy and cost. In case one algorithm is preferred, we recommend to replace Unigold, the current tie breaker with SD Bioline. We further recommend that all the 18 algorithms that have shown better performance than the current one are made

  14. Progress report No. 29 for a program of thermoelectric generator testing and RTG degradation mechanisms evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapfer, G.; Garvey, L.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements of the P-type and N-type selenide alloys after 17000 hours and 4100 hours, respectively, are in good agreement with the 3M Co data. Ingradient testing of N-legs after 6600 hours show comparable performance to the reported 3M data. Ingradient testing of P-legs at accelerated test conditions, have completed 3600 hours and performance shows reasonable correlation with accelerated temperature and current gradients. N-type samples from both the Thermal Conductivity Tests and Ingradient Performance Tests were removed from test for examination. All samples were found to be severely cracked upon removal from the test fixtures. Metallurgical and x-ray diffraction analysis showed (1) extensive cracking had occurred in the lower half (cold end) of the legs and (2) a crystallographic phase change occurred in the upper half (hot end) of the legs from monoclinic to orthorhombic. It is postulated that the phase change that occurs on heating aggravates the micro-cracks that exist in the as fabricated leg. An initial evaluation of the performance of the Voyager 1 and 2 RTG's after 12,000 hours of operation versus the DEGRA performance prediction code, shows excellent agreement

  15. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Ospina, A. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Dao, Thanh H. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Van Kessel, J.A. [Animal Waste Pathogens Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Reeves, J.B. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)]. E-mail: jreeves@anri.barc.usda.gov

    2005-05-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213 g L{sup -1}, in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m{sup -1}). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP{sub s}) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP{sub s}) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP{sub s} = 0.471 x MRP{sub s} + 1102 (r{sup 2} = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r{sup 2} = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH {<=} 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r{sup 2}) for the MRP{sub s} and RQFlex-DP{sub s} relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r{sup 2} = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r{sup 2} = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. - The dissolved phosphorous quick test can provide real-time information on soluble manure nutrient control.

  16. The Persian version of auditory word discrimination test (P-AWDT) for children: Development, validity, and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Nassim; Ghorbani, Ali; Soleymani, Zahra; Kamali, Mohmmad; Ahmadi, Zohreh Ziatabar; Mahmoudian, Saeid

    2018-07-01

    Auditory discrimination of speech sounds is an important perceptual ability and a precursor to the acquisition of language. Auditory information is at least partially necessary for the acquisition and organization of phonological rules. There are few standardized behavioral tests to evaluate phonemic distinctive features in children with or without speech and language disorders. The main objective of the present study was the development, validity, and reliability of the Persian version of auditory word discrimination test (P-AWDT) for 4-8-year-old children. A total of 120 typical children and 40 children with speech sound disorder (SSD) participated in the present study. The test comprised of 160 monosyllabic paired-words distributed in the Forms A-1 and the Form A-2 for the initial consonants (80 words) and the Forms B-1 and the Form B-2 for the final consonants (80 words). Moreover, the discrimination of vowels was randomly included in all forms. Content validity was calculated and 50 children repeated the test twice with two weeks of interval (test-retest reliability). Further analysis was also implemented including validity, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency), age groups, and gender. The content validity index (CVI) and the test-retest reliability of the P-AWDT were achieved 63%-86% and 81%-96%, respectively. Moreover, the total Cronbach's alpha for the internal consistency was estimated relatively high (0.93). Comparison of the mean scores of the P-AWDT in the typical children and the children with SSD revealed a significant difference. The results revealed that the group with SSD had greater severity of deficit than the typical group in auditory word discrimination. In addition, the difference between the age groups was statistically significant, especially in 4-4.11-year-old children. The performance of the two gender groups was relatively same. The comparison of the P-AWDT scores between the typical children

  17. LKM-1 autoantibodies recognize a short linear sequence in P450IID6, a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase.

    OpenAIRE

    Manns, M P; Griffin, K J; Sullivan, K F; Johnson, E F

    1991-01-01

    LKM-1 autoantibodies, which are associated with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, recognize P450IID6, a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase. The reactivities of 26 LKM-1 antisera were tested with a panel of deletion mutants of P450IID6 expressed in Escherichia coli. 22 sera recognize a 33-amino acid segment of P450IID6, and 11 of these recognize a shorter segment, DPAQPPRD. PAQPPR is also found in IE175 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Antibodies for HSV-1 proteins were detected by ELISA...

  18. Evaluating the graphene oxide dispersions for Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Zaira; Franqui, Lidiane; Silva, Cristiane A.; Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro, E-mail: zairaclemente@hotmail.com [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Castro, Vera Lucia Scherholz Salgado [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Campinhas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test has wide utilization in nano ecotoxicology. However, some difficulties have been found related to the aggregation and precipitation of nanomaterials in exposure medium and the contrasting results among studies due to differences in the material characteristics. Furthermore, abiotic factors as the presence of organic matter can influence the test evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the effect of the humic acid presence in the stability of two types of graphene oxide dispersion in an exposure medium used in FET test. Stock-suspensions (1.0 mg mL{sup -1}) of GO (sigma Aldrich, flakes) or base-washed GO (bwGO) and humic acid (HA sodium salt, Sigma Aldrich) were prepared in ultrapure water (UW). They were sonicated before preparing the GO or bwGO test suspensions at 100.0 μg mL{sup -1} in UW and reconstituted water (RW, pH 8±0.2, 425±129 μS/cm), with HA (20.0 μg mL{sup -1})or not. The samples were incubated during 96h at 26 deg C. The GO and bwGO and its dispersions were characterized through the following techniques: spectrophotometry, centrifugation, dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), thermogravimetry (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). The results showed that materials aggregated and precipitated quickly in RW, but in the presence of HA the stability was similar to that found in UW. The aggregation and precipitation of bwGO was more intense than that of GO. The bwGO showed a great particle sizes heterogeneity than GO, in any condition tested. The different behavior can be related to the less presence of oxygenated groups in bwGO regards to GO. These results showed that surface characteristic of GO and the presence of HA influence the GO behavior in exposure medium and support the use of HA as a natural dispersant to graphene oxide in FET test. (author)

  19. Code accuracy evaluation of ISP 35 calculations based on NUPEC M-7-1 test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auria, F.D.; Oriolo, F.; Leonardi, M.; Paci, S.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of code uncertainties is a necessary step in the code assessment process, above all if best-estimate codes are utilised for licensing purposes. Aiming at quantifying the code accuracy, an integral methodology based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) has been developed at the University of Pisa (DCMN) and has been already applied to several calculations related to primary system test analyses. This paper deals with the first application of the FFT based methodology to containment code calculations based on a hydrogen mixing and distribution test performed in the NUPEC (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation) facility. It is referred to pre-test and post-test calculations submitted for the International Standard Problem (ISP) n. 35. This is a blind exercise, simulating the effects of steam injection and spray behaviour on gas distribution and mixing. The result of the application of this methodology to nineteen selected variables calculated by ten participants are here summarized, and the comparison (where possible) of the accuracy evaluated for the pre-test and for the post-test calculations of a same user is also presented. (author)

  20. Postirradiation examination data report for gap conductance test series. Test GC 2-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, B.A.

    1978-02-01

    The results of the postirradiation examination of four boiling water reactor type, zircaloy-clad, UO 2 -fueled rods tested in the Power Burst Facility are discussed. These rods were employed in Gap Conductance Test GC 2-1 which was performed to obtain experimental data from which test fuel rod gap conductance values could be determined by both the steady state ∫kdT and the power oscillation methods. The postirradiation examination results provided in the document will aid in interpreting the experimental data obtained during Test GC 2-1 and in evaluating the effect of fuel behavior on the fuel rod thermal response and interpreted gap conductances. Fuel rod fill gas composition and pressure are discussed. Measurements of fuel pellet-cladding gap and fuel crack areas are presented. The fuel structure is analyzed. Test rod instrumentation and power profiles are examined to better evaluate the test conditions

  1. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER). Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report consists of appendices pertaining to the separating media evaluation (calcium nitrate solution) and testing for an advanced cyclone process. Appendices include: materials safety data, aqueous medium regeneration, pH control strategy, and other notes and data.

  2. Evaluating the RELM Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Sachs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider implications of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM test results with regard to earthquake forecasting. Prospective forecasts were solicited for M≥4.95 earthquakes in California during the period 2006–2010. During this period 31 earthquakes occurred in the test region with M≥4.95. We consider five forecasts that were submitted for the test. We compare the forecasts utilizing forecast verification methodology developed in the atmospheric sciences, specifically for tornadoes. We utilize a “skill score” based on the forecast scores λfi of occurrence of the test earthquakes. A perfect forecast would have λfi=1, and a random (no skill forecast would have λfi=2.86×10-3. The best forecasts (largest value of λfi for the 31 earthquakes had values of λfi=1.24×10-1 to λfi=5.49×10-3. The best mean forecast for all earthquakes was λ̅f=2.84×10-2. The best forecasts are about an order of magnitude better than random forecasts. We discuss the earthquakes, the forecasts, and alternative methods of evaluation of the performance of RELM forecasts. We also discuss the relative merits of alarm-based versus probability-based forecasts.

  3. Standard guide for conducting and evaluating galvanic corrosion tests in electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1981-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers conducting and evaluating galvanic corrosion tests to characterize the behavior of two dissimilar metals in electrical contact in an electrolyte under low-flow conditions. It can be adapted to wrought or cast metals and alloys. 1.2 This guide covers the selection of materials, specimen preparation, test environment, method of exposure, and method for evaluating the results to characterize the behavior of galvanic couples in an electrolyte. Note 1—Additional information on galvanic corrosion testing and examples of the conduct and evaluation of galvanic corrosion tests in electrolytes are given in Refs (1) through (7). 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicabil...

  4. 3D PIC-MCC simulations of discharge inception around a sharp anode in nitrogen/oxygen mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute

    2016-08-01

    We investigate how photoionization, electron avalanches and space charge affect the inception of nanosecond pulsed discharges. Simulations are performed with a 3D PIC-MCC (particle-in-cell, Monte Carlo collision) model with adaptive mesh refinement for the field solver. This model, whose source code is available online, is described in the first part of the paper. Then we present simulation results in a needle-to-plane geometry, using different nitrogen/oxygen mixtures at atmospheric pressure. In these mixtures non-local photoionization is important for the discharge growth. The typical length scale for this process depends on the oxygen concentration. With 0.2% oxygen the discharges grow quite irregularly, due to the limited supply of free electrons around them. With 2% or more oxygen the development is much smoother. An almost spherical ionized region can form around the electrode tip, which increases in size with the electrode voltage. Eventually this inception cloud destabilizes into streamer channels. In our simulations, discharge velocities are almost independent of the oxygen concentration. We discuss the physical mechanisms behind these phenomena and compare our simulations with experimental observations.

  5. Development of Quasi-3DOF upper limb rehabilitation system using ER brake: PLEMO-P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Furusho, J; Ozawa, T

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.

  6. Development of Quasi-3DOF upper limb rehabilitation system using ER brake: PLEMO-P1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Furusho, J; Ozawa, T [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: kikuchi@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.

  7. Using a P loss model to evaluate and improve P indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most states, the phosphorus (P) index (PI) is the adopted strategy for assessing a field’s vulnerability to P loss when preparing comprehensive nutrient management plans. Most state PIs, however, have not been rigorously evaluated against measured P loss data to determine how well the PI assigns ...

  8. Work plan for upgrading the 241-A-701 compressed air system and motor control center. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This work plan will outline the responsibilities associated with the 241-A-701 Compressed Air System (CAS) and Motor Control Center (MCC) upgrades. All activities required to design, install, test, and operate the modified systems are addressed in this document. Upgrades Technical Support (UTS) of TWRS Engineering is responsible for the completion of all tasks associated with this upgrade. UTS will coordinate the upgrade activities, and ensure all tasks are successfully completed on or before the scheduled dates. The primary objective of the 241-A-701 Compressor and MCC Upgrade is to provide a reliable source of process and instrument compressed air to the A, AX, AY, and AZ tank farms

  9. Airborne study of grass allergen (Lol p 1) in different-sized particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Linares, C; Díaz de la Guardia, C; Nieto Lugilde, D; Alba, F

    2010-01-01

    The Poaceae family is considered one of the main causes of pollen allergy in industrialized countries. The aim of this study is to establish the dynamics of the Poaceae allergens and determine their distribution in the different-sized particles in the atmosphere. The air of Granada (southern Spain) was sampled during the pollination period of Poaceae using a cascade impactor and a Hirst-type volumetric collector simultaneously. The sampled airborne allergens were analyzed by indirect ELISA and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Airborne pollen was evaluated with the Spanish Aerobiological Network methodology. Poaceae pollen and allergenic activity have parallel dynamics during the period of maximum pollination, which is reflected in the positive correlations between the 2 variables. In addition, the highest Lol p 1 concentrations were recorded in particle sizes lower than 3.3 mum (stage 4-F). The Spearman correlation test showed that airborne allergens are not dependent on meteorological factors, such as humidity, wind direction or sunshine, however, Lol p 1 allergen correlated positively with Poaceae pollen. The results of the present study confirm that the Lol p 1 allergen is detected more frequently with pollutants than with coarse particles with similar dynamics and a positive correlation between airborne pollen and aeroallergens. Moreover, Lol p 1 is released in stable weather conditions without large changes in humidity or temperature. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Evaluation du test rapide oral aware™ omt HIV 1/2 pour le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chaque participant a fourni un échantillon de fluide oral pour la réalisation du test Aware™ OMT HIV-1/2 et du sang testé suivant l'algorithme séquentiel de tests ELISAs Murex® HIV-1.2.0 (Laboratoires Abbott, Japon) et Test ELISA peptidique maison du CeDReS. Résultats : la sensibilité, la spécificité, la Valeur Prédictive ...

  11. Targeting the Body and the Mind: Evaluation of a P.E. Curriculum Intervention for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    P.E. classes are often the only opportunity for inner-city youth to engage in physical activity, but budget cuts and pressure to perform well on standardized tests has made P.E. an afterthought for many school administrators. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a new P.E. curriculum in five Los Angeles inner-city schools. Interviews were…

  12. Posttranscriptional regulation of the karyogamy gene by Kem1p/Xrn1p exoribonuclease and Rok1p RNA helicase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaehee; Jeon, Soonmee; Yang, Yun-Seok; Kim, Jinmi

    2004-01-01

    The major biochemical activities ascribed to Kem1p/Xrn1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are 5'-3' exoribonuclease functioning in RNA turnover and a microtubule-binding protein. Mutational analysis has shown that Kem1p/Xrn1p participates in microtubule-related functions such as nuclear fusion (karyogamy) during mating, chromosome transmission, and spindle pole body duplication. Here, evidence is presented that Kem1p plays a specific role in nuclear fusion by affecting, at the posttranscriptional level, the pheromone induction of the karyogamy-specific transcription factor Kar4p and the expression of Rok1p, a putative RNA helicase. We found that Rok1p itself also affects the pheromone induction of Kar4p and thereby participates in nuclear fusion. Analysis of the active-site mutations, xrn1-D206A or D208A, shows that nuclear fusion as well as the Rok1p synthesis do not require the exoribonuclease activity of Kem1p. Our data provide an important insight into the gene-specific regulatory function mediated by the general RNA-modulating enzymes

  13. Extra-regulatory impact tests and analyses of the structural evaluation test unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwigsen, J.S.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The structural evaluation test unit is roughly equivalent to a 1/3 scale model of a high level waste rail cask. The test unit was designed to just meet the requirements of NRC Regulatory Guide 7.6 when subjected to a 9 m (30 ft) free drop resulting in an impact velocity of 13.4 m/s (30 mph) onto an unyielding target in the end-on orientation. The test unit was then subjected to impacts with higher velocities to determine the amount of built-in conservatism in this design approach. Test impacts of 13.4, 20.1 and 26.8 m/s (30, 45, and 60 mph) were performed. This paper will describe the design, testing, and comparison of measured strains and deformations to the equivalent analytical predictions

  14. Test, measurement and evaluation with the mine boot test and evaluation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramaloko, PM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Protective footwear that mitigates the shock transferred to the victim’s leg during an antipersonnel landmine blast need to be evaluated to verify their protection levels. The Mine Boot Test and Evaluation System which include a surrogate lower leg...

  15. Stat1 phosphorylation determines Ras oncogenicity by regulating p27 kip1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    Full Text Available Inactivation of p27 Kip1 is implicated in tumorigenesis and has both prognostic and treatment-predictive values for many types of human cancer. The transcription factor Stat1 is essential for innate immunity and tumor immunosurveillance through its ability to act downstream of interferons. Herein, we demonstrate that Stat1 functions as a suppressor of Ras transformation independently of an interferon response. Inhibition of Ras transformation and tumorigenesis requires the phosphorylation of Stat1 at tyrosine 701 but is independent of Stat1 phosphorylation at serine 727. Stat1 induces p27 Kip1 expression in Ras transformed cells at the transcriptional level through mechanisms that depend on Stat1 phosphorylation at tyrosine 701 and activation of Stat3. The tumor suppressor properties of Stat1 in Ras transformation are reversed by the inactivation of p27 Kip1. Our work reveals a novel functional link between Stat1 and p27 Kip1, which act in coordination to suppress the oncogenic properties of activated Ras. It also supports the notion that evaluation of Stat1 phosphorylation in human tumors may prove a reliable prognostic factor for patient outcome and a predictor of treatment response to anticancer therapies aimed at activating Stat1 and its downstream effectors.

  16. The Evaluator Effect in Usability Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Ebbe; Hertzum, Morten; John, Bonnie E.

    1998-01-01

    Usability tests are applied in industry to evaluate systems and in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. However, one potential threat to the reliability of usability tests has been left unaddressed: the evaluator effect. In this study, four evaluators analyzed four vide...

  17. FTREX Testing Report (Fault Tree Reliability Evaluation eXpert) Version 1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Woo Sik

    2009-07-01

    In order to verify FTREX functions and to confirm the correctness of FTREX 1.5, various tests were performed 1.fault trees with negates 2.fault trees with house events 3.fault trees with multiple tops 4.fault trees with logical loops 5.fault trees with initiators, house events, negates, logical loops, and flag events By using the automated cutest propagation test, the FTREX 1.5 functions are verified. FTREX version 1.3 and later versions have capability to perform bottom-up cutset-propagation test in order check cutest status. FTREX 1.5 always generates the proper minimal cut sets. All the output cutsets of the tested problems are MCSs (Minimal Cut Sets) and have no non-minimal cutsets and improper cutsets. The improper cutsets are those that have no effect to top, have multiple initiators, or have disjoint events A * -A

  18. Evaluation of medical education virtual program: P3 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITA REZAEE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In e-learning, people get involved in a process and create the content (product and make it available for virtual learners. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the first virtual master program in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences according to P3 Model. Methods: This is an evaluation research study with post single group design used to determine how effective this program was. All students 60 who participated more than one year in this virtual program and 21 experts including teachers and directors participated in this evaluation project. Based on the P3 e-learning model, an evaluation tool with 5-point Likert rating scale was designed and applied to collect the descriptive data. Results: Students reported storyboard and course design as the most desirable element of learning environment (2.30±0.76, but they declared technical support as the less desirable part (1.17±1.23. Conclusion: Presence of such framework in this regard and using it within the format of appropriate tools for evaluation of e-learning in universities and higher education institutes, which present e-learning curricula in the country, may contribute to implementation of the present and future e-learning curricula efficiently and guarantee its implementation in an appropriate way.

  19. Evaluation of four rapid tests for diagnosis and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in Guinea-Conakry, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillet, Pascale; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Zachariah, Rony; Duclos, Nanfack; Moctar, Diallo; Beelaert, Greet; Fransen, Katrien

    2010-09-01

    With both HIV-1 and HV-2 prevalent in Guinea-Conakry, accurate diagnosis and differentiation is crucial for treatment purposes. Thus, four rapid HIV tests were evaluated for their HIV-1 and HIV-2 diagnostic and discriminative capacity for use in Guinea-Conakry. These included SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), Genie II HIV1/HIV2 (Bio-Rad), First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 (PMC Medical) and Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 (Core Diagnostics). Results were compared with gold standard tests (INNO-LIA HIV-I/II Score) and NEW LAV BLOT II (Bio-Rad). Four hundred and forty three sequential stored HIV-positive serum samples, of known HIV-type, were evaluated. Genie II HIV1/HIV2, Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 and SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 had 100% sensitivity (95% CI, 98.9-100%) while for First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 this was 99.5% (95% CI, 98.2%-99.9%). In terms of discriminatory capacity, Genie II HIV1/HIV2 identified 382/ 384(99.5%) HIV-1 samples, 49/ 52(95%) HIV-2 and 7/7(100%) HIV-positive untypable samples. Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 identified 99% HIV-1, 67% HIV-2 and all HIV-positive untypable samples. First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 identified 94% HIV-1, 64% HIV-2 and 57% HIV-positive untypable samples. SD-Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 was the worst overall performer identifying 65% HIV-1, 69% HIV-2 and all HIV-positive untypable samples. The use of SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (the current standard in Guinea-Conakry) as a discriminatory HIV test is poor and may be best replaced by Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2. Copyright 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of social isolation and re-socialization on cognition and ADAR1 (p110) expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; An, Dong; Xu, Hong; Cheng, Xiaoxin; Wang, Shiwei; Yu, Weizhi; Yu, Deqin; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Yiping; Deng, Wuguo; Tang, Yiyuan; Yin, Shengming

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that social isolation stress could be a key factor that leads to cognitive deficit for both humans and rodent models. However, detailed mechanisms are not yet clear. ADAR1 (Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) is an enzyme involved in RNA editing that has a close relation to cognitive function. We have hypothesized that social isolation stress may impact the expression of ADAR1 in the brain of mice with cognitive deficit. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated the cognition ability of mice isolated for different durations (2, 4, and 8 weeks) using object recognition and object location tests; we also measured ADAR1 expression in hippocampus and cortex using immunohistochemistry and western blot. Our study showed that social isolation stress induced spatial and non-spatial cognition deficits of the tested mice. In addition, social isolation significantly increased both the immunoreactivity and protein expression of ADAR1 (p110) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Furthermore, re-socialization could not only recover the cognition deficits, but also bring ADAR1 (p110) immunoreactivity of hippocampus and frontal cortex, as well as ADAR1 (p110) protein expression of hippocampus back to the normal level for the isolated mice in adolescence. In conclusion, social isolation stress significantly increases ADAR1 (p110) expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of the mice with cognitive deficit. This finding may open a window to better understand the reasons (e.g., epigenetic change) that are responsible for social isolation-induced cognitive deficit and help the development of novel therapies for the resulted diseases.

  1. Analysis of the THAI Iod-11 and Iod-12 tests: Advancements and limitations of ASTEC V2.0R3p1 and MELCOR V2.1.4803

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonfiotti, Bruno; Paci, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The I 2 transport in a multi-compartment vessel was analysed. • ASTEC and MELCOR codes were employed. • Same nodalisation for the code-to-code comparison. • The I 2 concentrations were quite well simulated in ASTEC. • Numerical issues on MELCOR. - Abstract: This work is related to the application of the ASTEC V2.0R3p1 and MELCOR V2.1.4803 codes to the analysis of the THAI Iod-11 and Iod-12 containment tests characterised by an iodine release. The main scope of these two tests was to investigate the steel interaction on dry and wet surfaces, with an interaction supposed to be a two-steps process: an initial faster and reversible physisorption followed by a slower, and irreversible, chemisorption of the physisorbed I 2 . The aim of the present work is to highlight advancements and limitations of the current ASTEC and MELCOR code versions respect to the older code versions employed during the European SARNET projects. The investigation was carried out as a code-to-code comparison vs. the experimental THAI data, focusing on the evaluation of the code models treating the iodine behaviour. A similar spatial nodalisation was employed for both codes. As main result, ASTEC had shown an overall good agreement compared to the iodine related experimental data while, on contrary, MELCOR had shown poor results, probably due to unsolved numerical issues and unsatisfactory iodine modellisation

  2. Downregulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 by dexamethasone inhibits S1P-induced mesangial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alexander; Jäger, Manuel; Völzke, Anja; Grammatikos, Georgios; Zu Heringdorf, Dagmar Meyer; Huwiler, Andrea; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2015-06-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is generated by sphingosine kinase (SK)-1 and -2 and acts mainly as an extracellular ligand at five specific receptors, denoted S1P1-5. After activation, S1P receptors regulate important processes in the progression of renal diseases, such as mesangial cell migration and survival. Previously, we showed that dexamethasone enhances SK-1 activity and S1P formation, which protected mesangial cells from stress-induced apoptosis. Here we demonstrate that dexamethasone treatment lowered S1P1 mRNA and protein expression levels in rat mesangial cells. This effect was abolished in the presence of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486. In addition, in vivo studies showed that dexamethasone downregulated S1P1 expression in glomeruli isolated from mice treated with dexamethasone (10 mg/kg body weight). Functionally, we identified S1P1 as a key player mediating S1P-induced mesangial cell migration. We show that dexamethasone treatment significantly lowered S1P-induced migration of mesangial cells, which was again reversed in the presence of RU-486. In summary, we suggest that dexamethasone inhibits S1P-induced mesangial cell migration via downregulation of S1P1. Overall, these results demonstrate that dexamethasone has functional important effects on sphingolipid metabolism and action in renal mesangial cells.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material: ATM-9 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.

    1986-06-01

    The Materials Characterization Center ATM-9 glass is designed to be representative of glass to be produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. ATM-9 glass contains all of the major components of the DWPF glass and corresponds to a waste loading of 29 wt %. The feedstock material for this glass was supplied by Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, SC, as SRL-165 Black Frit to which was added Ba, Cs, Md, Nd, Zr, as well as 99 Tc, depleted U, 237 Np, 239+240 Pu, and 243 Am. The glass was produced under reducing conditions by the addition of 0.7 wt % graphite during the final melting process. Three kilograms of the glass were produced from April to May of 1984. On final melting, the glass was formed into stress-annealed rectangular bars of two sizes: 1.9 x 1.9 x 10 cm and 1.3 x 1.3 x 10 cm. Seventeen bars of each size were made. The analyzed composition of ATM-9 glass is listed. Examination by optical microscopy of a single transverse section from one bar showed random porosity estimated at 0.36 vol % with nominal pore diameters ranging from approx. 5 μm to 200 μm. Only one distinct second phase was observed and it was at a low concentraction level in the glass matrix. The phase appeared as spherical metallic particles. X-ray diffraction analysis of this same sample did not show any diffraction peaks from crystalline components, indicating that the glass contained less than 5 wt % of crystalline devitrification products. The even shading on the radiograph exposure indicated a generally uniform distribution of radioactivity throughout the glass matrix, with no distinct high-concentration regions

  4. SIMS prototype system 1 test results: Engineering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The space and domestic water solar heating system designated SIMS Prototype Systems 1 was evaluated. The test system used 720 ft (gross) of Solar Energy Products Air Collectors, a Solar Control Corporation SAM 20 Air Handler with Model 75-175 control unit, a Jackson Solar Storage tank with Rho Sigma Mod 106 controller, and 20 tons of rack storage. The test data analysis performed evaluates the system performance and documents the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 1 hardware for field installation.

  5. A test to evaluate the physical impact on technical performance in soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Thomas; Iaia, F. Marcello; Simonsen, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and examine a test for evaluation of the physical and technical capacity of soccer players. Fourteen youth elite (YE) and seven sub-elite (SE) players performed a physical and technical test (PT-test) consisting of 10 long kicks interspersed with intense......(-1), and 76 +/- 11 umol L(-1) at the end of the test, respectively. After the test muscle CP, glycogen and lactate was 52.9 +/- 6.6, 354 +/- 39, and 25.3 +/- 5.9 mmol kg(-1) d.w., respectively. In summary, the PT-test can be used to evaluate a soccer player's technical skills under conditions similar...... intermittent exercise. In addition, a control test (CON-test) without intense exercise was performed. In both cases, the test result was evaluated by the precision of the 10 kicks. The players also performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2). For the SE-players, blood samples were...

  6. In vivo assessment of the mitochondrial response to caloric restriction in obese women by the 2-keto[1-C]isocaproate breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Dolores; González, Alvaro; Martínez, J Alfredo; Labayen, Idoia; Díez, Nieves

    2003-04-01

    The 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate breath test has been proposed as a tool to detect mitochondrial dysfunction in alcoholic liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate breath test could detect in vivo dynamic changes on mitochondrial activity due to caloric restriction in obese women. Fifteen obese women (body mass index [BMI] > 30 kg/m(2)) participated in the study at baseline. Ten of these women agreed to participate on a diet program to induce body weight loss. Fifteen lean women (BMI keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate breath test and the plasma insulin (before diet: P =.863; after diet: P =.879), or leptin (before diet: P =.500; after diet: P =.637). In obese women before treatment, kilograms of fat free mass (P =.108), resting energy expenditure adjusted for body composition (P =.312), and the 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate breath test (P =.205) were similar in comparison to lean women. However, 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate oxidation tended to increase after dieting and was significantly higher than in controls (P =.015). These data suggest that the 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate breath test reflected the adaptive modifications in mitochondrial oxidation in response to caloric restriction in obese women. Copyright 2003 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intracellular S1P generation is essential for S1P-induced motility of human lung endothelial cells: role of sphingosine kinase 1 and S1P lyase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V Berdyshev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earlier we have shown that extracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P induces migration of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs through the activation of S1P(1 receptor, PKCε, and PLD2-PKCζ-Rac1 signaling cascade. As endothelial cells generate intracellular S1P, here we have investigated the role of sphingosine kinases (SphKs and S1P lyase (S1PL, that regulate intracellular S1P accumulation, in HPAEC motility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Inhibition of SphK activity with a SphK inhibitor 2-(p-Hydroxyanilino-4-(p-Chlorophenyl Thiazole or down-regulation of Sphk1, but not SphK2, with siRNA decreased S1P(int, and attenuated S1P(ext or serum-induced motility of HPAECs. On the contrary, inhibition of S1PL with 4-deoxypyridoxine or knockdown of S1PL with siRNA increased S1P(int and potentiated motility of HPAECs to S1P(ext or serum. S1P(ext mediates cell motility through activation of Rac1 and IQGAP1 signal transduction in HPAECs. Silencing of SphK1 by siRNA attenuated Rac1 and IQGAP1 translocation to the cell periphery; however, knockdown of S1PL with siRNA or 4-deoxypyridoxine augmented activated Rac1 and stimulated Rac1 and IQGAP1 translocation to cell periphery. The increased cell motility mediated by down-regulation was S1PL was pertussis toxin sensitive suggesting "inside-out" signaling of intracellularly generated S1P. Although S1P did not accumulate significantly in media under basal or S1PL knockdown conditions, addition of sodium vanadate increased S1P levels in the medium and inside the cells most likely by blocking phosphatases including lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs. Furthermore, addition of anti-S1P mAb to the incubation medium blocked S1P(ext or 4-deoxypyridoxine-dependent endothelial cell motility. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest S1P(ext mediated endothelial cell motility is dependent on intracellular S1P production, which is regulated, in part, by SphK1 and S1PL.

  8. Property/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses melting at 1150 degrees C volume 2: Chapters 12-16 and appendices A-K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, P.R.; Piepel, G.F.

    1994-12-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project in support of a future high-level nuclear waste vitrification plant at the Hanford site in Washington. From 1989 to 1994, over 120 nonradioactive glasses were melted and properties measured in five statistically-designed experimental phases. Glass composition is represented by the 10 components SiO 2 , B 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Na 2 O, Li 2 O, CaO, MgO, and Others (all remaining components). The properties measured include viscosity (η), electrical conductivity (ε), glass transition temperature (T g ), thermal expansion of solid glass (α s ) and molten glass (α m ), crystallinity (quenched and canister centerline cooled glasses), liquidus temperature (T L ), durability based on normalized elemental releases from the Materials Characterization Center-1 28-day dissolution test (MCC-1, r mi ) and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT, r pi ), and solution pHs from MCC-1 and PCT. Amorphous phase separation was also evaluated. Empirical first- and second-order mixture models were fit using the CVS data to relate the various properties to glass composition. Equations for calculating the uncertainty associated with property values predicted by the models were also developed. The models were validated using both internal and external data. Other modeling approaches (e.g., non-bridging oxygen, free energy of hydration, phase-equilibria T L ) were investigated for specific properties. A preliminary Qualified Composition Region was developed to identify glass compositions with high confidence of being processable in a melter and meeting waste form acceptance criteria

  9. Preparation and characterization of mucinated cellulose microparticles for therapeutic and drug delivery purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builders, Philip F; Ibekwe, Nneka; Okpako, Larry C; Attama, Anthony A; Kunle, Olobayo O

    2009-05-01

    Mucinated cellulose microparticles were generated by mixing equal concentrations of colloidal dispersions of porcine mucin (Mc) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The hybrid polymer was recovered by precipitating at controlled temperature and pH conditions using acetone. Some physicochemical, functional and thermal properties of the hybrid polymer were determined and compared with those of Mc and MCC. The new polymer Mc-MCC had swelling and moisture sorption profiles that were different from those of Mc and MCC in buffer solutions with different pH values and relative humidity, respectively. The mucoadhesive property of the new polymer was similar to that of Mc. The scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) showed that the microparticles generated from the hybridization were similar to those of MCC, but with larger and denser particles. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrum and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) thermogram of the hybrid polymer were characteristically different from those of Mc and MCC. The presence of new peaks in the FT-IR spectrum and distinct cold crystallization exotherm, which were absent in both Mc and MCC, confirms the formation of a new polymer type with synergistic physicochemical and functional properties.

  10. The Motivation Analysis Test: an historical and contemporary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Larry C; Walsh, R Patricia; Mills, Michael

    2005-04-01

    This is an historical review and contemporary empirical evaluation of the Motivation Analysis Test (MAT), one of the first tests to take a psychometric approach to the assessment of motivation. Reviews were quite positive, but the test is now over 50 years old. Nevertheless, it employs innovations in measurement not widely used in objective measurement then or now: (1) subtests with different formats, (2) disguised items, (3) speeded administration procedures, and (4) ipsative format and scoring procedures. These issues are discussed and a contemporary sample (N = 360) obtained to evaluate the Motivation Analysis Test in light of its innovative characteristics.

  11. Evaluation of a Weakly Cationic Exchange Poly (Methacrylic Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Tablets made from PMD (thickness: 3.54 - 4.46 mm) were thicker than those of MCC (2.93 - 3.33 mm). At compression pressures ≥ 309 MPa, the crushing strength of PMD tablets was so high that it exceeded the capacity of the tester (500 N). PMD tablets rapidly disintegrated (0.43 - 9.56 min), but MCC tablets did ...

  12. Expression and clinical implication of Beclin1, HMGB1, p62, survivin, BRCA1 and ERCC1 in epithelial ovarian tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, L-L; Zhao, C Y; Ye, K-F; Yang, H; Zhang, J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the differential expression of Beclin1, HMGB1, p62, survivin, ERCC1 and BRCA1 protein in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to evaluate the relationship between autophagy and platinum resistance of EOC patients during platinum-based chemotherapy with the protein expression. Expression of Beclin1, HMGB1, p62, survivin, ERCC1 and BRCA1 were detected with immunohistochemistry in 60 patients, including 39 with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), 13 benign epithelial ovarian tumor tissue (BET) and 8 borderline ovarian tumor tissue. Beclin, p62 and ERCC1 expression was significantly higher in the EOC than the BET (p0.05). BRCA1 expression was lower in EOC than BET (pepithelial ovarian cancer.

  13. Merkel Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Single Institutional Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morand, G.; Vital, D.; Pezier, T.; Holzmann, D.; Huber, G.F.; Roessle, M.; Cozzio, A.

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare cutaneous malignancy occurring mostly in older immunocompromised Caucasian males. A growing incidence of MCC has been reported in epidemiological studies. Treatment of MCC usually consists of surgical excision, pathological lymph node evaluation, and adjuvant radiotherapy. This paper reports the experience of a single tertiary center institution with 17 head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma patients. Median followup for the cohort was 37.5 months. After five years, recurrence-free survival, disease specific survival, and overall survival were 85%, 90%, and 83%, respectively. Our limited data support the use of adjuvant radiotherapy. We also report two cases of MCC located at the vestibule of the nose and two cases of spontaneous regression after diagnostic biopsy. About 40% of our patients were referred to our center for surgical revision and pathological lymph node evaluation. Increased awareness of MCC and an interdisciplinary approach are essential in the management of MCC.

  14. Mechanical response of FFTF reference and P1 cladding tubes under transient heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngahl, C.A.; Ariman, T.; Lepacek, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Burst tests of Type 316 stainless steel cladding tube samples subjected to increasing temperature and relatively constant internal pressure were conducted to assist in the pretest analysis of the P1 experiment performed in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility. This paper reports and analyzes the burst test results and those of subsequent transient heating work. The use of a modified extensometer in obtaining mechanical response data for stainless steel in the high temperature range is illustrated, some of such data is provided, and the potential of further experiments and analysis is indicated. Tubing of the same design as Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) cladding (20% cold worked, 0.230 in. OD, 15 mil wall) was tested as-received and after annealing or electrolytic thinning. P1 tubing (38% cold worked, 0.230 in. OD, 10 mil wall) was tested before and after aging under conditions anticipated in the P1 reactor experiment. The P1 cladding was designed to simulate FFTF tubing that had experienced irradiation embrittlement and attack by cesium oxide and sodium impurities

  15. Association of glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1, T1 and P1 gene polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes mellitus in north Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bid H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and a reduction in antioxidant defense. The oxidative stress becomes evident as a result of accumulation of ROS in conditions of inflammation and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The genes involved in redox balance, which determines the susceptibility to T2DM remain unclear. In humans, the glutathione S-transferase (GST family comprises several classes of GST isozymes, the polymorphic variants of GSTM1, T1 and P1 genes result in decreased or loss of enzyme activity. Aims: The present study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphisms of the GST gene family on the risk of developing T2DM in the North Indian population. Settings and Design: GSTM1, T1 and P1 polymorphisms were genotyped in 100 T2DM patients and 200 healthy controls from North India to analyze their association with T2DM susceptibility. Materials and Methods: Analysis of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR and GSTP1 by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP. Statistical Analysis: Fisher′s exact test and χ2 statistics using SPSS software (Version-15.0. Results: We observed significant association of GSTM1 null (P=0.004, OR= 2.042, 95%CI= 1.254-3.325 and GSTP1 (I/V (P=0.001, OR= 0.397, 95%CI=0.225-0.701 with T2DM and no significant association with GSTT1 (P=0.493. The combined analysis of the three genotypes GSTM1 null, T1 present and P1 (I/I demonstrated an increase in T2DM risk (P= 0.005, OR= 2.431 95% CI=1.315-4.496. Conclusions: This is the first study showing the association of a combined effect of GSTM1, T1 and P1 genotypes in a representative cohort of Indian patients with T2DM. Since significant association was seen in GSTM1 null and GSTP1 (I/V and multiple association in GSTM1 null, T1 present and P1 (I/I, these polymorphisms can be screened in the population to determine the diabetic risk.

  16. Experiment data report for Test RIA 1-2 (Reactivity Initiated Accident Test Series)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, C.L.; White, C.E.; Evans, R.P.

    1979-06-01

    Recorded test data are presented for the second of six planned tests in the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test Series I, Test RIA 1-2. This test, conducted at the Power Burst Facility, had the following objectives: (1) characterize the response of preirradiated fuel rods during an RIA event conducted at boiling water reactor hot-startup conditions; and (2) evaluate the effect of rod internal pressure on preirradiated fuel rod response during an RIA event. The data from Test RIA 1-2 are graphed in engineering units and have been appraised for quality and validity. These uninterpreted data are presented for use in the nuclear fuel behavior research field before detailed analysis and interpretation have been completed

  17. Evaluation of snubber functional test methods: Tier 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the research is to establish technical bases in support of efforts on the part of the Snubber Utility Group (SNUG) and the Subsection ISTD Working Group of the ASME O ampersand M Code in developing guidelines and methodologies for snubber functional testing to ensure that snubbers are tested in a manner that ensures reliable and meaningful test results. The methodology used in this research includes both a review of available industry information as well as the testing of different snubber models using various test machines. Information is provided pertaining to current industry practices in regard to snubber testing including recommended test procedures, technical description of various test machines, and the number and types of snubbers used in the nuclear power industry. A review of previous test methodology research conducted by the Snubber Utility Group is also included. The effects of variations in controllable test parameters on snubber test results are discussed. Also included are the results of confirmatory tests in which various snubber models were tested using various test machines. Recommendations are provided for standard test methods to be included in Subsection ISTD of the ASME O ampersand M Code [4]. General information and recommendations are provided that may be used by utility personnel in specifying snubber test equipment that is most suited for plant-specific needs as well as information that may be effectively used in the review and interpretation of test results

  18. Mast cells in Canine parvovirus-2-associated enteritis with crypt abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemeskel, M W; Saliki, J T; Blas-Machado, U; Whittington, L

    2013-11-01

    The role of mast cells (MCs) in allergic reactions and parasitic infections is well established. Their involvement in host immune response against bacterial and viral infections is reported. In this study, investigation is made to determine if MCs are associated with Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2)-induced enteritis with crypt abscess (ECA). Mast cell count (MCC) was made on toluidine blue-stained intestinal sections from a total of 34 dogs. These included 16 dogs exhibiting ECA positive for CPV-2 and negative for Canine distemper virus and Canine coronavirus by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent antibody test, 12 dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and 6 non-ECA/non-IBD (control) dogs. The average total MCC per high-power field in ECA (40.8 ± 2.2) and IBD (24.7 ± 2.1) was significantly higher (P .05), MCC was also higher in ECA than in IBD. The present study for the first time has documented significantly increased MCs in CPV-2-associated ECA as was previously reported for IBD, showing that MCs may also play an important role in CPV-2-associated ECA. Further studies involving more CPV-infected dogs are recommended to substantiate the findings.

  19. Standard practice for conducting and evaluating laboratory corrosions tests in soils

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for conducting laboratory corrosion tests in soils to evaluate the corrosive attack on engineering materials. 1.2 This practice covers specimen selection and preparation, test environments, and evaluation of test results. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Performance of in silico prediction tools for the classification of rare BRCA1/2 missense variants in clinical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Corinna; Hahnen, Eric; Engel, Christoph; Nothnagel, Michael; Weber, Jonas; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hauke, Jan

    2018-03-27

    The use of next-generation sequencing approaches in clinical diagnostics has led to a tremendous increase in data and a vast number of variants of uncertain significance that require interpretation. Therefore, prediction of the effects of missense mutations using in silico tools has become a frequently used approach. Aim of this study was to assess the reliability of in silico prediction as a basis for clinical decision making in the context of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer. We tested the performance of four prediction tools (Align-GVGD, SIFT, PolyPhen-2, MutationTaster2) using a set of 236 BRCA1/2 missense variants that had previously been classified by expert committees. However, a major pitfall in the creation of a reliable evaluation set for our purpose is the generally accepted classification of BRCA1/2 missense variants using the multifactorial likelihood model, which is partially based on Align-GVGD results. To overcome this drawback we identified 161 variants whose classification is independent of any previous in silico prediction. In addition to the performance as stand-alone tools we examined the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of combined approaches. PolyPhen-2 achieved the lowest sensitivity (0.67), specificity (0.67), accuracy (0.67) and MCC (0.39). Align-GVGD achieved the highest values of specificity (0.92), accuracy (0.92) and MCC (0.73), but was outperformed regarding its sensitivity (0.90) by SIFT (1.00) and MutationTaster2 (1.00). All tools suffered from poor specificities, resulting in an unacceptable proportion of false positive results in a clinical setting. This shortcoming could not be bypassed by combination of these tools. In the best case scenario, 138 families would be affected by the misclassification of neutral variants within the cohort of patients of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. We show that due to low specificities state-of-the-art in silico

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of modified chalcone based p53 stabilizing agents

    KAUST Repository

    Iftikhar, Sunniya; Khan, Sardraz; Bilal, Aishah; Manzoor, Safia; Abdullah, Muhammad; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Sioud, Salim; Gao, Xin; Chotana, Ghayoor Abbas; Faisal, Amir; Saleem, Rahman Shah Zaib

    2017-01-01

    Tumor suppressor protein p53 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death in response to various cellular stresses thereby preventing cancer development. Activation and stabilization of p53 through small organic molecules is, therefore, an attractive approach for the treatment of cancers retaining wild-type p53. In this context, a series of nineteen chalcones with various substitution patterns of functional groups including chloro, fluoro, methoxy, nitro, benzyloxy, 4-methyl benzyloxy was prepared using Claisen-Schmidt condensation. The compounds were characterized using NMR, HRMS, IR and melting points. Evaluation of synthesized compounds against human colorectal (HCT116) and breast (Cal-51) cancer cell lines revealed potent antiproliferative activities. Nine compounds displayed GI50 values in the low micromolar to submicromolar range; for example (E)-1-phenyl-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (SSE14108) showed GI50 of 0.473 ± 0.043 µM against HCT116 cells. Further analysis of these compounds revealed that (E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (SSE14105) and (E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (SSE14106) caused rapid (4 and 8-hour post-treatment) accumulation of p53 in HCT116 cells similar to its induction by positive control, Nutlin-3. Such activities were absent in 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propiophenone (SSE14106H2) demonstrating the importance of conjugated ketone for antiproliferative and p53 stabilizing activity of the chalcones. We further evaluated p53 levels in the presence of cycloheximide (CHX) and the results showed that the p53 stabilization was regulated at post-translational level through blockage of its degradation. These chalcones can, therefore, act as fragment leads for further structure optimization to obtain more potent p53 stabilizing agents with enhanced anti-proliferative activities.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of modified chalcone based p53 stabilizing agents

    KAUST Repository

    Iftikhar, Sunniya

    2017-07-15

    Tumor suppressor protein p53 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death in response to various cellular stresses thereby preventing cancer development. Activation and stabilization of p53 through small organic molecules is, therefore, an attractive approach for the treatment of cancers retaining wild-type p53. In this context, a series of nineteen chalcones with various substitution patterns of functional groups including chloro, fluoro, methoxy, nitro, benzyloxy, 4-methyl benzyloxy was prepared using Claisen-Schmidt condensation. The compounds were characterized using NMR, HRMS, IR and melting points. Evaluation of synthesized compounds against human colorectal (HCT116) and breast (Cal-51) cancer cell lines revealed potent antiproliferative activities. Nine compounds displayed GI50 values in the low micromolar to submicromolar range; for example (E)-1-phenyl-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (SSE14108) showed GI50 of 0.473 ± 0.043 µM against HCT116 cells. Further analysis of these compounds revealed that (E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (SSE14105) and (E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (SSE14106) caused rapid (4 and 8-hour post-treatment) accumulation of p53 in HCT116 cells similar to its induction by positive control, Nutlin-3. Such activities were absent in 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propiophenone (SSE14106H2) demonstrating the importance of conjugated ketone for antiproliferative and p53 stabilizing activity of the chalcones. We further evaluated p53 levels in the presence of cycloheximide (CHX) and the results showed that the p53 stabilization was regulated at post-translational level through blockage of its degradation. These chalcones can, therefore, act as fragment leads for further structure optimization to obtain more potent p53 stabilizing agents with enhanced anti-proliferative activities.

  3. Evaluation of first-pass cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) and P-glycoprotein activities using alfentanil and fexofenadine in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharasch, Evan D; Walker, Alysa; Hoffer, Christine; Sheffels, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are major determinants of oral bioavailability. Development of in vivo probe(s), for both CYP3A and P-gp, which could be administered in combination, is a current goal. Nevertheless, there is considerable overlap in CYP3A and P-gp substrate selectivities; there are few discrete probes. Alfentanil is a selective CYP3A probe but not a P-gp substrate. Fexofenadine is a P-gp probe but not a CYP3A substrate. This investigation tested the hypothesis that alfentanil and fexofenadine could be administered in combination to probe first-pass CYP3A and P-gp activities in humans. Two 3-way crossover studies were conducted in healthy volunteers. In the first protocol, subjects received oral alfentanil alone, fexofenadine alone, or fexofenadine 1 hour after alfentanil. In the second protocol, subjects abstained from citrus and apple products for 5 days and received fexofenadine alone, fexofenadine 1 hour after alfentanil, or alfentanil 4 hours after fexofenadine. An assay using solid-phase extraction and electrospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous quantification of plasma alfentanil and fexofenadine. In both protocols, alfentanil plasma concentrations and area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) were unaffected by fexofenadine or meal composition. Fexofenadine given 1 hour after alfentanil and followed 1 hour later by a meal containing orange or apple juice had a somewhat lower AUC compared with fexofenadine alone (geometric mean ratio with and without the interacting drug = 0.73, 90% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59-1.04). Fexofenadine given 1 hour after alfentanil and followed 2 hours later by a meal not containing citrus or apple products had an AUC that was unchanged compared with fexofenadine alone (ratio = 0.91, 90% CI = 0.70-1.35). These results show that alfentanil disposition was not affected by fexofenadine. A dosing regimen was identified in which fexofenadine

  4. Validation of a computer-adaptive test to evaluate generic health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zardaín Pilar C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is a relevant variable in the evaluation of health outcomes. Questionnaires based on Classical Test Theory typically require a large number of items to evaluate HRQoL. Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT can be used to reduce tests length while maintaining and, in some cases, improving accuracy. This study aimed at validating a CAT based on Item Response Theory (IRT for evaluation of generic HRQoL: the CAT-Health instrument. Methods Cross-sectional study of subjects aged over 18 attending Primary Care Centres for any reason. CAT-Health was administered along with the SF-12 Health Survey. Age, gender and a checklist of chronic conditions were also collected. CAT-Health was evaluated considering: 1 feasibility: completion time and test length; 2 content range coverage, Item Exposure Rate (IER and test precision; and 3 construct validity: differences in the CAT-Health scores according to clinical variables and correlations between both questionnaires. Results 396 subjects answered CAT-Health and SF-12, 67.2% females, mean age (SD 48.6 (17.7 years. 36.9% did not report any chronic condition. Median completion time for CAT-Health was 81 seconds (IQ range = 59-118 and it increased with age (p Conclusions Although domain-specific CATs exist for various areas of HRQoL, CAT-Health is one of the first IRT-based CATs designed to evaluate generic HRQoL and it has proven feasible, valid and efficient, when administered to a broad sample of individuals attending primary care settings.

  5. Different concentrations and volumes of p-phenylenediamine in pet. (equivalent doses) are associated with similar patch test outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hamann, Carsten R; Andersen, Klaus E

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concern about causing active sensitization when patch testing is performed with p-phenylenediamine (PPD) 1% pet. has led to a recommendation to use PPD 0.3% pet. as a potentially safer preparation. However, the dose per area of allergen delivered, and hence the risk of active...... sensitization, depend on the amount dispensed into the patch test chamber, which can vary widely. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether patch testing with equivalent doses of different concentrations of PPD in pet. is associated with similar outcomes. METHODS: Seventeen known PPD-sensitive subjects were patch tested...... with different volumes and concentrations of PPD in pet. that deliver the same allergen dose per unit area (6 mg of PPD 1% pet. and 20 mg of PPD 0.3% pet. in Finn Chambers®, both equivalent to ∼ 0.09 mg/cm2 ). RESULTS: Eleven patients (65%) had positive reactions to both doses; 4 patients (24%) had negative...

  6. Toxicological analysis of 1-P-tholiloxi-3-morpholino-2-propanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimov, I.F.; Kimsanov, A.B.; Khaydarov, K.; Kimsanov, B.

    2005-01-01

    We have researched the toxicological analyse of 1-p-tholiloxi-3-morpholino-2-propanol on white rats during the chronic infusion. The influence of, the preparation 1-p-tholiloxi-3-morpholino-2-propanol on exponents, of the whole stable of the existence of tested animals was observed. It obviously shows that during 30 days in 25 and 50 mg/kg doses the masses of the body of the animals didn't show any phenomenon of the organisms, (allergy, anaphylaxis). The mass of a body of the tested and controlled groups of animals in same extent increased. The changes in blood there quite normal

  7. Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test to evaluate helminth prevalence in the setting of a school-based deworming program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Martha; Morales, Maria Luisa; Konana, Monisha; Hoyer, Paige; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; White, Arthur Clinton; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Lescano, Andres Guillermo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test is suboptimal for the evaluation of intestinal helminth prevalence. Moreover, during mass deworming, as helminth egg burden decreases, the sensitivity is likely to decrease. The Lumbreras rapid sedimentation (Lumbreras) is a low-cost non-quantitative test, but may provide useful information in low burden areas. We compared the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections assessed by the Kato-Katz and the Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test on 3 stool specimens from each of 1083 children. The sensitivities were compared using the McNemar paired test. Using the combined outcome of the 3 different stool tests as the standard, Kato-Katz had lower sensitivity than Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests for Ascaris lumbricoides (85.1% vs. 95.1%, p = 0.03), Hymenolepis nana (77.7% vs. 97.9%, p Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests enables the detection of more intestinal helminths infections in post-deworming low prevalence areas. PMID:27376503

  8. Interstitial deletion 1p as a result of a de novo reciprocal 1p;2p translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Jensen, P H

    1985-01-01

    A 5-month-old female patient with psychomotor retardation and minor dysmorphisms is described. Cytogenetic analysis using high-resolution banding technique revealed an interstitial deletion of the short arm of one chromosome 1 (p21----p22.2) resulting from a de novo translocation t(1;2)(p22;p25)....

  9. Evaluation of the control system checkout test results for YGN 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Eon Young; Shon, Suk Whun; Kim, Shim Whan; Sung, Kang Sik; Seo, Jong Tae.

    1996-11-01

    During the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 (YGN3) Power Ascension Test (PAT) period, the Control System Checkout tests were performed at 10%, 20%, 50%, 80%, and 100% respectively. This test evaluates the performance of the feedwater control system, reactor regulating system, pressurizer level and pressure control system in controlling their respective parameters within specified control bands at different power levels. The first test evaluates the ability of the FWCS to control steam generator 1 and 2 water levels during steady and transient conditions. The SG level setpoint was changed from normal SG level. The FWCS no.1 and no.2 controlled the SG water level to the new setpoint within the acceptable band. The second test evaluates the ability of the reactor regulating system (RRS) to control reactor coolant system (RCS) average temperature with respect to the reference temperature. The final test evaluates the ability of all of the control systems to work in an integrated manner controlling their respective parameters while the plant is at steady state conditions. The FWCS, RRS, SBCS, PLCS control their respective parameters within the control bands. The tests performed at Unit 3 were successful by meeting all of the test acceptable criteria. The measured test data for the major plant parameters were collected and evaluated. (author). 14 tabs., 217 figs., 7 refs

  10. An Evaluation of Factors Associated With Pathogenic PRSS1, SPINK1, CTFR, and/or CTRC Genetic Variants in Patients With Idiopathic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaly, Niloofar Y; Moran, Robert A; Fargahi, Farshid; Khashab, Mouen A; Kamal, Ayesha; Lennon, Anne Marie; Walsh, Christi; Makary, Martin A; Whitcomb, David C; Yadav, Dhiraj; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Singh, Vikesh K

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated factors associated with pathogenic genetic variants in patients with idiopathic pancreatitis. Genetic testing (PRSS1, CFTR, SPINK1, and CTRC) was performed in all eligible patients with idiopathic pancreatitis between 2010 to 2015. Patients were classified into the following groups based on a review of medical records: (1) acute recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis (ARIP) with or without underlying chronic pancreatitis; (2) idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP) without a history of ARP; (3) an unexplained first episode of acute pancreatitis (AP)pancreatitis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with pathogenic genetic variants. Among 197 ARIP and/or ICP patients evaluated from 2010 to 2015, 134 underwent genetic testing. A total of 88 pathogenic genetic variants were found in 64 (47.8%) patients. Pathogenic genetic variants were identified in 58, 63, and 27% of patients with ARIP, an unexplained first episode of AP <35 years of age, and ICP without ARP, respectively. ARIP (OR: 18.12; 95% CI: 2.16-151.87; P=0.008) and an unexplained first episode of AP<35 years of age (OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.18-5.15; P=0.017), but not ICP, were independently associated with pathogenic genetic variants in the adjusted analysis. Pathogenic genetic variants are most likely to be identified in patients with ARIP and an unexplained first episode of AP<35 years of age. Genetic testing in these patient populations may delineate an etiology and prevent unnecessary diagnostic testing and procedures.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of First-line Avelumab Treatment in Patients With Stage IV Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A Preplanned Interim Analysis of a Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Sandra P; Russell, Jeffery; Lebbé, Céleste; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Gambichler, Thilo; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Kiecker, Felix; Rabinowits, Guilherme; Terheyden, Patrick; Zwiener, Isabella; Bajars, Marcis; Hennessy, Meliessa; Kaufman, Howard L

    2018-03-22

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer that is associated with poor survival outcomes in patients with distant metastatic disease. Results of part A of the JAVELIN Merkel 200 trial (avelumab in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma) showed that avelumab, an anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody, demonstrated efficacy in second-line or later treatment of patients with metastatic MCC (mMCC). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of avelumab as first-line treatment for patients with distant mMCC. JAVELIN Merkel 200 part B is an international, multicenter, single-arm, open-label clinical trial of first-line avelumab monotherapy. Eligible patients were adults with mMCC who had not received prior systemic treatment for metastatic disease. Patients were not selected for PD-L1 expression or Merkel cell polyomavirus status. Data were collected from April 15, 2016, to March 24, 2017, and enrollment is ongoing. Patients received avelumab, 10 mg/kg, by 1-hour intravenous infusion every 2 weeks until confirmed disease progression, unacceptable toxic effects, or withdrawal occurred. Tumor status was assessed every 6 weeks and evaluated by independent review committee per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. The primary end point was durable response, defined as an objective response with a duration of at least 6 months. Secondary end points include best overall response, duration of response, progression-free survival, safety, and tolerability. As of March 24, 2017, 39 patients were enrolled (30 men and 9 women; median age, 75 years [range, 47-88 years]), with a median follow-up of 5.1 months (range, 0.3-11.3 months). In a preplanned analysis, efficacy was assessed in 29 patients with at least 3 months of follow-up; the confirmed objective response rate was 62.1% (95% CI, 42.3%-79.3%), with 14 of 18 responses (77.8%) ongoing at the time of analysis. In responding patients, the estimated proportion with duration of response of at

  12. Prevalence of Multiple Chronic Conditions Among US Adults: Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Jeannine S.

    2013-01-01

    Preventing and ameliorating chronic conditions has long been a priority in the United States; however, the increasing recognition that people often have multiple chronic conditions (MCC) has added a layer of complexity with which to contend. The objective of this study was to present the prevalence of MCC and the most common MCC dyads/triads by selected demographic characteristics. We used respondent-reported data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to study the US adult civilian noninstitutionalized population aged 18 years or older (n = 27,157). We categorized adults as having 0 to 1, 2 to 3, or 4 or more of the following chronic conditions: hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, hepatitis, weak or failing kidneys, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or current asthma. We then generated descriptive estimates and tested for significant differences. Twenty-six percent of adults have MCC; the prevalence of MCC has increased from 21.8% in 2001 to 26.0% in 2010. The prevalence of MCC significantly increased with age, was significantly higher among women than men and among non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults than Hispanic adults. The most common dyad identified was arthritis and hypertension, and the combination of arthritis, hypertension, and diabetes was the most common triad. The findings of this study contribute information to the field of MCC research. The NHIS can be used to identify population subgroups most likely to have MCC and potentially lead to clinical guidelines for people with more common MCC combinations. PMID:23618545

  13. (p,3He) reactions on 1p shell nuclei at 41 and 45 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, V.

    1982-01-01

    In the present thesis the (p, 3 He) reactions on target nuclei of the 1p shell were studied. The measurements were performed at the isochronous cyclotron of the KFA Juelich. Angular distribution at 41 and 45 MeV to residual nuclear states in 7 Li, 8 Be, 9 Be, 10 B, 11 B, 12 C, 13 C, and 14 N. were evaluated. (orig.) [de

  14. Detection of ATM germline variants by the p53 mitotic centrosomal localization test in BRCA1/2-negative patients with early-onset breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodosmo, Andrea; Buffone, Amelia; Mattioni, Manlio; Barnabei, Agnese; Persichetti, Agnese; De Leo, Aurora; Appetecchia, Marialuisa; Nicolussi, Arianna; Coppa, Anna; Sciacchitano, Salvatore; Giordano, Carolina; Pinnarò, Paola; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Strigari, Lidia; Alessandrini, Gabriele; Facciolo, Francesco; Cosimelli, Maurizio; Grazi, Gian Luca; Corrado, Giacomo; Vizza, Enrico; Giannini, Giuseppe; Soddu, Silvia

    2016-09-06

    Variant ATM heterozygotes have an increased risk of developing cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Costs and time of sequencing and ATM variant complexity make large-scale, general population screenings not cost-effective yet. Recently, we developed a straightforward, rapid, and inexpensive test based on p53 mitotic centrosomal localization (p53-MCL) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that diagnoses mutant ATM zygosity and recognizes tumor-associated ATM polymorphisms. Fresh PBMCs from 496 cancer patients were analyzed by p53-MCL: 90 cases with familial BRCA1/2-positive and -negative breast and/or ovarian cancer, 337 with sporadic cancers (ovarian, lung, colon, and post-menopausal breast cancers), and 69 with breast/thyroid cancer. Variants were confirmed by ATM sequencing. A total of seven individuals with ATM variants were identified, 5/65 (7.7 %) in breast cancer cases of familial breast and/or ovarian cancer and 2/69 (2.9 %) in breast/thyroid cancer. No variant ATM carriers were found among the other cancer cases. Excluding a single case in which both BRCA1 and ATM were mutated, no p53-MCL alterations were observed in BRCA1/2-positive cases. These data validate p53-MCL as reliable and specific test for germline ATM variants, confirm ATM as breast cancer susceptibility gene, and highlight a possible association with breast/thyroid cancers.

  15. The hormonal effects of long-term DDT exposure on malaria vector-control workers in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvie, M.A.; Myers, J.E.; Lou Thompson, Mary; Dyer, Silke; Robins, T.G.; Omar, Shaheed; Riebow, John; Molekwa, Josef; Kruger, Phillip; Millar, R.

    2004-01-01

    DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] compounds, used in many developing countries, including South Africa, for the control of malaria vectors, have been shown to be endocrine disruptors in vitro and in vivo. The study hypothesis was that male malaria vector-control workers highly exposed to DDT in the past should demonstrate clinically significant exposure-related anti-androgenic and/or estrogenic effects that should be reflected in abnormalities in reproductive hormone levels. A cross-sectional study of 50 workers from three camps situated near the Malaria Control Center (MCC) in Tzaneen was performed. Tests included blood sampling before and after a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge (100 μg). Serum o'p' and p'p' isomers of DDE, DDT, and DDD and basal and post-GnRH challenge hormone levels, including luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, estradiol (E2), and inhibin, were measured. The mean number of years worked at the MCC was 15.8±7.8 years and the mean serum DDT was 94.3±57.1 μg/g of lipid. Mean baseline E2 levels (62.4±29.9 pg/mL) exceeded the laboratory reference range. Associations between DDT exposure measures (years worked at the MCC and DDT compounds) and hormonal outcomes were weak and inconsistent. The most important finding was a positive relationship of baseline E2 and baseline testosterone with DDT compounds, especially with p'p'-DDT and -DDD. The strongest association found, adjusted for age and SHBG, was between baseline estradiol and p'p'-DDT (β-circumflex=1.14±0.33 pg/mL/μg/g lipid, P=0.001, R 2 =0.31, n=46). An overall anti-androgenic mechanism best explains the results, but with a number of inconsistencies. Associations might be due to chance, as multiple comparisons were made. The results therefore do not suggest an overt anti-androgenic or estrogenic effect of long-term DDT exposure on hormone levels, but correlations do exist in a manner that is not

  16. Evaluation of four rapid tests for diagnosis and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in Guinea-Conakry, West Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaillet, Pascale; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Zachariah, Rony; Duclos, Nanfack; Moctar, Diallo; Beelaert, Greet; Fransen, Katrien

    2010-01-01

    With both HIV-1 and HV-2 prevalent in Guinea-Conakry, accurate diagnosis and differentiation is crucial for treatment purposes. Thus, four rapid HIV tests were evaluated for their HIV-1 and HIV-2 diagnostic and discriminative capacity for use in Guinea-Conakry. These included SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), Genie II HIV1/HIV2 (Bio-Rad), First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 (PMC Medical) and Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 (Core Diagnostics). Results were compared with gold standard tes...

  17. The Hog1p kinase regulates Aft1p transcription factor to control iron accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Telma S; Pereira, Clara; Canadell, David; Vilaça, Rita; Teixeira, Vítor; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc; Costa, Vítor

    2018-01-01

    Iron acquisition systems have to be tightly regulated to assure a continuous supply of iron, since it is essential for survival, but simultaneously to prevent iron overload that is toxic to the cells. In budding yeast, the low‑iron sensing transcription factor Aft1p is a master regulator of the iron regulon. Our previous work revealed that bioactive sphingolipids modulate iron homeostasis as yeast cells lacking the sphingomyelinase Isc1p exhibit an upregulation of the iron regulon. In this study, we show that Isc1p impacts on iron accumulation and localization. Notably, Aft1p is activated in isc1Δ cells due to a decrease in its phosphorylation and an increase in its nuclear levels. Consistently, the expression of a phosphomimetic version of Aft1p-S210/S224 that favours its nuclear export abolished iron accumulation in isc1Δ cells. Notably, the Hog1p kinase, homologue of mammalian p38, interacts with and directly phosphorylates Aft1p at residues S210 and S224. However, Hog1p-Aft1p interaction decreases in isc1Δ cells, which likely contributes to Aft1p dephosphorylation and consequently to Aft1p activation and iron overload in isc1Δ cells. These results suggest that alterations in sphingolipid composition in isc1Δ cells may impact on iron homeostasis by disturbing the regulation of Aft1p by Hog1p. To our knowledge, Hog1p is the first kinase reported to directly regulate Aft1p, impacting on iron homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of 5P12-RANTES analogue expression in Nicotiana benthamiana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mawela, KG

    2012-10-10

    Full Text Available 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Apoplast Cytosol pICH11599 (-ve control) 5P 12 (? g /k g F W ) 3 dpi 6 dpi 9 dpi (B) Bacterial vector system 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 Cytosol ER Chloroplast pICH11599 (-ve... MTS tetrazolium compound, {3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-yl)-5-(3- carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium} Efficacy testing Table 1 Summary of IC50 values of the HIV-1 pseudovirions screened. Sample identification ZM53 (targets CCR5) IC50 (?g...

  19. Director, Operational Test and Evaluation FY 2014 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    fire strategy and test plans. • The Army used gelatin targets to obtain data as inputs for complex computer modeling of M80A1 performance. Testing... gelatin backing. The selected threats for ballistic testing are undergoing cross-sectional profile characterization, including optical microscopy...MHz Upper S-Band Telemetry F-18E/400, E2-D, P-8A, Exdrone, Silver Fox, THAAD, F-16, F-22, B-1, B-2, B-52, C-17, Global Hawk • Issue: AT&T

  20. Using Movement Test to Evaluate Effectiveness of Health and Fitness Activities of Students in Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pashkevich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to evaluate the possibility of using screening methods for determining the effectiveness of health and fitness activities of students in higher education institutions. Materials and methods. The participants in the experiment were 37 first-year students (17 boys and 20 girls of the School of History of H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University. The experiment lasted during the fall semester. Using the Framingham method for analyzing weekly timing, the study conducted a survey among the students on their level of motor activity and performed a functional movement screen testing. To tentatively evaluate the cause and effect relationship between the level of motor activity and the occurrence of a pathological movement pattern, the study used the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The characteristics between the groups were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney test for comparing the distribution of ordinal variables. Results. The correlation analysis showed that the first-year students’ motor activity was positively related to the results of functional movement screening (R=+0.69, p< 0.05. At the same time, the students (EG1 who mainly had a high level of physical activity at physical education classes showed low values of functional movement evaluation, compared to the students (EG2 participating in extra-curricular physical activity. In EG1, the overall screening score was 10.3±0.7, in EG2 — 14.2±0.9 (p<0.05. Conclusions. The students with insufficient weekly motor activity had risk values of the test (10.3±0.7, which requires further analysis of the causes of a pathological movement pattern. The study results have confirmed the existence of the relationship between motor activity indicators and functional movement evaluation (R=+0.69, p<0.05. This provides a way to use the screening method of determining motor competence for the effectiveness evaluation of health and fitness programs, but further

  1. HANFORD CONTAINERIZED CAST STONE FACILITY TASK 1 PROCESS TESTING & DEVELOPMENT FINAL TEST REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LOCKREM, L L

    2005-07-13

    Laboratory testing and technical evaluation activities on Containerized Cast Stone (CCS) were conducted under the Scope of Work (SOW) contained in CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) Contract No. 18548 (CHG 2003a). This report presents the results of testing and demonstration activities discussed in SOW Section 3.1, Task I--''Process Development Testing'', and described in greater detail in the ''Containerized Grout--Phase I Testing and Demonstration Plan'' (CHG, 2003b). CHG (2003b) divided the CCS testing and evaluation activities into six categories, as follows: (1) A short set of tests with simulant to select a preferred dry reagent formulation (DRF), determine allowable liquid addition levels, and confirm the Part 2 test matrix. (2) Waste form performance testing on cast stone made from the preferred DRF and a backup DRF, as selected in Part I, and using low activity waste (LAW) simulant. (3) Waste form performance testing on cast stone made from the preferred DRF using radioactive LAW. (4) Waste form validation testing on a selected nominal cast stone formulation using the preferred DRF and LAW simulant. (5) Engineering evaluations of explosive/toxic gas evolution, including hydrogen, from the cast stone product. (6) Technetium ''getter'' testing with cast stone made with LAW simulant and with radioactive LAW. In addition, nitrate leaching observations were drawn from nitrate leachability data obtained in the course of the Parts 2 and 3 waste form performance testing. The nitrate leachability index results are presented along with other data from the applicable activity categories.

  2. Assessment of the predictive accuracy of five in silico prediction tools, alone or in combination, and two metaservers to classify long QT syndrome gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Ivone U S; Stuckey, Alexander; Lai, Daniel; Skinner, Jonathan R; Love, Donald R

    2015-05-13

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an autosomal dominant condition predisposing to sudden death from malignant arrhythmia. Genetic testing identifies many missense single nucleotide variants of uncertain pathogenicity. Establishing genetic pathogenicity is an essential prerequisite to family cascade screening. Many laboratories use in silico prediction tools, either alone or in combination, or metaservers, in order to predict pathogenicity; however, their accuracy in the context of LQTS is unknown. We evaluated the accuracy of five in silico programs and two metaservers in the analysis of LQTS 1-3 gene variants. The in silico tools SIFT, PolyPhen-2, PROVEAN, SNPs&GO and SNAP, either alone or in all possible combinations, and the metaservers Meta-SNP and PredictSNP, were tested on 312 KCNQ1, KCNH2 and SCN5A gene variants that have previously been characterised by either in vitro or co-segregation studies as either "pathogenic" (283) or "benign" (29). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) were calculated to determine the best combination of in silico tools for each LQTS gene, and when all genes are combined. The best combination of in silico tools for KCNQ1 is PROVEAN, SNPs&GO and SIFT (accuracy 92.7%, sensitivity 93.1%, specificity 100% and MCC 0.70). The best combination of in silico tools for KCNH2 is SIFT and PROVEAN or PROVEAN, SNPs&GO and SIFT. Both combinations have the same scores for accuracy (91.1%), sensitivity (91.5%), specificity (87.5%) and MCC (0.62). In the case of SCN5A, SNAP and PROVEAN provided the best combination (accuracy 81.4%, sensitivity 86.9%, specificity 50.0%, and MCC 0.32). When all three LQT genes are combined, SIFT, PROVEAN and SNAP is the combination with the best performance (accuracy 82.7%, sensitivity 83.0%, specificity 80.0%, and MCC 0.44). Both metaservers performed better than the single in silico tools; however, they did not perform better than the best performing combination of in silico

  3. Prospective evaluation of a whole-blood test using Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10 for diagnosis of active tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Munk, Martin E; Andersen, Ase B

    2005-01-01

    A new immunodiagnostic test based on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens CFP-10/ESAT-6(QFT-RD1) has been launched as an aid in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI). The aim of this study was to evaluate this test for the diagnosis of active TB. Eighty-two patients...... with suspicion of TB and 39 healthy BCG-vaccinated persons were enrolled. Forty-eight had active TB, 25 did not, and 9 were excluded. Sensitivity and specificity of the test for active TB were evaluated in a prospective blinded manner in patients suspected of TB. The sensitivity of the QFT-RD1 was 85% (40......% (5/12) by culture (P test, sensitivity increased to 96% (CI, 90 to 102). Ten of 25 (40%) non-TB patients were QFT-RD1 positive, resulting...

  4. Evaluation of cytochrome P-450 concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Cristina Sakuragui Matuo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used in mutagenicity tests due to the presence of a cytochrome P-450 system, capable of metabolizing promutagens to active mutagens. There are a large number of S. cerevisiae strains with varying abilities to produce cytochrome P-450. However, strain selection and ideal cultivation conditions are not well defined. We compared cytochrome P-450 levels in four different S. cerevisiae strains and evaluated the cultivation conditions necessary to obtain the highest levels. The amount of cytochrome P-450 produced by each strain varied, as did the incubation time needed to reach the maximum level. The highest cytochrome P-450 concentrations were found in media containing fermentable sugars. The NCYC 240 strain produced the highest level of cytochrome P-450 when grown in the presence of 20 % (w/v glucose. The addition of ethanol to the media also increased cytochrome P-450 synthesis in this strain. These results indicate cultivation conditions must be specific and well-established for the strain selected in order to assure high cytochrome P-450 levels and reliable mutagenicity results.Linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae tem sido amplamente empregadas em testes de mutagenicidade devido à presença de um sistema citocromo P-450 capaz de metabolizar substâncias pró-mutagênicas à sua forma ativa. Devido à grande variedade de linhagens de S. cerevisiae com diferentes capacidades de produção de citocromo P-450, torna-se necessária a seleção de cepas, bem como a definição das condições ideais de cultivo. Neste trabalho, foram comparados os níveis de citocromo P-450 em quatro diferentes linhagens de S. cerevisiae e avaliadas as condições de cultivo necessárias para obtenção de altas concentrações deste sistema enzimático. O maior nível enzimático foi encontrado na linhagem NCYC 240 em presença de 20 % de glicose (p/v. A adição de etanol ao meio de cultura também produziu um aumento na s

  5. High Glucose Concentration Stimulates NHE-1 Activity in Distal Nephron Cells: the Role of the Mek/Erk1/2/p90RSK and p38MAPK Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Martins da Costa-Pessoa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In models of diabetes, distal nephron cells contribute to glucose uptake and oxidation. How these cells contribute to the use of glucose for the regulation of H+ extrusion remains unknown. We used Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK cells to investigate the effect of acute or chronic high glucose concentration on the abundance and activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1. Methods: Using RT-PCR, we also evaluated the mRNA expression for sodium glucose co-transporters SGLT1 and SGLT2. Protein abundance was analyzed using immunoblotting, and intracellular pH (pHi recovery was evaluated using microscopy in conjunction with the fluorescent probe BCECF/AM. The Na+-dependent pHi recovery rate was monitored with HOE-694 (50 µM and/or S3226 (10 µM, specific NHE-1 and NHE-3 inhibitors. Results: MDCK cells did not express the mRNA for SGLT1 or SGLT2 but did express the GLUT2, NHE-1 and NHE-3 proteins. Under control conditions, we observed a greater contribution of NHE-1 to pHi recovery relative to the other H+ transporters. Acute high glucose treatment increased the HOE-694-sensitive pHi recovery rate and p-Erk1/2 and p90RSK abundance. These parameters were reduced by PD-98059, a Mek inhibitor (1 µM. Chronic high glucose treatment also increased the HOE-694-sensitive pHi recovery rate and p-p38MAPK abundance. Both parameters were reduced by SB-203580, a p38MAPK inhibitor (10 µM. Conclusion: These results suggested that extracellular high glucose stimulated NHE-1 acutely and chronically through Mek/Erk1/2/p90RSK and p38MAPK pathways, respectively.

  6. Evaluation of clinical methods for peroneal muscle testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig-Bahat, Hilla; Krasovsky, Andrei; Sprecher, Elliot

    2013-03-01

    Manual muscle testing of the peroneal muscles is well accepted as a testing method in musculoskeletal physiotherapy for the assessment of the foot and ankle. The peroneus longus and brevis are primary evertors and secondary plantar flexors of the ankle joint. However, some international textbooks describe them as dorsi flexors, when instructing peroneal muscle testing. The identified variability raised a question whether these educational texts are reflected in the clinical field. The purposes of this study were to investigate what are the methods commonly used in the clinical field for peroneal muscle testing and to evaluate their compatibility with functional anatomy. A cross-sectional study was conducted, using an electronic questionnaire sent to 143 Israeli physiotherapists in the musculoskeletal field. The survey questioned on the anatomical location of manual resistance and the combination of motions resisted. Ninety-seven responses were received. The majority (69%) of respondents related correctly to the peronei as evertors, but asserted that resistance should be located over the dorsal aspect of the fifth metatarsus, thereby disregarding the peroneus longus. Moreover, 38% of the respondents described the peronei as dorsi flexors, rather than plantar flexors. Only 2% selected the correct method of resisting plantarflexion and eversion at the base of the first metatarsus. We consider this technique to be the most compatible with the anatomy of the peroneus longus and brevis. The Fisher-Freeman-Halton test indicated that there was a significant relationship between responses on the questions (P = 0.0253, 95% CI 0.0249-0.0257), thus justifying further correspondence analysis. The correspondence analysis found no clustering of the answers that were compatible with anatomical evidence and were applied in the correct technique, but did demonstrate a common error, resisting dorsiflexion rather than plantarflexion, which was in agreement with the described

  7. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test responses to PPD and other antigens among BCG-vaccinated HIV-1-infected and healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Natalia Moriya Xavierda; Albuquerque, Maly de; Lins, Janaína Bacelar Acioli; Alvares-Junior, João Teixeira; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araújo

    2011-10-01

    Among HIV-1-infected patients, CD4+ T cell counts are well-established markers of cell-mediated immunity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin tests can be used to evaluate in vivo cell-mediated immunity to common antigens. DTH responses to tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD), sporotrichin, trichophytin, candidin and streptokinase/streptodornase antigens were assessed. Thirty-six HIV-1-infected children/adolescents and 56 age- and sex-matched HIV-1/HIV-2-seronegative participants were tested. All participants had a BCG scar. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate significant differences between groups (pPPD positivity prevailed among healthy participants (40/56, 71.4%). PPD reactivity in the HIV-1-positive group was 8.3% (pPPD induration was 2.5mm (range: 2-5mm) in the HIV-1 group and 6.0 mm among healthy participants (range: 3-15 mm). There was no correlation between PPD positivity and age. No correlation between CD4+ T cell counts and DTH reactivity was observed among HIV-1-infected patients. DTH skin test responses, including PPD reactivity, were significantly lower among HIV-1-infected participants compared to healthy controls, which likely reflects advanced disease and T cell depletion.

  8. Scintigraphy, pH measurement and radiography in the evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Erichsen, H.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Scintigraphy as a diagnostic tool has been explored in 69 patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms and endoscopic esophagitis. In all subjects the presence of reflux was also evaluated by radiography and intraesophageal pH measurements (standard acid reflux test). The overall sensitivity of scintigraphy (85.5%) was significantly higher than those of radiography (27.5%) and pH measurements (69.5%). Scintigraphy was performed with normal saline and with acidified orange juice as the transport medium for the isotope 99mTc. The yield of positive scintigrams was higher (22.3 to 61.1%, depending on the grade of endoscopic esophagitis) with the latter variant. Moreover, demonstration of spontaneous reflux was greatly facilitated by the acid scintigraphy. This was particularly obvious in the grade I esophagitis, in which the freqency of spontaneous reflux with saline method was 3.4% and with acid medium 34/3%. Reflux (induced or spontaneous) was seen in 22 normal control subjects with the saline method, and in 1 subject only with the acid method. On the basis of these findings it is concluded that scintigraphy, especially the acid variant of the technique, is a valuable diagnostic procedure in GER disease

  9. Scintigraphy, pH measurement and radiography in the evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Erichsen, H.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Scintigraphy as a diagnostic tool has been explored in 69 patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms and endoscopic esophagitis. In all subjects the presence of reflux was also evaluated by radiography and intraesophageal pH measurements (standard acid reflux test). The overall sensitivity of scintigraphy (85.5%) was significantly higher than those of radiography (27.5%) and pH measurements (69.5%). Scintigraphy was performed with normal saline and with acidified orange juice as the transport medium for the isotope 99mTc. The yield of positive scintigrams was higher (22.3 to 61.1%, depending on the grade of endoscopic esophagitis) with the latter variant. Moreover, demonstration of spontaneous reflux was greatly facilitated by the acid scintigraphy. This was particularly obvious in the grade I esophagitis, in which the freqency of spontaneous reflux with saline method was 3.4% and with acid medium 34/3%. Reflux (induced or spontaneous) was seen in 22 normal control subjects with the saline method, and in 1 subject only with the acid method. On the basis of these findings it is concluded that scintigraphy, especially the acid variant of the technique, is a valuable diagnostic procedure in GER disease.

  10. Evaluation report on CCTF CORE-I REFLOOD TEST Cl-1, (Run 010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudoh, Takashi; Murao, Yoshio.

    1983-09-01

    This report describes the effects of the loop flow resistance on the thermohydraulic behavior in the primary system during the reflood phase. The investigation is based on the results of the test Cl-1 which was performed with increased loop flow resistance in the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The loop flow resistance was about 40% higher in the present test than in the reference test Cl-5. The results of two tests were compared and the following conclusions were obtained: 1) The total loop flow rate and the core flooding rate were reduced by about 20% with the increased loop flow resistance 2) The core heat transfer was also lowered, then, the turnaround and the quench times extended at the locations above the core midplane. 3) The measured maximum temperature in the core was 50 K higher for the present test than for the reference test. (author)

  11. Evaluation and compilation of DOE waste package test data: Biannual report, August 1986-January 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrante, C.; Escalante, E.; Fraker, A.; Harrison, S.; Shull, R.; Linzer, M.; Ricker, R.; Ruspi, J.

    1987-10-01

    This report summarizes results of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) evaluations of Department of Energy (DOE) activities on waste packages designed for containment of radioactive high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The waste package is a proposed engineered barrier that is part of a permanent repository for HLW. Metal alloys are the principal barriers within the engineered system. Technical discussions are given for the corrosion of metals proposed for the canister, particularly carbon and stainless steels, and copper. In the section on tuff, the current level of understanding of several canister materials is questioned. Within the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) section, discussions are given on problems concerning groundwater, materials for use in the metallic overpack, and diffusion through the packing. For the proposed salt site, questions are raised on the work on both ASTM A216 Steel and Ti-Code 12. NBS work related to the vitrification of HLW borosilicate glass at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is covered. NBS reviews of selected DOE technical reports and a summary of current waste-package activities of the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is presented. Using a database management system, a computerized database for storage and retrieval of reviews and evaluations of HLW data has been developed and is described. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Evaluation test of high temperature strain gages used in a stethoscope for OGL-1 components in an elevated temperature service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toshimi (Kyowa Electronic Inst. Co. Ltd. (Japan)); Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro; Suzuki; Toshiaki

    1982-08-01

    The stethoscope for OGL-1 components in a elevated temperature service (SOCETS) is a measuring system of evaluation integrity of structures for high temperature pipings during operations of Japan Material Testing Reactor. This paper is described about the results on fundamental performance on high temperature strain gages. From their test results that have been based on correlation of temperature-timestrain factors, it became clear that two weldable strain gages and a capacitance strain gage were available for strain measurements of OGL-1 components.

  13. Formation of alteration products during dissolution of vitrified ILW in a high-pH calcium-rich solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utton, C.A., E-mail: c.utton@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Hand, R.J.; Hyatt, N.C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Swanton, S.W. [AMEC, B150, Thomson Avenue, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QB (United Kingdom); Williams, S.J. [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, NDA Harwell Office, Building 587, Curie Avenue, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    To simulate the possible disposition of a vitrified intermediate-level waste (ILW) in a cementitious environment within a geological disposal facility (GDF), the durability of a laboratory simulant ILW vitrified in a borosilicate glass in a saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution (pH ∼12.5) was measured. Both a low surface area to volume (SA/V) ratio (∼10 m{sup −1}) Materials Characterisation Center test 1 (MCC-1) and a high SA/V ratio (∼10,000 m{sup −1}) product consistency test type B (PCT-B) were used at 50 °C for up to 170 days. The formation of alteration layers and products was followed. The surfaces of the monoliths were analysed using SEM/EDX and showed the formation of magnesium-rich precipitates and distinct calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) precipitates. Cross sections showed the development of a calcium-rich alteration layer, which was observed from 14 days. The altered layer was up to 5 μm thick after 170 days and showed accumulation of zirconium, iron and magnesium and to a lesser extent aluminium, along with calcium and silicon. Based on comparison of the rate data, it is suggested that the presence of this layer may offer some protection to the underlying glass. However, the high SA/V ratio experiments showed resumed alteration after 56 days, indicating that the altered layer may not be protective in the long term (under accelerated conditions). The formation of a magnesium-containing smectite clay (likely saponite) in addition to CSH(II), a jennite-like CSH phase, were identified in the high SA/V experiment by X-ray diffraction after 170 days. These results suggest that calcium and magnesium have important roles in both the long and shorter-term durability of vitrified wastes exposed to high pH.

  14. Evaluation of functional capacity for exercise in children and adolescents with sickle-cell disease through the six-minute walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostyn, Sandro V; Carvalho, Werther B de; Johnston, Cíntia; Braga, Josefina A P

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate lung functional capacity (FC) for physical exercise in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) through the six-minute walk test (6MWT). A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to evaluate the FC of 46 patients with SCD through the 6MWT. The following parameters were assessed: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), peripheral pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), peak expiratory flow (PEF), blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), dyspnea, and leg fatigue (modified Borg scale) at rest, in the end of the test, and ten minutes after the 6MWT. The total distance walked was also recorded. For statistical analysis, the parametric variables were analyzed using the paired Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Bonferroni multiple comparisons, with a significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. The 46 patients were aged age 9.15±3.06 years, presented baseline Hb of 9.49±1.67g/dL, and walked 480.89±68.70 m. SCD diagnosis was as follows: group 1- HbSS (n=20)/HbSβ(0)-thalassemia (n=3) and group 2 - HbSC (n=20)/HbSβ(+)-thalassemia (n=3). Regarding total distance walked, patients in group 1 walked a shorter distance than patients in group 2 (459.39±57.19 vs. 502.39±73.60 m; p=0.032). There was no statistical difference regarding PEF in the three moments of evaluation. The SpO2 in ambient air and SpO2 with O2 differed between groups 1 and 2 (p<0.001 vs. p=0.002), as well as the RR (p=0.001). These patients showed a lower FC for exercise than that predicted for the age range in the literature. Patients diagnosed with HbSS/Sβ0-thalassemia had a lower performance in the test than those with HbSC/Sβ(+)-thalassemia regarding total distance walked, RR, and SpO2 after the 6MWT. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Whole-Tumor Histogram and Texture Analyses of DTI for Evaluation of IDH1-Mutation and 1p/19q-Codeletion Status in World Health Organization Grade II Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y W; Han, K; Ahn, S S; Choi, Y S; Chang, J H; Kim, S H; Kang, S-G; Kim, E H; Lee, S-K

    2018-04-01

    Prediction of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)-mutation and 1p/19q-codeletion status of World Health Organization grade ll gliomas preoperatively may assist in predicting prognosis and planning treatment strategies. Our aim was to characterize the histogram and texture analyses of apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy maps to determine IDH1 -mutation and 1p/19q-codeletion status in World Health Organization grade II gliomas. Ninety-three patients with World Health Organization grade II gliomas with known IDH1- mutation and 1p/19q-codeletion status (18 IDH1 wild-type, 45 IDH1 mutant and no 1p/19q codeletion, 30 IDH1- mutant and 1p/19q codeleted tumors) underwent DTI. ROIs were drawn on every section of the T2-weighted images and transferred to the ADC and the fractional anisotropy maps to derive volume-based data of the entire tumor. Histogram and texture analyses were correlated with the IDH1 -mutation and 1p/19q-codeletion status. The predictive powers of imaging features for IDH1 wild-type tumors and 1p/19q-codeletion status in IDH1 -mutant subgroups were evaluated using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator. Various histogram and texture parameters differed significantly according to IDH1 -mutation and 1p/19q-codeletion status. The skewness and energy of ADC, 10th and 25th percentiles, and correlation of fractional anisotropy were independent predictors of an IDH1 wild-type in the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator. The area under the receiver operating curve for the prediction model was 0.853. The skewness and cluster shade of ADC, energy, and correlation of fractional anisotropy were independent predictors of a 1p/19q codeletion in IDH1 -mutant tumors in the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator. The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.807. Whole-tumor histogram and texture features of the ADC and fractional anisotropy maps are useful for predicting the IDH1 -mutation and 1p/19q

  16. The impact of nonpolar lipids on the regulation of the steryl ester hydrolases Tgl1p and Yeh1p in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Isabella; Korber, Martina; Athenstaedt, Karin; Daum, Günther

    2017-12-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae degradation of steryl esters is catalyzed by the steryl ester hydrolases Tgl1p, Yeh1p and Yeh2p. The two steryl ester hydrolases Tgl1p and Yeh1p localize to lipid droplets, a cell compartment storing steryl esters and triacylglycerols. In the present study we investigated regulatory aspects of these two hydrolytic enzymes, namely the gene expression level, protein amount, stability and enzyme activity of Tgl1p and Yeh1p in strains lacking both or only one of the two major nonpolar lipids, steryl esters and triacylglycerols. In a strain lacking both nonpolar lipids and consequently lipid droplets, Tgl1p as well as Yeh1p were present at low amount, became highly unstable compared to wild-type cells, and lost their enzymatic activity. Under these conditions both steryl ester hydrolases were retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. The lack of steryl esters alone was not sufficient to cause an altered intracellular localization of Tgl1p and Yeh1p. Surprisingly, the stability of Tgl1p and Yeh1p was markedly reduced in a strain lacking triacylglycerols, but their capacity to mobilize steryl esters remained unaffected. We also tested a possible cross-regulation of Tgl1p and Yeh1p by analyzing the behavior of each hydrolase in the absence of its counterpart steryl ester hydrolases. In summary, this study demonstrates a strong regulation of the two lipid droplet associated steryl ester hydrolases Tgl1p and Yeh1p due to the presence/absence of their host organelle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Re-testing and misclassification of HIV-2 and HIV-1&2 dually reactive patients among the HIV-2 cohort of The West African Database to evaluate AIDS collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchounga, Boris K; Inwoley, Andre; Coffie, Patrick A; Minta, Daouda; Messou, Eugene; Bado, Guillaume; Minga, Albert; Hawerlander, Denise; Kane, Coumba; Eholie, Serge P; Dabis, François; Ekouevi, Didier K

    2014-01-01

    Introduction West Africa is characterized by the circulation of HIV-1 and HIV-2. The laboratory diagnosis of these two infections as well as the choice of a first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is challenging, considering the limited access to second-line regimens. This study aimed at confirming the classification of HIV-2 and HIV-1&2 dually reactive patients followed up in the HIV-2 cohort of the West African Database to evaluate AIDS collaboration. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to December 2012 in Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire and Mali among patients classified as HIV-2 or HIV-1&2 dually reactive according to the national HIV testing algorithms. A 5-ml blood sample was collected from each patient and tested in a single reference laboratory in Côte d’Ivoire (CeDReS, Abidjan) with two immuno-enzymatic tests: ImmunoCombII® (HIV-1&2 ImmunoComb BiSpot – Alere) and an in-house ELISA test, approved by the French National AIDS and hepatitis Research Agency (ANRS). Results A total of 547 patients were included; 57% of them were initially classified as HIV-2 and 43% as HIV-1&2 dually reactive. Half of the patients had CD4≥500 cells/mm3 and 68.6% were on ART. Of the 312 patients initially classified as HIV-2, 267 (85.7%) were confirmed as HIV-2 with ImmunoCombII® and in-house ELISA while 16 (5.1%) and 9 (2.9%) were reclassified as HIV-1 and HIV-1&2, respectively (Kappa=0.69; p<0.001). Among the 235 patients initially classified as HIV-1&2 dually reactive, only 54 (23.0%) were confirmed as dually reactive with ImmunoCombII® and in-house ELISA, while 103 (43.8%) and 33 (14.0%) were reclassified as HIV-1 and HIV-2 mono-infected, respectively (kappa= 0.70; p<0.001). Overall, 300 samples (54.8%) were concordantly classified as HIV-2, 63 (11.5%) as HIV-1&2 dually reactive and 119 (21.8%) as HIV-1 (kappa=0.79; p<0.001). The two tests gave discordant results for 65 samples (11.9%). Conclusions Patients with HIV-2 mono-infection are correctly

  18. Experimental and theoretical evaluation of nanodiamonds as pH triggered drug carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Jingjing

    2012-01-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) and its derivatives have been widely used for drug, protein and gene delivery. Herein, experimental and theoretical methods have been combined to investigate the effect of pH on the delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) from fluorescein labeled NDs (Fc-NDs). In the endosomal recycling process, the nanoparticle will pass from mildly acidic vesicle to pH ≈ 4.8; thus, it is important to investigate DOX release from NDs at different pH values. Fc-NDs released DOX dramatically under acidic conditions, while an increase in the DOX loading efficiency (up to 6.4 wt%) was observed under basic conditions. Further theoretical calculations suggest that H + weakens the electrostatistic interaction between ND surface carboxyl groups and DOX amino groups, and the interaction energies at pH < 7, pH 7 and pH > 7 are 10.4 kcal mol -1, 25.0 kcal mol -1 and 27.0 kcal mol -1 respectively. Cellular imaging experiments show that Fc-NDs are readily ingested by breast adenocarcinoma (BA) cells and cell viability tests prove that they can be utilized as a safe drug delivery vehicle. Furthermore, pH triggered DOX release has been tested in vitro (pH 7.4 and pH 4.83) in breast adenocarcinoma (BA) cells. © The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 2012.

  19. Drop performance test and evaluation for HANARO shutoff units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y. H.; Cho, Y. K.; Lee, J. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Woo, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    The function of the shutoff units of the HANARO is to rapidly insert the shutoff rod into the reactor core for safe shutdown of reactor. This paper describes drop performance test and evaluation for a shutoff unit for the technical verification of lifetime extension and localization of the HANARO shutoff units. We have performed preliminary drop performance tests for a shutoff unit at 1/2-core test loop and analyzed through the comparison with the test results performed during design verification test and the results of the periodic performance test in HANARO. It shows that the results of the local fabrication, installation and alignment for the shutoff unit meet the basic performance requirements, Furthermore, the performance evaluation method of the periodic drop test of the HANARO shutoff units is a conservative method comparing with the real drop time

  20. [Role and related mechanism of S1P/S1P1 signal pathway during post conditioning of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X H; Li, H X; Tao, J; Li, X M; Yang, Y N; Ma, Y T; Chen, B D

    2016-05-24

    To study the role and mechanism of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/ sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1(S1P1) signal pathway during post conditioning of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured, then stimulated by norepinephrine (NE) to induce cardiomyocytes hypertrophy. Using tri-gas incubator to create hypoxia and reoxygenation enviroment to mimic ischemia-reperfusion and postconditioning. Hypertrophic cardiomyoctyes were divided into five groups according to the presence or absence of various drugs and postconditiong and relevant signal pathways changes were detected: (1) IPost group (hypoxia+ postconditioning); (2) IPost+ S1P group (cells were pretreated with S1P (1 μmol/L) for 2 h before IPost); (3) IPost+ W-146+ S1P group (cells in IPost+ W-146+ S1P group were pretreated with S1P1 inhibitor W-146 (0.4 μmol/L) for 20 min); (4) IPost+ PD98059+ S1P group (cells in IPost+ S1P group were pretreated with MAPK antagonist PD98059 (125 μmol/L) for 20 min); (5) IPost+ LY-294002+ S1P group (cells in IPost+ S1P group were pretreated with PI3K antagonist LY294002 (0.1 μmol/L) for 20 min). Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and protein expression of relevant signal pathways were detected by Western blot. (1)Apoptosis rate was significantly increased in hypoxia/reoxygenation (27.90±4.49)% group compared with normal control group (7.97±2.18)%, which could be significantly reduced in IPost group (15.90±1.77)% (all PS1P and IPost+ S1P+ LY-294002 groups than in IPost and IPost+ S1P+ W-146 and IPost+ S1P+ PD98059 group (all PS1P and IPost+ S1P+ LY-294002 group than in IPost and IPost+ S1P+ W-146 group and IPost+ S1P+ PD98059 group (all PS1P+ W-146 and IPost+ S1P+ PD98059 groups. p-ERK1/2 and p-Akt levels in IPost+ S1P+ W-146 group and IPost+ S1P+ PD98059 were similar as in IPost group. S1P can play protective role on NE induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy during post conditioning through downregulating caspase-3 expression and

  1. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) and S1P Signaling Pathway: Therapeutic Targets in Autoimmunity and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsing-Chuan; Han, May H

    2016-07-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptors (S1PR) are ubiquitously expressed. S1P-S1PR signaling has been well characterized in immune trafficking and activation in innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the full extent of its involvement in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is not well understood. FTY720 (fingolimod), a non-selective S1PR modulator, significantly decreased annualized relapse rates in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). FTY720, which primarily targets S1P receptor 1 as a functional antagonist, arrests lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissues and reduces neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies suggest that FTY720 also decreases astrogliosis and promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation within the CNS and may have therapeutic benefit to prevent brain atrophy. Since S1P signaling is involved in multiple immune functions, therapies targeting S1P axis may be applicable to treat autoimmune diseases other than MS. Currently, over a dozen selective S1PR and S1P pathway modulators with potentially superior therapeutic efficacy and better side-effect profiles are in the pipeline of drug development. Furthermore, newly characterized molecules such as apolipoprotein M (ApoM) (S1P chaperon) and SPNS2 (S1P transporter) are also potential targets for treatment of autoimmune diseases. Finally, the application of therapies targeting S1P and S1P signaling pathways may be expanded to treat several other immune-mediated disorders (such as post-infectious diseases, post-stroke and post-stroke dementia) and inflammatory conditions beyond their application in primary autoimmune diseases.

  2. Evaluation of pH, ultimate tensile strength, and micro-shear bond strength of two self-adhesive resin cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Artioli COSTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH, ultimate tensile strength (UTS, and micro-shear bond strength (µSBS of two self-adhesive resin cements to enamel and dentin. Sound bovine incisors (n = 10 and two self-adhesive resin cements (i.e., RelyX U-100 and seT PP were used. The pH of the resin cements was measured using a pH-indicator paper (n = 3. Specimens for UTS were obtained from an hourglass-shaped mold. For µSBS, cylinders with internal diameter of 0.75 mm and height of 0.5 mm were bonded to the flat enamel and dentin surfaces. Bonded cylinders were tested in the shear mode using a loop wire. The fracture mode was also evaluated. The cement seT PP showed a low pH; U-100 showed significantly higher UTS (49.9 ± 2.0 than seT PP (40.0 ± 2.1 (p < 0.05 and high µSBS to enamel (10.7 ± 3.7. The lowest µSBS was found for seT PP to dentin (0.7 ± 0.6; seT PP to enamel (4.8 ± 1.7, and for U-100 to dentin (7.2 ± 1.9, showing an intermediate µSBS value (p < 0.05. Adhesive failure was the most frequently observed failure mode. The resin cement that presented the lowest pH and UTS also presented the lowest micro-shear bond strength to enamel and dentin.

  3. Intracellular S1P Generation Is Essential for S1P-Induced Motility of Human Lung Endothelial Cells: Role of Sphingosine Kinase 1 and S1P Lyase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyshev, Evgeny V.; Gorshkova, Irina; Usatyuk, Peter; Kalari, Satish; Zhao, Yutong; Pyne, Nigel J.; Pyne, Susan; Sabbadini, Roger A.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2011-01-01

    Background Earlier we have shown that extracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) induces migration of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) through the activation of S1P1 receptor, PKCε, and PLD2-PKCζ-Rac1 signaling cascade. As endothelial cells generate intracellular S1P, here we have investigated the role of sphingosine kinases (SphKs) and S1P lyase (S1PL), that regulate intracellular S1P accumulation, in HPAEC motility. Methodology/Principal Findings Inhibition of SphK activity with a SphK inhibitor 2-(p-Hydroxyanilino)-4-(p-Chlorophenyl) Thiazole or down-regulation of Sphk1, but not SphK2, with siRNA decreased S1Pint, and attenuated S1Pext or serum-induced motility of HPAECs. On the contrary, inhibition of S1PL with 4-deoxypyridoxine or knockdown of S1PL with siRNA increased S1Pint and potentiated motility of HPAECs to S1Pext or serum. S1Pext mediates cell motility through activation of Rac1 and IQGAP1 signal transduction in HPAECs. Silencing of SphK1 by siRNA attenuated Rac1 and IQGAP1 translocation to the cell periphery; however, knockdown of S1PL with siRNA or 4-deoxypyridoxine augmented activated Rac1 and stimulated Rac1 and IQGAP1 translocation to cell periphery. The increased cell motility mediated by down-regulation was S1PL was pertussis toxin sensitive suggesting “inside-out” signaling of intracellularly generated S1P. Although S1P did not accumulate significantly in media under basal or S1PL knockdown conditions, addition of sodium vanadate increased S1P levels in the medium and inside the cells most likely by blocking phosphatases including lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). Furthermore, addition of anti-S1P mAb to the incubation medium blocked S1Pext or 4-deoxypyridoxine-dependent endothelial cell motility. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest S1Pext mediated endothelial cell motility is dependent on intracellular S1P production, which is regulated, in part, by SphK1 and S1PL. PMID:21304987

  4. Test Report for Acceptance Test Procedure for Pumping Instrumentation and Control Skid ''P''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOCH, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) provides the test results for the inspection and testing of the new Pumping Instrumentation and Control (PIC) skid designed as ''P''. The ATR summaries the results and provides a copy of the ATP and inspections in the Appendix

  5. Cytochrome c interaction with hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, Carrick M. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)]. E-mail: carrick@uwyo.edu; Khare, Nidhi [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Lovelace, David M. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2006-02-15

    The interaction of metalloproteins such as cytochromes with oxides is of interest for a number of reasons, including molecular catalysis of environmentally important mineral-solution electron transfer reactions (e.g., dehalogenations) and photovoltaic applications. Iron reduction by bacteria, thought to be cytochrome mediated, is of interest for geochemical and environmental remediation reasons. As a baseline for understanding cytochrome interaction with ferric oxide surfaces, we report on the interaction of mitochondrial cytochrome c (Mcc), a well-studied protein, with hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) surfaces. Mcc sorbs strongly to hematite from aqueous solution in a narrow pH range corresponding to opposite charge on Mcc and hematite (between pH 8.5 and 10, Mcc is positively charged and hematite surfaces are negatively charged). Cyclic voltammetry of Mcc using hematite electrodes gives redox potentials characteristic of Mcc in a native conformational state, with no evidence for unfolding on the hematite surface. Atomic force microscopy imaging is consistent with a loosely attached adsorbate that is easily deformed by the AFM tip. In phosphate-containing solution, Mcc adhers to the surface more strongly. These results establish hematite as a viable material for electrochemical and spectroscopic characterization of cytochrome-mineral interaction.

  6. Design, Development and Hotfire Testing of Monolithic Copper and Bimetallic Additively Manufactured Combustion Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Barnett, Greg; Brandsmeier, Will; Greene, Sandy Elam; Protz, Chris

    2016-01-01

    NASA and industry partners are working towards fabrication process development to reduce costs and schedules associated with manufacturing liquid rocket engine components with the goal of reducing overall mission costs. One such technique being evaluated is powder-bed fusion or selective laser melting (SLM) otherwise commonly referred to as additive manufacturing. The NASA Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) program was designed to develop processes and material characterization for the GRCop-84 copper-alloy commensurate with powder bed additive manufacturing, evaluate bimetallic deposition and complete testing of a full scale combustion chamber. As part of this development, the process has been transferred to industry partners to enable a long-term supply chain of monolithic copper combustion chambers. As a direct spin off of this program, NASA is working with industry partners to further develop the printing process for the GRCop-84 material in addition to the C-18150 (CuCrZr) material. To advance the process further and allow for optimization with multiple materials, NASA is also investigating the feasibility of bimetallic additively manufactured chambers. A 1.2k sized thrust-chamber was designed and developed to compare the printing process of the GRCop-84 and C-18150 SLM materials. A series of similar MCC liners also completed development with an Inconel 625 jacket bonded to the GRcop-84 liner evaluating direct metal deposition (DMD) laser and arc-based techniques. This paper describes the design, development, manufacturing and testing of these combustion chambers and associated lessons learned throughout the design and development process.

  7. Evaluation of hydrotherapy, using passive tests and power tests, for recovery across a cyclic week of competitive rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor R; Climstein, Mike; Cameron, Melainie

    2013-04-01

    In team sports, a cycle of training, competition, and recovery occurs weekly during the competitive season. In this research, we evaluated hydrotherapy for recovery from a simulated game of rugby union tracked over a week of training. Twenty-four experienced male rugby union players (mean ± SD age 19.46 ± 0.82 years, weight 82.38 ± 11.12 kg, height 178.54 ± 5.75 cm) were randomly divided into 3 groups: cold water immersion (n = 8), contrast bath therapy (n = 8), and a control group (n = 8). The 2 forms of hydrotherapy were administered immediately after a simulated rugby game. Testing was conducted 1 hour before the game and at 5 intervals postgame: 1, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hours. Dependent variables included countermovement jump, 10- and 40-m sprints, sessional rating of perceived exertion (RPE), flexibility, thigh circumference, and self-reported delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Significant differences in DOMS were found between the cold water immersion and contrast bath groups at 48 hours post intervention (p = 0.02), and between the control and contrast bath groups at 72 (p = 0.03) and 96 (p = 0.04) hours post intervention. Cold water immersion and contrast bath groups reported significantly different RPE at 72 hours (p = ?) and 96 hours post (p = 0.05) intervention. Athletes' perceptions of muscle soreness and sessional RPE scores for training were greater in the contrast bath group (20%) after the simulated game and throughout the training week. Although results from passive and power tests were inconclusive in determining whether cold water immersion or passive recovery was more effective in attenuating fatigue, results indicated contrast baths had little benefit in enhancing recovery during a cyclic week of rugby union.

  8. Irradiation effects test Series Scoping Test 1: test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Allison, C.M.; Farrar, L.C.

    1977-09-01

    The report describes the results of the first scoping test in the Irradiation Effects Test Series conducted by the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program, which is part of the Water Reactor Research Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. The research is sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This test used an unirradiated, three-foot-long, PWR-type fuel rod. The objective of this test was to thoroughly evaluate the remote fabrication procedures to be used for irradiated rods in future tests, handling plans, and reactor operations. Additionally, selected fuel behavior data were obtained. The fuel rod was subjected to a series of preconditioning power cycles followed by a power increase which brought the fuel rod power to about 20.4 kW/ft peak linear heat rating at a coolant mass flux of 1.83 x 10 6 lb/hr-ft 2 . Film boiling occurred for a period of 4.8 minutes following flow reductions to 9.6 x 10 5 and 7.5 x 10 5 lb/hr-ft 2 . The test fuel rod failed following reactor shutdown as a result of heavy internal and external cladding oxidation and embrittlement which occurred during the film boiling operation

  9. Evaluation test of high temperature strain gages used in a stethoscope for OGL-1 components in an elevated temperature service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshimi; Tanaka, Isao; Komori, Yoshihiro; Suzuki; Toshiaki.

    1982-01-01

    The stethoscope for OGL-1 components in a elevated temperature service (SOCETS) is a measuring system of evaluation integrity of structures for high temperature pipings during operations of Japan Material Testing Reactor. This paper is described about the results on fundamental performance on high temperature strain gages. From their test results that have been based on correlation of temperature-timestrain factors, it became clear that two weldable strain gages and a capacitance strain gage were available for strain measurements of OGL-1 components. (author)

  10. Event Shapes in $p\\bar p$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, Scott [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This dissertation presents the analysis of nine different event shapes measured in high energy p$\\bar{p}$ collisions. An event shape can be defined as an event-based quantity that measures how the final energies are distributed in the final event. This analysis will test strong interactions as described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), through their implementation in different Monte Carlo-based models. Each of the event shapes provides information about the flow of energy in QCD events and about the hadronic final states that occur in p$\\bar{p}$ particle collisions, thus allowing the study of the dynamics of QCD multijet events. Any deviation of an event shape from zero will be indicative of higher-order effects, meaning that more than the two jets were produced in the event. For each of the event shapes, both normalized differential distributions ( 1/σ dσ/dX) and average event shapes ($\\bar{X}$σ) were measured, where X is the event shape and σ is the cross section. This analysis uses 0.7 fb-1 of data taken between 2004 and 2006 by the DØ detector located at the Fermi National Accelerator Lab (Fermilab) in Batavia, IL, using p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV.

  11. Exploring the oxygen challenge test as a microcirculation evaluation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous microcirculation has emerged in recent years as a practical accessible subject for the study of peripheral circulation. Non-invasive techniques such as Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF, skin Evaporimetry and Transcutaneous Gasimetry in association with provocation tests, render cutaneous circulation a very attractive research model. This study was applied to a group of healthy young female volunteers, (n = 8, (21,6 ± 2,6 years old breathing a 100 % oxygen atmosphere for 10 minutes. This test allowed us to evaluate the circulatory response in the lower limb microcirculation. Measurement techniques included local blood flow by LDF, Transcutaneous (tc pO2 partial pressure and Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL by Evaporimetry. Data analysis revels that tc-pO2 and LDF changed significantly during the test. A reciprocal evolution profile was registered in LDF and TEWL, which seems to support previous data that changes in local blood flow may influence the epidermal “barrier” function. This model seems suitable to characterize the lower limb microcirculation.

  12. Radiotherapy modulates expression of EGFR, ERCC1 and p53 in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, V.H. de; Melo, A.C. de; Nogueira-Rodrigues, A.; Pimenta-Inada, H.K.; Alves, F.G.; Moralez, G.; Thiago, L.S.; Ferreira, C.G.; Sternberg, C., E-mail: diretoriaexecutiva@sboc.org.br [Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Meira, D.D. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, ES (Brazil); Pires, A.C. [Fonte Medicina Diagnóstica, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a public health problem and the molecular mechanisms underlying radioresistance are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the modulation of key molecules involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle and DNA repair in cervical cancer cell lines (CASKI and C33A) and in malignant tissues biopsied from 10 patients before and after radiotherapy. The expression patterns of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and p53 were evaluated in cancer cell lines by quantitative PCR and western blotting, and in human malignant tissues by immunohistochemistry. The mutation status of TP53 gene was evaluated by direct sequencing. Among cell lines, absent or weak modulations of EGFR, ERCC1 and p53 were observed after exposure to 1.8 Gy. Conversely, increased expressions of p53 (5/10 patients; P=0.0239), ERCC1 (5/10 patients; P=0.0294) and EGFR (4/10 patients; P=0.1773) were observed in malignant tissues after radiotherapy with the same radiation dose. TP53 mutations were found only in one patient. Here we show that a single dose of radiotherapy induced EGFR, ERCC1 and p53 expression in malignant tissues from cervical cancer patients but not in cancer cell lines, highlighting the gap between in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Studies on larger patient cohorts are needed to allow an interpretation that an up regulation of p53, EGFR and ERCC1 may be part of a radioresistance mechanism. (author)

  13. Vinclozolin, a widely used fungizide, enhanced BaP-induced micronucleus formation in human derived hepatoma cells by increasing CYP1A1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin-Jiang; Lu, Wen-qing; Roos, Peter H; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2005-10-15

    Vinclozolin, a widely used fungicide, can be identified as a residue in numerous vegetable and fruit samples. To get insight in its genetic toxicity, we investigated the genotoxic effect of vinclozolin in the human derived hepatoma cell line HepG2 using the micronucleus (MN) assay. Additionally, to evaluate the co- or anti-mutagenic potency of vinclozolin, we treated HepG2 cells with different concentrations of vinclozolin for 24 h. Subsequently, the cells were exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) for 1h. Exposure of HepG2 cells to 50-400 microM vinclozolin alone did not cause any induction of micronuclei. However, a pronounced co-mutagenic effect was observed. MN frequencies caused by BaP increased by 30.6%, 52.8% and 65.3% after pretreatment of the cell cultures with 50, 100 and 200 microM vinclozolin, respectively. The highest concentration (400 microM) of vinclozolin tested caused cytotoxicity. Therefore, micronuclei were not considered for that concentration. To clarify the mechanism of cogenotoxicity, we assayed cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), which plays a pivotal role in activation of BaP. Cells exposed to vinclozolin led to significant increase of CYP1A1 expression in Western blot. The result suggested that induction of CYP1A1 by vinclozolin account for its enhancing effect on genotoxicity caused by BaP.

  14. A diagnostic model incorporating P50 sensory gating and neuropsychological tests for schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Chi Shan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Endophenotypes in schizophrenia research is a contemporary approach to studying this heterogeneous mental illness, and several candidate neurophysiological markers (e.g. P50 sensory gating and neuropsychological tests (e.g. Continuous Performance Test (CPT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST have been proposed. However, the clinical utility of a single marker appears to be limited. In the present study, we aimed to construct a diagnostic model incorporating P50 sensory gating with other neuropsychological tests in order to improve the clinical utility. METHODS: We recruited clinically stable outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria of schizophrenia and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants underwent P50 sensory gating experimental sessions and batteries of neuropsychological tests, including CPT, WCST and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III. RESULTS: A total of 106 schizophrenia patients and 74 healthy controls were enrolled. Compared with healthy controls, the patient group had significantly a larger S2 amplitude, and thus poorer P50 gating ratio (gating ratio = S2/S1. In addition, schizophrenia patients had a poorer performance on neuropsychological tests. We then developed a diagnostic model by using multivariable logistic regression analysis to differentiate patients from healthy controls. The final model included the following covariates: abnormal P50 gating (defined as P50 gating ratio >0.4, three subscales derived from the WAIS-III (Arithmetic, Block Design, and Performance IQ, sensitivity index from CPT and smoking status. This model had an adequate accuracy (concordant percentage = 90.4%; c-statistic = 0.904; Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness-of-Fit Test, p = 0.64>0.05. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest study to date using P50 sensory gating in subjects of Chinese ethnicity and the first to use P50 sensory gating along with other neuropsychological tests

  15. Evaluation of Presumably Disease Causing SCN1A Variants in a Cohort of Common Epilepsy Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Dennis; Reinthaler, Eva M; Dejanovic, Borislav; May, Patrick; Thiele, Holger; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Schwarz, Günter; Riesch, Erik; Ikram, M Arfan; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; Steinböck, Hannelore; Gruber-Sedlmayr, Ursula; Neophytou, Birgit; Zara, Federico; Hahn, Andreas; Gormley, Padhraig; Becker, Felicitas; Weber, Yvonne G; Cilio, Maria Roberta; Kunz, Wolfram S; Krause, Roland; Zimprich, Fritz; Lemke, Johannes R; Nürnberg, Peter; Sander, Thomas; Lerche, Holger; Neubauer, Bernd A

    2016-01-01

    The SCN1A gene, coding for the voltage-gated Na+ channel alpha subunit NaV1.1, is the clinically most relevant epilepsy gene. With the advent of high-throughput next-generation sequencing, clinical laboratories are generating an ever-increasing catalogue of SCN1A variants. Variants are more likely to be classified as pathogenic if they have already been identified previously in a patient with epilepsy. Here, we critically re-evaluate the pathogenicity of this class of variants in a cohort of patients with common epilepsy syndromes and subsequently ask whether a significant fraction of benign variants have been misclassified as pathogenic. We screened a discovery cohort of 448 patients with a broad range of common genetic epilepsies and 734 controls for previously reported SCN1A mutations that were assumed to be disease causing. We re-evaluated the evidence for pathogenicity of the identified variants using in silico predictions, segregation, original reports, available functional data and assessment of allele frequencies in healthy individuals as well as in a follow up cohort of 777 patients. We identified 8 known missense mutations, previously reported as pathogenic, in a total of 17 unrelated epilepsy patients (17/448; 3.80%). Our re-evaluation indicates that 7 out of these 8 variants (p.R27T; p.R28C; p.R542Q; p.R604H; p.T1250M; p.E1308D; p.R1928G; NP_001159435.1) are not pathogenic. Only the p.T1174S mutation may be considered as a genetic risk factor for epilepsy of small effect size based on the enrichment in patients (P = 6.60 x 10-4; OR = 0.32, fishers exact test), previous functional studies but incomplete penetrance. Thus, incorporation of previous studies in genetic counseling of SCN1A sequencing results is challenging and may produce incorrect conclusions.

  16. Acetylcholine versus cold pressor testing for evaluation of coronary endothelial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed AlBadri

    Full Text Available Assessment of coronary endothelial function with intracoronary acetylcholine (IC-Ach provides diagnostic and prognostic data in patients with suspected coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD, but is often not feasible due in part to the time and expertise needed for pharmacologic mixing. Cold pressor testing (CPT is a simple and safe stimulus useful for either invasive or non-invasive endothelial function testing and myocardial perfusion imaging but has not been specifically evaluated among symptomatic women with signs of ischemic heart disease (IHD who have no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD.163 women with signs and symptoms of IHD and no obstructive CAD from the NHLBI- Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation-Coronary Vascular Dysfunction (WISE-CVD study underwent coronary reactivity testing with a Doppler flow wire (FloWire® Volcano, San Diego, CA in the proximal left anterior descending artery. Coronary artery diameter and coronary blood flow (CBF assessed by core lab using QCA before and after IC-Ach (18.2 μg/ml infused over 3 minutes and during CPT.Mean age was 55 ± 12 years. Rate pressure product (RPP in response to IC-Ach did not change (baseline to peak, P = 0.26, but increased during CPT (363±1457; P = 0.0028. CBF in response to CPT was poorly correlated to IC-Ach CBF. Change in coronary artery diameter after IC-Ach correlated with change after CPT (r = 0.59, P<0.001. The correlation coefficient was stronger in subjects with coronary dilation to IC-Ach (r = 0.628, P<0.001 versus those without dilation (r = 0.353, P = 0.002, suggesting that other factors may be important to this relationship when endothelium is abnormal.In women with no obstructive CAD and suspected CMD, coronary diameter changes with IC-Ach and CPT are moderately-well correlated suggesting that CPT testing may be of some use, particularly among patients with normal endothelial function, however, not an alternative to IC-Ach for diagnosis of coronary

  17. Maintenance proficiency evaluation test bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Loran

    2003-01-01

    The Maintenance Proficiency Evaluation Test Bank (MPETB) is an Electric Power Research Institute- (EPRJ-) operated, utility-sponsored means of developing, maintaining, and disseminating secure, high-quality written and performance maintenance proficiency tests. EPRTs charter is to ensure that all tests and test items that go into the Test Bank have been validated, screened for reliability, and evaluated to high standards of psychometric excellence. Proficiency tests of maintenance personnel.(mechanics, electricians, and instrumentation and control [I and C] technicians) are most often used to determine if an experienced employee is capable of performing maintenance tasks without further training. Such tests provide objective evidence for decisions to exempt an employee from what, for the employee, is unnecessary training. This leads to considerable savings in training costs and increased productivity because supervisors can assign personnel to tasks at which their competence is proven. The ultimate objective of proficiency evaluation is to ensure that qualified maintenance personnel are available to meet the maintenance requirements of the plant Numerous task-specific MPE tests (both written and performance) have been developed and validated using the EPRI MPE methodology by the utilities participating in the MPETB project A task-specific MPE consists of a multiple-choice written examination and a multi-step performance evaluation that can be used to assess an individual's present knowledge and skill level for a given maintenance task. The MPETB contains MPEs and test items for the mechanical, electrical, and I and C classifications that are readily available to participating utilities. Presently, utilities are placing emphasis on developing MPEs to evaluate outage-related maintenance tasks that demonstrate the competency and qualifications of plant and contractor personnel before the start of outage work. Utilities are also using the MPE methodology and process to

  18. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Mediates ICAM-1-Dependent Monocyte Adhesion through p38 MAPK and p42/p44 MAPK-Dependent Akt Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Lee, I-Ta; Hsu, Chun-Hao; Hsu, Chih-Kai; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is frequently implicated in lung inflammation. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been shown to play a key role in inflammation via adhesion molecules induction, and then causes lung injury. However, the mechanisms underlying S1P-induced ICAM-1 expression in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs) remain unclear. The effect of S1P on ICAM-1 expression was determined by Western blot and real-time PCR. The involvement of signaling pathways in these responses was investigated by using the selective pharmacological inhibitors and transfection with siRNAs. S1P markedly induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion which were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of S1PR1 (W123), S1PR3 (CAY10444), c-Src (PP1), EGFR (AG1478), PDGFR (AG1296), MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), PI3K (LY294002), or AP-1 (Tanshinone IIA) and transfection with siRNA of S1PR1, S1PR3, c-Src, EGFR, PDGFR, p38, p42, JNK1, c-Jun, or c-Fos. We observed that S1P-stimulated p42/p44 MAPK and p38 MAPK activation was mediated via a c-Src/EGFR and PDGFR-dependent pathway. S1P caused the c-Src/EGFR/PDGFR complex formation. On the other hand, we demonstrated that S1P induced p42/p44 MAPK and p38 MAPK-dependent Akt activation. In addition, S1P-stimulated JNK1/2 phosphorylation was attenuated by SP600125 or PP1. Finally, S1P enhanced c-Fos mRNA levels and c-Jun phosphorylation. S1P-induced c-Jun activation was reduced by PP1, AG1478, AG1296, U0126, SP600125, SB202190, or LY294002. These results demonstrated that S1P-induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion were mediated through S1PR1/3/c-Src/EGFR, PDGFR/p38 MAPK, p42/p44 MAPK/Akt-dependent AP-1 activation. PMID:25734900

  19. Evaluation of 10 aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbons in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crebelli, R; Carere, A; Leopardi, P; Conti, L; Fassio, F; Raiteri, F; Barone, D; Ciliutti, P; Cinelli, S; Vericat, J A

    1999-03-01

    Ten halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (carbon tetrachloride, 1-chlorohexane, 2,3-dichlorobutane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,3-dichloropropane, hexachloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and 1,1,3-trichloropropene), previously assayed in genetic assays in fungi, were evaluated in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test</