Astroparticle Physics Tests of Lorentz Invariance Violation
Lang, R. G.; de Souza, V.
2017-06-01
Testing Lorentz invariance is essential as it is one of the pillars of modern physics. Moreover, its violation is foreseen in several popular Quantum Gravity models. Several authors study the effects of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. These particles are the most energetic events ever detected and therefore represent a promising framework to test LIV. In this work we present an analytic calculation of the inelasticity for any a + b → c + d interaction using first order perturbation in the dispersion relation that violates Lorentz invariance. The inelasticity can be calculated by solving a third-order polynomial equation containing: a) the kinematics of the interaction, b) the LIV term for each particle and c) the geometry of the interaction. We use the inelasticity we calculate to investigate the proton propagation in the intergalactic media. The photopion production of the proton interaction with the CMB is taken into account using the inelasticity and the attenuation length in different LIV scenarios. We show how the allowed phase space for the photopion production changes when LIV is considered for the interaction. The calculations presented here are going to be extended in order to calculated the modified ultra-high energy cosmic rays spectrum and compare it to the data.
Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter
Blas, Diego; Sibiryakov, Sergey
2012-01-01
We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.
Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blas, Diego [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey, E-mail: diego.blas@cern.ch, E-mail: mm.ivanov@physics.msu.ru, E-mail: sibir@inr.ac.ru [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Vorobjevy Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2012-10-01
We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.
Experimental Design for Testing Local Lorentz Invariance Violations in Gravity
Chen, Ya-Fen; Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang
2017-09-01
Local Lorentz invariance is an important component of General Relativity. Testing for Local Lorentz invariance can not only probe the foundation stone of General Relativity but also help to explore the unified theory for General Relativity and quantum mechanics. In this paper, we search the Local Lorentz invariance violation associated with operators of mass dimension d=6 in the pure-gravity sector with short-range gravitational experiments. To enlarge the Local Lorentz invariance violation signal effectively, we design a new experiment in which the constraints of all fourteen violation coefficients may be improved by about one order of magnitude
Superconducting-Gravimeter Tests of Local Lorentz Invariance
Flowers, Natasha A.; Goodge, Casey; Tasson, Jay D.
2017-11-01
Superconducting-gravimeter measurements are used to test the local Lorentz invariance of the gravitational interaction and of matter-gravity couplings. The best laboratory sensitivities to date are achieved via a maximum-reach analysis for 13 Lorentz-violating operators, with some improvements exceeding an order of magnitude.
Test of Lorentz Invariance with Atmospheric Neutrinos
:,; Haga, Y; Hayato, Y; Ikeda, M; Iyogi, K; Kameda, J; Kishimoto, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakano, Y; Nakayama, S; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Tanaka, H; Tomura, T; Ueno, K; Wendell, R A; Yokozawa, T; Irvine, T; Kajita, T; Kametani, I; Kaneyuki, K; Lee, K P; McLachlan, T; Nishimura, Y; Richard, E; Okumura, K; Labarga, L; Fernandez, P; Gustafson, J; Kearns, E; Raaf, J L; Berkman, S; Tanaka, H A; Tobayama, S; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Goldhaber, M; Carminati, G; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Weatherly, P; Renshaw, A; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Takhistov, V; Ganezer, K S; Hartfiel, B L; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Hong, N; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Akiri, T; Himmel, A; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Wongjirad, T; Ishizuka, T; Tasaka, S; Jang, J S; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Smith, S N; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Suzuki, A T; Takeuchi, Y; Bronner, C; Hirota, S; Huang, K; Ieki, K; Kikawa, T; Minamino, A; Murakami, A; Nakaya, T; Suzuki, K; Takahashi, S; Tateishi, K; Fukuda, Y; Choi, K; Itow, Y; Mitsuka, G; Mijakowski, P; Hignight, J; Imber, J; Jung, C K; Yanagisawa, C; Ishino, H; Kibayashi, A; Koshio, Y; Mori, T; Sakuda, M; Yamaguchi, R; Yano, T; Kuno, Y; Tacik, R; Kim, S B; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Nishijima, K; Koshiba, M; Suda, Y; Totsuka, Y; Yokoyama, M; Martens, K; Marti, Ll; Vagins, M R; Martin, J F; de Perio, P; Konaka, A; Wilking, M J; Chen, S; Zhang, Y; Connolly, K; Wilkes, R J
2014-01-01
A search for neutrino oscillations induced by Lorentz violation has been performed using 4,438 live-days of Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino data. The Lorentz violation is included in addition to standard three-flavor oscillations using the non-perturbative Standard Model Extension (SME), allowing the use of the full range of neutrino path lengths, ranging from 15 to 12,800 km, and energies ranging from 100 MeV to more than 100 TeV in the search. No evidence of Lorentz violation was observed, so limits are set on the renormalizable isotropic SME coefficients in the $e\\mu$, $\\mu\\tau$, and $e\\tau$ sectors, improving the existing limits by up to seven orders of magnitude and setting limits for the first time in the neutrino $\\mu\\tau$ sector of the SME.
A test of local Lorentz invariance with Compton scattering asymmetry
Mohanmurthy, P; Dutta, D
2016-01-01
We report on a measurement of the constancy and anisotropy of the speed of light relative to the electrons in photon-electron scattering. We used the Compton scattering asymmetry measured by the new Compton polarimeter in Hall~C at Jefferson Lab to test for deviations from unity of the vacuum refractive index ($n$). For photon energies in the range of 9 - 46 MeV, we obtain a new limit of $1-n < 1.4 \\times 10^{-8}$. In addition, the absence of sidereal variation over the six month period of the measurement constrains any anisotropies in the speed of light. These constitute the first study of Lorentz invariance using Compton asymmetry. Within the minimal standard model extension framework, our result yield limits on the photon and electron coefficients $\\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{YZ}, c_{TX}, \\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{ZX}$, and $c_{TY}$. Although, these limits are several orders of magnitude larger than the current best limits, they demonstrate the feasibility of using Compton asymmetry for tests of Lorentz invarianc...
Tests of CPT, Lorentz invariance and the WEP with antihydrogen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holzscheiter, M.H.; ATHENA Collaboration
1999-03-01
Antihydrogen atoms, produced near rest, trapped in a magnetic well, and cooled to the lowest possible temperature (kinetic energy) could provide an extremely powerful tool for the search of violations of CPT and Lorentz invariance. Equally well, such a system could be used for searches of violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) at high precision. The author describes his plans to form a significant number of cold, trapped antihydrogen atoms for comparative precision spectroscopy of hydrogen and antihydrogen and comment on possible first experiments.
Testing Lorentz Invariance Using an Odd-Parity Asymmetric Optical Resonator
Baynes, Fred; Tobar, Michael
2011-01-01
We present the first experimental test of Lorentz invariance using the frequency difference between counter-propagating modes in an asymmetric odd-parity optical resonator. This type of test is $\\sim10^{4}$ more sensitive to odd-parity and isotropic (scalar) violations of Lorentz invariance than equivalent conventional even-parity experiments due to the asymmetry of the optical resonator. The disadvantages of odd parity resonators have been negated by the use of counter-propagating modes, delivering a high level of immunity to environmental fluctuations. With a non-rotating experiment our result limits the isotropic Lorentz violating parameter $\\tilde{\\kappa}_{tr}$ to 3.4 $\\pm$ 6.2 x $10^{-9}$, the best reported constraint from direct measurements. Using this technique the bounds on odd-parity and scalar violations of Lorentz invariance can be improved by many orders of magnitude.
Nuclear Matrix Elements for Tests of Local Lorentz Invariance Violation
Brown, B. A.; Bertsch, G. F.; Robledo, L. M.; Romalis, M. V.; Zelevinsky, V.
2017-11-01
The nuclear matrix elements for the spin operator and the momentum quadrupole operator are important for the interpretation of precision atomic physics experiments that search for violations of local Lorentz and C P T symmetry and for new spin-dependent forces. We use the configuration-interaction nuclear shell model and self-consistent mean-field theory to calculate the momentum matrix elements for 21Ne, 23Na, 133Cs, 173Yb, and 201Hg. We show that these momentum matrix are strongly suppressed by the many-body correlations, in contrast to the well-known enhancement of the spatial quadrupole nuclear matrix elements.
Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.
Shao, Lijing
2014-03-21
The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity.
High Energy Astrophysics Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models
Stecker, Floyd W.
2012-01-01
High energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approx.10(exp -35) m. I will discuss the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) that can be manifested by observing of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) on the fraction of LIV at a Lorentz factor of approx. 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space-based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future. I will also discuss how the LIV formalism casts doubt on the OPERA superluminal neutrino claim.
Testing Lorentz invariance emergence in Ising Model using lattice Monte Carlo simulations
Stojku, Stefan
2017-01-01
All measurements performed so far at the observable energy scales show no violation of Lorentz invariance. However, it is yet impossible to check experimentally whether this symmetry holds at high energies such as the Planck scale. Recently, theories of gravitation with Lorentz violation, known as Horava-Lifshitz gravity [1, 2] have gained signiﬁcant attention by treating Lorentz symmetry as an emergent phenomenon. A Lif-shitz type theory assumes an anisotropic scaling between space and time weighted by some critical exponent. In order for these theories to be viable candidates for quantum gravity description of the nature, Lorentz symmetry needs to be recovered at low energies.
A precision test of Lorentz invariance using room-temperature high-finesse optical resonators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eisele, Christian
2009-10-28
An apparatus for a test of a basic postulate of the theory of Special Relativity, the isotropy of the speed of light, has been developed. Deviations from the isotropy imply a violation of Lorentz invariance, a symmetry assumed by all established theories of the fundamental forces. Such a signal may provide a glimpse on physics beyond our current theories of the fundamental forces, the General Theory of Relativity and the Standard Modell of particle physics. Since long theoreticians try to unify General Relativity and the Standard Modell within one theory, a grand unified theory (GUT). So far they did not succeed, although promising candidate theories have been developed, e.g. string theories or loop quantum gravity. However, there are hints that Lorentz invariance might not be an exact symmetry of nature, but that deviations are to be expected. This is a strong motivation for tests of Lorentz invariance with increased sensitivity as the one presented within this thesis. We employ, for the first time for a test of the isotropy of the speed of light, monolithic optical resonators fabricated from a glass ceramic with ultra low expansion coefficient (ULE). By means of a monolithic Nd:YAG-laser ({lambda} = 1064 nm) we measure the difference between the resonance frequencies of two orthogonally oriented resonators. The low thermal expansion coefficient reduces the influence of thermal fluctuations on the resonance frequencies, which are a function of the mirror spacing and the speed of light inside the resonators only. The complete optical setup has been put on top of active vibration isolation supports, which strongly damp mechanical vibrations. This improves the short-time stability of the resonators resonance frequencies. This technique is used for the first time in a Speed of Light Isotropy Test (SLIT) experiment. Furthermore, a system for the stabilization of the tilt of the optics breadboard is implemented, based on electromagnetic actuators. This stabilization is
Testing Lorentz Invariance Emergence in the Ising Model using Monte Carlo simulations
Dias Astros, Maria Isabel
2017-01-01
In the context of the Lorentz invariance as an emergent phenomenon at low energy scales to study quantum gravity a system composed by two 3D interacting Ising models (one with an anisotropy in one direction) was proposed. Two Monte Carlo simulations were run: one for the 2D Ising model and one for the target model. In both cases the observables (energy, magnetization, heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility) were computed for different lattice sizes and a Binder cumulant introduced in order to estimate the critical temperature of the systems. Moreover, the correlation function was calculated for the 2D Ising model.
Testing the Equivalence Principle and Lorentz Invariance with PeV Neutrinos from Blazar Flares.
Wang, Zi-Yi; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu
2016-04-15
It was recently proposed that a giant flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift z=1.522 is in association with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. Based on this association we here suggest that the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and gamma-ray photons from blazar flares can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle and the Lorentz invariance for neutrinos. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least 10^{-5}, which is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for particles. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible LIV to >0.01E_{pl} for linear LIV models and >6×10^{-8}E_{pl} for quadratic order LIV models, where E_{pl} is the Planck energy scale. These are the most stringent constraints on neutrino LIV for subluminal neutrinos.
Astroparticle tests of Lorentz symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz, Jorge [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)
2016-07-01
Lorentz symmetry is a cornerstone of modern physics. As the spacetime symmetry of special relativity, Lorentz invariance is a basic component of the standard model of particle physics and general relativity, which to date constitute our most successful descriptions of nature. Deviations from exact symmetry would radically change our view of the universe and current experiments allow us to test the validity of this assumption. In this talk, I describe effects of Lorentz violation in cosmic rays and gamma rays that can be studied in current observatories.
ICECUBE NEUTRINOS AND LORENTZ INVARIANCE VIOLATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma and INFN, Sez. Roma1, P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Guetta, D. [Osservatorio astronomico di Roma, v. Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Piran, Tsvi [The Racah Institute for Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2015-06-20
The IceCube neutrino telescope has found so far no evidence of gamma-ray burst (GRB) neutrinos. We here notice that these results assume the same travel times from source to telescope for neutrinos and photons, an assumption that is challenged by some much-studied pictures of spacetime quantization. We briefly review previous results suggesting that limits on quantum-spacetime effects obtained for photons might not be applicable to neutrinos, and we then observe that the outcome of GRB-neutrino searches could depend strongly on whether one allows for neutrinos to be affected by the minute effects of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) predicted by some relevant quantum-spacetime models. We discuss some relevant issues using as an illustrative example three neutrinos that were detected by IceCube in good spatial coincidence with GRBs, but hours before the corresponding gamma rays. In general, this could happen if the earlier arrival reflects quantum-spacetime-induced LIV, but, as we stress, some consistency criteria must be enforced in order to properly test such a hypothesis. Our analysis sets the stage for future GRB-neutrino searches that could systematically test the possibility of quantum-spacetime-induced LIV.
Cosmic rays and the search for a Lorentz Invariance Violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2008-11-15
This is an introductory review about the on-going search for a signal of Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) in cosmic rays. We first summarise basic aspects of cosmic rays, focusing on rays of ultra high energy (UHECRs). We discuss the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) energy cutoff for cosmic protons, which is predicted due to photopion production in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This is a process of modest energy in the proton rest frame. It can be investigated to a high precision in the laboratory, if Lorentz transformations apply even at factors {gamma} {proportional_to} O(10{sup 11}). For heavier nuclei the energy attenuation is even faster due to photo-disintegration, again if this process is Lorentz invariant. Hence the viability of Lorentz symmetry up to tremendous {gamma}-factors - far beyond accelerator tests - is a central issue. Next we comment on conceptual aspects of Lorentz Invariance and the possibility of its spontaneous breaking. This could lead to slightly particle dependent ''Maximal Attainable Velocities''. We discuss their effect in decays, Cerenkov radiation, the GZK cutoff and neutrino oscillation in cosmic rays. We also review the search for LIV in cosmic {gamma}-rays. For multi TeV {gamma}-rays we possibly encounter another puzzle related to the transparency of the CMB, similar to the GZK cutoff, due to electron/positron creation and subsequent inverse Compton scattering. The photons emitted in a Gamma Ray Burst occur at lower energies, but their very long path provides access to information not far from the Planck scale. We discuss conceivable non-linear photon dispersions based on non-commutative geometry or effective approaches. No LIV has been observed so far. However, even extremely tiny LIV effects could change the predictions for cosmic ray physics drastically. An Appendix is devoted to the recent hypothesis by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, which identifies nearby Active Galactic Nuclei - or objects
Lorentz and Poincaré invariance 100 years of relativity
Hsu Jong Ping
2001-01-01
This collection of papers provides a broad view of the development of Lorentz and Poincaré invariance and spacetime symmetry throughout the past 100 years. The issues explored in these papers include: (1) formulations of relativity theories in which the speed of light is not a universal constant but which are consistent with the four-dimensional symmetry of the Lorentz and Poincaré groups and with experimental results, (2) analyses and discussions by Reichenbach concerning the concepts of simultaneity and physical time from a philosophical point of view, and (3) results achieved by the union o
Partonic Orbital Angular Momentum and Lorentz Invariance Relations
Rajan, Abha; Liuti, Simonetta; Engelhardt, Michael
2017-09-01
We show that Generalized Transverse Momentum Distributions (GTMDs) and twist three Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) can be connected through Lorentz Invariant Relations. The equations of motion along with the Lorentz Invariance Relations allow one to explicitly write the separate contributions to twist three GPDs from leading twist GPDs, a quark gluon quark correlation term and, in some cases, a mass term. In particular, the GTMD F14 or the correlation of an unpolarized quark in a longitudinally polarized proton, is known to describe the quarks. Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM). In a separate approach, the twist three GPD Ẽ2 T tilde was also be shown to connect to OAM. We show that these two definitions are connected by a Lorentz Invariance Relation. A similar relation is found for the GTMD G11 which describes quark spin orbit correlations in the proton can be connected to the twist three GPDs E2T ' and H 2T ' . These relations show how twist three GPDs through an implicit quark gluon interaction reproduce the effects of intrinsic transverse momentum in the GTMDs.
Lorentz Invariance Violation and Modified Hawking Fermions Tunneling Radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shu-Zheng Yang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Recently the modified Dirac equation with Lorentz invariance violation has been proposed, which would be helpful to resolve some issues in quantum gravity theory and high energy physics. In this paper, the modified Dirac equation has been generalized in curved spacetime, and then fermion tunneling of black holes is researched under this correctional Dirac field theory. We also use semiclassical approximation method to get correctional Hamilton-Jacobi equation, so that the correctional Hawking temperature and correctional black hole’s entropy are derived.
Model-independent constraints on Lorentz invariance violation via the cosmographic approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Bo Zou
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Since Lorentz invariance plays an important role in modern physics, it is of interest to test the possible Lorentz invariance violation (LIV. The time-lag (the arrival time delay between light curves in different energy bands of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs has been extensively used to this end. However, to our best knowledge, one or more particular cosmological models were assumed a priori in (almost all of the relevant works in the literature. So, this makes the results on LIV in those works model-dependent and hence not so robust in fact. In the present work, we try to avoid this problem by using a model-independent approach. We calculate the time delay induced by LIV with the cosmic expansion history given in terms of cosmography, without assuming any particular cosmological model. Then, we constrain the possible LIV with the observational data, and find weak hints for LIV.
Model-independent constraints on Lorentz invariance violation via the cosmographic approach
Zou, Xiao-Bo; Deng, Hua-Kai; Yin, Zhao-Yu; Wei, Hao
2018-01-01
Since Lorentz invariance plays an important role in modern physics, it is of interest to test the possible Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). The time-lag (the arrival time delay between light curves in different energy bands) of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been extensively used to this end. However, to our best knowledge, one or more particular cosmological models were assumed a priori in (almost) all of the relevant works in the literature. So, this makes the results on LIV in those works model-dependent and hence not so robust in fact. In the present work, we try to avoid this problem by using a model-independent approach. We calculate the time delay induced by LIV with the cosmic expansion history given in terms of cosmography, without assuming any particular cosmological model. Then, we constrain the possible LIV with the observational data, and find weak hints for LIV.
Violations of Lorentz invariance in the neutrino sector after OPERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maccione, Luca [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Liberati, Stefano [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione de Trieste (Italy); Mattingly, David M. [New Hampshire Univ., Durham (United States). Dept. of Physics
2011-10-15
The OPERA collaboration has recently reported that neutrinos travel faster than light. We review the theoretical situation of constraints on violations of Lorentz invariance, focusing in particular on the compatibility between the OPERA results with both previous constraints and recently obtained ones. We generalize to higher order operators the recent constraint provided by the absence of neutrino energy loss, via electron-positron pair production at OPERA energies, and show that no modi ed in vacuo dispersion relation within an effective field theory context is compatible with OPERA results. We conclude that the OPERA result is incompatible with current observations, at least without resorting to models beyond effective field theory, possibly with local environmental effects. (orig.)
Cosmological constraints on deviations from Lorentz invariance in gravity and dark matter
Audren, B; Ivanov, M M; Lesgourgues, J; Sibiryakov, S
2015-01-01
We consider a scenario where local Lorentz invariance is violated by the existence of a preferred time direction at every space-time point. This scenario can arise in the context of quantum gravity and its description at low energies contains a unit time-like vector field which parameterizes the preferred direction. The particle physics tests of Lorentz invariance preclude a direct coupling of this vector to the fields of the Standard Model, but do not bear implications for dark matter. We discuss how the presence of this vector and its possible coupling to dark matter affect the evolution of the Universe. At the level of homogeneous cosmology the only effect of Lorentz invariance violation is a rescaling of the expansion rate. The physics is richer at the level of perturbations. We identify three effects crucial for observations: the rescaling of the matter contribution to the Poisson equation, the appearance of an extra contribution to the anisotropic stress and the scale-dependent enhancement of dark matte...
Tests of Lorentz Symmetry in the Gravitational Sector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aurélien Hees
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Lorentz symmetry is one of the pillars of both General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics. Motivated by ideas about quantum gravity, unification theories and violations of CPT symmetry, a significant effort has been put the last decades into testing Lorentz symmetry. This review focuses on Lorentz symmetry tests performed in the gravitational sector. We briefly review the basics of the pure gravitational sector of the Standard-Model Extension (SME framework, a formalism developed in order to systematically parametrize hypothetical violations of the Lorentz invariance. Furthermore, we discuss the latest constraints obtained within this formalism including analyses of the following measurements: atomic gravimetry, Lunar Laser Ranging, Very Long Baseline Interferometry, planetary ephemerides, Gravity Probe B, binary pulsars, high energy cosmic rays, … In addition, we propose a combined analysis of all these results. We also discuss possible improvements on current analyses and present some sensitivity analyses for future observations.
Tests of Lorentz symmetry in the gravitational sector
Hees, Aurélien; Bourgoin, Adrien; Bars, Hélène Pihan-Le; Guerlin, Christine; Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe Le
2016-01-01
Lorentz symmetry is one of the pillars of both General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics. Motivated by ideas about quantum gravity, unification theories and violations of CPT symmetry, a significant effort has been put the last decades into testing Lorentz symmetry. This review focuses on Lorentz symmetry tests performed in the gravitational sector. We briefly review the basics of the pure gravitational sector of the Standard-Model Extension (SME) framework, a formalism developed in order to systematically parametrize hypothetical violations of the Lorentz invariance. Furthermore, we discuss the latest constraints obtained within this formalism including analyses of the following measurements: atomic gravimetry, Lunar Laser Ranging, Very Long Baseline Interferometry, planetary ephemerides, Gravity Probe B, binary pulsars, high energy cosmic rays,... In addition, we propose a combined analysis of all these results. We also discuss possible improvements on current analyses and present some s...
Rubtsov, Grigory
2017-05-25
We discuss the effect of hypothetical violation of Lorentz invariance at high energies on the formation of atmospheric showers by very-high-energy gamma rays. In the scenario where Lorentz invariance violation leads to a decrease of the photon velocity with energy the formation of the showers is suppressed compared to the Lorentz invariant case. Absence of such suppression in the high-energy part of spectrum of the Crab nebula measured independently by HEGRA and H.E.S.S. collaborations is used to set lower bounds on the energy scale of Lorentz invariance violation. These bounds are competitive with the strongest existing constraints obtained from timing of variable astrophysical sources and the absorption of TeV photons on the extragalactic background light. They will be further improved by the next generation of multi-TeV gamma-ray observatories.
Phenomenology of theories of gravity without Lorentz invariance: the preferred frame case
Blas, Diego
2015-01-01
Theories of gravitation without Lorentz invariance are candidates of low-energy descriptions of quantum gravity. In this review we will describe the phenomenological consequences of the candidates associated to the existence of a preferred time direction
Conditions for Lorentz-invariant superluminal information transfer without signaling
Grössing, G.; Fussy, S.; Mesa Pascasio, J.; Schwabl, H.
2016-03-01
We understand emergent quantum mechanics in the sense that quantum mechanics describes processes of physical emergence relating an assumed sub-quantum physics to macroscopic boundary conditions. The latter can be shown to entail top-down causation, in addition to usual bottom-up scenarios. With this example it is demonstrated that definitions of “realism” in the literature are simply too restrictive. A prevailing manner to define realism in quantum mechanics is in terms of pre-determination independent of the measurement. With our counter-example, which actually is ubiquitous in emergent, or self-organizing, systems, we argue for realism without pre-determination. We refer to earlier results of our group showing how the guiding equation of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation can be derived from a theory with classical ingredients only. Essentially, this corresponds to a “quantum mechanics without wave functions” in ordinary 3-space, albeit with nonlocal correlations. This, then, leads to the central question of how to deal with the nonlocality problem in a relativistic setting. We here show that a basic argument discussing the allegedly paradox time ordering of events in EPR-type two-particle experiments falls short of taking into account the contextuality of the experimental setup. Consequently, we then discuss under which circumstances (i.e. physical premises) superluminal information transfer (but not signaling) may be compatible with a Lorentz-invariant theory. Finally, we argue that the impossibility of superluminal signaling - despite the presence of superluminal information transfer - is not the result of some sort of conspiracy (á la “Nature likes to hide”), but the consequence of the impossibility to exactly reproduce in repeated experimental runs a state's preparation, or of the no-cloning theorem, respectively.
Lorentz Invariance Violation and the Observed Spectrum of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays
Scully, S. T.; Stecker, F. W.
2009-01-01
There has been much interest in possible violations of Lorentz invariance, particularly motivated by quantum gravity theories. It has been suggested that a small amount of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) could turn of photomeson interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with photons of the cosmic background radiation and thereby eliminate the resulting sharp steepening in the spectrum of the highest energy CRs predicted by Greisen Zatsepin and Kuzmin (GZK). Recent measurements of the UHECR spectrum reported by the HiRes and Auger collaborations, however, indicate the presence of the GZK effect. We present the results of a detailed calculation of the modification of the UHECR spectrum caused by LIV using the formalism of Coleman and Glashow. We then compare these results with the experimental UHECR data from Auger and HiRes. Based on these data, we find a best fit amount of LIV of 4.5+1:5 ..4:5 x 10(exp -23),consistent with an upper limit of 6 x 10(exp -23). This possible amount of LIV can lead to a recovery of the cosmic ray spectrum at higher energies than presently observed. Such an LIV recovery effect can be tested observationally using future detectors.
Absolute space-time and realism in Lorentz invariant interpretations of quantum mechanics
Combourieu, Marie-Christine; Vigier, Jean-Pierre
1993-04-01
The assertion that Lorentz invariance must necessarily be violated in models aimed at giving a realistic account of quantum theory is shown to be incorrect. Assuming that an absolute curved system ofaxes forms the envelope of Local inertial frames where the 2.7 K radiation field as the preferred frame is isotropic, we demonstrate that Lorentz invariance, as well as covariance, stil apply to quantum mechanics in all frames of reference whenever Einstein and de Broglie's theory of light, recently revisited by Vigier [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 18 (1990) 64; in: Proc. ISQM-SAT Conf.], is considered.
Acoustic Tests of Lorentz Symmetry Using Quartz Oscillators
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Anthony Lo
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate a test of Lorentz symmetry based on new, compact, and reliable quartz oscillator technology. Violations of Lorentz invariance in the matter and photon sector of the standard model extension generate anisotropies in particles’ inertial masses and the elastic constants of solids, giving rise to measurable anisotropies in the resonance frequencies of acoustic modes in solids. A first realization of such a “phonon-sector” test of Lorentz symmetry using room-temperature stress-compensated-cut crystals yields 120 h of data at a frequency resolution of 2.4×10^{−15} and a limit of c[over ˜]_{Q}^{n}=(−1.8±2.2×10^{−14} GeV on the most weakly constrained neutron-sector c coefficient of the standard model extension. Future experiments with cryogenic oscillators promise significant improvements in accuracy, opening up the potential for improved limits on Lorentz violation in the neutron, proton, electron, and photon sector.
Spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance, black holes and perpetuum mobile of the 2nd kind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dubovsky, S.L. [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States) and Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: dubovsky@physics.harvard.edu; Sibiryakov, S.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2006-07-20
We study the effect of spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance on black hole thermodynamics. We consider a scenario where Lorentz symmetry breaking manifests itself by the difference of maximal velocities attainable by particles of different species in a preferred reference frame. The Lorentz breaking sector is represented by the ghost condensate. We find that the notions of black hole entropy and temperature l their universal meaning. In particular, the standard derivation of the Hawking radiation yields that a black hole does emit thermal radiation in any given particle species, but with temperature depending on the maximal attainable velocity of this species. We demonstrate that this property implies violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and hence, allows construction of a perpetuum mobile of the 2nd kind. We discuss possible interpretation of these results.
Spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance, black holes and perpetuum mobile of the 2nd kind
Dubovsky, S. L.; Sibiryakov, S. M.
2006-07-01
We study the effect of spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance on black hole thermodynamics. We consider a scenario where Lorentz symmetry breaking manifests itself by the difference of maximal velocities attainable by particles of different species in a preferred reference frame. The Lorentz breaking sector is represented by the ghost condensate. We find that the notions of black hole entropy and temperature loose their universal meaning. In particular, the standard derivation of the Hawking radiation yields that a black hole does emit thermal radiation in any given particle species, but with temperature depending on the maximal attainable velocity of this species. We demonstrate that this property implies violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and hence, allows construction of a perpetuum mobile of the 2nd kind. We discuss possible interpretation of these results.
First Test of Lorentz Violation with a Reactor-based Antineutrino Experiment
Abe, Y; Anjos, J C dos; Bergevin, M; Bernstein, A; Bezerra, T J C; Bezrukhov, L; Blucher, E; Bowden, N S; Buck, C; Busenitz, J; Cabrera, A; Caden, E; Camilleri, L; Carr, R; Cerrada, M; Chang, P -J; Chimenti, P; Classen, T; Collin, A P; Conover, E; Conrad, J M; Crespo-Anadón, J I; Crum, K; Cucoanes, A; D'Agostino, M V; Damon, E; Dawson, J V; Dazeley, S; Dietrich, D; Djurcic, Z; Dracos, M; Durand, V; Ebert, J; Efremenko, Y; Elnimr, M; Erickson, A; Fallot, M; Fechner, M; von Feilitzsch, F; Felde, J; Fischer, V; Franco, D; Franke, A J; Franke, M; Furuta, H; Gama, R; Gil-Botella, I; Giot, L; Göger-Neff, M; Gonzalez, L F G; Goodman, M C; Goon, J TM; Greiner, D; Haag, N; Habib, S; Hagner, C; Hara, T; Hartmann, F X; Haser, J; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hayakawa, T; Hofmann, M; Horton-Smith, G A; Ishitsuka, M; Jochum, J; Jollet, C; Jones, C L; Kaether, F; Kalousis, L N; Kamyshkov, Y; Kaplan, D M; Katori, T; Kawasaki, T; Keefer, G; Kemp, E; de Kerret, H; Konno, T; Kryn, D; Kuze, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lane, C E; Lasserre, T; Letourneau, A; Lhuillier, D; Lima, H P; Lindner, M; López-Castanõ, J M; LoSecco, J M; Lubsandorzhiev, B K; Lucht, S; McKee, D; Maeda, J; Maesano, C N; Mariani, C; Maricic, J; Martino, J; Matsubara, T; Mention, G; Meregaglia, A; Meyer, M; Miletic, T; Milincic, R; Miyata, H; Mueller, Th A; Nagasaka, Y; Nakajima, K; Novella, P; Obolensky, M; Oberauer, L; Onillon, A; Osborn, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Palomares, C; Pepe, I M; Perasso, S; Perrin, P; Pfahler, P; Porta, A; Potzel, W; Pronost, G; Reichenbacher, J; Reinhold, B; Remoto, A; Röhling, M; Roncin, R; Roth, S; Rybolt, B; Sakamoto, Y; Santorelli, R; Sato, F; Schönert, S; Schoppmann, S; Schwetz, T; Shaevitz, M H; Shrestha, D; Sida, J -L; Sinev, V; Skorokhvatov, M; Smith, E; Spitz, J; Stahl, A; Stancu, I; Stokes, L F F; Strait, M; Stüken, A; Suekane, F; Sukhotin, S; Sumiyoshi, T; Sun, Y; Terao, K; Tonazzo, A; Toups, M; Thi, H H Trinh; Valdiviesso, G; Veyssiere, C; Wagner, S; Watanabe, H; White, B; Wiebusch, C; Winslow, L; Worcester, M; Wurm, M; Yanovitch, E; Yermia, F; Zimmer, V
2012-01-01
We present a search for Lorentz violation with 8249 candidate electron antineutrino events taken by the Double Chooz experiment in 227.9 live days of running. This analysis, featuring a search for a sidereal time dependence of the events, is the first test of Lorentz invariance using a reactor-based antineutrino source. No sidereal variation is present in the data and the disappearance results are consistent with sidereal time independent oscillations. Under the Standard-Model Extension (SME), we set the first limits on fourteen Lorentz violating coefficients associated with transitions between electron and tau flavor, and set two competitive limits associated with transitions between electron and muon flavor.
Search for violations of Lorentz invariance and $CPT$ symmetry in $B^0_{(s)}$ mixing
Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hongming, Li; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusardi, Nicola; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano
2016-06-15
Violations of $ CPT$ symmetry and Lorentz invariance are searched for by studying interference effects in $ B^0$ mixing and in $ B^0_s$ mixing. Samples of $ B^0\\to J/\\psi K^0_{\\mathrm{S}}$ and $ B^0_s\\to J/\\psi K^+ K^-$ decays are recorded by the LHCb detector in proton--proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$. No periodic variations of the particle-antiparticle mass differences are found, consistent with Lorentz invariance and $ CPT$ symmetry. Results are expressed in terms of the Standard Model Extension parameter $\\Delta a_{\\mu}$ with precisions of $ \\mathcal{O}(10^{-15})$ and $ \\mathcal{O}(10^{-14})$ GeV for the $ B^0$ and $ B^0_s$ systems, respectively. With no assumption on Lorentz (non-)invariance, the $ CPT$-violating parameter $z$ in the $ B^0_s$ system is measured for the first time and found to be $ \\mathcal{R}e(z) = -0.022 \\pm 0.033 \\pm 0.005$ and $ \\mathcal{I}m(z) = 0.004 \\pm 0.011\\pm 0.002$, where the first uncertainti...
String Quantum Gravity, Lorentz-Invariance Violation and Gamma-Ray Astronomy
Mavromatos, Nick E
2010-01-01
In the first part of the review, I discuss ways of obtaining Lorentz-Invariance-Violating (LIV) space-time foam in the modern context of string theory, involving brane world scenarios. The foamy structures are provided by lower-dimensional background brane defects in a D3-brane Universe, whose density is a free parameter to be constrained phenomenologically. Such constraining can be provided by high energy gamma-ray photon tests, including ultra-high energy/infrared photon-photon scattering. In the second part, I analyze the currently available data from MAGIC and FERMI Telescopes on delayed cosmic photon arrivals in this context. It is understood of course that conventional Astrophysics source effects, which currently are far from being understood, might be the dominant reason for the observed delayed arrivals. I also discuss how the stringent constraints from studies of synchrotron-radiation from distant Nebulae, absence of cosmic birefringence and non observation of ultra-high-energy cosmic photons can be ...
The Spectrum of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays and Constraints on Lorentz Invariance Violation
Stecker, F. W.
2008-01-01
There has been much interest in possible violations of Lorentz invariance, particularly motivated by quantum gravity theories. It has been suggested that a small amount of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) could turn off photomeson interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with photons of the cosmic background radiation and thereby eliminate the resulting sharp steepening in the spectrum of the highest energy CRs predicted by Greisen Zatsepin and Kuzmin (GZK). Recent measurements of the UHECR spectrum reported by the HiRes and Auger collaborations, however, indicate the presence of the GZK effect. We present the results of a detailed calculation of the modification of the UHECR spectrum caused by LIV using the formalism of Coleman and Glashow. We then use a chi-squared analysis to compare our results with the experimental UHECR data and thereby place limits on the amount of LIV. We also discuss how a small amount of LIV that is consistent with the experimental data can still lead to a recovery of the cosmic ray flux at higher energies than presently observed.
Ellis, John
2013-01-01
Lorentz invariance is such an important principle of fundamental physics that it should constantly be subjected to experimental scrutiny as well as theoretical questioning. Distant astrophysical sources of energetic photons with rapid time variations, such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and gamma-ray bursters (GRBs), provide ideal experimental opportunities for testing Lorentz invariance. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an excellent experimental tool for making such tests with sensitivities exceeding those possible using other detectors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dai, Wei-Ming; Cai, Rong-Gen [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Guo, Zong-Kuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yuan-Zhong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China)
2017-06-15
We investigate constraints on Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector from a joint analysis of big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. The effect of Lorentz invariance violation during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis changes the predicted helium-4 abundance, which influences the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at the recombination epoch. In combination with the latest measurement of the primordial helium-4 abundance, the Planck 2015 data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies give a strong constraint on the deformation parameter since adding the primordial helium measurement breaks the degeneracy between the deformation parameter and the physical dark matter density. (orig.)
Dai, Wei-Ming; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Cai, Rong-Gen; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong
2017-06-01
We investigate constraints on Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector from a joint analysis of big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. The effect of Lorentz invariance violation during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis changes the predicted helium-4 abundance, which influences the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at the recombination epoch. In combination with the latest measurement of the primordial helium-4 abundance, the Planck 2015 data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies give a strong constraint on the deformation parameter since adding the primordial helium measurement breaks the degeneracy between the deformation parameter and the physical dark matter density.
Flambaum, V V
2016-01-01
Local Lorentz Invariance violating (LLIV) and Einstein equivalence principle violating (EEPV) effects in atomic experiments are discussed. The LLIV and EEPV effects are strongly enhanced in the narrow 7.8 eV transition in 229Th nucleus. Nuclear LLIV tensors are expressed in terms of the experimental values of nuclear quadrupole moments. There is enhancement in nuclei where the quadrupole moments and LLIV tensors have collective nature. Calculations for nuclei of experimental interest 21Ne, 173Yb, 133Cs, 85Rb, 87Rb, 20Hg, 9Be and 131Xe have been performed. The results for 21Ne are used to improve the limits on the proton LLIV constants by 5 orders of magnitude and on the neutron LLIV constants by 1 order of magnitude.
No static black hole hairs in gravitational theories with broken Lorentz invariance
Lin, Kai; Mukohyama, Shinji; Wang, Anzhong; Zhu, Tao
2017-06-01
In this paper, we revisit the issue of static hairs of black holes in gravitational theories with broken Lorentz invariance in the case that the speed cϕ of the khronon field becomes infinitely large, cϕ=∞ , for which the sound horizon of the khronon field coincides with the universal horizon, and the boundary conditions at the sound horizon reduce to those given normally at the universal horizons. As a result, fewer boundary conditions are present in this extreme case in comparison with the case cϕ=finite . Consequently, it is expected that static hairs might exist. However, we show analytically that, even in this case, static hairs still cannot exist, based on a decoupling limit analysis. We also consider the cases in which cϕ is finite but with cϕ≫1 , and we obtain the same conclusion.
Search for Violation of $CPT$ and Lorentz invariance in ${B_s^0}$ meson oscillations
Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Agnew, James P; Alexeev, Guennadi D; Alkhazov, Georgiy D; Alton, Andrew K; Askew, Andrew Warren; Atkins, Scott; Augsten, Kamil; Avila, Carlos A; Badaud, Frederique; Bagby, Linda F; Baldin, Boris; Bandurin, Dmitry V; Banerjee, Sunanda; Barberis, Emanuela; Baringer, Philip S; Bartlett, JFrederick; Bassler, Ursula Rita; Bazterra, Victor; Bean, Alice L; Begalli, Marcia; Bellantoni, Leo; Beri, Suman B; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernhard, Ralf Patrick; Bertram, Iain A; Besancon, Marc; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bhatia, Sudeep; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Blazey, Gerald Charles; Blessing, Susan K; Bloom, Kenneth A; Boehnlein, Amber S; Boline, Daniel Dooley; Boos, Edward E; Borissov, Guennadi; Borysova, Maryna; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Oleg; Brock, Raymond L; Bross, Alan D; Brown, Duncan Paul; Bu, Xue-Bing; Buehler, Marc; Buescher, Volker; Bunichev, Viacheslav Yevgenyevich; Burdin, Sergey; Buszello, Claus Peter; Camacho-Perez, Enrique; Casey, Brendan Cameron Kieran; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; Caughron, Seth Aaron; Chakrabarti, Subhendu; Chan, Kwok Ming Leo; Chandra, Avdhesh; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Guo; Cho, Sung-Woong; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cihangir, Selcuk; Claes, Daniel R; Clutter, Justace Randall; Cooke, Michael P; Cooper, William Edward; Corcoran, Marjorie D; Couderc, Fabrice; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Cuth, Jakub; Cutts, David; Das, Amitabha; Davies, Gavin John; de Jong, Sijbrand Jan; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Deliot, Frederic; Demina, Regina; Denisov, Dmitri S; Denisov, Sergei P; Desai, Satish Vijay; Deterre, Cecile; DeVaughan, Kayle Otis; Diehl, HThomas; Diesburg, Michael; Ding, Pengfei; Dominguez, DAaron M; Dubey, Abhinav Kumar; Dudko, Lev V; Duperrin, Arnaud; Dutt, Suneel; Eads, Michael T; Edmunds, Daniel L; Ellison, John A; Elvira, VDaniel; Enari, Yuji; Evans, Harold G; Evdokimov, Anatoly V; Evdokimov, Valeri N; Faure, Alexandre; Feng, Lei; Ferbel, Thomas; Fiedler, Frank; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fisk, HEugene; Fortner, Michael R; Fox, Harald; Fuess, Stuart C; Garbincius, Peter H; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Garcia-Gonzalez, Jose Andres; Gavrilov, Vladimir B; Geng, Weigang; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Gershtein, Yuri S; Ginther, George E; Gogota, Olga; Golovanov, Georgy Anatolievich; Grannis, Paul D; Greder, Sebastien; Greenlee, Herbert B; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Phillipe Luc; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gruenendahl, Stefan; Gruenewald, Martin Werner; Guillemin, Thibault; Gutierrez, Gaston R; Gutierrez, Phillip; Haley, Joseph Glenn Biddle; Han, Liang; Harder, Kristian; Harel, Amnon; Hauptman, John Michael; Hays, Jonathan M; Head, Tim; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hedin, David R; Hegab, Hatim; Heinson, Ann; Heintz, Ulrich; Hensel, Carsten; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Herner, Kenneth Richard; Hesketh, Gavin G; Hildreth, Michael D; Hirosky, Robert James; Hoang, Trang; Hobbs, John D; Hoeneisen, Bruce; Hogan, Julie; Hohlfeld, Mark; Holzbauer, Jenny Lyn; Howley, Ian James; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hynek, Vlastislav; Iashvili, Ia; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Illingworth, Robert A; Ito, Albert S; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jaffre, Michel J; Jayasinghe, Ayesh; Jeong, Min-Soo; Jesik, Richard L; Jiang, Peng; Johns, Kenneth Arthur; Johnson, Emily; Johnson, Marvin E; Jonckheere, Alan M; Jonsson, Per Martin; Joshi, Jyoti; Jung, Andreas Werner; Juste, Aurelio; Kajfasz, Eric; Karmanov, Dmitriy Y; Katsanos, Ioannis; Kaur, Manbir; Kehoe, Robert Leo Patrick; Kermiche, Smain; Khalatyan, Norayr; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchilava, Avto; Kharzheev, Yuri N; Kiselevich, Ivan Lvovich; Kohli, Jatinder M; Kozelov, Alexander V; Kraus, James Alexander; Kumar, Ashish; Kupco, Alexander; Kurca, Tibor; Kuzmin, Valentin Alexandrovich; Lammers, Sabine Wedam; Lebrun, Patrice; Lee, Hyeon-Seung; Lee, Seh-Wook; Lee, William M; Lei, Xiaowen; Lellouch, Jeremie; Li, Dikai; Li, Hengne; Li, Liang; Li, Qi-Zhong; Lim, Jeong Ku; Lincoln, Donald W; Linnemann, James Thomas; Lipaev, Vladimir V; Lipton, Ronald J; Liu, Huanzhao; Liu, Yanwen; Lobodenko, Alexandre; Lokajicek, Milos; Lopes de Sa, Rafael; Luna-Garcia, Rene; Lyon, Adam Leonard; Maciel, Arthur KA; Madar, Romain; Magana-Villalba, Ricardo; Malik, Sudhir; Malyshev, Vladimir L; Mansour, Jason; Martinez-Ortega, Jorge; McCarthy, Robert L; Mcgivern, Carrie Lynne; Meijer, Melvin M; Melnitchouk, Alexander S; Menezes, Diego D; Mercadante, Pedro Galli; Merkin, Mikhail M; Meyer, Arnd; Meyer, Jorg Manfred; Miconi, Florian; Mondal, Naba K; Mulhearn, Michael James; Nagy, Elemer; Narain, Meenakshi; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer A; Negret, Juan Pablo; Neustroev, Petr V; Nguyen, Huong Thi; Nunnemann, Thomas P; Hernandez Orduna, Jose de Jesus; Osman, Nicolas Ahmed; Osta, Jyotsna; Pal, Arnab; Parashar, Neeti; Parihar, Vivek; Park, Sung Keun; Partridge, Richard A; Parua, Nirmalya; Patwa, Abid; Penning, Bjoern; Perfilov, Maxim Anatolyevich; Peters, Reinhild Yvonne Fatima; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrillo, Gianluca; Petroff, Pierre; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Podstavkov, Vladimir M; Popov, Alexey V; Prewitt, Michelle; Price, Darren; Prokopenko, Nikolay N; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quinn, Gene Breese; Ratoff, Peter N; Razumov, Ivan A; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rominsky, Mandy Kathleen; Ross, Anthony; Royon, Christophe; Rubinov, Paul Michael; Ruchti, Randal C; Sajot, Gerard; Sanchez-Hernandez, Alberto; Sanders, Michiel P; Santos, Angelo Souza; Savage, David G; Savitskyi, Mykola; Sawyer, HLee; Scanlon, Timothy P; Schamberger, RDean; Scheglov, Yury A; Schellman, Heidi M; Schott, Matthias; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwienhorst, Reinhard H; Sekaric, Jadranka; Severini, Horst; Shabalina, Elizaveta K; Shary, Viacheslav V; Shaw, Savanna; Shchukin, Andrey A; Simak, Vladislav J; Skubic, Patrick Louis; Slattery, Paul F; Smirnov, Dmitri V; Snow, Gregory R; Snow, Joel Mark; Snyder, Scott Stuart; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Sonnenschein, Lars; Soustruznik, Karel; Stark, Jan; Stoyanova, Dina A; Strauss, Michael G; Suter, Louise; Svoisky, Peter V; Titov, Maxim; Tokmenin, Valeriy V; Tsai, Yun-Tse; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tuchming, Boris; Tully, Christopher George T; Uvarov, Lev; Uvarov, Sergey L; Uzunyan, Sergey A; Van Kooten, Richard J; van Leeuwen, Willem M; Varelas, Nikos; Varnes, Erich W; Vasilyev, Igor A; Verkheev, Alexander Yurievich; Vertogradov, Leonid S; Verzocchi, Marco; Vesterinen, Mika; Vilanova, Didier; Vokac, Petr; Wahl, Horst D; Wang, Michael HLS; Warchol, Jadwiga; Watts, Gordon Thomas; Wayne, Mitchell R; Weichert, Jonas; Welty-Rieger, Leah Christine; Williams, Mark Richard James; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Wobisch, Markus; Wood, Darien Robert; Wyatt, Terence R; Xie, Yunhe; Yamada, Ryuji; Yang, Siqi; Yasuda, Takahiro; Yatsunenko, Yuriy A; Ye, Wanyu; Ye, Zhenyu; Yin, Hang; Yip, Kin; Youn, Sungwoo; Yu, Jiaming; Zennamo, Joseph; Zhao, Tianqi Gilbert; Zhou, Bing; Zhu, Junjie; Zielinski, Marek; Zieminska, Daria; Zivkovic, Lidija
2015-10-14
We present the first search for CPT-violating effects in the mixing of ${B_s^0}$ mesons using the full Run II data set with an integrated luminosity of 10.4 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-antiproton collisions collected using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We measure the CPT-violating asymmetry in the decay $B_s^0 \\to \\mu^\\pm D_s^\\pm$ as a function of celestial direction and sidereal phase. We find no evidence for CPT-violating effects and place limits on the direction and magnitude of flavor-dependent CPT- and Lorentz-invariance violating coupling coefficients. We find 95\\% confidence intervals of $\\Delta a_{\\perp} < 1.2 \\times 10^{-12}$ GeV and $(-0.8 < \\Delta a_T - 0.396 \\Delta a_Z < 3.9) \\times 10^{-13}$ GeV.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sudarsky, Daniel; Caicedo, Jose Alexander [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)
2005-01-15
We explore the possibility of the Lorentz Invariance violation that can come out from a quantum theory of gravity. We concentrate particularly in the combination of the know elementary particle interactions with a Planck-Scale preferred frame, the specific calculation lead to the conclusion that the effects of the Preferred Frame Granularity of Space-time would result in the very large effects. Finally we conclude that the enthusiasm for improved searches for Lorentz violation should be dampened, given the existing unsuccessful searches.
Lorentz invariance violation and chemical composition of ultra high energy cosmic rays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saveliev, Andrey; Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Maccione, Luca [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2010-12-15
Motivated by experimental indications of a significant presence of heavy nuclei in the cosmic ray flux at ultra high energies (>or similar 10{sup 19} eV), we consider the effects of Planck scale suppressed Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) on the propagation of cosmic ray nuclei. In particular we focus on LIV effects on the photodisintegration of nuclei onto the background radiation fields. After a general discussion of the behavior of the relevant quantities, we apply our formalism to a simplified model where the LIV parameters of the various nuclei are assumed to kinematically result from a single LIV parameter for the constituent nucleons, {eta}, and we derive constraints on {eta}. Assuming a nucleus of a particular species to be actually present at 10{sup 20} eV the following constraints can be placed: -3 x 10{sup -2}
Lorentz invariance violation and simultaneous emission of electromagnetic and gravitational waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Passos
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, we compute some phenomenological bounds for the electromagnetic and massive gravitational high-derivative extensions supposing that it is possible to have an astrophysical process that generates simultaneously gravitational and electromagnetic waves. We present Lorentz invariance violating (LIV higher-order derivative models, following the Myers–Pospelov approach, to electrodynamics and massive gravitational waves. We compute the corrected equation of motion of these models, their dispersion relations and the velocities. The LIV parameters for the gravitational and electromagnetic sectors, ξg and ξγ, respectively, were also obtained for three different approaches: luminal photons, time delay of flight and the difference of graviton and photon velocities. These LIV parameters depend on the mass scales where the LIV-terms become relevant, M for the electromagnetic sector and M1 for the gravitational one. We obtain, using the values for M and M1 found in the literature, that ξg∼10−2, which is expected to be phenomenologically relevant and ξγ∼103, which cannot be suitable for an effective LIV theory. However, we show that ξγ can be interesting in a phenomenological point of view if M≫M1. Finally the relation between the variation of the velocities of the photon and the graviton in relation to the speed of light was calculated and resulted in Δvg/Δvγ≲1.82×10−3.
Lorentz invariance violation and simultaneous emission of electromagnetic and gravitational waves
Passos, E.; Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Holanda, O.; Souza, G. B.; Zarro, C. A. D.
2017-09-01
In this work, we compute some phenomenological bounds for the electromagnetic and massive gravitational high-derivative extensions supposing that it is possible to have an astrophysical process that generates simultaneously gravitational and electromagnetic waves. We present Lorentz invariance violating (LIV) higher-order derivative models, following the Myers-Pospelov approach, to electrodynamics and massive gravitational waves. We compute the corrected equation of motion of these models, their dispersion relations and the velocities. The LIV parameters for the gravitational and electromagnetic sectors, ξg and ξγ, respectively, were also obtained for three different approaches: luminal photons, time delay of flight and the difference of graviton and photon velocities. These LIV parameters depend on the mass scales where the LIV-terms become relevant, M for the electromagnetic sector and M1 for the gravitational one. We obtain, using the values for M and M1 found in the literature, that ξg ∼10-2, which is expected to be phenomenologically relevant and ξγ ∼103, which cannot be suitable for an effective LIV theory. However, we show that ξγ can be interesting in a phenomenological point of view if M ≫M1. Finally the relation between the variation of the velocities of the photon and the graviton in relation to the speed of light was calculated and resulted in Δvg / Δvγ ≲ 1.82 ×10-3.
A new limit on local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity from solitary pulsars
Shao, Lijing; Kramer, Michael; Wex, Norbert; Champion, David J; Jessner, Axel
2013-01-01
Gravitational preferred frame effects are generally predicted by alternative theories that exhibit an isotropic violation of local Lorentz invariance of gravity. They are described by three parameters in the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism. One of their strong-field generalizations, $\\hat \\alpha_2$, induces a precession of a pulsar's spin around its movement direction with respect to the preferred frame. We constrain $\\hat \\alpha_2$ by using the non-detection of such a precession using the characteristics of the pulse profile. In our analysis we use a large number of observations from the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope, which cover a time span of approximately 15 years. By combining data from two solitary millisecond pulsars, PSRs B1937+21 and J1744-1134, we get a limit of $|\\hat \\alpha_2| < 1.6 \\times 10^{-9}$ at 95% confidence level, which is more than two orders of magnitude better than its best weak-field counterpart from the Solar system.
An application of Lorentz-invariance violation in black hole thermodynamics
Li, Guo-Ping; Pu, Jin; Jiang, Qing-Quan; Zu, Xiao-Tao
2017-10-01
In this paper, we have applied the Lorentz-invariance violation (LIV) class of dispersion relations (DRs) with the dimensionless parameter it{n}=2 and the "sign of LIV" η _+ = 1, to a phenomenological study of the effect of quantum gravity in a strong gravitational field. Specifically, we have studied the effect of the LIV-DR induced quantum gravity on the Schwarzschild black hole thermodynamics. The result shows that the effect of the LIV-DR induced quantum gravity speeds up the black hole evaporation, and its corresponding black hole entropy undergoes a leading logarithmic correction to the "reduced Bekenstein-Hawking entropy", and the ill-defined situations (i.e. the singularity problem and the critical problem) are naturally bypassed when the LIV-DR effect is present. Also, to put our results in a proper perspective, we have compared results with the earlier findings by another quantum-gravity candidate, i.e. the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). Finally, we conclude from the inert remnants at the final stage of the black hole evaporation that, the GUP as a candidate for describing quantum gravity can always do as well as the LIV-DR by adjusting the model-dependent parameters, but in the same model-dependent parameters the LIV-DR acts as a more suitable candidate.
Constraining Lorentz invariance violation from the continuous spectra of short gamma-ray bursts
Chang, Zhe; Li, Xin; Lin, Hai-Nan; Sang, Yu; Wang, Ping; Wang, Sai
2016-04-01
In some quantum gravity theories, a foamy structure of space-time may lead to Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). As the most energetic explosions in the Universe, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) provide an effect way to probe quantum gravity effects. In this paper, we use the continuous spectra of 20 short GRBs detected by the Swift satellite to give a conservative lower limit of quantum gravity energy scale M QG. Due to the LIV effect, photons with different energy have different velocities. This will lead to the delayed arrival of high energy photons relative to low energy ones. Based on the fact that the LIV-induced time delay cannot be longer than the duration of a GRB, we present the most conservative estimate of the quantum gravity energy scales from 20 short GRBs. The strictest constraint, M QG > 5.05 × 1014 GeV in the linearly corrected case, is from GRB 140622A. Our constraint on M QG, although not as tight as previous results, is the safest and most reliable so far. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375203, 11305181, 11322545, 11335012) and Knowledge Innovation Program of The Chinese Academy of Sciences
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Kooten, R. [Indiana U.
2017-01-01
A search is presented for CPT-violating effects in the mixing of $B^0_s$ mesons using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The CPT-violating asymmetry in the decay $B^0_s \\rightarrow \\mu^{\\pm} D_s^{\\mp} X$ as a function of sidereal phase is measured. No evidence for CPT-violating effects is observed and limits are placed on CPT- and Lorentz-invariance violating coupling coefficients.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehnhart, B.C.
2007-05-15
This thesis is concerned with electromagnetic pion production within manifestly Lorentz-invariant chiral perturbation theory using the assumption of isospin symmetry. In a one-loop calculation up to the chiral order O(q{sup 4}), 105 Feynman diagrams contribute, consisting of 20 tree graphs and 85 loop diagrams. The tree graphs are classified as 16 pole diagrams and 4 contact graphs. Of the 85 loop diagrams, 50 diagrams are of order three and 35 diagrams are of fourth order. To calculate the pion production amplitude algorithms are developed on the basis of the Mathematica package FeynCalc. The one-photon-exchange approximation allows one to parametrise the pion production amplitude as the product of the polarisation vector of the (virtual) photon and the matrix element of the transition current. The polarisation vector is related to the leptonic vertex and the photon propagator and is well-known from QED. The dependence of the amplitude on the strong interaction is contained in the matrix element of the transition current, and we use chiral perturbation theory to describe this matrix element. The transition current can be expressed in terms of six gauge invariant amplitudes, each of which can again be decomposed into three isospin amplitudes. Linear combinations of these amplitudes allow us to describe the physical amplitudes. The one-loop integrals appearing within this calculation are determined numerically by the program LoopTools. In the case of tensorial integrals it is required to perform the method of Passarino and Veltman first. Furthermore, we apply the reformulated infrared regularisation which ensures that the results fulfill the chiral power counting. For this purpose algorithms are developed which determine the subtraction terms automatically. The obtained isospin amplitudes are integrated in the program MAID. As tests the s-wave multipoles E{sub 0+} and L{sub 0+} (using results up to chiral order O(q{sup 3})) are calculated in the threshold region
Testing Lorentz symmetry with planetary orbital dynamics
Hees, Aurélien; Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe Le; Bourgoin, Adrien; Rivoldini, Attilio; Lamine, Brahim; Meynadier, Frédéric; Guerlin, Christine; Wolf, Peter
2015-01-01
Planetary ephemerides are a very powerful tool to constrain deviations from the theory of General Relativity using orbital dynamics. The effective field theory framework called the Standard-Model Extension (SME) has been developed in order to systematically parametrize hypothetical violations of Lorentz symmetry (in the Standard Model and in the gravitational sector). In this communication, we use the latest determinations of the supplementary advances of the perihelia and of the nodes obtained by planetary ephemerides analysis to constrain SME coefficients from the pure gravity sector and also from gravity-matter couplings. Our results do not show any deviation from GR and they improve current constraints. Moreover, combinations with existing constraints from Lunar Laser Ranging and from atom interferometry gravimetry allow us to disentangle contributions from the pure gravity sector from the gravity-matter couplings.
Vasileiou, V.; Jacholkowska, A.; Piron, F.; Bolmont, J.; Courturier, C.; Granot, J.; Stecker, Floyd William; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Longo, F.
2013-01-01
We analyze the MeV/GeV emission from four bright Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) observed by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope to produce robust, stringent constraints on a dependence of the speed of light in vacuo on the photon energy (vacuum dispersion), a form of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) allowed by some Quantum Gravity (QG) theories. First, we use three different and complementary techniques to constrain the total degree of dispersion observed in the data. Additionally, using a maximally conservative set of assumptions on possible source-intrinsic spectral-evolution effects, we constrain any vacuum dispersion solely attributed to LIV. We then derive limits on the "QG energy scale" (the energy scale that LIV-inducing QG effects become important, E(sub QG)) and the coefficients of the Standard Model Extension. For the subluminal case (where high energy photons propagate more slowly than lower energy photons) and without taking into account any source-intrinsic dispersion, our most stringent limits (at 95% CL) are obtained from GRB 090510 and are E(sub QG,1) > 7.6 times the Planck energy (E(sub Pl)) and E(sub QG,2) > 1.3×10(exp 11) GeV for linear and quadratic leading order LIV-induced vacuum dispersion, respectively. These limits improve the latest constraints by Fermi and H.E.S.S. by a factor of approx. 2. Our results disfavor any class of models requiring E(sub QG,1) < or approx. E(sub Pl)
Higher-order Lorentz-invariance violation, quantum gravity and fine-tuning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos M. Reyes
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The issue of Lorentz fine-tuning in effective theories containing higher-order operators is studied. To this end, we focus on the Myers–Pospelov extension of QED with dimension-five operators in the photon sector and standard fermions. We compute the fermion self-energy at one-loop order considering its even and odd CPT contributions. In the even sector we find small radiative corrections to the usual parameters of QED which also turn to be finite. In the odd sector the axial operator is shown to contain unsuppressed effects of Lorentz violation leading to a possible fine-tuning. We use dimensional regularization to deal with the divergencies and a generic preferred four-vector. Taking the first steps in the renormalization procedure for Lorentz violating theories we arrive to acceptable small corrections allowing to set the bound ξ<6×10−3.
A Search for Lorentz Invariance and CPT Violation with the MINOS Far Detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adamson, P.; /Fermilab; Auty, D.J.; /Sussex U.; Ayres, D.S.; /Argonne; Backhouse, C.; /Oxford U.; Barr, G.; /Oxford U.; Barrett, W.L.; /Western Washington U.; Bishai, M.; /Brookhaven; Blake, A.; /Cambridge U.; Bock, G.J.; /Fermilab; Boehnlein, D.J.; /Fermilab; Bogert, D.; /Fermilab /Indiana U.
2010-07-01
We searched for a sidereal modulation in the MINOS far detector neutrino rate. Such a signal would be a consequence of Lorentz and CPT violation as described by the Standard-Model Extension framework. It also would be the first detection of a perturbative effect to conventional neutrino mass oscillations. We found no evidence for this sidereal signature and the upper limits placed on the magnitudes of the Lorentz and CPT violating coefficients describing the theory are an improvement by factors of 20-510 over the current best limits found using the MINOS near detector.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Yu [College of Science, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Gong, Yungui [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei 430074 (China); Cao, Shuo; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Gao, He, E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2015-07-20
In the quantum theory of gravity, for photons we expect the Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) and the modification of the dispersion relation between energy and momentum. The effect of the energy-dependent velocity due to the modified dispersion relation for photons was studied in the standard cosmological context by using a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this paper we mainly discuss the possible LIV effect of using different cosmological models for the accelerating universe. Due to the degeneracies among model parameters, the GRBs’ time delay data are combined with the cosmic microwave background data from the Planck first-year release, the baryon acoustic oscillation data at six different redshifts, and Union2 Type Ia supernovae data to constrain both the model parameters and the LIV effect. We find no evidence of the LIV.
Vacuum Cherenkov radiation and photon decay rates from generic Lorentz Invariance Violation
Martínez-Huerta, H.; Pérez-Lorenzana, A.
2016-10-01
Among the most studied approaches to introduce the breaking of Lorentz symmetry, the generic approach is one of the most frequently used for phenomenology, it converges on the modification of the free particle dispersion relation. Using this approach in the photon sector, we have calculated the squared probability amplitude for vacuum Cherenkov radiation and photon decay by correcting the QED coupling at tree level and first order in LIV parameters. For the lower order energy correction we calculate the emission and decay rate for each process.
Test of charge conjugation invariance.
Nefkens, B M K; Prakhov, S; Gårdestig, A; Allgower, C E; Bekrenev, V; Briscoe, W J; Clajus, M; Comfort, J R; Craig, K; Grosnick, D; Isenhower, D; Knecht, N; Koetke, D; Koulbardis, A; Kozlenko, N; Kruglov, S; Lolos, G; Lopatin, I; Manley, D M; Manweiler, R; Marusić, A; McDonald, S; Olmsted, J; Papandreou, Z; Peaslee, D; Phaisangittisakul, N; Price, J W; Ramirez, A F; Sadler, M; Shafi, A; Spinka, H; Stanislaus, T D S; Starostin, A; Staudenmaier, H M; Supek, I; Tippens, W B
2005-02-04
We report on the first determination of upper limits on the branching ratio (BR) of eta decay to pi0pi0gamma and to pi0pi0pi0gamma. Both decay modes are strictly forbidden by charge conjugation (C) invariance. Using the Crystal Ball multiphoton detector, we obtained BR(eta-->pi0pi0gamma)pi0pi0pi0gamma)<6 x 10(-5) at the 90% confidence level, in support of C invariance of isovector electromagnetic interactions.
Lorentz Invariance Violation: the Latest Fermi Results and the GRB-AGN Complementarity
Bolmont, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Jacholkowska, A.; Piron, F.; Couturier, C.; Granot, J.; Stecker, F. W.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Longo, F.
2013-01-01
Because they are bright and distant, Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) have been used for more than a decade to test propagation of photons and to constrain relevant Quantum Gravity (QG) models in which the velocity of photons in vacuum can depend on their energy. With its unprecedented sensitivity and energy coverage, the Fermi satellite has provided the most constraining results on the QG energy scale so far. In this talk, the latest results obtained from the analysis of four bright GRBs observed by the Large Area Telescope will be reviewed. These robust results, cross-checked using three different analysis techniques set the limit on QG energy scale at E(sub QG,1) greater than 7.6 times the Planck energy for linear dispersion and E(sub QG,2) greater than 1.3 x 10(exp 11) gigaelectron volts for quadratic dispersion (95% CL). After describing the data and the analysis techniques in use, results will be discussed and confronted to latest constraints obtained with Active Galactic Nuclei.
Prospects for Lorentz and CPT tests with hydrogen and antihydrogen
Becker, Tobias Frederic
2017-01-01
As a summer student for 13 weeks in the ASACUSA-CUSP collaboration, under the supervision of Chloé Malbrunot, my project consisted in a first part on the theoretical treatment of Lorentz and CPT violation in hydrogen & antihydrogen in the framework of the Standard Model Extension SME and in second part on experimental measurements on a hydrogen beam.
Factorial Invariance in Multiple Populations: A Multiple Testing Procedure
Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Millsap, Roger E.
2013-01-01
A multiple testing method for examining factorial invariance for latent constructs evaluated by multiple indicators in distinct populations is outlined. The procedure is based on the false discovery rate concept and multiple individual restriction tests and resolves general limitations of a popular factorial invariance testing approach. The…
Testing for Factorial Invariance in the Context of Construct Validation
Dimitrov, Dimiter M.
2010-01-01
This article describes the logic and procedures behind testing for factorial invariance across groups in the context of construct validation. The procedures include testing for configural, measurement, and structural invariance in the framework of multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The "forward" (sequential constraint imposition)…
Improving measurement-invariance assessments: correcting entrenched testing deficiencies
Hayduk, Leslie A
2016-01-01
Background Factor analysis historically focused on measurement while path analysis employed observed variables as though they were error-free. When factor- and path-analysis merged as structural equation modeling, factor analytic notions dominated measurement discussions ? including assessments of measurement invariance across groups. The factor analytic tradition fostered disregard of model testing and consequently entrenched this deficiency in measurement invariance assessments. Discussion ...
Combined search for Lorentz violation in short-range gravity
Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tan, Wen-Hai; Yang, Shan-Qing; Luo, Jun; Tobar, Michael Edmund; Bailey, Quentin G; Long, J C; Weisman, E; Xu, Rui; Kostelecky, Alan
2016-01-01
Short-range experiments testing the gravitational inverse-square law at the submillimeter scale offer uniquely sensitive probes of Lorentz invariance. A combined analysis of results from the short-range gravity experiments HUST-2015, HUST-2011, IU-2012, and IU-2002 permits the first independent measurements of the 14 nonrelativistic coefficients for Lorentz violation in the pure-gravity sector at the level of $10^{-9}$ m$^2$, improving by an order of magnitude the sensitivity to numerous types of Lorentz violation involving quadratic curvature derivatives and curvature couplings.
Allmendinger, F; Heil, W; Karpuk, S; Kilian, W; Scharth, A; Schmidt, U; Schnabel, A; Sobolev, Yu; Tullney, K
2014-03-21
We report on the search for a CPT- and Lorentz-invariance-violating coupling of the He3 and Xe129 nuclear spins (each largely determined by a valence neutron) to posited background tensor fields that permeate the Universe. Our experimental approach is to measure the free precession of nuclear spin polarized He3 and Xe129 atoms in a homogeneous magnetic guiding field of about 400 nT using LTC SQUIDs as low-noise magnetic flux detectors. As the laboratory reference frame rotates with respect to distant stars, we look for a sidereal modulation of the Larmor frequencies of the colocated spin samples. As a result we obtain an upper limit on the equatorial component of the background field interacting with the spin of the bound neutron b(⊥)(n)<8.4 × 10(-34) GeV (68% C.L.). Our result improves our previous limit (data measured in 2009) by a factor of 30 and the world's best limit by a factor of 4.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
removed two cells of the same color. Whenever you are putting a 2 × 1 rectangle you are covering one black and one white cell. So the total number of white cells you have covered minus the total number of black cells you have covered after putting some 2 × 1 rectangles is always zero. So this difference is an invariant! You.
Score-based tests of measurement invariance: Use in practice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ting eWang
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a family of recently-proposed measurement invariance tests that are based on the scores of a fitted model. This family can be used to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. a continuous auxiliary variable, without pre-specification of subgroups. Moreover, the family can be used when one wishes to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. an ordinal auxiliary variable, yielding test statistics that are sensitive to violations that are monotonically related to the ordinal variable (and less sensitive to non-monotonic violations. The paper is specifically aimed at potential users of the tests who may wish to know (i how the tests can be employed for their data, and (ii whether the tests can accurately identify specific models parameters that violate measurement invariance (possibly in the presence of model misspecification. After providing an overview of the tests, we illustrate their general use via the R packages lavaan and strucchange. We then describe two novel simulations that provide evidence of the tests' practical abilities. As a whole, the paper provides researchers with the tools and knowledge needed to apply these tests to general measurement invariance scenarios.
A Further Test of Lorentz Violation from the Rest-frame Spectral Lags of Gamma-Ray Bursts
Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng
2017-12-01
Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) can manifest itself by an energy-dependent vacuum dispersion of light, which leads to arrival time differences of photons with different energies originating from the same astronomical source. The spectral lags of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been widely used to investigate the possible LIV effect. However, all current investigations used lags extracted in the observer frame only. In this work, we present, for the first time, an analysis of the LIV effect and its redshift dependence in the cosmological rest frame. Using a sample of 56 GRBs with known redshifts, we obtain a robust limit on LIV by fitting their rest-frame spectral lag data using both a maximization of the likelihood function and a minimum χ 2 statistic. Our analysis indicates that there is no evidence of LIV. Additionally, we test the LIV in different redshift ranges by dividing the full sample into four redshift bins. We also find no evidence for the redshift variation of the LIV effect.
A modified Lorentz theory as a test theory of special relativity
Chang, T.; Torr, D. G.; Gagnon, D. R.
1988-01-01
Attention has been given recently to a modified Lorentz theory (MLT) that is based on the generalized Galilean transformation. Some explicit formulas within the framework of MLT, dealing with the one-way velocity of light, slow-clock transport, and the Doppler effect are derived. A number of typical experiments are analyzed on this basis. Results indicate that the empirical equivalence between MLT and special relativity is still maintained to second order terms. The results of previous works that predict that the MLT might be distinguished from special relativity at the third order by Doppler centrifuge tests capable of a fractional frequency detection threshold of 10 to the -15th are confirmed.
Test of CPT and Lorentz symmetry in entangled neutral kaons with the KLOE experiment
:,; Balwierz-Pytko, I; Bencivenni, G; Bloise, C; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Balkestahl, L Caldeira; Capon, G; Ceradini, F; Ciambrone, P; Curciarello, F; Czerwinski, E; Danè, E; De Leo, V; De Lucia, E; De Robertis, G; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; Di Cicco, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Salvo, R; Domenici, D; Erriquez, O; Fanizzi, G; Fantini, A; Felici, G; Fiore, S; Franzini, P; Gajos, A; Gauzzi, P; Giardina, G; Giovannella, S; Graziani, E; Happacher, F; Heijkenskjold, L; Hoistad, B; Jacewicz, M; Johansson, T; Kacprzak, K; Kaminska, D; Kupsc, A; Lee-Franzini, J; Loddo, F; Loffredo, S; Mandaglio, G; Martemianov, M; Martini, M; Mascolo, M; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Morello, G; Moricciani, D; Moskal, P; Nguyen, F; Palladino, A; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Longhi, I Prado; Ranieri, A; Santangelo, P; Sarra, I; Schioppa, M; Sciascia, B; Silarski, M; Taccini, C; Tortora, L; Venanzoni, G; Wislicki, W; Wolke, M; Zdebik, J
2014-01-01
Neutral kaon pairs produced in phi decays in anti-symmetric entangled state can be exploited to search for violation of CPT symmetry and Lorentz invariance. We present an analysis of the CP-violating process phi->K_S K_L->pi+pi-pi+pi- based on 1.7 fb-1 of data collected by the KLOE experiment at the Frascati phi-factory DAFNE. The data are used to perform a measurement of the CPT-violating parameters Delta_amu for neutral kaons in the contest of the Standard Model Extension framework. The parameters measured in the reference frame of the fixed stars are: Delta_ao = (-6.0 +- 7.7_{stat} +- 3.1_{syst}) x 10^{-18} GeV Delta_ax = ( 0.9 +- 1.5_{stat} +- 0.6_{syst}) x 10^{-18} GeV Delta_ay = (-2.0 +- 1.5_{stat} +- 0.5_{syst}) x 10^{-18} GeV Delta_az = ( 3.1 +- 1.7_{stat} +- 0.5_{syst}) x 10^{-18} GeV These are presently the most precise measurements in the quark sector of the Standard Model Extension.
Improving measurement-invariance assessments: correcting entrenched testing deficiencies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leslie A. Hayduk
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Factor analysis historically focused on measurement while path analysis employed observed variables as though they were error-free. When factor- and path-analysis merged as structural equation modeling, factor analytic notions dominated measurement discussions – including assessments of measurement invariance across groups. The factor analytic tradition fostered disregard of model testing and consequently entrenched this deficiency in measurement invariance assessments. Discussion Applying contemporary model testing requirements to the so-called configural model initiating invariance assessments will improve future assessments but a substantial backlog of deficient assessments remain to be overcome. This article summarizes the issues, demonstrates the problem using a recent example, illustrates a superior model assessment strategy, and documents disciplinary entrenchment of inadequate testing as exemplified by the journal Organizational Research Methods. Summary Employing the few methodologically and theoretically best, rather than precariously-multiple, indicators of latent variables increases the likelihood of achieving properly causally specified structural equation models capable of displaying measurement invariance. Just as evidence of invalidity trumps reliability, evidence of configural model misspecification trumps invariant estimates of misspecified coefficients.
Improving measurement-invariance assessments: correcting entrenched testing deficiencies.
Hayduk, Leslie A
2016-10-06
Factor analysis historically focused on measurement while path analysis employed observed variables as though they were error-free. When factor- and path-analysis merged as structural equation modeling, factor analytic notions dominated measurement discussions - including assessments of measurement invariance across groups. The factor analytic tradition fostered disregard of model testing and consequently entrenched this deficiency in measurement invariance assessments. Applying contemporary model testing requirements to the so-called configural model initiating invariance assessments will improve future assessments but a substantial backlog of deficient assessments remain to be overcome. This article summarizes the issues, demonstrates the problem using a recent example, illustrates a superior model assessment strategy, and documents disciplinary entrenchment of inadequate testing as exemplified by the journal Organizational Research Methods. Employing the few methodologically and theoretically best, rather than precariously-multiple, indicators of latent variables increases the likelihood of achieving properly causally specified structural equation models capable of displaying measurement invariance. Just as evidence of invalidity trumps reliability, evidence of configural model misspecification trumps invariant estimates of misspecified coefficients.
Analysis of two recent tests of М-invariance
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A second, less direct, method of testing М-invariance, reported [4] by the KTeV group, is through measurement of ... [6] long sought for without success in nuclear and particle reactions. 2. Direct test of reciprocity .... overall decay distribution must therefore transform into itself under motion-reversal. The. KTeV group found [4] ...
A Test Of Cpt And Lorentz Symmetry Using A Potassium- Helium-3 Co-magnetometer
Kornack, T W
2005-01-01
A K-3He co-magnetometer has been developed for a test of Lorentz and CPT symmetry. Polarized K vapor forms a spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer that has record sensitivity of about 1 fT/ Hz . The polarized 3He effectively suppresses sensitivity to the magnetic fields and gradients. Together, the K-3He co-magnetometer retains sensitivity to anomalous, CPT- and Lorentz- violating fields that couple to electron and nuclear spins differently than a normal magnetic field. Data over the course of 15 months provide upper limits on the coupling energy of a CPT-violating field to neutron spin, b˜n < 1.4 × 10−31 GeV, to proton spin, b˜p < 4.4 × 10−30 GeV, and to electron spin, b˜e < 1.0 × 10−28 GeV. These limits are consistent with the existing limits of b˜n < 1.1 × 10−31 GeV (Bear et al., 2002) and b˜ e < 3.0 × 10−29 Ge...
Test of Lorentz and CPT violation with short baseline neutrino oscillation excesses
MiniBooNE Collaboration; Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Grange, J.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Huelsnitz, W.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Marsh, W.; Mauger, C.; McGary, V. T.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nelson, R. H.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J. A.; Osmanov, B.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sandberg, V.; Schirato, R.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Tzanov, M.; Van de Water, R. G.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; Wilking, M. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.
2013-01-01
The sidereal time dependence of MiniBooNE νe and ν appearance data is analyzed to search for evidence of Lorentz and CPT violation. An unbinned Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test shows both the νe and ν appearance data are compatible with the null sidereal variation hypothesis to more than 5%. Using an unbinned likelihood fit with a Lorentz-violating oscillation model derived from the Standard Model Extension (SME) to describe any excess events over background, we find that the νe appearance data prefer a sidereal time-independent solution, and the ν appearance data slightly prefer a sidereal time-dependent solution. Limits of order 10-20 GeV are placed on combinations of SME coefficients. These limits give the best limits on certain SME coefficients for νμ→νe and ν→ν oscillations. The fit values and limits of combinations of SME coefficients are provided.
Test of CPT and Lorentz symmetry in entangled neutral kaons with the KLOE experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babusci, D. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Balwierz-Pytko, I. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Branchini, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Budano, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica dell' Università “Roma Tre”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Caldeira Balkeståhl, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Capon, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Ceradini, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica dell' Università “Roma Tre”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Ciambrone, P. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Curciarello, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra dell' Università di Messina, Messina (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Czerwiński, E. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Danè, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Leo, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra dell' Università di Messina, Messina (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Robertis, G. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); De Santis, A., E-mail: antonio.desantis@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); De Simone, P. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); and others
2014-03-07
Neutral kaon pairs produced in ϕ decays in anti-symmetric entangled state can be exploited to search for violation of CPT symmetry and Lorentz invariance. We present an analysis of the CP-violating process ϕ→K{sub S}K{sub L}→π{sup +}π{sup −}π{sup +}π{sup −} based on 1.7 fb{sup −1} of data collected by the KLOE experiment at the Frascati ϕ-factory DAΦNE. The data are used to perform a measurement of the CPT-violating parameters Δa{sub μ} for neutral kaons in the context of the Standard Model Extension framework. The parameters measured in the reference frame of the fixed stars are: Δa{sub 0}=(−6.0±7.7{sub stat}±3.1{sub syst})×10{sup −18} GeV, Δa{sub X}=(0.9±1.5{sub stat}±0.6{sub syst})×10{sup −18} GeV, Δa{sub Y}=(−2.0±1.5{sub stat}±0.5{sub syst})×10{sup −18} GeV, Δa{sub Z}=(3.1±1.7{sub stat}±0.5{sub syst})×10{sup −18} GeV. These are presently the most precise measurements in the quark sector of the Standard Model Extension.
Battat, James Benjamin Royston
We use observations of solar system bodies to derive constraints on departures from General Relativity (GR). We also characterize the initial science data from the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO). The millimeter-precision APOLLO data will enable an order-of-magnitude improvement in several tests of gravitational physics. This work is motivated by the current dark energy crisis. Multiple independent astrophysical observations suggest that the Universe is accelerating in its expansion. GR with Einstein's cosmological constant can give rise to acceleration, but no viable theory can compute the observed dark energy density from first principles. A plausible alternative to dark energy is that GR breaks down on cosmological scales. There is no shortage of speculative gravity theories that could replace GR. Many of these predict observable deviations from GR in the solar system. We look for the evidence of such deviations in two ways: (1) searching for Lorentz symmetry violation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data and (2) searching for anomalous perihelion precession using planetary range and Doppler measurements. Our constraints on Lorentz symmetry violation are presented in the Standard- Model Extension (SME) framework. No evidence for Lorentz violation is seen at the level of 10 -6 to 10 -11 in the six dimensionless SME parameters to which LLR is sensitive. We also show that any universal anomalous precession of the planetary perihelia must be less than 0.02 arcseconds per century. This constraint has direct relevance to the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) theory of braneworld gravity, which can explain the accelerating Universe without a cosmological constant. DGP theory posits that gravity weakens above a cross-over scale r c = 5 Gpc. As a result, DGP predicts a uniform anomalous perihelion precession rate for the planets of do/dt = 5 × 10 -4 arcseconds per century. Our precession constraint requires r c > 0.13 Gpc, a factor of 40 away
Scale invariant for one-sided multivariate likelihood ratio tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samruam Chongcharoen
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Suppose 1 2 , ,..., n X X X is a random sample from Np ( ,V distribution. Consider 0 1 2 : ... 0 p H and1 : 0 for 1, 2,..., i H i p , let 1 0 H H denote the hypothesis that 1 H holds but 0 H does not, and let ~ 0 H denote thehypothesis that 0 H does not hold. Because the likelihood ratio test (LRT of 0 H versus 1 0 H H is complicated, severalad hoc tests have been proposed. Tang, Gnecco and Geller (1989 proposed an approximate LRT, Follmann (1996 suggestedrejecting 0 H if the usual test of 0 H versus ~ 0 H rejects 0 H with significance level 2 and a weighted sum of the samplemeans is positive, and Chongcharoen, Singh and Wright (2002 modified Follmann’s test to include information about thecorrelation structure in the sum of the sample means. Chongcharoen and Wright (2007, 2006 give versions of the Tang-Gnecco-Geller tests and Follmann-type tests, respectively, with invariance properties. With LRT’s scale invariant desiredproperty, we investigate its powers by using Monte Carlo techniques and compare them with the tests which we recommendin Chongcharoen and Wright (2007, 2006.
Lorentz violation naturalness revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belenchia, Alessio; Gambassi, Andrea; Liberati, Stefano [SISSA - International School for Advanced Studies, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)
2016-06-08
We revisit here the naturalness problem of Lorentz invariance violations on a simple toy model of a scalar field coupled to a fermion field via a Yukawa interaction. We first review some well-known results concerning the low-energy percolation of Lorentz violation from high energies, presenting some details of the analysis not explicitly discussed in the literature and discussing some previously unnoticed subtleties. We then show how a separation between the scale of validity of the effective field theory and that one of Lorentz invariance violations can hinder this low-energy percolation. While such protection mechanism was previously considered in the literature, we provide here a simple illustration of how it works and of its general features. Finally, we consider a case in which dissipation is present, showing that the dissipative behaviour does not percolate generically to lower mass dimension operators albeit dispersion does. Moreover, we show that a scale separation can protect from unsuppressed low-energy percolation also in this case.
Testing measurement invariance of the GHQ-28 in stroke patients.
Munyombwe, Theresa; West, Robert M; Hill, Kate
2015-08-01
In order to combine self-reported measures data from multiple studies to conduct an integrated data analysis, the construct measured must have the same meaning across the studies. This study investigated the measurement invariance of the General Health questionnaire (GHQ-28) in two stroke studies before combining the data for an integrative data analysis. The study used data from the Stroke Outcomes Study 1 (SOS1, n = 448) and second Stroke Outcomes Study (SOS2, n = 585). The initial analysis was a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for each study separately to confirm the four-factor structure of GHQ-28 questionnaire. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) was used to assess the measurement invariance of the GHQ-28 questionnaire in the two stroke cohorts. Measurement invariance at configural invariance (same items associated with same factor across groups); factor loading invariance (equal factor loadings across groups) and scalar invariance (equal intercepts across groups) was examined. CFA supported all three invariances measured. Results showed that the GHQ-28 questionnaire has comparable measurement properties in the SOS1 and SOS2 stroke studies. Strong measurement invariance was established, and based on the results from this study, integrative data analysis of GHQ-28 scores from the two stroke studies is merited.
Constructing three emotion knowledge tests from the invariant measurement approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana R. Delgado
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Background Psychological constructionist models like the Conceptual Act Theory (CAT postulate that complex states such as emotions are composed of basic psychological ingredients that are more clearly respected by the brain than basic emotions. The objective of this study was the construction and initial validation of Emotion Knowledge measures from the CAT frame by means of an invariant measurement approach, the Rasch Model (RM. Psychological distance theory was used to inform item generation. Methods Three EK tests—emotion vocabulary (EV, close emotional situations (CES and far emotional situations (FES—were constructed and tested with the RM in a community sample of 100 females and 100 males (age range: 18–65, both separately and conjointly. Results It was corroborated that data-RM fit was sufficient. Then, the effect of type of test and emotion on Rasch-modelled item difficulty was tested. Significant effects of emotion on EK item difficulty were found, but the only statistically significant difference was that between “happiness” and the remaining emotions; neither type of test, nor interaction effects on EK item difficulty were statistically significant. The testing of gender differences was carried out after corroborating that differential item functioning (DIF would not be a plausible alternative hypothesis for the results. No statistically significant sex-related differences were found out in EV, CES, FES, or total EK. However, the sign of d indicate that female participants were consistently better than male ones, a result that will be of interest for future meta-analyses. Discussion The three EK tests are ready to be used as components of a higher-level measurement process.
Test of Lorentz symmetry with a {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe clock-comparison experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gemmel, Claudia
2011-01-28
The minimal Standard Model Extension (SME) of Kostelecky and coworkers, which parametrizes the general treatment of CPT- and Lorentz invariance violation, predicts sidereal modulations of atomic transition frequencies as the Earth rotates relative to a Lorentz-violating background field. One method to search for these modulations is the so-called clock-comparison experiment, where the frequencies of co-located clocks are compared as they rotate with respect to the fixed stars. In this work an experiment is presented where polarized {sup 3}He and {sup 129}Xe gas samples in a glass cell serve as clocks, whose nuclear spin precession frequencies are detected with the help of highly sensitive SQUID sensors inside a magnetically shielded room. The unique feature of this experiment is the fact that the spins are precessing freely, with transverse relaxation times T{sup *}{sub 2} of up to 4.4 h for {sup 129}Xe and 14.1 h for {sup 3}He. To be sensitive to Lorentz-violating effects, the influence of external magnetic fields is canceled via the weighted {sup 3}He/{sup 129}Xe phase difference, {delta}{phi}={phi}{sub he}-({gamma}{sub he})/({gamma}{sub xe}) {phi}{sub xe}. The Lorentz-violating SME parameters for the neutron, b{sup n}{sub X} and b{sup n}{sub Y}, are determined out of a {chi}{sup 2} fit on the phase difference data of 7 spin precession measurements of 12 to 16 hours length. The piecewise defined fit model contains a sine and a cosine term to describe the sidereal modulation, as well as 7 offset terms, 7 linear terms and 7 . 2 exponential terms decreasing with T{sup *}{sub 2,he} and T{sup *}{sub 2,xe}, which are assigned to the respective measurement. The linear term in the weighted phase difference mainly arises from deviations of the gyromagnetic ratios from their literature values due to chemical shifts, while the exponential terms reflect the phase shifts resulting from demagnetization fields in the non-ideally spherical sample cell. The result of the {chi
Test of time-reversal invariance at COSY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valdau, Yury [Helmholtz Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn Univ. (Germany); National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute B.P. Konstantinov, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Eversheim, Dieter [Helmholtz Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn Univ. (Germany); Lorentz, Bernd [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute fuer Kernphysik (Germany)
2016-07-01
The experiment to test the Time Reversal Invariance at Cosy (TRIC) is under the preparation by the PAX collaboration. It is planned to improve present limit on the T-odd P-even interaction by at least one order of magnitude using a unique genuine null observable available in double polarized proton-deuteron scattering. The TRIC experiment is planned as a transmission experiment using a tensor polarized deuterium target placed at the internal target place of the Cooler-Synchrotron COSY-Juelich. Total double polarized cross section will be measured observing a beam current change due to the interaction of a polarized proton beam with an internal tensor polarized deuterium target from the PAX atomic beam source. Hence, in this experiment COSY will be used as an accelerator, detector and ideal zero degree spectrometer. In addition to the high intensity polarized proton beam and high density polarized deuterium target, a new high precision beam current measurement system will be prepared for the TRIC experiment. In this report status of all the activities of PAX collaboration towards realization of the TRIC experiment will be presented.
Constrained Gauge Fields from Spontaneous Lorentz Violation
Chkareuli, J L; Jejelava, J G; Nielsen, H B
2008-01-01
Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type $A_{\\mu}^{2}=M^{2}$ ($M$ is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory proves to be QED with a massless vector Goldstone boson naturally associated with the photon, while the non-Abelian symmetry case results in a conventional Yang-Mills theory. These theories, both Abelian and non-Abelian, look essentially nonlinear and contain particular Lorentz (and $CPT$) violating couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical ...
Constrained gauge fields from spontaneous Lorentz violation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chkareuli, J. L.; Froggatt, C. D.; Jejelava, J. G.
2008-01-01
Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type AµAµ=M2 (M is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant...... theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory...... proves to be QED with a massless vector Goldstone boson naturally associated with the photon, while the non-Abelian symmetry case results in a conventional Yang-Mills theory. These theories, both Abelian and non-Abelian, look essentially nonlinear and contain particular Lorentz (and CPT) violating...
Lorentz violation. Motivation and new constraints
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liberati, S. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2009-09-15
We review the main theoretical motivations and observational constraints on Planck scale sup-pressed violations of Lorentz invariance. After introducing the problems related to the phenomenological study of quantum gravitational effects, we discuss the main theoretical frameworks within which possible departures from Lorentz invariance can be described. In particular, we focus on the framework of Effective Field Theory, describing several possible ways of including Lorentz violation therein and discussing their theoretical viability. We review the main low energy effects that are expected in this framework. We discuss the current observational constraints on such a framework, focusing on those achievable through high-energy astrophysics observations. In this context we present a summary of the most recent and strongest constraints on QED with Lorentz violating non-renormalizable operators. Finally, we discuss the present status of the field and its future perspectives. (orig.)
Testing Measurement Invariance Using MIMIC: Likelihood Ratio Test with a Critical Value Adjustment
Kim, Eun Sook; Yoon, Myeongsun; Lee, Taehun
2012-01-01
Multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) modeling is often used to test a latent group mean difference while assuming the equivalence of factor loadings and intercepts over groups. However, this study demonstrated that MIMIC was insensitive to the presence of factor loading noninvariance, which implies that factor loading invariance should be…
Evaluating Goodness-of-Fit Indexes for Testing Measurement Invariance.
Cheung, Gordon W.; Rensvold, Roger B.
2002-01-01
Examined 20 goodness-of-fit indexes based on the minimum fit function using a simulation under the 2-group situation. Results support the use of the delta comparative fit index, delta Gamma hat, and delta McDonald's Noncentrality Index to evaluation measurement invariance. These three approaches are independent of model complexity and sample size.…
Tests of Measurement Invariance without Subgroups: A Generalization of Classical Methods
Merkle, Edgar C.; Zeileis, Achim
2013-01-01
The issue of measurement invariance commonly arises in factor-analytic contexts, with methods for assessment including likelihood ratio tests, Lagrange multiplier tests, and Wald tests. These tests all require advance definition of the number of groups, group membership, and offending model parameters. In this paper, we study tests of measurement…
Carvalho, P. R. S.; Sena-Junior, M. I.
2017-12-01
In this work, we compute analytically the infrared divergences of massless O(N) self-interacting scalar field theories with Lorentz violation, which are exact in the Lorentz-violating Kμν coefficients, for evaluating the corresponding next-to-leading order critical exponents. For that, we apply three distinct and independent field-theoretic renormalization group methods. We find that the outcomes for the critical exponents are the same in the three methods and, furthermore, are identical to their Lorentz invariant counterparts. We generalize the results for all loop levels by employing a general theorem arising from the exact procedure and give the corresponding physical interpretation.
QAPV: a polynomial invariant for graph isomorphism testing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valdir Agustinho de Melo
2013-08-01
Full Text Available To each instance of the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP a relaxed instance can be associated. Both variances of their solution values can be calculated in polynomial time. The graph isomorphism problem (GIP can be modeled as a QAP, associating its pair of data matrices with a pair of graphs of the same order and size. We look for invariant edge weight functions for the graphs composing the instances in order to try to find quantitative differences between variances that could be associated with the absence of isomorphism. This technique is sensitive enough to show the effect of a single edge exchange between two regular graphs of up to 3,000 vertices and 300,000 edges with degrees up to 200. Planar graph pairs from a dense family up to 300,000 vertices were also discriminated. We conjecture the existence of functions able to discriminate non-isomorphic pairs for every instance of the problem.
Kahraman, Nilufer; Brown, Crystal B.
2015-01-01
Psychometric models based on structural equation modeling framework are commonly used in many multiple-choice test settings to assess measurement invariance of test items across examinee subpopulations. The premise of the current article is that they may also be useful in the context of performance assessment tests to test measurement invariance…
Low Energy Lorentz Violation from Modified Dispersion at High Energies.
Husain, Viqar; Louko, Jorma
2016-02-12
Many quantum theories of gravity propose Lorentz-violating dispersion relations of the form ω=|k|f(|k|/M⋆), with recovery of approximate Lorentz invariance at energy scales much below M⋆. We show that a quantum field with this dispersion predicts drastic low energy Lorentz violation in atoms modeled as Unruh-DeWitt detectors, for any f that dips below unity somewhere. As an example, we show that polymer quantization motivated by loop quantum gravity predicts such Lorentz violation below current ion collider rapidities.
Time reversal invariance - a test in free neutron decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lising, Laura Jean [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1999-01-01
Time reversal invariance violation plays only a small role in the Standard Model, and the existence of a T-violating effect above the predicted level would be an indication of new physics. A sensitive probe of this symmetry in the weak interaction is the measurement of the T-violating ''D''-correlation in the decay of free neutrons. The triple-correlation Dσ_{n}∙p_{e} x p_{v} involves three kinematic variables, the neutron spin, electron momentu, and neutrino (or proton) momentum, and changes sign under time reversal. This experiment detects the decay products of a polarized cold neutron beam with an octagonal array of scintillation and solid-state detectors. Data from first run at NIST's Cold Neutron Research Facility give a D-coefficient of -0.1 ± 1.3(stat.) ± 0.7(syst) x 10^{-3} This measurement has the greatest bearing on extensions to the Standard model that incorporate leptoquarks, although exotic fermion and lift-right symmetric models also allow a D as large as the present limit.
Power properties of invariant tests for spatial autocorrelation in linear regression
Martellosio, F.
2006-01-01
Many popular tests for residual spatial autocorrelation in the context of the linear regression model belong to the class of invariant tests. This paper derives a number of exact properties of the power function of such tests. In particular, we extend the work of Krämer (2005, Journal of Statistical
A more general model for testing measurement invariance and differential item functioning.
Bauer, Daniel J
2017-09-01
The evaluation of measurement invariance is an important step in establishing the validity and comparability of measurements across individuals. Most commonly, measurement invariance has been examined using 1 of 2 primary latent variable modeling approaches: the multiple groups model or the multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) model. Both approaches offer opportunities to detect differential item functioning within multi-item scales, and thereby to test measurement invariance, but both approaches also have significant limitations. The multiple groups model allows 1 to examine the invariance of all model parameters but only across levels of a single categorical individual difference variable (e.g., ethnicity). In contrast, the MIMIC model permits both categorical and continuous individual difference variables (e.g., sex and age) but permits only a subset of the model parameters to vary as a function of these characteristics. The current article argues that moderated nonlinear factor analysis (MNLFA) constitutes an alternative, more flexible model for evaluating measurement invariance and differential item functioning. We show that the MNLFA subsumes and combines the strengths of the multiple group and MIMIC models, allowing for a full and simultaneous assessment of measurement invariance and differential item functioning across multiple categorical and/or continuous individual difference variables. The relationships between the MNLFA model and the multiple groups and MIMIC models are shown mathematically and via an empirical demonstration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Test of feasibility of a novel high precision test of time reversal invariance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samuel, Deepak
2007-07-01
The first results of a feasibility test of a novel high precision test of time reversal invariance are reported. The Time Reversal Invariance test at COSY (TRIC) was planned to measure the time reversal violating observable A{sub y,xz} with an accuracy of 10{sup -6} in proton-deuteron (p-d) scattering. A novel technique for measuring total cross sections is introduced and the achievable precision of this measuring technique is tested. The correlation coefficient A{sub y,y} in p-d scattering fakes a time-reversal violating effect. This work reports the feasibility test of the novel method in the measurement of A{sub y,y} in p-p scattering. The first step in the experimental design was the development of a hard real-time data acquisition system. To meet stringent latency requirements, the capabilities of Windows XP had to be augmented with a real-time subsystem. The remote control feature of the data acquisition enables users to operate it from any place via an internet connection. The data acquisition proved its reliability in several beam times without any failures. The analysis of the data showed the presence of 1/f noise which substantially limits the quality of our measurements. The origin of 1/f noise was traced and found to be the Barkhausen noise from the ferrite core of the beam current transformer (BCT). A global weighted fitting technique based on a modified Wiener-Khinchin method was developed and used to suppress the influence of 1/f noise, which increased the error bar of the results by a factor 3. This is the only deviation from our expectations. The results are presented and discussed. (orig.)
Lorentz Transformations from Intrinsic Symmetries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheng D. Chao
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We reveal the frame-exchange space-inversion (FESI symmetry and the frame-exchange time-inversion (FETI symmetry in the Lorentz transformation and propose a symmetry principle stating that the space-time transformation between two inertial frames is invariant under the FESI or the FETI transformation. In combination with the principle of relativity and the presumed nature of Euclidean space and time, the symmetry principle is employed to derive the proper orthochronous Lorentz transformation without assuming the constancy of the speed of light and specific mathematical requirements (such as group property a priori. We explicitly demonstrate that the constancy of the speed of light in all inertial frames can be derived using the velocity reciprocity property, which is a deductive consequence of the space–time homogeneity and the space isotropy. The FESI or the FETI symmetry remains to be preserved in the Galilean transformation at the non-relativistic limit. Other similar symmetry operations result in either trivial transformations or improper and/or non-orthochronous Lorentz transformations, which do not form groups.
Testing strong factorial invariance using three-level structural equation modeling.
Jak, Suzanne
2014-01-01
Within structural equation modeling, the most prevalent model to investigate measurement bias is the multigroup model. Equal factor loadings and intercepts across groups in a multigroup model represent strong factorial invariance (absence of measurement bias) across groups. Although this approach is possible in principle, it is hardly practical when the number of groups is large or when the group size is relatively small. Jak et al. (2013) showed how strong factorial invariance across large numbers of groups can be tested in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework, by treating group as a random instead of a fixed variable. In the present study, this model is extended for use with three-level data. The proposed method is illustrated with an investigation of strong factorial invariance across 156 school classes and 50 schools in a Dutch dyscalculia test, using three-level structural equation modeling.
Testing strong factorial invariance using three-level structural equation modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suzanne eJak
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Within structural equation modeling, the most prevalent model to investigate measurement bias is the multigroup model. Equal factor loadings and intercepts across groups in a multigroup model represent strong factorial invariance (absence of measurement bias across groups. Although this approach is possible in principle, it is hardly practical when the number of groups is large or when the group size is relatively small. Jak, Oort and Dolan (2013 showed how strong factorial invariance across large numbers of groups can be tested in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework, by treating group as a random instead of a fixed variable. In the present study, this model is extended for use with three-level data. The proposed method is illustrated with an investigation of strong factorial invariance across 156 school classes and 50 schools in a Dutch dyscalculia test, using three-level structural equation modeling.
Cluster bias: Testing measurement invariance in multilevel data
Jak, S.
2013-01-01
In this thesis we presented methods and procedures to test and account for measurement bias in multilevel data. Multilevel data are data with a clustered structure, for instance data of children grouped in classrooms, or data of employees in teams. For example, with data of children in classes, we
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Katori, Teppei [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)
2008-12-01
The Mini-Booster neutrino experiment (MiniBooNE) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is designed to search for v_{μ} → v_{e} appearance neutrino oscillations. Muon neutrino charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interactions (v_{μ} + n → μ + p) make up roughly 40% of our data sample, and it is used to constrain the background and cross sections for the oscillation analysis. Using high-statistics MiniBooNE CCQE data, the muon-neutrino CCQE cross section is measured. The nuclear model is tuned precisely using the MiniBooNE data. The measured total cross section is σ = (1.058 ± 0.003 (stat) ± 0.111 (syst)) x 10^{-38} cm^{2} at the MiniBooNE muon neutrino beam energy (700-800 MeV). v_{e} appearance candidate data is also used to search for Lorentz violation. Lorentz symmetry is one of the most fundamental symmetries in modern physics. Neutrino oscillations offer a new method to test it. We found that the MiniBooNE result is not well-described using Lorentz violation, however further investigation is required for a more conclusive result.
Kwon, Hyungil Harry; Pyun, Do Young; Han, Siwan; Ogasawara, Etsuko
2011-01-01
The objective of this study was to provide empirical evidence to support psychometric properties of a modified four-dimensional model of the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS). The study tested invariance of all parameters (i.e., factor loadings, error variances, and factor variances-covariances) in the four-dimensional measurement model between…
Testing Measurement Invariance: A Comparison of Multiple-Group Categorical CFA and IRT
Kim, Eun Sook; Yoon, Myeongsun
2011-01-01
This study investigated two major approaches in testing measurement invariance for ordinal measures: multiple-group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MCCFA) and item response theory (IRT). Unlike the ordinary linear factor analysis, MCCFA can appropriately model the ordered-categorical measures with a threshold structure. A simulation…
Wray-Lake, Laura; Metzger, Aaron; Syvertsen, Amy K.
2017-01-01
Despite recognition that youth civic engagement is multidimensional, different modeling approaches are rarely compared or tested for measurement invariance. Using a diverse sample of 2,467 elementary, middle, and high school-aged youth, we measured eight dimensions of civic engagement: social responsibility values, informal helping, political…
The use of latent variable mixture models to identify invariant items in test construction.
Sawatzky, Richard; Russell, Lara B; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Lix, Lisa M; Kopec, Jacek; Zumbo, Bruno D
2017-08-23
Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are frequently used in heterogeneous patient populations. PROM scores may lead to biased inferences when sources of heterogeneity (e.g., gender, ethnicity, and social factors) are ignored. Latent variable mixture models (LVMMs) can be used to examine measurement invariance (MI) when sources of heterogeneity in the population are not known a priori. The goal of this article is to discuss the use of LVMMs to identify invariant items within the context of test construction. The Draper-Lindely-de Finetti (DLD) framework for the measurement of latent variables provides a theoretical context for the use of LVMMs to identify the most invariant items in test construction. In an expository analysis using 39 items measuring daily activities, LVMMs were conducted to compare 1- and 2-class item response theory models (IRT). If the 2-class model had better fit, item-level logistic regression differential item functioning (DIF) analyses were conducted to identify items that were not invariant. These items were removed and LVMMs and DIF testing repeated until all remaining items showed MI. The 39 items had an essentially unidimensional measurement structure. However, a 1-class IRT model resulted in many statistically significant bivariate residuals, indicating suboptimal fit due to remaining local dependence. A 2-class LVMM had better fit. Through subsequent rounds of LVMMs and DIF testing, nine items were identified as being most invariant. The DLD framework and the use of LVMMs have significant potential for advancing theoretical developments and research on item selection and the development of PROMs for heterogeneous populations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maelekanyo C. Mulaudzi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Orientation: Measurement invariance is one of the most precarious aspects of the scale development process without which the interpretation of research findings on population subgroups may be ambiguous and even invalid. Besides tests for validity and reliability, measurement invariance represents the hallmark for psychometric compliance of a new measuring instrument and provides the basis for inference of research findings across a range of relevant population sub-groups.Research purpose: This study tested the measurement invariance of a Learning Programme Management and Evaluation (LPME scale across levels of academic achievement.Motivation for the study: It is important for any researcher involved in new scale development to ensure that the measurement instrument and its underlying constructs have proper structural alignment and that they both have the same level of meaning and significance across comparable heterogeneous groups.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design was used, and data were obtained from 369 participants who were selected from three public sector organisations using a probabilistic simple random sampling technique. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Analysis of Moment Structures software (versions 21.0.0 were used to analyse the data.Main findings: The findings show that all the four invariance models tested have achieved acceptable goodness-of-fit indices. Furthermore, the findings show that the factorial structure of the LPME scale and the meaning of its underlying constructs are invariant across different levels of academic achievement for human resource development (HRD practitioners and learners or apprentices involved in occupational learning programmes.Practical implications: The findings of this study suggest practical implications for HRD scholars as they are enabled to make informed decisional balance comparisons involving educational
Effect of bulk Lorentz violation on anisotropic brane cosmologies
Heydari-Fard, Malihe
2012-04-01
The effect of Lorentz invariance violation in cosmology has attracted a considerable amount of attention. By using a dynamical vector field assumed to point in the bulk direction, with Lorentz invariance holding on the brane, we extend the notation of Lorentz violation in four dimensions Jacobson to a five-dimensional brane-world. We obtain the general solution of the field equations in an exact parametric form for Bianchi type I space-time, with perfect fluid as a matter source. We show that the brane universe evolves from an isotropic/anisotropic state to an isotropic de Sitter inflationary phase at late time. The early time behavior of anisotropic brane universe is largely dependent on the Lorentz violating parameters βi,i = 1,2,3 and the equation of state of the matter, while its late time behavior is independent of these parameters.
Lorentz transformations for whole electromagnetic fields
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W.
2012-10-01
A fourth light interpretation leads on the presence of fields with a same Lorentz nature. It says that Lorentz representations should be associated to a fields family. Studying on the (1/2,1/2) representation there is a potential fields family {AμI} which brings the presence of the so-called whole electromagnetism. Thus, the electromagnetic phenomena is extended from Maxwell. From the original fields set {AμI}, it appears new electromagnetic fields, sectors and charges that go beyond to the usual pair {→E-→B} to a new branch of electromagnetic fields {→EI-→BI,→e-→b;ɛI,→ɛI,βIij,s,→s,sij}, new electromagnetic sectors identified as photonic, massive, neutral which bring anothers contributions to that one given by the electric charge, as charges and currents depending on fields. Also the Lorentz force is extended. This work motivation is to study on the corresponding Lorentz transformations. Describe how these whole electromagnetic fields and forces transform under Lorentz transformations and invariants are obtained.
Hohensee, M A; Leefer, N; Budker, D; Harabati, C; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V
2013-08-02
We report a joint test of local Lorentz invariance and the Einstein equivalence principle for electrons, using long-term measurements of the transition frequency between two nearly degenerate states of atomic dysprosium. We present many-body calculations which demonstrate that the energy splitting of these states is particularly sensitive to violations of both special and general relativity. We limit Lorentz violation for electrons at the level of 10(-17), matching or improving the best laboratory and astrophysical limits by up to a factor of 10, and improve bounds on gravitational redshift anomalies for electrons by 2 orders of magnitude, to 10(-8). With some enhancements, our experiment may be sensitive to Lorentz violation at the level of 9 × 10(-20).
Searches for Lorentz Violation in Top-Quark Production and Decay at Hadron Colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whittington, Denver Wade [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)
2012-07-01
We present a first-of-its-kind confirmation that the most massive known elementary particle obeys the special theory of relativity. Lorentz symmetry is a fundamental aspect of special relativity which posits that the laws of physics are invariant regardless of the orientation and velocity of the reference frame in which they are measured. Because this symmetry is a fundamental tenet of physics, it is important to test its validity in all processes. We quantify violation of this symmetry using the Standard-Model Extension framework, which predicts the effects that Lorentz violation would have on elementary particles and their interactions. The top quark is the most massive known elementary particle and has remained inaccessible to tests of Lorentz invariance until now. This model predicts a dependence of the production cross section for top and antitop quark pairs on sidereal time as the orientation of the experiment in which these events are produced changes with the rotation of the Earth. Using data collected with the DØ detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, we search for violation of Lorentz invariance in events involving the production of a $t\\bar{t}$ pair. Within the experimental precision, we find no evidence for such a violation and set upper limits on parameters describing its possible strength within the Standard-Model Extension. We also investigate the prospects for extending this analysis using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider which, because of the higher rate of $t\\bar{t}$ events at that experiment, has the potential to improve the limits presented here.
Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao
2018-01-01
We present a theoretical framework for the dynamics of bosonic Bogoliubov quasiparticles. We call it Lorentz quantum mechanics because the dynamics is a continuous complex Lorentz transformation in complex Minkowski space. In contrast, in usual quantum mechanics, the dynamics is the unitary transformation in Hilbert space. In our Lorentz quantum mechanics, three types of state exist: space-like, light-like and time-like. Fundamental aspects are explored in parallel to the usual quantum mechanics, such as a matrix form of a Lorentz transformation, and the construction of Pauli-like matrices for spinors. We also investigate the adiabatic evolution in these mechanics, as well as the associated Berry curvature and Chern number. Three typical physical systems, where bosonic Bogoliubov quasi-particles and their Lorentz quantum dynamics can arise, are presented. They are a one-dimensional fermion gas, Bose–Einstein condensate (or superfluid), and one-dimensional antiferromagnet.
Model-Invariant Hybrid Computations of Separated Flows for RCA Standard Test Cases
Woodruff, Stephen
2016-01-01
NASA's Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) subproject has identified several smooth-body separated flows as standard test cases to emphasize the challenge these flows present for computational methods and their importance to the aerospace community. Results of computations of two of these test cases, the NASA hump and the FAITH experiment, are presented. The computations were performed with the model-invariant hybrid LES-RANS formulation, implemented in the NASA code VULCAN-CFD. The model- invariant formulation employs gradual LES-RANS transitions and compensation for model variation to provide more accurate and efficient hybrid computations. Comparisons revealed that the LES-RANS transitions employed in these computations were sufficiently gradual that the compensating terms were unnecessary. Agreement with experiment was achieved only after reducing the turbulent viscosity to mitigate the effect of numerical dissipation. The stream-wise evolution of peak Reynolds shear stress was employed as a measure of turbulence dynamics in separated flows useful for evaluating computations.
Lai, Ching-Man; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Cheng, Cecilia; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nomachi, Shinobu; Bahar, Norharlina; Young, Kimberly S; Ko, Huei-Chen; Kim, Dongil; Griffiths, Mark D
2015-10-01
There has been increased research examining the psychometric properties on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in different populations. This population-based study examined the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the IAT in adolescents from three Asian countries. In the Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS), 2,535 secondary school students (55.9% girls) aged 12-18 years from Hong Kong (n=844), Japan (n=744), and Malaysia (n=947) completed a survey in 2012-2013 school year. A nested hierarchy of hypotheses concerning the IAT cross-country invariance was tested using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Replicating past findings in Hong Kong adolescents, the construct of the IAT is best represented by a second-order three-factor structure in Malaysian and Japanese adolescents. Configural, metric, scalar, and partial strict factorial invariance was established across the three samples. No cross-country differences on Internet addiction were detected at the latent mean level. This study provided empirical support for the IAT as a reliable and factorially stable instrument, and valid to be used across Asian adolescent populations.
Proton-Deuteron Scattering and Test of Time-Reversal Invariance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uzikov Yu.N.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The integrated proton-deuteron scattering cross section σ͂ for transversely polarized protons (Pyp and tensor polarized deuterons (Pxz constitutes a null test signal for time- reversal invariance violating but P-parity conserving effects. This cross section will be measured at COSY. Using the generalized optical theorem and Glauber theory we study the null-test observable σ͂ for different types of T-odd P-even NN-interactions.The formalism includes full spin dependence of elementary pN-amplitudes and S- and D-components of the deuteron wave function.
Im, Myung H.; Kim, Eun S.; Kwok, Oi-Man; Yoon, Myeongsun; Willson, Victor L.
2016-01-01
In educational settings, researchers are likely to encounter multilevel data with cross-classified structure. However, due to the lack of familiarity and limitations of statistical software for cross-classified modeling, most researchers adopt less optimal approaches to analyze cross-classified multilevel data in testing measurement invariance. We conducted two Monte Carlo studies to investigate the performances of testing measurement invariance with cross-classified multilevel data when the ...
A note on Lorentz-like transformations and superluminal motion
Jin, C.; Lazar, M.
2015-07-01
In this extended note a critical discussion of an extension of the Lorentz transformations for velocities faster than the speed of light given recently by Hill and Cox is provided. The presented approach reveals the connection between faster-than-light speeds and the issue of isotropy of space. It is shown if the relative speed between the two inertial frames $v$ is greater than the speed of light, the condition of isotropy of space cannot be retained. It further specifies the respective transformations applying to $-\\infty
Im, Myung H; Kim, Eun S; Kwok, Oi-Man; Yoon, Myeongsun; Willson, Victor L
2016-01-01
In educational settings, researchers are likely to encounter multilevel data with cross-classified structure. However, due to the lack of familiarity and limitations of statistical software for cross-classified modeling, most researchers adopt less optimal approaches to analyze cross-classified multilevel data in testing measurement invariance. We conducted two Monte Carlo studies to investigate the performances of testing measurement invariance with cross-classified multilevel data when the noninvarinace is at the between-level: (a) the impact of ignoring crossed factor using conventional multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) which assumes hierarchical multilevel data in testing measurement invariance and (b) the adequacy of the cross-classified multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) models with cross-classified data. We considered two design factors, intraclass correlation (ICC) and magnitude of non-invariance. Generally, MCFA demonstrated very low statistical power to detect non-invariance. The low power was plausibly related to the underestimated factor loading differences and the underestimated ICC due to the redistribution of the variance component from the ignored crossed factor. The results demonstrated possible incorrect statistical inferences with conventional MCFA analyses that assume multilevel data as hierarchical structure for testing measurement invariance with cross-classified data (non-hierarchical structure). On the contrary, the cross-classified MIMIC model demonstrated acceptable performance with cross-classified data.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Myung Hee eIm
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In educational settings, researchers are likely to encounter multilevel data with cross-classified structure. However, due to the lack of familiarity and limitations of statistical software for cross-classified modeling, most researchers adopt less optimal approaches to analyze cross-classified multilevel data in testing measurement invariance. We conducted two Monte Carlo studies to investigate the performances of testing measurement invariance with cross-classified multilevel data when the noninvarinace is at the between-level: (a the impact of ignoring crossed factor using conventional multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA which assumes hierarchical multilevel data in testing measurement invariance and (b the adequacy of the cross-classified multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC models with cross-classified data. We considered two design factors, intraclass correlation (ICC and magnitude of non-invariance. Generally, MCFA demonstrated very low statistical power to detect non-invariance. The low power was plausibly related to the underestimated factor loading differences and the underestimated ICC due to the redistribution of the variance component from the ignored crossed factor. The results demonstrated possible incorrect statistical inferences with conventional MCFA analyses that assume multilevel data as hierarchical structure for testing measurement invariance with cross-classified data (non-hierarchical structure. On the contrary, the cross-classified MIMIC model demonstrated acceptable performance with cross-classified data.
Unravelling Lorentz Covariance and the Spacetime Formalism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2008-10-01
Full Text Available We report the discovery of an exact mapping from Galilean time and space coordinates to Minkowski spacetime coordinates, showing that Lorentz covariance and the space-time construct are consistent with the existence of a dynamical 3-space, and absolute motion. We illustrate this mapping first with the standard theory of sound, as vibrations of a medium, which itself may be undergoing fluid motion, and which is covariant under Galilean coordinate transformations. By introducing a different non-physical class of space and time coordinates it may be cast into a form that is covariant under Lorentz transformations wherein the speed of sound is now the invariant speed. If this latter formalism were taken as fundamental and complete we would be lead to the introduction of a pseudo-Riemannian spacetime description of sound, with a metric characterised by an invariant speed of sound. This analysis is an allegory for the development of 20th century physics, but where the Lorentz covariant Maxwell equations were constructed first, and the Galilean form was later constructed by Hertz, but ignored. It is shown that the Lorentz covariance of the Maxwell equations only occurs because of the use of non-physical space and time coordinates. The use of this class of coordinates has confounded 20th century physics, and resulted in the existence of a allowing dynamical 3-space being overlooked. The discovery of the dynamics of this 3-space has lead to the derivation of an extended gravity theory as a quantum effect, and confirmed by numerous experiments and observations
Unravelling Lorentz Covariance and the Spacetime Formalism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2008-10-01
Full Text Available We report the discovery of an exact mapping from Galilean time and space coordinates to Minkowski spacetime coordinates, showing that Lorentz covariance and the space- time construct are consistent with the existence of a dynamical 3-space, and “absolute motion”. We illustrate this mapping first with the standard theory of sound, as vibra- tions of a medium, which itself may be undergoing fluid motion, and which is covari- ant under Galilean coordinate transformations. By introducing a different non-physical class of space and time coordinates it may be cast into a form that is covariant under “Lorentz transformations” wherein the speed of sound is now the “invariant speed”. If this latter formalism were taken as fundamental and complete we would be lead to the introduction of a pseudo-Riemannian “spacetime” description of sound, with a metric characterised by an “invariant speed of sound”. This analysis is an allegory for the development of 20th century physics, but where the Lorentz covariant Maxwell equa- tions were constructed first, and the Galilean form was later constructed by Hertz, but ignored. It is shown that the Lorentz covariance of the Maxwell equations only occurs because of the use of non-physical space and time coordinates. The use of this class of coordinates has confounded 20th century physics, and resulted in the existence of a “flowing” dynamical 3-space being overlooked. The discovery of the dynamics of this 3-space has lead to the derivation of an extended gravity theory as a quantum effect, and confirmed by numerous experiments and observations
Invariance levels across language versions of the PISA 2009 reading comprehension tests in Spain.
Elosua Oliden, Paula; Mujika Lizaso, Josu
2013-01-01
The PISA project provides the basis for studying curriculum design and for comparing factors associated with school effectiveness. These studies are only valid if the different language versions are equivalent to each other. In Spain, the application of PISA in autonomous regions with their own languages means that equivalency must also be extended to the Spanish, Galician, Catalan and Basque versions of the test. The aim of this work was to analyse the equivalence among the four language versions of the Reading Comprehension Test (PISA 2009). After defining the testlet as the unit of analysis, equivalence among the language versions was analysed using two invariance testing procedures: multiple-group mean and covariance structure analyses for ordinal data and ordinal logistic regression. The procedures yielded concordant results supporting metric equivalence across all four language versions: Spanish, Basque, Galician and Catalan. The equivalence supports the estimated reading literacy score comparability among the language versions used in Spain.
High momentum transfer inelastic muon scattering and test of scale invariance at NAL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, K.Wendell, (Spokesperson); /Princeton U.; Hand, L.N.; /Cornell U., LNS
1970-06-01
We propose a relatively simple first stage experiment with muons in the 50-150 GeV range. The experiment is designed to optimize conditions for testing scale invariance while providing some information about the final state, as a test of various theories of high energy interactions. The proposed use of an iron spectrometer and of a high Z (>1) target with a low intensity ({approx}10{sup 6}/sec) muon beam should greatly reduce the cost and complexity of the experiment and especially ease the construction of the beam. It may even be possible to make an adequate muon beam for this purpose from the planned 3.5 mrad high intensity pion beam. A higher intensity muon beam can be used to extend the range in q{sup 2}. Information gained in this first experiment could greatly assist the planning of a more sophisticated experiment proposed for the high intensity {mu} beam.
Lorentz violating p-form gauge theories in superspace
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Upadhyay, Sudhaker [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Centre for Theoretical Studies, Kharagpur (India); Shah, Mushtaq B.; Ganai, Prince A. [National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Srinagar, Kashmir (India)
2017-03-15
Very special relativity (VSR) keeps the main features of special relativity but breaks rotational invariance due to an intrinsic preferred direction. We study the VSR-modified extended BRST and anti-BRST symmetry of the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) actions corresponding to the p = 1, 2, 3-form gauge theories. Within the VSR framework, we discuss the extended BRST invariant and extended BRST and anti-BRST invariant superspace formulations for these BV actions. Here we observe that the VSR-modified extended BRST invariant BV actions corresponding to the p = 1, 2, 3-form gauge theories can be written in a manifestly covariant manner in a superspace with one Grassmann coordinate. Moreover, two Grassmann coordinates are required to describe the VSR-modified extended BRST and extended anti-BRST invariant BV actions in a superspace. These results are consistent with the Lorentz-invariant (special relativity) formulation. (orig.)
Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael
2012-01-01
This study examined the appropriateness of the anchor composition in a mixed-format test, which includes both multiple-choice (MC) and constructed-response (CR) items, using subpopulation invariance indices. Linking functions were derived in the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design using two types of anchor sets: (a) MC only and (b)…
Lorentz violations in multifractal spacetimes
Calcagni, Gianluca
2016-01-01
Using the recent observation of gravitational waves (GW) produced by a black-hole merger, we place a lower bound on the energy above which a multifractal spacetime would manifest an anomalous geometry and, in particular, violations of Lorentz invariance. In the so-called multifractional theory with $q$-derivatives, we show that the deformation of dispersion relations is much stronger than in generic quantum-gravity approaches (including loop quantum gravity) and, contrary to the latter, present observations on GWs can place very strong bounds on the characteristic scales at which spacetime deviates from standard Minkowski. The energy at which multifractal effects should become apparent is $E_*>10^{14}\\,\\text{GeV}$ (thus improving previous bounds by 12 orders of magnitude) when the exponents in the measure are fixed to their central value $1/2$. We also estimate, for the first time, the effect of logarithmic oscillations in the measure (corresponding to a discrete spacetime structure) and find that they do not...
Lorentz violations in multifractal spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calcagni, Gianluca [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)
2017-05-15
Using the recent observation of gravitational waves (GW) produced by a black-hole merger, we place a lower bound on the energy above which a multifractal spacetime would display an anomalous geometry and, in particular, violations of Lorentz invariance. In the so-called multifractional theory with q-derivatives, we show that the deformation of dispersion relations is much stronger than in generic quantum-gravity approaches (including loop quantum gravity) and, contrary to the latter, present observations on GWs can place very strong bounds on the characteristic scales at which spacetime deviates from standard Minkowski. The energy at which multifractal effects should become apparent is E{sub *} > 10{sup 14} GeV (thus improving previous bounds by 12 orders of magnitude) when the exponents in the measure are fixed to their central value 1 / 2. We also estimate, for the first time, the effect of logarithmic oscillations in the measure (corresponding to a discrete spacetime structure) and find that they do not change much the bounds obtained in their absence, unless the amplitude of the oscillations is fine tuned. This feature, unavailable in known quantum-gravity scenarios, may help the theory to avoid being ruled out by gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations, for which E{sub *} > 10{sup 17} GeV or greater. (orig.)
Baryogenesis in Lorentz-violating gravity theories
Sakstein, Jeremy; Solomon, Adam R.
2017-10-01
Lorentz-violating theories of gravity typically contain constrained vector fields. We show that the lowest-order coupling of such vectors to U (1)-symmetric scalars can naturally give rise to baryogenesis in a manner akin to the Affleck-Dine mechanism. We calculate the cosmology of this new mechanism, demonstrating that a net B - L can be generated in the early Universe, and that the resulting baryon-to-photon ratio matches that which is presently observed. We discuss constraints on the model using solar system and astrophysical tests of Lorentz violation in the gravity sector. Generic Lorentz-violating theories can give rise to the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry without violating any current bounds.
Baryogenesis in Lorentz-violating gravity theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeremy Sakstein
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Lorentz-violating theories of gravity typically contain constrained vector fields. We show that the lowest-order coupling of such vectors to U(1-symmetric scalars can naturally give rise to baryogenesis in a manner akin to the Affleck–Dine mechanism. We calculate the cosmology of this new mechanism, demonstrating that a net B−L can be generated in the early Universe, and that the resulting baryon-to-photon ratio matches that which is presently observed. We discuss constraints on the model using solar system and astrophysical tests of Lorentz violation in the gravity sector. Generic Lorentz-violating theories can give rise to the observed matter–antimatter asymmetry without violating any current bounds.
Chiorri, Carlo; Marsh, Herbert W; Ubbiali, Alessandro; Donati, Deborah
2016-01-01
Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) typically fail to support the a priori 5-factor structure of Big Five self-report instruments, due in part to the overly restrictive CFA assumptions. We show that exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), an integration of CFA and exploratory factor analysis, overcomes these problems in relation to responses to the 44-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) administered to a large Italian community sample. ESEM fitted the data better and resulted in less correlated factors than CFA, although ESEM and CFA factor scores correlated at near unity with observed raw scores. Tests of gender invariance with a 13-model taxonomy of full measurement invariance showed that the factor structure of the BFI is gender-invariant and that women score higher on Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. Through ESEM one could address substantively important issues about BFI psychometric properties that could not be appropriately addressed through traditional approaches.
Misieng, Jecky
2013-01-01
As a result of growing attention in cross-cultural research, existing measurement instruments developed in one language are being translated and adapted for use in other languages and cultural contexts. Producing invariant measurement instruments that assess educational and psychological constructs provide a way of testing the cross-cultural…
Morris, Gregory D.; Wood, Peter B.; Dunaway, R. Gregory
2006-01-01
Using a sample of White and Native American high school students, the authors provide a test of (a) self-control theory's invariance thesis and (b) native traditionalism as an explanation of Native American substance use. Self-control significantly influenced all forms of substance use when controlling for race and in race-specific analyses.…
Wang, Shudong; McCall, Marty; Jiao, Hong; Harris, Gregg
2012-01-01
The purposes of this study are twofold. First, to investigate the construct or factorial structure of a set of Reading and Mathematics computerized adaptive tests (CAT), "Measures of Academic Progress" (MAP), given in different states at different grades and academic terms. The second purpose is to investigate the invariance of test…
Egberink, Iris J. L.; Meijer, Rob R.; Tendeiro, Jorge N.
2015-01-01
A popular method to assess measurement invariance of a particular item is based on likelihood ratio tests with all other items as anchor items. The results of this method are often only reported in terms of statistical significance, and researchers proposed different methods to empirically select anchor items. It is unclear, however, how many…
Gauge invariance for a whole Abelian model
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W.
2012-10-01
Light invariance is a fundamental principle for physics be done. It generates Maxwell equations, relativity, Lorentz group. However there is still space for a fourth picture be developed which is to include fields with same Lorentz nature. It brings a new room for field theory. It says that light invariance does not work just to connect space and time but it also associates different fields with same nature. Thus for the (1/2,1/2) representation there is a fields family {AμI} to be studied. This means that given such fields association one should derive its corresponding gauge theory. This is the effort at this work. Show that there is a whole gauge theory to cover these fields relationships. Considering the abelian case, prove its gauge invariance. It yields the kinetic, massive, trilinear and quadrilinear gauge invariant terms.
Gauge invariance for a whole Abelian model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W. [CBPF, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Aprendanet, Petropolis, 25600 (Brazil)
2012-09-24
Light invariance is a fundamental principle for physics be done. It generates Maxwell equations, relativity, Lorentz group. However there is still space for a fourth picture be developed which is to include fields with same Lorentz nature. It brings a new room for field theory. It says that light invariance does not work just to connect space and time but it also associates different fields with same nature. Thus for the ((1/2),(1/2)) representation there is a fields family {l_brace}A{sub {mu}I}{r_brace} to be studied. This means that given such fields association one should derive its corresponding gauge theory. This is the effort at this work. Show that there is a whole gauge theory to cover these fields relationships. Considering the abelian case, prove its gauge invariance. It yields the kinetic, massive, trilinear and quadrilinear gauge invariant terms.
Adams, Scot
2001-01-01
Within the general framework of the dynamics of "large" groups on geometric spaces, the focus is on the types of groups that can act in complicated ways on Lorentz manifolds, and on the structure of the resulting manifolds and actions. This particular area of dynamics is an active one, and not all the results are in their final form. However, at this point, a great deal can be said about the particular Lie groups that come up in this context. It is impressive that, even assuming very weak recurrence of the action, the list of possible groups is quite restricted. For the most complicated of the
Lorentz Violation in Warped Extra Dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC
2011-08-11
Higher dimensional theories which address some of the problematic issues of the Standard Model(SM) naturally involve some form of D = 4 + n-dimensional Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). In such models the fundamental physics which leads to, e.g., field localization, orbifolding, the existence of brane terms and the compactification process all can introduce LIV in the higher dimensional theory while still preserving 4-d Lorentz invariance. In this paper, attempting to capture some of this physics, we extend our previous analysis of LIV in 5-d UED-type models to those with 5- d warped extra dimensions. To be specific, we employ the 5-d analog of the SM Extension of Kostelecky et al. which incorporates a complete set of operators arising from spontaneous LIV. We show that while the response of the bulk scalar, fermion and gauge fields to the addition of LIV operators in warped models is qualitatively similar to what happens in the flat 5-d UED case, the gravity sector of these models reacts very differently than in flat space. Specifically, we show that LIV in this warped case leads to a non-zero bulk mass for the 5-d graviton and so the would-be zero mode, which we identify as the usual 4-d graviton, must necessarily become massive. The origin of this mass term is the simultaneous existence of the constant non-zero AdS{sub 5} curvature and the loss of general co-ordinate invariance via LIV in the 5-d theory. Thus warped 5-d models with LIV in the gravity sector are not phenomenologically viable.
On the impossibility of superluminal travel in Lorentz violating theories
Coutant, Antonin; Liberati, Stefano; Parentani, Renaud
2011-01-01
Warp drives are space-times allowing for superluminal travel. However, they are quantum mechanically unstable because they produce a Hawking-like radiation which is blue shifted at their front wall without any bound. We re-examine this instability when local Lorentz invariance is violated at ultra high energy by dispersion, as in some theories of quantum gravity. Interestingly, even though the ultraviolet divergence is now regulated, warp drives are still unstable. Moreover the type of instability is different whether one uses a subluminal or a superluminal dispersion relation. In the first case, a black-hole laser yields an exponential amplification of the emitted flux whereas, in the second, infrared effects produce a linear growth of that flux. These results suggest that chronology could still be protected when violating Lorentz invariance.
Extended-Lorentz Quantum-Cosmology Symmetry Group
Chew, Geoffrey F
2013-01-01
Unitarily representable by transformations of Milne quantum-universe (MQU) Hilbert-space vectors is a 9-parameter 'extended-Lorentz' Lie group whose algebra comprises 9 conserved MQU-constituent ('quc') attributes: electric charge, energy, spirality, 3-vector momentum and 3-vector angular momentum. Commutation with the full symmetry algebra by the 3-element Lorentz-extending sub-algebra identifies any quc by its (permanent) trio of charge, spirality and energy integers. Milne's redshift-specifying 'universe age' is invariant under the MQU symmetry group. Also invariant is the (elsewhere specified) universe hamiltonian--a self-adjoint age-dependent Hilbert-space operator (not a symmetry-algebra member) that generates universe evolution with increasing age through a 'Schrodinger' (first-order) differential equation.
Goold, Conor; Newberry, Ruth C
2017-01-01
Studies of animal personality attempt to uncover underlying or "latent" personality traits that explain broad patterns of behaviour, often by applying latent variable statistical models (e.g., factor analysis) to multivariate data sets. Two integral, but infrequently confirmed, assumptions of latent variable models in animal personality are: i) behavioural variables are independent (i.e., uncorrelated) conditional on the latent personality traits they reflect (local independence), and ii) personality traits are associated with behavioural variables in the same way across individuals or groups of individuals (measurement invariance). We tested these assumptions using observations of aggression in four age classes (4-10 months, 10 months-3 years, 3-6 years, over 6 years) of male and female shelter dogs (N = 4,743) in 11 different contexts. A structural equation model supported the hypothesis of two positively correlated personality traits underlying aggression across contexts: aggressiveness towards people and aggressiveness towards dogs (comparative fit index: 0.96; Tucker-Lewis index: 0.95; root mean square error of approximation: 0.03). Aggression across contexts was moderately repeatable (towards people: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.479; towards dogs: ICC = 0.303). However, certain contexts related to aggressiveness towards people (but not dogs) shared significant residual relationships unaccounted for by latent levels of aggressiveness. Furthermore, aggressiveness towards people and dogs in different contexts interacted with sex and age. Thus, sex and age differences in displays of aggression were not simple functions of underlying aggressiveness. Our results illustrate that the robustness of traits in latent variable models must be critically assessed before making conclusions about the effects of, or factors influencing, animal personality. Our findings are of concern because inaccurate "aggressive personality" trait attributions can be costly
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Conor Goold
Full Text Available Studies of animal personality attempt to uncover underlying or "latent" personality traits that explain broad patterns of behaviour, often by applying latent variable statistical models (e.g., factor analysis to multivariate data sets. Two integral, but infrequently confirmed, assumptions of latent variable models in animal personality are: i behavioural variables are independent (i.e., uncorrelated conditional on the latent personality traits they reflect (local independence, and ii personality traits are associated with behavioural variables in the same way across individuals or groups of individuals (measurement invariance. We tested these assumptions using observations of aggression in four age classes (4-10 months, 10 months-3 years, 3-6 years, over 6 years of male and female shelter dogs (N = 4,743 in 11 different contexts. A structural equation model supported the hypothesis of two positively correlated personality traits underlying aggression across contexts: aggressiveness towards people and aggressiveness towards dogs (comparative fit index: 0.96; Tucker-Lewis index: 0.95; root mean square error of approximation: 0.03. Aggression across contexts was moderately repeatable (towards people: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.479; towards dogs: ICC = 0.303. However, certain contexts related to aggressiveness towards people (but not dogs shared significant residual relationships unaccounted for by latent levels of aggressiveness. Furthermore, aggressiveness towards people and dogs in different contexts interacted with sex and age. Thus, sex and age differences in displays of aggression were not simple functions of underlying aggressiveness. Our results illustrate that the robustness of traits in latent variable models must be critically assessed before making conclusions about the effects of, or factors influencing, animal personality. Our findings are of concern because inaccurate "aggressive personality" trait attributions can be
2017-01-01
Studies of animal personality attempt to uncover underlying or “latent” personality traits that explain broad patterns of behaviour, often by applying latent variable statistical models (e.g., factor analysis) to multivariate data sets. Two integral, but infrequently confirmed, assumptions of latent variable models in animal personality are: i) behavioural variables are independent (i.e., uncorrelated) conditional on the latent personality traits they reflect (local independence), and ii) personality traits are associated with behavioural variables in the same way across individuals or groups of individuals (measurement invariance). We tested these assumptions using observations of aggression in four age classes (4–10 months, 10 months–3 years, 3–6 years, over 6 years) of male and female shelter dogs (N = 4,743) in 11 different contexts. A structural equation model supported the hypothesis of two positively correlated personality traits underlying aggression across contexts: aggressiveness towards people and aggressiveness towards dogs (comparative fit index: 0.96; Tucker-Lewis index: 0.95; root mean square error of approximation: 0.03). Aggression across contexts was moderately repeatable (towards people: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.479; towards dogs: ICC = 0.303). However, certain contexts related to aggressiveness towards people (but not dogs) shared significant residual relationships unaccounted for by latent levels of aggressiveness. Furthermore, aggressiveness towards people and dogs in different contexts interacted with sex and age. Thus, sex and age differences in displays of aggression were not simple functions of underlying aggressiveness. Our results illustrate that the robustness of traits in latent variable models must be critically assessed before making conclusions about the effects of, or factors influencing, animal personality. Our findings are of concern because inaccurate “aggressive personality” trait attributions
Radjavi, Heydar
2003-01-01
This broad survey spans a wealth of studies on invariant subspaces, focusing on operators on separable Hilbert space. Largely self-contained, it requires only a working knowledge of measure theory, complex analysis, and elementary functional analysis. Subjects include normal operators, analytic functions of operators, shift operators, examples of invariant subspace lattices, compact operators, and the existence of invariant and hyperinvariant subspaces. Additional chapters cover certain results on von Neumann algebras, transitive operator algebras, algebras associated with invariant subspaces,
Testing strong factorial invariance using three-level structural equation modeling
Jak, Suzanne
Within structural equation modeling, the most prevalent model to investigate measurement bias is the multigroup model. Equal factor loadings and intercepts across groups in a multigroup model represent strong factorial invariance (absence of measurement bias) across groups. Although this approach is
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fierro, D. Bedoya; Kelkar, N.G.; Nowakowski, M. [Dept. de Fisica, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1E No. 18A-10, Santafe de Bogota (Colombia)
2015-09-30
The proton charge and magnetization density distributions can be related to the well known Sachs electromagnetic form factors G{sub E,M}(/emph {q}{sup 2}) through Fourier transforms, only in the Breit frame. The Breit frame however moves with relativistic velocities in the Lab and a Lorentz boost must be applied before extracting the static properties of the proton from the corresponding densities. Apart from this, the Fourier transform relating the densities and form factors is inherently a non-relativistic expression. We show that the relativistic corrections to it can be obtained by extending the standard Breit equation to higher orders in its 1/c{sup 2} expansion. We find that the inclusion of the above corrections reduces the size of the proton as determined from electron proton scattering data by about 4%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Ortuño-Sierra
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B, the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. METHODS: The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M = 16.04 years and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M = 15.94 years. RESULTS: The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. DISCUSSION: The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures.
Teo, Timothy; Kam, Chester
2014-01-01
Following the call to ensure the validity of instruments used to assess users' level of Internet usage, this study examined the factor structure of the Internet Addiction Test-Adolescence version (IAT-A) when applied to a sample of young children in a multicultural society and assessed whether the items in the IAT-A were invariant by gender and,…
Comment on ``Pairing interaction and Galilei invariance''
Arias, J. M.; Gallardo, M.; Gómez-Camacho, J.
1999-05-01
A recent article by Dussel, Sofia, and Tonina studies the relation between Galilei invariance and dipole energy weighted sum rule (EWSR). The authors find that the pairing interaction, which is neither Galilei nor Lorentz invariant, produces big changes in the EWSR and in effective masses of the nucleons. They argue that these effects of the pairing force could be realistic. In this Comment we stress the validity of Galilei invariance to a very good approximation in this context of low-energy nuclear physics and show that the effective masses and the observed change in the EWSR for the electric dipole operator relative to its classical value are compatible with this symmetry.
Testing measurement invariance across groups: applications in cross-cultural research.
L. Milfont, Taciano; Victoria University of Wellington; Fischer, Ronald; School of Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington
2015-01-01
Researchers often compare groups of individuals on psychological variables. When comparing groups an assumption is made that the instrument measures the same psychological construct in all groups. If this assumption holds, the comparisons are valid and differences/similarities between groups can be meaningfully interpreted. If this assumption does not hold, comparisons and interpretations are not fully meaningful. The establishment of measurement invariance is a prerequisite for meaningful co...
Confirmatory factor analysis and invariance testing of the Young Carer of Parents Inventory (YCOPI).
Cox, Stephen D; Pakenham, Kenneth I
2014-11-01
Research into youth caregiving in families where a parent experiences a significant medical condition has been hampered by a lack of contextually sensitive measures of the nature and breadth of young caregiving experiences. This study examined the factor structure and measurement invariance of such a measure called the Young Carer of Parents Inventory (YCOPI; Pakenham et al., 2006) using confirmatory factor analysis across 3 groups of youth. The YCOPI has 2 parts: YCOPI-A with 5 factors assessing caregiving experiences that are applicable to all caregiving contexts; YCOPI-B with 4 factors that tap dimensions related to youth caregiving in the context of parent illness. Two samples (ages 9-20 years) were recruited: a community sample of 2,429 youth from which 2 groups were derived ("healthy" family [HF], n = 1760; parental illness [PI], n = 446), and a sample of 130 youth of a parent with multiple sclerosis). With some modification, the YCOPI-A demonstrated a replicable factor structure across 3 groups, and exhibited only partial measurement invariance across the HF and PI groups. The impact of assuming full measurement invariance on latent mean differences appeared small, supporting use of the measure in research and applied settings when estimated using latent factors and controlling for measurement invariance. PI youth reported significantly higher scores than did HF youth on all YCOPI-A subscales. The YCOPI-B requires some modifications, and further development work is recommended. The factor structure that emerged and the addition of new items constitutes the YCOPI-Revised. Findings support the use of the YCOPI-Revised in research and applied settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Testing invariance between web and paper students satisfaction surveys: A case study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monica Martinez-Gomez
2017-11-01
Originality/value: Results showed that the factor structures remained invariant across the internet-based and paper-based groups, that is to say, both methods of collecting data can be considered equivalent, with the same factor structure, factor loadings, measurement errors of factors and the same reliability. These findings are useful for researchers since they add a new sample in which web and paper questionnaires are equivalent and for teachers to desire to change the teaching methodology at university, encourage students’ participation and teamwork through active methodologies.
Analysing, Interpreting, and Testing the Invariance of the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gareau, Alexandre
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Although in recent years researchers have begun to utilize dyadic data analyses such as the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM, certain limitations to the applicability of these models still exist. Given the complexity of APIMs, most researchers will often use observed scores to estimate the model's parameters, which can significantly limit and underestimate statistical results. The aim of this article is to highlight the importance of conducting a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA of equivalent constructs between dyad members (i.e. measurement equivalence/invariance; ME/I. Different steps for merging CFA and APIM procedures will be detailed in order to shed light on new and integrative methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirko Antino
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The present study analyzed the psychometric properties and the validity of the Spanish version of the Team Climate Inventory (TCI. The TCI is a measure of climate for innovation within groups at work and is based on the four-factor theory of climate for innovation (West, 1990. Cronbach's alpha and omega indexes revealed satisfactory reliabilities and exploratory factor analysis extracted the four original factors with the fifth factor as reported in other studies. Confirmatory factorial analysis confirmed that the five-factor solution presented the best fit to our data. Two samples (Spanish health care teams and Latin American software development teams for a total of 1099 participants were compared, showing metric measurement invariance. Evidences for validity based on team performance and team satisfaction prediction are offered.
Charged Lifshitz black hole and probed Lorentz-violation fermions from holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Cheng-Jian, E-mail: rocengeng@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Kuang, Xiao-Mei, E-mail: xmeikuang@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Shu, Fu-Wen, E-mail: shufuwen@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)
2017-06-10
We analytically obtain a new charged Lifshitz solution by adding a non-relativistic Maxwell field in Hořava–Lifshitz gravity. The black hole exhibits an anisotropic scaling between space and time (Lifshitz scaling) in the UV limit, while in the IR limit, the Lorentz invariance is approximately recovered. We introduce the probed Lorentz-violation fermions into the background and holographically investigate the spectral properties of the dual fermionic operator. The Lorentz-violation of the fermions will enhance the peak and correspond larger fermi momentum, which compensates the non-relativistic bulk effect of the dynamical exponent (z). For a fixed z, when the Lorentz-violation of fermions increases to a critical value, the behavior of the low energy excitation goes from a non-Fermi liquid type to a Fermi liquid type, which implies a kind of phase transition.
Galenkamp, Henrike; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B; Derks, Eske M
2017-10-24
In Western European countries, the prevalence of depressive symptoms is higher among ethnic minority groups, compared to the host population. We explored whether these inequalities reflect variance in the way depressive symptoms are measured, by investigating whether items of the PHQ-9 measure the same underlying construct in six ethnic groups in the Netherlands. A total of 23,182 men and women aged 18-70 of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaian, Turkish or Moroccan origin were included in the HELIUS study and had answered to at least one of the PHQ-9 items. We conducted multiple group confirmatory factor analyses (MGCFA), with increasingly stringent model constraints (i.e. assessing Configural, Metric, Strong and Strict measurement invariance (MI)), and regression analysis, to confirm comparability of PHQ-9 items across ethnic groups. A one-factor model, where all nine items reflect a single underlying construct, showed acceptable model fit and was used for MI testing. In each subsequent step, change in goodness-of-fit measures did not exceed 0.015 (RMSEA) or 0.01 (CFI). Moreover, strict invariance models showed good or acceptable model fit (Men: RMSEA = 0.050; CFI = 0.985; Women: RMSEA = 0.058; CFI = 0.979), indicating between-group equality of item clusters, factor loadings, item thresholds and residual variances. Finally, regression analysis did not indicate potential ethnicity-related differential item functioning (DIF) of the PHQ-9. This study provides evidence of measurement invariance of the PHQ-9 regarding ethnicity, implying that the observed inequalities in depressive symptoms cannot be attributed to DIF.
Zelmanov, Abraham
2004-01-01
This book introduces the mathematical apparatus of chronometric invariants (physical observable quantities) in the General Theory of Relativity, and also numerous results the mathematical apparatus found in relativistic cosmology (236 pages, 1 foto).
Constaints on Lorentz symmetry violations using lunar laser ranging observations
Bourgoin, Adrien
2016-12-01
General Relativity (GR) and the standard model of particle physics provide a comprehensive description of the four interactions of nature. A quantum gravity theory is expected to merge these two pillars of modern physics. From unification theories, such a combination would lead to a breaking of fundamental symmetry appearing in both GR and the standard model of particle physics as the Lorentz symmetry. Lorentz symmetry violations in all fields of physics can be parametrized by an effective field theory framework called the standard-model extension (SME). Local Lorentz Invariance violations in the gravitational sector should impact the orbital motion of bodies inside the solar system, such as the Moon. Thus, the accurate lunar laser ranging (LLR) data can be analyzed in order to study precisely the lunar motion to look for irregularities. For this purpose, ELPN (Ephéméride Lunaire Parisienne Numérique), a new lunar ephemeris has been integrated in the SME framework. This new numerical solution of the lunar motion provides time series dated in temps dynamique barycentrique (TDB). Among that series, we mention the barycentric position and velocity of the Earth-Moon vector, the lunar libration angles, the time scale difference between the terrestrial time and TDB and partial derivatives integrated from variational equations. ELPN predictions have been used to analyzed LLR observations. In the GR framework, the residuals standard deviations has turned out to be the same order of magnitude compare to those of INPOP13b and DE430 ephemerides. In the framework of the minimal SME, LLR data analysis provided constraints on local Lorentz invariance violations. Spetial attention was paid to analyze uncertainties to provide the most realistic constraints. Therefore, in a first place, linear combinations of SME coefficients have been derived and fitted to LLR observations. In a second time, realistic uncertainties have been determined with a resampling method. LLR data
The Effect of Extreme Response and Non-extreme Response Styles on Testing Measurement Invariance
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Min Liu
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Extreme and non-extreme response styles (RSs are prevalent in survey research using Likert-type scales. Their effects on measurement invariance (MI in the context of confirmatory factor analysis are systematically investigated here via a Monte Carlo simulation study. Using the parameter estimates obtained from analyzing a 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study data set, a population model was constructed. Original and contaminated data with one of two RSs were generated and analyzed via multi-group confirmatory factor analysis with different constraints of MI. The results indicated that the detrimental effects of response style on MI have been underestimated. More specifically, these two RSs had a substantially negative impact on both model fit and parameter recovery, suggesting that the lack of MI between groups may have been caused by the RSs, not the measured factors of focal interest. Practical implications are provided to help practitioners to detect RSs and determine whether RSs are a serious threat to MI.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boris Urban
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Building on previous research on antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions, various measures were tested across different ethnic groups in South Africa. Factorial homogeneity is an important attribute for any scale intended for use in multicultural research, and since tests of equivalency are not routinely applied, this article hypothesised measurement invariance across ethnic groups. Theoretical discussions on Hofstede’s (2001 value survey module (VSM 94, attitudes towards and beliefs about entrepreneurial intentions, general self-efficacy (GSE, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE preceded the use of statistical analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis based on 210 respondents indicated that equivalence for the underlying factors across the different ethnic groups could not be established, and that the three groups demonstrated different underlying structures. In conclusion, stereotypic declarations of an integrated South African culture were not supported by this research in terms of entrepreneurial intentions and their antecedents.
Lorentz violation in supersymmetric field theories.
Nibbelink, Stefan Groot; Pospelov, Maxim
2005-03-04
We construct supersymmetric Lorentz violating operators for matter and gauge fields. We show that in the supersymmetric standard model the lowest possible dimension for such operators is five, and therefore they are suppressed by at least one power of an ultraviolet energy scale, providing a possible explanation for the smallness of Lorentz violation and its stability against radiative corrections. Supersymmetric Lorentz noninvariant operators do not lead to modifications of dispersion relations at high energies thereby escaping constraints from astrophysical searches for Lorentz violation.
One way to Lorentz's Transformations
Bessonov, E G
2012-01-01
The derivation of Lorentz Transformations (LT) based on the Principle of Relativity and dependence of the rate of clocks tick (time dilation) on their velocity is presented. The analysis of different ways of the LT derivation allows to look at LT and their consequences from different standpoints, to make them more accessible to a wide circle of readers interested in the relativistic physics.
Lúcio, Patrícia S; Salum, Giovanni; Swardfager, Walter; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Pan, Pedro M; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Gadelha, Ary; Rohde, Luis A; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo
2017-01-01
Although studies have consistently demonstrated that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) perform significantly lower than controls on word recognition and spelling tests, such studies rely on the assumption that those groups are comparable in these measures. This study investigates comparability of word recognition and spelling tests based on diagnostic status for ADHD through measurement invariance methods. The participants (n = 1,935; 47% female; 11% ADHD) were children aged 6-15 with normal IQ (≥70). Measurement invariance was investigated through Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes models. Measurement invariance was attested in both methods, demonstrating the direct comparability of the groups. Children with ADHD were 0.51 SD lower in word recognition and 0.33 SD lower in spelling tests than controls. Results suggest that differences in performance on word recognition and spelling tests are related to true mean differences based on ADHD diagnostic status. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.
Robles-Pérez, Salvador
2017-11-01
We apply the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant method for the harmonic oscillator with time dependent mass and frequency to the modes of a charged scalar field that propagates in a curved, homogeneous and isotropic spacetime. We recover the Bunch-Davies vacuum in the case of a flat DeSitter spacetime, the equivalent one in the case of a closed DeSitter spacetime and the invariant vacuum in a curved spacetime that evolves adiabatically. In the three cases, it is computed the thermodynamical magnitudes of entanglement between the modes of the particles and antiparticles of the invariant vacuum, and the modification of the Friedmann equation caused by the existence of the energy density of entanglement. The amplitude of the vacuum fluctuations are also computed.
Lorentz- and CPT-symmetry studies in subatomic physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehnert, Ralf, E-mail: ralehner@indiana.edu [Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany)
2016-12-15
Subatomic systems provide an exquisite test bench for spacetime symmetries. This work motivates such measurements, reviews the effective field theory test framework for the description of Lorentz and CPT violation, and employs this framework to study the phenomenology of spacetime-symmetry breaking in various subatomic systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
1997-01-01
The scope of the paper is to apply multi-variate time-domain models for identification of eginfrequencies and mode shapes of a time- invariant model test Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame from measured decays. The frequencies and mode shapes of interest are the two lowest ones since they are normally...... in the comparison. The data investigated are sampled from a laboratory model of a plane 6-storey, 2-bay RC-frame. The laboratory model is excited at the top storey where two different types of excitation where considered. In the first case the structure was excited in the first mode and in the second case...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
The scope of the paper is to apply multi-variate time-domain models for identification of eginfrequencies and mode shapes of a time- invariant model test Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame from measured decays. The frequencies and mode shapes of interest are the two lowest ones since they are normally...... in the comparison. The data investigated are sampled from a laboratory model of a plane 6-storey, 2-bay RC-frame. The laboratory model is excited at the top storey where two different types of excitation where considered. In the first case the structure was excited in the first mode and in the second case...
Lunar Laser Ranging Test of the Invariance of c: a Correction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruchholz U. E.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available In the APOLLO test, a speed of light was found, which seemingly supports a Galileian addition theorem of velocities. However, the reported difference of 200 +/- 10 m/s is based on a simple error. The correct evaluation of this test leads to the known value of c within the given precision. This correction does not mean an impossibility of detecting spatial anisotropies or gravitational waves.
Transition radiation detectors for energy measurements at high Lorentz factors
Wakely, S P; Müller, D; Hörandel, J R; Gahbauer, F
2004-01-01
The characteristic dependence of the intensity of transition radiation (TR) on the Lorentz factor gamma = E/mc**2 of a primary particle is key to a number of practical applications. In particular, one may use TR detectors for energy measurements of heavy cosmic-ray nuclei in a region where alternate techniques are difficult to apply. However, a serious constraint can be the saturation of the TR yield at high gamma-values. We investigate how the onset of saturation can be pushed to as high a Lorentz factor as possible. We then describe the results of test measurements at CERN, which demonstrate the possibility of practical configurations for measurements over the Lorentz factor range of a few hundred to about 10**5.
Possible cosmogenic neutrino constraints on Planck-scale Lorentz violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mattingly, David M. [New Hamshire Univ., Durham, NH (United States); Maccione, Luca [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Galaverni, Matteo [INAF-IASF Bologna (Italy); Liberati, Stefano [INFN, Trieste (Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2009-11-15
We study, within an effective field theory framework, O(E{sup 2}/M{sup 2}{sub Pl}) Planck-scale suppressed Lorentz invariance violation (LV) effects in the neutrino sector, whose size we parameterize by a dimensionless parameter {eta}{sub {nu}}. We find deviations from predictions of Lorentz invariant physics in the cosmogenic neutrino spectrum. For positive O(1) coefficients no neutrino will survive above 10{sup 19} eV. The existence of this cutoff generates a bump in the neutrino spectrum at energies of 10{sup 17} eV. Although at present no constraint can be cast, as current experiments do not have enough sensitivity to detect ultra-high-energy neutrinos, we show that experiments in construction or being planned have the potential to cast limits as strong as {eta}{sub {nu}}
Chung, Hyewon; Kim, Jiseon; Park, Ryoungsun; Bamer, Alyssa M; Bocell, Fraser D; Amtmann, Dagmar
2016-10-01
The University of Washington Self-Efficacy Scale (UW-SES) was originally developed for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI). This study evaluates the measurement invariance of the 6-item short form of the UW-SES across four disability subgroups. Evidence of measurement invariance would extend the UW-SES for use in two additional diagnostic groups: muscular dystrophy (MD) and post-polio syndrome (PPS). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate successive levels of measurement invariance of the 6-item short form, the UW-SES: (a) configural invariance, i.e., equivalent item-factor structures between groups; (b) metric invariance, i.e., equivalent unstandardized factor loadings between groups; and (c) scalar invariance, i.e., equivalent item intercepts between groups. Responses from the four groups with different diagnostic disorders were compared: MD (n = 172), MS (n = 868), PPS (n = 225), and SCI (n = 242). The results of this study support that the most rigorous form of invariance (i.e., scalar) holds for the 6-item short form of the UW-SES across the four diagnostic subgroups. The current study suggests that the 6-item short form of the UW-SES has the same meaning across the four diagnostic subgroups. Thus, the 6-item short form is validated for people with MD, MS, PPS, and SCI.
Fong, Ted C T; Ho, Rainbow T H
2014-06-01
Measurement invariance is an important attribute for the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Most of the confirmatory factor analysis studies on the HADS adopt the classical maximum likelihood approach. The restrictive assumptions of exact-zero cross-loadings and residual correlations in the classical approach can lead to inadequate model fit and biased parameter estimates. The present study adopted both the classical approach and the alternative Bayesian approach to examine the measurement and structural invariance of the HADS across gender. A Chinese sample of 326 males and 427 females was used to examine the two-factor model of the HADS across gender. Configural and scalar invariance of the HADS were evaluated using the classical approach with the robust-weighted least-square estimator and the Bayesian approach with zero-mean, small-variance informative priors to cross-loadings and residual correlations. Acceptable and excellent model fits were found for the two-factor model under the classical and Bayesian approaches, respectively. The two-factor model displayed scalar invariance across gender using both approaches. In terms of structural invariance, females showed a significantly higher mean in the anxiety factor than males under both approaches. The HADS demonstrated measurement invariance across gender and appears to be a well-developed instrument for assessment of anxiety and depression. The Bayesian approach is an alternative and flexible tool that could be used in future invariance studies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maelekanyo C. Tshilongamulenzhe
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test measurement invariance of the LPME scale across gender using multi-group CFA. The LPME scale was developed to measure the effectiveness of management and evaluation practices pertaining to occupational learning programmes in the South African skills development context. A non-experimental cross-sectional survey was conducted with 389 human resource practitioners and apprentices/learners. The results indicate that the LPME scale is invariant between males and females at the levels of configural, metric and strong invariance. The number of factors/constructs, pattern of item factor loading, latent constructs variances and covariances, and the reliability of the LPME scale and its dimensions are equivalent between males and females
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero
2011-01-01
Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio instrumental fue examinar la estructura factorial y la invarianza de medición a través del sexo y la edad del Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE en una muestra comunitaria de adolescentes no clínicos. La muestra la formaron 1.794 adolescentes (50,2% varones, con una edad medida de 14,7 años (DT = 1,72. Los resultados mostraron que el BITE es un instrumento de medida que presenta adecuadas propiedades psicométricas. El nivel de consistencia interna para la subescala Síntomas fue 0,95, mientras que para la subescala de Gravedad fue de 0,70. El estudio de la dimensionalidad del BITE mediante análisis factorial exploratorio mostró una solución esencialmente unidimensional. Los índices de bondad de ajuste para el modelo unidimensional sometido a prueba en el análisis factorial confirmatorio fueron adecuados. Más aún, esta estructura dimensional del BITE se mostró invariante en función del género y la edad. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del género y la edad cuando se compararon las medias latentes. Futuros estudios deberían incorporar los avances relacionados con la evaluación psicológica y educativa como la construcción de tests adaptativos computerizados, así como examinar la invarianza de medición de la sintomatología bulímica a través de las culturas.
Robust Affine Invariant Descriptors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianwei Yang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available An approach is developed for the extraction of affine invariant descriptors by cutting object into slices. Gray values associated with every pixel in each slice are summed up to construct affine invariant descriptors. As a result, these descriptors are very robust to additive noise. In order to establish slices of correspondence between an object and its affine transformed version, general contour (GC of the object is constructed by performing projection along lines with different polar angles. Consequently, affine in-variant division curves are derived. A slice is formed by points fall in the region enclosed by two adjacent division curves. To test and evaluate the proposed method, several experiments have been conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed method is very robust to noise.
Lorentz-Violating Regulator Gauge Fields as the Origin of Dynamical Flavour Oscillations
Alexandre, Jean; Mavromatos, Nick E
2013-01-01
We show how a mass mixing matrix can be generated dynamically, for two massless fermion flavours coupled to a Lorentz invariance violating (LIV) gauge field. The LIV features play the role of a regulator for the gap equations, and the non-analytic dependence of the dynamical masses, as functions of the gauge coupling, allows to consider the limit where the LIV gauge field eventually decouples from the fermions. Lorentz invariance is then recovered, to describe the oscillation between two free fermion flavours, and we check that the finite dynamical masses are the only effects of the original LIV theory. We also discuss briefly a connection of our results with the case of Majorana neutrinos in both, the standard model, where only left-handed (active) neutrinos are considered, and extensions thereof, with sterile right-handed neutrinos.
Lorentz violation and deep inelastic scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kostelecký, V. Alan, E-mail: kostelec@indiana.edu [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Lunghi, E. [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Vieira, A.R. [Indiana University Center for Spacetime Symmetries, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Departamento de Física – ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 30.161-970 (Brazil)
2017-06-10
The effects of quark-sector Lorentz violation on deep inelastic electron–proton scattering are studied. We show that existing data can be used to establish first constraints on numerous coefficients for Lorentz violation in the quark sector at an estimated sensitivity of parts in a million.
Experimental Studies on the Lorentz Symmetry in Post-Newtonian Gravity with Pulsars
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Lijing Shao
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Local Lorentz invariance (LLI is one of the most important fundamental symmetries in modern physics. While the possibility of LLI violation (LLIv was studied extensively in flat spacetime, its counterpart in gravitational interaction also deserves significant examination from experiments. In this contribution, I review several recent studies of LLI in post-Newtonian gravity, using powerful tools of pulsar timing. It shows that precision pulsar timing experiments hold a unique position to probe LLIv in post-Newtonian gravity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toniolo, Giuliano R.; Fargnoli, H.G.; Brito, L.C.T. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Scarpelli, A.P.B. [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2017-02-15
S-matrix amplitudes for the electron-electron scattering are calculated in order to verify the physical equivalence between two Lorentz-breaking dual models. We begin with an extended Quantum Electrodynamics which incorporates CPT-even Lorentz-violating kinetic and mass terms. Then, in a process of gauge embedding, its gauge-invariant dual model is obtained. The physical equivalence of the two models is established at tree level in the electron-electron scattering and the unpolarized cross section is calculated up to second order in the Lorentz-violating parameter. (orig.)
Steffensmeier, Darrell; Ulmer, Jeffrey T; Feldmeyer, Ben; Harris, Casey T
2010-11-01
Our goal in this article is to contribute conceptually and empirically to assessments of the racial invariance hypothesis, which posits that structural disadvantage predicts violent crime in the same way for all racial and ethnic groups. Conceptually, we elucidate the scope of the racial invariance hypothesis and clarify the criteria used for evaluating it. Empirically, we use 1999-2001 averaged arrest data from California and New York to extend analyses of the invariance hypothesis within the context of the scope and definitional issues raised in our conceptual framing - most notably, by including Hispanic comparisons with blacks and whites, by examining the invariance assumption for homicide as well as the violent crime index, by using discrete as well as composite disadvantage measures, and by using census place localities as the study unit. The mixed findings we report from our comparisons (across whites, blacks, and Hispanics; offense types; type of disadvantage) suggest caution and uncertainty about the notion that structural sources of violence affect racial/ethnic groups in uniform ways. We conclude that the hypothesis should be regarded as provisional and its scope remains to be established as to whether it applies only under narrow conditions or is a principle of general applicability.
King-Kallimanis, B.L.; Oort, F.J.; Lynn, N.; Schonfeld, L.
2012-01-01
This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment. This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a
Su, Xiaoxia; McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping
2015-01-01
The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students' 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students' scores were fully…
Chiu, Yen-Lin; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Liang, Jyh-Chong
2015-01-01
The purposes of this study were to investigate the measurement invariance and gender differences in the Internet-specific epistemic beliefs between male and female undergraduates. A total of 735 university students in Taiwan were surveyed using the Internet-specific epistemic beliefs questionnaire (ISEQ). By conducting structural equation modeling…
Lorentz violation and perpetual motion
Eling, Christopher; Foster, Brendan Z.; Jacobson, Ted; Wall, Aron C.
2007-05-01
We show that any Lorentz-violating theory with two or more propagation speeds is in conflict with the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics. We do this by identifying a classical energy-extraction method, analogous to the Penrose process, which would decrease the black hole entropy. Although the usual definitions of black hole entropy are ambiguous in this context, we require only very mild assumptions about its dependence on the mass. This extends the result found by Dubovsky and Sibiryakov, which uses the Hawking effect and applies only if the fields with different propagation speeds interact just through gravity. We also point out instabilities that could interfere with their black hole perpetuum mobile, but argue that these can be neglected if the black hole mass is sufficiently large.
Searching for photon-sector Lorentz violation using gravitational-wave detectors
Kostelecky, Alan; Mewes, Matthew
2016-01-01
We study the prospects for using interferometers in gravitational-wave detectors as tools to search for photon-sector violations of Lorentz symmetry. Existing interferometers are shown to be exquisitely sensitive to tiny changes in the effective refractive index of light occurring at frequencies around and below the microhertz range, including at the harmonics of the frequencies of the Earth's sidereal rotation and annual revolution relevant for tests of Lorentz symmetry. We use preliminary data obtained by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in 2006-2007 to place constraints on coefficients for Lorentz violation in the photon sector exceeding current limits by about four orders of magnitude.
Power-law tailed statistical distributions and Lorentz transformations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaniadakis, G., E-mail: giorgio.kaniadakis@polito.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)
2011-01-17
The present Letter, deals with the statistical theory [G. Kaniadakis, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056125; G. Kaniadakis, Phys. Rev. E 72 (2005) 036108], which predicts the probability distribution p(E){proportional_to}exp{sub {kappa}}(-I), where, I{proportional_to}{beta}E-{beta}{mu}, is the collision invariant, and exp{sub {kappa}}(x)=({radical}(1+{kappa}{sup 2}x{sup 2})+{kappa}x){sup 1}/{kappa}, with {kappa}{sup 2}<1. This, experimentally observed distribution, at low energies behaves as the Maxwell-Boltzmann exponential distribution, while at high energies presents power law tails. Here we show that the function exp{sub {kappa}}(x) and its inverse ln{sub {kappa}}(x), can be obtained within the one-particle relativistic dynamics, in a very simple and transparent way, without invoking any extra principle or assumption, starting directly from the Lorentz transformations. The achievements support the idea that the power law tailed distributions are enforced by the Lorentz relativistic microscopic dynamics, like in the case of the exponential distribution which follows from the Newton classical microscopic dynamics.
Power-law tailed statistical distributions and Lorentz transformations
Kaniadakis, G.
2011-01-01
The present Letter, deals with the statistical theory [G. Kaniadakis, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056125; G. Kaniadakis, Phys. Rev. E 72 (2005) 036108], which predicts the probability distribution p(E)∝expκ(-I), where, I∝βE-βμ, is the collision invariant, and expκ(x)=(x+κx)1/κ, with κ<1. This, experimentally observed distribution, at low energies behaves as the Maxwell-Boltzmann exponential distribution, while at high energies presents power law tails. Here we show that the function expκ(x) and its inverse lnκ(x), can be obtained within the one-particle relativistic dynamics, in a very simple and transparent way, without invoking any extra principle or assumption, starting directly from the Lorentz transformations. The achievements support the idea that the power law tailed distributions are enforced by the Lorentz relativistic microscopic dynamics, like in the case of the exponential distribution which follows from the Newton classical microscopic dynamics.
King-Kallimanis, B. L.; Oort, F. J.; Lynn, N.; Schonfeld, L.
2012-01-01
This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment. This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a longitudinal multisite, randomized trial examining two modes of care (Referral and Integrated). A sample of 1,198 adults over the age of 65 who screened positive for depression, anxiety, and/or at-ris...
Tsaousis, Ioannis; Zouraraki, Chrysoula; Karamaouna, Penny; Karagiannopoulou, Leda; Giakoumaki, Stella G
2015-10-01
The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) is a widely used scale for measuring schizotypal characteristics modeled on DSM-III-R criteria for schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). The aim of this study was to examine the factorial structure of the Greek SPQ, its factorial invariance across gender and different age groups and possible gender and age group differences at latent mean level. Eight hundred sixty-five community participants completed the Greek version of the SPQ. With regard to the factorial structure of the original first-order model, the results showed that a seven-factor model (sub-scales "no close friends" with "constricted affect" and "ideas of reference" with "unusual perceptual experiences" were combined) was replicated adequately. Furthermore, the second-order "paranoid" model provided also adequate fit. With regard to the factorial invariance of the SPQ across gender and age, the analysis revealed that both, the first- and second-order models showed measurement invariance (configural, metric and structural) across gender and age groups (17-35 vs. 36-70). Latent mean differences across gender and age groups were also found. Based on these findings, we can conclude that the Greek version of the SPQ is a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring schizotypal characteristics and a useful screening tool for SPD across gender and age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ivezic, T
2003-01-01
The covariance of the Maxwell equations (ME) is one of the cornerstone of the modern relativistic field theories. In this paper it is exactly proved that the usual ME with the 3-vectors of the electric and magnetic fields, E{bold} and B{bold} respectively, change their form upon the Lorentz transformations (LT). They do not change their form upon the standard transformations (ST) but, as shown here, the ST actually have nothing in common with the LT. The Lorentz invariant field equations are presented with the abstract tensors, the 4-vectors E^{a}and B^{a}. All quantities in these equations are defined without reference frames.
Grasland-Mongrain, Pol
2014-01-01
The ability of the Lorentz force to link a mechanical displacement to an electrical current presents a strong interest for medical acoustics, and three applications were studied in this thesis. In the first part of this work, a hydrophone was developed for mapping the particle velocity of an acoustic field. This hydrophone was constructed using a thin copper wire and an external magnetic field. A model was elaborated to determine the relationship between the acoustic pressure and the measured electrical current, which is induced by Lorentz force when the wire vibrates in the acoustic field of an ultrasound transducer. The built prototype was characterized and its spatial resolution, frequency response, sensitivity, robustness and directivity response were investigated. An imaging method called Lorentz Force Electrical Impedance Tomography was also studied. In this method, a biological tissue is vibrated by ultrasound in a magnetic field, which induces an electrical current by Lorentz force. The electrical imp...
The Scientific Correspondence of H A Lorentz
Kox, AJ
2008-01-01
Presents a selection of more than 400 letters from and to the Dutch physicist and Nobel Prize winner Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928), covering the period from 1883 until a few months before his death.
Gauge anomalies in Lorentz-violating QED
Santos, Tiago R. S.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F.
2016-12-01
In this work we study the issue of gauge anomalies in Lorentz-violating QED. To do so, we opt to use the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism within the algebraic renormalization approach, reducing our study to a cohomology problem. Since this approach is independent of the renormalization scheme, the results obtained here are expected to be general. We find that the Lorentz-violating QED is free of gauge anomalies to all orders in perturbation theory.
Hadronic Lorentz violation in chiral perturbation theory
Kamand, Rasha; Altschul, Brett; Schindler, Matthias R.
2017-03-01
Any possible Lorentz violation in the hadron sector must be tied to Lorentz violation at the underlying quark level. The relationships between the theories at these two levels are studied using chiral perturbation theory. Starting from a two-flavor quark theory that includes dimension-4 Lorentz-violation operators, the effective Lagrangians are derived for both pions and nucleons, with novel terms appearing in both sectors. Since the Lorentz-violation coefficients for nucleons and pions are all related to a single set of underlying quark coefficients, one can compare the sensitivity of different types of experiments. Our analysis shows that atomic physics experiments currently provide constraints on the quark parameters that are stronger by about 10 orders of magnitude than astrophysical experiments with relativistic pions. Alternatively, it is possible to place approximate bounds on pion Lorentz violation using only proton and neutron observations. Under the assumption that the Lorentz-violating operators considered here are the only ones contributing to the relevant observables and taking the currently unknown hadronic low-energy constants to be of natural size, the resulting estimated bounds on four pion parameters are at the 10-23 level, representing improvements of 10 orders of magnitude.
Ultra-Stable Cryogenic Optical Resonators for Tests of Fundamental Physics
Nagel, M.; Möhle, K.; Döringshoff, K.; Schikora, S.; Kovalchuk, E. V.; Peters, A.
2014-01-01
We present the design and first measurement results for an ultra-stable cryogenically cooled optical sapphire resonator system with a potential relative frequency stability better than 3 × 10-17. This level of oscillator stability allows for more precise tests of Einstein's theories of relativity and thus could help to find first hints of new physics. We will give some details on a projected experiment to test Lorentz invariance that will utilize these cavities.
King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L; Oort, Frans J; Lynn, Nancy; Schonfeld, Lawrence
2012-12-01
This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment. This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a longitudinal multisite, randomized trial examining two modes of care (Referral and Integrated). A sample of 1,198 adults over the age of 65 who screened positive for depression, anxiety, and/or at-risk drinking was used. Structural equation modeling was used to assess measurement invariance in a two-factor measurement model (Perceived Stigma, Comfort Level). Irrespective of their stigma level, one bias indicated that with time, respondents find it easier to acknowledge that it is difficult to start treatment if others know they are in treatment. Other biases indicated that sex, mental quality of life and the subject of stigma had undue influence on respondents' feeling people would think differently of them if they received treatment and on respondents' comfort in talking to a mental health provider. Still, in the present study, these biases in response behavior had little effect on the evaluation of group differences and changes in stigma. Stigma decreased for patients of both the Referral and Integrated care groups.
Broken boost invariance in the Glasma via finite nuclei thickness
Ipp, Andreas; Müller, David
2017-08-01
We simulate the creation and evolution of non-boost-invariant Glasma in the early stages of heavy ion collisions within the color glass condensate framework. This is accomplished by extending the McLerran-Venugopalan model to include a parameter for the Lorentz-contracted but finite width of the nucleus in the beam direction. We determine the rapidity profile of the Glasma energy density, which shows deviations from the boost-invariant result. Varying the parameters both broad and narrow profiles can be produced. We compare our results to experimental data from RHIC and find surprising agreement.
Einstein gravity as a 3D conformally invariant theory
Gomes, Henrique; Koslowski, Tim
2010-01-01
We give an alternative description of the physical content of general relativity that does not require a Lorentz invariant spacetime. Instead, we find that gravity admits a dual description in terms of a theory where local size is irrelevant. The dual theory is invariant under foliation preserving 3-diffeomorphisms and 3D conformal transformations that preserve the 3-volume (for the spatially compact case). Locally, this symmetry is identical to that of Horava-Lifshitz gravity in the high energy limit but our theory is equivalent to Einstein gravity. Specifically, we find that the solutions of general relativity, in a gauge where the spatial hypersurfaces have constant mean extrinsic curvature, can be mapped to solutions of a particular gauge fixing of the dual theory. Moreover, this duality is not accidental. We provide a general geometric picture for our procedure that allows us to trade foliation invariance for conformal invariance. The dual theory provides a new proposal for the theory space of quantum gr...
Stevens, Angela K; Blanchard, Brittany E; Shi, Molin; Littlefield, Andrew K
2017-05-08
The National Institutes of Health's (NIH) PhenX Toolkit has recognized the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale as a recommended measure of impulsive dispositions, as this framework for impulsivity-like traits has demonstrated strong psychometric properties across a variety of samples and exhibited measurement and structural invariance across males and females. Impulsivity-like facets, as assessed by this measure, have also demonstrated robust relations to alcohol and substance use. However, racial and ethnic differences in impulsivity have largely been neglected in the literature. Thus, the current study sought to test measurement invariance on the UPPS-P across Hispanic/Latino and non-Hispanic/Latino college students and determine whether ethnicity moderates the relations between impulsivity-like facets and alcohol and other substance use endorsement. Results indicated that the UPPS-P is invariant between groups in this sample, which suggests that scale scores on this measure can be reliably compared across Hispanic/Latino and non-Hispanic/Latino individuals. There were no significant differences in impulsivity-like facets across groups; however, non-Hispanic/Latino individuals who were higher in sensation seeking exhibited increased log-odds of endorsing past-month smokeless tobacco use. Finally, impulsivity-like facets were significantly and differentially related to substance use outcomes, which support findings from previous studies. This research highlights the importance of examining impulsivity-like traits and substance use among Hispanic/Latino individuals, and provides evidence that the UPPS-P can be reliably and validly interpreted when testing differences between Hispanic/Latino and non-Hispanic/Latino groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Sandhu, Satpal S
2017-03-01
To validate the factor structure of recently modified Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (Ortho-SF-MPQ) to assess orthodontic pain; and to test its Measurement Invariance (MI) across gender. 180 orthodontic patients were enrolled in this study. 0.016 inch Super-elastic NiTi arch wire was used in 0.022″ × 0.028″ slot pre-adjusted edgewise appliance. After initial arch wire placement, pain was assessed at T1 (24 hours), T2 (day 3), and T3 (day 7) by using the Ortho-SF-MPQ which consists of seven sensory (pressure, sore, aching, tight, throbbing, pulling, miserable) and four affective (uncomfortable, strange, frustrating, annoying) descriptors. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were fitted for analysis. Multiple-groups CFA (MG-CFA) approach was used for MI testing. Data from 172 patients (85 male, 87 female) with mean age 14.2 years (SD 1.4) was analysed. CFA model fit indices value at T1 (RMSEA 0.048; CFI 0.995; TLI 0.995), T2 (RMSEA 0.051; CFI 0.998; TLI 0.997), and T3 (RMSEA 0.040; CFI 0.998; TLI 0.998) confirmed the validity of two-factor structure of Ortho-SF-MPQ in assessing orthodontic pain. MG-CFA model based non-significant scaled chi-square difference test (Satorra-Bentler method) for weak invariance (T1: χ(2) = 6.566, df = 9, p = 0.682; T2: χ(2) = 14.637, df = 9, p = 0.101; T3 (χ(2) = 14.248, df = 9, p = 0.114) and strong invariance (T1: χ(2) = 25.874, df = 20, p = 0.170; T2: χ(2) = 25.052, df = 20, p = 0.199; T3: χ(2) = 18.889, df = 20, p = 0.529) confirmed MI across male and female groups. Two-factor structure (sensory and affective) of Ortho-SF-MPQ is structurally valid and invariant to measure pain in male and female orthodontic patents after initial arch wire placement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Tianjun [Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Texas A and M University, George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. [Texas A and M University, George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), Astroparticle Physics Group, Woodlands, TX (United States); Academy of Athens, Division of Natural Sciences, Athens (Greece)
2012-06-15
To explain both the possible superluminal neutrino propagation and all the known phenomenological constraints/observations on Lorentz violation, the background-dependent Lorentz violation (BDLV) has been proposed. We study the BDLV in a model-independent way. Assuming that the Lorentz violation on the Earth is much larger than those on the interstellar scale, we automatically escape all the astrophysical constraints on Lorentz violation. For the BDLV from the effective field theory, we present a simple model and discuss the possible solutions to the theoretical challenges of the superluminal neutrino propagation such as the Bremsstrahlung effects for muon neutrinos and the pion decays. Also, we address the Lorentz violation constraints from the LEP and KamLAMD experiments. For the BDLV from the Type IIB string theory with D3-branes and D7-branes, we point out that the D3-branes are flavour blind, and all the SM particles are the conventional particles as in the traditional SM when they do not interact with the D3-branes. Thus, we not only can naturally avoid all the known phenomenological constraints on Lorentz violation, but also can naturally explain all the theoretical challenges. Interestingly, the energy-dependent photon velocities may be tested at the experiments. (orig.)
Characterization of a Lorentz Force Actuator
Donovan, John F.; Kral, Linda D.; Cary, Andrew W.
1996-11-01
To develop a detailed understanding of the effect of a Lorentz force actuator in seawater, both experiments and numerical simulations are conducted in an environment with no mean flow. The Lorentz force actuator is comprised of a pair of magnets and a pair of electrodes and produces a volumetric body force. A pressurized water vessel contains a uniform water/electrolyte solution. Particle image velocimetry and laser sheet flow visualization are used to obtain snapshots of the induced flow for different orientations of the laser sheet. Simulations are also performed in a static water/electrolyte solution with the same current levels as in the experiments. Flow is induced upward at the center of the actuator, even though a downward Lorentz force is applied there. Both the simulations and the experiments show that the Lorentz force actuator creates a complex three-dimensional interaction resulting in a upward flow over the actuator. Two wall jets directed toward one another are created by the forces over the electrodes that impinge in the center of the actuator and fluid is pushed up and away from the wall. In terms of vorticity production, the actuator exhibits local maxima in the curl of the Lorentz force away from the wall in a region above the magnets. Comparison between simulation and experiment is remarkably good. This work is supported by Mr. Gary Jones at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
The photino sector and a confining potential in a supersymmetric Lorentz-symmetry-violating model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Bernald, L.D.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gaete, Patricio [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departmento de Fisica and Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)
2013-11-15
We study the spectrum of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Carroll-Field-Jackiw model for Electrodynamics with a topological Chern-Simons-like Lorentz-symmetry violating term. We identify a number of independent background fermion condensates, work out the gaugino dispersion relation and propose a photonic effective action to consider aspects of confinement induced by the SUSY background fermion condensates, which also appear to signal Lorentz-symmetry violation in the photino sector of the action. Our calculations of the static potential are carried out within the framework of the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variables formalism which are alternative to the Wilson loop approach. Our results show that the interaction energy contains a linear term leading to the confinement of static probe charges. (orig.)
Vacaru, Sergiu I
2014-01-01
The fundamental field equations in modified gravity (including general relativity; massive and bimetric theories; Ho\\vrava-Lifshits, HL; Einstein--Finsler gravity extensions etc) posses an important decoupling property with respect to nonholonomic frames with 2 (or 3) +2+2+... spacetime decompositions. This allows us to construct exact solutions with generic off--diagonal metrics depending on all spacetime coordinates via generating and integration functions containing (un-) broken symmetry parameters. Such nonholonomic configurations/ models have a nice ultraviolet behavior and seem to be ghost free and (super) renormalizable in a sense of covariant and/or massive modifications of HL gravity. The apparent noncommutativity and breaking of Lorentz invariance by quantum effects can be encoded into fibers of noncommutative tangent Lorentz bundles for corresponding "partner" anisotropically induced theories. We show how the constructions can be extended to include conjectured covariant reonormalizable models with...
Aberration corrected Lorentz scanning transmission electron microscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McVitie, S., E-mail: stephen.mcvitie@glasgow.ac.uk; McGrouther, D.; McFadzean, S.; MacLaren, D.A.; O’Shea, K.J.; Benitez, M.J.
2015-05-15
We present results from an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope which has been customised for high resolution quantitative Lorentz microscopy with the sample located in a magnetic field free or low field environment. We discuss the innovations in microscope instrumentation and additional hardware that underpin the imaging improvements in resolution and detection with a focus on developments in differential phase contrast microscopy. Examples from materials possessing nanometre scale variations in magnetisation illustrate the potential for aberration corrected Lorentz imaging as a tool to further our understanding of magnetism on this lengthscale. - Highlights: • Demonstration of nanometre scale resolution in magnetic field free environment using aberration correction in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). • Implementation of differential phase contrast mode of Lorentz microscopy in aberration corrected STEM with improved sensitivity. • Quantitative imaging of magnetic induction of nanostructures in amorphous and cross-section samples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delgado Acosta, E.G.; Banda Guzman, V.M.; Kirchbach, M. [UASLP, Instituto de Fisica, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)
2015-03-01
We propose a general method for the description of arbitrary single spin-j states transforming according to (j, 0) + (0, j) carrier spaces of the Lorentz algebra in terms of Lorentz tensors for bosons, and tensor-spinors for fermions, and by means of second-order Lagrangians. The method allows to avoid the cumbersome matrix calculus and higher ∂{sup 2j} order wave equations inherent to the Weinberg-Joos approach. We start with reducible Lorentz tensor (tensor-spinor) representation spaces hosting one sole (j, 0) + (0, j) irreducible sector and design there a representation reduction algorithm based on one of the Casimir invariants of the Lorentz algebra. This algorithm allows us to separate neatly the pure spin-j sector of interest from the rest, while preserving the separate Lorentz and Dirac indexes. However, the Lorentz invariants are momentum independent and do not provide wave equations. Genuine wave equations are obtained by conditioning the Lorentz tensors under consideration to satisfy the Klein-Gordon equation. In so doing, one always ends up with wave equations and associated Lagrangians that are of second order in the momenta. Specifically, a spin-3/2 particle transforming as (3/2, 0) + (0, 3/2) is comfortably described by a second-order Lagrangian in the basis of the totally anti-symmetric Lorentz tensor-spinor of second rank, Ψ {sub [μν]}. Moreover, the particle is shown to propagate causally within an electromagnetic background. In our study of (3/2, 0) + (0, 3/2) as part of Ψ {sub [μν]} we reproduce the electromagnetic multipole moments known from the Weinberg-Joos theory. We also find a Compton differential cross-section that satisfies unitarity in forward direction. The suggested tensor calculus presents itself very computer friendly with respect to the symbolic software FeynCalc. (orig.)
Delgado Acosta, E. G.; Banda Guzmán, V. M.; Kirchbach, M.
2015-03-01
We propose a general method for the description of arbitrary single spin- j states transforming according to ( j, 0) ⊕ (0, j) carrier spaces of the Lorentz algebra in terms of Lorentz tensors for bosons, and tensor-spinors for fermions, and by means of second-order Lagrangians. The method allows to avoid the cumbersome matrix calculus and higher ∂2 j order wave equations inherent to the Weinberg-Joos approach. We start with reducible Lorentz tensor (tensor-spinor) representation spaces hosting one sole ( j, 0) ⊕ (0, j) irreducible sector and design there a representation reduction algorithm based on one of the Casimir invariants of the Lorentz algebra. This algorithm allows us to separate neatly the pure spin- j sector of interest from the rest, while preserving the separate Lorentz and Dirac indexes. However, the Lorentz invariants are momentum independent and do not provide wave equations. Genuine wave equations are obtained by conditioning the Lorentz tensors under consideration to satisfy the Klein-Gordon equation. In so doing, one always ends up with wave equations and associated Lagrangians that are of second order in the momenta. Specifically, a spin-3/2 particle transforming as (3/2, 0) ⊕ (0, 3/2) is comfortably described by a second-order Lagrangian in the basis of the totally anti-symmetric Lorentz tensor-spinor of second rank, Ψ [ μν]. Moreover, the particle is shown to propagate causally within an electromagnetic background. In our study of (3/2, 0) ⊕ (0, 3/2) as part of Ψ [ μν] we reproduce the electromagnetic multipole moments known from the Weinberg-Joos theory. We also find a Compton differential cross-section that satisfies unitarity in forward direction. The suggested tensor calculus presents itself very computer friendly with respect to the symbolic software FeynCalc.
Black Hole Thermodynamics and Lorentz Symmetry
Jacobson, Ted; Wall, Aron C.
2010-08-01
Recent developments point to a breakdown in the generalized second law of thermodynamics for theories with Lorentz symmetry violation. It appears possible to construct a perpetual motion machine of the second kind in such theories, using a black hole to catalyze the conversion of heat to work. Here we describe and extend the arguments leading to that conclusion. We suggest the inference that local Lorentz symmetry may be an emergent property of the macroscopic world with origins in a microscopic second law of causal horizon thermodynamics.
Lorentz violation parameters and noncommutative scale
Aghababaei, S.; Haghighat, M.
2017-10-01
We consider the noncommutative Standard Model that contains Lorentz symmetry violation as a subset of the Standard Model extension. We introduce a constant electromagnetic field as a background to derive mutual relations between the free parameters of both theories. As the Lorentz violation parameters of the Standard Model extension are extensively explored in different experiments and many stringent bounds on these parameters are available, we can find new bounds on the scale of noncommutativity of the order of a few to tens of teraelectron volts.
Particle-Dependent Deformations of Lorentz Symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Amelino-Camelia
2012-07-01
Full Text Available I report results suggesting that it is possible to introduce laws of relativistic kinematics endowing different types of particles with suitably different deformed-Lorentz-symmetry properties. I also consider some possible applications of these results, among which I highlight those relevant for addressing a long-standing challenge in the description of composite particles, such as atoms, within quantum-gravity-inspired scenarios with Planck-scale deformations of Lorentz symmetry. Some of the new elements here introduced in the formulation of relativistic kinematics appear to also provide the starting point for the development of a correspondingly novel mathematical formulation of spacetime-symmetry algebras.
Sudbury-Riley, Lynn; FitzPatrick, Mary; Schulz, Peter J
2017-02-27
The eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) is one of only a few available measurement scales to assess eHealth literacy. Perhaps due to the relative paucity of such measures and the rising importance of eHealth literacy, the eHEALS is increasingly a choice for inclusion in a range of studies across different groups, cultures, and nations. However, despite its growing popularity, questions have been raised over its theoretical foundations, and the factorial validity and multigroup measurement properties of the scale are yet to be investigated fully. The objective of our study was to examine the factorial validity and measurement invariance of the eHEALS among baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1964) in the United States, United Kingdom, and New Zealand who had used the Internet to search for health information in the last 6 months. Online questionnaires collected data from a random sample of baby boomers from the 3 countries of interest. The theoretical underpinning to eHEALS comprises social cognitive theory and self-efficacy theory. Close scrutiny of eHEALS with analysis of these theories suggests a 3-factor structure to be worth investigating, which has never before been explored. Structural equation modeling tested a 3-factor structure based on the theoretical underpinning to eHEALS and investigated multinational measurement invariance of the eHEALS. We collected responses (N=996) to the questionnaires using random samples from the 3 countries. Results suggest that the eHEALS comprises a 3-factor structure with a measurement model that falls within all relevant fit indices (root mean square error of approximation, RMSEA=.041, comparative fit index, CFI=.986). Additionally, the scale demonstrates metric invariance (RMSEA=.040, CFI=.984, ΔCFI=.002) and even scalar invariance (RMSEA=.042, CFI=.978, ΔCFI=.008). To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate multigroup factorial equivalence of the eHEALS, and did so based on data from 3 diverse nations and
Chander, G.; Xiong, X.(J.); Choi, T.(J.); Angal, A.
2010-01-01
The ability to detect and quantify changes in the Earth's environment depends on sensors that can provide calibrated, consistent measurements of the Earth's surface features through time. A critical step in this process is to put image data from different sensors onto a common radiometric scale. This work focuses on monitoring the long-term on-orbit calibration stability of the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors using the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) reference standard pseudo-invariant test sites (Libya 4, Mauritania 1/2, Algeria 3, Libya 1, and Algeria 5). These sites have been frequently used as radiometric targets because of their relatively stable surface conditions temporally. This study was performed using all cloud-free calibrated images from the Terra MODIS and the L7 ETM+ sensors, acquired from launch to December 2008. Homogeneous regions of interest (ROI) were selected in the calibrated images and the mean target statistics were derived from sensor measurements in terms of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. For each band pair, a set of fitted coefficients (slope and offset) is provided to monitor the long-term stability over very stable pseudo-invariant test sites. The average percent differences in intercept from the long-term trends obtained from the ETM + TOA reflectance estimates relative to the MODIS for all the CEOS reference standard test sites range from 2.5% to 15%. This gives an estimate of the collective differences due to the Relative Spectral Response (RSR) characteristics of each sensor, bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), spectral signature of the ground target, and atmospheric composition. The lifetime TOA reflectance trends from both sensors over 10 years are extremely stable, changing by no more than 0.4% per year in its TOA reflectance over the CEOS reference standard test sites.
The Lorentz Theory of Electrons and Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Goldberg, Stanley
1969-01-01
Traces the development of Lorentz's theory of electrons as applied to the problem of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Presents evidence that the principle of relativity did not play an important role in Lorentz's theory, and that though Lorentz eventually acknowledged Einstein's work, he was unwilling to completely embrace the Einstein…
Lorentz Spengler's descriptions of chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)
Kaas, P.; Knudsen, J.
1992-01-01
The present paper deals with an important Danish paper on the Polyplacophora, published in 1797 by Lorentz Spengler: Udförlig Beskrivelse over det mangeskallede Konkylie-Slaegt, af Linnaeus kaldet Chiton; med endeel nye Arter og Varieteter. -Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet, 4e Bind, Ie Hefte,
Deviations from Fick's law in Lorentz gases
Lowe, C.P.; Frenkel, D.; Hoef, M.A. van der
1997-01-01
We have calculated the self-dynamic structure factorF(k,t) for tagged particle motion in hopping Lorentz gases. We find evidence that, even at long times, the probability distribution function for the displacement of the particles is highly non-Gaussian. At very small values of the wave vector this
Computational invariant theory
Derksen, Harm
2015-01-01
This book is about the computational aspects of invariant theory. Of central interest is the question how the invariant ring of a given group action can be calculated. Algorithms for this purpose form the main pillars around which the book is built. There are two introductory chapters, one on Gröbner basis methods and one on the basic concepts of invariant theory, which prepare the ground for the algorithms. Then algorithms for computing invariants of finite and reductive groups are discussed. Particular emphasis lies on interrelations between structural properties of invariant rings and computational methods. Finally, the book contains a chapter on applications of invariant theory, covering fields as disparate as graph theory, coding theory, dynamical systems, and computer vision. The book is intended for postgraduate students as well as researchers in geometry, computer algebra, and, of course, invariant theory. The text is enriched with numerous explicit examples which illustrate the theory and should be ...
Improved derivation of the Smarr formula for Lorentz-breaking gravity
Pacilio, Costantino; Liberati, Stefano
2017-06-01
Thermodynamical properties of black holes in gravitational theories without local Lorentz invariance have been subject to intense investigation in past years due to the presence of universal horizons, which are strong causal barriers even for superluminal signals. Here we present a novel general method for deriving the Smarr formula for this class of theories: in particular we show that the Smarr formulas for Einstein-Æther theory and infrared Hořava gravity follow from scale invariance. We not only reproduce straightforwardly previous findings for static black hole solutions, but we are also able to generalize them to the case of stationary rotating black holes. Finally, we apply our results to the rotating black holes with universal horizon as found in three dimensions, from which we shall draw some lessons on the viability of black hole thermodynamics for black hole solutions endowed with universal horizons.
Lorentz-violating type-II Dirac fermions in transition metal dichalcogenide PtTe2.
Yan, Mingzhe; Huang, Huaqing; Zhang, Kenan; Wang, Eryin; Yao, Wei; Deng, Ke; Wan, Guoliang; Zhang, Hongyun; Arita, Masashi; Yang, Haitao; Sun, Zhe; Yao, Hong; Wu, Yang; Fan, Shoushan; Duan, Wenhui; Zhou, Shuyun
2017-08-15
Topological semimetals have recently attracted extensive research interests as host materials to condensed matter physics counterparts of Dirac and Weyl fermions originally proposed in high energy physics. Although Lorentz invariance is required in high energy physics, it is not necessarily obeyed in condensed matter physics, and thus Lorentz-violating type-II Weyl/Dirac fermions could be realized in topological semimetals. The recent realization of type-II Weyl fermions raises the question whether their spin-degenerate counterpart-type-II Dirac fermions-can be experimentally realized too. Here, we report the experimental evidence of type-II Dirac fermions in bulk stoichiometric PtTe2 single crystal. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements and first-principles calculations reveal a pair of strongly tilted Dirac cones along the Γ-A direction, confirming PtTe2 as a type-II Dirac semimetal. Our results provide opportunities for investigating novel quantum phenomena (e.g., anisotropic magneto-transport) and topological phase transition.Whether the spin-degenerate counterpart of Lorentz-violating Weyl fermions, the Dirac fermions, can be realized remains as an open question. Here, Yan et al. report experimental evidence of such type-II Dirac fermions in bulk PtTe2 single crystal with a pair of strongly tilted Dirac cones.
A New Limit on Planck Scale Lorentz Violation from Gamma-ray Burst Polarization
Stecker, Floyd W.
2011-01-01
Constraints on possible Lorentz invariance violation (UV) to first order in E/M(sub Plank) for photons in the framework of effective field theory (EFT) are discussed, taking cosmological factors into account. Then. using the reported detection of polarized soft gamma-ray emission from the gamma-ray burst GRB041219a that is indicative' of an absence of vacuum birefringence, together with a very recent improved method for estimating the redshift of the burst, we derive constraints on the dimension 5 Lorentz violating modification to the Lagrangian of an effective local QFT for QED. Our new constraints are more than five orders of magnitude better than recent constraints from observations of the Crab Nebula.. We obtain the upper limit on the Lorentz violating dimension 5 EFT parameter absolute value of zeta of 2.4 x 10(exp -15), corresponding to a constraint on the dimension 5 standard model extension parameter. Kappa (sup 5) (sub (v)oo) much less than 4.2 X 10(exp -3)4 / GeV.
Karakoc Alatli, Betul; Ayan, Cansu; Polat Demir, Betul; Uzun, Gulcin
2016-01-01
Problem Statement: Student achievement is considered an indicator of the quality of education, and achievement tests are applied to assess student achievement. International tests are adapted into different languages and cultures with the aim of assessing student achievement on an international level and comparing the achievements of different…
Ganotice, Fraide A., Jr.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.; King, Ronnel B.
2012-01-01
The study explored the invariance of Filipino and English versions of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM) for Filipino-English bilingual students. There was invariance in the factor structure and factor loadings across the two language versions. Between-network construct validation showed consistent associations between ISM-mastery goals and…
Searching for photon-sector Lorentz violation using gravitational-wave detectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Alan Kostelecký
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We study the prospects for using interferometers in gravitational-wave detectors as tools to search for photon-sector violations of Lorentz symmetry. Existing interferometers are shown to be exquisitely sensitive to tiny changes in the effective refractive index of light occurring at frequencies around and below the microhertz range, including at the harmonics of the frequencies of the Earth's sidereal rotation and annual revolution relevant for tests of Lorentz symmetry. We use preliminary data obtained by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO in 2006–2007 to place constraints on coefficients for Lorentz violation in the photon sector exceeding current limits by about four orders of magnitude.
Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth
2016-06-01
While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.
On-shell gauge invariant three-point amplitudes
Sun, Zhengdi; Xu, Hui; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.
2017-12-01
Assuming locality, Lorentz invariance and parity conservation we obtain a set of differential equations governing the 3-point interactions of massless bosons, which in turn determines the polynomial ring of these amplitudes. We derive all possible 3-point interactions for tensor fields with polarisations that have total symmetry and mixed symmetry under permutations of Lorentz indices. Constraints on the existence of gauge-invariant cubic vertices for totally symmetric fields are obtained in general spacetime dimensions and are compared with existing results obtained in the covariant and light-cone approaches. Expressing our results in spinor helicity formalism we reproduce the perhaps mysterious mismatch between the covariant approach and the light cone approach in 4 dimensions. Our analysis also shows that there exists a mismatch, in the 3-point gauge invariant amplitudes corresponding to cubic self-interactions, between a scalar field ϕ and an antisymmetric rank-2 tensor field A μν . Despite the well-known fact that in 4 dimensions rank-2 anti-symmetric fields are dual to scalar fields in free theories, such duality does not extend to interacting theories.
Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on relativistic EPR correlations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Furtado, C.; Bakke, K. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)
2015-09-15
Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on relativistic EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) correlations are discussed. From the modified Maxwell theory coupled to gravity, we establish a possible scenario of the Lorentz symmetry violation and write an effective metric for the Minkowski spacetime. Then we obtain the Wigner rotation angle via the Fermi-Walker transport of spinors and consider the WKB (Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin) approximation in order to study the influence of Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on the relativistic EPR correlations. (orig.)
Tests of Gravitational Symmetries with Radio Pulsars
Shao, Lijing
2016-01-01
Symmetries play important roles in modern theories of physical laws. In this paper, we review several experimental tests of important symmetries associated with the gravitational interaction, including the universality of free fall for self-gravitating bodies, time-shift symmetry in the gravitational constant, local position invariance and local Lorentz invariance of gravity, and spacetime translational symmetries. Recent experimental explorations for post-Newtonian gravity are discussed, of which, those from pulsar astronomy are highlighted. All of these tests, of very different aspects of gravity theories, at very different length scales, favor to very high precision the predictions of the strong equivalence principle (SEP) and, in particular, general relativity which embodies SEP completely. As the founding principles of gravity, these symmetries are motivated to be promoted to even stricter tests in future.
Fractional Fourier transform of Lorentz-Gauss beams.
Zhou, Guoquan
2009-02-01
Lorentz-Gauss beams are introduced to describe certain laser sources that produce highly divergent beams. The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is applied to treat the propagation of Lorentz-Gauss beams. Based on the definition of convolution and the convolution theorem of the Fourier transform, an analytical expression for a Lorentz-Gauss beam passing through an FRFT system has been derived. By using the derived expression, the properties of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in the FRFT plane are graphically illustrated with numerical examples.
Pae, Hye; Greenberg, Daphne; Morris, Robin D
2012-01-01
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to apply the Rasch model to an analysis of the psychometric properties of the PPVT-III Form A items with struggling adult readers. METHODS: The PPVT-IIIA was administered to 229 African-American adults whose isolated word reading skills were between third and fifth grades. Conformity of the adults' performance on the PPVT-III items was evaluated using the Winsteps software. RESULTS: Analysis of all PPVT-IIIA items combined did not fully support its use as a useful measure of receptive vocabulary for struggling adult readers who were African Americans. To achieve an adequate model fit, items 73 through item 156 were analyzed. The items analyzed showed adequate internal consistency reliability, unidimensionality, and freedom from differential item functioning for ability, gender, and age, with a minor modification. DISCUSSION: With an appropriate treatment of misfit items, the results supported the measurement properties, internal consistency reliability, unidimensionality of the PPVT-IIIA items, and measurement invariance of the test across subgroups of ability, age, and gender.
Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Murrone, Alessia; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muskinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; 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2016-11-29
A test of CP invariance in Higgs boson production via vector-boson fusion using the method of the Optimal Observable is presented. The analysis exploits the decay mode of the Higgs boson into a pair of $\\tau$ leptons and is based on 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of proton—proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Contributions from CP-violating interactions between the Higgs boson and electroweak gauge bosons are described in an effective field theory framework, in which the strength of CP violation is governed by a single parameter $\\tilde{d}$. The mean values and distributions of CP-odd observables agree with the expectation in the Standard Model and show no sign of CP violation. The CP-mixing parameter $\\tilde{d}$ is constrained to the interval [-0.11,0.05] at 68% confidence level, consistent with the Standard Model expectation of $\\tilde{d}=0$.
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2016-12-01
A test of CP invariance in Higgs boson production via vector-boson fusion using the method of the Optimal Observable is presented. The analysis exploits the decay mode of the Higgs boson into a pair of τ leptons and is based on 20.3 fb^{-1} of proton-proton collision data at √{s} = 8 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Contributions from CP-violating interactions between the Higgs boson and electroweak gauge bosons are described in an effective field theory framework, in which the strength of CP violation is governed by a single parameter tilde{d}. The mean values and distributions of CP-odd observables agree with the expectation in the Standard Model and show no sign of CP violation. The CP-mixing parameter tilde{d} is constrained to the interval (-0.11,0.05) at 68% confidence level, consistent with the Standard Model expectation of tilde{d}=0.
Li, Chengbo; Fu, Yuanyong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Shuhua; Meng, Qiuying
2016-01-01
The Trojan horse nucleus invariance for the binary reaction 2H(d,p)3H was newly tested using the quasifree reaction 2H(6Li, pt)4He via the Trojan horse nucleus 6Li = (d+{\\alpha}) breakup at ultra-low energies compared with previous indirect investigation of the same binary reaction using the 3He = (d+p) as the Trojan horse nucleus instead. The study of 2H(d,p)3H reaction is very important for the nucleosynthesis in both standard Big Bang and stellar evolution. The 2H(d,p)3H bare nucleus astrophysical S(E) factor has been measured indirectly at energies from about 400 keV down to several keV by means of the Trojan-horse method applied to the quasifree process 2H(6Li, pt)4He induced at a lithium beam energy of 9.5 MeV, which is closer to the zero-quasifree-energy point. An accurate analysis leads to the determination of the S_bare (0) = 56.7 \\pm 2.0 keV b and of the corresponding electron screening potential Ue = 13.2 \\pm 4.3 eV. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indire...
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Radeka, V; Radescu, V; Radhakrishnan, S K; Radloff, P; Rados, P; Ragusa, F; Rahal, G; Raine, J A; Rajagopalan, S; Rammensee, M; Rangel-Smith, C; Ratti, M G; Rauscher, F; Rave, S; Ravenscroft, T; Raymond, M; Read, A L; Readioff, N P; Rebuzzi, D M; Redelbach, A; Redlinger, G; Reece, R; Reeves, K; Rehnisch, L; Reichert, J; Reisin, H; Rembser, C; Ren, H; Rescigno, M; Resconi, S; Rezanova, O L; Reznicek, P; Rezvani, R; Richter, R; Richter, S; Richter-Was, E; Ricken, O; Ridel, M; Rieck, P; Riegel, C J; Rieger, J; Rifki, O; Rijssenbeek, M; Rimoldi, A; Rinaldi, L; Ristić, B; Ritsch, E; Riu, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rizvi, E; Rizzi, C; Robertson, S H; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Robinson, D; Robinson, J E M; Robson, A; Roda, C; Rodina, Y; Perez, A Rodriguez; Rodriguez, D Rodriguez; Roe, S; Rogan, C S; Røhne, O; Romaniouk, A; Romano, M; Saez, S M Romano; Adam, E Romero; Rompotis, N; Ronzani, M; Roos, L; Ros, E; Rosati, S; Rosbach, K; Rose, P; Rosenthal, O; Rossetti, V; Rossi, E; Rossi, L P; Rosten, J H N; Rosten, R; Rotaru, M; Roth, I; Rothberg, J; Rousseau, D; Royon, C R; Rozanov, A; Rozen, Y; Ruan, X; Rubbo, F; Rubinskiy, I; Rud, V I; Rudolph, M S; Rühr, F; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakovich, N A; Ruschke, A; Russell, H L; Rutherfoord, J P; Ruthmann, N; Ryabov, Y F; Rybar, M; Rybkin, G; Ryu, S; Ryzhov, A; Saavedra, A F; Sabato, G; Sacerdoti, S; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sadykov, R; Tehrani, F Safai; Saha, P; Sahinsoy, M; Saimpert, M; Saito, T; Sakamoto, H; Sakurai, Y; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Loyola, J E Salazar; Salek, D; De Bruin, P H Sales; Salihagic, D; Salnikov, A; Salt, J; Salvatore, D; Salvatore, F; Salvucci, A; Salzburger, A; Sammel, D; Sampsonidis, D; Sanchez, A; Sánchez, J; Martinez, V Sanchez; Sandaker, H; Sandbach, R L; Sander, H G; Sanders, M P; Sandhoff, M; Sandoval, C; Sandstroem, R; Sankey, D P C; Sannino, M; Sansoni, A; Santoni, C; Santonico, R; Santos, H; Castillo, I Santoyo; Sapp, K; Sapronov, A; Saraiva, J G; Sarrazin, B; Sasaki, O; Sasaki, Y; Sato, K; Sauvage, G; Sauvan, E; Savage, G; Savard, P; Sawyer, C; Sawyer, L; Saxon, J; Sbarra, C; Sbrizzi, A; Scanlon, T; Scannicchio, D A; Scarcella, M; Scarfone, V; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaefer, D; Schaefer, R; Schaeffer, J; Schaepe, S; Schaetzel, S; Schäfer, U; Schaffer, A C; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scharf, V; Schegelsky, V A; Scheirich, D; Schernau, M; Schiavi, C; Schillo, C; Schioppa, M; Schlenker, S; Schmieden, K; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, S; Schneider, B; Schnellbach, Y J; Schnoor, U; Schoeffel, L; Schoening, A; Schoenrock, B D; Schopf, E; Schorlemmer, A L S; Schott, M; Schovancova, J; Schramm, S; Schreyer, M; Schuh, N; Schultens, M J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schulz, H; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwarz, T A; Schwegler, Ph; Schweiger, H; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwindling, J; Schwindt, T; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Scutti, F; Searcy, J; Seema, P; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Sekhon, K; Sekula, S J; Seliverstov, D M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Serkin, L; Sessa, M; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sfiligoj, T; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shaikh, N W; Shan, L Y; Shang, R; Shank, J T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Shaw, S M; Shcherbakova, A; Shehu, C Y; Sherwood, P; Shi, L; Shimizu, S; Shimmin, C O; Shimojima, M; Shiyakova, M; Shmeleva, A; Saadi, D Shoaleh; Shochet, M J; Shojaii, S; Shrestha, S; Shulga, E; Shupe, M A; Sicho, P; Sidebo, P E; Sidiropoulou, O; Sidorov, D; Sidoti, A; Siegert, F; Sijacki, Dj; Silva, J; Silverstein, S B; Simak, V; Simard, O; Simic, Lj; Simion, S; Simioni, E; Simmons, B; Simon, D; Simon, M; Sinervo, P; Sinev, N B; Sioli, M; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sjölin, J; Sjursen, T B; Skinner, M B; Skottowe, H P; Skubic, P; Slater, M; Slavicek, T; Slawinska, M; Sliwa, K; Slovak, R; Smakhtin, V; Smart, B H; Smestad, L; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnov, Y; Smirnova, L N; Smirnova, O; Smith, M N K; Smith, R W; Smizanska, M; Smolek, K; Snesarev, A A; Snidero, G; Snyder, S; Sobie, R; Socher, F; Soffer, A; Soh, D A; Sokhrannyi, G; Sanchez, C A Solans; Solar, M; Soldatov, E Yu; Soldevila, U; Solodkov, A A; Soloshenko, A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Sommer, P; Son, H; Song, H Y; Sood, A; Sopczak, A; Sopko, V; Sorin, V; Sosa, D; Sotiropoulou, C L; Soualah, R; Soukharev, A M; South, D; Sowden, B C; Spagnolo, S; Spalla, M; Spangenberg, M; Spanò, F; Sperlich, D; Spettel, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiller, L A; Spousta, M; Denis, R D St; Stabile, A; Staerz, S; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stamm, S; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, G H; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staszewski, R; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; 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Urban, J; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valderanis, C; Santurio, E Valdes; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Vallecorsa, S; Ferrer, J A Valls; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vasquez, J G; Vazeille, F; Schroeder, T Vazquez; Veatch, J; Veloce, L M; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Boeriu, O E Vickey; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigani, L; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Perez, M Villaplana; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Vittori, C; Vivarelli, I; Vlachos, S; Vlasak, M; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; 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2016-01-01
A test of CP invariance in Higgs boson production via vector-boson fusion using the method of the Optimal Observable is presented. The analysis exploits the decay mode of the Higgs boson into a pair of [Formula: see text] leptons and is based on 20.3 [Formula: see text] of proton-proton collision data at [Formula: see text] = 8 [Formula: see text] collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Contributions from CP-violating interactions between the Higgs boson and electroweak gauge bosons are described in an effective field theory framework, in which the strength of CP violation is governed by a single parameter [Formula: see text]. The mean values and distributions of CP-odd observables agree with the expectation in the Standard Model and show no sign of CP violation. The CP-mixing parameter [Formula: see text] is constrained to the interval [Formula: see text] at 68% confidence level, consistent with the Standard Model expectation of [Formula: see text].
Wouters, Tim
2010-01-01
In this text, we compare several invariants of the reduced Whitehead group SK1 of a central simple algebra. For biquaternion algebras, we compare a generalised invariant of Suslin as constructed by the author in a previous article to an invariant introduced by Knus-Merkurjev-Rost-Tignol. Using explicit computations, we prove these invariants are essentially the same. We also prove the non-triviality of an invariant introduced by Kahn. To obtain this result, we compare Kahn's invariant to an i...
Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V
1999-01-01
This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical
Mixed Lorentz boosted $Z^{0}'s$
Kjaer, N J
2001-01-01
A novel technique is proposed to study systematic errors on jet reconstruction in W physics measurements at LEP2 with high statistical precision. The method is based on the emulation of W pair events using Mixed Lorentz Boosted Z0 events. The scope and merits of the method and its statistical accuracy are discussed in the context of the DELPHI W mass measurement in the fully hadronic channel. The numbers presented are preliminary in the sense that they do not constitute the final DELPHI systematic errors.
Algorithms in invariant theory
Sturmfels, Bernd
2008-01-01
J. Kung and G.-C. Rota, in their 1984 paper, write: "Like the Arabian phoenix rising out of its ashes, the theory of invariants, pronounced dead at the turn of the century, is once again at the forefront of mathematics". The book of Sturmfels is both an easy-to-read textbook for invariant theory and a challenging research monograph that introduces a new approach to the algorithmic side of invariant theory. The Groebner bases method is the main tool by which the central problems in invariant theory become amenable to algorithmic solutions. Students will find the book an easy introduction to this "classical and new" area of mathematics. Researchers in mathematics, symbolic computation, and computer science will get access to a wealth of research ideas, hints for applications, outlines and details of algorithms, worked out examples, and research problems.
Relativistic gauge invariant potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, J.J. (Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica); Negro, J. (Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica); Olmo, M.A. del (Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica)
1995-01-01
A global method characterizing the invariant connections on an abelian principal bundle under a group of transformations is applied in order to get gauge invariant electromagnetic (elm.) potentials in a systematic way. So, we have classified all the elm. gauge invariant potentials under the Poincare subgroups of dimensions 4, 5, and 6, up to conjugation. It is paid attention in particular to the situation where these subgroups do not act transitively on the space-time manifold. We have used the same procedure for some galilean subgroups to get nonrelativistic potentials and study the way they are related to their relativistic partners by means of contractions. Some conformal gauge invariant potentials have also been derived and considered when they are seen as consequence of an enlargement of the Poincare symmetries. (orig.)
Quantizations of D = 3 Lorentz symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lukierski, J. [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Tolstoy, V.N. [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-04-15
Using the isomorphism o(3; C) ≅ sl(2; C) we develop a new simple algebraic technique for complete classification of quantum deformations (the classical r-matrices) for real forms o(3) and o(2,1) of the complex Lie algebra o(3; C) in terms of real forms of sl(2; C): su(2), su(1,1) and sl(2; R). We prove that the D = 3 Lorentz symmetry o(2,1) ≅ su(1,1) ≅ sl(2; R) has three different Hopf-algebraic quantum deformations, which are expressed in the simplest way by two standard su(1,1) and sl(2; R) q-analogs and by simple Jordanian sl(2; R) twist deformation. These quantizations are presented in terms of the quantum Cartan-Weyl generators for the quantized algebras su(1,1) and sl(2; R) as well as in terms of quantum Cartesian generators for the quantized algebra o(2,1). Finally, some applications of the deformed D = 3 Lorentz symmetry are mentioned. (orig.)
Search for Lorentz invariance and CPT violation with muon antineutrinos in the MINOS Near Detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.
2012-02-01
We have searched for sidereal variations in the rate of antineutrino interactions in the MINOS Near Detector. Using antineutrinos produced by the NuMI beam, we find no statistically significant sidereal modulation in the rate. When this result is placed in the context of the Standard Model Extension theory we are able to place upper limits on the coefficients defining the theory. These limits are used in combination with the results from an earlier analysis of MINOS neutrino data to further constrain the coefficients.
A Broader View of Relativity General Implications of Lorentz and Poincaré Invariance
Hsu, Jong-Ping
2006-01-01
A Broader View of Relativity shows that there is still new life in old physics. The book examines the historical context and theoretical underpinnings of Einstein's theory of special relativity and describes Broad Relativity, a generalized theory of coordinate transformations between inertial reference frames that includes Einstein's special relativity as a special case. It shows how the principle of relativity is compatible with multiple concepts of physical time and how these different procedures for clock synchronization can be useful for thinking about different physical problems, includin
Gauge invariant gluon spin operator for spinless nonlinear wave solutions
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Kim, Youngman; Pak, D. G.; Tsukioka, Takuya; Zhang, P. M.
2017-04-01
We consider nonlinear wave type solutions with intrinsic mass scale parameter and zero spin in a pure SU(2) quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A new stationary solution which can be treated as a system of static Wu-Yang monopole dressed in off-diagonal gluon field is proposed. A remarkable feature of such a solution is that it possesses a finite energy density everywhere. All considered nonlinear wave type solutions have common features: presence of the mass scale parameter, nonvanishing projection of the color fields along the propagation direction and zero spin. The last property requires revision of the gauge invariant definition of the spin density operator which is supposed to produce spin one states for the massless vector gluon field. We construct a gauge invariant definition of the classical gluon spin density operator which is unique and Lorentz frame independent.
Modified Einstein and Finsler Like Theories on Tangent Lorentz Bundles
Stavrinos, Panayiotis; Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2014-01-01
We study modifications of general relativity, GR, with nonlinear dispersion relations which can be geometrized on tangent Lorentz bundles. Such modified gravity theories, MGTs, can be modeled by gravitational Lagrange density functionals $f(\\mathbf{R},\\mathbf{T},F)$ with generalized/ modified scalar curvature $\\mathbf{R}$, trace of matter field tensors $\\mathbf{T}$ and modified Finsler like generating function $F$. In particular, there are defined extensions of GR with extra dimensional "velocity/ momentum" coordinates. For four dimensional models, we prove that it is possible to decouple and integrate in very general forms the gravitational fields for $f(\\mathbf{R},\\mathbf{T},F)$--modified gravity using nonholonomic 2+2 splitting and nonholonomic Finsler like variables $F$. We study the modified motion and Newtonian limits of massive test particles on nonlinear geodesics approximated with effective extra forces orthogonal to the four-velocity. We compute the constraints on the magnitude of extra-acceleration...
Limits on Lorentz violation from charged-pion decay
P. Noordmans, J.; K. Vos, K.
2014-01-01
Charged-pion decay offers many opportunities to study Lorentz violation. Using an effective field theory approach, we study Lorentz violation in the lepton, W-boson, and quark sectors and derive the differential pion-decay rate, including muon polarization. Using coordinate redefinitions we are able
Feedback-Driven Dynamic Invariant Discovery
Zhang, Lingming; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha S.; Person, Suzette; Khurshid, Sarfraz
2014-01-01
Program invariants can help software developers identify program properties that must be preserved as the software evolves, however, formulating correct invariants can be challenging. In this work, we introduce iDiscovery, a technique which leverages symbolic execution to improve the quality of dynamically discovered invariants computed by Daikon. Candidate invariants generated by Daikon are synthesized into assertions and instrumented onto the program. The instrumented code is executed symbolically to generate new test cases that are fed back to Daikon to help further re ne the set of candidate invariants. This feedback loop is executed until a x-point is reached. To mitigate the cost of symbolic execution, we present optimizations to prune the symbolic state space and to reduce the complexity of the generated path conditions. We also leverage recent advances in constraint solution reuse techniques to avoid computing results for the same constraints across iterations. Experimental results show that iDiscovery converges to a set of higher quality invariants compared to the initial set of candidate invariants in a small number of iterations.
Wiesner, Margit; Chen, Vincent; Windle, Michael; Elliott, Marc N.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.
2010-01-01
This study used data from 3 sites to examine the invariance and psychometric characteristics of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 across Black, Hispanic, and White mothers of 5th graders (N = 4,711; M = 38.07 years of age, SD = 7.16). Internal consistencies were satisfactory for all subscale scores of the instrument regardless of ethnic group…
On vectorial fields as Lorentz specie
Chauca, J.; Doria, R.; Soares, W.
2012-10-01
A whole gauge theory based on vector fields with the same Lorentz group nature is studied. Initially we present a kinetic lagrangian with N vectorial fields, written in matrix form. It should be noted the presence of both longitudinal and transversal propagation modes for the involved fields. A re-parametrization of this lagrangian will be made to diagonalize the transversal sector, by means of a matrix of change of basis. Then, it is verified that the physical masses for the T-sector, the propagator's poles at tree level for this sector, remain unaltered when going from one parametrization to the other. Next we shall discuss about the poles and residues for the L-sector and study their gauge dependence. We shall also verify the relation, if there is anything, between the null masses for these sectors, in terms of the fields GμI.
Campbell, HEA
2011-01-01
This book covers the modular invariant theory of finite groups, the case when the characteristic of the field divides the order of the group, a theory that is more complicated than the study of the classical non-modular case. Largely self-contained, the book develops the theory from its origins up to modern results. It explores many examples, illustrating the theory and its contrast with the better understood non-modular setting. It details techniques for the computation of invariants for many modular representations of finite groups, especially the case of the cyclic group of prime order. It
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-Nadal, Guillem [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2017-07-15
We consider a non-relativistic free scalar field theory with a type of anisotropic scale invariance in which the number of coordinates ''scaling like time'' is generically greater than one. We propose the Cartesian product of two curved spaces, the metric of each space being parameterized by the other space, as a notion of curved background to which the theory can be extended. We study this type of geometries, and find a family of extensions of the theory to curved backgrounds in which the anisotropic scale invariance is promoted to a local, Weyl-type symmetry. (orig.)
Deng, Nina; Anatchkova, Milena D; Waring, Molly E; Han, Kyung T; Ware, John E
2015-08-01
The Quality-of-life (QOL) Disease Impact Scale (QDIS(®)) standardizes the content and scoring of QOL impact attributed to different diseases using item response theory (IRT). This study examined the IRT invariance of the QDIS-standardized IRT parameters in an independent sample. The differential functioning of items and test (DFIT) of a static short-form (QDIS-7) was examined across two independent sources: patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the TRACE-CORE study (N = 1,544) and chronically ill US adults in the QDIS standardization sample. "ACS-specific" IRT item parameters were calibrated and linearly transformed to compare to "standardized" IRT item parameters. Differences in IRT model-expected item, scale and theta scores were examined. The DFIT results were also compared in a standard logistic regression differential item functioning analysis. Item parameters estimated in the ACS sample showed lower discrimination parameters than the standardized discrimination parameters, but only small differences were found for thresholds parameters. In DFIT, results on the non-compensatory differential item functioning index (range 0.005-0.074) were all below the threshold of 0.096. Item differences were further canceled out at the scale level. IRT-based theta scores for ACS patients using standardized and ACS-specific item parameters were highly correlated (r = 0.995, root-mean-square difference = 0.09). Using standardized item parameters, ACS patients scored one-half standard deviation higher (indicating greater QOL impact) compared to chronically ill adults in the standardization sample. The study showed sufficient IRT invariance to warrant the use of standardized IRT scoring of QDIS-7 for studies comparing the QOL impact attributed to acute coronary disease and other chronic conditions.
Modular invariant gaugino condensation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaillard, M.K.
1991-05-09
The construction of effective supergravity lagrangians for gaugino condensation is reviewed and recent results are presented that are consistent with modular invariance and yield a positive definite potential of the noscale type. Possible implications for phenomenology are briefly discussed. 29 refs.
Invariant differential operators
Dobrev, Vladimir K
2016-01-01
With applications in quantum field theory, elementary particle physics and general relativity, this two-volume work studies invariance of differential operators under Lie algebras, quantum groups, superalgebras including infinite-dimensional cases, Schrödinger algebras, applications to holography. This first volume covers the general aspects of Lie algebras and group theory.
Luk, Jeremy W.; King, Kevin M.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth
2016-01-01
While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yildirim, Eda
2017-02-15
In this thesis, the collected charge and the Lorentz angle on non-irradiated and the irradiated miniature of the current test silicon micro-strip sensors (ATLAS12) of the future ATLAS inner tracker are measured. The samples are irradiated up to 5 x 10{sup 15} 1 MeV n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and some of them also measured after short-term annealing (80 min at 60 C). The measurements are performed at the DESY II test beam, which provides the advantage of tracking to suppress noise hits. The collected charge is measured at various bias voltages for each sample. The results are compared with the measurements performed using a Sr{sup 90} radioactive source. It is shown that the measurements with beam and radioactive source are consistent with each other, and the advantage of tracking at the beam measurements provides the measurement of collected charge on highly irradiated sensors at lower bias voltages. The Lorentz angle is measured for each sample at different magnetic field strengths between 0 T and 1 T, the results are extrapolated to 2 T, which is the magnetic field in the inner tracker of the ATLAS detector. Most of the measurements are performed at -500 V bias voltage, which is the planned operation bias voltage of the future strip tracker. Some samples are also measured at different bias voltages to observe the effect of bias voltage on the Lorentz angle. The signal reconstruction of the strip sensors are performed using the lowest possible signal-to-noise thresholds. For non-irradiated samples, the measured Lorentz angle agrees with the prediction of the BFK model. On the irradiated samples, the results suggest that the Lorentz angle decreases with increasing bias voltage due to the increasing electric field in the sensor. The Lorentz angle decreases with increasing irradiation level; however, if the sample is under-depleted, the effect of electric field dominates and the Lorentz angle increases. Once the irradiation level becomes too high, hence the collected charge
Ives-Stilwell Time Dilation Li+ ESR Darmstadt Experiment and Neo-Lorentz Relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Botermann et al in Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li + Ions as Clocks at Relativis- tic Speed , Physical Review Letters , 2014, 113, 120405, reported results from an Ives- Stilwell-type time dilation experiment using Li + ions at speed 0.338c in the ESR storage ring at Darmstadt, and concluded that the data verifies the Special Relativity time dila- tion e ect. However numerous other experiments have shown that it is only neo-Lorentz Relativity that accounts for all data, and all detect a 3-space speed V 470 km / s essen- tially from the south. Here we show that the ESR data confirms both Special Relativity and neo-Lorentz Relativity, but that a proposed di erent re-analysis of the ESR data should enable a test that could distinguish between these two theories.
A measurement of Lorentz angle of radiation-hard pixel sensors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aleppo, Mario E-mail: mario.aleppo@mi.infn.it
2001-06-01
Silicon pixel detectors developed to meet LHC requirements were tested in a beam at CERN in the framework of the ATLAS collaboration. The experimental behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated sensors in a magnetic field is discussed. The measurement of the Lorentz angle for these sensors at different operating conditions is presented. A simple model of the charge drift in silicon before and after irradiation is presented. The good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results is shown.
Could dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking induce the superluminal neutrinos?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nojiri, Shin' ichi [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Facultat de Ciencies, Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA) and Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2011-11-15
A toy fermion model coupled to the Lagrange multiplier constraint field is proposed. The possibility of superluminal neutrino propagation as a result of dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking is studied. (orig.)
Continuous Integrated Invariant Inference Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will develop a new technique for invariant inference and embed this and other current invariant inference and checking techniques in an...
Superluminal neutrinos from Lorentz-violating dimension-5 operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Almeida, C.A.G. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, Paraiba (Brazil); Anacleto, M.A.; Brito, F.A.; Passos, E. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)
2012-01-15
We consider Lorentz- and CPT-violating dimension-5 operators to address the issue of superluminal neutrinos recently pointed out in OPERA experiments. We assume these operators in the photon and neutrino sectors to be coupled to Lorentz-violating backgrounds in a preferred frame defined by a time-like direction. We show that such operators can produce a curve with OPERA's slope that fits OPERA, MINOS and supernova SN1987a data. (orig.)
The BTZ black hole as a Lorentz-flat geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, Pedro D., E-mail: alvarez@physics.ox.ac.uk [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Rodríguez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduarodriguezsal@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Matemática y Física Aplicadas, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio, E-mail: pasalgado@udec.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Zanelli, Jorge, E-mail: z@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile)
2014-11-10
It is shown that 2+1 dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes are Lorentz-flat. This means, in particular, that any simply-connected patch of the BTZ black hole solution can be endowed with a Lorentz connection that is locally pure gauge. The result can be naturally extended to a wider class of black hole geometries and point particles in three-dimensional spacetime.
Dynamics and control of Lorentz-augmented spacecraft relative motion
Yan, Ye; Yang, Yueneng
2017-01-01
This book develops a dynamical model of the orbital motion of Lorentz spacecraft in both unperturbed and J2-perturbed environments. It explicitly discusses three kinds of typical space missions involving relative orbital control: spacecraft hovering, rendezvous, and formation flying. Subsequently, it puts forward designs for both open-loop and closed-loop control schemes propelled or augmented by the geomagnetic Lorentz force. These control schemes are entirely novel and represent a significantly departure from previous approaches.
Effects of externally applied Lorentz force on liquid metal flow
Fisher, Adam; Kolemen, Egemen; Hvasta, Mike
2017-10-01
This work looks at methods of controlling liquid metal flows using externally induced Lorentz forces. Large fusion reactors face an unsolved issue of heat fluxes at the divertor causing reactor damage. Fast-flowing liquid metal divertors can solve the heat flux problem, but to be viable there are various unfavorable flow phenomena that need to be suppressed and controlled. Some of those studied here are hydraulic jumps and surface waves. Externally induced Lorentz forces may be created by injecting electric currents into a liquid metal flow immersed within a magnetic field. Uniform Lorentz forces aligned with gravity work nearly analogously to changing gravity, and as such any flow features driven or affected by gravity may experience changes. As Lorentz force is dependent on current density which can be highly variant as cross-sectional flow depth changes, a non-uniform force field is created that is mostly unique to these types of flows; non-uniform magnetic fields yield similar effects. Lorentz force has been historically used as a driving force in pump applications, but little has been done in the way of flow control. The experiments in this work are galinstan channel flows that investigate the effects that Lorentz force has on hydraulic jump features and surface waves.
Amelino-Camelia, G; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Piran, Tsvi
2001-01-01
One of the most puzzling current experimental physics paradoxes is the arrival on Earth of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays with energies above the GZK threshold. The recent observation of 20TeV photons from Mk 501 is another somewhat similar paradox. Several models have been proposed for the UHECR paradox. No solution has yet been proposed for the TeV-$\\gamma$ paradox. Remarkably, the drastic assumption of a violation of ordinary Lorentz invariance would resolve both paradoxes. We present a formalism for the description of the type of Lorentz-invariance deformation (LID) that could be induced by non-trivial short-distance structure of space-time, and we show that this formalism is well suited for comparison of experimental data with LID predictions. We use the UHECR and TeV-$\\gamma$ data, as well as bounds on time-of-flight differences between photons of different energies, to constrain the LID parameter space. A model with only two parameters, an energy scale and a dimensionless parameter characterizing the fu...
Conformal invariance of curvature perturbation
Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Park, Wan Il; Sasaki, Misao; Song, Yong-Seon
2011-01-01
We show that in the single component situation all perturbation variables in the comoving gauge are conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. Generally we identify a special time slicing, the uniform-conformal transformation slicing, where all perturbations are again conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. We apply this result to the delta N formalism, and show its conformal invariance.
Reducing Lookups for Invariant Checking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær; Clausen, Christian; Andersen, Kristoffer Just
2013-01-01
This paper helps reduce the cost of invariant checking in cases where access to data is expensive. Assume that a set of variables satisfy a given invariant and a request is received to update a subset of them. We reduce the set of variables to inspect, in order to verify that the invariant is still...
Conformal invariance of curvature perturbation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Wan Il; Sasaki, Misao; Song, Yong-Seon, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@cern.ch, E-mail: jchan@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: wipark@kias.re.kr, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: ysong@kias.re.kr [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)
2011-09-01
We show that in the single component situation all perturbation variables in the comoving gauge are conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. Generally we identify a special time slicing, the uniform-conformal transformation slicing, where all perturbations are again conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. We apply this result to the δN formalism, and show its conformal invariance.
2010-12-02
evaluating the function ΘP (A) for any fixed A,P is equivalent to solving the so-called Quadratic Assignment Problem ( QAP ), and thus we can employ various...tractable linear programming, spectral, and SDP relaxations of QAP [40, 11, 33]. In particular we discuss recent work [14] on exploiting group...symmetry in SDP relaxations of QAP , which is useful for approximately computing elementary convex graph invariants in many interesting cases. Finally in
Galilei invariant molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoermann, G. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Mathematisches Inst.; Jaekel, C.D. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
1994-04-01
We construct a C{sup *}-dynamical model for a chemical reaction. Galilei invariance of our nonrelativistic model is demonstrated by defining it directly on a Galilean space-time fibrebundle with C{sup *}-algebra valued fibre, i.e. without reference to any coordinate system. The existence of equilibrium states in this model is established and some of their properties are discussed. (orig.)
Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R; Pilatti, Angelina; Read, Jennifer P; Mezquita, Laura; Ibáñez, Manuel I; Ortet, Generós
2017-11-01
Perceptions about what is "normal" drinking in college, measured by the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale (CLASS; 15 items), have been robustly associated with elevated levels of problematic alcohol use, yet the role of these beliefs has not been studied outside the U.S. The present work examined measurement invariance of the CLASS across sex, drinker status, and in individuals from three different countries (i.e., U.S., Argentina, Spain). Additional goals were to evaluate differences on the CLASS (i.e., latent mean differences) as a function of sex, drinker status and country and to compare construct validity (i.e., correlations with alcohol variables) across sex and different countries. A large sample of 1841 college students enrolled in universities from the U.S., Spain and Argentina completed, via an online survey, a battery of instruments that assess college alcohol beliefs, drinking motives, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. We found that a shortened 12-item version of the CLASS to be invariant across sex and drinker status, but only metric invariance was found across countries. As expected, men and drinkers showed significantly higher scores on the CLASS than women and non-drinkers, respectively. Bivariate correlations between CLASS scores and drinking outcomes strongly supported criterion-related validity of this measure across multiple countries and sex with differing strengths in relationships with alcohol-related constructs. Taken together, perceptions of the centrality of alcohol to the college experience appear to be an important target for college student alcohol interventions across various cultures and countries, especially for male college student drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Przygoda, K; Napieralski, A; Grecki, M
2010-01-01
Abstract: Linear accelerators such as Free Electron Lasers (FELs) use superconducting (SC) resonant cavities to accelerate electron beam to high energies. TESLA type resonators are extremely sensitive to detuning induced by mechanical deformations – Lorentz force detuning (LFD), mainly due to the extremely high quality factor (Q) of the 1.3 GHz resonance mode, in the range of 1e6. The resulting modulation of a resonance frequency of the cavity makes power consumption and stability performances of the Low-Latency Radio Frequency (LLRF) control more critical. In order to minimize the RF control efforts and desired stabilities, the fast piezoelectric actuators with digital control systems are commonly used. The paper presents a novel approach for automatic control of piezoelectric actuators used for compensation of Lorentz force detuning, the practical application and carried out tests in accelerating module ACC6 in Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).
Breaking Lorentz reciprocity to overcome the time-bandwidth limit in physics and engineering
Tsakmakidis, K. L.; Shen, L.; Schulz, S. A.; Zheng, X.; Upham, J.; Deng, X.; Altug, H.; Vakakis, A. F.; Boyd, R. W.
2017-06-01
A century-old tenet in physics and engineering asserts that any type of system, having bandwidth Δω, can interact with a wave over only a constrained time period Δt inversely proportional to the bandwidth (Δt·Δω ~ 2π). This law severely limits the generic capabilities of all types of resonant and wave-guiding systems in photonics, cavity quantum electrodynamics and optomechanics, acoustics, continuum mechanics, and atomic and optical physics but is thought to be completely fundamental, arising from basic Fourier reciprocity. We propose that this “fundamental” limit can be overcome in systems where Lorentz reciprocity is broken. As a system becomes more asymmetric in its transport properties, the degree to which the limit can be surpassed becomes greater. By way of example, we theoretically demonstrate how, in an astutely designed magnetized semiconductor heterostructure, the above limit can be exceeded by orders of magnitude by using realistic material parameters. Our findings revise prevailing paradigms for linear, time-invariant resonant systems, challenging the doctrine that high-quality resonances must invariably be narrowband and providing the possibility of developing devices with unprecedentedly high time-bandwidth performance.
Breaking Lorentz reciprocity to overcome the time-bandwidth limit in physics and engineering.
Tsakmakidis, K L; Shen, L; Schulz, S A; Zheng, X; Upham, J; Deng, X; Altug, H; Vakakis, A F; Boyd, R W
2017-06-23
A century-old tenet in physics and engineering asserts that any type of system, having bandwidth Δω, can interact with a wave over only a constrained time period Δ t inversely proportional to the bandwidth (Δ t ·Δω ~ 2π). This law severely limits the generic capabilities of all types of resonant and wave-guiding systems in photonics, cavity quantum electrodynamics and optomechanics, acoustics, continuum mechanics, and atomic and optical physics but is thought to be completely fundamental, arising from basic Fourier reciprocity. We propose that this "fundamental" limit can be overcome in systems where Lorentz reciprocity is broken. As a system becomes more asymmetric in its transport properties, the degree to which the limit can be surpassed becomes greater. By way of example, we theoretically demonstrate how, in an astutely designed magnetized semiconductor heterostructure, the above limit can be exceeded by orders of magnitude by using realistic material parameters. Our findings revise prevailing paradigms for linear, time-invariant resonant systems, challenging the doctrine that high-quality resonances must invariably be narrowband and providing the possibility of developing devices with unprecedentedly high time-bandwidth performance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Invariance Properties for General Diagnostic Classification Models
Bradshaw, Laine P.; Madison, Matthew J.
2016-01-01
In item response theory (IRT), the invariance property states that item parameter estimates are independent of the examinee sample, and examinee ability estimates are independent of the test items. While this property has long been established and understood by the measurement community for IRT models, the same cannot be said for diagnostic…
Lorentz Violation of the Photon Sector in Field Theory Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lingli Zhou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We compare the Lorentz violation terms of the pure photon sector between two field theory models, namely, the minimal standard model extension (SME and the standard model supplement (SMS. From the requirement of the identity of the intersection for the two models, we find that the free photon sector of the SMS can be a subset of the photon sector of the minimal SME. We not only obtain some relations between the SME parameters but also get some constraints on the SMS parameters from the SME parameters. The CPT-odd coefficients (kAFα of the SME are predicted to be zero. There are 15 degrees of freedom in the Lorentz violation matrix Δαβ of free photons of the SMS related with the same number of degrees of freedom in the tensor coefficients (kFαβμν, which are independent from each other in the minimal SME but are interrelated in the intersection of the SMS and the minimal SME. With the related degrees of freedom, we obtain the conservative constraints (2σ on the elements of the photon Lorentz violation matrix. The detailed structure of the photon Lorentz violation matrix suggests some applications to the Lorentz violation experiments for photons.
Atom Interferometry tests of the isotropy of post-Newtonian gravity
Mueller, Holger; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Herrmann, Sven; Chu, Steven; Chung, Keng-Yeow
2007-01-01
We present a test of the local Lorentz invariance of post-Newtonian gravity by monitoring Earth's gravity with a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer that features a resolution of about 8*10^(-9)g/Hz^(1/2), the highest reported thus far. Expressed within the standard model extension (SME) or Nordtvedt's anisotropic universe model, the analysis limits four coefficients describing anisotropic gravity at the ppb level and three others, for the first time, at the 10ppm level. Using the SME we explici...
Viability, invariance and applications
Carja, Ovidiu; Vrabie, Ioan I
2007-01-01
The book is an almost self-contained presentation of the most important concepts and results in viability and invariance. The viability of a set K with respect to a given function (or multi-function) F, defined on it, describes the property that, for each initial data in K, the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by that function or multi-function) to have at least one solution. The invariance of a set K with respect to a function (or multi-function) F, defined on a larger set D, is that property which says that each solution of the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by F and issuing in K remains in K, at least for a short time.The book includes the most important necessary and sufficient conditions for viability starting with Nagumo's Viability Theorem for ordinary differential equations with continuous right-hand sides and continuing with the corresponding extensions either to differential inclusions or to semilinear or even fully nonlinear evolution equations, systems and inclusions. In th...
Permutationally invariant state reconstruction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza
2012-01-01
Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti...... optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed numerical routines. First prototype implementations easily allow reconstruction of a state of 20 qubits in a few minutes on a standard computer.......-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum...... likelihood and least squares methods, which are the preferred choices in today's experiments. This high efficiency is achieved by greatly reducing the dimensionality of the problem employing a particular representation of permutationally invariant states known from spin coupling combined with convex...
Invariant Characteristics of Carcinogenesis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon Sherman
Full Text Available Carcinogenic modeling is aimed at mathematical descriptions of cancer development in aging. In this work, we assumed that a small fraction of individuals in the population is susceptible to cancer, while the rest of the population is resistant to cancer. For individuals susceptible to cancer we adopted methods of conditional survival analyses. We performed computational experiments using data on pancreatic, stomach, gallbladder, colon and rectum, liver, and esophagus cancers from the gastrointestinal system collected for men and women in the SEER registries during 1975-2009. In these experiments, we estimated the time period effects, the birth cohort effects, the age effects and the population (unconditional cancer hazard rates. We also estimated the individual cancer presentation rates and the individual cancer resistance rates, which are, correspondingly, the hazard and survival rates conditioned on the susceptibility to cancer. The performed experiments showed that for men and women, patterns of the age effects, the individual cancer presentation rates and the individual cancer resistance rates are: (i intrinsic for each cancer subtype, (ii invariant to the place of living of the individuals diagnosed with cancer, and (iii well adjusted for the modifiable variables averaged at a given time period. Such specificity and invariability of the age effects, the individual cancer presentation rates and the individual cancer resistance rates suggest that these carcinogenic characteristics can be useful for predictive carcinogenic studies by methods of inferential statistics and for the development of novel strategies for cancer prevention.
Measurement Invariance for Latent Constructs in Multiple Populations: A Critical View and Refocus
Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Li, Cheng-Hsien
2012-01-01
Popular measurement invariance testing procedures for latent constructs evaluated by multiple indicators in distinct populations are revisited and discussed. A frequently used test of factor loading invariance is shown to possess serious limitations that in general preclude it from accomplishing its goal of ascertaining this invariance. A process…
The Effect of Differential Item Functioning in Anchor Items on Population Invariance of Equating
Huggins, Anne Corinne
2014-01-01
Invariant relationships in the internal mechanisms of estimating achievement scores on educational tests serve as the basis for concluding that a particular test is fair with respect to statistical bias concerns. Equating invariance and differential item functioning are both concerned with invariant relationships yet are treated separately in the…
A Lorentz-Covariant Connection for Canonical Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marc Geiller
2011-08-01
Full Text Available We construct a Lorentz-covariant connection in the context of first order canonical gravity with non-vanishing Barbero-Immirzi parameter. To do so, we start with the phase space formulation derived from the canonical analysis of the Holst action in which the second class constraints have been solved explicitly. This allows us to avoid the use of Dirac brackets. In this context, we show that there is a ''unique'' Lorentz-covariant connection which is commutative in the sense of the Poisson bracket, and which furthermore agrees with the connection found by Alexandrov using the Dirac bracket. This result opens a new way toward the understanding of Lorentz-covariant loop quantum gravity.
Constraints on Lorentz violation from gravitational Čerenkov radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Alan Kostelecký
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Limits on gravitational Čerenkov radiation by cosmic rays are obtained and used to constrain coefficients for Lorentz violation in the gravity sector associated with operators of even mass dimensions, including orientation-dependent effects. We use existing data from cosmic-ray telescopes to obtain conservative two-sided constraints on 80 distinct Lorentz-violating operators of dimensions four, six, and eight, along with conservative one-sided constraints on three others. Existing limits on the nine minimal operators at dimension four are improved by factors of up to a billion, while 74 of our explicit limits represent stringent first constraints on nonminimal operators. Prospects are discussed for future analyses incorporating effects of Lorentz violation in the matter sector, the role of gravitational Čerenkov radiation by high-energy photons, data from gravitational-wave observatories, the tired-light effect, and electromagnetic Čerenkov radiation by gravitons.
Violation of CPT invariance in the early universe and leptogenesis/baryogenesis
Mavromatos, Nick E
2013-01-01
In this talk, I review some plausible scenarios entailing violation of CPT symmetry in the early Universe, due to space-time backgrounds which do not respect some of the assumptions for the validity of the CPT theorem (here considered will be Lorentz invariance and/or Unitarity). The key point in all these models is that the background induces different populations of fermions as compared to antifermions, and hence CPT Violation (CPTV), already in thermal equilibrium. Such populations may freeze out at various conditions depending on the details of the underlying microscopic model, thereby leading to leptogenesis and baryogenesis. Among the considered scenarios is a stringy one, in which the CPTV is associated with a cosmological background with torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field (axion) of the string gravitational multiplet. We also discuss briefly (Lorentz Violating) CPTV models that go beyond the local effective lagrangian framework, such as a stochastic Finsler metric and D-par...
Differential invariants in nonclassical models of hydrodynamics
Bublik, Vasily V.
2017-10-01
In this paper, differential invariants are used to construct solutions for equations of the dynamics of a viscous heat-conducting gas and the dynamics of a viscous incompressible fluid modified by nanopowder inoculators. To describe the dynamics of a viscous heat-conducting gas, we use the complete system of Navier—Stokes equations with allowance for heat fluxes. Mathematical description of the dynamics of liquid metals under high-energy external influences (laser radiation or plasma flow) includes, in addition to the Navier—Stokes system of an incompressible viscous fluid, also heat fluxes and processes of nonequilibrium crystallization of a deformable fluid. Differentially invariant solutions are a generalization of partially invariant solutions, and their active study for various models of continuous medium mechanics is just beginning. Differentially invariant solutions can also be considered as solutions with differential constraints; therefore, when developing them, the approaches and methods developed by the science schools of academicians N. N. Yanenko and A. F. Sidorov will be actively used. In the construction of partially invariant and differentially invariant solutions, there are overdetermined systems of differential equations that require a compatibility analysis. The algorithms for reducing such systems to involution in a finite number of steps are described by Cartan, Finikov, Kuranishi, and other authors. However, the difficultly foreseeable volume of intermediate calculations complicates their practical application. Therefore, the methods of computer algebra are actively used here, which largely helps in solving this difficult problem. It is proposed to use the constructed exact solutions as tests for formulas, algorithms and their software implementations when developing and creating numerical methods and computational program complexes. This combination of effective numerical methods, capable of solving a wide class of problems, with
Lorentz Space Estimates for the Ginzburg-Landau Energy
Serfaty, Sylvia; Tice, Ian
2007-01-01
In this paper we prove novel lower bounds for the Ginzburg-Landau energy with or without magnetic field. These bounds rely on an improvement of the "vortex balls construction" estimates by extracting a new positive term in the energy lower bounds. This extra term can be conveniently estimated through a Lorentz space norm, on which it thus provides an upper bound. The Lorentz space $L^{2,\\infty}$ we use is critical with respect to the expected vortex profiles and can serve to estimate the tota...
Lorentz Body Force Induced by Traveling Magnetic Fields
Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.
2003-01-01
The Lorentz force induced by a traveling magnetic field (TMF) in a cylindrical container has been calculated. The force can be used to control flow in dectrically conducting melts and the direction of the magnetic field and resulting flow can be reversed. A TMF can be used to partially cancel flow driven by buoyancy. The penetration of the field into the cylinder decreases as the frequency increases, and there exists an optimal value of frequency for which the resulting force is a maximum. Expressions for the Lorentz force in the limiting cases of low frequency and infinite cylinder are also given and compared to the numerical calculations.
Invariant and Absolute Invariant Means of Double Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdullah Alotaibi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We examine some properties of the invariant mean, define the concepts of strong σ-convergence and absolute σ-convergence for double sequences, and determine the associated sublinear functionals. We also define the absolute invariant mean through which the space of absolutely σ-convergent double sequences is characterized.
Wulan, Hasi
2017-01-01
This monograph summarizes the recent major achievements in Möbius invariant QK spaces. First introduced by Hasi Wulan and his collaborators, the theory of QK spaces has developed immensely in the last two decades, and the topics covered in this book will be helpful to graduate students and new researchers interested in the field. Featuring a wide range of subjects, including an overview of QK spaces, QK-Teichmüller spaces, K-Carleson measures and analysis of weight functions, this book serves as an important resource for analysts interested in this area of complex analysis. Notes, numerous exercises, and a comprehensive up-to-date bibliography provide an accessible entry to anyone with a standard graduate background in real and complex analysis.
Delhommelle, Jérôme; Millié, Philippe
Though molecular beam experiments have revealed deficiencies in the Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules, these rules are still used widely to parametrize effective pair potential models or to calculate the thermodynamic properties of mixtures. Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo and isothermal isobaric Monte Carlo simulations were used to compute the liquid-vapour phase equilibria and the liquid properties of binary mixtures of rare gases modelled by effective pair potentials. Three sets of simple combining rules were tested in this work: the commonly used Lorentz-Berthelot rules, the Kong rules (Kong, J., 1973, J. chem. Phys., 59, 2464) and the Waldman-Hagler rules (Waldman, M., and Hagler, A. T., 1993, J. comput. Chem., 14, 1077). These three sets of rules do not require any additional parameter. It is shown that: (1) the choice of a set of combining rules has a significant effect on the thermodynamic properties, (2) using the Lorentz-Berthelot rules yields significant deviations from experiment and (3) the Kong rules provide a much better description of the mixture properties both for coexistence curves and liquid properties. We therefore recommend the use of the Kong rules instead of the Lorentz-Berthelot when parametrizing potential models.
Four-dimensional aether-like Lorentz-breaking QED revisited and problem of ambiguities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baeta Scarpelli, A.P. [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Rua Hugo D' Antola, 95, Lapa, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mariz, T. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, Alagoas (Brazil); Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)
2013-08-15
In this paper, we consider the perturbative generation of the CPT-even aether-like Lorentz-breaking term in the extended Lorentz-breaking QED within different approaches and discuss its ambiguities. (orig.)
Finite type invariants and fatgraphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Bene, Alex; Meilhan, Jean-Baptiste Odet Thierry
2010-01-01
–Murakami–Ohtsuki of the link invariant of Andersen–Mattes–Reshetikhin computed relative to choices determined by the fatgraph G; this provides a basic connection between 2d geometry and 3d quantum topology. For each fixed G, this invariant is shown to be universal for homology cylinders, i.e., G establishes an isomorphism...
Fayngold, Moses
2010-01-01
A careful look at an allegedly well-known century-old concept reveals interesting aspects in it that have generally avoided recognition in literature. There are four different kinds of physical observables known or proclaimed as relativistic invariants under space-time rotations. Only observables in the first three categories are authentic invariants, whereas the single "invariant" - proper length - in the fourth category is actually not an invariant. The proper length has little is anything to do with proper distance which is a true invariant. On the other hand, proper distance, proper time, and rest mass have more in common than usually recognized, and particularly, mass - time analogy opens another view of the twin paradox.
Analysis of a Lorentz force based vibration exciter using permanent ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This work presents performance analysis of a Lorentz force based noncontact vibration exciter by mounting a couple of permanent magnets on a piezoelectric stack. A conductor is attached to the structure to be excited and is placed midway between unlike poles of a couple of permanent magnets. The permanent magnets ...
What Governs Lorentz Factors of Jet Components in Blazars?
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We use a sample of radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present ...
What Governs Lorentz Factors of Jet Components in Blazars? Xinwu ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We use a sample of radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei. (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is ...
On the Lorentz degree of a product of polynomials
Ait-Haddou, Rachid
2015-01-01
In this note, we negatively answer two questions of T. Erdélyi (1991, 2010) on possible lower bounds on the Lorentz degree of product of two polynomials. We show that the correctness of one question for degree two polynomials is a direct consequence of a result of Barnard et al. (1991) on polynomials with nonnegative coefficients.
Direct observation of rectified motion of vortices by Lorentz microscopy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We have investigated the vortex dynamics for the 'ratchet' operation in a niobium superconductor via a direct imaging of Lorentz microscopy. We directly observe one-directional selective motion of field-gradient-driven vortices along fabricated channels. This results from the rectification of vortices in a spatially ...
Direct observation of rectified motion of vortices by Lorentz microscopy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We have investigated the vortex dynamics for the `ratchet' operation in a niobium superconductor via a direct imaging of Lorentz microscopy. We directly observe one-directional selective motion of field-gradient-driven vortices along fabricated channels. This results from the rectification of vortices in a spatially asymmetric ...
Special Relativity in Week One: 3) Introducing the Lorentz Contraction
Huggins, Elisha
2011-01-01
This is the third of four articles on teaching special relativity in the first week of an introductory physics course. With Einstein's second postulate that the speed of light is the same to all observers, we could use the light pulse clock to introduce time dilation. But we had difficulty introducing the Lorentz contraction until we saw the movie…
Horizons and free-path distributions in quasiperiodic Lorentz gases.
Kraemer, Atahualpa S; Schmiedeberg, Michael; Sanders, David P
2015-11-01
We study the structure of quasiperiodic Lorentz gases, i.e., particles bouncing elastically off fixed obstacles arranged in quasiperiodic lattices. By employing a construction to embed such structures into a higher-dimensional periodic hyperlattice, we give a simple and efficient algorithm for numerical simulation of the dynamics of these systems. This same construction shows that quasiperiodic Lorentz gases generically exhibit a regime with infinite horizon, that is, empty channels through which the particles move without colliding, when the obstacles are small enough; in this case, the distribution of free paths is asymptotically a power law with exponent -3, as expected from infinite-horizon periodic Lorentz gases. For the critical radius at which these channels disappear, however, a new regime with locally finite horizon arises, where this distribution has an unexpected exponent of -5, previously observed only in a Lorentz gas formed by superposing three incommensurable periodic lattices in the Boltzmann-Grad limit where the radius of the obstacles tends to zero.
A Lorentz-Violating Alternative to Higgs Mechanism?
Alexandre, Jean
2011-01-01
We consider a four-dimensional field-theory model with two massless fermions, coupled to an Abelian vector field without flavour mixing, and to another Abelian vector field with flavour mixing. Both Abelian vectors have a Lorentz-violating kinetic term, introducing a Lorentz-violation mass scale $M$, from which fermions and the flavour-mixing vector get their dynamical masses, whereas the vector coupled without flavour mixing remains massless. When the two coupling constants have similar values in order of magnitude, a mass hierarchy pattern emerges, in which one fermion is very light compared to the other, whilst the vector mass is larger than the mass of the heavy fermion. The work presented here may be considered as a Lorentz-symmetry-Violating alternative to the Higgs mechanism, in the sense that no scalar particle (fundamental or composite) is necessary for the generation of the vector-meson mass. However, the model is not realistic given that, as a result of Lorentz Violation, the maximal (light-cone) s...
The scientific correspondence of H. A. Lorentz: Volume I
Kox, A.J.
2008-01-01
This book presents a selection of 434 carefully annotated letters from and to the Dutch physicist and Nobel Prize winner Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928), covering the period from 1883 until a few months before his death in February 1928. Most of these letters are of a scientific nature, with the
A More Intuitive Version of the Lorentz Velocity Addition Formula
Devlin, John F.
2009-01-01
The Lorentz velocity addition formula for one-dimensional motion presents a number of problems for beginning students of special relativity. In this paper we suggest a simple rewrite of the formula that is easier for students to memorize and manipulate, and furthermore is more intuitive in understanding the correction necessary when adding…
Kink shape solutions of the Maxwell-Lorentz system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Mads Peter; Webb, G.M.; Brio, M.
2005-01-01
In the limit of high amplitude oscillating electromagnetic fields, a sequence of kink antikink shaped optical waves has been found in the Maxwell's equations coupled to a single Lorentz oscillator and with Kerr nonlinearity. The individual kinks and antikinks result from a traveling wave assumption...
Physical Invariants of Intelligence
Zak, Michail
2010-01-01
A program of research is dedicated to development of a mathematical formalism that could provide, among other things, means by which living systems could be distinguished from non-living ones. A major issue that arises in this research is the following question: What invariants of mathematical models of the physics of systems are (1) characteristic of the behaviors of intelligent living systems and (2) do not depend on specific features of material compositions heretofore considered to be characteristic of life? This research at earlier stages has been reported, albeit from different perspectives, in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: One of the main underlying ideas is to extend the application of physical first principles to the behaviors of living systems. Mathematical models of motor dynamics are used to simulate the observable physical behaviors of systems or objects of interest, and models of mental dynamics are used to represent the evolution of the corresponding knowledge bases. For a given system, the knowledge base is modeled in the form of probability distributions and the mental dynamics is represented by models of the evolution of the probability densities or, equivalently, models of flows of information. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the focus of this research was upon the following aspects of the formalism: Intelligence is considered to be a means by which a living system preserves itself and improves its ability to survive and is further considered to manifest itself in feedback from the mental dynamics to the motor dynamics. Because of the feedback from the mental dynamics, the motor dynamics attains quantum-like properties: The trajectory of the physical aspect of the system in the space of dynamical variables splits into a family of different trajectories, and each of those trajectories can be chosen with a probability prescribed by the mental dynamics. From a slightly different perspective
Hautle, P
2000-01-01
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has been performed in a magnetic field of 2.35 T at a temperature below 0.3 K in crystals of Nd sup 3 sup + : LaAlO sub 3. A Q-meter NMR-system was used to measure the polarization of the sup 2 sup 7 Al and sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 La nuclei and allowed to characterize the quality of the crystals. The sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 La polarizations of +47.5% and -56.5% achieved represent an important step in the development of a polarized sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 La target for a test of time reversal invariance in low-energy neutron reactions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ulrich D. Jentschura
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Current experiments do not exclude the possibility that one or more neutrinos are very slightly superluminal or that they have a very small tachyonic mass. Important bounds on the size of a hypothetical tachyonic neutrino mass term are set by lepton pair Čerenkov radiation (LPCR, that is, by the decay channel ν→e+e-ν, which proceeds via a virtual Z0 boson. Here, we use a Lorentz-invariant dispersion relation which leads to very tight constraints on the tachyonic mass of neutrinos; we also calculate decay and energy loss rates. A possible cutoff seen in the IceCube neutrino spectrum for Eν>2 PeV, due to the potential onset of LPCR, is discussed.
On density of the Vassiliev invariants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Røgen, Peter
1999-01-01
The main result is that the Vassiliev invariants are dense in the set of numeric knot invariants if and only if they separate knots.Keywords: Knots, Vassiliev invariants, separation, density, torus knots......The main result is that the Vassiliev invariants are dense in the set of numeric knot invariants if and only if they separate knots.Keywords: Knots, Vassiliev invariants, separation, density, torus knots...
Average intensity and spreading of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere.
Zhou, Guoquan; Chu, Xiuxiang
2010-01-18
The propagation of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere is investigated. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral and the Hermite-Gaussian expansion of a Lorentz function, analytical formulae for the average intensity and the effective beam size of a Lorentz-Gauss beam are derived in turbulent atmosphere. The average intensity distribution and the spreading properties of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere are numerically demonstrated. The influences of the beam parameters and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere are also discussed in detail.
Invariant and semi-invariant probabilistic normed spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghaemi, M.B. [School of Mathematics Iran, University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mghaemi@iust.ac.ir; Lafuerza-Guillen, B. [Departamento de Estadistica y Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, Almeria E-04120 (Spain)], E-mail: blafuerz@ual.es; Saiedinezhad, S. [School of Mathematics Iran, University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ssaiedinezhad@yahoo.com
2009-10-15
Probabilistic metric spaces were introduced by Karl Menger. Alsina, Schweizer and Sklar gave a general definition of probabilistic normed space based on the definition of Menger . We introduce the concept of semi-invariance among the PN spaces. In this paper we will find a sufficient condition for some PN spaces to be semi-invariant. We will show that PN spaces are normal spaces. Urysohn's lemma, and Tietze extension theorem for them are proved.
Invariant measures in brain dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boyarsky, Abraham [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H4B 1R6 (Canada)]. E-mail: boyar@alcor.concordia.ca; Gora, Pawel [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)]. E-mail: pgora@vax2.concordia.ca
2006-10-02
This note concerns brain activity at the level of neural ensembles and uses ideas from ergodic dynamical systems to model and characterize chaotic patterns among these ensembles during conscious mental activity. Central to our model is the definition of a space of neural ensembles and the assumption of discrete time ensemble dynamics. We argue that continuous invariant measures draw the attention of deeper brain processes, engendering emergent properties such as consciousness. Invariant measures supported on a finite set of ensembles reflect periodic behavior, whereas the existence of continuous invariant measures reflect the dynamics of nonrepeating ensemble patterns that elicit the interest of deeper mental processes. We shall consider two different ways to achieve continuous invariant measures on the space of neural ensembles: (1) via quantum jitters, and (2) via sensory input accompanied by inner thought processes which engender a 'folding' property on the space of ensembles.
The invariant theory of matrices
Concini, Corrado De
2017-01-01
This book gives a unified, complete, and self-contained exposition of the main algebraic theorems of invariant theory for matrices in a characteristic free approach. More precisely, it contains the description of polynomial functions in several variables on the set of m\\times m matrices with coefficients in an infinite field or even the ring of integers, invariant under simultaneous conjugation. Following Hermann Weyl's classical approach, the ring of invariants is described by formulating and proving the first fundamental theorem that describes a set of generators in the ring of invariants, and the second fundamental theorem that describes relations between these generators. The authors study both the case of matrices over a field of characteristic 0 and the case of matrices over a field of positive characteristic. While the case of characteristic 0 can be treated following a classical approach, the case of positive characteristic (developed by Donkin and Zubkov) is much harder. A presentation of this case...
Hidden scale invariance of metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2015-01-01
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general “hidden” scale invariance...... of iron and phosphorous are shown to increase at elevated pressures. Finally, we discuss how scale invariance explains the Grüneisen equation of state and a number of well-known empirical melting and freezing rules...
Classification of simple current invariants
Gato-Rivera, Beatriz
1992-01-01
We summarize recent work on the classification of modular invariant partition functions that can be obtained with simple currents in theories with a center (Z_p)^k with p prime. New empirical results for other centers are also presented. Our observation that the total number of invariants is monodromy-independent for (Z_p)^k appears to be true in general as well. (Talk presented in the parallel session on string theory of the Lepton-Photon/EPS Conference, Geneva, 1991.)
Performance enhancement of a Lorentz force velocimeter using a buoyancy-compensated magnet system
Ebert, R.; Leineweber, J.; Resagk, C.
2015-07-01
Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) is a highly feasible method for measuring flow rate in a pipe or a duct. This method has been established for liquid metal flows but also for electrolytes such as saltwater. A decrease in electrical conductivity of the medium causes a decrease of the Lorentz force which needs to be resolved, affecting the accuracy of the measurement. We use an electrical force compensation (EFC) balance for the determination of the tiny force signals in a test channel filled with electrolyte solution. It is used in a 90°-rotated orientation with a magnet system hanging vertically on its load bar. The thin coupling elements of its parallel guiding system limit the mass of the magnets to 1 kg. To overcome this restriction, which limits the magnetic flux density and hence the Lorentz forces, a weight force compensation mechanism is developed. Therefore, different methods such as air bearing are conceivable, but for the elimination of additional horizontal force components which would disturb the force signal, only compensation by lift force provided by buoyancy is reasonable. We present a swimming body setup that will allow larger magnet systems than before, because a large amount of the weight force will be compensated by this lift force. Thus the implementation of this concept has to be made with respect to hydrodynamical and mechanical stability. This is necessary to avoid overturning of the swimming body setup and to prevent inelastic deformation. Additionally, the issue will be presented and discussed whether thermal convection around the lifting body diminishes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) significantly or not.
Manipulating the Lorentz force via the chirality of nanoparticles
Wang, Maoyan; Li, Hailong; Dong, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Du, Ming; Wang, Rui; Xu, Tong; Wu, Jian
2016-12-01
We demonstrate that a single plane wave pulls a chiral nanoparticle toward the light source. The nanoparticle exhibits optical gain in a particular wavelength region. The equivalence of the generalized and alternative expressions of the Lorentz force density relating to bound charges for chiral media is numerically validated. By considering the two-dimensional electromagnetic problem of incident plane waves normally impinged on active chiral cylinders, it is shown that the gradient force is mainly contributed by the bound electric and magnetic current densities of the cross-polarized waves. We also investigate how the medium parameters and impedance mismatch can be used to manipulate the pulling or pushing Lorentz forces between two chiral cylinders. This finding may provide a recipe to understand the light interaction with multiple chiral nanoparticles of arbitrary shapes (in general) with the aid of the numerical approach. It could be a promising avenue in controlling the optical micromanipulation for chiral nanoparticles with mirroring asymmetry.
Approximately Lorentz transformations and p-adic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beyer, W.A.
1968-03-12
Hyers and Ulam have discussed an epsilon-linear transformation f of a Banach space E over a real or complex field into itself f(x + y) - f(x) - f(y) < epsilon for all x and y in E, (fixed epsilon) and shown there exists uniquely a strictly linear transformation l: E ..-->.. E for which l(x) - f(x) < epsilon for all x in E. Everett and Ulam have discussed Lorentz transformations in a produce space K/sup n+1/, where K is a non-Archimedean valued field. The purpose of this note is to extend the Hyers-Ulam theory to Banach spaces over p-adic number fields and to discuss analogous theorems for Lorentz transformations in both the real and p-adic cases. 4 refs.
Lorentz angle measurement for CO sub 2 /isobutane gas mixtures
Hoshina, K; Khalatyan, N; Nitoh, O; Okuno, H; Kato, Y; Kobayashi, M; Kurihara, Y; Kuroiwa, H; Nakamura, Y; Sakieda, K; Suzuki, Y; Watanabe, T
2002-01-01
We have developed a Lorentz angle measurement system for cool gas mixtures in the course of our R and D for a proposed JLC central drift chamber (JLC-CDC). The measurement system is characterized by the use of two laser beams to produce primary electrons and flash ADCs to read their signals simultaneously. With this new system, we have measured Lorentz angles for CO sub 2 /isobutane gas mixtures with different proportions (95 : 5, 90 :10, and 85 : 15), varying drift field from 0.6 to 2.0 kV/cm and magnetic field up to 1.5 T. The results of the measurement are in good agreement with GARFIELD/MAGBOLTZ simulations.
Measurements of Compton Scattered Transition Radiation at High Lorentz Factors
Case, Gary L.; Cherry, Michael L.; Isbert, Joachim; Mitchell, John W.; Patterson, Donald; Case, Gary L.; Cherry, Michael L.; Isbert, Joachim; Mitchell, John W.; Patterson, Donald
2004-01-01
X-ray transition radiation can be used to measure the Lorentz factor of relativistic particles. Standard transition radiation detectors (TRDs) typically incorporate thin plastic foil radiators and gas-filled x-ray detectors, and are sensitive up to \\gamma ~ 10^4. To reach higher Lorentz factors (up to \\gamma ~ 10^5), thicker, denser radiators can be used, which consequently produce x-rays of harder energies (>100 keV). At these energies, scintillator detectors are more efficient in detecting the hard x-rays, and Compton scattering of the x-rays out of the path of the particle becomes an important effect. The Compton scattering can be utilized to separate the transition radiation from the ionization background spatially. The use of conducting metal foils is predicted to yield enhanced signals compared to standard nonconducting plastic foils of the same dimensions. We have designed and built a Compton Scatter TRD optimized for high Lorentz factors and exposed it to high energy electrons at the CERN SPS. We pres...
Control of heat transfer in engine coolers by Lorentz forces
Karcher, C.; Kühndel, J.
2016-09-01
In engine coolers of off-highway vehicles convective heat transfer at the coolant side is a limiting factor of both efficiency and performance density of the cooler. Here, due to design restrictions, backwater areas and stagnation regions appear that are caused by flow deflections and cross-sectional expansions. As appropriate coolants, mixtures of water and glysantine are commonly used. Such coolants are characterized by their electrical conductivity of some S/m. This gives rise to control coolant flow and therefore convective heat transfer by means of Lorentz forces. These body forces are generated within the weakly conducting fluid by the interactions of an electrical current density and a localized magnetic field both of which being externally superimposed. In application this may be achieved by inserting electrodes in the cooler wall and a corresponding arrangement of permanent magnets. In this paper we perform numerical simulations of such magnetohydrodynamic flow in three model geometries that are frequently apparent in engine cooling applications: Carnot-Borda diffusor, 90° bend, and 180° bend. The simulations are carried out using the software package ANSYS Fluent. The present study demonstrates that, depending on the electromagnetic interaction parameter and the specific geometric arrangement of electrodes and magnetic field, Lorentz forces are suitable to break up eddy waters and separation zones and are thus significantly increasing convective heat transfer in these areas. Furthermore, the results show that due to the action of the Lorentz forces the hydraulic pressure losses can be reduced.
On invariant submanifolds of (LCSn-manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Absos Ali Shaikh
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The object of the present paper is to study the invariant submanifolds of (LCSn-manifolds. We study semiparallel and 2-semiparallel invariant submanifolds of (LCSn-manifolds. Among others we study 3-dimensional invariant submanifolds of (LCSn-manifolds. It is shown that every 3-dimensional invariant submanifold of a (LCSn-manifold is totally geodesic.
Invariant Matsumoto metrics on homogeneous spaces
Salimi Moghaddam, H.R.
2014-01-01
In this paper we consider invariant Matsumoto metrics which are induced by invariant Riemannian metrics and invariant vector fields on homogeneous spaces, and then we give the flag curvature formula of them. Also we study the special cases of naturally reductive spaces and bi-invariant metrics. We end the article by giving some examples of geodesically complete Matsumoto spaces.
Bae, Jungok; Bachman, Lyle F.
1998-01-01
A study investigated the factorial distinctiveness of two receptive language skills, listening and reading, and the equivalence of factor structure across two groups. Subjects were 156 students, Korean-Americans and non-Korean-Americans, in grades two through four in a two-way bilingual education program. Students were tested in listening and…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The control of vortex-induced vibration (VIV in shear flow with different distributions of Lorentz force is numerically investigated based on the stream function–vorticity equations in the exponential-polar coordinates exerted on moving cylinder for Re = 150. The cylinder motion equation coupled with the fluid, including the mathematical expressions of the lift force coefficient C l , is derived. The initial and boundary conditions as well as the hydrodynamic forces on the surface of cylinder are also formulated. The Lorentz force applied to suppress the VIV has no relationship with the flow field, and involves two categories, i.e., the field Lorentz force and the wall Lorentz force. With the application of symmetrical Lorentz forces, the symmetric field Lorentz force can amplify the drag, suppress the flow separation, decrease the lift fluctuation, and then suppress the VIV while the wall Lorentz force decreases the drag only. With the application of asymmetrical Lorentz forces, besides the above-mentioned effects, the field Lorentz force can increase additional lift induced by shear flow, whereas the wall Lorentz force can counteract the additional lift, which is dominated on the total effect.
Kohn, Amit; Habibi, Avihay; Mayo, Martin
2016-01-01
The 'transport-of-intensity' equation (TIE) is a general phase reconstruction methodology that can be applied to Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (TEM) through the use of Fresnel-contrast (defocused) images. We present an experimental study to test the application of the TIE for quantitative magnetic mapping in Lorentz TEM without aberration correction by examining sub-micrometer sized Ni80Fe20 (Permalloy) elements. For a JEOL JEM 2100F adapted for Lorentz microscopy, we find that quantitative magnetic phase reconstructions are possible for defoci distances ranging between approximately 200 μm and 800 μm. The lower limit originates from competing sources of image intensity variations in Fresnel-contrast images, namely structural defects and diffraction contrast. The upper defocus limit is due to a numerical error in the estimation of the intensity derivative based on three images. For magnetic domains, we show quantitative reconstructions of the product of the magnetic induction vector and thickness in element sizes down to approximately 100 nm in lateral size and 5 nm thick resulting in a minimal detection of 5Tnm. Three types of magnetic structures are tested in terms of phase reconstruction: vortex cores, domain walls, and element edges. We quantify vortex core structures at a diameter of 12 nm while the structures of domain walls and element edges are characterized qualitatively. Finally, we show by image simulations that the conclusions of this experimental study are relevant to other Lorentz TEM in which spherical aberration and defocus are dominant aberrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
AUGER-HiRes results and models of Lorentz symmetry violation
Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis
2009-05-01
The implications of AUGER and HiRes results for patterns of Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) are examined, focusing on weak doubly special relativity (WDSR). If the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff is definitely confirmed, the mass composition of the highest-energy cosmic-ray spectrum will be a crucial issue to draw precise theoretical consequences from the experimental results. Assuming that the observed flux suppression is due to the GZK mechanism, data will allow in principle to exclude a significant range of LSV models and parameters, but other important possibilities are expected to remain open : Lorentz breaking can be weaker or occur at a scale higher than the Planck scale, unconventional LSV effects can fake the GZK cutoff, threshold phenomena can delay its appearance Space experiments appear to be needed to further test special relativity. We also examine the consequences of AUGER and HiRes data for superbradyons. If such superluminal ultimate constituents of matter exist in our Universe, they may provide new forms of dark matter and dark energy.
Lorentz violation bounds from torsion trace fermion sector and galaxy M 51 data and chiral dynamos
Garcia de Andrade, L. C.
2017-06-01
Earlier we have computed a Lorentz violation (LV) bound for torsion terms via galactic dynamos and found bounds similar to the one obtained by Kostelecky et al. (Phys Rev Lett 100:111102, 2008) which is of the order of 10^{-31} GeV. Their result was found making use of the axial torsion vector in terms of Dirac spinors and minimal torsion coupling in flat space-time of fermions. In this paper, a torsion dynamo equation obtained using the variation of the torsion trace and galaxy M51 data of 500 pc are used to place an upper bound of 10^{-26} GeV in LV, which agrees with the one by Kostelecky and his group using an astrophysical framework background. Their lowest bound was obtained in earth laboratory using dual masers. One of the purposes of this paper is to apply the Faraday self-induction magnetic equation, recently extended to torsioned space-time, by the author to show that it lends support to physics in Riemann-Cartan space-time, in several distinct physical backgrounds. Backreaction magnetic effects are used to obtain the LV bounds. Previously Bamba et al. (JCAP 10:058, 2012) have used the torsion trace in their teleparallel investigation of the IGMF, with the argument that the torsion trace leads to less weaker effects than the other irreducible components of the torsion tensor. LV is computed in terms of a chiral-torsion-like current in the new dynamo equation analogous to the Dvornikov and Semikoz dynamo equation with chiral magnetic currents. Making use of the chiral-torsion dynamo equation we estimate the LV bounds in the early universe to be of the order of 10^{-24} GeV, which was the order of the charged-lepton sector. Our main result is that it is possible to obtain more stringent bounds than the ones found in the fermion sector of astrophysics in the new revised 2017 data table for CPT and Lorentz violation by Kostelecky and Mewes. They found in several astrophysical backgrounds, orders of magnitude such as 10^{-24} and 10^{-23} GeV which are not so
Lorentz violation bounds from torsion trace fermion sector and galaxy M51 data and chiral dynamos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia de Andrade, L.C. [IF-UERJ, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2017-06-15
Earlier we have computed a Lorentz violation (LV) bound for torsion terms via galactic dynamos and found bounds similar to the one obtained by Kostelecky et al. (Phys Rev Lett 100:111102, 2008) which is of the order of 10{sup -31} GeV. Their result was found making use of the axial torsion vector in terms of Dirac spinors and minimal torsion coupling in flat space-time of fermions. In this paper, a torsion dynamo equation obtained using the variation of the torsion trace and galaxy M51 data of 500 pc are used to place an upper bound of 10{sup -26} GeV in LV, which agrees with the one by Kostelecky and his group using an astrophysical framework background. Their lowest bound was obtained in earth laboratory using dual masers. One of the purposes of this paper is to apply the Faraday self-induction magnetic equation, recently extended to torsioned space-time, by the author to show that it lends support to physics in Riemann-Cartan space-time, in several distinct physical backgrounds. Backreaction magnetic effects are used to obtain the LV bounds. Previously Bamba et al. (JCAP 10:058, 2012) have used the torsion trace in their teleparallel investigation of the IGMF, with the argument that the torsion trace leads to less weaker effects than the other irreducible components of the torsion tensor. LV is computed in terms of a chiral-torsion-like current in the new dynamo equation analogous to the Dvornikov and Semikoz dynamo equation with chiral magnetic currents. Making use of the chiral-torsion dynamo equation we estimate the LV bounds in the early universe to be of the order of 10{sup -24} GeV, which was the order of the charged-lepton sector. Our main result is that it is possible to obtain more stringent bounds than the ones found in the fermion sector of astrophysics in the new revised 2017 data table for CPT and Lorentz violation by Kostelecky and Mewes. They found in several astrophysical backgrounds, orders of magnitude such as 10{sup -24} and 10{sup -23} Ge
Scale-invariant gauge theories of gravity: theoretical foundations
Lasenby, Anthony
2015-01-01
We consider the construction of gauge theories of gravity, focussing in particular on the extension of local Poincar\\'e invariance to include invariance under local changes of scale. We work exclusively in terms of finite transformations, which allow for a more transparent interpretation of such theories in terms of gauge fields in Minkowski spacetime. Our approach therefore differs from the usual geometrical description of locally scale-invariant Poincar\\'e gauge theory (PGT) and Weyl gauge theory (WGT) in terms of Riemann--Cartan and Weyl--Cartan spacetimes, respectively. In particular, we reconsider the interpretation of the Einstein gauge and also the equations of motion of matter fields and test particles in these theories. Inspired by the observation that the PGT and WGT matter actions for the Dirac field and electromagnetic field have more general invariance properties than those imposed by construction, we go on to present a novel alternative to WGT by considering an `extended' form for the transforma...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li C.
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Fusion reactions play a crucial role for several astrophysical scenarios. At the low energies typical of such environments direct measurements of reaction cross sections are very diﬃcult, and even sometimes impossible. In such cases the use of indirect methods can give a substantial help. The Trojan Horse Method (THM is based on the quasi-free break-up of a nucleus, which can be described in terms of a cluster structure. In such applications the independence of THM results with different break-up schemes, was tested using the quasi free3 He(6Li,ααH and 3He(7Li,αα2H reactions. Results were then compared with the direct behaviours obtained from available data as well as with the cross sections extracted from previous indirect investigations of the same binary reactions using a different nuclide as a Trojan Horse nucleus.
Numeric invariants from multidimensional persistence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skryzalin, Jacek [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlsson, Gunnar [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
2017-05-19
In this paper, we analyze the space of multidimensional persistence modules from the perspectives of algebraic geometry. We first build a moduli space of a certain subclass of easily analyzed multidimensional persistence modules, which we construct specifically to capture much of the information which can be gained by using multidimensional persistence over one-dimensional persistence. We argue that the global sections of this space provide interesting numeric invariants when evaluated against our subclass of multidimensional persistence modules. Lastly, we extend these global sections to the space of all multidimensional persistence modules and discuss how the resulting numeric invariants might be used to study data.
A generalization of gauge invariance
Grigore, Dan-Radu
2017-08-01
We consider perturbative quantum field theory in the causal framework. Gauge invariance is, in this framework, an identity involving chronological products of the interaction Lagrangian; it expresses the fact that the scattering matrix must leave invariant the sub-space of physical states. We are interested in generalizations of such identity involving Wick sub-monomials of the interaction Lagrangian. The analysis can be performed by direct computation in the lower orders of perturbation theory; guided by these computations, we conjecture a generalization for arbitrary orders.
Dark Coupling and Gauge Invariance
Gavela, M B; Mena, O; Rigolin, S
2010-01-01
We study a coupled dark energy-dark matter model in which the energy-momentum exchange is proportional to the Hubble expansion rate. The inclusion of its perturbation is required by gauge invariance. We derive the linear perturbation equations for the gauge invariant energy density contrast and velocity of the coupled fluids, and we determine the initial conditions. The latter turn out to be adiabatic for dark energy, when assuming adiabatic initial conditions for all the standard fluids. We perform a full Monte Carlo Markov Chain likelihood analysis of the model, using WMAP 7-year data.
Invariant Classification of Gait Types
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.
2008-01-01
This paper presents a method of classifying human gait in an invariant manner based on silhouette comparison. A database of artificially generated silhouettes is created representing the three main types of gait, i.e. walking, jogging, and running. Silhouettes generated from different camera angles...
Lie groups and invariant theory
Vinberg, Ernest
2005-01-01
This volume, devoted to the 70th birthday of A. L. Onishchik, contains a collection of articles by participants in the Moscow Seminar on Lie Groups and Invariant Theory headed by E. B. Vinberg and A. L. Onishchik. The book is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in Lie groups and related topics.
Vacuum Cherenkov radiation for Lorentz-violating fermions
Schreck, M.
2017-11-01
The current work focuses on the process of vacuum Cherenkov radiation for Lorentz-violating fermions that are described by the minimal standard-model extension (SME). To date, most considerations of this important hypothetical process have been restricted to Lorentz-violating photons, as the necessary theoretical tools for the SME fermion sector have not been available. With their development in a very recent paper, we are now in a position to compute the decay rates based on a modified Dirac theory. Two realizations of the Cherenkov process are studied. In the first scenario, the spin projection of the incoming fermion is assumed to be conserved, and in the second, the spin projection is allowed to flip. The first type of process is shown to be still forbidden for the dimensionful a and b coefficients where there are strong indications that it is energetically disallowed for the H coefficients, as well. However, it is rendered possible for the dimensionless c , d , e , f , and g coefficients. For large initial fermion energies, the decay rates for the c and d coefficients were found to grow linearly with momentum and to be linearly suppressed by the smallness of the Lorentz-violating coefficient where for the e , f , and g coefficients this suppression is even quadratic. The decay rates vanish in the vicinity of the threshold, as expected. The decay including a fermion spin-flip plays a role for the spin-nondegenerate operators and it was found to occur for the dimensionful b and H coefficients as well as for the dimensionless d and g . The characteristics of this process differ much from the properties of the spin-conserving one, e.g., there is no threshold. Based on experimental data of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, new constraints on Lorentz violation in the quark sector are obtained from the thresholds. However, it does not seem to be possible to derive bounds from the spin-flip decays. This work reveals the usefulness of the quantum field theoretic methods
One-dimensional stochastic Levy-lorentz gas
Barkai; Fleurov; Klafter
2000-02-01
We introduce a Levy-Lorentz gas in which a light particle is scattered by static point scatterers arranged on a line. We investigate the case where the intervals between scatterers xi(i) are independent random variables identically distributed according to the probability density function &mgr;(xi) approximately xi(-(1+gamma)). We show that under certain conditions the mean square displacement of the particle obeys /=Ct3-gamma for 1renewal Levy walk scheme. We discuss the importance of rare events in the proper characterization of the diffusion process.
The classical dynamics of particles Galilean and Lorentz relativity
Mann, Ronald A
1974-01-01
The Classical Dynamics of Particles: Galilean and Lorentz Relativity has been designed to serve either as an independent graduate course in dynamics or as a segment of a graduate theoretical physics course. The book begins with a general introduction and a rather extensive discussion of the special theory of relativity, including a section on tachyons. Separate chapters follow on the variational derivation of Lagrangian dynamical equations of charged particle motion and spin angular momentum; variational derivation of Noether's theorem; and canonical formalism and Dirac's extension of Hamilto
Breaking Lorentz Reciprocity with Frequency Conversion and Delay
Rosenthal, Eric I.; Chapman, Benjamin J.; Higginbotham, Andrew P.; Kerckhoff, Joseph; Lehnert, K. W.
2017-10-01
We introduce a method for breaking Lorentz reciprocity based upon the noncommutation of frequency conversion and delay. The method requires no magnetic materials or resonant physics, allowing for the design of scalable and broadband nonreciprocal circuits. With this approach, two types of gyrators—universal building blocks for linear, nonreciprocal circuits—are constructed. Using one of these gyrators, we create a circulator with >15 dB of isolation across the 5-9 GHz band. Our designs may be readily extended to any platform with suitable frequency conversion elements, including semiconducting devices for telecommunication or an on-chip superconducting implementation for quantum information processing.
Local Lorentz covariance in finite-dimensional local quantum physics
Raasakka, Matti
2017-10-01
We show that local Lorentz covariance arises canonically as the group of transformations between local thermal states in the framework of local quantum physics, given the following three postulates: (i) Local observable algebras are finite-dimensional. (ii) Minimal local observable algebras are isomorphic to M2(C ) , the observable algebra of a single qubit. (iii) The vacuum restricted to any minimal local observable algebra is a nonmaximally mixed thermal state. The derivation reveals a new and surprising relation between spacetime structure and local quantum states. In particular, we show how local restrictions of the vacuum can determine the connection between different local inertial reference frames.
Gravitation as a Plastic Distortion of the Lorentz Vacuum
Fernández, Virginia Velma
2010-01-01
Addressing graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics and mathematics, this book presents a new formulation of the theory of gravity. In the new approach the gravitational field has the same ontology as the electromagnetic, strong, and weak fields. In other words it is a physical field living in Minkowski spacetime. Some necessary new mathematical concepts are introduced and carefully explained. Then they are used to describe the deformation of geometries, the key to describing the gravitational field as a plastic deformation of the Lorentz vacuum. It emerges after further analysis that the theory provides trustworthy energy-momentum and angular momentum conservation laws, a feature that is normally lacking in General Relativity.
Ivanov, A. N.
2018-02-01
We analyse the Lorentz structure of the matrix elements of the ‘neutron \\longleftrightarrow proton’ transitions, induced by the charged hadronic vector current. We show that the term providing conservation of the charged hadronic vector current in the sense of the vanishing matrix element of the divergence of the charged hadronic vector current of the ‘neutron \\longleftrightarrow proton’ transitions even for different neutron and proton masses (see T Leitner et al 2006 Phys. Rev. C 73 065502 and A M Ankowski 2016 arXiv:1601.06169 [hep-ph]) has a dynamical origin, related to the G-even first class current contribution. We show that because of the invariance of strong low-energy interactions under G-parity transformations, the G-odd contribution with Lorentz structure {q}μ , where {q}μ is a transferred momentum, does not appear in the matrix elements of the ‘neutron \\longleftrightarrow proton’ transitions.
Adiabatic invariants of the extended KdV equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karczewska, Anna [Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Econometrics, University of Zielona Góra, Szafrana 4a, 65-246 Zielona Góra (Poland); Rozmej, Piotr, E-mail: p.rozmej@if.uz.zgora.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Szafrana 4a, 65-246 Zielona Góra (Poland); Infeld, Eryk [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Poland); Rowlands, George [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7A (United Kingdom)
2017-01-30
When the Euler equations for shallow water are taken to the next order, beyond KdV, momentum and energy are no longer exact invariants. (The only one is mass.) However, adiabatic invariants (AI) can be found. When the KdV expansion parameters are zero, exact invariants are recovered. Existence of adiabatic invariants results from general theory of near-identity transformations (NIT) which allow us to transform higher order nonintegrable equations to asymptotically equivalent (when small parameters tend to zero) integrable form. Here we present a direct method of calculations of adiabatic invariants. It does not need a transformation to a moving reference frame nor performing a near-identity transformation. Numerical tests show that deviations of AI from constant values are indeed small. - Highlights: • We suggest a new and simple method for calculating adiabatic invariants of second order wave equations. • It is easy to use and we hope that it will be useful if published. • Interesting numerics included.
Lattice Boltzmann method with restored Galilean invariance.
Prasianakis, N I; Karlin, I V; Mantzaras, J; Boulouchos, K B
2009-06-01
An isothermal model on the standard two-dimension nine-velocity lattice (D2Q9) is proposed and analyzed. It originates from the thermal model with energy conservation introduced by N. I. Prasianakis and I. V. Karlin [Phys. Rev. E 76, 016702 (2007)]. The isothermal and the thermal equivalent models are tested through the simulation of the decay of a shear wave and of a temperature wave. Both are shown to be Galilean invariant, reference temperature independent, and rotational isotropic through the measurement of the transport coefficients on a rotated moving frame of reference.
Invariant manifolds near hyperbolic fixed points
Homburg, A.J.
2006-01-01
Abstract: In these notes, we discuss obstructions to the existence of local invariant manifolds of some smoothness class, near hyperbolic fixed points of diffeomorphisms. We present an elementary construction for continuously differentiable invariant manifolds that are not necessarily normally
A perfectly conducting surface in electrodynamics with Lorentz symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borges, L.H.C. [UNESP, Campus de Guaratingueta, DFQ, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Barone, F.A. [IFQ, Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)
2017-10-15
In this paper we consider a model which exhibits explicit Lorentz symmetry breaking due to the presence of a single background vector v{sup μ} coupled to the gauge field. We investigate such a theory in the vicinity of a perfectly conducting plate for different configurations of v{sup μ}. First we consider no restrictions on the components of the background vector and we treat it perturbatively up to second order. Next, we treat v{sup μ} exactly for two special cases: the first one is when it has only components parallel to the plate, and the second one when it has a single component perpendicular to the plate. For all these configurations, the propagator for the gauge field and the interaction force between the plate and a point-like electric charge are computed. Surprisingly, it is shown that the image method is valid in our model and we argue that it is a non-trivial result. We show there arises a torque on the mirror with respect to its positioning in the background field when it interacts with a point-like charge. It is a new effect with no counterpart in theories with Lorentz symmetry in the presence of a perfect mirror. (orig.)
Energy scale of Lorentz violation in Rainbow Gravity
Nilsson, Nils A.; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.
2017-12-01
We modify the standard relativistic dispersion relation in a way which breaks Lorentz symmetry-the effect is predicted in a high-energy regime of some modern theories of quantum gravity. We show that it is possible to realise this scenario within the framework of Rainbow Gravity which introduces two new energy-dependent functions f1(E) and f2(E) into the dispersion relation. Additionally, we assume that the gravitational constant G and the cosmological constant Λ also depend on energy E and introduce the scaling function h(E) in order to express this dependence. For cosmological applications we specify the functions f1 and f2 in order to fit massless particles which allows us to derive modified cosmological equations. Finally, by using Hubble+SNIa+BAO(BOSS+Lyman α)+CMB data, we constrain the energy scale ELV to be at least of the order of 1016 GeV at 1 σ which is the GUT scale or even higher 1017 GeV at 3 σ. Our claim is that this energy can be interpreted as the decoupling scale of massless particles from spacetime Lorentz violating effects.
Lorentz violation, two-time physics, and strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romero, Juan M., E-mail: jromero@correo.cua.uam.mx [Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Mexico, D.F 01120 (Mexico); Sanchez-Santos, Oscar, E-mail: oscarsanbuzz@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico); Vergara, Jose David, E-mail: vergara@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico)
2011-10-24
The aim of this paper is to study the generalization of the relativistic particle recently proposed by Kostelecky. An alternative action for this system is presented, and it is shown that this action can be interpreted as a particle in curved space. Furthermore, the following results are established for the model: (i) there exists a limit where the system has more local symmetries than the usual relativistic particle; (ii) in this limit when Lorentz symmetry is restored, a direct relationship with the two-time physics is determined; (iii) if also Poincare symmetry is recovered, the action of a relativistic bosonic string is obtained. -- Highlights: → We study the generalization of the relativistic particle proposed by Kostelecky. → An alternative action for this system is presented. → There is a limit where the model has more symmetries than the relativistic particle. → When Lorentz symmetry is restored, a relationship with two-time physics is determined. → If Poincare symmetry is recovered, the action of a relativistic string is obtained.
Longitudinal measurement invariance of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation.
Beurs, D.P. de; Fokkema, M.; Groot, M.H. de; Keijser, J. de; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.
2015-01-01
In mental health care, both clinical and scientific decisions are based on within-subject comparisons of test scores on the same self-report questionnaire at different points in time. To establish the validity of test score comparisons over time, longitudinal measurement invariance should be
Measurement Invariance of the "Servant Leadership Questionnaire" across K-12 Principal Gender
Xu, Lihua; Stewart, Trae; Haber-Curran, Paige
2015-01-01
Measurement invariance of the five-factor "Servant Leadership Questionnaire" between female and male K-12 principals was tested using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 956 principals (56.9% were females and 43.1% were males) was analysed in this study. The hierarchical multi-step measurement invariance test supported…
Constructing Invariant Fairness Measures for Surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael
1998-01-01
of the size of this vector field is used as the fairness measure on the family.Six basic 3rd order invariants satisfying two quadratic equations are defined. They form a complete set in the sense that any invariant 3rd order function can be written as a function of the six basic invariants together...
Aspects of semilocal BPS vortex in systems with Lorentz symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villalobos, C.H.C.; Silva, J.M.H. da; Hott, M.B. [UNESP, Univ Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espi rito Santo (UFES), Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)
2014-03-15
The existence is shown of a static self-dual semilocal vortex configuration for the Maxwell-Higgs system with a Lorentz-violating CPT-even term. The dependence of the vorticity upper limit on the Lorentz-symmetry-breaking term is also investigated. (orig.)
Invariance for Single Curved Manifold
Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de
2012-08-01
Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.
Homotopy invariants of Gauss words
Gibson, Andrew
2009-01-01
By defining combinatorial moves, we can define an equivalence relation on Gauss words called homotopy. In this paper we define a homotopy invariant of Gauss words. We use this to show that there exist Gauss words that are not homotopically equivalent to the empty Gauss word, disproving a conjecture by Turaev. In fact, we show that there are an infinite number of equivalence classes of Gauss words under homotopy.
A Many Particle Adiabatic Invariant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul G.
1999-01-01
For a system of N charged particles moving in a homogeneous, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a many-particle adiabatic invariant constrains the collisional exchange of energy between the degrees of freedom perpendicular to and parallel to the magnetic field. A description of the phenomenon in...... in terms of Hamiltonian dynamics is given. The relation to the Equipartition Theorem of statistical Mechanics is briefly discussed....
Scale invariance implies conformal invariance for the three-dimensional Ising model.
Delamotte, Bertrand; Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolás
2016-01-01
Using the Wilson renormalization group, we show that if no integrated vector operator of scaling dimension -1 exists, then scale invariance implies conformal invariance. By using the Lebowitz inequalities, we prove that this necessary condition is fulfilled in all dimensions for the Ising universality class. This shows, in particular, that scale invariance implies conformal invariance for the three-dimensional Ising model.
Disformal invariance of curvature perturbation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Motohashi, Hayato [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, 60637 (United States); White, Jonathan, E-mail: motohashi@kicp.uchicago.edu, E-mail: jwhite@post.kek.jp [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan (Japan)
2016-02-01
We show that under a general disformal transformation the linear comoving curvature perturbation is not identically invariant, but is invariant on superhorizon scales for any theory that is disformally related to Horndeski's theory. The difference between disformally related curvature perturbations is found to be given in terms of the comoving density perturbation associated with a single canonical scalar field. In General Relativity it is well-known that this quantity vanishes on superhorizon scales through the Poisson equation that is obtained on combining the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints, and we confirm that a similar result holds for any theory that is disformally related to Horndeski's scalar-tensor theory so long as the invertibility condition for the disformal transformation is satisfied. We also consider the curvature perturbation at full nonlinear order in the unitary gauge, and find that it is invariant under a general disformal transformation if we assume that an attractor regime has been reached. Finally, we also discuss the counting of degrees of freedom in theories disformally related to Horndeski's.
Chronometric Invariance and String Theory
Pollock, M. D.
The Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian R is expressed in terms of the chronometrically invariant quantities introduced by Zel'manov for an arbitrary four-dimensional metric gij. The chronometrically invariant three-space is the physical space γαβ = -gαβ+e2ϕ γαγβ, where e2ϕ = g00 and γα = g0α/g00, and whose determinant is h. The momentum canonically conjugate to γαβ is π α β =-√ {h}(Kα β -γ α β K), where Kα β =½ ∂ tγ α β and ∂t≡e-ϕ∂0 is the chronometrically invariant derivative with respect to time. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the wave function Ψ is derived. For a stationary space-time, such as the Kerr metric, παβ vanishes, implying that there is then no dynamics. The most symmetric, chronometrically-invariant space, obtained after setting ϕ = γα = 0, is Rα β =-λ (t)δ α β , where δαβ is constant and has curvature k. From the Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations, we find that λ is constant only if k=1 and the source is a perfect fluid of energy-density ρ and pressure p=(γ-1)ρ, with adiabatic index γ=2/3, which is the value for a random ensemble of strings, thus yielding a three-dimensional de Sitter space embedded in four-dimensional space-time. Furthermore, Ψ is only invariant under the time-reversal operator {T} if γ=2/(2n-1), where n is a positive integer, the first two values n=1,2 defining the high-temperature and low-temperature limits ρ T±2, respectively, of the heterotic superstring theory, which are thus dual to one another in the sense T↔1/2π2α‧T.
Position-invariant, rotation-invariant, and scale-invariant process for binary image recognition.
Levkovitz, J; Oron, E; Tur, M
1997-05-10
A novel recognition process is presented that is invariant under position, rotation, and scale changes. The recognition process is based on the Fang-Häusler transform [Appl. Opt. 29, 704 (1990)] and is applied to the autoconvolved image, rather than to the image itself. This makes the recognition process sensitive not only to the image histogram but also to its detailed pattern, resulting in a more reliable process that is also applicable to binary images. The proposed recognition process is demonstrated, by use of a fast algorithm, on several types of binary images with a real transform kernel, which contains amplitude, as well as phase, information. Good recognition is achieved for both synthetic and scanned images. In addition, it is shown that the Fang-Hausler transform is also invariant under a general affine transformation of the spatial coordinates.
Lorentz transformations, sideways shift and massless spinning particles
Bolonek-Lasoń, K.; Kosiński, P.; Maślanka, P.
2017-06-01
Recently (Stone et al. (2015) [16]) the influence of the so called ;Wigner translations; (more generally-Lorentz transformations) on circularly polarized Gaussian packets (providing the solution to Maxwell equations in paraxial approximation) has been studied. It appears that, within this approximation, the Wigner translations have an effect of shifting the wave packet trajectory parallel to itself by an amount proportional to the photon helicity. It has been suggested that this shift may result from specific properties of the algebra of Poincare generators for massless particles. In the present letter we describe the general relation between transformation properties of electromagnetic field on quantum and classical levels. It allows for a straightforward derivation of the helicity-dependent transformation rules. We present also an elementary derivation of the formula for sideways shift based on classical Maxwell theory. Some comments are made concerning the generalization to higher helicities and the relation to the coordinate operator defined long time ago by Pryce.
Density-dependent diffusion in the periodic Lorentz gas
Klages, R; Dellago, Chr.
1999-01-01
We study the deterministic diffusion coefficient of the two-dimensional periodic Lorentz gas as a function of the density of scatterers. Results obtained from computer simulations are compared to the analytical approximation of Machta and Zwanzig [Phys.Rev.Lett. 50, 1959 (1983)] showing that their argument is only correct in the limit of high densities. We discuss how the Machta-Zwanzig argument, which is based on treating diffusion as a Markovian hopping process on a lattice, can be corrected systematically by including microscopic correlations. We furthermore show that, on a fine scale, the diffusion coefficient is a non-trivial function of the density. We finally argue that, on a coarse scale and for lower densities, the diffusion coefficient exhibits a Boltzmann-like behavior, whereas for very high densities it crosses over to a regime which can be understood qualitatively by the Machta-Zwanzig approximation.
Extended hamiltonian formalism and Lorentz-violating lagrangians
Colladay, Don
2017-09-01
A new perspective on the classical mechanical formulation of particle trajectories in Lorentz-violating theories is presented. Using the extended hamiltonian formalism, a Legendre Transformation between the associated covariant lagrangian and hamiltonian varieties is constructed. This approach enables calculation of trajectories using Hamilton's equations in momentum space and the Euler-Lagrange equations in velocity space away from certain singular points that arise in the theory. Singular points are naturally de-singularized by requiring the trajectories to be smooth functions of both velocity and momentum variables. In addition, it is possible to identify specific sheets of the dispersion relations that correspond to specific solutions for the lagrangian. Examples corresponding to bipartite Finsler functions are computed in detail. A direct connection between the lagrangians and the field-theoretic solutions to the Dirac equation is also established for a special case.
Lorentz transformations, sideways shift and massless spinning particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolonek-Lasoń, K. [Department of Statistical Methods, Faculty of Economics and Sociology (Poland); Kosiński, P. [Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Maślanka, P., E-mail: pmaslan@uni.lodz.pl [Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland)
2017-06-10
Recently (Stone et al. (2015) ) the influence of the so called “Wigner translations” (more generally-Lorentz transformations) on circularly polarized Gaussian packets (providing the solution to Maxwell equations in paraxial approximation) has been studied. It appears that, within this approximation, the Wigner translations have an effect of shifting the wave packet trajectory parallel to itself by an amount proportional to the photon helicity. It has been suggested that this shift may result from specific properties of the algebra of Poincare generators for massless particles. In the present letter we describe the general relation between transformation properties of electromagnetic field on quantum and classical levels. It allows for a straightforward derivation of the helicity-dependent transformation rules. We present also an elementary derivation of the formula for sideways shift based on classical Maxwell theory. Some comments are made concerning the generalization to higher helicities and the relation to the coordinate operator defined long time ago by Pryce.
Lorentz effect imaging of ionic currents in solution
Truong, Trong-Kha; Avram, Alexandru; Song, Allen W.
2008-03-01
Current functional MRI techniques relying on hemodynamic modulations are inherently limited in their ability to accurately localize neural activity in space and time. To address these limitations, we previously proposed a novel technique based on the Lorentz effect and demonstrated its ability to directly image minute electrical activity with a millisecond temporal resolution in gel phantoms containing conductive wires as well as in the human median nerve in vivo. To better characterize its contrast mechanism and ultimately further improve its sensitivity for in vivo applications, we now apply this technique to image ionic currents in solution, which serve as a better model for neural conduction in biological systems than the electronic currents in conductive wires used in previous phantom studies. Our results demonstrate that ionic currents with durations and current densities on the same order of magnitude as those induced by neuroelectric activity in nerve fibers and in the brain can be detected.
Cosmic Censorship in Lorentz Violating Theories of Gravity
Meiers, Michael; Afshordi, Niayesh
2015-01-01
Is Cosmic Censorship special to General Relativity, or can it survive a violation of equivalence principle? Recent studies have shown that singularities in Lorentz violating Einstein-Aether (or Horava-Lifhsitz) theories can lie behind a universal horizon in simple black hole spacetimes. Even infinitely fast signals cannot escape these universal horizons. We extend this result, for an incompressible aether, to 3+1d dynamical or spinning spacetimes which possess inner killing horizons, and show that a universal horizon always forms in between the outer and (would-be) inner horizons. This finding suggests a notion of Cosmic Censorship, given that geometry in these theories never evolves beyond the universal horizon (avoiding potentially singular inner killing horizons). A surprising result is that there are 3 distinct possible stationary universal horizons for a spinning black hole, only one of which matches the dynamical spherical solution. This motivates dynamical studies of collapse in Einstein-Aether theorie...
Quantum Weyl invariance and cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dabholkar, Atish, E-mail: atish@ictp.it [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ICTP-UNESCO, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34151 (Italy); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France)
2016-09-10
Equations for cosmological evolution are formulated in a Weyl invariant formalism to take into account possible Weyl anomalies. Near two dimensions, the renormalized cosmological term leads to a nonlocal energy-momentum tensor and a slowly decaying vacuum energy. A natural generalization to four dimensions implies a quantum modification of Einstein field equations at long distances. It offers a new perspective on time-dependence of couplings and naturalness with potentially far-reaching consequences for the cosmological constant problem, inflation, and dark energy.
CONSTRAINTS ON THE BULK LORENTZ FACTORS OF GRB X-RAY FLARES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yi, Shuang-Xi; Wang, Fa-Yin; Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Xue-Feng, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)
2015-07-01
X-ray flares were discovered in the afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by the Swift satellite a decade ago and are known as a canonical component in GRB X-ray afterglows. In this paper, we constrain the Lorentz factors of GRB X-ray flares using two different methods. For the first method, we estimate the lower limit on the bulk Lorentz factor with the flare duration and jet break time. In the second method, the upper limit on the Lorentz factor is derived by assuming that the X-ray flare jet has undergone saturated acceleration. We also re-estimate the initial Lorentz factor with GRB afterglow onsets, and find the coefficient of the theoretical Lorentz factor is 1.67 rather than the commonly used 2 for the interstellar medium (ISM) and 1.44 for the wind case. We find that the correlation between the limited Lorentz factor and the isotropic radiation energy of X-ray flares in the ISM case is more consistent with that of prompt emission than the wind case in a statistical sense. For a comparison, the lower limit on the Lorentz factor is statistically larger than the extrapolation from prompt bursts in the wind case. Our results indicate that X-ray flares and prompt bursts are produced by the same physical mechanism.
Investigating an Invariant Item Ordering for Polytomously Scored Items
Ligtvoet, Rudy; van der Ark, L. Andries; te Marvelde, Janneke M.; Sijtsma, Klaas
2010-01-01
This article discusses the concept of an invariant item ordering (IIO) for polytomously scored items and proposes methods for investigating an IIO in real test data. Method manifest IIO is proposed for assessing whether item response functions intersect. Coefficient H[superscript T] is defined for polytomously scored items. Given that an IIO…
Xiao, Jing; Bai, Yu; He, Yini; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Ling, Yu; Smith, Hannah; Huebner, E. Scott
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to test the gender invariance of the Chinese version of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-C) utilizing a sample of 1,115 Chinese university students. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the AGQ-C across genders. Analyses also revealed that the latent…
Age-invariant face recognition.
Park, Unsang; Tong, Yiying; Jain, Anil K
2010-05-01
One of the challenges in automatic face recognition is to achieve temporal invariance. In other words, the goal is to come up with a representation and matching scheme that is robust to changes due to facial aging. Facial aging is a complex process that affects both the 3D shape of the face and its texture (e.g., wrinkles). These shape and texture changes degrade the performance of automatic face recognition systems. However, facial aging has not received substantial attention compared to other facial variations due to pose, lighting, and expression. We propose a 3D aging modeling technique and show how it can be used to compensate for the age variations to improve the face recognition performance. The aging modeling technique adapts view-invariant 3D face models to the given 2D face aging database. The proposed approach is evaluated on three different databases (i.g., FG-NET, MORPH, and BROWNS) using FaceVACS, a state-of-the-art commercial face recognition engine.
A Local Galilean Invariant Thermostat.
Groot, Robert D
2006-05-01
The thermostat introduced recently by Stoyanov and Groot (J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 122, 114112) is analyzed for inhomogeneous systems. This thermostat has one global feature, because the mean temperature used to drive the system toward equilibrium is a global average. The consequence is that the thermostat locally conserves energy rather than temperature. Thus, local temperature variations can be long-lived, although they do average out by thermal diffusion. To obtain a faster local temperature equilibration, a truly local thermostat must be introduced. To conserve momentum and, hence, to simulate hydrodynamic interactions, the thermostat must be Galilean invariant. Such a local Galilean invariant thermostat is studied here. It is shown that, by defining a local temperature on each particle, the ensemble is locally isothermal. The local temperature is obtained from a local square velocity average around each particle. Simulations on the ideal gas show that this local Nosé-Hoover algorithm has a similar artifact as dissipative particle dynamics: the ideal gas pair correlation function is slightly distorted. This is attributed to the fact that the thermostat compensates fluctuations that are natural within a small cluster of particles. When the cutoff range rc for the square velocity average is increased, systematic errors decrease proportionally to rc(-)(3/2); hence, the systematic error can be made arbitrary small.
Emergence of spatiotemporal invariance in large neuronal ensembles in rat barrel cortex.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nathan S Jacobs
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Invariant sensory coding is the robust coding of some sensory information (e.g. stimulus type despite major changes in other sensory parameters (e.g. stimulus strength. The contribution of large populations of neurons (ensembles to invariant sensory coding is not well understood, but could offer distinct advantages over invariance in single cell receptive fields. To test invariant sensory coding in neuronal ensembles evoked by single whisker stimulation as early as primary sensory cortex, we recorded detailed spatiotemporal movies of evoked ensemble activity through the depth of rat barrel cortex using microelectrode arrays. We found that an emergent property of whisker evoked ensemble activity, its spatiotemporal profile, was notably invariant across major changes in stimulus amplitude (up to >200 fold. Such ensemble-based invariance was found for single whisker stimulation as well as for the integrated profile of activity evoked by the more naturalistic stimulation of the entire whisker array. Further, the integrated profile of whisker array evoked ensemble activity and its invariance to stimulus amplitude shares striking similarities to 'funneled' tactile perception in humans. We therefore suggest that ensemble-based invariance could provide a robust neurobiological substrate for invariant sensory coding and integration at an early stage of cortical sensory processing already in primary sensory cortex.
Emergence of spatiotemporal invariance in large neuronal ensembles in rat barrel cortex
Jacobs, Nathan S.; Chen-Bee, Cynthia H.; Frostig, Ron D.
2015-01-01
Invariant sensory coding is the robust coding of some sensory information (e.g., stimulus type) despite major changes in other sensory parameters (e.g., stimulus strength). The contribution of large populations of neurons (ensembles) to invariant sensory coding is not well understood, but could offer distinct advantages over invariance in single cell receptive fields. To test invariant sensory coding in neuronal ensembles evoked by single whisker stimulation as early as primary sensory cortex, we recorded detailed spatiotemporal movies of evoked ensemble activity through the depth of rat barrel cortex using microelectrode arrays. We found that an emergent property of whisker evoked ensemble activity, its spatiotemporal profile, was notably invariant across major changes in stimulus amplitude (up to >200-fold). Such ensemble-based invariance was found for single whisker stimulation as well as for the integrated profile of activity evoked by the more naturalistic stimulation of the entire whisker array. Further, the integrated profile of whisker array evoked ensemble activity and its invariance to stimulus amplitude shares striking similarities to “funneled” tactile perception in humans. We therefore suggest that ensemble-based invariance could provide a robust neurobiological substrate for invariant sensory coding and integration at an early stage of cortical sensory processing already in primary sensory cortex. PMID:26217194
Multispectral and hyperspectral images invariant to illumination
Yazdani Salekdeh, Amin
2011-01-01
In this thesis a novel method is proposed that makes use of multispectral and hyperspectral image data to generate a novel photometric-invariant spectral image. For RGB colour image, an illuminant-invariant image was constructed independent of the illuminant and shading. To generate this image either a set of calibration images was required, or entropy information from a single image was used. For spectral images we show that photometric-invariant image formation is in essence greatly simplif...
Invariant texture segmentation via circular gabor filter
ZHANG, Jianguo; Tan, Tieniu
2002-01-01
International audience; In this paper, we focus on invariant texture segmentation, and propose a new method using circular Gabor filters (CGF) for rotation invariant texture segmentation. The traditional Gabor function is modified into a circular symmetric version. The rotation invariant texture features are achieved via the channel output of the CGF. A new scheme of the selection of Gabor parameters is also proposed for texture segmentation. Experiments show the efficacy of this method
Multivariate dice recognition using invariant features
Hsu, Gee-Sern; Peng, Hsiao-Chia; Yeh, Shang-Min; Lin, Chyi-Yeu
2013-04-01
A system is proposed for automatic reading of the number of dots on dice in general table game settings. Different from previous dice recognition systems that recognize dice of a specific color using a single top-view camera in an enclosure with controlled settings, the proposed one uses multiple cameras to recognize dice of various colors and under uncontrolled conditions. It is composed of three modules. Module-1 locates the dice using the gradient-conditioned color segmentation, proposed, to segment dice of arbitrary colors from the background. Module-2 exploits the local invariant features good for building homographies, giving a solution to segment the top faces of the dice. To identify the dots on the segmented top faces, a maximally stable extremal region detector is embedded in module-3 for its consistency in locating the dot region. Experiments show that the proposed system performs satisfactorily in various test conditions.
Wilson loop invariants from WN conformal blocks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleg Alekseev
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Knot and link polynomials are topological invariants calculated from the expectation value of loop operators in topological field theories. In 3D Chern–Simons theory, these invariants can be found from crossing and braiding matrices of four-point conformal blocks of the boundary 2D CFT. We calculate crossing and braiding matrices for WN conformal blocks with one component in the fundamental representation and another component in a rectangular representation of SU(N, which can be used to obtain HOMFLY knot and link invariants for these cases. We also discuss how our approach can be generalized to invariants in higher-representations of WN algebra.
Time reversal invariance in polarized neutron decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wasserman, Eric G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)
1994-03-01
An experiment to measure the time reversal invariance violating (T-violating) triple correlation (D) in the decay of free polarized neutrons has been developed. The detector design incorporates a detector geometry that provides a significant improvement in the sensitivity over that used in the most sensitive of previous experiments. A prototype detector was tested in measurements with a cold neutron beam. Data resulting from the tests are presented. A detailed calculation of systematic effects has been performed and new diagnostic techniques that allow these effects to be measured have been developed. As the result of this work, a new experiment is under way that will improve the sensitivity to D to 3 x 10^{-4} or better. With higher neutron flux a statistical sensitivity of the order 3 x 10^{-5} is ultimately expected. The decay of free polarized neutrons (n → p + e + $\\bar{v}$_{e}) is used to search for T-violation by measuring the triple correlation of the neutron spin polarization, and the electron and proton momenta (σ_{n} • p_{p} x p_{e}). This correlation changes sign under reversal of the motion. Since final state effects in neutron decay are small, a nonzero coefficient, D, of this correlation indicates the violation of time reversal invariance. D is measured by comparing the numbers of coincidences in electron and proton detectors arranged symmetrically about a longitudinally polarized neutron beam. Particular care must be taken to eliminate residual asymmetries in the detectors or beam as these can lead to significant false effects. The Standard Model predicts negligible T-violating effects in neutron decay. Extensions to the Standard Model include new interactions some of which include CP-violating components. Some of these make first order contributions to D.
Bulk Lorentz factors of gamma-ray bursts
Ghirlanda, G.; Nappo, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Melandri, A.; Marcarini, G.; Nava, L.; Salafia, O. S.; Campana, S.; Salvaterra, R.
2018-01-01
Knowledge of the bulk Lorentz factor Γ0 of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allows us to compute their comoving frame properties shedding light on their physics. Upon collisions with the circumburst matter, the fireball of a GRB starts to decelerate, producing a peak or a break (depending on the circumburst density profile) in the light curve of the afterglow. Considering all bursts with known redshift and with an early coverage of their emission, we find 67 GRBs (including one short event) with a peak in their optical or GeV light curves at a time tp. For another 106 GRBs we set an upper limit tpUL. The measure of tp provides the bulk Lorentz factor Γ0 of the fireball before deceleration. We show that tp is due to the dynamics of the fireball deceleration and not to the passage of a characteristic frequency of the synchrotron spectrum across the optical band. Considering the tp of 66 long GRBs and the 85 most constraining upper limits, we estimate Γ0 or a lower limit Γ0LL. Using censored data analysis methods, we reconstruct the most likely distribution of tp. All tp are larger than the time Tp,γ when the prompt γ-ray emission peaks, and are much larger than the time Tph when the fireball becomes transparent, that is, tp>Tp,γ>Tph. The reconstructed distribution of Γ0 has median value 300 (150) for a uniform (wind) circumburst density profile. In the comoving frame, long GRBs have typical isotropic energy, luminosity, and peak energy ⟨ Eiso ⟩ = 3(8) × 1050 erg, ⟨ Liso ⟩ = 3(15) × 1047 erg s-1, and ⟨ Epeak ⟩ = 1(2) keV in the homogeneous (wind) case. We confirm that the significant correlations between Γ0 and the rest frame isotropic energy (Eiso), luminosity (Liso), and peak energy (Ep) are not due to selection effects. When combined, they lead to the observed Ep-Eiso and Ep-Liso correlations. Finally, assuming a typical opening angle of 5 degrees, we derive the distribution of the jet baryon loading which is centered around a few 10-6M⊙.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borges, L.H.C., E-mail: luizhenriqueunifei@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Dias, A.G., E-mail: alex.dias@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Ferrari, A.F., E-mail: alysson.ferrari@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Nascimento, J.R., E-mail: jroberto@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, João Pessoa, Paraíba, 58051-970 (Brazil); Petrov, A.Yu., E-mail: petrov@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, João Pessoa, Paraíba, 58051-970 (Brazil)
2016-05-10
We study the perturbative generation of higher-derivative Lorentz violating operators as quantum corrections to the photon effective action, originated from a specific Lorentz violation background, which has already been studied in connection with the physics of light pseudoscalars. We calculate the complete one loop effective action of the photon field through the proper-time method, using the zeta function regularization. This result can be used as a starting point to study possible effects of the Lorentz violating background we are considering in photon physics. As an example, we focus on the lowest order corrections and investigate whether they could influence the propagation of electromagnetic waves through the vacuum. We show, however, that no effects of the kind of Lorentz violation we consider can be detected in such a context, so that other aspects of photon physics have to be studied.
Acousto-electrical speckle pattern in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography
Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Mari, Jean-Martial; Souchon, Remi; Catheline, Stefan; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril; Cloutier, Guy
2015-01-01
Ultrasound speckle is a granular texture pattern appearing in ultrasound imaging. It can be used to distinguish tissues and identify pathologies. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography is an ultrasound-based medical imaging technique of the tissue electrical conductivity. It is based on the application of an ultrasound wave in a medium placed in a magnetic field and on the measurement of the induced electric current due to Lorentz force. Similarly to ultrasound imaging, we hypothesized that a speckle could be observed with Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography imaging. In this study, we first assessed the theoretical similarity between the measured signals in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography and in ultrasound imaging modalities. We then compared experimentally the signal measured in both methods using an acoustic and electrical impedance interface. Finally, a bovine muscle sample was imaged using the two methods. Similar speckle patterns were observed. This indicates the existence ...
Propagation of partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam through oceanic turbulence.
Liu, Dajun; Yin, Hongming; Wang, Guiqiu; Wang, Yaochuan
2017-11-01
The partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam generated by a Schell-model source has been introduced. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the cross-spectral density function of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in oceanic turbulence is derived. The influences of coherence length, topological charge M, and oceanic turbulence on the spreading properties and position of the coherence vortex for a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam are analyzed in detail. The results show that a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in stronger oceanic turbulence will evolve into a Gaussian-like beam more rapidly as the propagation distance increases, and the number of coherent vortices will change.
Borges, L. H. C.; Ferrari, A. F.; Barone, F. A.
2016-11-01
This paper is dedicated to the study of interactions between external sources for the electromagnetic field in the presence of Lorentz symmetry breaking. We focus on a higher derivative, Lorentz violating interaction that arises from a specific model that was argued to lead to interesting effects in the low energy phenomenology of light pseudoscalars interacting with photons. The kind of higher derivative Lorentz violating interaction we discuss are called nonminimal. They are usually expected to be relevant only at very high energies, but we argue they might also induce relevant effects in low energy phenomena. Indeed, we show that the Lorentz violating background considered by us leads to several phenomena that have no counterpart in Maxwell theory, such as nontrivial torques on isolated electric dipoles, as well as nontrivial forces and torques between line currents and point like charges, as well as among Dirac strings and other electromagnetic sources.
Equilibria of a charged artificial satellite subject to gravitational and Lorentz torques
Abdel-Aziz, Yehia A
2014-01-01
Attitude Dynamics of a rigid artificial satellite subject to gravity gradient and Lorentz torques in a circular orbit is considered. Lorentz torque is developed on the basis of the electrodynamic effects of the Lorentz force acting on the charged satellite's surface. We assume that the satellite is moving in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in the geomagnetic field which is considered as a dipole model. Our model of the torque due to the Lorentz force is developed for a general shape of artificial satellite, and the nonlinear differential equations of Euler are used to describe its attitude orientation. All equilibrium positions are determined and {their} existence conditions are obtained. The numerical results show that the charge $q$ and radius $\\rho_0$ of the charged center of satellite provide a certain type of semi passive control for the attitude of satellite. The technique for such kind of control would be to increase or decrease the electrostatic radiation screening of the satellite. The results {obtained} confi...
Singularities of lightcone pedals of spacelike curves in Lorentz-Minkowski 3-space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Liang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, geometric properties of spacelike curves on a timelike surface in Lorentz-Minkowski 3-space are investigated by applying the singularity theory of smooth functions from the contact viewpoint.
Propagation of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system.
Zhou, Guoquan
2010-03-01
Based on the generalized Huygens-Fresnel integral and the Hermite-Gaussian expansion of a Lorentz distribution, analytical expressions for the mutual coherence function, the effective beam size, and the spatial complex degree of coherence of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam through a paraxial and real ABCD optical system are derived, respectively. As a numerical example, the focusing of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam is considered. The normalized intensity distribution, the effective beam size, and the spatial complex degree of coherence for the focused partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam are numerically demonstrated in the focal plane. The influence of the spatial coherence length on the normalized intensity distribution, the effective beam size, and the spatial complex degree of coherence is mainly discussed.
Low regularity solutions of the Chern-Simons-Higgs equations in the Lorentz gauge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolaos Bournaveas
2009-09-01
Full Text Available We prove local well-posedness for the 2+1-dimensional Chern-Simons-Higgs equations in the Lorentz gauge with initial data of low regularity. Our result improves earlier results by Huh [10, 11].
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borges, L.H.C.; Ferrari, A.F. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Barone, F.A. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, IFQ, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)
2016-11-15
This paper is dedicated to the study of interactions between external sources for the electromagnetic field in the presence of Lorentz symmetry breaking. We focus on a higher derivative, Lorentz violating interaction that arises from a specific model that was argued to lead to interesting effects in the low energy phenomenology of light pseudoscalars interacting with photons. The kind of higher derivative Lorentz violating interaction we discuss are called nonminimal. They are usually expected to be relevant only at very high energies, but we argue they might also induce relevant effects in low energy phenomena. Indeed, we show that the Lorentz violating background considered by us leads to several phenomena that have no counterpart in Maxwell theory, such as nontrivial torques on isolated electric dipoles, as well as nontrivial forces and torques between line currents and point like charges, as well as among Dirac strings and other electromagnetic sources. (orig.)
Invariants of DNA genomic signals
Cristea, Paul Dan A.
2005-02-01
For large scale analysis purposes, the conversion of genomic sequences into digital signals opens the possibility to use powerful signal processing methods for handling genomic information. The study of complex genomic signals reveals large scale features, maintained over the scale of whole chromosomes, that would be difficult to find by using only the symbolic representation. Based on genomic signal methods and on statistical techniques, the paper defines parameters of DNA sequences which are invariant to transformations induced by SNPs, splicing or crossover. Re-orienting concatenated coding regions in the same direction, regularities shared by the genomic material in all exons are revealed, pointing towards the hypothesis of a regular ancestral structure from which the current chromosome structures have evolved. This property is not found in non-nuclear genomic material, e.g., plasmids.
Scale invariance in road networks.
Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher
2006-02-01
We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2< or = alpha < or =2.4, and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.
Modular invariance and entanglement entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lokhande, Sagar Fakirchand; Mukhi, Sunil [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Homi Bhabha Rd, Pashan, Pune 411 008 (India)
2015-06-17
We study the Rényi and entanglement entropies for free 2d CFT’s at finite temperature and finite size, with emphasis on their properties under modular transformations of the torus. We address the issue of summing over fermion spin structures in the replica trick, and show that the relation between entanglement and thermal entropy determines two different ways to perform this sum in the limits of small and large interval. Both answers are modular covariant, rather than invariant. Our results are compared with those for a free boson at unit radius in the two limits and complete agreement is found, supporting the view that entanglement respects Bose-Fermi duality. We extend our computations to multiple free Dirac fermions having correlated spin structures, dual to free bosons on the Spin(2d) weight lattice.
Negation switching invariant signed graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deepa Sinha
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.
Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale
Gorbunov, D. S.; Sibiryakov, S. M.
2005-01-01
We present an extension of the Randall--Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam--Veltman--Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitation...
Effective photon mass by Super and Lorentz symmetry breaking
Bonetti, Luca; dos Santos Filho, Luís R.; Helayël-Neto, José A.; Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.
2017-01-01
In the context of Standard Model Extensions (SMEs), we analyse four general classes of Super Symmetry (SuSy) and Lorentz Symmetry (LoSy) breaking, leading to observable imprints at our energy scales. The photon dispersion relations show a non-Maxwellian behaviour for the CPT (Charge-Parity-Time reversal symmetry) odd and even sectors. The group velocities exhibit also a directional dependence with respect to the breaking background vector (odd CPT) or tensor (even CPT). In the former sector, the group velocity may decay following an inverse squared frequency behaviour. Thus, we extract a massive Carroll-Field-Jackiw photon term in the Lagrangian and show that the effective mass is proportional to the breaking vector and moderately dependent on the direction of observation. The breaking vector absolute value is estimated by ground measurements and leads to a photon mass upper limit of 10-19 eV or 2 ×10-55 kg, and thereby to a potentially measurable delay at low radio frequencies.
Design & simulation of in-plane MEMS Lorentz force magnetometer
Jyoti, Aditi, Tripathi, C. C.; Gopal, Ram
2016-03-01
This report presents the design and simulation of a MEMS based In-plane Lorentz Force Magnetometer (I-LFM), simulated for 8 um UV-LIGA technology using FEM tool of COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b. Designed I-LFM was simulated in the magnetic field range varied from 1 μJT to 100μJT. The proposed structure composed of a comb drive actuator, configured such that the fingers overlap with each other to generate capacitive coupling for its actuation. The magnetic field can be detected in Z-axis by this comb drive structure. The device was excited by supplying the sinusoidal current with the frequency equivalent to resonance frequency of the device at its first mode i.e. 12.047 kHz. In order to achieve the maximum mechanical output, the device was operated at the resonant frequency. Simulations based results shows a good linearity in the magnetic field range of 1 μJT to 100 μJT with a high quality factor of 130.
Quantum-Gravity Induced Lorentz Violation and Dynamical Mass Generation
Mavromatos, Nick E
2011-01-01
In Ref. [1] (by J. Alexandre) a minimal extension of (3+1)-dimensional Quantum Electrodynamics has been proposed, which includes Lorentz-Violation (LV) in the form of higher-(spatial)-derivative isotropic terms in the gauge sector, suppressed by a mass scale $M$. The model can lead to dynamical mass generation for charged fermions. In this article I elaborate further on this idea and I attempt to connect it to specific quantum-gravity models, inspired from string/brane theory. Specifically, in the first part of the article, I comment briefly on the gauge dependence of the dynamical mass generation in the approximations of [1], and I propose a possible avenue for obtaining the true gauge-parameter-independent value of the mass by means of Pinch Technique argumentations. In the second part of the work I embed the LV QED model into multibrane world scenarios with a view to provide a geometrical way of enhancing the dynamical mass to phenomenologically realistic values by means of bulk warp metric factors, in an ...
Quantum Walks, Weyl Equation and the Lorentz Group
Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo
2017-08-01
Quantum cellular automata and quantum walks provide a framework for the foundations of quantum field theory, since the equations of motion of free relativistic quantum fields can be derived as the small wave-vector limit of quantum automata and walks starting from very general principles. The intrinsic discreteness of this framework is reconciled with the continuous Lorentz symmetry by reformulating the notion of inertial reference frame in terms of the constants of motion of the quantum walk dynamics. In particular, among the symmetries of the quantum walk which recovers the Weyl equation—the so called Weyl walk—one finds a non linear realisation of the Poincaré group, which recovers the usual linear representation in the small wave-vector limit. In this paper we characterise the full symmetry group of the Weyl walk which is shown to be a non linear realization of a group which is the semidirect product of the Poincaré group and the group of dilations.
Lorentz transformations, sideways shift and massless spinning particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Bolonek-Lasoń
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Recently (Stone et al. (2015 [16] the influence of the so called “Wigner translations” (more generally-Lorentz transformations on circularly polarized Gaussian packets (providing the solution to Maxwell equations in paraxial approximation has been studied. It appears that, within this approximation, the Wigner translations have an effect of shifting the wave packet trajectory parallel to itself by an amount proportional to the photon helicity. It has been suggested that this shift may result from specific properties of the algebra of Poincare generators for massless particles. In the present letter we describe the general relation between transformation properties of electromagnetic field on quantum and classical levels. It allows for a straightforward derivation of the helicity-dependent transformation rules. We present also an elementary derivation of the formula for sideways shift based on classical Maxwell theory. Some comments are made concerning the generalization to higher helicities and the relation to the coordinate operator defined long time ago by Pryce.
Effective photon mass by Super and Lorentz symmetry breaking
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Luca Bonetti
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the context of Standard Model Extensions (SMEs, we analyse four general classes of Super Symmetry (SuSy and Lorentz Symmetry (LoSy breaking, leading to observable imprints at our energy scales. The photon dispersion relations show a non-Maxwellian behaviour for the CPT (Charge-Parity-Time reversal symmetry odd and even sectors. The group velocities exhibit also a directional dependence with respect to the breaking background vector (odd CPT or tensor (even CPT. In the former sector, the group velocity may decay following an inverse squared frequency behaviour. Thus, we extract a massive Carroll–Field–Jackiw photon term in the Lagrangian and show that the effective mass is proportional to the breaking vector and moderately dependent on the direction of observation. The breaking vector absolute value is estimated by ground measurements and leads to a photon mass upper limit of 10−19 eV or 2×10−55 kg, and thereby to a potentially measurable delay at low radio frequencies.
Generalized Lorentz-Lorenz homogenization formulas for binary lattice metamaterials
Sozio, Valentina; Vallecchi, Andrea; Albani, Matteo; Capolino, Filippo
2015-05-01
Generalized Lorentz-Lorenz formulas are developed for the effective parameters of binary lattice metamaterials composed of a periodic arrangement of electric and/or magnetic inclusions. The proposed homogenization approach is based on a dual dipole approximation for the induced currents. The obtained formulas for the metamaterial effective electric and magnetic characteristics duly consider both electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the inclusions and completely describe the effects of frequency and spatial dispersion. Several numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the general applicability of the proposed formulas to different types of binary lattices and inclusions. It is shown that the proposed effective parameters have the capability of providing a physically sound and accurate description of wave propagation in the metamaterials in an extended range of frequencies in contrast to the equivalent parameters that can be defined in the absence of impressed sources and assuming a local anisotropic constitutive model, which hides inherent spatial dispersion effects and nonphysical features. To gain further insight into the metamaterial response and the physical meaningfulness of calculated effective parameters, the power flow of metamaterial supported modes is analyzed and its homogenized representation is compared to the complete description. A correspondence between the power flow due to the microscopic field and the effect of spatial dispersion in the homogenized parameters is established.
Gravitational Lorentz violating effects through a Finsler geometry of bipartite type
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Jose Euclides Gomes da; Almeida, Carlos Alberto Santos de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)
2013-07-01
Full text: The study of the effects of the Lorentz Violation Symmetry in Field theories and gravitation is a current and rich subject. Among the attempts to include this symmetry breaking into gravity we single out the bumblebee model, the Horava-Lifshtz gravity and the Finsler geometry. In this short-lecture, we explore the Lorentz-Violation by means of a specific Finsler geometry, the so-called Bipartite model. In the Finsler set up, the Lorentz-Violation arises as a pure geometrical consequence due to the local anisotropy. Indeed, the length of the events is no longer function of only the position x but also of the direction y. Hence, all the geometric quantities such as the metric, connections and curvature are directional dependents. In the bipartite space, it is used besides the Lorentzian metric gμν another symmetric tensor sμν to measure distances. This tensor can comes from a vector field b{sub μ} that drives the Lorentz-Violation. We compare the bipartite model with the bumblebee model, where the bumblebee vector field spontaneously breaks the Lorentz Symmetry. From a Finslerian Einstein-Hilbert action we derive the usual Einstein-Hilbert action plus Lorentz-Violating interaction terms between the Lorentzian metric and the bumblebee field. Further, the Finslerian action provides the dynamical terms for the bumblebee field. (author)
Gu, Changgui; Coomans, Claudia P.; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Meijer, Johanna H.
2015-01-01
In healthy humans and other animals, behavioral activity exhibits scale invariance over multiple timescales from minutes to 24 h, whereas in aging or diseased conditions, scale invariance is usually reduced significantly. Accordingly, scale invariance can be a potential marker for health. Given compelling indications that exercise is beneficial for mental and physical health, we tested to what extent a lack of exercise affects scale invariance in young and aged animals. We studied six or more mice in each of four age groups (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 y) and observed an age-related deterioration of scale invariance in activity fluctuations. We found that limiting the amount of exercise, by removing the running wheels, leads to loss of scale-invariant properties in all age groups. Remarkably, in both young and old animals a lack of exercise reduced the scale invariance in activity fluctuations to the same level. We next showed that scale invariance can be restored by returning the running wheels. Exercise during the active period also improved scale invariance during the resting period, suggesting that activity during the active phase may also be beneficial for the resting phase. Finally, our data showed that exercise had a stronger influence on scale invariance than the effect of age. The data suggest that exercise is beneficial as revealed by scale-invariant parameters and that, even in young animals, a lack of exercise leads to strong deterioration in these parameters. PMID:25675516
Scale invariance and universality of economic fluctuations
Stanley, H. E.; Amaral, L. A. N.; Gopikrishnan, P.; Plerou, V.
2000-08-01
In recent years, physicists have begun to apply concepts and methods of statistical physics to study economic problems, and the neologism “econophysics” is increasingly used to refer to this work. Much recent work is focused on understanding the statistical properties of time series. One reason for this interest is that economic systems are examples of complex interacting systems for which a huge amount of data exist, and it is possible that economic time series viewed from a different perspective might yield new results. This manuscript is a brief summary of a talk that was designed to address the question of whether two of the pillars of the field of phase transitions and critical phenomena - scale invariance and universality - can be useful in guiding research on economics. We shall see that while scale invariance has been tested for many years, universality is relatively less frequently discussed. This article reviews the results of two recent studies - (i) The probability distribution of stock price fluctuations: Stock price fluctuations occur in all magnitudes, in analogy to earthquakes - from tiny fluctuations to drastic events, such as market crashes. The distribution of price fluctuations decays with a power-law tail well outside the Lévy stable regime and describes fluctuations that differ in size by as much as eight orders of magnitude. (ii) Quantifying business firm fluctuations: We analyze the Computstat database comprising all publicly traded United States manufacturing companies within the years 1974-1993. We find that the distributions of growth rates is different for different bins of firm size, with a width that varies inversely with a power of firm size. Similar variation is found for other complex organizations, including country size, university research budget size, and size of species of bird populations.
Borromean surgery formula for the Casson invariant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meilhan, Jean-Baptiste Odet Thierry
2008-01-01
It is known that every oriented integral homology 3-sphere can be obtained from S3 by a finite sequence of Borromean surgeries. We give an explicit formula for the variation of the Casson invariant under such a surgery move. The formula involves simple classical invariants, namely the framing, li...
Numerical Approximation of Normally Hyperbolic Invariant Manifolds
Broer, Henk; Hagen, Aaron; Vegter, Gert
2003-01-01
This paper deals with the numerical continuation of invariant manifolds, regardless of the restricted dynamics. Typically, invariant manifolds make up the skeleton of the dynamics of phase space. Examples include limit sets, co-dimension 1 manifolds separating basins of attraction (separatrices),
Invariant Ordering of Item-Total Regressions
Tijmstra, Jesper; Hessen, David J.; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas
2011-01-01
A new observable consequence of the property of invariant item ordering is presented, which holds under Mokken's double monotonicity model for dichotomous data. The observable consequence is an invariant ordering of the item-total regressions. Kendall's measure of concordance "W" and a weighted version of this measure are proposed as measures for…
Scale invariant Volkov–Akulov supergravity
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S. Ferrara
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A scale invariant goldstino theory coupled to supergravity is obtained as a standard supergravity dual of a rigidly scale-invariant higher-curvature supergravity with a nilpotent chiral scalar curvature. The bosonic part of this theory describes a massless scalaron and a massive axion in a de Sitter Universe.
The invariator principle in convex geometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thórisdóttir, Ólöf; Kiderlen, Markus
The invariator principle is a measure decomposition that was rediscovered in local stereology in 2005 and has since been used widely in the stereological literature. We give an exposition of invariator related results where existing formulae are generalized and new ones proposed. In particular, w...
Lorentz-like covariant equations of non-relativistic fluids
Montigny, M D; Santana, A E
2003-01-01
We use a geometrical formalism of Galilean invariance to build various hydrodynamics models. It consists in embedding the Newtonian spacetime into a non-Euclidean 4 + 1 space and provides thereby a procedure that unifies models otherwise apparently unrelated. After expressing the Navier-Stokes equation within this framework, we show that slight modifications of its Lagrangian allow us to recover the Chaplygin equation of state as well as models of superfluids for liquid helium (with both its irrotational and rotational components). Other fluid equations are also expressed in a covariant form.
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Asterios Pantokratoras
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Exact analytical solutions of boundary layer flows along a vertical porous plate with uniform suction are derived and presented in this paper. The solutions concern the Blasius, Sakiadis, and Blasius-Sakiadis flows with buoyancy forces combined with either MHD Lorentz or EMHD Lorentz forces. In addition, some exact solutions are presented specifically for water in the temperature range of 0∘C≤≤8∘C, where water density is nearly parabolic. Except for their use as benchmarking means for testing the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, the presented exact solutions with EMHD forces have use in flow separation control in aeronautics and hydronautics, whereas the MHD results have applications in process metallurgy and fusion technology. These analytical solutions are valid for flows with strong suction.
Magnetic monopoles, Galilean invariance, and Maxwell's equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crawford, F.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States). Physics Department)
1992-02-01
Maxwell's equations have space reserved for magnetic monopoles. Whether or not they exist in our part of the universe, monopoles provide a useful didactic tool to help us recognize relations among Maxwell's equations less easily apparent in the approach followed by many introductory textbooks, wherein Coulomb's law, Biot and Savart's law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, Maxwell's displacement current, etc., are introduced independently, as demanded by experiment.'' Instead a conceptual path that deduces all of Maxwell's equations from the near-minimal set of assumptions: (a) Inertial frames exist, in which Newton's laws hold, to a first approximation; (b) the laws of electrodynamics are Galilean invariant---i.e., they have the same form in every inertial frame, to a first approximation; (c) magnetic poles (as well as the usual electric charges) exist; (d) the complete Lorentz force on an electric charge is known; (e) the force on a monopole at rest is known; (f) the Coulomb-like field produced by a resting electric charge and by a resting monopole are known. Everything else is deduced. History is followed in the assumption that Newtonian mechanics have been discovered, but not special relativity. (Only particle velocities {ital v}{much lt}{ital c} are considered.) This ends up with Maxwell's equations (Maxwell did not need special relativity, so why should we,) but facing Einstein's paradox, the solution of which is encapsulated in the Einstein velocity-addition formula.
Longitudinal measurement invariance of the Dutch Outcome Questionnaire-45 in a clinical sample.
Jabrayilov, Ruslan; Emons, Wilco H M; de Jong, Kim; Sijtsma, Klaas
2017-06-01
In the absence of measurement invariance across measurement occasions, change scores based on pretest-posttest measurements may be inaccurate representations of real change on the latent variable. In this study, we examined whether measurement invariance held in the Dutch version of Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45). Using secondary data analysis of a sample of N = 540 Dutch outpatients, we tested the stability of the factorial structure (gamma change) and the metric and scalar invariance (beta change) across pretest and posttest measurements using a combination of factor analysis and item response theory methodology. Results revealed a stable factorial structure from pretest to posttest and minor violations of metric invariance for two items in the Dutch OQ-45. Even though for two items the assumption of invariance was violated, results suggest that the effects of these violations on practical change assessment using the OQ-45 were negligible.
An orbital-invariant internally contracted multireference coupled cluster approach.
Evangelista, Francesco A; Gauss, Jürgen
2011-03-21
We have formulated and implemented an internally contracted multireference coupled cluster (ic-MRCC) approach aimed at solving two of the problems encountered in methods based on the Jeziorski-Monkhorst ansatz: (i) the scaling of the computational and memory costs with respect to the number of references, and (ii) the lack of invariance of the energy with respect to rotations among active orbitals. The ic-MRCC approach is based on a straightforward generalization of the single-reference coupled cluster ansatz in which an exponential operator is applied to a multiconfigurational wave function. The ic-MRCC method truncated to single and double excitations (ic-MRCCSD) yields very accurate potential energy curves in benchmark computations on the Be + H(2) insertion reaction, the dissociation of hydrogen fluoride, and the symmetric double dissociation of water. Approximations of the ic-MRCC theory in which the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff expansion is truncated up to a given number of commutators are found to converge quickly to the full theory. In our tests, two commutators are sufficient to recover a total energy within 0.5 mE(h) of the full ic-MRCCSD method along the entire potential energy curve. A formal analysis shows that the ic-MRCC method is invariant with respect to rotation among active orbitals, and that the orthogonalization procedure used to produce the set of linearly independent excitation operators plays a crucial role in guaranteeing the invariance properties. The orbital invariance was confirmed in numerical tests. Moreover, approximated versions of the ic-MRCC theory based on a truncated Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff expansion, preserve the orbital invariance properties of the full theory.
The Loneliness Questionnaire: Establishing Measurement Invariance Across Ethnic Groups.
Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Ebesutani, Chad K; Chin, Eu Gene; Young, John
2017-09-01
A state of loneliness describes an individual's perception of having dissatisfying social connections to others. Though it is notable across the life span, it may have particularly deleterious effects in childhood and adolescence, leading to increased risk of emotional impairment. The current study evaluates a widely used test of loneliness, the Loneliness Questionnaire, for measurement invariance across ethnic groups in a large, representative sample of youth in the 2nd to 12th grades ( N = 12,344; 41% African American) in Mississippi. Analyses were conducted using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis following a published, sequential method to examine invariance in form, factor loadings, and item intercepts. Overall, our results indicated that the instrument was invariant across ethnicities, suggesting that youth with equivalent manifest scores can be discerned as having comparable levels of latent loneliness. The loneliness scores also corresponded significantly with depression and anxiety scores for most subsamples, with one exception. These findings are discussed in the context of previous results comparing levels of loneliness across ethnicities. Additionally, the broader context of the need to expand invariance studies in instrumentation work is highlighted.
Waveguide invariant broadband target detection and reverberation estimation.
Goldhahn, Ryan; Hickman, Granger; Krolik, Jeffrey
2008-11-01
Reverberation often limits the performance of active sonar systems. In particular, backscatter off of a rough ocean floor can obscure target returns and/or large bottom scatterers can be easily confused with water column targets of interest. Conventional active sonar detection involves constant false alarm rate (CFAR) normalization of the reverberation return which does not account for the frequency-selective fading caused by multipath propagation. This paper presents an alternative to conventional reverberation estimation motivated by striations observed in time-frequency analysis of active sonar data. A mathematical model for these reverberation striations is derived using waveguide invariant theory. This model is then used to motivate waveguide invariant reverberation estimation which involves averaging the time-frequency spectrum along these striations. An evaluation of this reverberation estimate using real Mediterranean data is given and its use in a generalized likelihood ratio test based CFAR detector is demonstrated. CFAR detection using waveguide invariant reverberation estimates is shown to outperform conventional cell-averaged and frequency-invariant CFAR detection methods in shallow water environments producing strong reverberation returns which exhibit the described striations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koo, Je Huan, E-mail: koo@kw.ac.kr
2015-02-01
In this work we investigate magnetic effects in terms of the translational and rotational invariances of magnetisation. Whilst Landau-type diamagnetism originates from translational invariance, a new diamagnetism could result from rotational invariance. Translational invariance results in only conventional Landau-type diamagnetism, whereas rotational invariance can induce a paramagnetic susceptibility for localised electrons and also a new kind of diamagnetism that is specific to conducting electrons. In solids, the moving electron shows a paramagnetic susceptibility but the surrounding screening of electrons may produce a new diamagnetic response by Lenz's law, resulting in a total susceptibility that tends to zero. For electricity, similar behaviours are obtained. We also derive the DC-type negative electric susceptibility via two methods in analogy with Landau diamagnetism. - Highlights: • The translational invariance of magnetisation. • The rotational invariance of magnetisation. • An electron attached to an electric vortex. • A kind of Landau paramagnetism. • A kind of Pauli diamagnetism.
Tests of Quantum Gravity induced non-locality via opto-mechanical quantum oscillators
Belenchia, Alessio; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2015-01-01
Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterised by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such non-local effective field theories lead to a modified Schr\\"odinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of opto-mechanical quantum oscillators is characterised by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the non-locality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.
Zhou, Yimin; Zhou, Guoquan; Dai, Chaoqing; Ru, Guoyun
2015-03-01
Based on the Collins integral formula and the Hermite-Gaussian expansion of a Lorentz function, an analytical expression for the Wigner distribution function (WDF) of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived. The WDF properties of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in free space are also demonstrated. During propagation, the WDF pattern shrinks in the direction of the spatial frequency variables and elongates in the direction of the transverse spatial coordinates. With given the transverse spatial coordinates or the spatial frequency variables, the evolvement of the WDF of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam during propagation is examined in detail. To show the WDF application, the second-order moments of the WDF for a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam in free space are also presented. This research exhibits the propagation properties of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam from the phase space.
Direct measurement of Lorentz transformation with Doppler effects
Chen, Shao-Guang
, r is the unit vector from lamphouse point to counters. Or: L (0) L (pi) =L0 (1+(v/c)) L0 (1 - (v/c)) =L0 2 y2 =L2 Or: L ≡ [L(0)L(pi)]1/2 =L0 y , which y ≡ (1 - (v/c)2 )1/2 is just Fitzgerald-Lorentzian contraction-factor. Also, when a light-wave period p is defined as time unit, from Doppler's frequency-shift the count N with p of one period T of moving-clock is: T(q) = N(q) p = T0 /(1+(v/c) cos q) Or: T ≡ (T(0) T(pi))1/2 = T 0 /y , where T0 is the proper period when v = 0, which is just the moving-clock-slower effect. Let r from clock point to lamp-house ((v/c) symbol reverse), Doppler formula in the usual form is: f (q) = 1/T(q) = f0 (1 - (v/c) cos q). Therefore, Lorentz transformation is the square root average of positive and negative directions twice metrical results of Doppler's frequency-shift, which Doppler's once items ( positive and negative v/c ) are counteract only residual twice item (v/c)2 (relativity-factor). Then Lorentz transformation can be directly measured by Doppler's frequency-shift method. The half-life of moving mu-meson is statistical average of many particles, the usual explanation using relativity-factor y is correct. An airship moving simultaneously along contrary directions is impossible, which makes that the relativity-factor y and the twin-paradox are inexistent in the macroscopical movement. Thereby, in the navigations of airship or satellite only use the measurement of Doppler's frequency-shift but have no use for Lorentz transformation.
A scale invariance criterion for LES parametrizations
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Urs Schaefer-Rolffs
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent kinetic energy cascades in fluid dynamical systems are usually characterized by scale invariance. However, representations of subgrid scales in large eddy simulations do not necessarily fulfill this constraint. So far, scale invariance has been considered in the context of isotropic, incompressible, and three-dimensional turbulence. In the present paper, the theory is extended to compressible flows that obey the hydrostatic approximation, as well as to corresponding subgrid-scale parametrizations. A criterion is presented to check if the symmetries of the governing equations are correctly translated into the equations used in numerical models. By applying scaling transformations to the model equations, relations between the scaling factors are obtained by demanding that the mathematical structure of the equations does not change.The criterion is validated by recovering the breakdown of scale invariance in the classical Smagorinsky model and confirming scale invariance for the Dynamic Smagorinsky Model. The criterion also shows that the compressible continuity equation is intrinsically scale-invariant. The criterion also proves that a scale-invariant turbulent kinetic energy equation or a scale-invariant equation of motion for a passive tracer is obtained only with a dynamic mixing length. For large-scale atmospheric flows governed by the hydrostatic balance the energy cascade is due to horizontal advection and the vertical length scale exhibits a scaling behaviour that is different from that derived for horizontal length scales.
Transformation Invariant Control of Voxel-Wise False Discovery Rate
Li, Junning; Shi, Yonggang; Toga, Arthur W.
2016-01-01
Multiple testing for statistical maps remains a critical and challenging problem in brain mapping. Since the false discovery rate (FDR) criterion was introduced to the neuroimaging community a decade ago, many variations have been proposed, mainly to enhance detection power. However, a fundamental geometrical property known as transformation invariance has not been adequately addressed, especially for the voxel-wise FDR. Correction of multiple testing applied after spatial transformation is not necessarily equivalent to transformation applied after correction in the original space. Without the invariance property, assigning different testing spaces will yield different results. We find that normalized residuals of linear models with Gaussian noises are uniformly distributed on a unit high-dimensional sphere, independent of t-statistics and F-statistics. By defining volumetric measure in the hyper-spherical space mapped by normalized residuals, instead of the image’s Euclidean space, we can achieve invariant control of the FDR under diffeomorphic transformation. This hyper-spherical measure also reflects intrinsic “volume of randomness” in signals. Experiments with synthetic, semi-synthetic and real images demonstrate that our method significantly reduces FDR inconsistency introduced by the choice of testing spaces. PMID:27101602
A survey of theory and methods of invariant item ordering.
Sijtsma, K; Junker, B W
1996-05-01
In many testing situations, ordering the items by difficulty is helpful in analysing the testing data; examples include intelligence testing, analysis of differential item functioning, person-fit analysis, and exploring hypotheses about the order in which cognitive operations are acquired by children. In each situation, interpretation and analysis are made easier if the items are ordered by difficulty in the same way for every individual taking the test, i.e. the item response functions do not cross. This is an invariant item ordering. In this paper we review a class of non-parametric unidimensional item response models in which the ordinal properties of items (and persons) can be studied, and survey both old and new methods for the investigation of invariant item ordering in empirical data sets. Our model formulation derives in particular from the work of Holland & Rosenbaum (1986), Junker (1993) and Mokken (1971). We survey methods based on the work of Mokken (1971), Rosenbaum (1987a, b), and Sijtsma & Meijer (1992), and we also discuss some new proposals for checking invariant item ordering. When violations are detected, these methods allow a rough assessment of where on the latent scale the item response functions cross. We also study similarities and differences between these various methods and provide guidelines for their use. Finally, the methods are illustrated with data from a developmental psychology experiment in which the ability to draw inferences about transitive relations is explored.
Invariant recognition drives neural representations of action sequences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Tacchetti
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Recognizing the actions of others from visual stimuli is a crucial aspect of human perception that allows individuals to respond to social cues. Humans are able to discriminate between similar actions despite transformations, like changes in viewpoint or actor, that substantially alter the visual appearance of a scene. This ability to generalize across complex transformations is a hallmark of human visual intelligence. Advances in understanding action recognition at the neural level have not always translated into precise accounts of the computational principles underlying what representations of action sequences are constructed by human visual cortex. Here we test the hypothesis that invariant action discrimination might fill this gap. Recently, the study of artificial systems for static object perception has produced models, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs, that achieve human level performance in complex discriminative tasks. Within this class, architectures that better support invariant object recognition also produce image representations that better match those implied by human and primate neural data. However, whether these models produce representations of action sequences that support recognition across complex transformations and closely follow neural representations of actions remains unknown. Here we show that spatiotemporal CNNs accurately categorize video stimuli into action classes, and that deliberate model modifications that improve performance on an invariant action recognition task lead to data representations that better match human neural recordings. Our results support our hypothesis that performance on invariant discrimination dictates the neural representations of actions computed in the brain. These results broaden the scope of the invariant recognition framework for understanding visual intelligence from perception of inanimate objects and faces in static images to the study of human perception of action sequences.
Liu, Dajun; Wang, Guiqiu; Wang, Yaochuan
2018-01-01
Based on the Huygens-Fresnel integral and the relationship of Lorentz distribution and Hermite-Gauss function, the average intensity and coherence properties of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam propagating through oceanic turbulence have been investigated by using numerical examples. The influences of beam parameters and oceanic turbulence on the propagation properties are also discussed in details. It is shown that the partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam with smaller coherence length will spread faster in oceanic turbulence, and the stronger oceanic turbulence will accelerate the spreading of partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam in oceanic turbulence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agustín Leobardo Herrera-May
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases.
A measurement of Lorentz angle and spatial resolution of radiation hard silicon pixel sensors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Seidel, S.C.; Ciocio, A.; Einsweiler, K.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Marchesini, R.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Pengg, F.; Richardson, J.; Zizka, G.; Ackers, M.; Fischer, P.; Keil, M.; Meuser, S.; Stockmanns, T.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.; Goessling, C.; Huegging, F.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wunstorf, R.; Barberis, D.; Beccherle, R.; Cervetto, M.; Darbo, G.; Gagliardi, G.; Gemme, C.; Morettini, P.; Netchaeva, P.; Osculati, B.; Parodi, F.; Rossi, L.; Dao, K.; Fasching, D.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnon, P.; Calvet, D.; Clemens, J.-C.; Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G.; Laugier, D.; Mouthuy, T.; Rozanov, A.; Trouilleau, C.; Valin, I.; Aleppo, M.; Andreazza, A.; Caccia, M.; Lari, T.; Meroni, C.; Ragusa, F.; Troncon, C. E-mail: clara.troncon@mi.infn.itclara.troncon@cern.ch; Vegni, G.; Rohe, T.; Boyd, G.R.; Severini, H.; Skubic, P.L.; Snow, J.; Sicho, P.; Tomasek, L.; Vrba, V.; Holder, M.; Lipka, D.; Ziolkowski, M.; Cauz, D.; D' Auria, S.; Del Papa, C.; Grassman, H.; Santi, L.; Becks, K.H.; Gerlach, P.; Grah, C.; Gregor, I.; Harenberg, T.; Linder, C
2002-04-01
Silicon pixel sensors developed by the ATLAS collaboration to meet LHC requirements and to withstand hadronic irradiation to fluences of up to 10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} have been evaluated using a test beam facility at CERN providing a magnetic field. The Lorentz angle was measured and found to alter from 9.0 deg. before irradiation, when the detectors operated at 150 V bias at B=1.48 T, to 3.1 deg. after irradiation and operating at 600 V bias at 1.01 T. In addition to the effect due to magnetic field variation, this change is explained by the variation of the electric field inside the detectors arising from the different bias conditions. The depletion depths of irradiated sensors at various bias voltages were also measured. At 600 V bias 280 {mu}m thick sensors depleted to {approx}200 {mu}m after irradiation at the design fluence of 1x10{sup 15} 1 MeV n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and were almost fully depleted at a fluence of 0.5x10{sup 15} 1 MeV n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The spatial resolution was measured for angles of incidence between 0 deg. and 30 deg. The optimal value was found to be better than 5.3 {mu}m before irradiation and 7.4 {mu}m after irradiation.
Traveling salesman problem, conformal invariance, and dense polymers.
Jacobsen, J L; Read, N; Saleur, H
2004-07-16
We propose that the statistics of the optimal tour in the planar random Euclidean traveling salesman problem is conformally invariant on large scales. This is exhibited in the power-law behavior of the probabilities for the tour to zigzag repeatedly between two regions, and in subleading corrections to the length of the tour. The universality class should be the same as for dense polymers and minimal spanning trees. The conjectures for the length of the tour on a cylinder are tested numerically.
Exploiting design patterns to automate validation of class invariants
Malloy, Brian A.; Power, James F.
2006-01-01
In this paper, techniques are presented that exploit two design patterns, the Visitor pattern and the Decorator pattern, to automatically validate invariants about the data attributes in a C++ class. To investigate the pragmatics involved in using the two patterns, a study of an existing, well-tested application, keystone, a parser and frontend for the C++ language, is presented. Results from the study indicate that these two patterns provide flexibility in terms of the frequen...
Mansuripur, Masud
2012-05-11
The Lorentz law of force is the fifth pillar of classical electrodynamics, the other four being Maxwell's macroscopic equations. The Lorentz law is the universal expression of the force exerted by electromagnetic fields on a volume containing a distribution of electrical charges and currents. If electric and magnetic dipoles also happen to be present in a material medium, they are traditionally treated by expressing the corresponding polarization and magnetization distributions in terms of bound-charge and bound-current densities, which are subsequently added to free-charge and free-current densities, respectively. In this way, Maxwell's macroscopic equations are reduced to his microscopic equations, and the Lorentz law is expected to provide a precise expression of the electromagnetic force density on material bodies at all points in space and time. This Letter presents incontrovertible theoretical evidence of the incompatibility of the Lorentz law with the fundamental tenets of special relativity. We argue that the Lorentz law must be abandoned in favor of a more general expression of the electromagnetic force density, such as the one discovered by Einstein and Laub in 1908. Not only is the Einstein-Laub formula consistent with special relativity, it also solves the long-standing problem of "hidden momentum" in classical electrodynamics.
Beam propagation factors and kurtosis parameters of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam.
Zhou, Guoquan
2014-06-01
Based on the second-order and the higher-order moments, analytical expressions for the beam propagation factors of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam with l=1 have been derived, and analytical propagation expressions for the kurtosis parameters of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam with l=1 through a paraxial and real ABCD optical system have also been presented. The M² factor is determined by the parameters a and b and decreases with increasing the parameter a or b. The M² factor is validated to be larger than 2. The kurtosis parameters depend on the diffraction-free ranges of the Lorentz part, the parameters a and b, and the ratio A/B. The kurtosis parameters of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in free space are demonstrated in different reference planes. In the far field, the kurtosis parameter K decreases with increasing one of the parameters a and b. Upon propagation, the kurtosis parameter K first decreases, then increases, and finally tends to a saturated value. In any case, the kurtosis parameter K is larger than 2. This research is beneficial to optical trapping, guiding, and manipulation of microscopic particles and atoms using Lorentz-Gauss vortex beams.
Nonparaxial propagation of Lorentz-Gauss beams in uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis.
Wang, Xun; Liu, Zhirong; Zhao, Daomu
2014-04-01
Analytical expressions for the three components of nonparaxial propagation of a polarized Lorentz-Gauss beam in uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis are derived and used to investigate its propagation properties in uniaxial crystal. The influences of the initial beam parameters and the parameters of the uniaxial crystal on the evolution of the beam-intensity distribution in the uniaxial crystal are examined in detail. Results show that the statistical properties of a nonparaxial Lorentz-Gauss beam in a uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis are closely determined by the initial beam's parameters and the parameters of the crystal: the beam waist sizes-w(0), w(0x), and w(0y)-not only affect the size and shape of the beam profile in uniaxial crystal but also determine the nonparaxial effect of a Lorentz-Gauss beam; the beam profile of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in uniaxial crystal is elongated in the x or y direction, which is determined by the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index; with increasing deviation of the ratio from unity, the extension of the beam profile augments. The results indicate that uniaxial crystal provides an effective and convenient method for modulating the Lorentz-Gauss beams. Our results may be valuable in some fields, such as optical trapping and nonlinear optics, where a light beam with a special profile and polarization is required.
Modified dispersion relations, inflation, and scale invariance
Bianco, Stefano; Friedhoff, Victor Nicolai; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2018-02-01
For a certain type of modified dispersion relations, the vacuum quantum state for very short wavelength cosmological perturbations is scale-invariant and it has been suggested that this may be the source of the scale-invariance observed in the temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. We point out that for this scenario to be possible, it is necessary to redshift these short wavelength modes to cosmological scales in such a way that the scale-invariance is not lost. This requires nontrivial background dynamics before the onset of standard radiation-dominated cosmology; we demonstrate that one possible solution is inflation with a sufficiently large Hubble rate, for this slow roll is not necessary. In addition, we also show that if the slow-roll condition is added to inflation with a large Hubble rate, then for any power law modified dispersion relation quantum vacuum fluctuations become nearly scale-invariant when they exit the Hubble radius.
Invariant Measures of Genetic Recombination Processes
Akopyan, Arseniy V.; Pirogov, Sergey A.; Rybko, Aleksandr N.
2015-07-01
We construct a non-linear Markov process connected with a biological model of a bacterial genome recombination. The description of invariant measures of this process gives us the solution of one problem in elementary probability theory.
Ermakov–Lewis invariants and Reid systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mancas, Stefan C., E-mail: stefan.mancas@erau.edu [Department of Mathematics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico)
2014-06-13
Reid's mth-order generalized Ermakov systems of nonlinear coupling constant α are equivalent to an integrable Emden–Fowler equation. The standard Ermakov–Lewis invariant is discussed from this perspective, and a closed formula for the invariant is obtained for the higher-order Reid systems (m≥3). We also discuss the parametric solutions of these systems of equations through the integration of the Emden–Fowler equation and present an example of a dynamical system for which the invariant is equivalent to the total energy. - Highlights: • Reid systems of order m are connected to Emden–Fowler equations. • General expressions for the Ermakov–Lewis invariants both for m=2 and m≥3 are obtained. • Parametric solutions of the Emden–Fowler equations related to Reid systems are obtained.
Numerical considerations in computing invariant subspaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dongarra, J.J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hammarling, S. (Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd., Oxford (UK)); Wilkinson, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
1990-11-01
This paper describes two methods for computing the invariant subspace of a matrix. The first involves using transformations to interchange the eigenvalues; the second involves direct computation of the vectors. 10 refs.
On invariant measures of nonlinear Markov processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. U. Ahmed
1993-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear (in the sense of McKean Markov process described by a stochastic differential equations in Rd. We prove the existence and uniqueness of invariant measures of such process.
Galilean invariance in 2+1 dimensions
Brihaye, Y.; Gonera, C.; Giller, S; Kosinski, P.
1995-01-01
The Galilean invariance in three dimensional space-time is considered. It appears that the Galilei group in 2+1 dimensions posses a three-parameter family of projective representations. Their physical interpretation is discussed in some detail.
Fibred knots and twisted Alexander invariants
Cha, Jae Choon
2001-01-01
We introduce a new algebraic topological technique to detect non-fibred knots in the three sphere using the twisted Alexander invariants. As an application, we show that for any Seifert matrix of a knot with a nontrivial Alexander polynomial, there exist infinitely many non-fibered knots with the given Seifert matrix. We illustrate examples of knots that have trivial Alexander polynomials but do not have twisted Alexander invariants of fibred knots.
Effect of the Lorentz force on on-off dynamo intermittency.
Alexakis, Alexandros; Ponty, Yannick
2008-05-01
An investigation of the dynamo instability close to the threshold produced by an ABC forced flow is presented. We focus on the on-off intermittency behavior of the dynamo and the countereffect of the Lorentz force in the nonlinear stage of the dynamo. The Lorentz force drastically alters the statistics of the turbulent fluctuations of the flow and reduces their amplitude. As a result, much longer bursts (on phases) are observed than is expected based on the amplitude of the fluctuations in the kinematic regime of the dynamo. For large Reynolds numbers, the duration time of the on phase follows a power law distribution, while for smaller Reynolds numbers the Lorentz force completely kills the noise and the system transits from a chaotic state into a laminar time periodic flow. The behavior of the on-off intermittency as the Reynolds number is increased is also examined. The connections with dynamo experiments and theoretical modeling are discussed.
Search for a Lorentz-violating sidereal signal with atmospheric neutrinos in IceCube
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
IceCube; etal, Abbasi, R,
2010-11-11
A search for sidereal modulation in the flux of atmospheric muon neutrinos in IceCube was performed. Such a signal could be an indication of Lorentz-violating physics. Neutrino oscillationmodels, derivable from extensions to the Standard Model, allow for neutrino oscillations that depend on the neutrino's direction of propagation. No such direction-dependent variation was found. Adiscrete Fourier transform method was used to constrain the Lorentz and CPT-violating coefficients in one of these models. Due to the unique high energy reach of IceCube, it was possible to improveconstraints on certain Lorentz-violating oscillations by three orders of magnitude with respect to limits set by other experiments.
The CTA Sensitivity to Lorentz-Violating Effects on the Gamma-Ray Horizon
Fairbairn, Malcolm; Ellis, John; Hinton, Jim; White, Richard
2014-01-01
The arrival of TeV-energy photons from distant galaxies is expected to be affected by their QED interaction with intergalactic radiation fields through electron-positron pair production. In theories where high-energy photons violate Lorentz symmetry, the kinematics of the process $\\gamma + \\gamma\\rightarrow e^+ + e^-$ is altered and the cross-section suppressed. Consequently, one would expect more of the highest-energy photons to arrive if QED is modified by Lorentz violation than if it is not. We estimate the sensitivity of Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) to changes in the $\\gamma$-ray horizon of the Universe due to Lorentz violation, and find that it should be competitive with other leading constraints.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thiago Prudêncio
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss the modified Maxwell action of a KF-type Lorentz symmetry breaking theory and present a solution of Maxwell equations derived in the cases of linear and elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in the vacuum of CPT-even Lorentz violation. We show in this case that the Lorentz violation has the effect of changing the amplitude of one component of the magnetic field, while leaving the electric field unchanged, leading to nonorthogonal propagation of electromagnetic fields and dependence of the eccentricity on κ-term. Further, we exhibit numerically the consequences of this effect in the cases of linear and elliptical polarization, in particular, the regimes of nonorthogonality of the electromagnetic wave fields and the eccentricity of the elliptical polarization of the magnetic field with dependence on the κ-term.
Aging and implicit learning of an invariant association.
Howard, Darlene V; Howard, James H; Dennis, Nancy A; LaVine, Sean; Valentino, Kristin
2008-03-01
We investigated whether there is an age-related decline in implicit learning of an invariant association. Participants memorized letter strings in which a given letter always occurred in the second position (see Frick & Lee, 1995). Experiments 1 and 2 showed that young and older adults learned this regularity implicitly, with no significant age differences, even when a perceptual feature of the stimuli changed between encoding and test. Experiment 3 confirmed that learning had occurred during encoding, in that learning increased with the number of encoding presentations. We conclude that implicit learning of this invariant association is largely preserved in healthy aging, revealing another avenue by which older people continue to adapt efficiently to environmental regularities.
Model invariance across genders of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire.
Broderick, Neill; Wade, Jordan L; Meyer, J Patrick; Hull, Michael; Reeve, Ronald E
2015-10-01
ASD is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, though comprehensive genetic liability remains elusive. To facilitate genetic research, researchers employ the concept of the broad autism phenotype (BAP), a milder presentation of traits in undiagnosed relatives. Research suggests that the BAP Questionnaire (BAPQ) demonstrates psychometric properties superior to other self-report measures. To examine evidence regarding validity of the BAPQ, the current study used confirmatory factor analysis to test the assumption of model invariance across genders. Results of the current study upheld model invariance at each level of parameter constraint; however, model fit indices suggested limited goodness-of-fit between the proposed model and the sample. Exploratory analyses investigated alternate factor structure models but ultimately supported the proposed three-factor structure model.
Computation of Quasiperiodic Normally Hyperbolic Invariant Tori: Rigorous Results
Canadell, Marta; Haro, Àlex
2017-12-01
The development of efficient methods for detecting quasiperiodic oscillations and computing the corresponding invariant tori is a subject of great importance in dynamical systems and their applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we prove the convergence of a new Newton-like method for computing quasiperiodic normally hyperbolic invariant tori carrying quasiperiodic motion in smooth families of real-analytic dynamical systems. The main result is stated as an a posteriori KAM-like theorem that allows controlling the inner dynamics on the torus with appropriate detuning parameters, in order to obtain a prescribed quasiperiodic motion. The Newton-like method leads to several fast and efficient computational algorithms, which are discussed and tested in a companion paper (Canadell and Haro in J Nonlinear Sci, 2017. doi: 10.1007/s00332-017-9388-z), in which new mechanisms of breakdown are presented.
Assessing Peer Victimization Across Adolescence: Measurement Invariance and Developmental Change
Rosen, Lisa H.; Beron, Kurt J.; Underwood, Marion K.
2013-01-01
An upward extension of the Revised Social Experience Questionnaire (Paquette & Underwood, 1999) was tested in a sample of adolescents followed longitudinally from seventh through tenth grade. We hypothesized that a two-factor model with overt and social victimization factors would fit the data better than would a unidimensional model (a single general victimization factor) or a three-factor model (separately examining verbal, physical, and social victimization). The two-factor model best represented the data, and we found support for longitudinal invariance of this model across seventh through tenth grades for both boys and girls. Such findings of temporal invariance are important for further longitudinal comparisons, and we suggest future directions for using the Revised Adolescent Social Experience Questionnaire to examine stability and change in victimization as well as evaluating the effectiveness of intervention programs. PMID:22708574
High-performance rotation invariant multiview face detection.
Huang, Chang; Ai, Haizhou; Li, Yuan; Lao, Shihong
2007-04-01
Rotation invariant multiview face detection (MVFD) aims to detect faces with arbitrary rotation-in-plane (RIP) and rotation-off-plane (ROP) angles in still images or video sequences. MVFD is crucial as the first step in automatic face processing for general applications since face images are seldom upright and frontal unless they are taken cooperatively. In this paper, we propose a series of innovative methods to construct a high-performance rotation invariant multiview face detector, including the Width-First-Search (WFS) tree detector structure, the Vector Boosting algorithm for learning vector-output strong classifiers, the domain-partition-based weak learning method, the sparse feature in granular space, and the heuristic search for sparse feature selection. As a result of that, our multiview face detector achieves low computational complexity, broad detection scope, and high detection accuracy on both standard testing sets and real-life images.
Gauge field spectrum in massive Yang-Mills theory with Lorentz violation
Santos, T. R. S.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Tomaz, A. A.
2016-10-01
The spectrum of the massive C P T -odd Yang-Mills propagator with Lorentz violation is calculated at tree level. The modification is due to mass terms generated by the exigence of multiplicative renormalizability of Yang-Mills theory with Lorentz violation. The causality analysis is performed with group and front velocities for both spacelike and timelike background tensors. It is shown that, by demanding causality, it is always possible to define a physical sector for the gauge propagator. Hence, it is expected that the model is also unitary if one takes the Faddeev-Popov ghost into account.
Lorentz contraction, geometry and range in antiproton-proton annihilation into two pions
El-Bennich, Bruno; Kloet, W. M.
2005-10-01
We present a geometric interpretation of the so-called annihilation range in reactions of the type p¯p → two light mesons based upon Lorentz effects in the highly relativistic final states (γ = Ecm/2mc2 ≃ 6.8 - 8.0). Lorentz-boosted meson wave functions, within the framework of the constituent quark model, result in a richer angular dependence of the annihilation amplitudes and thus in higher partial wave contributions (J > 1) than usually obtained. This approach sheds some light on what could be a "short" annihilation range and how it is influenced by the angular distribution of the final states.
Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorbunov, Dmitry S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sibiryakov, Sergei M. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2005-09-15
We present an extension of the Randall-Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.
Lorentz force and ponderomotive force in the presence of a minimal length
Khosropour, Behrooz
2017-09-01
In this work, according to the electromagnetic field tensor in the framework of generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), we obtain the Lorentz force and Faraday’s law of induction in the presence of a minimal length. Also, the ponderomotive force and ponderomotive pressure in the presence of a measurable minimal length are found. It is shown that in the limit β → 0, the generalized Lorentz force and ponderomotive force become the usual forms. The upper bound on the isotropic minimal length is estimated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tristan Aumentado-Armstrong
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Neurons that respond selectively but in an invariant manner to a given feature of natural stimuli have been observed across species and systems. Such responses emerge in higher brain areas, thereby suggesting that they occur by integrating afferent input. However, the mechanisms by which such integration occurs are poorly understood. Here we show that midbrain electrosensory neurons can respond selectively and in an invariant manner to heterogeneity in behaviorally relevant stimulus waveforms. Such invariant responses were not seen in hindbrain electrosensory neurons providing afferent input to these midbrain neurons, suggesting that response invariance results from nonlinear integration of such input. To test this hypothesis, we built a model based on the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism that received realistic afferent input. We found that multiple combinations of parameter values could give rise to invariant responses matching those seen experimentally. Our model thus shows that there are multiple solutions towards achieving invariant responses and reveals how subthreshold membrane conductances help promote robust and invariant firing in response to heterogeneous stimulus waveforms associated with behaviorally relevant stimuli. We discuss the implications of our findings for the electrosensory and other systems.
Physical constants and invariant charges of the U(1) x SU(3) model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Efremov, A.V.; Ivanov, S.V.; Nesterenko, V.A.
1981-11-01
We have investigated the form of the invariant charges in a unified model of the strong and electromagnetic interactions. We have considered the asymptotic properties of the interaction constants in the Higgs sector. We conclude that the dependence of the invariant charges on Vertical Barq/sup 2/Vertical Bar does not contradict the constraints which are imposed on the parameters of the model by experimental tests of QED.
DDF and Pohlmeyer invariants of (super)string
Schreiber, Urs
2004-01-01
We show how the Pohlmeyer invariants of the bosonic string are expressible in terms of DDF invariants. Quantization of the DDF observables in the usual way yields a consistent quantization of the algebra of Pohlmeyer invariants. Furthermore it becomes straightforward to generalize the Pohlmeyer invariants to the superstring as well as to all backgrounds which allow a free field realization of the worldsheet theory.
Invariant geodynamical information in geometric geodetic measurements
Xu, Peiliang; Shimada, Seiichi; Fujii, Yoichiro; Tanaka, Torao
2000-08-01
Repeated geodetic measurements have been used to extract geodynamical quantities such as displacements, velocities of movement and crustal strains. Historical geodetic networks, especially those established before the space geodetic era, were, and still are, very important in providing a unique insight into the (local or regional) historical deformation state of the Earth. For the geodetic network without a tie to an external reference frame, free network adjustment methods have been widely applied to derive geodynamical quantities. Currently, it is commonly accepted that absolute displacements cannot be uniquely determined from triangulation/trilateration measurements, but relative displacements can be found uniquely if the geodetic network is geometrically overdetermined (see e.g. Segall & Matthews 1988). Strain tensors were derived using the coordinate method and were reported to be uniquely determined. We have carried out a theoretical analysis of invariant geodynamical information in geometric geodetic observations and concluded: (1) that relative displacements are not invariant quantities and thus cannot be uniquely determined from the geodetic network without a tie to an external reference frame; and (2) the components of the strain tensors are not all invariant and thus cannot individually be determined uniquely from the network. However, certain combinations of strain components are indeed invariant and can be uniquely determined from geometric geodetic measurements. The theory of invariant information is then applied to the analysis of the Tokai first-order triangulation/trilateration network spanning an interval of more than 100yr. The results show that the normal and principal strains are significantly affected by the unknown scaling biases and orientation differences; thus any attempt at geophysical interpretation of these quantities must be exercised with great care. If the scaling bias and the orientation difference are small, the shear strain is
Hascoët, R.; Daigne, F.; Mochkovitch, R.; Vennin, V.
2012-03-01
Recent detections of GeV photons in a few gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) imply huge bulk Lorentz factors to avoid a large γγ optical depth at high energy. Estimates can be as high as Γ≃ 103 in the most extreme cases. This puts severe constraints on models of the central engine and the jet acceleration in GRBs. These estimates are, however, obtained from a simplified single-zone model. We present here a more realistic calculation of the γγ opacity which takes into account the time, space and direction dependent photon field existing in an outflow with several relativistically moving emitting zones. The formalism is very general and can be applied to many models of the prompt GRB emission. We present results obtained for a numerical implementation in the framework of the internal shock model. We show the following results in this paper. (i) The minimum Lorentz factor Γmin in bright Fermi-LAT GRBs is reduced by a factor of ≃2-3 compared to previous estimates if the GeV and MeV emission are produced in the same region, and by an additional factor of ≃2-8 if the GeV emission is produced at larger radii. We provide an improved approximate formula for Γmin which is in good agreement with our numerical results and which can be directly applied to Fermi-LAT GRB data. (ii) A delayed onset of the GeV emission can be due to the time evolution of the opacity in a GRB outflow. As an illustration of these first two results, we present a synthetic GRB that reproduces most features of GRB 080916C with a mean Lorentz factor of ≃340, an optically thin regime for γγ opacity at 3 GeV in time bin 'b', a variability time-scale of ≃0.5 s in the MeV light curve and a delayed onset of ≃5 s of the GeV emission. (iii) The γγ opacity can smooth the short time-scale variability in the GeV light curve. This last result implies that the observed variability at high energy is not necessarily a good test to distinguish between an internal and an
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.R. Setare
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the first order formalism of gravity theories, there are some theories which are not Lorentz-diffeomorphism covariant. In the framework of such theories we cannot apply the method of conserved charge calculation used in Lorentz-diffeomorphism covariant theories. In this paper we firstly introduce the total variation of a quantity due to an infinitesimal Lorentz-diffeomorphism transformation. Secondly, in order to obtain the conserved charges of Lorentz-diffeomorphism non-covariant theories, we extend the Tachikawa method [1]. This extension includes not only Lorentz gauge transformation but also the diffeomorphism. We apply this method to the Chern–Simons-like theories of gravity (CSLTG and obtain a general formula for the entropy of black holes in those theories. Finally, some examples on CSLTG are provided and the entropy of the BTZ black hole is calculated in the context of the examples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Setare, M.R., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir; Adami, H., E-mail: hamed.adami@yahoo.com
2016-01-15
In the first order formalism of gravity theories, there are some theories which are not Lorentz-diffeomorphism covariant. In the framework of such theories we cannot apply the method of conserved charge calculation used in Lorentz-diffeomorphism covariant theories. In this paper we firstly introduce the total variation of a quantity due to an infinitesimal Lorentz-diffeomorphism transformation. Secondly, in order to obtain the conserved charges of Lorentz-diffeomorphism non-covariant theories, we extend the Tachikawa method [1]. This extension includes not only Lorentz gauge transformation but also the diffeomorphism. We apply this method to the Chern–Simons-like theories of gravity (CSLTG) and obtain a general formula for the entropy of black holes in those theories. Finally, some examples on CSLTG are provided and the entropy of the BTZ black hole is calculated in the context of the examples.
Search for T-invariance violation in pd-scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uzikov Yuriy
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Scattering of protons with transversal polarization Pyp on deuterons with tensor polarization Pxz provides a null-test signal for time reversal invariance violating but P-parity conserving effects. The dedicated experiment will be done at COSY facility at proton beam energy 135 MeV using internal deuteron target. I give a brief review of results of theoretical calculations of the null-test observable within the spin-dependent Glauber theory at beam energies 100-1000 MeV considering phenomenological T-violating Pconserving NN-interactions.
Factorial invariance of the Adult State Hope Scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petrus Nel
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Orientation: Given the interest in the impact of positive psychology on employees, it is imperative to use reliable and valid instruments to operationalise positive-psychology constructs. One such construct is hope.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the degree of factorial invariance across race and gender by using a sample of aspiring chartered accountants.Motivation for the study: Previous research on the hope construct and associated measuring instruments have been conducted, using homogenous samples from Westernised cultures. Researchers need to be careful to assume that hope looks and behaves in exactly the same manner across cultures and groups.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional quantitative research design was used. A sample of 295 aspiring chartered accountants participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the degree of factor similarity across groups, utilising Tucker’s coefficient of congruence. To supplement the exploratory factor analysis, a series of increasingly restrictive multi-group analyses were conducted to test the invariance of model parameters across the groups.Main findings: No significant differences were found in the factor patterns for the agency and pathways factors for (1 the white and designated groups and (2 females and males.Practical/managerial implications: Evidence related to factorial invariance was found. This should inform researchers and practitioners that both pathways and agency look similar across racial and gender groups.Contribution/value-add: Researchers are urged to use various statistical techniques, in combination, to determine the degree of factorial invariance across groups.
de Hosson, J.T.M.; Chechenin, N.G.; Alsem, D.H.; Vystavel, T.; Kooi, B.J.; Chezan, A.R; Boerma, D.O
2002-01-01
As a tribute to the scientific work of Professor Gareth Thomas in the field of structure-property relationships this paper delineates a new possibility of Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM) to study the magnetic properties of soft magnetic films. We show that in contrast to the
Singularities of spacelike constant mean curvature surfaces in Lorentz-Minkowski space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David
2011-01-01
We study singularities of spacelike, constant (non-zero) mean curvature (CMC) surfaces in the Lorentz-Minkowski 3-space L-3. We show how to solve the singular Bjorling problem for such surfaces, which is stated as follows: given a real analytic null-curve f(0)(x), and a real analytic null vector...
Description of eight new Birds collected by Mr. H. A. Lorentz in Southwestern New Guinea
Oort, van E.D.
1910-01-01
The collection of birdsskins made by Mr. H. A. Lorentz during his glorious and successful expedition to the snowy mountains of New Guinea contains nearly thousand specimens. As could be expected, there are many interesting examples in the collection, new species as well as such which as yet had not
Lorentz Covariance of Dirac Electrons in Solids: Dielectric and Diamagnetic Properties
Maebashi, Hideaki; Ogata, Masao; Fukuyama, Hidetoshi
2017-08-01
We study the electrodynamics of Dirac electrons in solids (e.g., bismuth) by comparing it with quantum electrodynamics (QED). It is shown that Lorentz covariance associated with the Dirac electrons in solids results in a remarkable correlation between the dielectric and diamagnetic properties, leading to a significant enhancement in the permittivity directly linked to the well-known phenomenon of large diamagnetism.
The debate between Hendrik A. Lorentz and Schrödinger on wave mechanics
Kox, A.J.; Reiter, W.L.; Yngvason, J.
2013-01-01
In 1923 the Austrian Erwin Schrödinger, professor of physics in Zurich, and his Dutch colleague Hendrik Lorentz, grand old man of classical physics, engaged in a fascinating correspondence on the foundations of quantum physics. In this lecture I will go back to that year, give a sketch of the
La geometría de Minkowski a partir del grupo de Lorentz
Medina, Jael Inés; Luque, Carlos Julio
2008-01-01
Se hace una presentación de los fundamentos de la geometr´ıa de Minkowski tomando como base el grupo de transformaciones de Lorentz, siguiendo las directrices del programa de Erlangen propuesto por Felix Klein, estudiando las formas invariantes del grupo de transformaciones.
Lorentz Contraction, Bell's Spaceships and Rigid Body Motion in Special Relativity
Franklin, Jerrold
2010-01-01
The meaning of Lorentz contraction in special relativity and its connection with Bell's spaceships parable is discussed. The motion of Bell's spaceships is then compared with the accelerated motion of a rigid body. We have tried to write this in a simple form that could be used to correct students' misconceptions due to conflicting earlier…
A note on the Lorentz transformations linking initial and final four-vectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ungar, A.A. (Department of Mathematics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58105 (United States))
1992-01-01
The set of all (homogeneous, proper, orthochronous) Lorentz transformations that link two given forward-timelike four-vectors with equal norms, as well as the condition under which a unique Lorentz transformation is singled out, is completely determined, and presented in a form suitable for immediate reduction to Galilean transformations by letting {ital c}{r arrow}{infinity},{ital c} being the speed of light in empty space. Analogies to the intuitively well-understood Galilean transformation group are obvious. Thus, for instance, the ordinary velocity addition operator +'' involved in the determination of a Galilean transformation link becomes {direct sum}, the relativistic velocity addition operator involved in the determination of a Lorentz transformation link. The analogies shared by Galilean and Lorentz transformation links were overlooked by explorers since, as opposed to the associative--commutative binary operation + in the Euclidean three-space R{sup 3}, the binary operation {direct sum} in R{sup 3}{sub {ital c}} = {l brace}v{element of}R{sup 3}:{vert bar}{bold v}{vert bar}{lt}{ital c}{r brace} is neither associative nor commutative.
Optimization of a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor using Lorentz force actuation
Groenesteijn, Jarno; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Haneveld, J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad
2012-01-01
In this paper we present Finite Element models to optimize the Lorentz force actuation of a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor. These models specify six different configurations for the permanent magnets used to create the magnetic field for the actuation. The models are used to compare the various
Gauge-Invariant Formulation of Circular Dichroism.
Raimbault, Nathaniel; de Boeij, Paul L; Romaniello, Pina; Berger, J A
2016-07-12
Standard formulations of magnetic response properties, such as circular dichroism spectra, are plagued by gauge dependencies, which can lead to unphysical results. In this work, we present a general gauge-invariant and numerically efficient approach for the calculation of circular dichroism spectra from the current density. First we show that in this formulation the optical rotation tensor, the response function from which circular dichroism spectra can be obtained, is independent of the origin of the coordinate system. We then demonstrate that its trace is independent of the gauge origin of the vector potential. We also show how gauge invariance can be retained in practical calculations with finite basis sets. As an example, we explain how our method can be applied to time-dependent current-density-functional theory. Finally, we report gauge-invariant circular dichroism spectra obtained using the adiabatic local-density approximation. The circular dichroism spectra we thus obtain are in good agreement with experiment.
Blurred image recognition by Legendre moment invariants.
Zhang, Hui; Shu, Huazhong; Han, Guoniu N; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean Louis
2010-03-01
Processing blurred images is a key problem in many image applications. Existing methods to obtain blur invariants which are invariant with respect to centrally symmetric blur are based on geometric moments or complex moments. In this paper, we propose a new method to construct a set of blur invariants using the orthogonal Legendre moments. Some important properties of Legendre moments for the blurred image are presented and proved. The performance of the proposed descriptors is evaluated with various point-spread functions and different image noises. The comparison of the present approach with previous methods in terms of pattern recognition accuracy is also provided. The experimental results show that the proposed descriptors are more robust to noise and have better discriminative power than the methods based on geometric or complex moments.
Spontaneous breaking of continuous translational invariance
Watanabe, Haruki; Brauner, Tomáš
2012-04-01
Unbroken continuous translational invariance is often taken as a basic assumption in discussions of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB), which singles out SSB of translational invariance itself as an exceptional case. We present a framework that allows us to treat translational invariance on the same footing as other symmetries. It is shown that existing theorems on SSB can be straightforwardly extended to this general case. As a concrete application, we analyze the Nambu-Goldstone modes in a (ferromagnetic) supersolid. We prove on the ground of the general theorems that the Bogoliubov mode stemming from a spontaneously broken internal U(1) symmetry and the longitudinal phonon due to a crystalline order are distinct physical modes.
Invariant death [version 1; referees: 2 approved
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven A. Frank
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In nematodes, environmental or physiological perturbations alter death’s scaling of time. In human cancer, genetic perturbations alter death’s curvature of time. Those changes in scale and curvature follow the constraining contours of death’s invariant geometry. I show that the constraints arise from a fundamental extension to the theories of randomness, invariance and scale. A generalized Gompertz law follows. The constraints imposed by the invariant Gompertz geometry explain the tendency of perturbations to stretch or bend death’s scaling of time. Variability in death rate arises from a combination of constraining universal laws and particular biological processes.
Isomorph invariance of Couette shear flows simulated by the SLLOD equations of motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Separdar, Leila; Bailey, Nicholas; Schrøder, Thomas
2013-01-01
and nonlinear regimes. For both systems, when represented in reduced units the radial distribution function and the intermediate scattering function are identical for state points that are isomorphic. The strain-rate dependent viscosity, which exhibits shear thinning, is also invariant along an isomorph. Our...... of the two systems. We show analytically that these equations are isomorph invariant provided the reduced strain rate is fixed along the isomorph. Since isomorph invariance is generally only approximate, a range of strain rates were simulated to test for the predicted invariance, covering both the linear...... results extend the isomorph concept to the non-equilibrium situation of a shear flow, for which the phase diagram is three dimensional because the strain rate defines a third dimension....
The measurement invariance of job diagnostic survey (JDS) across three university student groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez-Gomez, M.; Marin-Garcia, J.A.; Girado Omeara, M.
2016-07-01
The main purpose of this study is to apply a multigroup confirmatory analysis to examine the measurement invariance (MI) of the adapted version of the Job Diagnosis Survey (JDS) as a measurement tool that analyses the relationship between the features of teaching methodologies with university students’ motivation and satisfaction across data collected on different degrees and academic years. Design/methodology/approach: Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out using a multigroup structural equation model, using the program EQS 6.1 to test the invariance of the adapted version of JDS in a sample constituted by 535 student of a Spanish public university. The assessment of invariance included the levels of configural, metric, scalar, covariance and latent variables invariance. Several goodness-of-fit measures were assessed... (Author)
Stability and Invariance of Psychopathic Traits from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood
Neumann, Craig; Wampler, Megan; Taylor, Jeanette; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Iacono, William G.
2011-01-01
The current study examined the longitudinal stability and invariance of psychopathic traits in a large community sample of male twins from ages 17 to 23. Participants were assessed across six years to gauge the stability and measurement invariance of the Minnesota Temperament Inventory (MTI), a Cleckley-based measure of psychopathic personality traits, and how family functioning and externalizing behavior were linked to these traits. A latent variable approach was used to model the structure of the MTI and provide a statistical test of measurement invariance across time. The results revealed support for invariance and moderate to strong stability of the MTI factors, which showed significant associations with the external correlates in late adolescence but not early adulthood. PMID:21572537
Conformal invariance an introduction to loops, interfaces and stochastic Loewner evolution
Karevski, Dragi
2012-01-01
Conformal invariance has been a spectacularly successful tool in advancing our understanding of the two-dimensional phase transitions found in classical systems at equilibrium. This volume sharpens our picture of the applications of conformal invariance, introducing non-local observables such as loops and interfaces before explaining how they arise in specific physical contexts. It then shows how to use conformal invariance to determine their properties. Moving on to cover key conceptual developments in conformal invariance, the book devotes much of its space to stochastic Loewner evolution (SLE), detailing SLE’s conceptual foundations as well as extensive numerical tests. The chapters then elucidate SLE’s use in geometric phase transitions such as percolation or polymer systems, paying particular attention to surface effects. As clear and accessible as it is authoritative, this publication is as suitable for non-specialist readers and graduate students alike.
Stability and Invariance of Psychopathic Traits from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood.
Neumann, Craig; Wampler, Megan; Taylor, Jeanette; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G
2011-04-01
The current study examined the longitudinal stability and invariance of psychopathic traits in a large community sample of male twins from ages 17 to 23. Participants were assessed across six years to gauge the stability and measurement invariance of the Minnesota Temperament Inventory (MTI), a Cleckley-based measure of psychopathic personality traits, and how family functioning and externalizing behavior were linked to these traits. A latent variable approach was used to model the structure of the MTI and provide a statistical test of measurement invariance across time. The results revealed support for invariance and moderate to strong stability of the MTI factors, which showed significant associations with the external correlates in late adolescence but not early adulthood.
The Uniqueness of -Matrix Graph Invariants
Dehmer, Matthias; Shi, Yongtang
2014-01-01
In this paper, we examine the uniqueness (discrimination power) of a newly proposed graph invariant based on the matrix defined by Randić et al. In order to do so, we use exhaustively generated graphs instead of special graph classes such as trees only. Using these graph classes allow us to generalize the findings towards complex networks as they usually do not possess any structural constraints. We obtain that the uniqueness of this newly proposed graph invariant is approximately as low as the uniqueness of the Balaban index on exhaustively generated (general) graphs. PMID:24392099
Galilean invariant resummation schemes of cosmological perturbations
Peloso, Marco; Pietroni, Massimo
2017-01-01
Many of the methods proposed so far to go beyond Standard Perturbation Theory break invariance under time-dependent boosts (denoted here as extended Galilean Invariance, or GI). This gives rise to spurious large scale effects which spoil the small scale predictions of these approximation schemes. By using consistency relations we derive fully non-perturbative constraints that GI imposes on correlation functions. We then introduce a method to quantify the amount of GI breaking of a given scheme, and to correct it by properly tailored counterterms. Finally, we formulate resummation schemes which are manifestly GI, discuss their general features, and implement them in the so called Time-Flow, or TRG, equations.
Application of invariant embedding to reactor physics
Shimizu, Akinao; Parsegian, V L
1972-01-01
Application of Invariant Embedding to Reactor Physics describes the application of the method of invariant embedding to radiation shielding and to criticality calculations of atomic reactors. The authors intend to show how this method has been applied to realistic problems, together with the results of applications which will be useful to shielding design. The book is organized into two parts. Part A deals with the reflection and transmission of gamma rays by slabs. The chapters in this section cover topics such as the reflection and transmission problem of gamma rays; formulation of the probl
Symmetric form-invariant dual Pearcey beams.
Ren, Zhijun; Fan, Changjiang; Shi, Yile; Chen, Bo
2016-08-01
We introduce another type of Pearcey beam, namely, dual Pearcey (DP) beams, based on the Pearcey function of catastrophe theory. DP beams are experimentally generated by applying Fresnel diffraction of bright elliptic rings. Form-invariant Bessel distribution beams can be regarded as a special case of DP beams. Subsequently, the basic propagation characteristics of DP beams are identified. DP beams are the result of the interference of two half DP beams instead of two classical Pearcey beams. Moreover, we also verified that half DP beams (including special-case parabolic-like beams) generated by half elliptical rings (circular rings) are a new member of the family of form-invariant beams.
Difference spaces and invariant linear forms
Nillsen, Rodney
1994-01-01
Difference spaces arise by taking sums of finite or fractional differences. Linear forms which vanish identically on such a space are invariant in a corresponding sense. The difference spaces of L2 (Rn) are Hilbert spaces whose functions are characterized by the behaviour of their Fourier transforms near, e.g., the origin. One aim is to establish connections between these spaces and differential operators, singular integral operators and wavelets. Another aim is to discuss aspects of these ideas which emphasise invariant linear forms on locally compact groups. The work primarily presents new results, but does so from a clear, accessible and unified viewpoint, which emphasises connections with related work.
Conformal invariants topics in geometric function theory
Ahlfors, Lars V
2010-01-01
Most conformal invariants can be described in terms of extremal properties. Conformal invariants and extremal problems are therefore intimately linked and form together the central theme of this classic book which is primarily intended for students with approximately a year's background in complex variable theory. The book emphasizes the geometric approach as well as classical and semi-classical results which Lars Ahlfors felt every student of complex analysis should know before embarking on independent research. At the time of the book's original appearance, much of this material had never ap
Invariant distances and metrics in complex analysis
Jarnicki, Marek
2013-01-01
As in the field of ""Invariant Distances and Metrics in Complex Analysis"" there was and is a continuous progress this is the second extended edition of the corresponding monograph. This comprehensive book is about the study of invariant pseudodistances (non-negative functions on pairs of points) and pseudometrics (non-negative functions on the tangent bundle) in several complex variables. It is an overview over a highly active research area at the borderline between complex analysis, functional analysis and differential geometry. New chapters are covering the Wu, Bergman and several other met
The decomposition of global conformal invariants
Alexakis, Spyros
2012-01-01
This book addresses a basic question in differential geometry that was first considered by physicists Stanley Deser and Adam Schwimmer in 1993 in their study of conformal anomalies. The question concerns conformally invariant functionals on the space of Riemannian metrics over a given manifold. These functionals act on a metric by first constructing a Riemannian scalar out of it, and then integrating this scalar over the manifold. Suppose this integral remains invariant under conformal re-scalings of the underlying metric. What information can one then deduce about the Riemannian scalar? Dese
Dihadron fragmentation functions for large invariant mass.
Zhou, J; Metz, A
2011-04-29
Using perturbative quantum chromodynamics, we compute dihadron fragmentation functions for a large invariant mass of the dihadron pair. The main focus is on the interference fragmentation function H(1)(∢), which plays an important role in spin physics of the nucleon. Our calculation also reveals that H(1)(∢) and the Collins fragmentation function have closely related underlying dynamics. By considering semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, we further show that collinear factorization in terms of dihadron fragmentation functions and collinear factorization in terms of single-hadron fragmentation functions provide the same result in the region of intermediate invariant mass.
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lupo, C. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Mancini, S. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); De Pasquale, A. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)
2012-12-15
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Variational Algorithms for Test Particle Trajectories
Ellison, C. Leland; Finn, John M.; Qin, Hong; Tang, William M.
2015-11-01
The theory of variational integration provides a novel framework for constructing conservative numerical methods for magnetized test particle dynamics. The retention of conservation laws in the numerical time advance captures the correct qualitative behavior of the long time dynamics. For modeling the Lorentz force system, new variational integrators have been developed that are both symplectic and electromagnetically gauge invariant. For guiding center test particle dynamics, discretization of the phase-space action principle yields multistep variational algorithms, in general. Obtaining the desired long-term numerical fidelity requires mitigation of the multistep method's parasitic modes or applying a discretization scheme that possesses a discrete degeneracy to yield a one-step method. Dissipative effects may be modeled using Lagrange-D'Alembert variational principles. Numerical results will be presented using a new numerical platform that interfaces with popular equilibrium codes and utilizes parallel hardware to achieve reduced times to solution. This work was supported by DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Local Unitary Invariants of Quantum States
Cui, Meiyu; Chang, Jingmei; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Huang, Xiaofen; Zhang, Tinggui
2017-11-01
We study the equivalence of mixed states under local unitary transformations. First we express quantum states in Bloch representation. Then based on the coefficient matrices, some invariants are constructed. This method and results can be extended to multipartite high dimensional system.
Joint local quasinilpotence and common invariant subspaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
. In fact the intersection of the sets. QTi = {x ∈ X, such that Ti is locally quasinilpotent at x}, is a common invariant manifold. However if T1,...,TN are not commuting, the problem becomes more complicated. Example. Let T1,T2 be two operators ...
Discrete Groups, Expanding Graphs and Invariant Measures
Lubotzky, Alexander
2009-01-01
Presents the solutions to two problems: the first is the construction of expanding graphs - graphs which are of fundamental importance for communication networks and computer science, and the second is the Ruziewicz problem concerning the finitely additive invariant measures on spheres
Topologically left invariant means on semigroup algebras
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Let M ( S ) be the Banach algebra of all bounded regular Borel measures on a locally compact Hausdorff semitopological semigroup with variation norm and convolution as multiplication. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for M ( S ) ∗ to have a topologically left invariant mean.
Automatic invariant detection in dynamic web applications
Groeneveld, F.; Mesbah, A.; Van Deursen, A.
2010-01-01
The complexity of modern web applications increases as client-side JavaScript and dynamic DOM programming are used to offer a more interactive web experience. In this paper, we focus on improving the dependability of such applications by automatically inferring invariants from the client-side and
Invariant metric for nonlinear symplectic maps
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we construct an invariant metric in the space of homogeneous polynomials of a given degree (≥ 3). The homogeneous polynomials specify a nonlinear symplectic map which in turn represents a Hamiltonian system. By minimizing the norm constructed out of this metric as a function of system parameters, we ...
Holography for chiral scale-invariant models
Caldeira Costa, R.N.; Taylor, M.
2011-01-01
Deformation of any d-dimensional conformal field theory by a constant null source for a vector operator of dimension (d + z -1) is exactly marginal with respect to anisotropic scale invariance, of dynamical exponent z. The holographic duals to such deformations are AdS plane waves, with z=2 being
Holography for chiral scale-invariant models
Caldeira Costa, R.N.; Taylor, M.
2010-01-01
Deformation of any d-dimensional conformal field theory by a constant null source for a vector operator of dimension (d + z -1) is exactly marginal with respect to anisotropic scale invariance, of dynamical exponent z. The holographic duals to such deformations are AdS plane waves, with z=2 being