Sample records for testing geometrical discrimination

  1. Fairness Testing: Testing Software for Discrimination


    Galhotra, Sainyam; Brun, Yuriy; Meliou, Alexandra


    This paper defines software fairness and discrimination and develops a testing-based method for measuring if and how much software discriminates, focusing on causality in discriminatory behavior. Evidence of software discrimination has been found in modern software systems that recommend criminal sentences, grant access to financial products, and determine who is allowed to participate in promotions. Our approach, Themis, generates efficient test suites to measure discrimination. Given a sche...

  2. Normed algebras and the geometric series test

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    Robert Kantrowitz


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to survey a class of normed algebras that share many central features of Banach algebras, save for completeness. The likeness of these algebras to Banach algebras derives from the fact that the geometric series test is valid, whereas the lack of completeness points to the failure of the absolute convergence test for series in the algebra. Our main result is a compendium of conditions that are all equivalent to the validity of the geometric series test for commutative unital normed algebras. Several examples in the final section showcase some incomplete normed algebras for which the geometric series test is valid, and still others for which it is not.

  3. Integrated magnetic, geometric and discriminating sensor for instrumented Pigs; Sensor geometrico magnetico e discriminador integrado para pigs instrumentados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Vinicius de C. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Von der Weid, Jean Pierre [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Telecomunicacoes; Silva, Jose A.P. da [PipeWay Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camerini, Claudio Soligo; Oliveira, Carlos H.F. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas


    In this work it is presented a result of a research partnership between PUC-Rio, PETROBRAS, Pipeway. The development of an innovative sensor head for high resolution MFL Pigs, the GMD sensor, Geometric Magnetic and Discriminator. This head make the magnetic pipeline reading, in high resolution using the MFL - Magnetic Flux Leakage technique, adding to it the geometric reading as well as the discrimination of the defects, as being external or internal. This technique makes possible the inspection of geometry, magnetism and discrimination with only one crown of GMD sensors. In this paper technical aspects of the development, eg: the constructive details of the sensor, evaluation tests and laboratory results are presented. (author)

  4. Morphological Discrimination of Greek Honey Bee Populations Based on Geometric Morphometrics Analysis of Wing Shape

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    Charistos Leonidas


    Full Text Available Honey bees collected from 32 different localities in Greece were studied based on the geometric morphometrics approach using the coordinates of 19 landmarks located at wing vein intersections. Procrustes analysis, principal component analysis, and Canonical variate analysis (CVA detected population variability among the studied samples. According to the Principal component analysis (PCA of pooled data from each locality, the most differentiated populations were the populations from the Aegean island localities Astypalaia, Chios, and Kythira. However, the populations with the most distant according to the canonical variate analysis performed on all measurements were the populations from Heraklion and Chania (both from Crete island. These results can be used as a starting point for the use of geometric morphometrics in the discrimination of honey bee populations in Greece and the establishment of conservation areas for local honey bee populations.


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    M. Lvov


    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to testing system building of procedural geometric knowledge, i.e. knowledge of basic computational formulas and skills to use them. This approach consists in constructing the mathematical models for each academic module in Geometry. The main constructing objects are the templates of tests which represent mathematical models of tests set in general terms. Template of similar tests class is represented by a geometric drawing, formula-correlations system binding the elements of the drawing, by templates of test conditions and template of response. Each such template is used both in generating algorithms of similar specific tests’ plurality and algorithms of automatic validation of responses’ correctness. The proposed method makes it possible to describe a relatively simple class of specific tests. An important feature of the system is the ability to automatically check not only the final answer, but the intermediate answer formulas. For the implementation of the testing system is necessary to use methods of computer algebra and algebraic programming technology.

  6. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender


    Lesner, Rune Vammen


    This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market. It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure...

  7. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market....... It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure but increases in job transitions and that the fraction of women in high-ranking positions within a firm does...... not affect the level of statistical discrimination by gender....

  8. Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment. (United States)

    Kaptijn, Ralf; Thomese, Fleur; Liefbroer, Aart C; Silverstein, Merril


    This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the Chinese Anhui Survey (n=4026). In the Netherlands, grandparental investments are biased towards daughters' children, which is in accordance with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. But in China, grandparental investments are biased towards sons' children, which is in conflict with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. This study found no support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. These results raise doubts over the relevance of paternity uncertainty as an explanation of a grandparental investment bias towards daughters' children that is often found in Western populations. The results suggest that discriminative grandparental investments are better understood as the outcome of cultural prescriptions and economic motives.

  9. Psychoacoustic Assessment of Speech Communication Systems. The Diagnostic Discrimination Test. (United States)

    Grether, Craig Blaine

    The present report traces the rationale, development and experimental evaluation of the Diagnostic Discrimination Test (DDT). The DDT is a three-choice test of consonant discriminability of the perceptual/acoustic dimensions of consonant phonemes within specific vowel contexts. The DDT was created and developed in an attempt to provide a…

  10. Bat Species Comparisons Based on External Morphology: A Test of Traditional versus Geometric Morphometric Approaches.

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    Daniela A Schmieder

    Full Text Available External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species--in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera--based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern.

  11. A Stepwise Discriminant Analysis of Eight Selected Basketball Skill Tests. (United States)

    Hopkins, David R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the discriminatory ability of eight selected skill tests in evaluating the abilities of a group of male basketball players. The raw scores of the skill tests for each participant were analyzed by a stepwise discriminant analysis procedure. The results of this study indicate that a test battery comprised…

  12. Development of a Pitch Discrimination Screening Test for Preschool Children. (United States)

    Abramson, Maria Kulick; Lloyd, Peter J


    There is a critical need for tests of auditory discrimination for young children as this skill plays a fundamental role in the development of speaking, prereading, reading, language, and more complex auditory processes. Frequency discrimination is important with regard to basic sensory processing affecting phonological processing, dyslexia, measurements of intelligence, auditory memory, Asperger syndrome, and specific language impairment. This study was performed to determine the clinical feasibility of the Pitch Discrimination Test (PDT) to screen the preschool child's ability to discriminate some of the acoustic demands of speech perception, primarily pitch discrimination, without linguistic content. The PDT used brief speech frequency tones to gather normative data from preschool children aged 3 to 5 yrs. A cross-sectional study was used to gather data regarding the pitch discrimination abilities of a sample of typically developing preschool children, between 3 and 5 yrs of age. The PDT consists of ten trials using two pure tones of 100-msec duration each, and was administered in an AA or AB forced-choice response format. Data from 90 typically developing preschool children between the ages of 3 and 5 yrs were used to provide normative data. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-testing was used to examine the effects of age as a continuous variable on pitch discrimination. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the significance of age on performance on the PDT. Spearman rank was used to determine the correlation of age and performance on the PDT. Pitch discrimination of brief tones improved significantly from age 3 yrs to age 4 yrs, as well as from age 3 yrs to the age 4- and 5-yrs group. Results indicated that between ages 3 and 4 yrs, children's auditory discrimination of pitch improved on the PDT. The data showed that children can be screened for auditory discrimination of pitch beginning with age 4 yrs. The PDT proved to be a time efficient, feasible tool for

  13. Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment

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    Kaptijn, R.; Thomése, F.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Silverstein, M.


    This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers–Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the

  14. Validity of the American Sign Language Discrimination Test (United States)

    Bochner, Joseph H.; Samar, Vincent J.; Hauser, Peter C.; Garrison, Wayne M.; Searls, J. Matt; Sanders, Cynthia A.


    American Sign Language (ASL) is one of the most commonly taught languages in North America. Yet, few assessment instruments for ASL proficiency have been developed, none of which have adequately demonstrated validity. We propose that the American Sign Language Discrimination Test (ASL-DT), a recently developed measure of learners' ability to…

  15. Test Station for Measuring Aluminum Tube Geometrical Parameters

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    Oansea, D; Gongadze, A L; Gostkin, M I; Dedovich, D V; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Comanescu, B; Kotov, S A; Necsoiu, T; Potrap, I N; Rogalev, E V; Tskhadadze, E G; Chelkov, G A


    A test station for quality control of aluminum tube outer diameter and wall thickness is presented. The tested tubes are used for drift detector assembly of ATLAS (LHC, CERN) muon system. The outer diameter and wall thickness of aluminium tubes are measured by means of noncontact optical and ultrasonic methods respectively with the accuracy of 3 {\\mu}m. The testing process is automatic and interacts with the production data base.

  16. Methods for testing of geometrical down-scaled rotor blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    as requirements for experimental facilities are very demanding and furthermore the time for performing the experimental test campaign and the cost are not well suitable for most research projects. This report deals with the advantages, disadvantages and open questions of using down-scaled testing on wind turbine...

  17. Combination of radiograph-based trabecular and geometrical parameters can discriminate cervical hip fractures from controls in individuals with BMD in non-osteoporotic range. (United States)

    Pulkkinen, P; Partanen, J; Jalovaara, P; Nieminen, M T; Jämsä, T


    Majority of hip fractures occur in individuals with bone mineral density (BMD) in non-osteoporotic range. This suggests that factors other than BMD are associated with increased fracture risk in these individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined ability of radiograph-based trabecular and geometrical parameters to discriminate cervical hip fractures from controls in individuals with non-osteoporotic BMD. A total of 39 postmenopausal females with non-pathologic cervical hip fracture were recruited to the study. Nineteen of the fracture patients (48.7%) had non-osteoporotic BMD and they constituted the fracture group. The control group consisted of 35 BMD-matched non-osteoporotic females. Several geometrical and trabecular parameters were extracted from plain pelvic radiographs, and their combined ability to discriminate fracture patients from controls was studied using a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Significant differences in several radiograph-based geometrical and trabecular parameters were found between the fracture patients and controls, whereas no statistically significant difference in BMD was observed (p=0.92) between the groups. Area under the ROC curve was 0.993 (95% CI 0.977-1.008) for the combined multiple regression model, which included both trabecular and geometrical parameters as explanatory factors. Here, the sensitivity of 100% was achieved with the specificity of 94%. In a cross-validation of the model, 94.4% of the fracture patients, and 94.1% of the controls were classified correctly. The combination of radiograph-based trabecular and geometrical parameters was able to discriminate the cervical hip fracture cases from controls with similar BMD, showing that the method can provide additional information on bone structure and fracture risk beyond BMD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thurstonian models for sensory discrimination tests as generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per B.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen


    Sensory discrimination tests such as the triangle, duo-trio, 2-AFC and 3-AFC tests produce binary data and the Thurstonian decision rule links the underlying sensory difference 6 to the observed number of correct responses. In this paper it is shown how each of these four situations can be viewed...... as a so-called generalized linear model. The underlying sensory difference 6 becomes directly a parameter of the statistical model and the estimate d' and it's standard error becomes the "usual" output of the statistical analysis. The d' for the monadic A-NOT A method is shown to appear as a standard...... linear contrast in a generalized linear model using the probit link function. All methods developed in the paper are implemented in our free R-package sensR ( This includes the basic power and sample size calculations for these four discrimination tests...

  19. Sensory discrimination and intelligence: testing Spearman's other hypothesis. (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Bell, P Joseph; Bell, Andrew J; Campbell, Mary L; Fazal, Nicola D


    At the centenary of Spearman's seminal 1904 article, his general intelligence hypothesis remains one of the most influential in psychology. Less well known is the article's other hypothesis that there is "a correspondence between what may provisionally be called 'General Discrimination' and 'General Intelligence' which works out with great approximation to one or absoluteness" (Spearman, 1904, p. 284). Studies that do not find high correlations between psychometric intelligence and single sensory discrimination tests do not falsify this hypothesis. This study is the first directly to address Spearman's general intelligence-general sensory discrimination hypothesis. It attempts to replicate his findings with a similar sample of schoolchildren. In a well-fitting structural equation model of the data, general intelligence and general discrimination correlated .92. In a reanalysis of data published byActon and Schroeder (2001), general intelligence and general sensory ability correlated .68 in men and women. One hundred years after its conception, Spearman's other hypothesis achieves some confirmation. The association between general intelligence and general sensory ability remains to be replicated and explained.

  20. Color-discrimination threshold determination using pseudoisochromatic test plates

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    Kaiva eJurasevska


    Full Text Available We produced a set of pseudoisochromatic plates for determining individual color-difference thresholds to assess test performance and test properties, and analyzed the results. We report a high test validity and classification ability for the deficiency type and severity level (comparable to that of the fourth edition of the Hardy–Rand–Rittler (HRR test. We discuss changes of the acceptable chromatic shifts from the protan and deutan confusion lines along the CIE xy diagram, and the high correlation of individual color-difference thresholds and the red–green discrimination index. Color vision was tested using an Oculus HMC anomaloscope, a Farnsworth D15, and an HRR test on 273 schoolchildren, and 57 other subjects with previously diagnosed red–green color-vision deficiency.

  1. Colorimetric and fluorometric discrimination of geometrical isomers (maleic acid vs fumaric acid) with real-time detection of maleic acid in solution and food additives. (United States)

    Samanta, Soham; Kar, Chirantan; Das, Gopal


    Heterobis imine Schiff base probe L is able to discriminate geometrical isomers (maleic acid vs fumaric acid) through sharp colorimetric as well as fluorogenic responses even conspicuous with the naked eye. Colorimetric as well as fluorogenic sensing of maleic acid among various carboxylic acids was also demonstrated in ethanol-buffer medium. Sensing behavior of L was corroborated by (1)H NMR spectra, mass spectrometry, and theoretical calculations. Subsequently sensing behavior of L was used to probe maleic acid in starch rich food samples.

  2. Discriminant validity of lateral sensorimotor tests in children. (United States)

    Francis, D J; Fletcher, J M; Rourke, B P


    The discriminant validity of left- (LH) and right-hand (RH) sensorimotor measures from a comprehensive neuropsychological battery was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. A group of children (primarily learning disabled) was divided into analysis (n = 488) and cross-validation (n = 400) samples and the following measures were taken for both the LH and the RH Tactile Perception, Finger Agnosia, Fingertip Number Writing, Tactile Form Recognition, Finger Tapping, Grip Strength, Grooved Pegboard, and Mazes. RH- and LH scores from these tests, and scores from five WISC subtests (Information, Similarities, Vocabulary, Block Design, and Object Assembly) were analyzed in a series of four nested confirmatory factor models. Models distinguished between LH and RH skill factors, and/or between simple- and complex-skill factors. Models were compared using incremental fit ratios and chi 2 difference tests (Bentler & Bonnett, 1980). Model comparisons revealed little evidence for discriminant validity of LH and RH measures, but strong support for distinctions between measures of simple- and complex-skills. These findings were replicated in the cross-validation sample.

  3. The discrimination filters to increase the reliability of EEW association on the location using geometric distribution of triggered stations with upgrading a travel time model. (United States)

    Chi, H. C.; Park, J. H.; Lim, I. S.; Seong, Y. J.


    In operation of Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS), the alerting criteria are one of the most important parameters in optimizing acceptable warning system. During early stage of testing EEW systems from 2011 to 2013, we adapted ElarmS by UC Berkeley BSL to Korean seismic network and applied very simple criteria for event alerting with the combination of the numbers of station and magnitude. As a result of the testing we found out that the real-time test result of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system in Korea showed that all events located within seismic network with bigger than magnitude 3.0 were well detected. However, two events located at sea between land and island gave false results with magnitude over 4.0 related to the teleseismic waves and one event located in land gave false results with magnitude over 3.0 related to the teleseismic waves. These teleseismic-relevant false events were caused by logical co-relation during association procedure and the corresponding geometric distribution of associated stations is crescent-shaped. Seismic stations are not deployed uniformly, so the expected bias ratio varies with evaluated epicentral location. This ratio is calculated in advance and stored into database, called as TrigDB, for the discrimination of teleseismic-origin false alarm. We developed a method, so called 'TrigDB back filling', updating location with supplementary association of stations comparing triggered times between sandwiched stations which was not associated previously based on predefined criteria such as travel-time. Because EEW program assume that all events are local, teleseismic-relevant events can give more triggered stations by using back filling of the unassociated stations than the normal association. And we also developed a travel time curve (K-SEIS-1DTT2015) to reduce split event for EEWS. After applying the K-SEIS-1DTT2015 model, these teleseismic-relevant false events are reduced. As a result of these methods we could get more

  4. Classical tests of general relativity: Brane-world Sun from minimal geometric deformation (United States)

    Casadio, R.; Ovalle, J.; da Rocha, Roldão


    We consider a solution of the effective four-dimensional brane-world equations, obtained from the general relativistic Schwarzschild metric via the principle of minimal geometric deformation, and investigate the corresponding signatures stemming from the possible existence of a warped extra-dimension. In particular, we derive bounds on an extra-dimensional parameter, closely related with the fundamental gravitational length, from the experimental results of the classical tests of general relativity in the Solar system.

  5. Statistical algorithms for a comprehensive test ban treaty discrimination framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, N.D. [ed.; Anderson, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.; Hagedorn, D.N.


    Seismic discrimination is the process of identifying a candidate seismic event as an earthquake or explosion using information from seismic waveform features (seismic discriminants). In the CTBT setting, low energy seismic activity must be detected and identified. A defensible CTBT discrimination decision requires an understanding of false-negative (declaring an event to be an earthquake given it is an explosion) and false-position (declaring an event to be an explosion given it is an earthquake) rates. These rates are derived from a statistical discrimination framework. A discrimination framework can be as simple as a single statistical algorithm or it can be a mathematical construct that integrates many different types of statistical algorithms and CTBT technologies. In either case, the result is the identification of an event and the numerical assessment of the accuracy of an identification, that is, false-negative and false-positive rates. In Anderson et al., eight statistical discrimination algorithms are evaluated relative to their ability to give results that effectively contribute to a decision process and to be interpretable with physical (seismic) theory. These algorithms can be discrimination frameworks individually or components of a larger framework. The eight algorithms are linear discrimination (LDA), quadratic discrimination (QDA), variably regularized discrimination (VRDA), flexible discrimination (FDA), logistic discrimination, K-th nearest neighbor (KNN), kernel discrimination, and classification and regression trees (CART). In this report, the performance of these eight algorithms, as applied to regional seismic data, is documented. Based on the findings in Anderson et al. and this analysis: CART is an appropriate algorithm for an automated CTBT setting.

  6. ASME B89.4.19 Performance Evaluation Tests and Geometric Misalignments in Laser Trackers. (United States)

    Muralikrishnan, B; Sawyer, D; Blackburn, C; Phillips, S; Borchardt, B; Estler, W T


    Small and unintended offsets, tilts, and eccentricity of the mechanical and optical components in laser trackers introduce systematic errors in the measured spherical coordinates (angles and range readings) and possibly in the calculated lengths of reference artifacts. It is desirable that the tests described in the ASME B89.4.19 Standard [1] be sensitive to these geometric misalignments so that any resulting systematic errors are identified during performance evaluation. In this paper, we present some analysis, using error models and numerical simulation, of the sensitivity of the length measurement system tests and two-face system tests in the B89.4.19 Standard to misalignments in laser trackers. We highlight key attributes of the testing strategy adopted in the Standard and propose new length measurement system tests that demonstrate improved sensitivity to some misalignments. Experimental results with a tracker that is not properly error corrected for the effects of the misalignments validate claims regarding the proposed new length tests.

  7. Discriminating neurological from psychiatric hypersomnia using the forced awakening test. (United States)

    Peter-Derex, L; Perrin, F; Petitjean, T; Garcia-Larrea, L; Bastuji, H


    Sleep inertia refers to the inability to attain full alertness following awakening from sleep and is a major component of hypersomnia. As event-related potentials (ERPs) are correlated to the degree of consciousness, they allow exploring information processing in transitional states of vigilance. Their modifications during forced awakening (FA) context have been shown to reflect sleep inertia. To assess the diagnostic value of a FA test using an oddball stimulation protocol during a nap in a representative sample of patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). One hundred and seventy three patients [30 narcolepsy, 62 idiopathic hypersomnia, 33 sleep apnoea syndrome, and 48 other (mainly psychiatric) hypersomnia] performed an auditory target detection stimulation task during pre-, post-nap wakefulness, and during two successive intra-nap FA while the EEG was simultaneously recorded. Both the accuracy of target detection and the ERPs were evaluated. ERPs during forced awakening test were considered to reflect sleep inertia if they presented with a P300 delay and/or sleep negativities (N350/N550). Pre-nap behavior and ERPs were normal in all patients. Behavioral results were significantly worse during FA than during wakefulness for all groups of patients. P300 latencies were significantly delayed on FA conditions in each group of patients except the psychiatric group. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of sleep inertia were 64% and 94%, respectively, with predictive values of 96% (positive) and 50% (negative). Our results suggest that the FA test could be helpful as a diagnostic procedure for discriminating neurological from psychiatric hypersomnia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Geometrical Configuration of Cabling as Factor Influencing the Reproducibility of EMC Immunity Tests

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    I. Szolik


    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of the influence of geometrical configuration of device cabling upon voltages induced in cable interfaces. The analyzed properties are the cable height and the cable length for common mode disturbance, and the loop width for differential mode disturbance. The analysis is solved both by analytical calculation and by numerical simulation. Achieved results are compared mutually as well as with results obtained by measurements performed according to standardized procedures. Finally the analyzed parameters are ordered in correspondence of their importance for objectivity and reproducibility of immunity tests against electromagnetic field.

  9. Discrimination of tenants with a visual impairment on the housing market: Empirical evidence from correspondence tests. (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Pieter-Paul; Van der Bracht, Koen; Van de Putte, Bart


    According to the social model of disability, physical 'impairments' become disabilities through exclusion in social relations. An obvious form of social exclusion might be discrimination, for instance on the rental housing market. Although discrimination has detrimental health effects, very few studies have examined discrimination of people with a visual impairment. We aim to study (1) the extent of discrimination of individuals with a visual impairment on the rental housing market and (2) differences in rates of discrimination between landowners and real estate agents. We conducted correspondence tests among 268 properties on the Belgian rental housing market. Using matched tests, we compared reactions by realtors and landowners to tenants with and tenants without a visual impairment. The results show that individuals with a visual impairment are substantially discriminated against in the rental housing market: at least one in three lessors discriminate against individuals with a visual impairment. We further discern differences in the propensity toward discrimination according to the type of lessor. Private landlords are at least twice as likely to discriminate against tenants with a visual impairment than real estate agents. At the same time, realtors still discriminate against one in five tenants with a visual impairment. This study shows the substantial discrimination against visually people with an impairment. Given the important consequences discrimination might have for physical and mental health, further research into this topic is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Geometric horizons (United States)

    Coley, Alan A.; McNutt, David D.; Shoom, Andrey A.


    We discuss black hole spacetimes with a geometrically defined quasi-local horizon on which the curvature tensor is algebraically special relative to the alignment classification. Based on many examples and analytical results, we conjecture that a spacetime horizon is always more algebraically special (in all of the orders of specialization) than other regions of spacetime. Using recent results in invariant theory, such geometric black hole horizons can be identified by the alignment type II or D discriminant conditions in terms of scalar curvature invariants, which are not dependent on spacetime foliations. The above conjecture is, in fact, a suite of conjectures (isolated vs dynamical horizon; four vs higher dimensions; zeroth order invariants vs higher order differential invariants). However, we are particularly interested in applications in four dimensions and especially the location of a black hole in numerical computations.

  11. Statistical Investigation of the Mechanical and Geometrical Properties of Polysilicon Films through On-Chip Tests

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    Ramin Mirzazadeh


    Full Text Available In this work, we provide a numerical/experimental investigation of the micromechanics-induced scattered response of a polysilicon on-chip MEMS testing device, whose moving structure is constituted by a slender cantilever supporting a massive perforated plate. The geometry of the cantilever was specifically designed to emphasize the micromechanical effects, in compliance with the process constraints. To assess the effects of the variability of polysilicon morphology and of geometrical imperfections on the experimentally observed nonlinear sensor response, we adopt statistical Monte Carlo analyses resting on a coupled electromechanical finite element model of the device. For each analysis, the polysilicon morphology was digitally built through a Voronoi tessellation of the moving structure, whose geometry was in turn varied by sampling out of a uniform probability density function the value of the over-etch, considered as the main source of geometrical imperfections. The comparison between the statistics of numerical and experimental results is adopted to assess the relative significance of the uncertainties linked to variations in the micro-fabrication process, and the mechanical film properties due to the polysilicon morphology.

  12. ZY3-02 Laser Altimeter On-orbit Geometrical Calibration and Test

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    TANG Xinming


    Full Text Available ZY3-02 is the first satellite equipped with a laser altimeter for earth observation in China .This laser altimeter is an experimental payload for land elevation measurement experiment. The ranging and pointing bias of the laser altimeter would change due to the launch vibration, the space environment difference or other factors, and that could bring plane and elevation errors of laser altimeter. In this paper, we propose an on-orbit geometric calibration method using a ground-based electro-optical detection system based on the analysis of ZY3-02 laser altimeter characteristic, and this method constructs the rigorous geometric calibration model, which consider the pointing and ranging bias as unknown systematic errors, and the unknown parameters are calibrated with laser spot's location captured by laser detectors and the minimum ranging error principle. With the ALOS-DSM data as reference, the elevation accuracy of the laser altimeter can be improved from 100~150 meters before calibration to 2~3 meters after calibration when the terrain slope is less than 2 degree. With several ground control points obtained with RTK in laser footprint for validation, the absolute elevation precision of laser altimeter in the flat area can reach about 1 meter after the calibration. The test results demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  13. Auditory Discrimination as a Condition for E-Learning Based Speech Therapy: A Proposal for an Auditory Discrimination Test (ADT) for Adult Dysarthric Speakers (United States)

    Beijer, L. J.; Rietveld, A. C. M.; van Stiphout, A. J. L.


    Background: Web based speech training for dysarthric speakers, such as E-learning based Speech Therapy (EST), puts considerable demands on auditory discrimination abilities. Aims: To discuss the development and the evaluation of an auditory discrimination test (ADT) for the assessment of auditory speech discrimination skills in Dutch adult…

  14. ASME B89.4.19 Performance Evaluation Tests and Geometric Misalignments in Laser Trackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralikrishnan, Bala


    Full Text Available Small and unintended offsets, tilts, and eccentricity of the mechanical and optical components in laser trackers introduce systematic errors in the measured spherical coordinates (angles and range readings and possibly in the calculated lengths of reference artifacts. It is desirable that the tests described in the ASME B89.4.19 Standard [1] be sensitive to these geometric misalignments so that any resulting systematic errors are identified during performance evaluation. In this paper, we present some analysis, using error models and numerical simulation, of the sensitivity of the length measurement system tests and two-face system tests in the B89.4.19 Standard to misalignments in laser trackers. We highlight key attributes of the testing strategy adopted in the Standard and propose new length measurement system tests that demonstrate improved sensitivity to some misalignments. Experimental results with a tracker that is not properly error corrected for the effects of the misalignments validate claims regarding the proposed new length tests.

  15. Danish validation of sniffin' sticks olfactory test for threshold, discrimination, and identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklassen, Andreas Steenholt; Ovesen, Therese; Fernandes, Henrique


    OBJECTIVES: The applicability of olfactory testing is dependent on cultural adaptation. The aim of this study was to validate the Sniffin' Sticks (Burghart Messtechnik, Wedel, Germany) threshold (T), discrimination (D), and identification (I) olfaction test. This data was subsequently used...

  16. Second-Order Geometric Sliding Mode Attitude Observer with Application to Quadrotor on a Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei An


    Full Text Available A sliding mode observer design framework is proposed based on the Lie group method of numerical integration on manifolds, and a Second-Order Geometric Sliding Mode Attitude Observer (SOGSMAO is designed for angular velocity estimation of quadrotor attitude. The algorithm constructs feedback in the angular velocity space and the space of equivalent Lie algebra of unit quaternion space, respectively. It avoids not only the complexity of constructing feedback in unit quaternion space but also the process of mandatory rescaling which is seen to deteriorate the accuracy of the angular velocity estimates during sliding. The performance of SOGSMAO is compared with traditional quaternion based sliding mode observer in which multiplicative quaternion correction is used and the results show that SOGSMAO gains better tracking performance. Then SOGSMAO is realized on a test bed and the effectiveness of the observer algorithm is verified by experimental studies.

  17. Fast Method for Geometric Calibration of Detectors and for Matching Testing between Two Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Petchenova, O Yu


    A fast method of geometric calibration of detectors has been proposed. The main idea of this method is to determine offsets by fitting the real data distribution by analytical functions which describe the motion of one detector relative to another one. This method can be applicable to offset determination for one detector relative to the other detector or for one part of the detector relative to its other part. The detectors should be placed perpendicular to the beam axis. The form of analytical functions depends on the geometry of experiment and on the direction of the coordinate axes. The analytical functions have been obtained using the rotation matrices. This method can be applied to matching testing between two detectors.

  18. Two-Point Discrimination Test in the Treatment of Right-handed Females with Lumbosacral Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Saeidian


    Full Text Available Non-somatic causes of pain may aggravate painful complaints and complicate the conservative management of diseases such as lumbo-sacral disk root disease. The two-point discrimination test has been used for assessment of diseases, which change patients' skin sensation. This study aims to find out how applicable is two-point discrimination test in the conservative treatment of lumbo-sacral disk diseases. Twenty right-handed females suffering from unilateral lumbo-sacral disk disease were admitted for a conservative treatment from 2006 to 2009. The treatment con-sisted of a week bed rest, physiotherapy, and medication. They were subjected to straight leg raising tests, and their pains were evaluated using visual analog scale. The values of two-point discrimination test were obtained bilaterally for L4, L5 and S1 dermatomes. Changes between the involved and intact lower limbs as well as values of two-point discrimination test before and after the treatment were also compared. In addition, the correlation between the outcome of two-point discrimination, straight leg raising tests, or pain scores were evaluated. There was a significant (P<0.001 difference between the changes in the values of two-point discrimination test, pain scales, or straight leg raising tests in the involved and intact limbs before and after the treatment. However, correlation among variables did not reach statistical significance (P<0.94, r=0.017. The results indicated that although two-point discrimination test is a feasible and objective tool to evaluate patients' improvements during the conservative management of lumbo-sacral disk diseases, there were no strong correlations between two-point discrimination test and straight leg raising tests, or pain scale.

  19. Two-Point Discrimination Test in the Treatment of Right-handed Females with Lumbosacral Radiculopathy (United States)

    Saeidian, Seyed Reza; Moghaddam, Hadi Fathi; Ahangarpour, Akram; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood


    Non-somatic causes of pain may aggravate painful complaints and complicate the conservative management of diseases such as lumbo-sacral disk root disease. The two-point discrimination test has been used for assessment of diseases, which change patients' skin sensation. This study aims to find out how applicable is two-point discrimination test in the conservative treatment of lumbo-sacral disk diseases. Twenty right-handed females suffering from unilateral lumbo-sacral disk disease were admitted for a conservative treatment from 2006 to 2009. The treatment consisted of a week bed rest, physiotherapy, and medication. They were subjected to straight leg raising tests, and their pains were evaluated using visual analog scale. The values of two-point discrimination test were obtained bilaterally for L4, L5 and S1 dermatomes. Changes between the involved and intact lower limbs as well as values of two-point discrimination test before and after the treatment were also compared. In addition, the correlation between the outcome of two-point discrimination, straight leg raising tests, or pain scores were evaluated. There was a significant (P<0.001) difference between the changes in the values of two-point discrimination test, pain scales, or straight leg raising tests in the involved and intact limbs before and after the treatment. However, correlation among variables did not reach statistical significance (P<0.94, r=0.017). The results indicated that although two-point discrimination test is a feasible and objective tool to evaluate patients' improvements during the conservative management of lumbo-sacral disk diseases, there were no strong correlations between two-point discrimination test and straight leg raising tests, or pain scale. PMID:23115415

  20. Testing coordinate measuring arms with a geometric feature-based gauge: in situ field trials (United States)

    Cuesta, E.; Alvarez, B. J.; Patiño, H.; Telenti, A.; Barreiro, J.


    This work describes in detail the definition of a procedure for calibrating and evaluating coordinate measuring arms (AACMMs or CMAs). CMAs are portable coordinate measuring machines that have been widely accepted in industry despite their sensitivity to the skill and experience of the operator in charge of the inspection task. The procedure proposed here is based on the use of a dimensional gauge that incorporates multiple geometric features, specifically designed for evaluating the measuring technique when CMAs are used, at company facilities (workshops or laboratories) and by the usual operators who handle these devices in their daily work. After establishing the procedure and manufacturing the feature-based gauge, the research project was complemented with diverse in situ field tests performed with the collaboration of companies that use these devices in their inspection tasks. Some of the results are presented here, not only comparing different operators but also comparing different companies. The knowledge extracted from these experiments has allowed the procedure to be validated, the defects of the methodologies currently used for in situ inspections to be detected, and substantial improvements for increasing the reliability of these portable instruments to be proposed.

  1. Modeling and testing of geometric processing model based on double baselines stereo photogrammetric system (United States)

    Li, Yingbo; Zhao, Sisi; Hu, Bin; Zhao, Haibo; He, Jinping; Zhao, Xuemin


    Aimed at key problems the system of 1:5000 scale space stereo mapping and the shortage of the surveying capability of urban area, in regard of the performance index and the surveying systems of the existing domestic optical mapping satellites are unable to meet the demand of the large scale stereo mapping, it is urgent to develop the very high accuracy space photogrammetric satellite system which has a 1:5000 scale (or larger).The new surveying systems of double baseline stereo photogrammetric mode with combined of linear array sensor and area array sensor was proposed, which aims at solving the problems of barriers, distortions and radiation differences in complex ground object mapping for the existing space stereo mapping technology. Based on collinearity equation, double baseline stereo photogrammetric method and the model of combined adjustment were presented, systematic error compensation for this model was analyzed, position precision of double baseline stereo photogrammetry based on both simulated images and images acquired under lab conditions was studied. The laboratory tests showed that camera geometric calibration accuracy is better than 1μm, the height positioning accuracy is better than 1.5GSD with GCPs. The results showed that the mode of combined of one linear array sensor and one plane array sensor had higher positioning precision. Explore the new system of 1:5000 scale very high accuracy space stereo mapping can provide available new technologies and strategies for achieving demotic very high accuracy space stereo mapping.

  2. Color discrimination across four life decades assessed by the Cambridge Colour Test. (United States)

    Paramei, Galina V


    Color discrimination was estimated using the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT) in 160 normal trichromats of four life decades, 20-59 years of age. For each age cohort, medians and tolerance limits of the CCT parameters are tabulated. Compared across the age cohorts (Kruskal-Wallis test), the Trivector test showed increases in the three vectors, Protan, Deutan, and Tritan, with advancing age; the Ellipses test revealed significant elongation of the major axes of all three ellipses but no changes in either the axis ratio or the angle of the ellipse major axis. Multiple comparisons (Mann-Whitney test) between the cohorts of four age decades (20+,…,50+) revealed initial benign deterioration of color discrimination in the 40+ decade, as an incremental loss of discrimination along the Deutan axis (Trivector test), and in the 50+ decade, as an elongation of the major axes of all three ellipses (Ellipses test). © 2012 Optical Society of America

  3. Convergent and Discriminant Validation of Oral Language Proficiency Tests. (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; Palmer, Adrian S.

    In a study designed to validate oral language proficiency tests, it is planned to administer a series of tests to 100 native Mandarin Chinese-speaking subjects (foreign students and their spouses). The tests will measure communicative competence in speaking (ability to speak, exhibiting control of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and pragmatic rules;…

  4. Discriminant Analysis of Basketball Skill Tests and Biographic Data. (United States)

    Fratzke, Mel R.

    One of the greatest problems that has confronted the physical education profession is that of evaluating sport skill tests and their relationship to successful performance. This study was thus undertaken to investigate the relationship of basketball skill tests and player biographic data to success in playing basketball. Ninety-four subjects ages…

  5. What's in a name? A field experiment test for the existence of ethnic discrimination in the hiring process


    Bursell, Moa


    This paper provides evidence of extensive ethnic discrimination in the Swedish labour market. A field experiment (correspondence test) that tests employer discrimination has been performed. Pairs of equally merited applications has been sent to job openings, one with a Swedish sounding name and one with a foreign sounding name. Discrimination is measured by documenting the existence of an ethnic difference in call-backs. The results indicate that there is discrimination in all of the occupati...

  6. Discriminating chaotic and stochastic dynamics through the permutation spectrum test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulp, C. W., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Lycoming College, Williamsport, Pennsylvania 17701 (United States); Zunino, L., E-mail: [Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas (CONICET La Plata—CIC), C.C. 3, 1897 Gonnet (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    In this paper, we propose a new heuristic symbolic tool for unveiling chaotic and stochastic dynamics: the permutation spectrum test. Several numerical examples allow us to confirm the usefulness of the introduced methodology. Indeed, we show that it is robust in situations in which other techniques fail (intermittent chaos, hyperchaotic dynamics, stochastic linear and nonlinear correlated dynamics, and deterministic non-chaotic noise-driven dynamics). We illustrate the applicability and reliability of this pragmatic method by examining real complex time series from diverse scientific fields. Taking into account that the proposed test has the advantages of being conceptually simple and computationally fast, we think that it can be of practical utility as an alternative test for determinism.

  7. Response to “Rapid tests for HIV type discrimination in West Africa may perform differently”

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tchounga, Boris K; Ekouevi, Didier K; Eholie, Serge P


    ... of each test used for the initial discrimination of HIV‐positive patients. Our team previously conducted in 2004 a field evaluation of rapid HIV serologic tests in Côte d'Ivoire and highlighted the lower accuracy of Genie II for differentiating between HIV‐1, HIV‐2 and dually reactive patients [ 4 ]. In our most recent study, the initial HIV diag...

  8. Response to "Rapid tests for HIV type discrimination in West Africa may perform differently"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tchounga, Boris K; Ekouevi, Didier K; Eholie, Serge P


    ... test used for the initial discrimination of HIV-positive patients. Our team previously conducted in 2004 a field evaluation of rapid HIV serologic tests in Cote d'Ivoire and highlighted the lower accuracy of Genie II for differentiating between HIV-1, HIV-2 and dually reactive patients [4]. In our most recent study, the initial HIV diagnostic te...

  9. Racial Discrimination and Mental Health in the USA: Testing the Reverse Racism Hypothesis. (United States)

    Woo, Bongki


    The present study examined whether the health disadvantages consequent of racial discrimination experienced by four racial/ethnic minority groups are equivalent with that of the dominant racial group. Data was derived from the 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression and heterogeneous choice models were used to test the moderating role of race/ethnicity in regards to the associations between racial discrimination and ten DSM-V diagnoses. Non-Hispanic blacks reported the highest levels of experiencing racial discrimination, while Non-Hispanic whites reported the lowest. Exposure to racial discrimination was associated with higher odds of psychiatric disorders for non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics than it was for non-Hispanic whites, while non-Hispanic American Indians/Alaska Natives had lower odds of psychiatric disorders. Analyses indicated that racial discrimination poses stronger mental health disadvantages on racial/ethnic minorities than it does to non-Hispanic whites. This finding not only refutes the notion of reverse racism, but also calls for more efforts to close the racial/ethnic health gap for those exposed to racial discrimination.

  10. Sporadic adult onset primary torsion dystonia is a genetic disorder by the temporal discrimination test.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kimmich, Okka


    Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance; patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia are much more prevalent than familial. The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous and has been shown to be abnormal in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia. The aim was to determine the frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and their first-degree relatives. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first relatives would be compatible with an autosomal dominant endophenotype. Temporal discrimination thresholds were examined in 61 control subjects (39 subjects <50 years of age; 22 subjects >50 years of age), 32 patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (cervical dystonia n = 30, spasmodic dysphonia n = 1 and Meige\\'s syndrome n = 1) and 73 unaffected first-degree relatives (36 siblings, 36 offspring and one parent) using visual and tactile stimuli. Z-scores were calculated for all subjects; a Z > 2.5 was considered abnormal. Abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds were found in 1\\/61 (2%) control subjects, 27\\/32 (84%) patients with adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and 32\\/73 (44%) unaffected relatives [siblings (20\\/36; 56%), offspring (11\\/36; 31%) and one parent]. When two or more relatives were tested in any one family, 22 of 24 families had at least one first-degree relative with an abnormal temporal discrimination threshold. The frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first-degree relatives of patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is compatible with an autosomal dominant disorder and supports the hypothesis that apparently sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is genetic in origin.

  11. Testing hydrometeor particle type discrimination derived from CloudSat and CALIPSO (United States)

    Kikuchi, Maki; Okamoto, Hajime; Sato, Kaori; Hagihara, Yuichiro


    We developed a test version of algorithm that discriminate cloud/precipitation phase and ice cloud particle shape (hereafter, hydrometeor particle type) from the synergy use of the cloud profiling radar (CPR) onboard CloudSat satellite and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite. We used the CALIOP classification algorithm that was developed by Yoshida et al. (2010) and modified by Hirakata et al. (2014). The CPR algorithm mainly consisted of the following steps: (1) initial discrimination by the look-up-table derived from the match-up statistical analysis of the CPR radar reflectivity, CALIOP cloud particle type and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation, and (2) precipitation correction of initial discrimination by unattenuated surface radar reflectivity. Lastly, the CPR and CALIOP synergy particle type was discriminated, simply by selecting the hydrometeor type that was most reasonable. In this study, we showed two case studies of the CPR, the CALIOP and the synergy discrimination results. By taking the advantage of CPR's capability to penetrate into thick cloud and observe light precipitation, and CALIOP's sensitivity to detect thin ice clouds, the synergy algorithm gave seamless vertical profile from thin cloud to precipitation.

  12. Testing the convergent and discriminant validity of the Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change Initial scales. (United States)

    Zinbarg, Richard E; Pinsof, William; Quirk, Kelley; Kendall, Ashley; Goldsmith, Jacob; Hardy, Nathan; He, Yaliu; Sabey, Allen; Latta, Tara


    The Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change (STIC ® ) is the first multi-systemic and multi-dimensional measurement and feedback system designed for assessment in family, couple, and individual functioning. Patients fill out the STIC Initial before the first session to identify treatment targets and provide starting values for subsequent assessments of trajectories of change. This study tested the construct validity of five of the six STIC Initial scales. We administered both the STIC Initial and a set of validity measures to a relatively large sample of patients. Convergent and discriminant validity were tested using both an examination of observed correlations and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The correlations among the observed measures showed that the convergent validity coefficients were generally large, whereas the discriminant validity coefficients were moderate to small. Similarly, CFAs suggested that the STIC total scales and subscales are good indicators of the factors they were intended to measure and that the STIC total scales and subscales are weakly related to the factors they were intended to not measure. The results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the five scales of the STIC Initial. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: The clinical significance of this article is that it demonstrates that the STIC Initial should be useful for identifying treatment targets including both which systems, in addition to the facets within each system, that require targeting. The methodological significance is twofold. First, the use of CFA for testing convergent and discriminant validity is still relatively rare. Second, we demonstrated how to use CFA for a more stringent test of discriminant validity compared with the original approach described by Cole ( 1987 ).

  13. Determinants of Difficulty and Discriminating Power of Image-based Test Items in Postgraduate Radiological Examinations. (United States)

    Rutgers, Dirk R; van Raamt, Fleur; van der Gijp, Anouk; Mol, Christian; Ten Cate, Olle


    The psychometric characteristics of image-based test items in radiological written examinations are not well known. In this study, we explored difficulty and discriminating power of these test items in postgraduate radiological digital examinations. We reviewed test items of seven Dutch Radiology Progress Tests (DRPTs) that were taken from October 2013 to April 2017. The DRPT is a semiannual formative examination, required for all Dutch radiology residents. We assessed several stimulus and response characteristics of test items. The response format of test items included true or false, single right multiple choice with 2, 3, 4, or ≥5 answer options, pick-N multiple-choice, drag-and-drop, and long-list-menu formats. We calculated item P values and item-rest-correlation (Rir) values to assess difficulty and discriminating power. We performed linear regression analysis in image-based test items to investigate whether P and Rir values were significantly related to stimulus and response characteristics. Also, we compared psychometric indices between image-based test items and text-alone items. P and Rir values of image-based items (n = 369) were significantly related to the type of response format (P < .001), and not to which of the seven DRPTs the item was obtained from, radiological subspecialty domain, nonvolumetric or volumetric character of images, or context-rich or context-free character of the stimulus. When accounted for type of response format, difficulty and discriminating power of image-based items did not differ significantly from text-alone items (n = 881). Test items with a relatively large number of answer options were generally more difficult, and discriminated better among high- and low-performing candidates. In postgraduate radiological written examinations, difficulty and discriminating power of image-based test items are related to the type of response format and are comparable to those of text-alone items. We recommend a response

  14. Discriminating clinical from nonclinical manifestations of test anxiety: a validation study. (United States)

    Herzer, Frank; Wendt, Julia; Hamm, Alfons O


    Test anxiety, although being a very common, severe, and impairing psychological disorder, is not coded as a separate diagnosis in the DSM or ICD. In the present study we investigated whether the Test Anxiety Inventory can be used to discriminate clinical and subclinical levels of test anxiety by comparing patients who seek treatment for their test anxiety in an outpatient clinic with carefully matched students with normal test anxiety. The data from 47 test-anxious patients as well as 41 healthy university students were examined. Results show that a cutoff score of ≥80 in the Test Anxiety Inventory can discriminate the clinical group from the control students. The symptom pattern of test anxiety was very consistent in the clinical group regardless of the principal diagnosis allocated by the treating clinician. Comorbid depression did not affect the severity of test anxiety. The motivation to avoid failure was one of the most important differences between patients who sought help for their test anxiety and students with nonclinical levels of test anxiety. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Reliability, construct and discriminative validity of clinical testing in subjects with and without chronic neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, René; Ris Hansen, Inge; Falla, Deborah


    -retest reliability in people with and without chronic neck pain. Moreover, construct and between-group discriminative validity of the tests were examined. METHODS: Twenty-one participants with chronic neck pain and 21 asymptomatic participants were included. Intra- and inter-reliability were evaluated for the Cranio......-Cervical Flexion Test (CCFT), Range of Movement (ROM), Joint Position Error (JPE), Gaze Stability (GS), Smooth Pursuit Neck Torsion Test (SPNTT), and neuromuscular control of the Deep Cervical Extensors (DCE). Test-retest reliability was assessed for Postural Control (SWAY) and Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) over...... neck pain....

  16. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika M. J.; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe


    in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember...... the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test......, all minipigs performed 9/12 correct choices or better. Juvenile Gottingen minipigs are able to learn to perform in a spatial hole-board discrimination test as well as in a visual discrimination test, showing an increase in performance over time. Both tests have considerable scope to assess learning...

  17. Development and Validation of Discriminating and Biorelevant Dissolution Test for Lornoxicam Tablets (United States)

    Anumolu, P. D.; Sunitha, G.; Bindu, S. Hima; Satheshbabu, P. R.; Subrahmanyam, C. V. S.


    The establishment of biorelevant and discriminating dissolution procedure for drug products with limited water solubility is a useful technique for qualitative forecasting of the in vivo behavior of formulations. It also characterizes the drug product performance in pharmaceutical development. Lornoxicam, a BCS class-II drug is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug of the oxicam class, has no official dissolution media available in the literature. The objective of present work was to develop and validate a discriminating and biorelevant dissolution test for lornoxicam tablet dosage forms. To quantify the lornoxicam in dissolution samples, UV spectrophotometric method was developed using 0.01M sodium hydroxide solution as solvent at λma×376 nm. After evaluation of saturation solubility, dissolution, sink conditions and stability of lornoxicam bulk drug in different pH solutions and biorelevant media, the dissolution method was optimized using USP paddle type apparatus at 50 rpm rotation speed and 500 ml simulated intestinal fluid as discriminating and biorelevant dissolution medium. The similarity factor (f2) were investigated for formulations with changes in composition and manufacturing variations, values revealed that dissolution method having discriminating power and method was validated as per standard guidelines. The proposed dissolution method can be effectively applied for routine quality control in vitro dissolution studies of lornoxicam in tablets and helpful to pharmacopoeias. PMID:26180277

  18. Geometrical Feature Extraction from Ultrasonic Time Frequency Responses: An Application to Nondestructive Testing of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo Valery


    Full Text Available Signal processing is an essential tool in nondestructive material characterization. Pulse-echo inspection with ultrasonic energy provides signals (A-scans that can be processed in order to obtain parameters which are related to physical properties of inspected materials. Conventional techniques are based on the use of a short-term frequency analysis of the A-scan, obtaining a time-frequency response (TFR, to isolate the evolution of the different frequency-dependent parameters. The application of geometrical estimators to TFRs provides an innovative way to complement conventional techniques based on the one-dimensional evolution of an A-scan extracted parameter (central or centroid frequency, bandwidth, etc.. This technique also provides an alternative method of obtaining similar meaning and less variance estimators. A comparative study of conventional versus new proposed techniques is presented in this paper. The comparative study shows that working with binarized TFRs and the use of shape descriptors provide estimates with lower bias and variance than conventional techniques. Real scattering materials, with different scatterer sizes, have been measured in order to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed estimators to distinguish among scattering soft tissues. Superior results, using the proposed estimators in real measures, were obtained when classifying according to mean scatterer size.

  19. Effect Analysis of Geometric Parameters on Stainless Steel Stamping Multistage Pump by Experimental Test and Numerical Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang


    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of stainless steel stamping multistage pump, quadratic regression orthogonal test, hydraulic design, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD are used to analyze the effect of pump geometric parameters. Sixteen impellers are designed based on the quadratic regression orthogonal test, which have three factors including impeller outlet slope, impeller blade outlet stagger angle, and impeller blade outlet width. Through quadratic regression equation, the function relationship between efficiency values and three factors is established. The optimal combination of geometric parameters is found through the analysis of the regression equation. To further study the influence of blade thickness on the performance of multistage pump, numerical simulations of multistage pump with different blade thicknesses are carried out. The influence law of blade thickness on pump performance is built from the external characteristics and internal flow field. In conclusion, with the increase of blade thickness, the best efficiency point of the pump shifts to the small flow rate direction, and the vortex regions inside the pump at rated flow gradually increase, which is the main reason that pump efficiency decreases along with the increase of the blade thickness at rated flow.

  20. A Stroop Stepping Test (SST) using low-cost computer game technology discriminates between older fallers and non-fallers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schoene, Daniel; Smith, Stuart T; Davies, Thomas A; Delbaere, Kim; Lord, Stephen R


    .... We developed a Stroop Stepping Test (SST) that combines stepping and response inhibition using low-cost computer game technology to provide a functional measure that reflects real-life behaviour and determined whether this test discriminates...

  1. Social Media Monitoring of Discrimination and HIV Testing in Brazil, 2014-2015. (United States)

    Nielsen, René Clausen; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel; Mello, Maeve B; Paz, Josi; Pantin, Colin; Erkkola, Taavi


    Big data can be used to assess perceptions about public health issues. This study assessed social media data from Twitter to inform communication campaigns to promote HIV testing and reduce discrimination related to HIV/AIDS or towards key populations to the HIV epidemic, and its potential utility to evaluate such campaigns through HIV testing uptake. Tweets from Brazil were collected from January 2014 to March 2015 and filtered by four categories of keywords including discrimination, HIV prevention, HIV testing, and HIV campaigns. In total over 100,000 geo-located tweets were extracted and analyzed. A dynamic online dashboard updated daily allowed mapping trends, anomalies and influencers, and enabled its use for feedback to campaigns, including correcting misconceptions. These results encourage the use of social networking data for improved messaging in campaigns. Clinical HIV test data was collected monthly from the city of Curitiba and compared to the number of tweets mapped to the city showing a moderate positive correlation (r = 0.39). Results are limited due to the availability of the HIV testing data. The potential of social media as a proxy for HIV testing uptake needs further validation, which can only be done with higher frequency and higher spatial granularity of service delivery data, enabling comparisons with the social media data. Such timely information could empower early response immediate media messaging to support programmatic efforts, such as HIV prevention, testing, and treatment scale up.

  2. Hierarchies of geometric entanglement (United States)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; de Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.


    We introduce a class of generalized geometric measures of entanglement. For pure quantum states of N elementary subsystems, they are defined as the distances from the sets of K -separable states (K=2,…,N) . The entire set of generalized geometric measures provides a quantification and hierarchical ordering of the different bipartite and multipartite components of the global geometric entanglement, and allows discrimination among the different contributions. The extended measures are applied to the study of entanglement in different classes of N -qubit pure states. These classes include W and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, and their symmetric superpositions; symmetric multimagnon states; cluster states; and, finally, asymmetric generalized W -like superposition states. We discuss in detail a general method for the explicit evaluation of the multipartite components of geometric entanglement, and we show that the entire set of geometric measures establishes an ordering among the different types of bipartite and multipartite entanglement. In particular, it determines a consistent hierarchy between GHZ and W states, clarifying the original result of Wei and Goldbart that W states possess a larger global entanglement than GHZ states. Furthermore, we show that all multipartite components of geometric entanglement in symmetric states obey a property of self-similarity and scale invariance with the total number of qubits and the number of qubits per party.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi


    Full Text Available Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had been elected with the help of the sociometric test. Analyses were made with the program SPSS 8.0. The discriminative analysis has determined that the differences in the arithmetic means between the groups of basketball players who had most positive points and the group of basketball players who had most negative points in some tests for assessing situation-motor abilities do not exist

  4. Diagnosis of unilateral telencephalic hearing disorders. Evaluation of a simple psychoacoustic pattern discrimination test. (United States)

    Blaettner, U; Scherg, M; von Cramon, D


    A new psychoacoustic pattern discrimination test (PPDT) has been validated for the diagnosis of telencephalic hearing disorders. In this test, regular sequences of noise bursts or click trains are presented dichotically, and randomly occurring monaural changes in intensity or click pattern have to be discriminated. The PPDT was administered to 48 control subjects and to 62 patients with circumscribed cerebrovascular lesions. Involvement of telencephalic auditory structures (TAS) was assessed from CT scans. Abnormality in the PPDT was highly correlated with the incidence of a TAS lesion. The most prominent abnormality consisted of an increased error rate (missed discriminations) on the ear contralateral to the TAS lesion, comparable to the ear effect described for former dichotic tests. In normals, no ear dominance, which might have confounded the interpretation of lesion effects in patients, was observed for our test material. Also, the influence of peripheral hearing loss on test results was small. Criteria for the clinical evaluation of the PPDT were developed and yielded a good sensitivity (76.1%) when related to the CT scan data. Abnormality in the PPDT was also confirmed by reduced auditory evoked dipole source potentials in the lesioned hemisphere. Disturbances in auditory language comprehension in aphasic patients were not significantly related to a positive PPDT result, but a questionnaire about hearing difficulties revealed a close association of PPDT abnormality and auditory perceptual disturbances. These occurred only in difficult hearing environments, for example, the cocktail party situation. It must be concluded that unilateral TAS lesions lead to auditory perceptual impairment and communication problems, which should be given adequate attention during neuropsychological rehabilitation.

  5. Objective Tests and Their Discriminating Power in Business Courses: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard B. Cornachione Jr.


    Full Text Available Evaluating students’ learning experiences outcomes cannot be considered a simple task. This paper aims at investigating students’ overall performance and the discriminating power of particular tests’ items in the context of business courses. The purpose of this paper is to contribute with this issue while analyzing it, with scientific approach, from an accounting information systems standpoint: two experiments based on a database management system (DBMS undergraduate course, involving 66 and 62 students (experiments E1 and E2, respectively. The discriminant analysis generated discriminant functions with high canonical correlations (E1=0.898 and E2= 0.789. As a result, high percentages of original grouped cases were correctly classified (E1=98.5% and E2= 95.2% based on a relatively small number of items: 7 out of 22 items from E1 (multiple-choice, and 3 out of 6 from E2 (short-answer. So, with only a few items from the analyzed instruments it is possible todiscriminate “good” or “bad” academic performance, and this is a measure of quality of the observed testing instruments. According to these findings, especially in business area, instructors and institutions, together, are able to analyze and act towards improving their assessment methods, to be of minimum influence whileevaluating students’ performance.

  6. Geometric classification of scalp hair for valid drug testing, 6 more reliable than 8 hair curl groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mkentane

    Full Text Available Curly hair is reported to contain higher lipid content than straight hair, which may influence incorporation of lipid soluble drugs. The use of race to describe hair curl variation (Asian, Caucasian and African is unscientific yet common in medical literature (including reports of drug levels in hair. This study investigated the reliability of a geometric classification of hair (based on 3 measurements: the curve diameter, curl index and number of waves.After ethical approval and informed consent, proximal virgin (6cm hair sampled from the vertex of scalp in 48 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Three raters each scored hairs from 48 volunteers at two occasions each for the 8 and 6-group classifications. One rater applied the 6-group classification to 80 additional volunteers in order to further confirm the reliability of this system. The Kappa statistic was used to assess intra and inter rater agreement.Each rater classified 480 hairs on each occasion. No rater classified any volunteer's 10 hairs into the same group; the most frequently occurring group was used for analysis. The inter-rater agreement was poor for the 8-groups (k = 0.418 but improved for the 6-groups (k = 0.671. The intra-rater agreement also improved (k = 0.444 to 0.648 versus 0.599 to 0.836 for 6-groups; that for the one evaluator for all volunteers was good (k = 0.754.Although small, this is the first study to test the reliability of a geometric classification. The 6-group method is more reliable. However, a digital classification system is likely to reduce operator error. A reliable objective classification of human hair curl is long overdue, particularly with the increasing use of hair as a testing substrate for treatment compliance in Medicine.

  7. The stability of color discrimination threshold determined using pseudoisochromatic test plates (United States)

    Zutere, B.; Jurasevska Luse, K.; Livzane, A.


    Congenital red-green color vision deficiency is one of the most common genetic disorders. A previously printed set of pseudoisochromatic plates (KAMS test, 2012) was created for individual discrimination threshold determination in case of mild congenital red-green color vision deficiency using neutral colors (colors confused with gray). The diagnostics of color blind subjects was performed with Richmond HRR (4th edition, 2002) test, Oculus HMC anomaloscope, and further the examination was made using the KAMS test. 4 male subjects aged 20 to 24 years old participated in the study: all of them were diagnosed with deuteranomalia. Due to the design of the plates, the threshold of every subject in each trial was defined as the plate total color difference value ΔE at which the stimulus was detected 75% of the time, so the just-noticeable difference (jnd) was calculated in CIE LAB DeltaE (ΔE) units. Authors performed repeated discrimination threshold measurements (5 times) for all four subjects under controlled illumination conditions. Psychophysical data were taken by sampling an observer's performance on a psychophysical task at a number of different stimulus saturation levels. Results show that a total color difference value ΔE threshold exists for each individual tested with the KAMS pseudoisochromatic plates, this threshold value does not change significantly in multiple measurements. Deuteranomal threshold values aquired using greenish plates of KAMS test are significantly higher than thresholds acquired using reddish plates. A strong positive correlation (R=0.94) exists between anomaloscope matching range (MR) and deuteranomal thresholds aquired by the KAMS test and (R=0.81) between error score in the Richmond HRR test and thresholds aquired by the KAMS test.

  8. Test-retest reliability and descriptive statistics of geometric measurements based on plantar pressure measurements in a healthy population during gait. (United States)

    Akins, Jonathan S; Keenan, Karen A; Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Lephart, Scott M


    Previous studies have demonstrated that pressure, force, area, and time measurements can be reliably collected from pedobaragraphic platforms, but no studies have analyzed geometric measurements. The purpose of this study was to establish the test-retest reliability of geometric measurements obtained during gait at a self-selected speed using a two-step approach. Data were collected on both feet for 10 healthy participants using the emed-x platform. Reliability of 15 geometric measurements was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). All 15 measurements were demonstrated to be reliable (ICC>0.8), with 12 measurements ICC>0.90. Collection of geometric measurements at a self-selected pace with the emed-x platform was found to be reliable and can be used for investigation in research settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG: a new test for discriminating gestational trophoblastic diseases. (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A


    Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a variant of hCG with large oligosaccharide side chains. Although hCG is produced by syncytiotrophoblast cells, hyperglycosylated hCG marks cytotrophoblast cell. Hyperglycosylated hCG signals placental implantation. Total hCG in serum and urine is measured by the Siemens Immulite hCG pregnancy test; the result is in milli-international unit per milliliter. Hyperglycosylated hCG is determined by the B152 microtiter plate assay; the result is in nanogram per milliliter. Hyperglycosylated hCG results can be converted to milli-international unit per milliliter equivalents by multiplying by 11. The test measures proportion hyperglycosylated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG / total hCG. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG marks cases intent on developing persistent hydatidiform mole (68% detection at 17% false detection). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG also marks persistent hydatidiform mole (100% detection at 5.1% false detection). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG distinguishes choriocarcinoma and gestational trophoblastic neoplasm cases, absolutely discriminating aggressive cases and minimally aggressive cases. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG identifies quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease cases. It recognizes quiescent cases that become persistent disease (100% detection at 0% false positive). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG is an invaluable test for discriminating gestational trophoblastic diseases.

  10. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Level 1) to discriminate elite junior Australian football players. (United States)

    Veale, James P; Pearce, Alan J; Carlson, John S


    The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery (IR) Test is currently used to assess endurance performance in team sport athletes. However, to date, no data has been presented on its application to an elite junior Australian football (AF) playing group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (IR1) ability to discriminate between junior AF players at two different playing standards and a group of non-athletic healthy males. Sixty age matched participants (16.6+/-0.5 years) spread over three groups (20 per group): elite junior footballers; sub-elite junior footballers; and non-athletic healthy males participated in this study. Participants undertook a single Yo-Yo test performance on an indoor basketball court for each group. A one-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post hoc analysis revealed the elite junior footballers covered a significantly greater total distance (p<0.001) and completed a significantly greater number of high-intensity efforts (p<0.001) in comparison to their sub-elite counterparts, whilst both AF groups performed significantly better (p<0.001) than the non-athletic healthy males. This study demonstrates the ability of the Yo-Yo IR1 to discriminate endurance performance between elite and sub-elite AF players, whilst further distinguishing AF players from a non-athletic healthy control group. 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, Hubert L; Mazzeo, Rafe; Sesum, Natasa


    This volume includes expanded versions of the lectures delivered in the Graduate Minicourse portion of the 2013 Park City Mathematics Institute session on Geometric Analysis. The papers give excellent high-level introductions, suitable for graduate students wishing to enter the field and experienced researchers alike, to a range of the most important areas of geometric analysis. These include: the general issue of geometric evolution, with more detailed lectures on Ricci flow and Kähler-Ricci flow, new progress on the analytic aspects of the Willmore equation as well as an introduction to the recent proof of the Willmore conjecture and new directions in min-max theory for geometric variational problems, the current state of the art regarding minimal surfaces in R^3, the role of critical metrics in Riemannian geometry, and the modern perspective on the study of eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for Laplace-Beltrami operators.

  12. Body shape shifting during growth permits tests that distinguish between competing geometric theories of metabolic scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Glazier, Douglas S.; Atkinson, David


    the size dependence of metabolism is derived from material transport across external surfaces, or through internal resource-transport networks. We show that when body shape changes during growth, these models make opposing predictions. These models are tested using pelagic invertebrates, because...... these animals exhibit highly variable intraspecific scaling relationships for metabolic rate and body shape. Metabolic scaling slopes of diverse integument-breathing species were significantly positively correlated with degree of body flattening or elongation during ontogeny, as expected from surface area...... theory, but contradicting the negative correlations predicted by resource-transport network models. This finding explains strong deviations from predictions of widely adopted theory, and underpins a new explanation for mass-invariant metabolic scaling during ontogeny in animals and plants...

  13. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia


    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of Quantitative Sensory Testing to Discriminate Inflammatory Toothache and Intraoral Neuropathic Pain. (United States)

    Porporatti, André Luís; Costa, Yuri Martins; Stuginski-Barbosa, Juliana; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Duarte, Marco Antônio Hungaro; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues


    A differential diagnosis between inflammatory toothache (IT) and intraoral neuropathic pain is challenging. The aim of this diagnostic study was to quantify somatosensory function of subjects with IT (acute pulpitis) and atypical odontalgia (AO, intraoral neuropathic pain) and healthy volunteers and to quantify how accurately quantitative sensory testing (QST) discriminates an IT or AO diagnosis. The sample consisted of 60 subjects equally divided (n = 20) into 3 groups: (1) IT, (2) AO, and (3) control. A sequence of 4 QST methods was performed over the dentoalveolar mucosa in the apical maxillar or mandibular area: mechanical detection threshold, pain detection threshold (PDT), dynamic mechanical allodynia, and temporal summation. One-way analysis of variance, Tukey post hoc analyses, and z score transformation were applied to the data. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratio of the QST methods were calculated (α = 5%). Somatosensory abnormalities were found for the AO group, which is consistent with a low detection threshold to touch and pain and the presence of mechanical allodynia. For the IT group, no somatosensory abnormality was observed when compared with the control group. The most accurate QST to discriminate the diagnostic differences between IT and healthy individuals is the PDT. The diagnostic differences between AO and healthy individuals and between IT and AO are best discriminated with the mechanical detection threshold, PDT, and dynamic mechanical allodynia. The proposed QST methods may aid in the differential diagnosis between IT and AO with strong accuracy and may be used as complementary diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Discrimination and Relocation of The 2013 North Korea Underground Nuclear Test: A New Contribution (United States)

    Sianipar, D. S.


    We successfully give contribution in discriminating the 2013 North Korea underground nuclear test from natural earthquakes by using analysis of ratio of seismic energy and seismic moment (Ɵ) and analysis of the rupture duration. We used the waveform data of the shallow seismic event which occurred in the region of North Korea mainland and vicinity in last decade. We conclude that this earthquake was a shallow seismic event with explosion characteristics and can be discriminated from a natural or tectonic earthquake. The 2013 North Korea test earthquake had 2.817822 x 1019 N.m of the seismic moment and 7.652314 x 1014 N.m of radiated seismic energy and -4.56 of the Ɵ value. The equivalent Ɵ value with the two previous nuclear events and differences with natural earthquakes was considered as an implication of the explosion event. The rupture duration value of this event was 11.13 s. The very low value of the rupture duration from the three nuclear tests event shows us the characteristic of the explosion. We also give contribution in determining the high precision location of the 2013 nuclear test earthquake using relocation algorithm of Modified Joint Hypocenter Determination (MJHD) and double difference using IMS CTBTO, BMKG, regional and global seismic stations respectively. We also compared the relative location results with absolute location method of Simulated Annealing (SA). Results of the all relocation method in this study show the locations with distance less than 7 km from the Punggye-ri nuclear test facility. A result was compared with the relocation results by all possible combination of seismic phase data and stations and by previous researchers and analyzed using topographic data satellite imagery. We proposed that the northwest of the Punggye-ri facility (named "A" location) in coordinate 129.04 E and 41.29 N with elevation around 2050-2150 meter is the high possibility location of the 2013 North Korea underground nuclear test.

  16. Do the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery episodic memory measures discriminate amnestic mild cognitive impairment? (United States)

    Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Pereiro, Arturo X; Facal, David; Reboredo, Alba; Lojo-Seoane, Cristina


    Although visual recognition memory and visuospatial paired associates learning has been shown to be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), the sensitivity and specificity of the visual memory tests used to identify aMCI are not well defined. The current study attempted to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of three visual episodic memory tests (Pattern Recognition Memory [PRM], Delayed Matching to Sample [DMS], and Paired Associated Learning [PAL]) from the CANTAB, in differentiating aMCI patients from control healthy participants. Seventy seven aMCI patients and 85 cognitive normal controls aged over 50 years performed the PRM, DMS, and PAL tests. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to study the relationships between aMCI and visual memory measures. The three Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery measures significantly predicted aMCI. The optimal predictive model combined the total percent correct responses for PRM and DMS with the PAL total errors (six shapes adjusted), with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 83%, and achieved predictive accuracy of 80%. Visual episodic memory tasks such as those involved in the PRM, DMS, and PAL tests (included in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) may sensitively discriminate aMCI patients from normal controls. These tests may be useful for correct diagnosis of aMCI. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The Effects of Test Order and Nodal Distance on the Emergence and Stability of Derived Discriminative Stimulus Functions (United States)

    Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Dymond, Simon


    The present study examined the effects of equivalence test order and nodal distance on the emergence and stability of derived discriminative stimulus functions. Participants in 1 group were exposed to a transfer of functions test following a symmetry and equivalence test, another group of participants completed a symmetry and equivalence test…

  18. The Validation of a Learning Hierarchy in Tactual Discrimination for Blind Children. (United States)

    Kershman, Susan M.

    A study was initiated with 60 blind children (kindergarten through grade 2) in order to validate the order of a sequence of tactual discrimination tasks leading to the use of braille and the Optacon. Ss were tested with tasks designed for the readiness level (discrimination of large solid geometric shapes, flat puzzle pieces, embossed dot…

  19. Discrimination and Well-being: Testing the differential source and Organizational Justice theories of workplace aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, S.; Braeken, J.; Niven, K.


    People may be subjected to discrimination from a variety of sources in the workplace. In this study of mental health workers, we contrast four potential perpetrators of discrimination (managers, co-workers, patients, and visitors) to investigate whether the negative impact of discrimination on

  20. Pitch chroma discrimination, generalization, and transfer tests of octave equivalence in humans. (United States)

    Hoeschele, Marisa; Weisman, Ronald G; Sturdy, Christopher B


    Octave equivalence occurs when notes separated by an octave (a doubling in frequency) are judged as being perceptually similar. Considerable evidence points to the importance of the octave in music and speech. Yet, experimental demonstration of octave equivalence has been problematic. Using go/no-go operant discrimination and generalization, we studied octave equivalence in humans. In Experiment 1, we found that a procedure that failed to show octave equivalence in European starlings also failed in humans. In Experiment 2, we modified the procedure to control for the effects of pitch height perception by training participants in Octave 4 and testing in Octave 5. We found that the pattern of responding developed by discrimination training in Octave 4 generalized to Octave 5. We replicated and extended our findings in Experiment 3 by adding a transfer phase: Participants were trained with either the same or a reversed pattern of rewards in Octave 5. Participants transferred easily to the same pattern of reward in Octave 5 but struggled to learn the reversed pattern. We provided minimal instruction, presented no ordered sequences of notes, and used only sine-wave tones, but participants nonetheless constructed pitch chroma information from randomly ordered sequences of notes. Training in music weakly hindered octave generalization but moderately facilitated both positive and negative transfer.

  1. Geometric mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz Oliva, Waldyr


    Geometric Mechanics here means mechanics on a pseudo-riemannian manifold and the main goal is the study of some mechanical models and concepts, with emphasis on the intrinsic and geometric aspects arising in classical problems. The first seven chapters are written in the spirit of Newtonian Mechanics while the last two ones as well as two of the four appendices describe the foundations and some aspects of Special and General Relativity. All the material has a coordinate free presentation but, for the sake of motivation, many examples and exercises are included in order to exhibit the desirable flavor of physical applications.

  2. Perceived discrimination, group identification, and life satisfaction among multiracial people: a test of the rejection-identification model. (United States)

    Giamo, Lisa S; Schmitt, Michael T; Outten, H Robert


    Like other racial minority groups, multiracial people face discrimination as a function of their racial identity, and this discrimination represents a threat to psychological well-being. Following the Rejection-Identification Model (RIM; Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999), we argue that perceived discrimination will encourage multiracial people to identify more strongly with other multiracials, and that multiracial identification, in turn, fosters psychological well-being. Thus, multiracial identification is conceptualized as a coping response that reduces the overall costs of discrimination on well-being. This study is the first to test the RIM in a sample of multiracial people. Multiracial participants' perceptions of discrimination were negatively related to life satisfaction. Consistent with the RIM, perceived discrimination was positively related to three aspects of multiracial group identification: stereotyping the self as similar to other multiracial people, perceiving people within the multiracial category as more homogenous, and expressing solidarity with the multiracial category. Self-stereotyping was the only aspect of group identification that mediated a positive relationship between perceived discrimination and life satisfaction, suggesting that multiracial identification's protective properties rest in the fact that it provides an collective identity where one "fits."

  3. Testing of multidimensional tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams on fresh and altered rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera-Gómez M. Abdelaly


    Full Text Available We evaluated 55 multidimensional diagrams proposed during 2004-2013 for the tectonic discrimination of ultrabasic, basic, intermediate, and acid magmas. The Miocene to Recent rock samples for testing the diagrams had not been used for constructing them. Eighteen test studies (2 from ocean island; 2 from ocean island/continental rift; 6 from continental rift; 4 from continental arc; 2 from island arc; 1 from mid-ocean ridge, and 1 from collision of relatively fresh rocks fully confirmed the satisfactory functioning of these diagrams for all tectonic fields for which they were proposed. Eight additional case studies on hydrothermally altered or moderately to highly weathered rocks were also presented to achieve further understanding of the functioning of these diagrams. For these rocks as well, the diagrams indicated the expected tectonic setting. We also show that for testing or using these diagrams the freely-available geochemistry databases should be used with caution but certainly after ascertaining the correct magma types to select the appropriate diagram sets. The results encourage us to recommend these diagrams for deciphering the tectonic setting of older terranes or areas with complex or transitional tectonic settings.

  4. The discriminative power of the Interval Shuttle Run Test and the Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run Test for playing level of soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Verheijen, R.; Visscher, C.


    AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the discriminative power of the recently developed Interval Shuttle Run Test (ISRT) and the widely used Maximal Multistage 20 m Shuttle Run Test (MMSRT) for soccer players at different levels of competition. The main difference between the tests is that

  5. Discrimination of normal and aphasic subjects on a test of syntactic comprehension. (United States)

    Caplan, D


    An Anglophone population consisting of 37 aphasic patients and 23 normal control subjects, and a Francophone population consisting of 49 aphasic patients and 23 control subjects were given a task requiring the comprehension of syntactic structures for the correct assignment of thematic roles to nouns. Discriminant analysis was used to classify subjects into aphasic and normal groups according to their scores on the task. In both populations--Anglophone and Francophone--most of the subjects were classified into their actual groups except for an occasional normal subject classified with the aphasic group and a small number of aphasics classified as normal. A cut-off score below which performance is clearly abnormal and above which performance is clearly normal can be set for this test. Patients who performed normally on this test had lesions affecting any single lobe within the dominant perisylvian cortex and mostly consisted of patients with dysarthria, apraxia of speech, and 'mixed' aphasia types. The results have implications for the incidence of aphasic disturbances of syntactic comprehension and for the nature of language representation in the brain.

  6. Reliability of the "Ten Test" for assessment of discriminative sensation in hand trauma. (United States)

    Berger, Michael J; Regan, William R; Seal, Alex; Bristol, Sean G


    "Ten Test" (TT) is a bedside measure of discriminative sensation, whereby the magnitude of abnormal sensation to moving light touch is normalized to an area of normal sensation on an 11-point Likert scale (0-10). The purposes of this study were to determine reliability parameters of the TT in a cohort of patients presenting to a hand trauma clinic with subjectively altered sensation post-injury and to compare the reliability of TT to that of the Weinstein Enhanced Sensory Test (WEST). Study participants (n = 29, mean age = 37 ± 12) comprised patients presenting to an outpatient hand trauma clinic with recent hand trauma and self reported abnormal sensation. Participants underwent TT and WEST by two separate raters on the same day. Interrater reliability, response stability and responsiveness of each test were determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC: 2, 1), standard error of measurement (SEM) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and minimal detectable difference score, with 95% CI (MDD95), respectively. The TT displayed excellent interrater reliability (ICC = 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-0.97) compared to good reliability for WEST (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI 0.58-0.89). The range of true scores expected with 95% confidence based on the SEM (i.e. response stability), was ±1.1 for TT and ±1.1 for WEST. MDD95 scores reflecting test responsiveness were 1.5 and 1.6 for TT and WEST, respectively. The TT displayed excellent reliability parameters in this patient population. Reliability parameters were stronger for TT compared to WEST. These results provide support for the use of TT as a component of the sensory exam in hand trauma. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Verification of consumers' experiences and perceptions of genetic discrimination and its impact on utilization of genetic testing. (United States)

    Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Taylor, Sandra D; Treloar, Susan A; Stranger, Mark; Otlowski, Margaret


    To undertake a systematic process of verification of consumer accounts of alleged genetic discrimination. Verification of incidents reported in life insurance and other contexts that met the criteria of genetic discrimination, and the impact of fear of such treatment, was determined, with consent, through interview, document analysis and where appropriate, direct contact with the third party involved. The process comprised obtaining evidence that the alleged incident was accurately reported and determining whether the decision or action seemed to be justifiable and/or ethical. Reported incidents of genetic discrimination were verified in life insurance access, underwriting and coercion (9), applications for worker's compensation (1) and early release from prison (1) and in two cases of fear of discrimination impacting on access to genetic testing. Relevant conditions were inherited cancer susceptibility (8), Huntington disease (3), hereditary hemochromatosis (1), and polycystic kidney disease (1). In two cases, the reversal of an adverse underwriting decision to standard rate after intervention with insurers by genetics health professionals was verified. The mismatch between consumer and third party accounts in three life insurance incidents involved miscommunication or lack of information provision by financial advisers. These first cases of verified genetic discrimination make it essential for policies and guidelines to be developed and implemented to ensure appropriate use of genetic test results in insurance underwriting, to promote education and training in the financial industry, and to provide support for consumers and health professionals undertaking challenges of adverse decisions.

  8. Teste de figuras para discriminação fonêmica: uma proposta Phoneme Discrimination Picture Test: a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz dos Santos-Carvalho


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Propor um teste que avaliasse a discriminação fonêmica por meio de pares mínimos, abrangendo todos os fonemas do Português Brasileiro e utilizando-os em palavras que possam ser facilmente representadas por figuras. Buscou-se que este teste contribua para o diagnóstico de alterações fonoaudiológicas e para a pesquisa científica. Procurou-se fazer um teste que fosse de fácil aplicação, podendo ser utilizado em qualquer local de trabalho dos fonoaudiólogos. MÉTODOS: Selecionou-se pares mínimos que opusessem fonemas em relação ao valor binário de cada traço distintivo e às combinações possíveis entre os traços de lugar ([labial], [coronal], [dorsal] bem como pelas oposições de estruturas silábicas. Criou-se figuras que representam as palavras dos pares. RESULTADOS: Elaborou-se o Teste de Figuras para Discriminação Fonêmica, que avalia a habilidade de discriminação fonêmica em crianças de quatro a oito anos. Este teste contém 40 apresentações, das quais 30 são pares mínimos e dez pares de palavras iguais. Nestas 30 apresentações, opôs-se os traços distintivos [+/- soante], [+/- aproximante], [+/- contínuo], [+/- voz], [coronal+/-ant], [labial] x [coronal], [dorsal] x [coronal] e [labial] x [dorsal]. Igualmente foram opostas as seguintes estruturas silábicas: V x CV, CV x CCV, CV x CVC. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que os objetivos deste trabalho foram alcançados com êxito, pois o Teste de Figura para Discriminação Fonêmica contempla tudo a que se propôs. Acredita-se que o teste deva ser aplicado em um estudo piloto para averiguar se as palavras e as figuras estão adequadas para a faixa etária. Posteriormente, deve ser aplicado em diversas regiões do país para ser devidamente padronizado.PURPOSE: To propose a test to evaluate phonemic discrimination using minimum pairs, comprising all Brazilian Portuguese phonemes and using them in words which can be easily represented by pictures. The

  9. Discrimination of dementia with lewy bodies from Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease using the clock drawing test. (United States)

    Cahn-Weiner, Deborah A; Williams, Karren; Grace, Janet; Tremont, Geoffrey; Westervelt, Holly; Stern, Robert A


    The authors' objective was to examine the ability of the Clock Drawing Test to discriminate Dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. Recent advances in medical treatments for dementia underscore the importance of differentiating among dementia subtypes. Clinically, Dementia with Lewy bodies can often be difficult to discriminate from Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease because of similar and overlapping cognitive and motor features. While the Clock Drawing Test has been shown to discriminate dementia from normal aging fairly accurately, less is known about its ability to discriminate between various dementia groups. Patients with Alzheimer disease (n = 22), patients with cognitively impaired Parkinson disease (n = 17), and patients with Dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 20), matched for age, education, and dementia severity, were compared on the Clock Drawing Test, scored for overall accuracy as well as the presence of specific error types. There were no significant group differences on a global quantitative measure of Clock Drawing Test performance. With regard to differences on the error types evaluated, the patients with Dementia with Lewy bodies were more likely to make conceptual errors than the patients with Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease, and the patients with Parkinson disease and Dementia with Lewy bodies made more planning errors than the patients with Alzheimer disease. Classification accuracy was fair, with 69% overall classification for Alzheimer disease versus Dementia with Lewy bodies, and 68% overall classification for Parkinson disease versus Dementia with Lewy bodies. Although some differences may exist in the qualitative features of clock drawing performance between these patient groups, overall clock drawing performance is relatively similar, and as a single instrument, the Clock Drawing Test provides limited discrimination of Dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.

  10. Mediated effects of perceived discrimination on adolescent academic achievement: A test of four models. (United States)

    Hood, William; Bradley, Graham L; Ferguson, Samantha


    Many adolescents feel they are subjected to acts of discrimination. Research shows that discrimination is associated with adverse outcomes including poor psychological adjustment, school adjustment, and academic achievement. This study investigated alternative pathways through which discrimination affects adolescents' academic achievement. A sample of 244 Year 7-10 Australian secondary school students (65% male; Mage = 13.6 years; SD = 1.24) completed questionnaires measuring discrimination, psychological adjustment, and sense of school membership. Both at the time of questionnaire completion and one semester later, absenteeism data, teacher ratings of classroom behavior, and academic grades were retrieved from school records. The fit of four competing structural models were compared. In the best fitting model, the effects of prior discrimination on academic achievement one semester later were serially mediated, first through psychological adjustment, and then through school adjustment. By elucidating these mechanisms, the study informs theory and practice regarding the effects of discrimination on adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance, usability and comparison of two versions of a new macular vision test: the handheld Radial Shape Discrimination test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Y. Ku


    Full Text Available Background Central vision, critical for everyday tasks such as reading and driving, is impacted by age-related changes in the eye and by diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The detection of changes in macular function is therefore important. The Radial Shape Discrimination (RSD test measures the threshold at which distortions in a radial frequency pattern can be detected and there is evidence that it is more sensitive to macular pathology than visual acuity (VA. It also provides a more quantitative measure of macular function than the commonly available Amsler grid. Recently, handheld versions of the test (hRSD in which stimuli are presented on mobile devices (e.g., Apple iPod Touch, iPhone have been developed. We investigated the characteristics of the hRSD test in healthy participants. Methods Data were collected using both three-alternative forced choice (3AFC and 4AFC versions of the hRSD test, presented on an Apple iPod Touch. For the 3AFC version, data from a single test session were available for 186 (72 male; mean ± SD age 42 ± 17y; range 16–90y healthy participants. Test-retest data were available for subgroups of participants (intra-session: N = 74; tests approximately 2 months apart: N = 30; tests 39 months apart: N = 15. The 3AFC and 4AFC versions were directly compared in 106 participants who also completed a usability questionnaire. Distance and near VA and Pelli Robson Contrast Sensitivity (CS data were collected and undilated fundoscopy performed on the majority of participants. Results Mean (±SD 3AFC hRSD threshold was −0.77 ± 0.14 logMAR, and was statistically significantly correlated with age (Pearson r = 0.35; p < 0.001. The linear regression of hRSD threshold on age had a slope of +0.0026 compared to +0.0051 for near VA (which also correlated with age: r = 0.51; p < 0.001. There were no statistically significant differences in hRSD thresholds for any of the test-retest subgroups. We

  12. Evaluating the Discriminant Validity of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory: Computer Adaptive Test in Children With Cerebral Palsy. (United States)

    Shore, Benjamin J; Allar, Benjamin G; Miller, Patricia E; Matheney, Travis H; Snyder, Brian D; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A


    The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test (PEDI-CAT) is a new clinical assessment for children and youth from birth through 20 years of age. To determine the discriminant validity of the PEDI-CAT according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A prospective convenience cross-sectional sample of 101 school-age children with CP was stratified by GMFCS level. Participants were excluded if they underwent recent surgery (analysis was used to quantify the discriminant validity of the PEDI-CAT domains to distinguish the level of independence in fine and gross motor function. General linear modeling was used to assess discriminant ability across all GMFCS and MACS levels. Mean age was 11 years, 11 months (SD 3.7). Mobility and Daily Activities domains exhibited excellent discriminant validity distinguishing between ambulatory and nonambulatory participants [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.98 and 0.97, respectively] and the Daily Activities domain exhibited excellent discriminant validity distinguishing between independent and dependent hand function (AUC = 0.93). All PEDI-CAT domains were able to discriminate between ambulatory (GMFCS levels I-III) or nonambulatory (GMFCS levels IV-V) as well as manually independent (MACS levels I-II) or manually dependent functional levels (MACS levels III-V) ( P < .001). Our convenience cross-sectional sample included school-age children with primarily Caucasian, middle-income parents and may not be representative of other cultural, socioeconomic backgrounds. Not all participants had a MACS level assigned, however, no differences were found in PEDI-CAT scores between those with and without MACS scores. These results demonstrate that the PEDI-CAT is a valid outcome instrument for measuring functional abilities in children with CP, able to differentiate across fine and gross motor functional levels.

  13. Discrimination within Recognition Memory in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Sponheim


    Full Text Available Episodic memory is one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. First-degree biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia also have been found to exhibit a similar, but milder, episodic memory deficit. Unlike most studies that focus on the percent of previously presented items recognized, the current investigation sought to further elucidate the nature of memory dysfunction associated with schizophrenia by examining the discrimination of old and new material during recognition (measured by d' to consider false recognition of new items. Using the Recurring Figures Test and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, we studied a sample of schizophrenia probands and the first-degree biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia, as well as probands with bipolar disorder and first-degree biological relatives to assess the specificity of recognition memory dysfunction to schizophrenia. The schizophrenia sample had poorer recognition discrimination in both nonverbal and verbal modalities; no such deficits were identified in first-degree biological relatives or bipolar disorder probands. Discrimination in schizophrenia and bipolar probands failed to benefit from the geometric structure in the designs in the manner that controls did on the nonverbal test. Females performed better than males in recognition of geometric designs. Episodic memory dysfunction in schizophrenia is present for a variety of stimulus domains and reflects poor use of item content to increase discrimination of old and new items.

  14. Two-point orientation discrimination versus the traditional two-point test for tactile spatial acuity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eTong


    Full Text Available Two-point discrimination is widely used to measure tactile spatial acuity. The validity of the two-point threshold as a spatial acuity measure rests on the assumption that two points can be distinguished from one only when the two points are sufficiently separated to evoke spatially distinguishable foci of neural activity. However, some previous research has challenged this view, suggesting instead that two-point task performance benefits from an unintended non-spatial cue, allowing spuriously good performance at small tip separations. We compared the traditional two-point task to an equally convenient alternative task in which participants attempt to discern the orientation (vertical or horizontal of two points of contact. We used precision digital readout calipers to administer two-interval forced-choice versions of both tasks to 24 neurologically healthy adults, on the fingertip, finger base, palm, and forearm. We used Bayesian adaptive testing to estimate the participants’ psychometric functions on the two tasks. Traditional two-point performance remained significantly above chance levels even at zero point separation. In contrast, two-point orientation discrimination approached chance as point separation approached zero, as expected for a valid measure of tactile spatial acuity. Traditional two-point performance was so inflated at small point separations that 75%-correct thresholds could be determined on all tested sites for fewer than half of participants. The 95%-correct thresholds on the two tasks were similar, and correlated with receptive field spacing. In keeping with previous critiques, we conclude that the traditional two-point task provides an unintended non-spatial cue, resulting in spuriously good performance at small spatial separations. Unlike two-point discrimination, two-point orientation discrimination rigorously measures tactile spatial acuity. We recommend the use of two-point orientation discrimination for neurological

  15. Chromatic discrimination losses in multiple sclerosis patients with and without optic neuritis using the Cambridge Colour Test. (United States)

    Moura, Ana Laura de Araújo; Teixeira, Rosani Aparecida Antunes; Oiwa, Nestor N; Costa, Marcelo F; Feitosa-Santana, Claudia; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Hamer, Russell D; Ventura, Dora Fix


    We assessed chromatic discrimination in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients both with (ON) and without (no ON) a history of optic neuritis using the Cambridge color test (CCT). Our goal was to determine the magnitude and chromatic axes of any color vision losses in both patient groups, and to evaluate age-related changes in chromatic discrimination in both patient groups compared to normals. Using the CCT, we measured chromatic discrimination along the protan, deutan and tritan axes in 35 patients with MS (17 ON eyes) and 74 age matched controls. Color thresholds for both patient groups were significantly higher than controls' along the protan and tritan axes (p color axes (p color discrimination impairment with age (along the deutan and tritan axes) that was almost two times faster than controls, even in the absence of ON. These findings suggest that demyelinating diseases reduce sensitivity to color vision in both red-green and blue-yellow axes, implying impairment in both parvocellular and koniocellular visual pathways. The CCT is a useful tool to help characterize vision losses in MS, and the relationship between these losses and degree of optic nerve involvement.

  16. Assessing The Representative And Discriminative Ability Of Test Environments For Rice Breeding In Malaysia Using GGE Biplot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Oladosu


    Full Text Available Identification of outstanding rice genotype for target environments is complicated by genotype environment interactions. Using genotype main effect plus genotype by environment interaction GGE Biplot software fifteen rice genotypes were evaluated at five locations representing the major rice producing areas in peninsula Malaysia in two cropping seasons to i identify ideal test environment for selecting superior rice genotype and ii identify discriminative and representative ability of test locations. Genotypes locations years and genotypes by environment interaction effect revealed high significant difference P 0.01 for number of tillers per hill grains per panicle grain weight per hill and yield per hectare. Grain yield per hectare had a non-repeatable crossover pattern that formed a complex and single mega-environment. Based on the crossover pattern a set of cultivars were selected for the whole region on the merit of mean performance and their stability analysis. The tested environments were divided into two mega-environments. An ideal test environment that measures the discriminative and representative ability of test location reveal that environment Sekinchan SC is the best environment while Kedah KD and Penang PN can also be considered as favorable environment whereas Serdang SS and Tanjung Karang TK were the poorest locations for selecting genotypes adapted to the whole region. This study serves a reference for genotypes evaluation as well as identification of test locations for rice breeding in Malaysia.

  17. MTB-DR-RIF 9G test: Detection and discrimination of tuberculosis and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains. (United States)

    Song, Keum-Soo; Nimse, Satish Balasaheb; Cho, Nam Hoon; Sung, Nackmoon; Kim, Hee-Jin; Yang, Jeongseong; Kim, Taisun


    This report describes the evaluation of the novel MTB-DR-RIF 9G test for the accurate detection and discrimination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis (MTB-DR-RIF) in the clinical samples. The procedure included the amplification of a nucleotide fragment of the rpoB gene of the MTB and MTB-DR-RIF strains and their hybridization with the immobilized probes. The MTB-DR-RIF 9G test was evaluated for its ability to detect and discriminate MTB and MTB-DR-RIF strains in 113 known clinical samples. The accuracy of the MTB-DR-RIF 9G test was determined by comparing its results with sequencing analysis and drug susceptibility testing. The sensitivity and specificity of the MTB-DR-RIF 9G test at 95% confidence interval were found to be 95.4% (89.5-98.5) and 100% (69.2-100), respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the MTB-DR-RIF 9G test at 95% confidence interval were found to be 100% (85.0-95.9) and 66.7% (38.4-88.18), respectively. Sequencing analysis of all samples indicated that the mutations present in the regions identified with the MTB-DR-RIF 9G assay can be detected accurately. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental tests and radiometric calculations for the feasibility of fluorescence LIDAR-based discrimination of oil spills from UAV (United States)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Palombi, Lorenzo; Lognoli, David; Masini, Andrea; Simeone, Emilio


    This paper presents experimental tests and radiometric calculations for the feasibility of an ultra-compact fluorescence LIDAR from an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) for the characterisation of oil spills in natural waters. The first step of this study was to define the experimental conditions for a LIDAR and its budget constraints on the basis of the specifications of small UAVs already available on the market. The second step consisted of a set of fluorescence LIDAR measurements on oil spills in the laboratory in order to propose a simplified discrimination method and to calculate the oil fluorescence conversion efficiency. Lastly, the main technical specifications of the payload were defined and radiometric calculations carried out to evaluate the performances of both the payload and the proposed discrimination method.

  19. Geometrical factors in the perception of sacredness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Marco; Bonetti, Leonardo


    Geometrical and environmental factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were assessed by 137 participants in five tests. In the first test, a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm was used to test the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness in geometr......Geometrical and environmental factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were assessed by 137 participants in five tests. In the first test, a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm was used to test the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness...... in geometrical figures differing in shape, verticality, size, and symmetry. Verticality, symmetry, and convexity were found to be important factors in the perception of sacredness. In the second test, participants had to mark the point inside geometrical surfaces that was perceived as most sacred, dominant....... Geometrical factors in the perception of sacredness, dominance, and attractiveness were largely overlapping....

  20. Testing LMC Microlensing Scenarios: The Discrimination Power of the SuperMACHO Microlensing Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, A; Stubbs, C; Becker, A C; Miknaitis, G A; Miceli, A; Covarrubias, R; Hawley, S L; Smith, C; Suntzeff, N B; Olsen, K; Prieto, J; Hiriart, R; Welch, D L; Cook, K; Nikolaev, S; Proctor, G; Clocchiatti, A; Minniti, D; Garg, A; Challis, P; Keller, S C; Scmidt, B P


    Characterizing the nature and spatial distribution of the lensing objects that produce the observed microlensing optical depth toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) remains an open problem. They present an appraisal of the ability of the SuperMACHO Project, a next-generation microlensing survey pointed toward the LMC, to discriminate between various proposed lensing populations. they consider two scenarios: lensing by a uniform foreground screen of objects and self-lensing of LMC stars. The optical depth for ''screen-lensing'' is essentially constant across the face of the LMC; whereas, the optical depth for self-lensing shows a strong spatial dependence. they have carried out extensive simulations, based upon actual data obtained during the first year of the project, to assess the SuperMACHO survey's ability to discriminate between these two scenarios. In the simulations they predict the expected number of observed microlensing events for each of their fields by adding artificial stars to the images and estimating the spatial and temporal efficiency of detecting microlensing events using Monte-Carlo methods. They find that the event rate itself shows significant sensitivity to the choice of the LMC luminosity function shape and other parameters, limiting the conclusions which can be drawn from the absolute rate. By instead determining the differential event rate across the LMC, they can decrease the impact of these systematic uncertainties rendering the conclusions more robust. With this approach the SuperMACHO Project should be able to distinguish between the two categories of lens populations and provide important constraints on the nature of the lensing objects.

  1. Development and Application of a Four-Tier Test to Assess Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Misconceptions about Geometrical Optics (United States)

    Kaltakci-Gurel, Derya; Eryilmaz, Ali; McDermott, Lillian Christie


    Background: Correct identification of misconceptions is an important first step in order to gain an understanding of student learning. More recently, four-tier multiple choice tests have been found to be effective in assessing misconceptions. Purpose: The purposes of this study are (1) to develop and validate a four-tier misconception test to…

  2. Utility evaluation on application of geometric mean depending on depth of kidney in split renal function test using 99mTc-MAG{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Byeul; Ahn, Sung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Wang Hui [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Gil-Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    99mTc-MAG{sub 3} Renal scan is a method that acquires dynamic renal scan image by using 99mTc-MAG{sub 3} and dynamically visualizes process of radioactive agent being absorbed to kidney and excreted continuously. Once the test starts, ratio in both kidneys in 1-2.5 minutes was measured to obtain split renal function and split renal function can be expressed in ratio based on overall renal function. This study is based on compares split renal function obtained from data acquired from posterior detector, which is a conventional renal function test method, with split renal function acquired from the geometric mean of values obtained from anterior and posterior detectors, and studies utility of attenuation compensation depending on difference in geometric mean kidney depth. From July, 2015 to February 2016, 33 patients who undertook 99mTc-MAG{sub 3} Renal scan(13 male, 20 female, average age of 44.66 with range of 5-70, average height of 160.40 cm, average weight of 55.40 kg) were selected as subjects. Depth of kidney was shown to be 65.82 mm at average for left and 71.62 mm at average for right. In supine position, 30 out of 33 patients showed higher ratio of deep-situated kidney and lower ratio of shallow-situated kidney. Such result is deemed to be due to correction by attenuation between deep-situated kidney and detector and in case where there is difference between the depth of both kidneys such as, lesions in or around kidney, spine malformation, and ectopic kidney, ratio of deep-situated kidney must be compensated for more accurate calculation of split renal function, when compared to the conventional test method (posterior detector counting)

  3. Evaluation of experimental factors that influence the application and discrimination capability of the product consistency test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shade, J.W.; Piepel, G.F.


    It is desirable to have a means of monitoring possible changes in waste glass durability during protection so that the product remains within acceptable limits. A leach test called the Product Consistency test (PCT) was developed by Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) as such a production test for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This report examines some of the experimental factors that may be used in the PCT that could influence test precision and its ability to function as intended. An experiment was performed to investigate the effects (on pH and elemental releases of Al, Fe, K, Na, Si, B, Li, and Mn) of modifications to the test conditions of the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The experiment was replicated three times; each replicate involved leach testing two glasses with each of 24 different sets of PCT conditions. 6 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  4. Latent class analysis of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the Academic Performance Test: concurrent and discriminating validity. (United States)

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira; de Souza Batista Kida, Adriana; de Avila, Clara Regina Brandão; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Moriyama, Tais Silveira; Gadelha, Ary; Rohde, Luis Augusto; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; de Jesus Mari, Jair


    To explore and validate the best returned latent class solution for reading and writing subtests from the Academic Performance Test (TDE). A total of 1,945 children (6-14 years of age), who answered the TDE, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), and had an estimated intelligence quotient (IQ) higher than 70, came from public schools in São Paulo (35 schools) and Porto Alegre (22 schools) that participated in the 'High Risk Cohort Study for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders' project. They were on average 9.52 years old (standard deviation = 1.856), from the 1st to 9th grades, and 53.3% male. The mean estimated IQ was 102.70 (standard deviation = 16.44). Via Item Response Theory (IRT), the highest discriminating items ('a'>1.7) were selected from the TDE subtests of reading and writing. A latent class analysis was run based on these subtests. The statistically and empirically best latent class solutions were validated through concurrent (IQ and combined attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] diagnoses) and discriminant (major depression diagnoses) measures. A three-class solution was found to be the best model solution, revealing classes of children with good, not-so-good, or poor performance on TDE reading and writing tasks. The three-class solution has been shown to be correlated with estimated IQ and to ADHD diagnosis. No association was observed between the latent class and major depression. The three-class solution showed both concurrent and discriminant validity. This work provides initial evidence of validity for an empirically derived categorical classification of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the TDE. A valid classification encourages further research investing correlates of reading and writing performance using the TDE.

  5. The discriminative power of the Interval Shuttle Run Test and the Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run Test for playing level of soccer. (United States)

    Lemmink, K A P M; Verheijen, R; Visscher, C


    The purpose of this study was to examine the discriminative power of the recently developed Interval Shuttle Run Test (ISRT) and the widely used Maximal Multistage 20 m Shuttle Run Test (MMSRT) for soccer players at different levels of competition. The main difference between the tests is that the exercise mode of the ISRT is not continuous but intermittent. Instead of 60 s of running per stage in the MMSRT, 30 s of running are alternated with 15 s of walking, twice per stage. Comparative study: within a 2-week period, 81 male soccer players at the Dutch premier league professional, premier league and 3rd division amateur levels performed the ISRT and the MMSRT. The total number of runs was scored for both tests. Only the ISRT distinguished between levels of competition. In general, the ISRT correlated moderately with the MMSRT for players of different levels of competition (rP: 0.52-0.83). In contrast to the MMSRT, the ISRT shows discriminative power for soccer players at different levels of competition supporting the validity of the ISRT for measuring endurance in a more soccer-specific way. As a result of the intermittent character of the ISRT the energetics of the ISRT and the MMSRT are not closely related.

  6. A face recognition algorithm based on multiple individual discriminative models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    Abstract—In this paper, a novel algorithm for facial recognition is proposed. The technique combines the color texture and geometrical configuration provided by face images. Landmarks and pixel intensities are used by Principal Component Analysis and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis to associate...... facial image corresponds to a person in the database. Each projection is also able to visualizing the most discriminative facial features of the person associated to the projection. The performance of the proposed method is tested in two experiments. Results point out the proposed technique...... as an accurate and robust tool for facial identification and unknown detection....

  7. The relationship of facial two-point discrimination to applied force under clinical test conditions. (United States)

    Vriens, Jan P M; van der Glas, Hilbert W


    When an interside comparison is hampered, for example, in cases of bilateral trauma, normal threshold values of two-point discrimination from healthy subjects might be used to delineate abnormal from normal sensory function in patients. To determine threshold pin distances, two devices, the Disk-Criminator and the Aesthesiometer, have often been applied in a clinical setting. Because these devices are hand-operated, the force of applying a device might vary considerably. The general applicability of normal threshold values from the literature may therefore be questioned. Five subjects participated in experiments with two observers, in which a hand-operated device with a constant pin distance (5 or 10 mm) was pushed on a facial site, until the point at which blanching of the skin started, and the applied force was recorded. To that end, the devices were modified by providing them with force transducers. These recordings revealed a considerable variation in force variables (level, duration, and rate). Significant differences in mean force level, duration, and rate occurred, particularly between devices, pin distances, and/or sites (cheek, upper and lower lips, and mental region) and also in mean duration between observers (p variation of force level, using an interval of at least 1 week and both nonmodified devices. Because of invariance, normal values of threshold pin distance are generally applicable to any well-trained observer and are related to the density of afferent nerve fibers. In contrast, recently reported force thresholds determined at a constant pin distance might not be related to fiber density only. The findings regarding dependency on site and pin distance of the force level suggest that force thresholds will also be related to tissue stiffness and to the extent to which a pair of pins co-operate mechanically.

  8. Discrimination and well-being in organizations : Testing the differential power and organizational justice theories of workplace aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, S.; Braeken, J.; Niven, K.


    People may be subjected to discrimination from a variety of sources in the workplace. In this study of mental health workers, we contrast four potential perpetrators of discrimination (managers, co-workers, patients, and visitors) to investigate whether the negative impact of discrimination on

  9. Superior performance of constant-saltier-reference DTF and DTFM to same-different tests by consumers for discriminating products varying sodium contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Jin-Young; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen


    Reducing sodium content in foods and beverages has become very important, and great efforts are being made to achieve this while maintaining overall taste/acceptance of food. This requires more robust sensory discrimination test methods in terms of operational power because discrimination tests u...... when using naïve consumer subjects and when the sample in the first position in a test was a stronger (saltier) sample. This observation granted operational superiority to the DTF and DTFM in comparison to the same-different test, using the stronger (saltier) product as a constant...

  10. Load release balance test under unstable conditions effectively discriminates between physically active and sedentary young adults. (United States)

    Zemková, E; Štefániková, G; Muyor, J M


    This study investigates test-retest reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the load release balance test under four varied conditions. Young, early and late middle-aged physically active and sedentary subjects performed the test over 2 testing sessions spaced 1week apart while standing on either (1) a stable or (2) an unstable surface with (3) eyes open (EO) and (4) eyes closed (EC), respectively. Results identified that test-retest reliability of parameters of the load release balance test was good to excellent, with high values of ICC (0.78-0.92) and low SEM (7.1%-10.7%). The peak and the time to peak posterior center of pressure (CoP) displacement were significantly lower in physically active as compared to sedentary young adults (21.6% and 21.0%) and early middle-aged adults (22.0% and 20.9%) while standing on a foam surface with EO, and in late middle-aged adults on both unstable (25.6% and 24.5%) and stable support surfaces with EO (20.4% and 20.0%). The area under the ROC curve >0.80 for these variables indicates good discriminatory accuracy. Thus, these variables of the load release balance test measured under unstable conditions have the ability to differentiate between groups of physically active and sedentary adults as early as from 19years of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



    Abdulla Elezi; Nazim Myrtaj; Florian Miftari


    Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević) in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had bee...

  12. Geometric Design Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Geometric Design Laboratory (GDL) is to support the Office of Safety Research and Development in research related to the geometric design...

  13. Cauchy horizon stability in a collapsing spherical dust cloud I: geometric optic approximation and spherically symmetric test fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz, Néstor


    A spherical dust cloud which is initially at rest and which has a monotonously decaying density profile collapses and forms a shell-focussing singularity. Provided the density profile is not too flat, meaning that its second radial derivative is negative at the center, this singularity is visible to local, and sometimes even to global observers. According to the strong cosmic censorship conjecture, such naked singularities should be unstable under generic, nonspherical perturbations of the initial data or when more realistic matter models are considered. In an attempt to gain some understanding about this stability issue, in this work we initiate the analysis of a simpler but related problem. We discuss the stability of test fields propagating in the vicinity of the Cauchy horizon associated to the naked central singularity. We first study the high-frequency limit and show that the fields undergo a blueshift as they approach the Cauchy horizon. However, in contrast to what occurs at inner horizons of black ho...

  14. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Klein, Anders Bue; Ettrup, Anders


    Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate....../sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired...... in serum. However, higher levels of triglycerides were observed for minipigs fed the diets with high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose compared to minipigs fed a standard minipig diet. This might explain the observed impairments in spatial cognition. These findings...

  15. Testing the discrimination and detection limits of WorldView-2 imagery on a challenging invasive plant target (United States)

    Robinson, T. P.; Wardell-Johnson, G. W.; Pracilio, G.; Brown, C.; Corner, R.; van Klinken, R. D.


    Invasive plants pose significant threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function globally, leading to costly monitoring and management effort. While remote sensing promises cost-effective, robust and repeatable monitoring tools to support intervention, it has been largely restricted to airborne platforms that have higher spatial and spectral resolutions, but which lack the coverage and versatility of satellite-based platforms. This study tests the ability of the WorldView-2 (WV2) eight-band satellite sensor for detecting the invasive shrub mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in the north-west Pilbara region of Australia. Detectability was challenged by the target taxa being largely defoliated by a leaf-tying biological control agent (Gelechiidae: Evippe sp. #1) and the presence of other shrubs and trees. Variable importance in the projection (VIP) scores identified bands offering greatest capacity for discrimination were those covering the near-infrared, red, and red-edge wavelengths. Wavelengths between 400 nm and 630 nm (coastal blue, blue, green, yellow) were not useful for species level discrimination in this case. Classification accuracy was tested on three band sets (simulated standard multispectral, all bands, and bands with VIP scores ≥1). Overall accuracies were comparable amongst all band-sets (Kappa = 0.71-0.77). However, mesquite omission rates were unacceptably high (21.3%) when using all eight bands relative to the simulated standard multispectral band-set (9.5%) and the band-set informed by VIP scores (11.9%). An incremental cover evaluation on the latter identified most omissions to be for objects 16 m2 allows application for mapping mesquite shrubs and coalesced stands, the former not previously possible, even with 3 m resolution hyperspectral imagery. WV2 imagery offers excellent portability potential for detecting other species where spectral/spatial resolution or coverage has been an impediment. New generation satellite sensors are removing barriers

  16. Redundancy, Discrimination and Corruption in the Multibillion-Dollar Business of College Admissions Testing (United States)

    Rizzo, Monica Ellen


    Most American colleges and universities require standardized entrance exams when making admissions decisions. Scores on these exams help determine if, when and where students will be allowed to pursue higher education. These scores are also used to determine eligibility for merit based financial aid. This testing persists even though half of the…

  17. The forced-response test does not discriminate ears with different otitis media expressions. (United States)

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Mandel, Ellen M; Seroky, James T; Swarts, J Douglas; Doyle, William J


    Test the hypothesis that the eustachian tube (ET) function measured using standard manometric test methods is different between groups of ears with tympanostomy tubes inserted for recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) and for chronic otitis media with effusion (COME). A cross-sectional study of ET function in populations of young children with different otitis media expressions. The results for forced-response testing of ET function were compared using a general linear model between 37 ears of 26 children and 34 ears of 26 children, aged 3 and 4 years, with ventilation tubes inserted for COME and RAOM, respectively. There were no significant between-group differences in either the active measure of ET opening function, dilatory efficiency, or in the passive measures reflecting the magnitude of the forces that tend to hold the ET lumen closed, the opening and closing pressures, and passive trans-ET conductance. The results do not support the hypothesis that ET closing forces are less in ears with RAOM when compared to ears with COME, and from the results of earlier studies, ears without disease. Both groups were characterized by a low ET opening efficiency (referenced to ears of adults with no disease history). Because both disease expressions present the same pattern of ET dysfunction, other factors are required to explain why a subset of ears with that type of dysfunction develop RAOM, as opposed to the default expression of COME. 2b © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. New formulas for mixing test to discriminate between lupus anticoagulant and acquired hemophilia A. (United States)

    Kumano, Osamu; Ieko, Masahiro; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Yoshida, Mika; Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Takeshi; Komiyama, Yutaka


    Lupus anticoagulant (LA) is an antibody that interferes with in vitro coagulation reactions. The mixing test is considered useful for LA diagnosis and is also recommended to differentiate between acquired hemophilia A (AHA) and factor deficiency. However, there has been little study to differentiate between LA and AHA. Our aims are to investigate whether we can differentiate LA and AHA by the mixing test and to establish new formulas for the mixing test to differentiate these samples clearly. We examined 27 LA-positive, 29 coagulation factor deficient, 24 unfractionated heparin and 48 AHA samples. Index of circulating anticoagulant (ICA) values, calculated from the clotting times without incubation and after 2h incubation, were defined as ICA immediate (ICAi) and ICA delayed (ICAd) respectively. ICAd/ICAi and ICAd-ICAi were also calculated to compare the sensitivity and specificity. ICAd/ICAi and ICAd-ICAi for AHA samples were significantly higher than those of the other sample groups. The sensitivities to AHA in ICAi, ICAd, ICAd/ICAi and ICAd-ICAi were 66.7%, 81.3%, 93.8% and 91.7% respectively, while the specificities for AHA were 45.0%, 66.3%, 85.0% and 98.8% respectively. ICAd/ICAi and ICAd-ICAi showed high sensitivity and specificity. ICAd/ICAi and ICAd-ICAi were useful for LA and AHA diagnosis, because these could differentiate between LA and AHA samples. These new formulas can contribute to the rapid diagnosis and treatment of LA and AHA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing the discriminating power of item and test scores in the linear factor-analysis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere J. Ferrando


    Full Text Available Las propuestas rigurosas y basadas en un modelo psicométrico para estudiar el impreciso concepto de "capacidad discriminativa" son escasas y generalmente limitadas a los modelos no-lineales para items binarios. En este artículo se propone un marco general para evaluar la capacidad discriminativa de las puntuaciones en ítems y tests que son calibrados mediante el modelo de un factor común. La propuesta se organiza en torno a tres criterios: (a tipo de puntuación, (b rango de discriminación y (c aspecto específico que se evalúa. Dentro del marco propuesto: (a se discuten las relaciones entre 16 medidas, de las cuales 6 parecen ser nuevas, y (b se estudian las relaciones entre ellas. La utilidad de la propuesta en las aplicaciones psicométricas que usan el modelo factorial se ilustra mediante un ejemplo empírico.

  20. Use of a porcelain color discrimination test to evaluate color difference formulas. (United States)

    Wee, Alvin G; Lindsey, Delwin T; Shroyer, Kathryn M; Johnston, William M


    Limited studies have indicated that an alternative small color difference formula would be more appropriate for use in dentistry. The purposes of this study were to determine which color difference formula provides a superior degree of fit for judgments of perceptibility and acceptability and to determine if different groups of evaluators have different levels of perceptibility and acceptability for each color difference formula. Each observer from 4 groups (4 dentists, 4 dental assistants, 4 technicians, and 4 patients)made independent observations of perceptibility and acceptability judgments on pairs of opaque porcelain (VitaOmega 900) disks (14 mm in diameter by 3 mm thick). Color differences of the pairs were calculated using DeltaE*(ab), DeltaE(CMC)(l:c), and DeltaE(2000) color difference formulas, and the observer judgments were regressed to each color difference in dependently for perceptibility and acceptability. The area under the receiver operator curves was calculated and ranked, and the optimal factor for the CMC (Colour Measurement Committee, Society of Dyers and Colourists, Great Britain) color difference formula was chosen. A repeated measures maximum likelihood ANOVA (alpha=.05) was applied to determine statistical significance of fit among the observer groups, and the various color difference formulas for both perceptibility and acceptability. Tukey-Kramer Adjustment (alpha=.05) was used as a post hoc test. A difference in the degree of fit of the judgments of color differences was found for the 3 formulas (P=.001)and the 2 judgment types (P.404). DeltaE(2000) and DeltaE(CMC)(2:3) color difference formulas provide a better fit to the calculated color differences,therefore providing better indicators of human perceptibility and acceptability of color differences between tooth colors.

  1. Testing different discrimination methods between microearthquakes and quarry blasts - a case study in Hungary (United States)

    Kalocsai, Lilla; Kiszely, Márta; Süle, Bálint; Győri, Erzsébet


    Due to the development of seismological network, increasing number of events have been detected in the last years in Hungary. However about 50% of these shocks were quarry blasts. Therefore decontamination of catalogue for revealing the reliable natural seismicity has become an important task. We have studied the events occurring in the surroundings of Mecsek Hills. The goal of our research was to find the best method to separate earthquakes and quarry blasts. In the first step we have studied the diurnal distributions of the events. Because of different focal mechanisms, the waveforms and amplitudes of arriving phases of earthquakes and quarry blasts are different. We have tested the most typical parameter, the P and S amplitude ratio, which is often used for separation. The waveform similarities have been analyzed using cross-correlation matrix and dendrograms. The earthquakes and the blasts of different quarries have been arranged into different clusters. We have computed spectrograms and because the blasts were carried out by delay-fired technology we have computed binary spectrograms too. Computation of binary spectra is a useful visualization method to recognize the delay-fired explosions, because it emphasizes the long-duration modulations of the spectra. It is made from the original spectra by application of a filter that replaces the spectral amplitudes with a binary code, which simply reflects the local spectral highs and lows. The modulations were present in most of the spectra of blasts and in contrast to the earthquakes, the modulations have been observable until the end of the spectrogram. We also have studied the scalloping and steepness of the spectra.

  2. Use of a porcelain color discrimination test to evaluate color difference formulas (United States)

    Wee, Alvin G.; Lindsey, Delwin T.; Shroyer, Kathryn M.; Johnston, William M.


    Statement of problem Limited studies have indicated that an alternative small color difference formula would be more appropriate for use in dentistry. Purpose The purposes of this study were to determine which color difference formula provides a superior degree of fit for judgments of perceptibility and acceptability and to determine if different groups of evaluators have different levels of perceptibility and acceptability for each color difference formula. Material and methods Each observer from 4 groups (4 dentists, 4 dental assistants, 4 technicians, and 4 patients) made independent observations of perceptibility and acceptability judgments on pairs of opaque porcelain (Vita Omega 900) disks (14 mm in diameter by 3 mm thick). Color differences of the pairs were calculated using ΔE*ab, ΔECMC(l:c), and ΔE2000 color difference formulas, and the observer judgments were regressed to each color difference independently for perceptibility and acceptability. The area under the receiver operator curves was calculated and ranked, and the optimal factor for the CMC (Colour Measurement Committee, Society of Dyers and Colourists, Great Britain) color difference formula was chosen. A repeated measures maximum likelihood ANOVA (α=.05) was applied to determine statistical significance of fit among the observer groups, and the various color difference formuls for both perceptibility and acceptability. Tukey-Kramer Adjustment (α=.05) was used as a post hoc test. Results A difference in the degree of fit of the judgments of color differences was found for the 3 formulas(P=.001) and the 2 judgment types (P.404). Conclusions ΔE2000 and ΔECMC(2:3) color difference formulas provide a better fit to the calculated color differences, therefore providing better indicators of human perceptibility and acceptability of color differences between tooth colors. Clinical Implications The ΔE2000 and ΔECMC(2:3) color difference formulas should be considered for use in clinical

  3. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); University of Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, 6060 Hall (Austria); AO Development Institute, 7270 Davos Platz (Switzerland); Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)


    Purpose: Texture analysis of femur radiographs may serve as a potential low cost technique to predict osteoporotic fracture risk and has received considerable attention in the past years. A further application of this technique may be the measurement of the quality of specific bone compartments to provide useful information for treatment of bone fractures. Two challenges of texture analysis are the selection of the best suitable texture measure and reproducible placement of regions of interest (ROIs). The goal of this in vitro study was to automatically place ROIs in radiographs of proximal femur specimens and to calculate correlations between various different texture analysis methods and the femurs' anchorage strength. Methods: Radiographs were obtained from 14 femoral specimens and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the femoral neck. Biomechanical testing was performed to assess the anchorage strength in terms of failure load, breakaway torque, and number of cycles. Images were segmented using a framework that is based on the usage of level sets and statistical in-shape models. Five ROIs were automatically placed in the head, upper and lower neck, trochanteric, and shaft compartment in an atlas subject. All other subjects were registered rigidly, affinely, and nonlinearly, and the resulting transformation was used to map the five ROIs onto the individual femora. Results: In each ROI, texture features were extracted using gray level co-occurence matrices (GLCM), third-order GLCM, morphological gradients (MGs), Minkowski dimensions (MDs), Minkowski functionals (MFs), Gaussian Markov random fields, and scaling index method (SIM). Coefficients of determination for each texture feature with parameters of anchorage strength were computed. In a stepwise multiregression analysis, the most predictive parameters were identified in different models. Texture features were highly correlated with anchorage strength estimated by the failure load of up to R{sup 2

  4. Latent class analysis of reading, decoding, and writing performance using the Academic Performance Test: concurrent and discriminating validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cogo-Moreira H


    Full Text Available Hugo Cogo-Moreira,1 Carolina Alves Ferreira Carvalho,2 Adriana de Souza Batista Kida,2 Clara Regina Brandão de Avila,2 Giovanni Abrahão Salum,3,5 Tais Silveira Moriyama,1,4 Ary Gadelha,1,5 Luis Augusto Rohde,3,5 Luciana Monteiro de Moura,1 Andrea Parolin Jackowski,1 Jair de Jesus Mari11Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 2Department of Hearing and Speech Pathology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 3Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 5National Institute for Developmental Psychiatry for Children and Adolescent, (National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development, BrazilAim: To explore and validate the best returned latent class solution for reading and writing subtests from the Academic Performance Test (TDE.Sample: A total of 1,945 children (6–14 years of age, who answered the TDE, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA, and had an estimated intelligence quotient (IQ higher than 70, came from public schools in São Paulo (35 schools and Porto Alegre (22 schools that participated in the ‘High Risk Cohort Study for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders’ project. They were on average 9.52 years old (standard deviation = 1.856, from the 1st to 9th grades, and 53.3% male. The mean estimated IQ was 102.70 (standard deviation = 16.44.Methods: Via Item Response Theory (IRT, the highest discriminating items (‘a’>1.7 were selected from the TDE subtests of reading and writing. A latent class analysis was run based on these subtests. The statistically and empirically best latent class solutions were validated through concurrent (IQ and combined attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] diagnoses and discriminant (major depression diagnoses measures.Results: A three-class solution was found to be the best model solution, revealing classes of children with good, not

  5. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin in serum. However, higher levels of triglycerides were observed for minipigs fed the diets with high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose compared to minipigs fed a standard minipig diet. This might explain the observed impairments in spatial cognition. These findings suggest that high dietary intake of both fat and sugar may impair spatial cognition which could be relevant for mental functioning in humans.

  6. Feeling younger and identifying with older adults : Testing two routes to maintaining well-being in the face of age discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armenta, Bibiana M.; Stroebe, Katherine; Scheibe, Susanne; Postmes, Tom; Van Yperen, Nico W.


    Integrating the social identity and aging literatures, this work tested the hypothesis that there are two independent, but simultaneous, responses by which adults transitioning into old age can buffer themselves against age discrimination: an individual response, which entails adopting a younger

  7. Perceived Empathy of Service Providers Mediates the Association between Perceived Discrimination and Behavioral Intention to Take Up HIV Antibody Testing Again among Men Who Have Sex with Men (United States)

    Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Wang, Zixin; Wu, Anise M. S.; Tan, Xuhui


    HIV antibody testing is a key measure of HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). The World Health Organization recommends sexually active and at-risk MSM to take up HIV antibody testing regularly. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of behavioral intention to take up HIV antibody testing in the next six months among Hong Kong MSM who were ever-testers. An anonymous cross-sectional survey recruited 326 MSM who had taken up HIV antibody testing from gay-friendly venues and internet in Hong Kong. Of the participants, 40.8% had had unprotected anal intercourse with regular or non-regular male sex partners in the last six months; they were at risk of HIV transmission despite experience in HIV antibody testing. Only 37.2% showed a strong intention to take up HIV antibody testing again in the next six months. Adjusted analysis showed that both perceived discrimination toward Hong Kong MSM (AOR = .60, 95% CI: .36–.98) and the CARE Measure assessing perceived empathy of service providers (AOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.08) were significantly associated with intention for retesting. Perceived discrimination, however, became statistically non-significant (AOR = .68, 95% CI: .41–1.14), when both CARE Measure and perceived discrimination entered into the adjusted model. It is warranted to increase HIV retesting rate by removing perceived discrimination and reducing the negative effect of perceived discrimination through enhancement of empathy of service providers. PMID:25693179

  8. Structural Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    discrimination as two ways of articulating particular, opaque forms of racial discrimination that occur in everyday Danish (and other) contexts, and have therefore become normalized. I present and discuss discrimination as it surfaces in data from my empirical studies of discrimination in Danish contexts......In this article, I discuss structural discrimination, an underrepresented area of study in Danish discrimination and intercultural research. It is defined here as discursive and constitutive, and presented as a central element of my analytical approach. This notion is employed in the with which...... to understand and identify aspects of power and asymmetry in communication and interactions. With this as a defining term, I address how exclusion and discrimination exist, while also being indiscernible, within widely accepted societal norms. I introduce the concepts of microdiscrimination and benevolent...

  9. Do ants need to estimate the geometrical properties of trail bifurcations to find an efficient route? A swarm robotics test bed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Garnier

    Full Text Available Interactions between individuals and the structure of their environment play a crucial role in shaping self-organized collective behaviors. Recent studies have shown that ants crossing asymmetrical bifurcations in a network of galleries tend to follow the branch that deviates the least from their incoming direction. At the collective level, the combination of this tendency and the pheromone-based recruitment results in a greater likelihood of selecting the shortest path between the colony's nest and a food source in a network containing asymmetrical bifurcations. It was not clear however what the origin of this behavioral bias is. Here we propose that it results from a simple interaction between the behavior of the ants and the geometry of the network, and that it does not require the ability to measure the angle of the bifurcation. We tested this hypothesis using groups of ant-like robots whose perceptual and cognitive abilities can be fully specified. We programmed them only to lay down and follow light trails, avoid obstacles and move according to a correlated random walk, but not to use more sophisticated orientation methods. We recorded the behavior of the robots in networks of galleries presenting either only symmetrical bifurcations or a combination of symmetrical and asymmetrical bifurcations. Individual robots displayed the same pattern of branch choice as individual ants when crossing a bifurcation, suggesting that ants do not actually measure the geometry of the bifurcations when travelling along a pheromone trail. Finally at the collective level, the group of robots was more likely to select one of the possible shorter paths between two designated areas when moving in an asymmetrical network, as observed in ants. This study reveals the importance of the shape of trail networks for foraging in ants and emphasizes the underestimated role of the geometrical properties of transportation networks in general.

  10. Geometrization of Quantum Mechanics


    Carinena, J. F.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Marmo, G.


    We show that it is possible to represent various descriptions of Quantum Mechanics in geometrical terms. In particular we start with the space of observables and use the momentum map associated with the unitary group to provide an unified geometrical description for the different pictures of Quantum Mechanics. This construction provides an alternative to the usual GNS construction for pure states.

  11. Development of a discriminative biphasic in vitro dissolution test and correlation with in vivo pharmacokinetic studies for differently formulated racecadotril granules. (United States)

    Deng, Jia; Staufenbiel, Sven; Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu; Dashevskiy, Andriy; Bodmeier, Roland


    The purpose of this study was to discriminate the release behavior from three differently formulated racecadotril (BCS II) granules and to establish an in vitro-in vivo correlation. Three granule formulations of the lipophilic drug were prepared with equivalent composition but prepared with different manufacturing processes (dry granulation, wet granulation with or without binder). In vitro release of the three granules was investigated using a biphasic dissolution system (phosphate buffer pH6.8 and octanol) and compared to the conventional single phase USP II dissolution test performed under sink and non-sink conditions. In vivo studies with each granule formulation were performed in rats. Interestingly, the granule formulations exhibited pronouncedly different behavior in the different dissolution systems depending on different wetting and dissolution conditions. Single phase USP II dissolution tests lacked discrimination. In contrast, remarkable discrimination between the granule formulations was observed in the octanol phase of biphasic dissolution system with a rank order of release from granules prepared by wet granulation with binder>wet granulation without binder>dry granulation. This release order correlated well with the wettability of these granules. An excellent correlation was also established between in vitro release in the octanol phase of the biphasic test and in vivo data (R(2)=0.999). Compared to conventional dissolution methods, the biphasic method provides great potential to discriminate between only minor formulation and process changes within the same dosage form for poorly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of sequential dual-gas testing on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based discrimination: Application to brass samples and bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehse, Steven J., E-mail: rehse@wayne.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Mohaidat, Qassem I., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)


    Four Cu-Zn brass alloys with different stoichiometries and compositions have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using nanosecond laser pulses. The intensities of 15 emission lines of copper, zinc, lead, carbon, and aluminum (as well as the environmental contaminants sodium and calcium) were normalized and analyzed with a discriminant function analysis (DFA) to rapidly categorize the samples by alloy. The alloys were tested sequentially in two different noble gases (argon and helium) to enhance discrimination between them. When emission intensities from samples tested sequentially in both gases were combined to form a single 30-spectral line 'fingerprint' of the alloy, an overall 100% correct identification was achieved. This was a modest improvement over using emission intensities acquired in argon gas alone. A similar study was performed to demonstrate an enhanced discrimination between two strains of Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) and a Gram-positive bacterium. When emission intensities from bacteria sequentially ablated in two different gas environments were combined, the DFA achieved a 100% categorization accuracy. This result showed the benefit of sequentially testing highly similar samples in two different ambient gases to enhance discrimination between the samples.

  13. Discrimination of DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 Earthquake as Nuclear Test Using Analysis of Magnitude, Rupture Duration and Ratio of Seismic Energy and Moment (United States)

    Salomo Sianipar, Dimas; Subakti, Hendri; Pribadi, Sugeng


    On February 12th, 2013 morning at 02:57 UTC, there had been an earthquake with its epicenter in the region of North Korea precisely around Sungjibaegam Mountains. Monitoring stations of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and some other seismic network detected this shallow seismic event. Analyzing seismograms recorded after this event can discriminate between a natural earthquake or an explosion. Zhao et. al. (2014) have been successfully discriminate this seismic event of North Korea nuclear test 2013 from ordinary earthquakes based on network P/S spectral ratios using broadband regional seismic data recorded in China, South Korea and Japan. The P/S-type spectral ratios were powerful discriminants to separate explosions from earthquake (Zhao et. al., 2014). Pribadi et. al. (2014) have characterized 27 earthquake-generated tsunamis (tsunamigenic earthquake or tsunami earthquake) from 1991 to 2012 in Indonesia using W-phase inversion analysis, the ratio between the seismic energy (E) and the seismic moment (Mo), the moment magnitude (Mw), the rupture duration (To) and the distance of the hypocenter to the trench. Some of this method was also used by us to characterize the nuclear test earthquake. We discriminate this DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 earthquake from a natural earthquake using analysis magnitude mb, ms and mw, ratio of seismic energy and moment and rupture duration. We used the waveform data of the seismicity on the scope region in radius 5 degrees from the DPRK M5.1 February 12th, 2013 epicenter 41.29, 129.07 (Zhang and Wen, 2013) from 2006 to 2014 with magnitude M ≥ 4.0. We conclude that this earthquake was a shallow seismic event with explosion characteristics and can be discriminate from a natural or tectonic earthquake. Keywords: North Korean nuclear test, magnitude mb, ms, mw, ratio between seismic energy and moment, ruptures duration

  14. Exact derivation of the geometric correction factor of the center notched test specimen, based on small cracks merging as explanation of softening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Put, T.A.C.M.


    The exact derivation of the mode I geometric correction factor is given, based on the small crack merging mechanism to show that this always is the real fracture mechanism in wood. This mechanism dominates at late softening and explains fully the apparent decrease of the energy release rate of

  15. Testing for Expected Return and Market Price of Risk in Chinese A-B Share Market: A Geometric Brownian Motion and Multivariate GARCH Model Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    stock markets. Models with dynamic of Geometric Brownian Motion are adopted, multivariate GARCH models are also introduced to capture the feature of time-varying volatility in stock returns. The results suggest that the different pric- ing can be explained by the difference in expected returns between...

  16. Detecting Discrimination


    Heckman, James J.


    The evidence on discrimination produced from the audit method is examined. Audits survey the average firm and not the marginal firm which determines the level of market discrimination. Taken on its own terms, there is little evidence of labor market discrimination from audit methods. The validity of audit methods is critically dependent on unverified assumptions about equality across race/gender groups of the distributions of unobserved (by audit designers) productivity components acted on by...

  17. Test of digital neutron–gamma discrimination with four different photomultiplier tubes for the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.L., E-mail: [Department of Instrument Science and Technology, College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Modamio, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nyberg, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Valiente-Dobón, J.J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Nishada, Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Angelis, G. de [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Agramunt, J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Egea, F.J. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Istanbul (Turkey); Erduran, M.N.; Ertürk, S. [Nigde Universitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Falkültesi, Fizik Bölümü, Nigde (Turkey); France, G. de [GANIL, CEA/DSAM and CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Gadea, A. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); González, V. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Hüyük, T. [IFIC-CSIC, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Jaworski, G. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Moszyński, M. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); and others


    A comparative study of the neutron–γ discrimination performance of a liquid scintillator detector BC501A coupled to four different 5 in. photomultiplier tubes (ET9390kb, R11833-100, XP4512 and R4144) was carried out. Both the Charge Comparison method and the Integrated Rise-Time method were implemented digitally to discriminate between neutrons and γ rays emitted by a {sup 252}Cf source. In both methods, the neutron–γ discrimination capabilities of the four photomultiplier tubes were quantitatively compared by evaluating their figure-of-merit values at different energy regions between 50 keVee and 1000 keVee. Additionally, the results were further verified qualitatively using time-of-flight to distinguish γ rays and neutrons. The results consistently show that photomultiplier tubes R11833-100 and ET9390kb generally perform best regarding neutron–γ discrimination with only slight differences in figure-of-merit values. This superiority can be explained by their relatively higher photoelectron yield, which indicates that a scintillator detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube with higher photoelectron yield tends to result in better neutron–γ discrimination performance. The results of this work will provide reference for the choice of photomultiplier tubes for future neutron detector arrays like NEDA.

  18. Enhancing geometric reasoning. (United States)

    Mistretta, R M


    Geometry is an important part of the mathematics curriculum. However, students are not demonstrating strong conceptual knowledge of this subject. The research of Van Hiele and Van Hiele-Geldof has focused on the concept of thinking levels in geometry and the role of instruction in raising levels of thinking. This paper describes a field trial of a supplemental geometry unit intended to raise Van Hiele thinking levels in a group of 23 eighth-grade students by having them become more adept at using higher order thinking skills. Sample questions assessing particular Van Hiele thinking levels and attitudes toward geometry, as well as field-tested activities yielding the most positive results, are presented. Educators can benefit from this application of the Van Hiele model of geometric thinking, since the thought processes involved in learning geometry are explained, along with teaching techniques and tools for assessment. By having teachers become more aware of their students' cognitive skills, attitudes, and misconceptions, teaching practices and student achievement can be enhanced.

  19. A Babylonian Geometrical Algebra. (United States)

    Bidwell, James K.


    A possible method of derivation of prescriptions for solving problems, found in Babylonian cuneiform texts, is presented. It is a kind of "geometric algebra" based mainly on one figure and the manipulation of or within various areas and segments. (MNS)

  20. Geometric and engineering drawing

    CERN Document Server

    Morling, K


    The new edition of this successful text describes all the geometric instructions and engineering drawing information that are likely to be needed by anyone preparing or interpreting drawings or designs with plenty of exercises to practice these principles.

  1. Differential geometric structures

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, Walter A


    This introductory text defines geometric structure by specifying parallel transport in an appropriate fiber bundle and focusing on simplest cases of linear parallel transport in a vector bundle. 1981 edition.

  2. Further improving geometric fitting


    Kanatani, Kenichi


    We give a formal definition of geometric fitting in a way that suits computer vision applications. We point out that the performance of geometric fitting should be evaluated in the limit of small noise rather than in the limit of a large number of data as recommended in the statistical literature. Taking the KCR lower bound as an optimality requirement and focusing on the linearized constraint case, we compare the accuracy of Kanatani's renormalization with maximum likelihood (ML) approaches ...

  3. Performance of 3 Rapid Tests for Discrimination Between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Bjarnason Obinah, Magnús Pétur; Jespersen, Sanne


    As HIV-2 is intrinsically resistant to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, it is mandatory to discriminate between HIV types before initiating antiretroviral treatment. Guinea-Bissau has the world's highest prevalence of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. We evaluated ...

  4. Female CFOs and loan contracting: Financial conservatism or gender discrimination? – An empirical test based on collateral clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixiong Xu


    Full Text Available Based on signaling and gender discrimination theory, we examine whether chief financial officer (CFO gender matters to bank–firm relationships and the designing of collateral clauses in bank loan contracting, and explore the potential path of influence. Data taken from Chinese listed companies between 2009 and 2012 indicate that (1 female-CFO-led firms are less likely to obtain credit loans than male-CFO-led firms; (2 female-CFO-led borrowers are more likely to be required to provide collateral for loans than male-CFO-led borrowers; and (3 banks are more inclined to claim mortgaging collateral when lending to female-CFO-led firms and prefer to guarantee collateral when lending to male-CFO-led firms. Female-CFO-led borrowers seem to be granted more unfavorable loan terms than male-CFO-led borrowers, supporting the hypothesis that female CFOs experience credit discrimination. Further analysis reveals that regional financial development helps to alleviate lending discrimination against female CFOs. Furthermore, female CFOs in SOEs are less likely than their non-SOE counterparts to experience gender discrimination in the credit market.

  5. Quality indicators for palliative care services: mixed-method study testing for face validity, feasibility, discriminative power and usefulness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, K.; Deliens, L.; Francke, A.L.; Stichele, R. Vander; Block, L. van den; Cohen, J.


    Background: In the absence of a standardized, comprehensive and valid set of quality indicators for palliative care, we developed one for palliative care services in Belgium. Aim: This study evaluates its face validity, feasibility, discriminative power and usefulness. Design: We combined a

  6. Quality indicators for palliative care services: Mixed-method study testing for face validity, feasibility, discriminative power and usefulness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, K.; Deliens, L.; Francke, A.L.; van der Stichele, R.; Block, L.; Cohen, J.


    Background: In the absence of a standardized, comprehensive and valid set of quality indicators for palliative care, we developed one for palliative care services in Belgium. Aim: This study evaluates its face validity, feasibility, discriminative power and usefulness. Design: We combined a

  7. Feeling younger and identifying with older adults: Testing two routes to maintaining well-being in the face of age discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana M Armenta

    Full Text Available Integrating the social identity and aging literatures, this work tested the hypothesis that there are two independent, but simultaneous, responses by which adults transitioning into old age can buffer themselves against age discrimination: an individual response, which entails adopting a younger subjective age when facing discrimination, and a collective response, which involves increasing identification with the group of older adults. In three experimental studies with a total number of 488 older adults (50 to 75 years of age, we manipulated age discrimination in a job application scenario and measured the effects of both responses on perceived health and self-esteem. Statistical analyses include individual study results as well as a meta-analysis on the combined results of the three studies. Findings show consistent evidence only for the individual response, which was in turn associated with well-being. Furthermore, challenging previous research, the two responses (adopting a younger subjective age and increasing group identification were not only theoretically, but also empirically distinct. This research complements prior research by signaling the value of considering both responses to discrimination as complementary rather than mutually exclusive.

  8. Feeling younger and identifying with older adults: Testing two routes to maintaining well-being in the face of age discrimination. (United States)

    Armenta, Bibiana M; Stroebe, Katherine; Scheibe, Susanne; Postmes, Tom; Van Yperen, Nico W


    Integrating the social identity and aging literatures, this work tested the hypothesis that there are two independent, but simultaneous, responses by which adults transitioning into old age can buffer themselves against age discrimination: an individual response, which entails adopting a younger subjective age when facing discrimination, and a collective response, which involves increasing identification with the group of older adults. In three experimental studies with a total number of 488 older adults (50 to 75 years of age), we manipulated age discrimination in a job application scenario and measured the effects of both responses on perceived health and self-esteem. Statistical analyses include individual study results as well as a meta-analysis on the combined results of the three studies. Findings show consistent evidence only for the individual response, which was in turn associated with well-being. Furthermore, challenging previous research, the two responses (adopting a younger subjective age and increasing group identification) were not only theoretically, but also empirically distinct. This research complements prior research by signaling the value of considering both responses to discrimination as complementary rather than mutually exclusive.

  9. Genetic Discrimination (United States)

    Skip to main content Genetic Discrimination Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features ...

  10. Algebraic geometric codes (United States)

    Shahshahani, M.


    The performance characteristics are discussed of certain algebraic geometric codes. Algebraic geometric codes have good minimum distance properties. On many channels they outperform other comparable block codes; therefore, one would expect them eventually to replace some of the block codes used in communications systems. It is suggested that it is unlikely that they will become useful substitutes for the Reed-Solomon codes used by the Deep Space Network in the near future. However, they may be applicable to systems where the signal to noise ratio is sufficiently high so that block codes would be more suitable than convolutional or concatenated codes.

  11. Mahavira's Geometrical Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens


    Analysis of the geometrical chapters Mahavira's 9th-century Ganita-sara-sangraha reveals inspiration from several chronological levels of Near-Eastern and Mediterranean mathematics: (1)that known from Old Babylonian tablets, c. 1800-1600 BCE; (2)a Late Babylonian but pre-Seleucid Stratum, probabl...

  12. Leaf morphology, taxonomy and geometric morphometrics: a simplified protocol for beginners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Viscosi

    Full Text Available Taxonomy relies greatly on morphology to discriminate groups. Computerized geometric morphometric methods for quantitative shape analysis measure, test and visualize differences in form in a highly effective, reproducible, accurate and statistically powerful way. Plant leaves are commonly used in taxonomic analyses and are particularly suitable to landmark based geometric morphometrics. However, botanists do not yet seem to have taken advantage of this set of methods in their studies as much as zoologists have done. Using free software and an example dataset from two geographical populations of sessile oak leaves, we describe in detailed but simple terms how to: a compute size and shape variables using Procrustes methods; b test measurement error and the main levels of variation (population and trees using a hierachical design; c estimate the accuracy of group discrimination; d repeat this estimate after controlling for the effect of size differences on shape (i.e., allometry. Measurement error was completely negligible; individual variation in leaf morphology was large and differences between trees were generally bigger than within trees; differences between the two geographic populations were small in both size and shape; despite a weak allometric trend, controlling for the effect of size on shape slighly increased discrimination accuracy. Procrustes based methods for the analysis of landmarks were highly efficient in measuring the hierarchical structure of differences in leaves and in revealing very small-scale variation. In taxonomy and many other fields of botany and biology, the application of geometric morphometrics contributes to increase scientific rigour in the description of important aspects of the phenotypic dimension of biodiversity. Easy to follow but detailed step by step example studies can promote a more extensive use of these numerical methods, as they provide an introduction to the discipline which, for many biologists, is

  13. Quality indicators for palliative care services: mixed-method study testing for face validity, feasibility, discriminative power and usefulness. (United States)

    Leemans, Kathleen; Deliens, Luc; Francke, Anneke L; Vander Stichele, Robert; Van den Block, Lieve; Cohen, Joachim


    In the absence of a standardized, comprehensive and valid set of quality indicators for palliative care, we developed one for palliative care services in Belgium. This study evaluates its face validity, feasibility, discriminative power and usefulness. We combined a quantitative analysis evaluating the answers with qualitative interviews with the contact persons of all participating services. The quality indicator set was implemented in nine palliative care services in Belgium involving a measurement procedure with questionnaires to the patients of the services, their professional caregivers, family carers and physicians. The response rate was 56% for patients, 97% for caregivers, 56% for family carers and 65% for physicians, indicating good feasibility of the measurement procedure. During the interviews, caregivers found the indicator scores valid and none was extremely skewed, confirming their discriminative power. Still, 20 of the 80 indicators showed problems of feasibility and 5 of usefulness. One was discarded and the others were improved by changing either the formulation of the indicator or the questions used. Most participants expressed a desire for a smaller but still comprehensive set. Based on the results, minor adjustments were made to individual indicators, to the measurement tools and to the procedure used; the quality indicators are now ready for further evaluation and use across palliative care services in Belgium. As soon as these indicators are being used systematically, it will be possible to demonstrate and compare quality at the national and international levels and to evaluate improvement initiatives. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Reference intervals and discrimination values of the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test in young to middle-aged Japanese army officials: the Okubo Color Study Report 1. (United States)

    Shoji, T; Sakurai, Y; Chihara, E; Nishikawa, S; Omae, K


    To better understand the reference values and adequate discrimination values of colour vision function with described quantitative systems for the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel (D-15DS). A total of 1042 Japanese male officials were interviewed and underwent testing using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, standard pseudoisochromatic plates part 2, and the D-15DS. The Farnsworth-Munsell (F-M) 100-hue test and the criteria of Verriest et al were used as definitive tests. Outcomes of the D-15DS were calculated using Bowman's Colour Confusion Index (CCI). The study design included two criteria. In criterion A, subjects with current or past ocular disease and a best-corrected visual acuity less than 0.7 on a decimal visual acuity chart were excluded. In criterion B, among subjects who satisfied criterion A, those who had a congenital colour sense anomaly were excluded. Overall, the 90th percentile (95th percentile) CCI values for criteria A and B in the worse eye were 1.70 (1.95) and 1.59 (1.73), respectively. In subjects satisfying criterion B, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.951 (95% confidence interval, 0.931-0.971). The CCI discrimination values of 1.52 or 1.63 showed 90.3% sensitivity and 90% specificity, or 71.5% sensitivity and 95% specificity, respectively, for discriminating acquired colour vision impairment (ACVI). We provided the 90th and 95th percentiles in a young to middle-aged healthy population. The CCI is in good agreement with the diagnosis of ACVI. Our results could be helpful for using D-15DS for screening purposes.

  15. Development and validation of a decision tree early warning score based on routine laboratory test results for the discrimination of hospital mortality in emergency medical admissions. (United States)

    Jarvis, Stuart W; Kovacs, Caroline; Badriyah, Tessy; Briggs, Jim; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Meredith, Paul; Schmidt, Paul E; Featherstone, Peter I; Prytherch, David R; Smith, Gary B


    To build an early warning score (EWS) based exclusively on routinely undertaken laboratory tests that might provide early discrimination of in-hospital death and could be easily implemented on paper. Using a database of combined haematology and biochemistry results for 86,472 discharged adult patients for whom the admission specialty was Medicine, we used decision tree (DT) analysis to generate a laboratory decision tree early warning score (LDT-EWS) for each gender. LDT-EWS was developed for a single set (n=3496) (Q1) and validated in 22 other discrete sets each of three months long (Q2, Q3…Q23) (total n=82,976; range of n=3428 to 4093) by testing its ability to discriminate in-hospital death using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. The data generated slightly different models for male and female patients. The ranges of AUROC values (95% CI) for LDT-EWS with in-hospital death as the outcome for the validation sets Q2-Q23 were: 0.755 (0.727-0.783) (Q16) to 0.801 (0.776-0.826) [all patients combined, n=82,976]; 0.744 (0.704-0.784, Q16) to 0.824 (0.792-0.856, Q2) [39,591 males]; and 0.742 (0.707-0.777, Q10) to 0.826 (0.796-0.856, Q12) [43,385 females]. This study provides evidence that the results of commonly measured laboratory tests collected soon after hospital admission can be represented in a simple, paper-based EWS (LDT-EWS) to discriminate in-hospital mortality. We hypothesise that, with appropriate modification, it might be possible to extend the use of LDT-EWS throughout the patient's hospital stay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychophysical Evaluation of Congenital Colour Vision Deficiency: Discrimination between Protans and Deutans Using Mollon-Reffin's Ellipses and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test. (United States)

    Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Côrtes, Maria Izabel Tentes; Bonci, Daniela Maria de Oliveira; Ventura, Dora Fix; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima


    We have used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue (FM 100) test and Mollon-Reffin (MR) test to evaluate the colour vision of 93 subjects, 30.4 ± 9.7 years old, who had red-green congenital colour vision deficiencies. All subjects lived in Belém (State of Pará, Brazil) and were selected by the State of Pará Traffic Department. Selection criteria comprised the absence of visual dysfunctions other than Daltonism and no history of systemic diseases that could impair the visual system performance. Results from colour vision deficient were compared with those from 127 normal trichromats, 29.3 ± 10.3 years old. For the MR test, measurements were taken around five points of the CIE 1976 colour space, along 20 directions irradiating from each point, in order to determine with high-resolution the corresponding colour discrimination ellipses (MacAdam ellipses). Three parameters were used to compare results obtained from different subjects: diameter of circle with same ellipse area, ratio between ellipse's long and short axes, and ellipse long axis angle. For the FM 100 test, the parameters were: logarithm of the total number of mistakes and positions of mistakes in the FM diagram. Data were also simultaneously analysed in two or three dimensions as well as by using multidimensional cluster analysis. For the MR test, Mollon-Reffin Ellipse #3 (u' = 0.225, v' = 0.415) discriminated more efficiently than the other four ellipses between protans and deutans once it provided larger angular difference in the colour space between protan and deutan confusion lines. The MR test was more sensitive than the FM 100 test. It separated individuals by dysfunctional groups with greater precision, provided a more sophisticated quantitative analysis, and its use is appropriate for a more refined evaluation of different phenotypes of red-green colour vision deficiencies.

  17. Psychophysical Evaluation of Congenital Colour Vision Deficiency: Discrimination between Protans and Deutans Using Mollon-Reffin’s Ellipses and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test (United States)

    Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Côrtes, Maria Izabel Tentes; Bonci, Daniela Maria de Oliveira; Ventura, Dora Fix


    We have used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue (FM 100) test and Mollon-Reffin (MR) test to evaluate the colour vision of 93 subjects, 30.4 ± 9.7 years old, who had red-green congenital colour vision deficiencies. All subjects lived in Belém (State of Pará, Brazil) and were selected by the State of Pará Traffic Department. Selection criteria comprised the absence of visual dysfunctions other than Daltonism and no history of systemic diseases that could impair the visual system performance. Results from colour vision deficient were compared with those from 127 normal trichromats, 29.3 ± 10.3 years old. For the MR test, measurements were taken around five points of the CIE 1976 colour space, along 20 directions irradiating from each point, in order to determine with high-resolution the corresponding colour discrimination ellipses (MacAdam ellipses). Three parameters were used to compare results obtained from different subjects: diameter of circle with same ellipse area, ratio between ellipse’s long and short axes, and ellipse long axis angle. For the FM 100 test, the parameters were: logarithm of the total number of mistakes and positions of mistakes in the FM diagram. Data were also simultaneously analysed in two or three dimensions as well as by using multidimensional cluster analysis. For the MR test, Mollon-Reffin Ellipse #3 (u’ = 0.225, v’ = 0.415) discriminated more efficiently than the other four ellipses between protans and deutans once it provided larger angular difference in the colour space between protan and deutan confusion lines. The MR test was more sensitive than the FM 100 test. It separated individuals by dysfunctional groups with greater precision, provided a more sophisticated quantitative analysis, and its use is appropriate for a more refined evaluation of different phenotypes of red-green colour vision deficiencies. PMID:27101124

  18. Multiview Uncorrelated Discriminant Analysis. (United States)

    Sun, Shiliang; Xie, Xijiong; Yang, Mo


    Multiview learning is more robust than single-view learning in many real applications. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a popular technique to utilize information stemming from multiple feature sets. However, it does not exploit label information effectively. Later multiview linear discriminant analysis (MLDA) was proposed through combining CCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Due to the successful application of uncorrelated LDA (ULDA), which seeks optimal discriminant features with minimum redundancy, we propose a new supervised learning method called multiview ULDA (MULDA) in this paper. This method combines the theory of ULDA with CCA. Then we adapt discriminant CCA (DCCA) instead of the CCA in MLDA and MULDA, and discuss about the effect of this modification. Furthermore, we generalize these methods to the nonlinear case by kernel-based learning techniques. The new method is called kernel multiview uncorrelated discriminant analysis (KMUDA). Then we modify kernel multiview discriminant analysis and KMUDA by replacing Kernel CCA with Kernel DCCA. Our methods are tested on different real datasets and compared with other state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of our methods.

  19. Dynamics in geometrical confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Friedrich


    This book describes the dynamics of low molecular weight and polymeric molecules when they are constrained under conditions of geometrical confinement. It covers geometrical confinement in different dimensionalities: (i) in nanometer thin layers or self supporting films (1-dimensional confinement) (ii) in pores or tubes with nanometric diameters (2-dimensional confinement) (iii) as micelles embedded in matrices (3-dimensional) or as nanodroplets.The dynamics under such conditions have been a much discussed and central topic in the focus of intense worldwide research activities within the last two decades. The present book discusses how the resulting molecular mobility is influenced by the subtle counterbalance between surface effects (typically slowing down molecular dynamics through attractive guest/host interactions) and confinement effects (typically increasing the mobility). It also explains how these influences can be modified and tuned, e.g. through appropriate surface coatings, film thicknesses or pore...

  20. Geometric group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bestvina, Mladen; Vogtmann, Karen


    Geometric group theory refers to the study of discrete groups using tools from topology, geometry, dynamics and analysis. The field is evolving very rapidly and the present volume provides an introduction to and overview of various topics which have played critical roles in this evolution. The book contains lecture notes from courses given at the Park City Math Institute on Geometric Group Theory. The institute consists of a set of intensive short courses offered by leaders in the field, designed to introduce students to exciting, current research in mathematics. These lectures do not duplicate standard courses available elsewhere. The courses begin at an introductory level suitable for graduate students and lead up to currently active topics of research. The articles in this volume include introductions to CAT(0) cube complexes and groups, to modern small cancellation theory, to isometry groups of general CAT(0) spaces, and a discussion of nilpotent genus in the context of mapping class groups and CAT(0) gro...

  1. Gravity, a geometrical course

    CERN Document Server

    Frè, Pietro Giuseppe


    ‘Gravity, a Geometrical Course’ presents general relativity (GR) in a systematic and exhaustive way, covering three aspects that are homogenized into a single texture: i) the mathematical, geometrical foundations, exposed in a self consistent contemporary formalism, ii) the main physical, astrophysical and cosmological applications,  updated to the issues of contemporary research and observations, with glimpses on supergravity and superstring theory, iii) the historical development of scientific ideas underlying both the birth of general relativity and its subsequent evolution. The book is divided in two volumes.   Volume One is dedicated to the development of the theory and basic physical applications. It guides the reader from the foundation of special relativity to Einstein field equations, illustrating some basic applications in astrophysics. A detailed  account  of the historical and conceptual development of the theory is combined with the presentation of its mathematical foundations.  Differe...

  2. Geometric theory of information

    CERN Document Server


    This book brings together geometric tools and their applications for Information analysis. It collects current and many uses of in the interdisciplinary fields of Information Geometry Manifolds in Advanced Signal, Image & Video Processing, Complex Data Modeling and Analysis, Information Ranking and Retrieval, Coding, Cognitive Systems, Optimal Control, Statistics on Manifolds, Machine Learning, Speech/sound recognition, and natural language treatment which are also substantially relevant for the industry.

  3. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.


    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  4. Geometric measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Waerden, B


    From the reviews: "... Federer's timely and beautiful book indeed fills the need for a comprehensive treatise on geometric measure theory, and his detailed exposition leads from the foundations of the theory to the most recent discoveries. ... The author writes with a distinctive style which is both natural and powerfully economical in treating a complicated subject. This book is a major treatise in mathematics and is essential in the working library of the modern analyst." Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society.

  5. Tests to determine LC50 and discriminating concentrations for fipronil against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and their standardization (United States)

    Laboratory test were carried out on larvae and adults of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, to determine fipronil toxicity. Adult immersion test (AIT), larval immersion test (LIT) and larval packet test (LPT) were standardized using susceptible strain (Mozo). Curves dose-response ...

  6. Geometric diffusion of quantum trajectories (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao


    A quantum object can acquire a geometric phase (such as Berry phases and Aharonov-Bohm phases) when evolving along a path in a parameter space with non-trivial gauge structures. Inherent to quantum evolutions of wavepackets, quantum diffusion occurs along quantum trajectories. Here we show that quantum diffusion can also be geometric as characterized by the imaginary part of a geometric phase. The geometric quantum diffusion results from interference between different instantaneous eigenstate pathways which have different geometric phases during the adiabatic evolution. As a specific example, we study the quantum trajectories of optically excited electron-hole pairs in time-reversal symmetric insulators, driven by an elliptically polarized terahertz field. The imaginary geometric phase manifests itself as elliptical polarization in the terahertz sideband generation. The geometric quantum diffusion adds a new dimension to geometric phases and may have applications in many fields of physics, e.g., transport in topological insulators and novel electro-optical effects.

  7. Characterizing the geometrical tolerances of optimized vertical-cavity thermal emitter stack configurations for the mid-infrared via Monte Carlo testing (United States)

    Pühringer, Gerald; Jakoby, Bernhard


    We evaluate a recently devised design of vertical-cavity enhanced resonant thermal emitter (VERTE) regarding stability to fabrication tolerances of PVD layer deposition techniques. Such an emitter achieves narrowband and coherent thermal emission and is composed of an multilayer stack of dielectric layers (silicon and silica) on top of a reflective metal (silver) structure. The silica layer above the metal acts as a vertical cavity enhancing the electromagnetic field between the reflective metal and the dielectric stack forming a Bragg mirror (1-D photonic crystal). In our previous work, we identified several suitable five-layer-stack configurations, which considered several features and limitations of a real-world device, such as temperature dependence of the materials, fabrication constraints or unwanted emission modes. However, the emission characteristics are very sensitive to the geometrical and optical properties of the material. In order to examine this behaviour, a Monte-Carlo algorithm was used to apply a Gauss-distributed error in depth (relative the unperturbed layer thickness) for every individual layer. The robustness of the emission properties against fabrication errors were evaluated and analyzed by significant statistical quantities. As expected, the main issue compromising the emission properties is a deviation of the resonance wavelength in relation to the initial target resonance wavelength of the unperturbed configuration. Interestingly, configurations with larger average layer thicknesses and therefore with larger absolute thickness deviations did not exhibit a larger variance of the emission wavelength. Instead, the variance slightly decreased or remained constant. A similar result was obtained for increasing the number of dielectric layers. In contrast, the peak emissivity (at normal incidence) was significantly influenced by the average layer depth of a configuration. Also, the effect of broadening of the spectral emittance curve due to

  8. Geometric Algebra Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Corrochano, Eduardo Bayro


    This book presents contributions from a global selection of experts in the field. This useful text offers new insights and solutions for the development of theorems, algorithms and advanced methods for real-time applications across a range of disciplines. Written in an accessible style, the discussion of all applications is enhanced by the inclusion of numerous examples, figures and experimental analysis. Features: provides a thorough discussion of several tasks for image processing, pattern recognition, computer vision, robotics and computer graphics using the geometric algebra framework; int

  9. Geometric phases in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shapere, Alfred D


    During the last few years, considerable interest has been focused on the phase that waves accumulate when the equations governing the waves vary slowly. The recent flurry of activity was set off by a paper by Michael Berry, where it was found that the adiabatic evolution of energy eigenfunctions in quantum mechanics contains a phase of geometric origin (now known as 'Berry's phase') in addition to the usual dynamical phase derived from Schrödinger's equation. This observation, though basically elementary, seems to be quite profound. Phases with similar mathematical origins have been identified

  10. Geometrizing adiabatic quantum computation (United States)

    Rezakhani, Ali; Kuo, Wan-Jung; Hamma, Alioscia; Lidar, Daniel; Zanardi, Paolo


    A time-optimal approach to adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is formulated. The corresponding natural Riemannian metric is also derived, through which AQC can be understood as the problem of finding a geodesic on the manifold of control parameters. We demonstrate this geometrization through some examples, where we show that it leads to improved performance of AQC, and sheds light on the roles of entanglement and curvature of the control manifold in algorithmic performance. The underlying connection with quantum phase transitions is also explored.

  11. Image understanding using geometric context (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Liu, Chuancai


    A Gibbs Sampler based topic model for image annotation, which takes into account the interaction between visual geometric context and related topic, is presented. Most of the existing topic models for scene annotation use segmentation-based algorithm. However, topic models using segmentation algorithm alone sometimes can produce erroneous results when used to annotate real-life scene pictures. Therefore, our algorithm makes use of peaks of image surface instead of segmentation regions. Existing approaches use SIFT algorithm and treat the peaks as round blob features. In this paper, the peaks are treated as anisotropic blob features, which models low level visual elements more precisely. In order to better utilize visual features, our model not only takes into consideration visual codeword, but also considers influence of visual properties to topic formation, such as orientation, width, length and color. The basic idea is based on the assumption that different topics will produce distinct visual appearance, and different visual appearance is helpful to distinguish topics. During the learning stage, each topic will be associated with a set of distributions of visual properties, which depicts appearance of the topic. This paper considers more geometric properties, which will reduce topic uncertainty and learn the images better. Tested with Corel5K, SAIAPR-TC12 and Espgame100k Datasets, our method performs moderately better than some state of the arts methods.

  12. Evaluation of an immunochromatographic test for discrimination between Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex & non tuberculous mycobacteria in clinical isolates from extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. (United States)

    Maurya, Anand Kumar; Nag, Vijaya Lakshmi; Kant, Surya; Kushwaha, Ram Aawadh Singh; Kumar, Manoj; Mishra, Vikas; Rahman, W; Dhole, Tapan N


    Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is crucial to facilitate early treatment of the patients, and to reduce its spread. Clinical presentation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and non tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may or may not be the same, but the treatment regimen is always different for both the infections. Differentiation between MTBC and NTM by routine laboratory methods is time consuming and cumbersome. This study was aimed to evaluate an immunochromatographic test (ICT), based on mouse monoclonal anti-MPT64, for simple and rapid discrimination between MTBC and NTM in clinical isolates from extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases. A total of 800 clinical samples were collected from patients suspected to have extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Preliminary diagnosis has been done by direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining followed by culture in BACTEC system. A total of 150 clinical isolates, which were found positive in BD 460 TB system during September 2009 to September 2010 were selected for the screening by ICT test. p-nitro-α-acetylamino- β-hydroxy propiophenone (NAP) test was performed for differentiation of MTBC and NTM. M. tuberculosis complex was further confirmed by IS6110 PCR of BACTEC culture positive isolates, this served as the reference method for MTBC identification and comparative evaluation of the ICT kit. Of the 150 BACTEC culture positive isolates tested by ICT kit, 101 (67.3%) were found positive for MTBC and remaining 49 (32.7%) were considered as NTM. These results were further confirmed by IS6110 PCR that served as the reference method for detection of MTBC. H 37 Rv reference strain was taken as a control for ICT test and IS6110 PCR. The reference strain showed the presence of MPT64 antigen band in the ICT test. Similar bands were formed in 101 of 102 MTBC isolates tested, proving 99.1 per cent sensitivity and no bands were detected in 48 (100%) NTM isolates tested, proving 100 per cent specificity of the ICT kit. Our findings show

  13. Convergent validity of the measures of attention and impulsivity in the Trees: simple Visual Discrimination Test (DiViSA-UAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José H. Lozano


    Full Text Available The Trees: Simple Visual Discrimination Test (DiViSA-UAM is an objective test to assess attention and impulsivity in children aged between 6 and 12 years. The aim of this study was to supplement the validity data obtained in prior research, analyzing the evidence of convergent validity of the measures of the DiViSA-UAM in relation to other, already well-established, instruments for assessing attention and inhibitory control in children: the 'Faces', Differences Perception Test and the d2 Test of Attention. To this end, the instruments were administered to a sample of 111 students from primary education (46 girls and 65 boys between the ages of 8 and 12 years. The correlation analysis showed values in line with expectations among the indices of the three tests. Similarly to what has been observed in prior research, the three tests coincided in identifying a progressive increase in attention performance between the ages of 8 and 12, as well as stability in impulsivity control and the absence of sex-related differences. We discuss the potential advantages of the DiViSA-UAM derived from its application format and its greater ease of execution.

  14. Within centre evaluation of hypercalcaemia discriminant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Conradsen, Knut


    Diagnostic hypercalcaemia discriminant functions, discriminating between clinically significant and non-significant hypercalcaemia, were tested 5 years after their development in order to evaluate the impact of time on their diagnostic capacity. Two populations, consisting of 257 and 129 patients...

  15. Feelings as a basis for discrimination: Comparison of a modified authenticity test with the same-different test for slightly different types of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frandsen, L.W.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Brockhoff, P.B.; Nielsen, J.H.; Martens, M.


    An analytical sensory test and an authenticity test were used to evaluate subtle flavour differences in milk. Consumers who habitually drink milk were selected for the tests. These consumers, we assume, possess implicitly learned knowledge about the taste of milk. In the authenticity test the

  16. Feelings as a basis for discrimination : Comparison of a modified authenticity test with the same-different test for slightly different types of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frandsen, Lise Wolf; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.; Brockhoff, Per B.; Nielsen, Jacob H.; Martens, Magni

    An analytical sensory test and an authenticity test were used to evaluate subtle flavour differences in milk. Consumers who habitually drink milk were selected for the tests. These consumers, we assume, possess implicitly learned knowledge about the taste of milk. In the authenticity test the

  17. Drugs, discrimination and disability. (United States)

    Gibson, Frances


    Whether addiction to prohibited drugs should be classified as a disability for the purposes of disability discrimination is a controversial question in Australia. The leading Australian case of Marsden v Human Rights Equal Opportunity Commission & Coffs Harbour & District Ex-Servicemen & Women's Memorial Club Ltd (HREOC, No H98/51, 30 August 1999); [2000] FCA 1619 concerned a disability discrimination complaint brought by Mr Marsden as a result of his treatment by the club. The case was brought as a public interest test case by the New South Wales Legal Aid Commission. Mr Marsden was on a methadone program at the time. The reasoning of the decision at the Federal Court opened the way for a finding that dependence on illegal drugs constituted a disability under disability discrimination legislation. The media reaction to the court's decision led to State and federal governments proposing legislation limiting legal protection from discrimination for people addicted to illegal drugs on the basis of their drug use. While the proposed federal legislation lapsed after objections from a coalition of medical, legal and other advocacy groups, the New South Wales legislation still provides that, in employment matters, it is not unlawful to discriminate against a person on the ground of disability if the disability relates to the person's addiction to a prohibited drug and the person is actually addicted to a prohibited drug at the time of the discrimination. The article details the sequence of events in the Marsden case, reflects on the role of public interest litigation in achieving social justice outcomes and suggests that Australia's recent ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 17 July 2008 should encourage legislators to review legislation which may have a discriminatory effect on people suffering from addictions.

  18. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina R Sutin

    Full Text Available Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08 and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97 than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  19. Geometric phase around exceptional points


    Mailybaev, Alexei; Kirillov, Oleg; Seyranian, Alexander,


    A wave function picks up, in addition to the dynamic phase, the geometric (Berry) phase when traversing adiabatically a closed cycle in parameter space. We develop a general multidimensional theory of the geometric phase for (double) cycles around exceptional degeneracies in non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. We show that the geometric phase is exactly $\\pi$ for symmetric complex Hamiltonians of arbitrary dimension and for nonsymmetric non-Hermitian Hamiltonians of dimension 2. For nonsymmetric non-...

  20. Taste identification used as a potential discriminative test among depression and Alzheimer׳s disease in elderly: A pilot study. (United States)

    Naudin, Marine; Mondon, Karl; El-Hage, Wissam; Perriot, Elise; Boudjarane, Mohamed; Desmidt, Thomas; Lorette, Adrien; Belzung, Catherine; Hommet, Caroline; Atanasova, Boriana


    Major Depression and Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) are two diseases in the elderly characterized by an overlap of early symptoms including memory and emotional disorders. The identification of specific markers would facilitate their diagnosis. The aim of this study was to identify such markers by investigating gustatory function in depressed and AD patients. We included 20 patients with unipolar major depressive episodes (MDE), 20 patients with mild to moderate AD and 24 healthy individuals. We investigated the cognitive profile (depression, global cognitive efficiency and social/physical anhedonia) and gustatory function (ability to identify four basic tastes and to judge their intensity and hedonic value) in all participants. We found that AD patients performed worse than healthy participants in the taste identification test (for the analysis of all tastants together); however, this was not the case for depressed patients. We found no significant differences among the three groups in their ability to evaluate the intensity and hedonic value of the four tastes. Overall, our findings suggest that a taste identification test may be useful to distinguish AD and healthy controls but further investigation is required to conclude whether such a test can differentiate AD and depressed patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of geometric moments as features for firearm identification. (United States)

    Md Ghani, Nor Azura; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Jemain, Abdul Aziz


    The task of identifying firearms from forensic ballistics specimens is exacting in crime investigation since the last two decades. Every firearm, regardless of its size, make and model, has its own unique 'fingerprint'. These fingerprints transfer when a firearm is fired to the fired bullet and cartridge case. The components that are involved in producing these unique characteristics are the firing chamber, breech face, firing pin, ejector, extractor and the rifling of the barrel. These unique characteristics are the critical features in identifying firearms. It allows investigators to decide on which particular firearm that has fired the bullet. Traditionally the comparison of ballistic evidence has been a tedious and time-consuming process requiring highly skilled examiners. Therefore, the main objective of this study is the extraction and identification of suitable features from firing pin impression of cartridge case images for firearm recognition. Some previous studies have shown that firing pin impression of cartridge case is one of the most important characteristics used for identifying an individual firearm. In this study, data are gathered using 747 cartridge case images captured from five different pistols of type 9mm Parabellum Vektor SP1, made in South Africa. All the images of the cartridge cases are then segmented into three regions, forming three different set of images, i.e. firing pin impression image, centre of firing pin impression image and ring of firing pin impression image. Then geometric moments up to the sixth order were generated from each part of the images to form a set of numerical features. These 48 features were found to be significantly different using the MANOVA test. This high dimension of features is then reduced into only 11 significant features using correlation analysis. Classification results using cross-validation under discriminant analysis show that 96.7% of the images were classified correctly. These results demonstrate

  2. Harmonic and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Citti, Giovanna; Pérez, Carlos; Sarti, Alessandro; Zhong, Xiao


    This book presents an expanded version of four series of lectures delivered by the authors at the CRM. Harmonic analysis, understood in a broad sense, has a very wide interplay with partial differential equations and in particular with the theory of quasiconformal mappings and its applications. Some areas in which real analysis has been extremely influential are PDE's and geometric analysis. Their foundations and subsequent developments made extensive use of the Calderón–Zygmund theory, especially the Lp inequalities for Calderón–Zygmund operators (Beurling transform and Riesz transform, among others) and the theory of Muckenhoupt weights.  The first chapter is an application of harmonic analysis and the Heisenberg group to understanding human vision, while the second and third chapters cover some of the main topics on linear and multilinear harmonic analysis. The last serves as a comprehensive introduction to a deep result from De Giorgi, Moser and Nash on the regularity of elliptic partial differen...

  3. Geometric phase and quantum potential


    Dandoloff, R.


    We show that the geometric phase of Levy-Leblond arises from a low of parallel transport for wave functions and point out that this phase belongs to a new class of geometric phases due to the presence of a quantum potential.

  4. Geometrical approach to fluid models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuvshinov, B. N.; Schep, T. J.


    Differential geometry based upon the Cartan calculus of differential forms is applied to investigate invariant properties of equations that describe the motion of continuous media. The main feature of this approach is that physical quantities are treated as geometrical objects. The geometrical

  5. Geometric Modeling for Computer Vision (United States)


    The main contribution of this thesis is the development of a three dimensional geometric modeling system for application to computer vision . In... computer vision geometric models provide a goal for descriptive image analysis, an origin for verification image synthesis, and a context for spatial

  6. New speech tests reveal benefit of wide-dynamic-range, fast-acting compression for consonant discrimination in children with moderate-to-profound hearing loss. (United States)

    Marriage, Josephine E; Moore, Brian C J


    Fast-acting, wide-dynamic-range compression (WDRC) has been shown to give better discrimination of soft speech and shouted speech than linear amplification for moderately hearing-impaired young adults. For severe and profound hearing losses, higher compression ratios are needed. The resultant distortion of the temporal envelope and reduced modulation depth may offset improvements in audibility offered by WDRC. This study compares the effectiveness of WDRC and linear amplification for children with different degrees of hearing loss. Pre-recorded tests of closed-set consonant confusions and open-set word recognition were developed to assess performance. Three groups of subjects (aged 4-14 years) with moderate (51-70 dB), severe (71-90 dB) and profound (91-115 dB) hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids programmed with WDRC or linear amplification. The frequency response was adjusted to match each child's own hearing aid prescription. For each group, stimuli were presented both in quiet and in noise at levels chosen to avoid floor and ceiling effects. Consonant confusion scores for the profound and severe groups combined and for the moderate group were significantly better with WDRC than with linear amplification. Open-set test results showed greater variability. Although mean scores were higher for WDRC than for linear processing, the effects were of marginal statistical significance.

  7. The Parsing Syllable Envelopes Test for Assessment of Amplitude Modulation Discrimination Skills in Children: Development, Normative Data, and Test-Retest Reliability Studies. (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Chong-White, Nicky; Mealings, Kiri; Beechey, Tim; Dillon, Harvey; Young, Taegan


    Intensity peaks and valleys in the acoustic signal are salient cues to syllable structure, which is accepted to be a crucial early step in phonological processing. As such, the ability to detect low-rate (envelope) modulations in signal amplitude is essential to parse an incoming speech signal into smaller phonological units. The Parsing Syllable Envelopes (ParSE) test was developed to quantify the ability of children to recognize syllable boundaries using an amplitude modulation detection paradigm. The envelope of a 750-msec steady-state /a/ vowel is modulated into two or three pseudo-syllables using notches with modulation depths varying between 0% and 100% along an 11-step continuum. In an adaptive three-alternative forced-choice procedure, the participant identified whether one, two, or three pseudo-syllables were heard. Development of the ParSE stimuli and test protocols, and collection of normative and test-retest reliability data. Eleven adults (aged 23 yr 10 mo to 50 yr 9 mo, mean 32 yr 10 mo) and 134 typically developing, primary-school children (aged 6 yr 0 mo to 12 yr 4 mo, mean 9 yr 3 mo). There were 73 males and 72 females. Data were collected using a touchscreen computer. Psychometric functions (PFs) were automatically fit to individual data by the ParSE software. Performance was related to the modulation depth at which syllables can be detected with 88% accuracy (referred to as the upper boundary of the uncertainty region [UBUR]). A shallower PF slope reflected a greater level of uncertainty. Age effects were determined based on raw scores. z Scores were calculated to account for the effect of age on performance. Outliers, and individual data for which the confidence interval of the UBUR exceeded a maximum allowable value, were removed. Nonparametric tests were used as the data were skewed toward negative performance. Across participants, the performance criterion (UBUR) was met with a median modulation depth of 42%. The effect of age on the UBUR was

  8. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  9. Geometrical method of decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten


    Full Text Available The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E[over →], B[over →], and P[over →], which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When

  10. The Best Model of the Swiss Banknote Data -Validation by the 95% CI of coefficients and t-test of discriminant scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura


    Full Text Available The discriminant analysis is not the inferential statistics since there are no equations for standard error (SE of error rate and discriminant coefficient based on the normal distribution. In this paper, we proposed the “k-fold cross validation for small sample” and can obtain the 95% confidence interval (CI of error rates and discriminant coefficients. This method is the computer-intensive approach by statistical and mathematical programming (MP software such as JMP and LINGO. By the proposed approach, we can choose the best model with the minimum mean of error rate in the validation samples (Minimum M2 Standard. In this research, we examine the sixteen linear separable models of Swiss banknote data by eight linear discriminant functions (LDFs. M2 of the best model of Revised IP-OLDF is the smallest value of all models. We find all coefficients of six Revised IP-OLDF among sixteen models rejected by the 95% CI of discriminant coefficients (Discriminant coefficient standard. We compare t-values of the discriminant scores. The t-value of the best model has the maximum values among sixteen models (Maximum t-value Standard. Moreover, we can conclude that all standards support the best model of Revised IP-OLDF.

  11. Geometric Computing for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Wallner, J.


    Geometric computing has recently found a new field of applications, namely the various geometric problems which lie at the heart of rationalization and construction-aware design processes of freeform architecture. We report on our work in this area, dealing with meshes with planar faces and meshes which allow multilayer constructions (which is related to discrete surfaces and their curvatures), triangles meshes with circle-packing properties (which is related to conformal uniformization), and with the paneling problem. We emphasize the combination of numerical optimization and geometric knowledge.

  12. Geometric phase shifting digital holography. (United States)

    Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Narayanamurthy, C S; Yatagai, Toyohiko


    A new phase shifting digital holographic technique using a purely geometric phase in Michelson interferometric geometry is proposed. The geometric phase in the system does not depend upon either optical path length or wavelength, unlike dynamic phase. The amount of geometric phase generated is controllable through a rotating wave plate. The new approach has unique features and major advantages in holographic measurement of transparent and reflecting three-dimensional (3D) objects. Experimental results on surface shape measurement and imaging of 3D objects are presented using the proposed method.

  13. An innovative test for non-invasive Kell genotyping on circulating fetal DNA by means of the allelic discrimination of K1 and K2 antigens. (United States)

    Cro', Fabiana; Lapucci, Cristina; Vicari, Emilio; Salsi, Ginevra; Rizzo, Nicola; Farina, Antonio


    The aim of this study was to present a new method for fetal Kell genotyping by means of the allelic discrimination of K1 and K2 in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction incorporating an allele-specific primer was developed for detecting the K allele of KEL. By means of this method, the K1/K2 genotype was able to be determined in all blood samples analyzed. Results using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from two Kell-negative pregnant women confirmed the Kell-positive genotype of fetuses. The real-time PCR analysis also allowed the determination of the fetal fraction using the quantification of Kell-positive DNA. An efficient and reliable strategy for Kell genotyping is herein presented. The method was optimized on cffDNA to create a non-invasive prenatal test which could be routinely used for the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn (HDFN). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mathematical methods in geometrization of coal field (United States)

    Shurygin, D. N.; Kalinchenko, V. M.; Tkachev, V. A.; Tretyak, A. Ya


    In the work, the approach to increase overall performance of collieries on the basis of an increase in accuracy of geometrization of coal thicknesses is considered. The sequence of stages of mathematical modelling of spatial placing of indicators of a deposit taking into account allocation of homogeneous sites of thickness and an establishment of quantitative interrelations between mountain-geological indicators of coal layers is offered. As a uniform mathematical method for modelling of various interrelations, it is offered to use a method of the group accounting of arguments (MGUA), one of versions of the regressive analysis. This approach can find application during delimitation between geological homogeneous sites of coal thicknesses in the form of a linear discriminant function. By an example of division into districts of a mine field in the conditions of mine “Sadkinsky” (East Donbass), the use of the complex approach for forecasting of zones of the small amplitude of disturbance of a coal layer on the basis of the discriminant analysis and MGUA is shown.

  15. Geometric Algebra Model of Distributed Representations


    Patyk, Agnieszka


    Formalism based on GA is an alternative to distributed representation models developed so far --- Smolensky's tensor product, Holographic Reduced Representations (HRR) and Binary Spatter Code (BSC). Convolutions are replaced by geometric products, interpretable in terms of geometry which seems to be the most natural language for visualization of higher concepts. This paper recalls the main ideas behind the GA model and investigates recognition test results using both inner product and a clipp...

  16. Constellation design with geometric and probabilistic shaping (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoliang; Yaman, Fatih


    A systematic study, including theory, simulation and experiments, is carried out to review the generalized pairwise optimization algorithm for designing optimized constellation. In order to verify its effectiveness, the algorithm is applied in three testing cases: 2-dimensional 8 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), 4-dimensional set-partitioning QAM, and probabilistic-shaped (PS) 32QAM. The results suggest that geometric shaping can work together with PS to further bridge the gap toward the Shannon limit.

  17. Spatial Non-Cyclic Geometric Phase in Neutron Interferometry. (United States)

    Filipp, Stefan; Hasegawa, Yuji; Loidl, Rudolf; Rauch, Helmut


    We present a split-beam neutron interferometric experiment to test the non-cyclic geometric phase tied to the spatial evolution of the system: the subjacent two-dimensional Hilbert space is spanned by the two possible paths in the interferometer and the evolution of the state is controlled by phase shifters and absorbers. A related experiment was reported previously by some of the authors to verify the cyclic spatial geometric phase. The interpretation of this experiment, namely to ascribe a geometric phase to this particular state evolution, has met severe criticism. The extension to non-cyclic evolution manifests the correctness of the interpretation of the previous experiment by means of an explicit calculation of the non-cyclic geometric phase in terms of paths on the Bloch-sphere. The theoretical treatment comprises the cyclic geometric phase as a special case, which is confirmed by experiment.

  18. Geometric reasoning about assembly tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.H.


    Planning for assembly requires reasoning about various tools used by humans, robots, or other automation to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper presents a general framework to represent and reason about geometric accessibility issues for a wide variety of such assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is then reduced to an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, the author presents more efficient methods to integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method pre-processes a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product in polynomial time, reducing all later state-tool queries to evaluations of a simple expression. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. The author presents a wide variety of tools that can be described adequately using the approach, and surveys tool catalogs to determine coverage of standard tools. Finally, the author describes an implementation of the approach in an assembly planning system and experiments with a library of over one hundred manual and robotic tools and several complex assemblies.

  19. Geometric inequalities methods of proving

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakyan, Hayk


    This unique collection of new and classical problems provides full coverage of geometric inequalities. Many of the 1,000 exercises are presented with detailed author-prepared-solutions, developing creativity and an arsenal of new approaches for solving mathematical problems. This book can serve teachers, high-school students, and mathematical competitors. It may also be used as supplemental reading, providing readers with new and classical methods for proving geometric inequalities. .

  20. Antenna with Dielectric Having Geometric Patterns (United States)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Elliott, Holly A. (Inventor); Cravey, Robin L. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor)


    An antenna includes a ground plane, a dielectric disposed on the ground plane, and an electrically-conductive radiator disposed on the dielectric. The dielectric includes at least one layer of a first dielectric material and a second dielectric material that collectively define a dielectric geometric pattern, which may comprise a fractal geometry. The radiator defines a radiator geometric pattern, and the dielectric geometric pattern is geometrically identical, or substantially geometrically identical, to the radiator geometric pattern.

  1. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper


    The most blatant forms of discrimination are morally outrageous and very obviously so; but the nature and boundaries of discrimination are more controversial, and it is not clear whether all forms of discrimination are morally bad; nor is it clear why objectionable cases of discrimination are bad...

  2. Discrimination and subjective well-being: protective influences of membership in a discriminated category. (United States)

    Hnilica, Karel


    Research reveals that discrimination has harmful effects on health and quality of life. Among the most frequent types of discrimination pertains gender and age discrimination. Research results show that discriminatory behaviours based on gender afflict predominantly women; age discrimination afflicts mainly older adults. At the same time, it has been found that members of these traditionally discriminated categories often use strategies that mitigate the effects of discrimination. Discrimination will have detrimental effects on subjective well-being. But its effects will be most harmful for persons who are not members of the traditionally discriminated categories. These hypotheses were tested on data from three waves of the European Social Survey that the Czech Republic also participated in. Data were analyzed in a series of multilevel random coefficients regression analyses with respondents nested within states and states nested within years of study. Both perceived gender discrimination and perceived age discrimination have negative effects on subjective well-being. However, gender discrimination had more harmful effects on the subjective well-being of men than women and age discrimination had the most harmful effects on the subjective well-being of people in their middle ages, not the elderly ones. Discrimination does not need to have most harmful effects on the quality of life of members of the categories that are discriminated against most often.

  3. Stabilization of LCD devices via geometric alteration. (United States)

    Jeon, Il; Yoon, MinSung; Lee, Je-Hoon


    Glass bending in LCD displays is an inherent problem that has challenged many engineers. As a solution to this problem, we propose a methodology that can tackle the root of the phenomenon in terms of linear elastic beam theory. Using this hypothesis, we devised a background theory and a solution. In this paper, we present a glass panel to which geometrical changes, such as furrow, groove, and curb have been applied. These geometrical changes are applied to the nonactive area of the glass panel. To confirm the validity of our approach, we conducted simulation tests as well as hands-on experiments to observe the thermo-mechanical behavior of the device under various conditions. The simulation results using the Ansys simulator show that the proposed technique can reduce the deformation level of panel bending by 40%. In the experiment using a bare cell with polarizer films attached and with performing the high temperature reliability test, the deformation level of panel bending is reduced by half compared to the reference glass panel without any geometric alteration.

  4. Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach. (United States)

    Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan


    Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing.

  5. Poder discriminativo do teste de combinação de probabilidades na análise de grupo de experimentos Discriminative power of the combining probabilities test in analysis series of experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Conagin


    the discriminative power of the tests used; when the groups were formed by experiments from three different levels of precision and yield, using at least eight replications and considering the highest value of the contrast between means, the use of the test of combining probabilities showed that the discriminative power of the Student "t" test was greater than 90% and that of Bonferroni's was greater than 80%; when it was combined four or five experiments including more than one experiment of median precision the discriminative power of the "t" test was greater than 80% when the number of replication used was eight, but it was needed twelve replications for Bonferroni's test.

  6. Geometric procedures for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Tonias, Elias C


    This book provides a multitude of geometric constructions usually encountered in civil engineering and surveying practice.  A detailed geometric solution is provided to each construction as well as a step-by-step set of programming instructions for incorporation into a computing system. The volume is comprised of 12 chapters and appendices that may be grouped in three major parts: the first is intended for those who love geometry for its own sake and its evolution through the ages, in general, and, more specifically, with the introduction of the computer. The second section addresses geometric features used in the book and provides support procedures used by the constructions presented. The remaining chapters and the appendices contain the various constructions. The volume is ideal for engineering practitioners in civil and construction engineering and allied areas.

  7. Geometric group theory an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Löh, Clara


    Inspired by classical geometry, geometric group theory has in turn provided a variety of applications to geometry, topology, group theory, number theory and graph theory. This carefully written textbook provides a rigorous introduction to this rapidly evolving field whose methods have proven to be powerful tools in neighbouring fields such as geometric topology. Geometric group theory is the study of finitely generated groups via the geometry of their associated Cayley graphs. It turns out that the essence of the geometry of such groups is captured in the key notion of quasi-isometry, a large-scale version of isometry whose invariants include growth types, curvature conditions, boundary constructions, and amenability. This book covers the foundations of quasi-geometry of groups at an advanced undergraduate level. The subject is illustrated by many elementary examples, outlooks on applications, as well as an extensive collection of exercises.

  8. Reconstruction of an InAs nanowire using geometric tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennington, Robert S.; König, Stefan; Alpers, Andreas

    Geometric tomography and conventional algebraic tomography algorithms are used to reconstruct cross-sections of an InAs nanowire from a tilt series of experimental annular dark-field images. Both algorithms are also applied to a test object to assess what factors affect the reconstruction quality....... When using the present algorithms, geometric tomography is faster, but artifacts in the reconstruction may be difficult to recognize....

  9. Optimization of measurement configurations for geometrical calibration of industrial robot


    Klimchik, Alexandr; Pashkevich, Anatol; Wu, Yier; Furet, Benoît; Caro, Stéphane


    The paper is devoted to the geometrical calibration of industrial robots employed in precise manufacturing. To identify geometric parameters, an advanced calibration technique is proposed that is based on the non-linear experiment design theory, which is adopted for this particular application. In contrast to previous works, the calibration experiment quality is evaluated using a concept of the user-defined test-pose. In the frame of this concept, the related optimization problem is formulate...

  10. Geometric Langlands From Six Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Edward


    Geometric Langlands duality is usually formulated as a statement about Riemann surfaces, but it can be naturally understood as a consequence of electric-magnetic duality of four-dimensional gauge theory. This duality in turn is naturally understood as a consequence of the existence of a certain exotic supersymmetric conformal field theory in six dimensions. The same six-dimensional theory also gives a useful framework for understanding some recent mathematical results involving a counterpart of geometric Langlands duality for complex surfaces. (This article is based on a lecture at the Raoul Bott celebration, Montreal, June 2008.)

  11. Asymptotic geometric analysis, part I

    CERN Document Server

    Artstein-Avidan, Shiri


    The authors present the theory of asymptotic geometric analysis, a field which lies on the border between geometry and functional analysis. In this field, isometric problems that are typical for geometry in low dimensions are substituted by an "isomorphic" point of view, and an asymptotic approach (as dimension tends to infinity) is introduced. Geometry and analysis meet here in a non-trivial way. Basic examples of geometric inequalities in isomorphic form which are encountered in the book are the "isomorphic isoperimetric inequalities" which led to the discovery of the "concentration phenomen

  12. Catching homologies by geometric entropy (United States)

    Felice, Domenico; Franzosi, Roberto; Mancini, Stefano; Pettini, Marco


    A geometric entropy is defined in terms of the Riemannian volume of the parameter space of a statistical manifold associated with a given network. As such it can be a good candidate for measuring networks complexity. Here we investigate its ability to single out topological features of networks proceeding in a bottom-up manner: first we consider small size networks by analytical methods and then large size networks by numerical techniques. Two different classes of networks, the random graphs and the scale-free networks, are investigated computing their Betti numbers and then showing the capability of geometric entropy of detecting homologies.

  13. A geometric approach to complexity. (United States)

    Ay, Nihat; Olbrich, Eckehard; Bertschinger, Nils; Jost, Jürgen


    We develop a geometric approach to complexity based on the principle that complexity requires interactions at different scales of description. Complex systems are more than the sum of their parts of any size and not just more than the sum of their elements. Using information geometry, we therefore analyze the decomposition of a system in terms of an interaction hierarchy. In mathematical terms, we present a theory of complexity measures for finite random fields using the geometric framework of hierarchies of exponential families. Within our framework, previously proposed complexity measures find their natural place and gain a new interpretation.

  14. Fused traditional and geometric morphometrics demonstrate pinniped whisker diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly C Ginter

    Full Text Available Vibrissae (whiskers are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC, which

  15. Testing a Model of Women's Personal Sense of Justice, Control, Well-Being, and Distress in the Context of Sexist Discrimination (United States)

    Fischer, Ann R.; Bolton Holz, Kenna


    Popular media convey notions that the United States is a postfeminist culture, where sexism is a thing of the past and gender equality prevails. Empirical data suggest otherwise. Further, links between group-based discrimination and psychological distress have been well documented (e.g., in bisexual and gay Latino men, African Americans, Asian…

  16. Components of Geometric Analogy Solution. (United States)

    Mulholland, Timothy M.; And Others


    Adults' geometric analogy solution was investigated as a function of systematic variations in the information structure of items. Latency data from verification of true and false items were recorded. A model incorporating assumptions about the form of item representation, working memory factors, and processing components and strategies was…

  17. Celestial mechanics with geometric algebra (United States)

    Hestenes, D.


    Geometric algebra is introduced as a general tool for Celestial Mechanics. A general method for handling finite rotations and rotational kinematics is presented. The constants of Kepler motion are derived and manipulated in a new way. A new spinor formulation of perturbation theory is developed.

  18. Vergence, Vision, and Geometric Optics (United States)

    Keating, Michael P.


    Provides a definition of vergence in terms of the curvature of the wave fronts, and gives examples to illustrate the advantages of this approach. The vergence treatment of geometrical optics provides both conceptual and algebraic advantages, particularly for the life science student, over the traditional object distance-image distance-focal length…

  19. Experimentally accessible geometrical separability criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badziag, Piotr [Alba Nova Fysikum, University of Stockholm, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Brukner, Caslav; Paterek, Tomasz [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Laskowski, Wieslaw; Zukowski, Marek [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Gdansk, ul.Wita Stwosza 57, PL-80-952 Gdansk (Poland)], E-mail:


    We present an intuitive geometrical approach to entanglement detection. It allows one to formulate simple and experimentally feasible sufficient conditions for entanglement. Within the approach we derive the necessary and sufficient condition for separability and discuss its relation with entanglement witnesses and positive maps.

  20. Metastable vacua and geometric deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Amariti, A; Girardello, L; Mariotti, A


    We study the geometric interpretation of metastable vacua for systems of D3 branes at non isolated toric deformable singularities. Using the L^{aba} examples, we investigate the relations between the field theoretic susy breaking and restoration and the complex deformations of the CY singularities.

  1. L'influenza dell'attenzione, della memoria e della discriminazione fonetica nell'apprendimento della seconda lingua nella scuola elementare: Risultati di alcuni test (Influence of Attention, Memory, and Phonetic Discrimination in Second Language Learning in Elementary School: Results of Several Tests). (United States)

    Colonna-Preti, Paola; Taeschner, Traute


    Using a new method, 48 children in an elementary school in Rome, Italy, were taught a foreign language (26 English, 22 German) and tested after three years. The authors attempt to explain the variation in test results in terms of the students' attention, memory, and phonetic discrimination. (CFM)

  2. Normative data on Benton Visual Form Discrimination Test for older adults and impaired scores in Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5 participants: community-based study. The Osaki-Tajiri Project. (United States)

    Kasai, Mari; Ishizaki, Junichi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yamadori, Atsushi; Meguro, Kenichi


    The Benton Visual Form Discrimination test (VFD) is one of the non-verbal tests to assess the capacity for complex visual form discrimination. The purposes of the present study were to investigate the effects of age and education level of the VFD in healthy elderly subjects, rigorously excluding participants with Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) 0.5, and the characteristics of VFD patterns in CDR 0.5 participants. The 597 participants included CDR 0 (healthy elderly, n = 405), CDR 0.5 (mild cognitive impairment, n = 161), and CDR 1 and 2 (dementia, n = 31). The VFD, Digit Forwards, Digit Backwards and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) copying were used for neuropsychological assessment. There were significant effects of age and education level on the VFD in healthy participants, and the CDR 0.5 group had a lower score on the VFD than the healthy group. Low performance on the VFD was associated with Digit Backward and RCFT copying in both healthy and CDR 0.5 participants. CDR 0.5 participants exhibit deficits of visual form discrimination related to attention, visual construction and organization.

  3. Geometric Algebra Model of Distributed Representations (United States)

    Patyk, Agnieszka

    Formalism based on GA is an alternative to distributed representation models developed so far: Smolensky's tensor product, Holographic Reduced Representations (HRR), and Binary Spatter Code (BSC). Convolutions are replaced by geometric products interpretable in terms of geometry, which seems to be the most natural language for visualization of higher concepts. This paper recalls the main ideas behind the GA model and investigates recognition test results using both inner product and a clipped version of matrix representation. The influence of accidental blade equality on recognition is also studied. Finally, the efficiency of the GA model is compared to that of previously developed models.

  4. Stable locality sensitive discriminant analysis for image recognition. (United States)

    Gao, Quanxue; Liu, Jingjing; Cui, Kai; Zhang, Hailin; Wang, Xiaogang


    Locality Sensitive Discriminant Analysis (LSDA) is one of the prevalent discriminant approaches based on manifold learning for dimensionality reduction. However, LSDA ignores the intra-class variation that characterizes the diversity of data, resulting in unstableness of the intra-class geometrical structure representation and not good enough performance of the algorithm. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed, namely stable locality sensitive discriminant analysis (SLSDA), for dimensionality reduction. SLSDA constructs an adjacency graph to model the diversity of data and then integrates it in the objective function of LSDA. Experimental results in five databases show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Discrimination of Arabic contrasts by American learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud S. Al Mahmoud


    Full Text Available This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM by examining American learners’ ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB discrimination task. Results of the study provide partial evidence for PAM. Only two-category contrasts followed straightforwardly from PAM; discrimination results of category-goodness difference and both uncategorizable contrasts yielded partial support, while results of uncategorized versus categorized contrast discrimination provided counter-evidence to PAM.

  6. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane


    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  7. Optimization of a Fast Neutron Scintillator for Real-Time Pulse Shape Discrimination in the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) Hodoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, James T.; Thompson, Scott J.; Watson, Scott M.; Chichester, David L.


    We present a multi-channel, fast neutron/gamma ray detector array system that utilizes ZnS(Ag) scintillator detectors. The system employs field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to do real-time all digital neutron/gamma ray discrimination with pulse height and time histograms to allow count rates in excess of 1,000,000 pulses per second per channel. The system detector number is scalable in blocks of 16 channels.

  8. Ancestry Estimation in Forensic Anthropology: Geometric Morphometric versus Standard and Nonstandard Interlandmark Distances. (United States)

    Katherine Spradley, M; Jantz, Richard L


    Standard cranial measurements are commonly used for ancestry estimation; however, 3D digitizers have made cranial landmark data collection and geometric morphometric (GM) analyses more popular within forensic anthropology. Yet there has been little focus on which data type works best. The goal of the present research is to test the discrimination ability of standard and nonstandard craniometric measurements and data derived from GM analysis. A total of 31 cranial landmarks were used to generate 465 interlandmark distances, including a subset of 20 commonly used measurements, and to generate principal component scores from procrustes coordinates. All were subjected to discriminant function analysis to ascertain which type of data performed best for ancestry estimation of American Black and White and Hispanic males and females. The nonstandard interlandmark distances generated the highest classification rates for females (90.5%) and males (88.2%). Using nonstandard interlandmark distances over more commonly used measurements leads to better ancestry estimates for our current population structure. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyara Slavyanska


    Full Text Available Labor discrimination is a phenomenon with very serious social and economic consequences, which has increased actuality and importance in Bulgaria nowadays. Because of the high price of discrimination, building effective anti-discrimination legislation occupies a special place in the policy of the European Union. Despite the European directives, the presence of anti-discrimination legislation and the broadly declared anti-discrimination inclinations in our country, these are absolutely not enough for providing environment of equality, with a climate of respect and tolerance to the differences. It turns out that certain groups are definitely victims of labor discrimination. In this connection the present article consecutively identifies these groups, as well as the reasons for their discrimination, underlining the necessity and benefits of the integration of the different.

  10. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas


    We propose a new intrinsic representation of geometric texture over triangle meshes. Our approach extends the conventional height field texture representation by incorporating displacements in the tangential plane in the form of a normal tilt. This texture representation offers a good practical...... compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...... texture editing and animation (such as bending or waving) intuitively controllable over arbitrary base mesh. We also provide simple methods for texture extraction and transfer using our height-and-field representation....

  11. On chromatic and geometrical calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folm-Hansen, Jørgen


    The main subject of the present thesis is different methods for the geometrical and chromatic calibration of cameras in various environments. For the monochromatic issues of the calibration we present the acquisition of monochrome images, the classic monochrome aberrations and the various sources...... to design calibration targets for both geometrical and chromatic calibration are described. We present some possible systematical errors on the detection of the objects in the calibration targets, if viewed in a non orthogonal angle, if the intensities are uneven or if the image blurring is uneven. Finally...... of non-uniformity of the illumination of the image plane. Only the image deforming aberrations and the non-uniformity of illumination are included in the calibration models. The topics of the pinhole camera model and the extension to the Direct Linear Transform (DLT) are described. It is shown how...

  12. Geometrical interpretation of optical absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzon, J. J.; Barriuso, A. G.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L. [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Montesinos-Amilibia, J. M. [Departamento de Geometria y Topologia, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)


    We reinterpret the transfer matrix for an absorbing system in very simple geometrical terms. In appropriate variables, the system appears as performing a Lorentz transformation in a (1 + 3)-dimensional space. Using homogeneous coordinates, we map that action on the unit sphere, which is at the realm of the Klein model of hyperbolic geometry. The effects of absorption appear then as a loxodromic transformation, that is, a rhumb line crossing all the meridians at the same angle.

  13. Science, Art and Geometrical Imagination


    Luminet, J. -P.


    From the geocentric, closed world model of Antiquity to the wraparound universe models of relativistic cosmology, the parallel history of space representations in science and art illustrates the fundamental role of geometric imagination in innovative findings. Through the analysis of works of various artists and scientists like Plato, Durer, Kepler, Escher, Grisey or the present author, it is shown how the process of creation in science and in the arts rests on aesthetical principles such as ...

  14. On chromatic and geometrical calibration


    Folm-Hansen, Jørgen


    The main subject of the present thesis is different methods for the geometrical and chromatic calibration of cameras in various environments. For the monochromatic issues of the calibration we present the acquisition of monochrome images, the classic monochrome aberrations and the various sources of non-uniformity of the illumination of the image plane. Only the image deforming aberrations and the non-uniformity of illumination are included in the calibration models. The topics of the pinhole...

  15. Geometrical Aspects of Venus Transit

    CERN Document Server

    Bertuola, Alberto C; Magalhães, N S; Filho, Victo S


    We obtained two astronomical values, the Earth-Venus distance and Venus diameter, by means of a geometrical treatment of photos taken of Venus transit in June of 2012. Here we presented the static and translational modelsthat were elaborated taking into account the Earth and Venus orbital movements. An additional correction was also added by considering the Earth rotation movement. The results obtained were compared with the values of reference from literature, showing very good concordance.

  16. Geometrical quantization in Fock space

    CERN Document Server

    Maslov, V P


    We investigate an infinite dimensional analog of the theory of Lagrangian manifolds with complex germs. To such a manifold we assign a canonical operator that depends on creation and annihilation operators. This operator is by definition the geometrical quantization for these isotropic manifolds with complex germs. We prove that for secondary quantized equations this quantization is the asymptotics for the Cauchy problem. Results of Berezin are used thouroughly in the construction of the canonical operator and in proofs of the theorems.

  17. Riemannian geometry and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen


    This established reference work continues to provide its readers with a gateway to some of the most interesting developments in contemporary geometry. It offers insight into a wide range of topics, including fundamental concepts of Riemannian geometry, such as geodesics, connections and curvature; the basic models and tools of geometric analysis, such as harmonic functions, forms, mappings, eigenvalues, the Dirac operator and the heat flow method; as well as the most important variational principles of theoretical physics, such as Yang-Mills, Ginzburg-Landau or the nonlinear sigma model of quantum field theory. The present volume connects all these topics in a systematic geometric framework. At the same time, it equips the reader with the working tools of the field and enables her or him to delve into geometric research.  The 7th edition has been systematically reorganized and updated. Almost no page has been left unchanged. It also includes new material, for instance on symplectic geometry, as well as the B...

  18. Geometric Tachyon and Warm Inflation (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Anindita; Deshamukhya, Atri


    The inflationary models developed in presence of a background radiation can be a solution to the reheating problem faced by common cold (isentropic) inflationary scenario. A D-brane system comprising of k Neuvo-Schwarz (NS) 5-branes with a transverse circle and BPS D3-branes with world volume parallel to the NS 5-branes, placed at a point on the transverse circle diametrically to NS 5-brane has a point of unstable equilibrium and the D3-brane has a geometric tachyonic mode associated with displacement of the brane along the circle. Cold inflationary scenario has been studied in connection with this geometric tachyon [S. Panda, M. Sami and S. Tsujikawa, Phys. Rev. D73, 023515 (2006)] where it was found that one needs a background of minimum 104 branes to realize a viable inflationary model. In this piece of work, we have tried to study a model of inflation driven by this geometric tachyon in presence of radiation. We have found that compared to the isentropic scenario, to satisfy the observational bounds, the number of background branes required in this case reduces drastically and a viable model can be obtained with even six to seven NS 5-branes in the background. In this context, we have also analyzed the non-gaussianity associated with the model and observed that the concerned parameter lies well within the observation limit.

  19. Quantification of the geometrical parameters of non-cylindrical folds (United States)

    Zulauf, G.; Zulauf, J.; Maul, H.


    The geometrical parameters of natural folds are used by structural geologists to estimate finite strain and rheological properties of deformed rocks. The relation between geometry and rheology is well understood in cases of cylindrical folds, but is still limited for non-cylindrical folds, although the latter are frequent in nature. The sparsity of quantitative geometrical data of non-cylindrical folds can be explained by the small number of 3D exposures and by the lack of robust methods to quantify their geometrical parameters in 3D space. We present a new workflow, which can be used to quantify geometrical parameters of non-cylindrical folds. 3D fold geometry is described using fold wavelength, λ, arc-length, L, and amplitude, A. As most natural folds do not show ideal shapes, but are affected by various types of discontinuities, the new procedure is not fully automatic, but requires the manual selection of measuring profiles along which the geometrical parameters are constrained. The new workflow is tested using natural and experimentally produced non-cylindrical folds. The geometric parameters obtained can be used to improve our understanding of fold kinematics and fold mechanics and should assist the quantitative analysis of non-cylindrical folds present in gneiss and salt domes and in rocks containing reservoirs of hydrocarbons and minerals deposits.

  20. Geometric Phase and Classical-Quantum Correspondence


    Satija, Indubala I.; Balakrishnan, Radha


    We study the geometric phase factors underlying the classical and the corresponding quantum dynamics of a driven nonlinear oscillator exhibiting chaotic dynamics. For the classical problem, we compute the geometric phase factors associated with the phase space trajectories using Frenet-Serret formulation. For the corresponding quantum problem, the geometric phase associated with the time evolution of the wave function is computed. Our studies suggest that the classical geometric phase may be ...

  1. Geometrical Visualisation--Epistemic and Emotional (United States)

    Rodd, Melissa


    A well-documented experience of students of elementary Euclidean geometry is "seeing" a geometric result and being sure about its truth; this sort of experience gives rise to the notion of geometrical visualisation that is developed here. In this essay a philosophical argument for the epistemic potential of geometrical visualisation is reviewed,…

  2. Measuring Discriminations : an Introduction


    DUGUET Emmanuel; Yannick L'Horty; Meurs, Dominique; Pascale PETIT


    The articles published here were all presented at the international conference on the measurement of discriminations held at the University of Evry Val d'Essonne on 13 and 14 December 2007, under the auspices of the TEPP research federation (FR n° 3126 of the CNRS). Over these two days, about sixty participants discussed the problems of defining and measuring discrimination, including work on economics, sociology and law; on discriminations in hiring, training, unemployment, promotion, career...

  3. A geometrical interpretation of the existing facility solution condition for the Weber problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.


    In this paper, the Weber problem is considered. We demonstrate how the three existing points may be simultaneously tested for optimality by means of a simple geometrical construction.......In this paper, the Weber problem is considered. We demonstrate how the three existing points may be simultaneously tested for optimality by means of a simple geometrical construction....

  4. An Application of the Rasch Measurement Theory to an Assessment of Geometric Thinking Levels (United States)

    Stols, Gerrit; Long, Caroline; Dunne, Tim


    The purpose of this study is to apply the Rasch model to investigate both the Van Hiele theory for geometric development and an associated test. In terms of the test, the objective is to investigate the functioning of a classic 25-item instrument designed to identify levels of geometric proficiency. The dataset of responses by 244 students (106…

  5. Buckling strength of square composite plates with geometrical imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Jensen, Christian; Hayman, Brian


    Tests have been performed on square composite plates under in-plane compression. Theplateshad a width-to-thickness ratio close to the value for which the elastic critical load and the load for compres-sive fibre failure over a complete section would be equal, giving the maximum sensitivity...... to initial geometric imperfections. Some of the plates were manufactured with no intentional imperfections or defects, others with an intentional initial out-of-plane geometric imperfection. An advanced digital photogrammetry measurement system was used to monitor deformations of the tested plates....... The responses were also calculated by means of geometrically non-linear finite element analysis. With the assumption of rotationally fixed edges, the calcu-lated elastic critical loads were significantly higher than those deduced from the measurements. Closer ex-amination revealed that the loaded edges...

  6. Discrimination Report ESTCP Project #MM-0437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, Erika


    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, and Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The...problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed. The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs'. Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at UXO sites under real world conditions. FE Warren Air Force Base (AFB) in Cheyenne, WY is one such site. The demonstration objective was to determine the discrimination capabilities, cost and reliability of the Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) in discrimination of UXO from scrap metal in real life conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory performed a detection and discrimination survey of the Priority 1 area ({approx}5 acres) of the FE Warren AFB. The data included a system characterization with the emplaced calibration items and targets in the Geophysical Prove Out (GPO) area.

  7. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kégl Balázs


    Full Text Available Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1–9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1 we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2, since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1. Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5. We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems

  8. Introduction to multivariate discrimination (United States)

    Kégl, Balázs


    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  9. Constrained ballistics and geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Marcelo


    The problem of constant-speed ballistics is studied under the umbrella of non-linear non-holonomic constrained systems. The Newtonian approach is shown to be equivalent to the use of Chetaev's rule to incorporate the constraint within the initially unconstrained formulation. Although the resulting equations are not, in principle, obtained from a variational statement, it is shown that the trajectories coincide with those of geometrical optics in a medium with a suitably chosen refractive index, as prescribed by Fermat's principle of least time. This fact gives rise to an intriguing mechano-optical analogy. The trajectories are further studied and discussed.

  10. Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui


    The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without

  11. Field guide to geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Greivenkamp, John E


    This Field Guide derives from the treatment of geometrical optics that has evolved from both the undergraduate and graduate programs at the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona. The development is both rigorous and complete, and it features a consistent notation and sign convention. This volume covers Gaussian imagery, paraxial optics, first-order optical system design, system examples, illumination, chromatic effects, and an introduction to aberrations. The appendices provide supplemental material on radiometry and photometry, the human eye, and several other topics.

  12. Science, art and geometrical imagination (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre


    From the geocentric, closed world model of Antiquity to the wraparound universe models of relativistic cosmology, the parallel history of space representations in science and art illustrates the fundamental rôle of geometric imagination in innovative findings. Through the analysis of works of various artists and scientists like Plato, Dürer, Kepler, Escher, Grisey or the author, it is shown how the process of creation in science and in the arts rests on aesthetical principles such as symmetry, regular polyhedra, laws of harmonic proportion, tessellations, group theory, etc., as well as on beauty, conciseness and an emotional approach of the world.

  13. A history of geometrical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Coolidge, Julian Lowell


    Full and authoritative, this history of the techniques for dealing with geometric questions begins with synthetic geometry and its origins in Babylonian and Egyptian mathematics; reviews the contributions of China, Japan, India, and Greece; and discusses the non-Euclidean geometries. Subsequent sections cover algebraic geometry, starting with the precursors and advancing to the great awakening with Descartes; and differential geometry, from the early work of Huygens and Newton to projective and absolute differential geometry. The author's emphasis on proofs and notations, his comparisons betwe

  14. Foliar and woody materials discriminated using terrestrial LiDAR in a mixed natural forest (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Niemann, K. Olaf; Liu, Jing; Shi, Yifang; Wang, Tiejun


    Separation of foliar and woody materials using remotely sensed data is crucial for the accurate estimation of leaf area index (LAI) and woody biomass across forest stands. In this paper, we present a new method to accurately separate foliar and woody materials using terrestrial LiDAR point clouds obtained from ten test sites in a mixed forest in Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany. Firstly, we applied and compared an adaptive radius near-neighbor search algorithm with a fixed radius near-neighbor search method in order to obtain both radiometric and geometric features derived from terrestrial LiDAR point clouds. Secondly, we used a random forest machine learning algorithm to classify foliar and woody materials and examined the impact of understory and slope on the classification accuracy. An average overall accuracy of 84.4% (Kappa = 0.75) was achieved across all experimental plots. The adaptive radius near-neighbor search method outperformed the fixed radius near-neighbor search method. The classification accuracy was significantly higher when the combination of both radiometric and geometric features was utilized. The analysis showed that increasing slope and understory coverage had a significant negative effect on the overall classification accuracy. Our results suggest that the utilization of the adaptive radius near-neighbor search method coupling both radiometric and geometric features has the potential to accurately discriminate foliar and woody materials from terrestrial LiDAR data in a mixed natural forest.

  15. Implicit face prototype learning from geometric information. (United States)

    Or, Charles C-F; Wilson, Hugh R


    There is evidence that humans implicitly learn an average or prototype of previously studied faces, as the unseen face prototype is falsely recognized as having been learned (Solso & McCarthy, 1981). Here we investigated the extent and nature of face prototype formation where observers' memory was tested after they studied synthetic faces defined purely in geometric terms in a multidimensional face space. We found a strong prototype effect: The basic results showed that the unseen prototype averaged from the studied faces was falsely identified as learned at a rate of 86.3%, whereas individual studied faces were identified correctly 66.3% of the time and the distractors were incorrectly identified as having been learned only 32.4% of the time. This prototype learning lasted at least 1 week. Face prototype learning occurred even when the studied faces were further from the unseen prototype than the median variation in the population. Prototype memory formation was evident in addition to memory formation of studied face exemplars as demonstrated in our models. Additional studies showed that the prototype effect can be generalized across viewpoints, and head shape and internal features separately contribute to prototype formation. Thus, implicit face prototype extraction in a multidimensional space is a very general aspect of geometric face learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cam


    Full Text Available RASAT, the second remote sensing satellite of Turkey, was designed and assembled, and also is being operated by TÜBİTAK Uzay (Space Technologies Research Institute (Ankara. RASAT images in various levels are available free-of-charge via Gezgin portal for Turkish citizens. In this paper, the images in panchromatic (7.5 m GSD and RGB (15 m GSD bands in various levels were investigated with respect to its geometric and radiometric characteristics. The first geometric analysis is the estimation of the effective GSD as less than 1 pixel for radiometrically processed level (L1R of both panchromatic and RGB images. Secondly, 2D georeferencing accuracy is estimated by various non-physical transformation models (similarity, 2D affine, polynomial, affine projection, projective, DLT and GCP based RFM reaching sub-pixel accuracy using minimum 39 and maximum 52 GCPs. The radiometric characteristics are also investigated for 8 bits, estimating SNR between 21.8-42.2, and noise 0.0-3.5 for panchromatic and MS images for L1R when the sea is masked to obtain the results for land areas. The analysis show that RASAT images satisfies requirements for various applications. The research is carried out in Zonguldak test site which is mountainous and partly covered by dense forest and urban areas.

  17. On binocular vision: The geometric horopter and Cyclopean eye. (United States)

    Turski, Jacek


    We study geometric properties of horopters defined by the criterion of equality of angle. Our primary goal is to derive the precise geometry for anatomically correct horopters. When eyes fixate on points along a curve in the horizontal visual plane for which the vergence remains constant, this curve is the larger arc of a circle connecting the eyes' rotation centers. This isovergence circle is known as the Vieth-Müller circle. We show that, along the isovergence circular arc, there is an infinite family of horizontal horopters formed by circular arcs connecting the nodal points. These horopters intersect at the point of symmetric convergence. We prove that the family of 3D geometric horopters consists of two perpendicular components. The first component consists of the horizontal horopters parametrized by vergence, the point of the isovergence circle, and the choice of the nodal point location. The second component is formed by straight lines parametrized by vergence. Each of these straight lines is perpendicular to the visual plane and passes through the point of symmetric convergence. Finally, we evaluate the difference between the geometric horopter and the Vieth-Müller circle for typical near fixation distances and discuss its possible significance for depth discrimination and other related functions of vision that make use of disparity processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Geometric decompositions of collective motion (United States)

    Mischiati, Matteo; Krishnaprasad, P. S.


    Collective motion in nature is a captivating phenomenon. Revealing the underlying mechanisms, which are of biological and theoretical interest, will require empirical data, modelling and analysis techniques. Here, we contribute a geometric viewpoint, yielding a novel method of analysing movement. Snapshots of collective motion are portrayed as tangent vectors on configuration space, with length determined by the total kinetic energy. Using the geometry of fibre bundles and connections, this portrait is split into orthogonal components each tangential to a lower dimensional manifold derived from configuration space. The resulting decomposition, when interleaved with classical shape space construction, is categorized into a family of kinematic modes-including rigid translations, rigid rotations, inertia tensor transformations, expansions and compressions. Snapshots of empirical data from natural collectives can be allocated to these modes and weighted by fractions of total kinetic energy. Such quantitative measures can provide insight into the variation of the driving goals of a collective, as illustrated by applying these methods to a publicly available dataset of pigeon flocking. The geometric framework may also be profitably employed in the control of artificial systems of interacting agents such as robots.

  19. Paintings discrimination by mice: Different strategies for different paintings. (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru


    C57BL/6 mice were trained on simultaneous discrimination of paintings with multiple exemplars, using an operant chamber with a touch screen. The number of exemplars was successively increased up to six. Those mice trained in Kandinsky/Mondrian discrimination showed improved learning and generalization, whereas those trained in Picasso/Renoir discrimination showed no improvements in learning or generalization. These results suggest category-like discrimination in the Kandinsky/Mondrian task, but item-to-item discrimination in the Picasso/Renoir task. Mice maintained their discriminative behavior in a pixelization test with various paintings; however, mice in the Picasso/Renoir task showed poor performance in a test that employed scrambling processing. These results do not indicate that discrimination strategy for any Kandinsky/Mondrian combinations differed from that for any Picasso/Monet combinations but suggest the mice employed different strategies of discrimination tasks depending upon stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Discrimination against Black Students (United States)

    Aloud, Ashwaq; Alsulayyim, Maryam


    Discrimination is a structured way of abusing people based on racial differences, hence barring them from accessing wealth, political participation and engagement in many spheres of human life. Racism and discrimination are inherently rooted in institutions in the society, the problem has spread across many social segments of the society including…


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....

  2. Flash-Type Discrimination (United States)

    Koshak, William J.


    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  3. Sparse discriminant analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Hastie, Trevor; Witten, Daniela


    commonplace in biological and medical applications. In this setting, a traditional approach involves performing feature selection before classification. We propose sparse discriminant analysis, a method for performing linear discriminant analysis with a sparseness criterion imposed such that classification......We consider the problem of performing interpretable classification in the high-dimensional setting, in which the number of features is very large and the number of observations is limited. This setting has been studied extensively in the chemometrics literature, and more recently has become...... and feature selection are performed simultaneously. Sparse discriminant analysis is based on the optimal scoring interpretation of linear discriminant analysis, and can be extended to perform sparse discrimination via mixtures of Gaussians if boundaries between classes are nonlinear or if subgroups...

  4. Discrimination in Modern Society


    Schekach, E. V.; Щекач, Е. В.


    Issues of discrimination in modern society are examined in the article. Types of discrimination, ways of demonstration, methods of combating discrimination and inequality are described. Particular attention is paid to the legal basis and the real life stories, which serve as a material base for judgments how to prevent discrimination. Possible ways are suggested to eliminate such a negative phenomenon of society like discrimination. Статья посвящена вопросам дискриминации в современном общ...

  5. Using geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels for classification of detailed urban land use (United States)

    Wu, S.-S.; Qiu, X.; Usery, E.L.; Wang, L.


    Detailed urban land use data are important to government officials, researchers, and businesspeople for a variety of purposes. This article presents an approach to classifying detailed urban land use based on geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels. An area of 6 by 14 km in Austin, Texas, with land parcel boundaries delineated by the Travis Central Appraisal District of Travis County, Texas, is tested for the approach. We derive fifty parcel attributes from relevant geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing data and use them to discriminate among nine urban land uses: single family, multifamily, commercial, office, industrial, civic, open space, transportation, and undeveloped. Half of the 33,025 parcels in the study area are used as training data for land use classification and the other half are used as testing data for accuracy assessment. The best result with a decision tree classification algorithm has an overall accuracy of 96 percent and a kappa coefficient of 0.78, and two naive, baseline models based on the majority rule and the spatial autocorrelation rule have overall accuracy of 89 percent and 79 percent, respectively. The algorithm is relatively good at classifying single-family, multifamily, commercial, open space, and undeveloped land uses and relatively poor at classifying office, industrial, civic, and transportation land uses. The most important attributes for land use classification are the geometrical attributes, particularly those related to building areas. Next are the contextual attributes, particularly those relevant to the spatial relationship between buildings, then the textural attributes, particularly the semivariance texture statistic from 0.61-m resolution images.

  6. Assessment of geometrical characteristics of dental endodontic micro-instruments utilizing X-ray micro computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef S. Al Jabbari


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify the surface area, volume and specific surface area of endodontic files employing quantitative X-ray micro computed tomography (mXCT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three sets (six files each of the Flex-Master Ni-Ti system (Nº 20, 25 and 30, taper .04 were utilized in this study. The files were scanned by mXCT. The surface area and volume of all files were determined from the cutting tip up to 16 mm. The data from the surface area, volume and specific area were statistically evaluated using the one-way ANOVA and SNK multiple comparison tests at α=0.05, employing the file size as a discriminating variable. The correlation between the surface area and volume with nominal ISO sizes were tested employing linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The surface area and volume of Nº 30 files showed the highest value followed by Nº 25 and Nº 20 and the differences were statistically significant. The Nº 20 files showed a significantly higher specific surface area compared to Nº 25 and Nº 30. The increase in surface and volume towards higher file sizes follows a linear relationship with the nominal ISO sizes (r²=0.930 for surface area and r²=0.974 for volume respectively. Results indicated that the surface area and volume demonstrated an almost linear increase while the specific surface area exhibited an abrupt decrease towards higher sizes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that mXCT can be effectively applied to discriminate very small differences in the geometrical features of endodontic micro-instruments, while providing quantitative information for their geometrical properties.

  7. Discrimination among adults with craniofacial conditions. (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M


    The primary goal of this study was to establish the level of perceived discrimination experienced by adults with congenital craniofacial conditions in Australia and to examine predictors of discrimination. Specifically, this study tested whether social support mediates the relationship between discrimination and health. Adults (n = 93) who had been treated at the Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide for congenital craniofacial conditions (not including cleft lip and/or palate) completed questionnaires examining satisfaction with life, quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, and satisfaction with appearance. A substantial minority of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions reported that they experience discrimination almost every day in a range of areas. Higher reports of discrimination were related to older age, being male, and less education. Other factors related to higher discrimination included lower levels of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, satisfaction with appearance and mental quality of life, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social support partially mediated the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes. The current study shows that discrimination experiences continue into adulthood confirming the importance of ensuring patients are well supported both by psychosocial services as well as within their own social support networks.

  8. Global Quantitative Sensitivity Analysis and Compensation of Geometric Errors of CNC Machine Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Guo


    Full Text Available A quantitative analysis to identify the key geometric error elements and their coupling is the prerequisite and foundation for improving the precision of machine tools. The purpose of this paper is to identify key geometric error elements and compensate for geometric errors accordingly. The geometric error model of three-axis machine tool is built on the basis of multibody system theory; and the quantitative global sensitivity analysis (GSA model of geometric error elements is constructed by using extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test method. The crucial geometric errors are identified; and stochastic characteristics of geometric errors are taken into consideration in the formulation of building up the compensation strategy. The validity of geometric error compensation based on sensitivity analysis is verified on a high-precision three-axis machine tool with open CNC system. The experimental results show that the average compensation rates along the X, Y, and Z directions are 59.8%, 65.5%, and 73.5%, respectively. The methods of sensitivity analysis and geometric errors compensation presented in this paper are suitable for identifying the key geometric errors and improving the precision of CNC machine tools effectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hieronymus


    Full Text Available Methods for geometric calibration of cameras in close-range photogrammetry are established and well investigated. The most common one is based on test-fields with well-known pattern, which are observed from different directions. The parameters of a distortion model are calculated using bundle-block-adjustment-algorithms. This methods works well for short focal lengths, but is essentially more problematic to use with large focal lengths. Those would require very large test-fields and surrounding space. To overcome this problem, there is another common method for calibration used in remote sensing. It employs measurements using collimator and a goniometer. A third calibration method uses diffractive optical elements (DOE to project holograms of well known pattern. In this paper these three calibration methods are compared empirically, especially in terms of accuracy. A camera has been calibrated with those methods mentioned above. All methods provide a set of distortion correction parameters as used by the photogrammetric software Australis. The resulting parameter values are very similar for all investigated methods. The three sets of distortion parameters are crosscompared against all three calibration methods. This is achieved by inserting the gained distortion parameters as fixed input into the calibration algorithms and only adjusting the exterior orientation. The RMS (root mean square of the remaining image coordinate residuals are taken as a measure of distortion correction quality. There are differences resulting from the different calibration methods. Nevertheless the measure is small for every comparison, which means that all three calibration methods can be used for accurate geometric calibration.

  10. Geometrical charged-particle optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Harald


    This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are...

  11. Geometric Methods in Physics XXXV

    CERN Document Server

    Odzijewicz, Anatol; Previato, Emma


    This book features a selection of articles based on the XXXV Białowieża Workshop on Geometric Methods in Physics, 2016. The series of Białowieża workshops, attended by a community of experts at the crossroads of mathematics and physics, is a major annual event in the field. The works in this book, based on presentations given at the workshop, are previously unpublished, at the cutting edge of current research, typically grounded in geometry and analysis, and with applications to classical and quantum physics. In 2016 the special session "Integrability and Geometry" in particular attracted pioneers and leading specialists in the field. Traditionally, the Białowieża Workshop is followed by a School on Geometry and Physics, for advanced graduate students and early-career researchers, and the book also includes extended abstracts of the lecture series.

  12. Study into Point Cloud Geometric Rigidity and Accuracy of TLS-Based Identification of Geometric Bodies (United States)

    Klapa, Przemyslaw; Mitka, Bartosz; Zygmunt, Mariusz


    Capability of obtaining a multimillion point cloud in a very short time has made the Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) a widely used tool in many fields of science and technology. The TLS accuracy matches traditional devices used in land surveying (tacheometry, GNSS – RTK), but like any measurement it is burdened with error which affects the precise identification of objects based on their image in the form of a point cloud. The point’s coordinates are determined indirectly by means of measuring the angles and calculating the time of travel of the electromagnetic wave. Each such component has a measurement error which is translated into the final result. The XYZ coordinates of a measuring point are determined with some uncertainty and the very accuracy of determining these coordinates is reduced as the distance to the instrument increases. The paper presents the results of examination of geometrical stability of a point cloud obtained by means terrestrial laser scanner and accuracy evaluation of solids determined using the cloud. Leica P40 scanner and two different settings of measuring points were used in the tests. The first concept involved placing a few balls in the field and then scanning them from various sides at similar distances. The second part of measurement involved placing balls and scanning them a few times from one side but at varying distances from the instrument to the object. Each measurement encompassed a scan of the object with automatic determination of its position and geometry. The desk studies involved a semiautomatic fitting of solids and measurement of their geometrical elements, and comparison of parameters that determine their geometry and location in space. The differences of measures of geometrical elements of balls and translations vectors of the solids centres indicate the geometrical changes of the point cloud depending on the scanning distance and parameters. The results indicate the changes in the geometry of scanned objects

  13. Sparse tensor discriminant analysis. (United States)

    Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Yang, Jian; Tang, Jinhui; Zhang, David


    The classical linear discriminant analysis has undergone great development and has recently been extended to different cases. In this paper, a novel discriminant subspace learning method called sparse tensor discriminant analysis (STDA) is proposed, which further extends the recently presented multilinear discriminant analysis to a sparse case. Through introducing the L1 and L2 norms into the objective function of STDA, we can obtain multiple interrelated sparse discriminant subspaces for feature extraction. As there are no closed-form solutions, k-mode optimization technique and the L1 norm sparse regression are combined to iteratively learn the optimal sparse discriminant subspace along different modes of the tensors. Moreover, each non-zero element in each subspace is selected from the most important variables/factors, and thus STDA has the potential to perform better than other discriminant subspace methods. Extensive experiments on face databases (Yale, FERET, and CMU PIE face databases) and the Weizmann action database show that the proposed STDA algorithm demonstrates the most competitive performance against the compared tensor-based methods, particularly in small sample sizes.

  14. The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI): a test of the convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of FFNI scores in clinical and community samples. (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Wilson, Lauren; Gentile, Brittany; Widiger, Thomas A; Mackillop, James; Keith Campbell, W


    The five-factor narcissism inventory (FFNI) is a new self-report measure that was developed to assess traits associated with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), as well as grandiose and vulnerable narcissism from a five-factor model (FFM) perspective. In the current study, the FFNI was examined in relation to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) NPD, DSM-5 ( NPD traits, grandiose narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism in both community (N = 287) and clinical samples (N = 98). Across the samples, the FFNI scales manifested good convergent and discriminant validity such that FFNI scales derived from FFM neuroticism were primarily related to vulnerable narcissism scores, scales derived from FFM extraversion were primarily related to grandiose scores, and FFNI scales derived from FFM agreeableness were related to both narcissism dimensions, as well as the DSM-IV and DSM-5 NPD scores. The FFNI grandiose and vulnerable narcissism composites also demonstrated incremental validity in the statistical prediction of these scores, above and beyond existing measures of DSM NPD, grandiose narcissism, and vulnerable narcissism, respectively. The FFNI is a promising measure that provides a comprehensive assessment of narcissistic pathology while maintaining ties to the significant general personality literature on the FFM.

  15. Optimal discrimination index and discrimination efficiency for essay questions. (United States)

    Chan, Wing-shing


    Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of multiple choice questions are often indiscriminately applied to essay type questions also. Optimal discrimination index under normality condition for essay question is independently derived. Satisfactory region for discrimination index of essay questions with passing mark at 50% of the total is between 0.12 and 0.31 instead of 0.40 or more in the case for multiple-choice questions. Optimal discrimination index for essay question is shown to increase proportional to the range of scores. Discrimination efficiency as the ratio of the observed discrimination index over the optimal discrimination index is defined. Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of essay questions are provided.

  16. Guide to Geometric Algebra in Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Dorst, Leo


    This highly practical "Guide to Geometric Algebra in Practice" reviews algebraic techniques for geometrical problems in computer science and engineering, and the relationships between them. The topics covered range from powerful new theoretical developments, to successful applications, and the development of new software and hardware tools. This title: provides hands-on review exercises throughout the book, together with helpful chapter summaries; presents a concise introductory tutorial to conformal geometric algebra (CGA) in the appendices; examines the application of CGA for the d

  17. Geometric Analogue of Holographic Reduced Representation


    Aerts, Diederik; Czachor, Marek; De Moor, Bart


    Holographic reduced representations (HRR) are based on superpositions of convolution-bound $n$-tuples, but the $n$-tuples cannot be regarded as vectors since the formalism is basis dependent. This is why HRR cannot be associated with geometric structures. Replacing convolutions by geometric products one arrives at reduced representations analogous to HRR but interpretable in terms of geometry. Variable bindings occurring in both HRR and its geometric analogue mathematically correspond to two ...

  18. Geometric magnetism in open quantum systems


    Campisi, Michele; Denisov, Sergey; Hänggi, Peter


    An isolated classical chaotic system, when driven by the slow change of several parameters, responds with two reaction forces: geometric friction and geometric magnetism. By using the theory of quantum fluctuation relations we show that this holds true also for open quantum systems, and provide explicit expressions for those forces in this case. This extends the concept of Berry curvature to the realm of open quantum systems. We illustrate our findings by calculating the geometric magnetism o...

  19. Geometrical and Graphical Solutions of Quadratic Equations. (United States)

    Hornsby, E. John, Jr.


    Presented are several geometrical and graphical methods of solving quadratic equations. Discussed are Greek origins, Carlyle's method, von Staudt's method, fixed graph methods and imaginary solutions. (CW)

  20. Geometric Aspects of Iterated Matrix Multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesmundo, Fulvio


    This paper studies geometric properties of the Iterated Matrix Multiplication polynomial and the hypersurface that it defines. We focus on geometric aspects that may be relevant for complexity theory such as the symmetry group of the polynomial, the dual variety and the Jacobian loci of the hyper......This paper studies geometric properties of the Iterated Matrix Multiplication polynomial and the hypersurface that it defines. We focus on geometric aspects that may be relevant for complexity theory such as the symmetry group of the polynomial, the dual variety and the Jacobian loci...

  1. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler


    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain.......Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses...... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  2. Discriminating between explosions and earthquakes (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun


    Earthquake, explosion, and a nuclear test data are compared with forward modeling and band-pass filtered surface wave amplitude data for exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination. The proposed discrimination method is based on the solutions of a double integral transformation in the wavenumber and frequency domains. Recorded explosion data on June 26, 2001 (39.212°N, 125.383°E) and October 30, 2001 (38.748°N, 125.267°E), a nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (41.275°N, 129.095°E), and two earthquakes on April 14, 2002 (39.207°N, 125.686°E) and June 7, 2002 (38.703°N, 125.638°E), all in North Korea, are used to discriminate between explosions and earthquakes by seismic wave analysis and numerical modeling. The explosion signal is characterized by first P waves with higher energy than that of S waves. Rg waves are clearly dominant at 0.05-0.5 Hz in the explosion data but not in the earthquake data. This feature is attributed to the dominant P waves in the explosion and their coupling with the SH components.

  3. The Effect of Designed Geometry Teaching Lesson to the Candidate Teachers' Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Level (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gül Kaleli; Koparan, Timur


    The aim of this study is to find out how designed Geometry Teaching Lesson affects candidate teachers' Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Levels. For that purpose, 14 weeks long study was performed with 44 candidate teachers who were university students in Turkey. Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Test was applied to candidate teachers before and after…

  4. Pitch discrimination associated with phonological awareness: Evidence from congenital amusia (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao Tam; Thompson, William Forde


    Research suggests that musical skills are associated with phonological abilities. To further investigate this association, we examined whether phonological impairments are evident in individuals with poor music abilities. Twenty individuals with congenital amusia and 20 matched controls were assessed on a pure-tone pitch discrimination task, a rhythm discrimination task, and four phonological tests. Amusic participants showed deficits in discriminating pitch and discriminating rhythmic patterns that involve a regular beat. At a group level, these individuals performed similarly to controls on all phonological tests. However, eight amusics with severe pitch impairment, as identified by the pitch discrimination task, exhibited significantly worse performance than all other participants in phonological awareness. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that pitch discrimination thresholds predicted phonological awareness beyond that predicted by phonological short-term memory and rhythm discrimination. In contrast, our rhythm discrimination task did not predict phonological awareness beyond that predicted by pitch discrimination thresholds. These findings suggest that accurate pitch discrimination is critical for phonological processing. We propose that deficits in early-stage pitch discrimination may be associated with impaired phonological awareness and we discuss the shared role of pitch discrimination for processing music and speech. PMID:28287166

  5. Detecting Discrimination in Audit and Correspondence Studies


    Neumark, David


    Audit studies testing for discrimination have been criticized because applicants from different groups may not appear identical to employers. Correspondence studies address this criticism by using fictitious paper applicants whose qualifications can be made identical across groups. However, Heckman and Siegelman (1993) show that group differences in the variance of unobservable determinants of productivity can still generate spurious evidence of discrimination in either direction. This paper ...

  6. Discrimination of Arabic contrasts by American learners


    Al Mahmoud, Mahmoud S.


    This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) by examining American learners’ ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB discrimination task. Results of the study provide partial evi- dence for PAM. Only two-category contrasts followed straightforwardly from PAM; discriminat...

  7. On Teaching about Discrimination. (United States)

    Zeller, Richard A.


    Describes a classroom assignment which is designed to motivate students' critical thinking skills concerning sex discrimination. Includes data sets for student analysis, instructions for student writing assignments, answers to student work, and suggestions for enhancing critical thinking skills. (GEA)

  8. Hard and soft age discrimination: the dual nature of workplace discrimination. (United States)

    Stypinska, Justyna; Turek, Konrad


    The paper concentrates on the problem of age discrimination in the labour market and the way it can be conceptualised and measured in a multi-disciplinary way. The approach proposed here combines two understandings of age discrimination-a sociological and legal one, what allows for a fuller and expanded understanding of ageism in the workplace. At the heart of the study is a survey carried out in Poland with a sample of 1000 men and women aged 45-65 years. The study takes a deeper and innovative look into the issue of age discrimination in employment. Confirmatory factor analysis with WLSMV estimation and logistic regressions were used to test the hypotheses. The study shows that age discrimination in labour market can take on different forms: hard and soft, where the hard type of age discrimination mirrors the legally prohibited types of behaviours and those which relate to the actual decisions of employers which can impact on the employee's career development. The soft discrimination corresponds with those occurrences, which are not inscribed in the legal system per se, are occurring predominantly in the interpersonal sphere, but can nevertheless have negative consequences. Soft discrimination was experienced more often (28.6% of respondents) than hard discrimination (15.7%) with higher occurrences among women, persons in precarious job situation or residents of urban areas. The role of education was not confirmed to influence the levels of perceived age discrimination.

  9. Discrimination in lexical decision.


    Milin, P.; Feldman, L.B.; Ramscar, M.; Hendrix, P.; Baayen, R.H.


    In this study we present a novel set of discrimination-based indicators of language processing derived from Naive Discriminative Learning (ndl) theory. We compare the effectiveness of these new measures with classical lexical-distributional measures?in particular, frequency counts and form similarity measures?to predict lexical decision latencies when a complete morphological segmentation of masked primes is or is not possible. Data derive from a re-analysis of a large subset of decision late...

  10. Discrete geometric structures for architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut


    The emergence of freeform structures in contemporary architecture raises numerous challenging research problems, most of which are related to the actual fabrication and are a rich source of research topics in geometry and geometric computing. The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization of supporting beams and nodes. A study of quadrilateral meshes with planar faces reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. In particular, we discuss meshes which discretize the network of principal curvature lines. Conical meshes are among these meshes; they possess conical offset meshes at a constant face/face distance, which in turn leads to a supporting beam layout with so-called torsion free nodes. This work can be generalized to a variety of multilayer structures and laid the ground for an adapted curvature theory for these meshes. There are also efforts on segmenting surfaces into planar hexagonal panels. Though these are less constrained than planar quadrilateral panels, this problem is still waiting for an elegant solution. Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we present a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' in-circles form a packing, i.e., the in-circles of two triangles with a common edge have the same contact point on that edge. These "circle packing (CP) meshes" exhibit an aesthetic balance of shape and size of their faces. They are closely tied to sphere packings on surfaces and to various remarkable structures and patterns which are of interest in art, architecture, and design. CP meshes constitute a new link between architectural freeform design and computational conformal geometry. Recently, certain timber structures motivated us to study discrete patterns of geodesics on surfaces. This

  11. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Paiva Pires


    Full Text Available The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  12. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Cullis


    Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  13. Geometric Computations On Indecisive Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Phillips, Jeff; Loffler, Maarten


    We study computing with indecisive point sets. Such points have spatial uncertainty where the true location is one of a finite number of possible locations. This data arises from probing distributions a few times or when the location is one of a few locations from a known database. In particular,......-hard. We generalize our polynomial-time algorithm to all LP-type problems. We also utilize our indecisive framework to deterministically and approximately compute on a more general class of uncertain data where the location of each point is given by a probability distribution.......We study computing with indecisive point sets. Such points have spatial uncertainty where the true location is one of a finite number of possible locations. This data arises from probing distributions a few times or when the location is one of a few locations from a known database. In particular......, we study computing distributions of geometric functions such as the radius of the smallest enclosing ball and the diameter. Surprisingly, we can compute the distribution of the radius of the smallest enclosing ball exactly in polynomial time, but computing the same distribution for the diameter is #P...

  14. Engineering Design by Geometric Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hui Huang


    Full Text Available A geometric program (GP is a type of mathematical optimization problem characterized by objective and constraint functions, where all functions are of signomial form. The importance of GP comes from two relatively recent developments: (i new methods can solve even large-scale GP extremely efficiently and reliably; (ii a number of practical problems have recently been found to be equivalent to or approximated by GP. This study proposes an optimization approach for solving GP. Our approach is first to convert all signomial terms in GP into convex and concave terms. Then the concave terms are further treated with the proposed piecewise linearization method where only binary variables are used. It has the following features: (i it offers more convenient and efficient means of expressing a piecewise linear function; (ii fewer 0-1 variables are used; (iii the computational results show that the proposed method is much more efficient and faster than the conventional one, especially when the number of break points becomes large. In addition, the engineering design problems are illustrated to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed methods.

  15. Geometric Phase Generated Optical Illusion. (United States)

    Yue, Fuyong; Zang, Xiaofei; Wen, Dandan; Li, Zile; Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, Huigang; Gerardot, Brian D; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Guoxing; Chen, Xianzhong


    An optical illusion, such as "Rubin's vase", is caused by the information gathered by the eye, which is processed in the brain to give a perception that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. Metasurfaces are metamaterials of reduced dimensionality which have opened up new avenues for flat optics. The recent advancement in spin-controlled metasurface holograms has attracted considerate attention, providing a new method to realize optical illusions. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a metasurface device to generate an optical illusion. The metasurface device is designed to display two asymmetrically distributed off-axis images of "Rubin faces" with high fidelity, high efficiency and broadband operation that are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the incident light. Upon the illumination of a linearly polarized light beam, the optical illusion of a 'vase' is perceived. Our result provides an intuitive demonstration of the figure-ground distinction that our brains make during the visual perception. The alliance between geometric metasurface and the optical illusion opens a pathway for new applications related to encryption, optical patterning, and information processing.

  16. Geometric integrators for stochastic rigid body dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Tretyakov, Mikhail


    Geometric integrators play an important role in simulating dynamical systems on long time intervals with high accuracy. We will illustrate geometric integration ideas within the stochastic context, mostly on examples of stochastic thermostats for rigid body dynamics. The talk will be mainly based on joint recent work with Rusland Davidchak and Tom Ouldridge.

  17. Parabolas: Connection between Algebraic and Geometrical Representations (United States)

    Shriki, Atara


    A parabola is an interesting curve. What makes it interesting at the secondary school level is the fact that this curve is presented in both its contexts: algebraic and geometric. Being one of Apollonius' conic sections, the parabola is basically a geometric entity. It is, however, typically known for its algebraic characteristics, in particular…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Kötzer


    Full Text Available The paper reviews recent findings about geometric identities in integral geometry and geometric tomography, and their statistical application to stereological particle analysis. Open questions are discussed. This survey can also serve as an introduction to modern stereological particle analysis for readers who are interested in the mathematical background of the new methods.

  19. Geometric phases in discrete dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E., E-mail: [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC–Universidad de Granada, E-18100 Armilla, Granada (Spain); Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Piro, Nicolas, E-mail: [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Piro, Oreste, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Tuval, Idan, E-mail: [Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies, CSIC–Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07190 Mallorca (Spain)


    In order to study the behaviour of discrete dynamical systems under adiabatic cyclic variations of their parameters, we consider discrete versions of adiabatically-rotated rotators. Parallelling the studies in continuous systems, we generalize the concept of geometric phase to discrete dynamics and investigate its presence in these rotators. For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number of the system. For the discrete version of the rotated rotator considered by Berry, the rotated standard map, we further explore this connection as well as the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. Further into the chaotic regime, we show that the geometric phase is also related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent. - Highlights: • We extend the concept of geometric phase to maps. • For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number. • For the rotated standard map, we explore the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. • We show that the geometric phase is related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent.

  20. Geometric entanglement in the Laughlin wave function (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang-Min; Liu, Yu


    We study numerically the geometric entanglement in the Laughlin wave function, which is of great importance in condensed matter physics. The Slater determinant having the largest overlap with the Laughlin wave function is constructed by an iterative algorithm. The logarithm of the overlap, which is a geometric quantity, is then taken as a geometric measure of entanglement. It is found that the geometric entanglement is a linear function of the number of electrons to a good extent. This is especially the case for the lowest Laughlin wave function, namely the one with filling factor of 1/3. Surprisingly, the linear behavior extends well down to the smallest possible value of the electron number, namely, N = 2. The constant term does not agree with the expected topological entropy. In view of previous works, our result indicates that the relation between geometric entanglement and topological entropy is very subtle.

  1. Geometric covers, graph orientations, counter games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglin, Edvin


    Geometric Cover is a large family of NP-complete special cases of the broader Set Cover problem. Unlike the general problem, Geometric Cover involves objects that exist in a geometric setting, consequently implying that they are all restricted to obeying some inherent structure. The archetypal...... example is Line Cover, also known as Point-Line Cover, where a set of points in a geometric space are to be covered by placing a restricted number of lines. We present new FPT algorithms for the sub-family Curve Cover (which includes Line Cover), as well as for Hyperplane Cover restricted to R 3 (i.......e. Plane Cover), with improved time complexity compared to the previous best results. Our improvements are derived from a more careful treatment of the geometric properties of the covering objects than before, and invoking incidence bounds from pure geometry. An orientation of an un-directed graph...

  2. The cerebellum's contribution to beat interval discrimination. (United States)

    Paquette, S; Fujii, S; Li, H C; Schlaug, G


    From expert percussionists to individuals who cannot dance, there are widespread differences in people's abilities to perceive and synchronize with a musical beat. The aim of our study was to identify candidate brain regions that might be associated with these abilities. For this purpose, we used Voxel-Based-Morphometry to correlate inter-individual differences in performance on the Harvard Beat Assessment Tests (H-BAT) with local inter-individual variations in gray matter volumes across the entire brain space in 60 individuals. Analysis revealed significant co-variations between performances on two perceptual tasks of the Harvard Beat Assessment Tests associated with beat interval change discrimination (faster, slower) and gray matter volume variations in the cerebellum. Participant discrimination thresholds for the Beat Finding Interval Test (quarter note beat) were positively associated with gray matter volume variation in cerebellum lobule IX in the left hemisphere and crus I bilaterally. Discrimination thresholds for the Beat Interval Test (simple series of tones) revealed the tendency for a positive association with gray matter volume variations in crus I/II of the left cerebellum. Our results demonstrate the importance of the cerebellum in beat interval discrimination skills, as measured by two perceptual tasks of the Harvard Beat Assessment Tests. Current findings, in combination with evidence from patients with cerebellar degeneration and expert dancers, suggest that cerebellar gray matter and overall cerebellar integrity are important for temporal discrimination abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Discriminant analysis of essay, mathematics/science type of essay, college scholastic ability test, and grade point average as predictors of acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school. (United States)

    Jeong, Geum-Hee


    A discriminant analysis was conducted to investigate how an essay, a mathematics/science type of essay, a college scholastic ability test, and grade point average affect acceptance to a pre-med course at a Korean medical school. Subjects included 122 and 385 applicants for, respectively, early and regular admission to a medical school in Korea. The early admission examination was conducted in October 2007, and the regular admission examination was conducted in January 2008. The analysis of early admission data revealed significant F values for the mathematics/science type of essay (51.64; Pessay, and 216.74 (Pessay. Since the mathematics/science type of essay had a strong effect on acceptance, an emphasis on this requirement and exclusion of other kinds of essays would be effective in subsequent entrance examinations for this premed course.

  4. Experienced discrimination in home mortgage lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Seri, Raffaello


    the applicant’s nationality is considered. In addition to its findings, the study (a) provides an original econometric model on a two-step procedure to test perceived discrimination and (b) suggests a method and approach that may constitute a point of reference for those willing to study perceived......This article proposes a framework for the analysis of experienced discrimination in home mortgages. It addresses the problem of home mortgage lending discrimination in one of the richest areas of northern Italy. Employees of a local hospital were interviewed to study their perception (or experience......) of discriminatory behavior related to home financing. The analysis follows two steps. The first evaluates self-selection (the probability that individuals apply) and the second focuses on the likelihood that applications are accepted by the bank. Findings show that discrimination is likely to appear when...

  5. Can Parenting Microprotections Buffer Against Adolescents' Experiences of Racial Discrimination? (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M; James, Anthony


    Previous research highlights the importance and pervasiveness of racial discrimination for minority youth in the United States. Adolescents may experience either personal or group race-based discrimination. While past research found both forms of discrimination are harmful to well-being it is unknown whether parental microprotections, which may buffer against the negative effects of discrimination, protect against both forms of discrimination. Informed by ecological frameworks the present study examined whether parent microprotections (parental warmth/acceptance, cultural socialization, preparation for bias) buffered the effects of personal and group discrimination on adolescents' depressive symptoms. Participants were African American early adolescents (N = 129; 58% female) and their parents (90% mothers). Adolescents attended a Midwestern, Title 1, urban, public middle school and completed surveys in their homerooms and parents completed paper-pencil surveys at home, online or surveys via telephone. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to test whether adolescents' personal and group discrimination at school were related to their reports of depressive symptoms and evaluate whether parent microprotections buffered these associations. Results showed that parental microprotections moderated the effects of personal discrimination on depressive symptoms but did not buffer the effects of group discrimination. These results highlight the importance of distinguishing between personal and group discrimination. Further, additional protective factors need to be identified and tested to better understand parental actions that potentially buffer the negative effects of discrimination.

  6. Place of birth effects on self-reported discrimination: Variations by type of discrimination (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Rahim, Reanne; Grimaldi, Stephanie; Ashraf, Amina; Bui, Nini; Schwartz, Joseph


    Researchers have suggested that perceptions of discrimination may vary depending on place of birth and the length of time spent living in the U.S., variables related to acculturation. However, the existing literature provides a mixed picture, with data suggesting that the effects of acculturation on perceptions of discrimination vary by race and other sociodemographic factors. This study evaluated the role of place of birth (POB: defined as U.S.-born vs. foreign-born), age at immigration, and length of residence in the U.S. on self-reported discrimination in a sample of urban-dwelling Asian and Black adults (n= 1454). Analyses examined POB effects on different types of discrimination including race-related stigmatization, exclusion, threat, and workplace discrimination. Sociodemographic variables (including age, gender, employment status and education level) were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between POB and discrimination. The results revealed a significant main effect for POB on discrimination, with U.S.-born individuals reporting significantly more discrimination than foreign-born individuals, although the effect was reduced when sociodemographic variables were controlled. Across the sample, POB effects were seen only for race-related stigmatization and exclusion, not for threat and workplace discrimination. With the exception of limited effects for gender, sociodemographic variables did not moderate these effects. Younger age at immigration and greater years of residence in the U.S. were also positively associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination. These findings suggest increasing acculturation may shape the experience and perception of racial and ethnic discrimination. PMID:27647943

  7. Place of birth effects on self-reported discrimination: Variations by type of discrimination. (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Rahim, Reanne; Grimaldi, Stephanie; Ashraf, Amina; Bui, Nini; Schwartz, Joseph


    Researchers have suggested that perceptions of discrimination may vary depending on place of birth and the length of time spent living in the U.S., variables related to acculturation. However, the existing literature provides a mixed picture, with data suggesting that the effects of acculturation on perceptions of discrimination vary by race and other sociodemographic factors. This study evaluated the role of place of birth (POB: defined as U.S.-born vs. foreign-born), age at immigration, and length of residence in the U.S. on self-reported discrimination in a sample of urban-dwelling Asian and Black adults (n= 1454). Analyses examined POB effects on different types of discrimination including race-related stigmatization, exclusion, threat, and workplace discrimination. Sociodemographic variables (including age, gender, employment status and education level) were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between POB and discrimination. The results revealed a significant main effect for POB on discrimination, with U.S.-born individuals reporting significantly more discrimination than foreign-born individuals, although the effect was reduced when sociodemographic variables were controlled. Across the sample, POB effects were seen only for race-related stigmatization and exclusion, not for threat and workplace discrimination. With the exception of limited effects for gender, sociodemographic variables did not moderate these effects. Younger age at immigration and greater years of residence in the U.S. were also positively associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination. These findings suggest increasing acculturation may shape the experience and perception of racial and ethnic discrimination.

  8. A geometric method for contour extraction of Drosophila embryos. (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gong, Yongyi


    High resolution images of Drosophila embryos in their developmental stages contain rich spatial and temporal information of gene expression. Automatic extraction of the contour of an embryo of interest in an embryonic image is a critical step of a computational system used to discover gene-gene interaction on Drosophila. We propose a geometric method for contour extraction of Drosophila embryos. The key of the proposed geometric method is k-dominant point extraction that is a generalization of 3-dominant point extraction proposed in our previous work. Based on k-dominant point extraction, we can approximate a connected component of edge pixels by a polygon that can be either convex or concave. The test on BDGP data shows that the proposed method outputforms two existing methods designed for contour extraction of Drosophila embryos. The main advantage of the proposed geometric method in the context of contour extraction of Drosophila embryos is its ability of segmenting embryos touching each other. The proposed geometric method can also be applied to applications relevant to contour extraction.

  9. Inverse Kinematics for Industrial Robots using Conformal Geometric Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Kleppe


    Full Text Available This paper shows how the recently developed formulation of conformal geometric algebra can be used for analytic inverse kinematics of two six-link industrial manipulators with revolute joints. The paper demonstrates that the solution of the inverse kinematics in this framework relies on the intersection of geometric objects like lines, circles, planes and spheres, which provides the developer with valuable geometric intuition about the problem. It is believed that this will be very useful for new robot geometries and other mechanisms like cranes and topside drilling equipment. The paper extends previous results on inverse kinematics using conformal geometric algebra by providing consistent solutions for the joint angles for the different configurations depending on shoulder left or right, elbow up or down, and wrist flipped or not. Moreover, it is shown how to relate the solution to the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters of the robot. The solutions have been successfully implemented and tested extensively over the whole workspace of the manipulators.

  10. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus


    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....

  11. Diversity of neotropical electric fish Microsternarchus (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae: an electrophysiological and geometric morphometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adília Nogueira


    Full Text Available The South American hypopomid electric fish tribe Microsternarchini includes three small species from the Upper Orinoco and Negro rivers. These are placed in monotypic genera: Microsternarchus, Racenisia and Procerusternarchus. Recent collections from tributaries in Negro, Solimões and Amazonas Basins have revealed new specimens of Microsternarchus with significant variations in external morphology and in Electric Organ Discharge parameters (EOD. In order to estimate the diversity within the genus a previous molecular study was done using DNA barcoding, that suggested the presence of multiple Microsternarchus's lineages with high levels of genetic divergence between them. Here we try to determine if the variation in morphology and EOD parameters in the new specimens meet the genetic divergence found. To test the presence of differences in shape among the different lineages we performed a geometric morphometric analysis, which included a relative warp and multivariate analysis on distances between 14 anatomical landmarks defined on the basis of external morphology and homologous among the lineages. The EOD variations were also explored using multivariate analyses of 20 electrophysiological parameters calculated through an algorithm developed in Matlab. The results show that there are significant differences in body shape and EOD in three lineages of Microsternarchus, and the features that contributed most were related to the shape of the head, the coefficient of variation of the signal and the duration and area of the different phases of the pulse. The discrimination of the three lineages confirms the occurrence of new species in the group that are currently being described.

  12. CGAlgebra: a Mathematica package for conformal geometric algebra


    Aragon, Jose L.


    A tutorial of the Mathematica package CGAlgebra, for conformal geometric algebra calculations is presented. Using rule-based programming, the 5-dimensional conformal geometric algebra is implemented and defined functions simplify the calculations of geometric, outer and inner products, as well as many other calculations related with geometric transformations. CGAlgebra is available from

  13. A Geometrical View of Higgs Effective Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    A geometric formulation of Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT) is presented. Experimental observables are given in terms of geometric invariants of the scalar sigma model sector such as the curvature of the scalar field manifold M. We show how the curvature can be measured experimentally via Higgs cross-sections, W_L scattering, and the S parameter. The one-loop action of HEFT is given in terms of geometric invariants of M. The distinction between the Standard Model (SM) and HEFT is whether M is flat or curved, with the curvature a signal of the scale of new physics.

  14. Wall modeled LES of wind turbine wakes with geometrical effects (United States)

    Bricteux, Laurent; Benard, Pierre; Zeoli, Stephanie; Moureau, Vincent; Lartigue, Ghislain; Vire, Axelle


    This study focuses on prediction of wind turbine wakes when geometrical effects such as nacelle, tower, and built environment, are taken into account. The aim is to demonstrate the ability of a high order unstructured solver called YALES2 to perform wall modeled LES of wind turbine wake turbulence. The wind turbine rotor is modeled using an Actuator Line Model (ALM) while the geometrical details are explicitly meshed thanks to the use of an unstructured grid. As high Reynolds number flows are considered, sub-grid scale models as well as wall modeling are required. The first test case investigated concerns a wind turbine flow located in a wind tunnel that allows to validate the proposed methodology using experimental data. The second test case concerns the simulation of a wind turbine wake in a complex environment (e.g. a Building) using realistic turbulent inflow conditions.

  15. Increased Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Clock Drawing Test for Discrimination of Patients in the Early Course of Alzheimer's Disease from Cognitively Healthy Individuals. (United States)

    Müller, Stephan; Preische, Oliver; Heymann, Petra; Elbing, Ulrich; Laske, Christoph


    The conventional Clock Drawing Test (cCDT) is a rapid and inexpensive screening tool for detection of moderate and severe dementia. However, its usage is limited due to poor diagnostic accuracy especially in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The diagnostic value of a newly developed digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) was evaluated and compared with the cCDT in 20 patients with early dementia due to AD (eDAT), 30 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 20 cognitively healthy controls (HCs). Parameters assessed by dCDT were time while transitioning the stylus from one stroke to the next above the surface (i.e., time-in-air), time the stylus produced a visible stroke (i.e., time-on-surface) and total-time during clock drawing. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated and logistic regression analyses have been conducted for statistical analysis. Using dCDT, time-in-air was significantly increased in eDAT (70965.8 ms) compared to aMCI (54073.7 ms; p = 0.027) and HC (32315.6 ms; p digitizing devices offer the opportunity to measure subtle changes of visuo-constructive demands and executive functions that may be used as a fast and easy to perform screening instrument for the early detection of cognitive impairment in primary care.

  16. Geometric Semantic Genetic Programming Algorithm and Slump Prediction


    Xu, Juncai; Shen, Zhenzhong; Ren, Qingwen; Xie, Xin; Yang, Zhengyu


    Research on the performance of recycled concrete as building material in the current world is an important subject. Given the complex composition of recycled concrete, conventional methods for forecasting slump scarcely obtain satisfactory results. Based on theory of nonlinear prediction method, we propose a recycled concrete slump prediction model based on geometric semantic genetic programming (GSGP) and combined it with recycled concrete features. Tests show that the model can accurately p...

  17. Tactile sensory abilities in cerebral palsy: deficits in roughness and object discrimination (United States)

    Wingert, Jason R; Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Brunstrom, Janice E; Damiano, Diane L


    Motor deficits in cerebral palsy (CP) have been well documented; however, associated sensory impairment in CP remains poorly understood. We examined tactile object recognition in the hands using geometric shapes, common objects, and capital letters. Discrimination of tactile roughness was tested using paired horizontal gratings of varied groove widths passively translated across the index finger. We tested 17 individuals with hemiplegia (mean 13y 9mo [SD 5y 2mo]; 6 males, 11 females), 21 with diplegia (mean 14y 10mo [SD 7y]; 10 males, 11 females), and 21 without disabilities (mean 14y 10mo [SD 5y 1mo]; 11 males, 10 females). All participants with CP fell within level I or II of the Gross Motor Function Classification System and level I or II of the Manual Abilities Classification System. Individuals with CP were significantly less accurate compared with those without disabilities on all tactile object-recognition tasks using their non-dominant hand. Both groups of patients also had significantly higher thresholds for groove-width differences with both hands compared with those without disabilities. Within the group with diplegia, only roughness discrimination differed between hands, whereas within the group with hemiplegia, significant between-limb differences were present for all tasks. Despite mild motor deficits compared with the entire population of individuals with CP, this sample demonstrated ubiquitous tactile deficits. PMID:18811710

  18. First tests of the applicability of $\\gamma$-ray imaging for background discrimination in time-of-flight neutron capture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Magán, D L Pérez; Domingo-Pardo, C; Agramunt-Ros, J; Albiol, F; Casanovas, A; González, A; Guerrero, C; Lerendegui-Marco, J; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A


    In this work we explore for the first time the applicability of using $\\gamma$-ray imaging in neutron capture measurements to identify and suppress spatially localized background. For this aim, a pinhole gamma camera is assembled, tested and characterized in terms of energy and spatial performance. It consists of a monolithic CeBr$_3$ scintillating crystal coupled to a position-sensitive photomultiplier and readout through an integrated circuit AMIC2GR. The pinhole collimator is a massive carven block of lead. A series of dedicated measurements with calibrated sources and with a neutron beam incident on a $^{197}$Au sample have been carried out at n\\_TOF, achieving an enhancement of a factor of 2 in the signal-to-background ratio when selecting only those events coming from the direction of the sample.

  19. Education and Gender Discrimination (United States)

    Sumi, V. S.


    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  20. Housing discrimination 101. (United States)

    Massey, D


    To examine the hypothesis that phone-based discrimination exists, an undergraduate course was conducted at the University of Pennsylvania. It was noted that racial housing audits were designed in such a way that teams of White and Black auditors were assigned similar identities and characteristics. To this effect, systematic differences in treatment were taken to reflect racial discrimination. The course, ¿Research Design: Measurement of Discrimination,¿ was carried out as a response to the pressure to involve undergraduates in research. A racially diverse group of students registered, among them speakers of Black English Vernacular, Black Accented English, and White Middle Class English. A total of 79 rental units advertised in newspapers and rental guides were audited by the class. Overall, results of the study suggest that telephone audits constitute a potentially cheap, easy, and efficient way of measuring and studying processes of racial discrimination in urban housing markets. Compared with Whites, African Americans were less likely to be told of a unit's availability, more likely to speak to a rental agent, to pay an application fee, and to have credit mentioned as an issue. In addition, these racial effects interacted with and were exacerbated by gender class.

  1. Reversing Discrimination: A Perspective (United States)

    Pati, Gopal; Reilly, Charles W.


    Examines the debate over affirmative action and reverse discrimination, and discusses how and why the present dilemma has developed. Suggests that organizations can best address the problem through an honest, in-depth analysis of their organizational structure and management practices. (JG)

  2. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D{sub 2}, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. Our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  3. Discrimination Learning in Children (United States)

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others


    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  4. Uav Cameras: Overview and Geometric Calibration Benchmark (United States)

    Cramer, M.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Zurhorst, A.


    Different UAV platforms and sensors are used in mapping already, many of them equipped with (sometimes) modified cameras as known from the consumer market. Even though these systems normally fulfil their requested mapping accuracy, the question arises, which system performs best? This asks for a benchmark, to check selected UAV based camera systems in well-defined, reproducible environments. Such benchmark is tried within this work here. Nine different cameras used on UAV platforms, representing typical camera classes, are considered. The focus is laid on the geometry here, which is tightly linked to the process of geometrical calibration of the system. In most applications the calibration is performed in-situ, i.e. calibration parameters are obtained as part of the project data itself. This is often motivated because consumer cameras do not keep constant geometry, thus, cannot be seen as metric cameras. Still, some of the commercial systems are quite stable over time, as it was proven from repeated (terrestrial) calibrations runs. Already (pre-)calibrated systems may offer advantages, especially when the block geometry of the project does not allow for a stable and sufficient in-situ calibration. Especially for such scenario close to metric UAV cameras may have advantages. Empirical airborne test flights in a calibration field have shown how block geometry influences the estimated calibration parameters and how consistent the parameters from lab calibration can be reproduced.

  5. Geometrical aspects on the dark matter problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capistrano, A.J.S., E-mail: [Federal University of Latin-American Integration, 85867-970, Foz do Iguaçu-PR (Brazil); Cabral, L.A. [Federal University of Tocantins, 77804-970, Araguaína-TO (Brazil)


    In the present paper we apply Nash’s theory of perturbative geometry to the study of dark matter gravity in a higher-dimensional space–time. It is shown that the dark matter gravitational perturbations at local scale can be explained by the extrinsic curvature of the standard cosmology. In order to test our model, we use a spherically symmetric metric embedded in a five-dimensional bulk. As a result, considering a sample of 10 low surface brightness and 6 high surface brightness galaxies, we find a very good agreement with the observed rotation curves of smooth hybrid alpha-HI measurements. - Highlights: • The metric perturbation and the embedding lead naturally to a “brane-world”-like higher dimensional structure. • Nash’s theorem as a cornerstone of the formation of geometrical structures. • The dark matter gravitational perturbations at local scale can be explained by the extrinsic curvature. • A good agreement was found with the observed rotation curves of smooth hybrid alpha-HI measurements.

  6. Quantity Discrimination in Domestic Rats, Rattus norvegicus. (United States)

    Cox, Laura; Montrose, V Tamara


    Quantity discrimination is a basic form of numerical competence where an animal distinguishes which of two amounts is greater in size. Whilst quantity discrimination in rats has been investigated via training paradigms, rats' natural quantity discrimination abilities without explicit training for a desired response have not been explored. This study investigated domestic rats' ability to perform quantity discrimination. Domestic rats ( n = 12) were examined for their ability to distinguish the larger amount under nine quantity comparisons. One-sample t -tests identified a significant preference for the larger quantity in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. No preference between quantities was found for comparisons of 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. Overall, this study drew two key conclusions. Firstly, that domestic rats are capable of performing quantity discrimination without extensive training. Secondly, as subjects adhered to Weber's law, it was concluded that the approximate number system underpins domestic rats' ability to perform spontaneous quantity discrimination.

  7. Geometric continuum mechanics and induced beam theories

    CERN Document Server

    R Eugster, Simon


    This research monograph discusses novel approaches to geometric continuum mechanics and introduces beams as constraint continuous bodies. In the coordinate free and metric independent geometric formulation of continuum mechanics as well as for beam theories, the principle of virtual work serves as the fundamental principle of mechanics. Based on the perception of analytical mechanics that forces of a mechanical system are defined as dual quantities to the kinematical description, the virtual work approach is a systematic way to treat arbitrary mechanical systems. Whereas this methodology is very convenient to formulate induced beam theories, it is essential in geometric continuum mechanics when the assumptions on the physical space are relaxed and the space is modeled as a smooth manifold. The book addresses researcher and graduate students in engineering and mathematics interested in recent developments of a geometric formulation of continuum mechanics and a hierarchical development of induced beam theories.

  8. 5th Dagstuhl Seminar on Geometric Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Brunnett, Guido; Farin, Gerald; Goldman, Ron


    In 19 articles presented by leading experts in the field of geometric modelling the state-of-the-art on representing, modeling, and analyzing curves, surfaces as well as other 3-dimensional geometry is given. The range of applications include CAD/CAM-systems, computer graphics, scientific visualization, virtual reality, simulation and medical imaging. The content of this book is based on selected lectures given at a workshop held at IBFI Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany. Topics treated are: – curve and surface modelling – non-manifold modelling in CAD – multiresolution analysis of complex geometric models – surface reconstruction – variational design – computational geometry of curves and surfaces – 3D meshing – geometric modelling for scientific visualization – geometric models for biomedical applications

  9. Geometric U-folds in four dimensions (United States)

    Lazaroiu, C. I.; Shahbazi, C. S.


    We describe a general construction of geometric U-folds compatible with a non-trivial extension of the global formulation of four-dimensional extended supergravity on a differentiable spin manifold. The topology of geometric U-folds depends on certain flat fiber bundles which encode how supergravity fields are globally glued together. We show that smooth non-trivial U-folds of this type can exist only in theories where both the scalar and space-time manifolds have non-trivial fundamental group and in addition the scalar map of the solution is homotopically non-trivial. Consistency with string theory requires smooth geometric U-folds to be glued using subgroups of the effective discrete U-duality group, implying that the fundamental group of the scalar manifold of such solutions must be a subgroup of the latter. We construct simple examples of geometric U-folds in a generalization of the axion–dilaton model of \

  10. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej


    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  11. Hidden geometric correlations in real multiplex networks (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián; Ángeles Serrano, M.; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos


    Real networks often form interacting parts of larger and more complex systems. Examples can be found in different domains, ranging from the Internet to structural and functional brain networks. Here, we show that these multiplex systems are not random combinations of single network layers. Instead, they are organized in specific ways dictated by hidden geometric correlations between the layers. We find that these correlations are significant in different real multiplexes, and form a key framework for answering many important questions. Specifically, we show that these geometric correlations facilitate the definition and detection of multidimensional communities, which are sets of nodes that are simultaneously similar in multiple layers. They also enable accurate trans-layer link prediction, meaning that connections in one layer can be predicted by observing the hidden geometric space of another layer. And they allow efficient targeted navigation in the multilayer system using only local knowledge, outperforming navigation in the single layers only if the geometric correlations are sufficiently strong.

  12. Mechanisms of geometrical seismic attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Morozov


    Full Text Available In several recent reports, we have explained the frequency dependence of the apparent seismic quality-factor (Q observed in many studies according to the effects of geometrical attenuation, which was defined as the zero-frequency limit of the temporal attenuation coefficient. In particular, geometrical attenuation was found to be positive for most waves traveling within the lithosphere. Here, we present three theoretical models that illustrate the origin of this geometrical attenuation, and we investigate the causes of its preferential positive values. In addition, we discuss the physical basis and limitations of both the conventional and new attenuation models. For waves in media with slowly varying properties, geometrical attenuation is caused by variations in the wavefront curvature, which can be both positive (for defocusing and negative (for focusing. In media with velocity/density contrasts, incoherent reflectivity leads to geometrical-attenuation coefficients which are proportional to the mean squared reflectivity and are always positive. For «coherent» reflectivity, the geometrical attenuation is approximately zero, and the attenuation process can be described according to the concept of «scattering Q». However, the true meaning of this parameter is in describing the mean reflectivity within the medium, and not that of the traditional resonator quality factor known in mechanics. The general conclusion from these models is that non-zero and often positive levels of geometrical attenuation are common in realistic, heterogeneous media, both observationally and theoretically. When transformed into the conventional Q-factor form, this positive geometrical attenuation leads to Q values that quickly increase with frequency. These predictions show that the positive frequency-dependent Q observed in many datasets might represent artifacts of the transformations of the attenuation coefficients into Q.

  1. Evaluation of the truebeam machine performance check (MPC) geometric checks for daily IGRT geometric accuracy quality assurance. (United States)

    Barnes, Michael P; Greer, Peter B


    Machine Performance Check (MPC) is an automated and integrated image-based tool for verification of beam and geometric performance of the TrueBeam linac. The aims of the study were to evaluate the performance of the MPC geometric tests relevant to OBI/CBCT IGRT geometric accuracy. This included evaluation of the MPC isocenter and couch tests. Evaluation was performed by comparing MPC to QA tests performed routinely in the department over a 4-month period. The MPC isocenter tests were compared against an in-house developed Winston-Lutz test and the couch compared against routine mechanical QA type procedures. In all cases the results from the routine QA procedure was presented in a form directly comparable to MPC to allow a like-to-like comparison. The sensitivity of MPC was also tested by deliberately miscalibrating the appropriate linac parameter. The MPC isocenter size and MPC kV imager offset were found to agree with Winston-Lutz to within 0.2 mm and 0.22 mm, respectively. The MPC couch tests agreed with routine QA to within 0.12 mm and 0.15°. The MPC isocenter size and kV imager offset parameters were found to be affected by a change in beam focal spot position with the kV imager offset more sensitive. The MPC couch tests were all unaffected by an offset in the couch calibration but the three axes that utilized two point calibrations were sensitive to a miscalibration of the size in the span of the calibration. All MPC tests were unaffected by a deliberate misalignment of the MPC phantom and roll of the order of one degree. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Dietary cholesterol degrades rabbit long term memory for discrimination learning but facilitates acquisition of discrimination reversal. (United States)

    Schreurs, Bernard G; Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Wang, Desheng; Burhans, Lauren B


    We have shown previously that feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition whereas feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long term memory. To examine these different findings within a single paradigm, we fed groups of rabbits 2% cholesterol or normal chow with or without 0.12 ppm copper added to the drinking water following two-tone discrimination learning of the nictitating membrane response in which a 8-kHz tone (conditioned stimulus, CS+) was followed by air puff and a 1-kHz tone (CS-) was not. After eight weeks on the diet, we assessed the rabbits' conditioned responding during testing and retraining. We then reversed the two-tone discrimination and assessed responding to the 1-kHz tone CS+ and the 8-kHz CS-. During testing, rabbits given cholesterol without copper had lower levels of responding to CS+ than rabbits in the other groups suggesting they did not retain the discrimination as well. However, during a brief discrimination retraining session, their response levels to the CS+ returned to the level of the other groups, demonstrating a return of the memory of the original discrimination. At the end of discrimination reversal, these same rabbits exhibited superior discrimination indexed by lower response levels to CS- but similar levels to CS+, suggesting they were better able to acquire the new relationship between the two tones by inhibiting CS- responses. These results add to our previous data by showing cholesterol diet-induced degradation of an old memory and facilitation of a new memory can both be demonstrated within a discrimination reversal paradigm. Given discrimination reversal is a hippocampally-dependent form of learning, the data support the role of cholesterol in modifying hippocampal function as we have shown previously with in vitro brain slice recordings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Race and gender discrimination in the Marines. (United States)

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C; Harrington, Ellen F


    Although women of color have been hypothesized to experience double jeopardy in the form of chronic exposure to both race-based (RBD) and gender-based discrimination (GBD; Beal, 1970), few empirical investigations that examine both RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups have been conducted. In addition to being one of the only simultaneous examinations of RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups, the current study includes both self-report and objective behavioral data to examine the independent and interactive effects of both forms of discrimination. This study is also the first of its kind to examine these constructs in these ways and to explore their impact in a unique sample of ethnically diverse male and female Marine recruits (N = 1,516). As anticipated, both RBD and GBD had a strong and consistent negative impact on mental health symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), independent of the contributions of gender and race. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that people of color are able to maintain resiliency (as measured by physical fitness testing) in the face of low levels of RBD, but are less able to overcome the negative effects of discrimination at high levels. It is interesting to note that the interaction between race, gender, and levels of discrimination was only found with objective physical fitness test scores but not with self-report measures. These findings underscore the importance of including objective measures when assessing the impact of discrimination in order to understand these complex interrelationships.

  4. Beyond teaching language: Towards terminological primacy in learners’ geometric conceptualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey U. Atebe


    Full Text Available This paper reports on a specific aspect of a broader geometry conceptualisation study that sought to explore and explicate learners’ knowledge of basic geometric terminology in selected Nigerian and South African high schools. It is framed by the notion that students’ acquisition of the correct terminology in school geometry is important for their success in the subject. The original study further aimed to determine the relationship that might exist between a learner’s ability in verbal geometry terminology tasks and his/her ability in visual geometry terminology tasks. A total of 144 learners (72 each from South Africa and Nigeria were selected for the study, using both the stratified and the fish‐bowl sampling techniques. A questionnaire consisting of a sixty‐item multiple‐choice objective test provided the data for the study. An overall percentage mean score of 44,17% obtained in the test indicated that learners in this study had only a limited knowledge of basic geometric terminology. The Nigerian subsample in the study had a weaker understanding of basic geometric terminology than their South African counterparts. Importantly, there were high positive correlations between participants’ ability in verbal geometry terminology tasks and their ability in visual geometry terminology tasks. These results are consistent with those of several earlier studies, and provide a reasonably firm basis for certain recommendations to be made.

  5. A Geometric Fuzzy-Based Approach for Airport Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nadia Postorino


    Full Text Available Airport classification is a common need in the air transport field due to several purposes—such as resource allocation, identification of crucial nodes, and real-time identification of substitute nodes—which also depend on the involved actors’ expectations. In this paper a fuzzy-based procedure has been proposed to cluster airports by using a fuzzy geometric point of view according to the concept of unit-hypercube. By representing each airport as a point in the given reference metric space, the geometric distance among airports—which corresponds to a measure of similarity—has in fact an intrinsic fuzzy nature due to the airport specific characteristics. The proposed procedure has been applied to a test case concerning the Italian airport network and the obtained results are in line with expectations.

  6. Investigating the impact of non-linear geometrical effects on wind turbine blades—Part 1: Current status of design and test methods and future challenges in design optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Puri, Amit S.; Dear, John P.


    This article is the first part of a three-article series and it deals with full-scale tests of a load-carrying box girder. The two other articles present more details on smaller sub-component levels as well as cap specimens (article 2) and shear webs (article 3). This article also links to the tw...

  7. Perceived discrimination in the Netherlands


    Iris Andriessen; Henk Fernee; Karin Wittebrood


    Only available in electronic version There is no systematic structure in the Netherlands for mapping out the discrimination experiences of different groups in different areas of society. As in many other countries, discrimination studies in the Netherlands mostly focus on the experiences of specific groups, on specific domains or on specific types of discrimination. This study aims to chart the extent to which residents of the Netherlands perceive that they are subject to discrimination, from...

  8. Discrimination in lexical decision. (United States)

    Milin, Petar; Feldman, Laurie Beth; Ramscar, Michael; Hendrix, Peter; Baayen, R Harald


    In this study we present a novel set of discrimination-based indicators of language processing derived from Naive Discriminative Learning (ndl) theory. We compare the effectiveness of these new measures with classical lexical-distributional measures-in particular, frequency counts and form similarity measures-to predict lexical decision latencies when a complete morphological segmentation of masked primes is or is not possible. Data derive from a re-analysis of a large subset of decision latencies from the English Lexicon Project, as well as from the results of two new masked priming studies. Results demonstrate the superiority of discrimination-based predictors over lexical-distributional predictors alone, across both the simple and primed lexical decision tasks. Comparable priming after masked corner and cornea type primes, across two experiments, fails to support early obligatory segmentation into morphemes as predicted by the morpho-orthographic account of reading. Results fit well with ndl theory, which, in conformity with Word and Paradigm theory, rejects the morpheme as a relevant unit of analysis. Furthermore, results indicate that readers with greater spelling proficiency and larger vocabularies make better use of orthographic priors and handle lexical competition more efficiently.

  9. The relative merits of discriminating and non-discriminating dosemeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshal, T. O.; Christensen, Palle; Julius, H. W.


    The need for discriminating and non-discriminating personal dosemeters in the field of radiological protection is examined. The ability of various types of dosemeter to meet these needs is also discussed. It is concluded that there is a need for discriminating dosemeters but in the majority...... of cases a simple two element non-discriminating dosemeter will suffice. In cases where the use of discriminating dosemeters is justified, thermoluminescence dosemeters can be designed to provided information on radiation type and energy, but if further information is required the photographic film...

  10. Transgender Discrimination and the Law (United States)

    Trotter, Richard


    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  11. Detecting Discrimination in Audit and Correspondence Studies (United States)

    Neumark, David


    Audit studies testing for discrimination have been criticized because applicants from different groups may not appear identical to employers. Correspondence studies address this criticism by using fictitious paper applicants whose qualifications can be made identical across groups. However, Heckman and Siegelman (1993) show that group differences…

  12. Discrimination of Arabic Contrasts by American Learners (United States)

    Al Mahmoud, Mahmoud S.


    This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) by examining American learners' ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB…

  13. Observation of the ground-state geometric phase in a Heisenberg XY model. (United States)

    Peng, Xinhua; Wu, Sanfeng; Li, Jun; Suter, Dieter; Du, Jiangfeng


    Geometric phases play a central role in a variety of quantum phenomena, especially in condensed matter physics. Recently, it was shown that this fundamental concept exhibits a connection to quantum phase transitions where the system undergoes a qualitative change in the ground state when a control parameter in its Hamiltonian is varied. Here we report the first experimental study using the geometric phase as a topological test of quantum transitions of the ground state in a Heisenberg XY spin model. Using NMR interferometry, we measure the geometric phase for different adiabatic circuits that do not pass through points of degeneracy.

  14. Hand-held UXO Discriminator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, E.; Smith, J.T.; Kappler, K.N.; Ratti, A.; Morrison, H.F.; Becker, A.


    With prior funding (UX-1225, MM-0437, and MM-0838), we have successfully designed and built a cart-mounted Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) and demonstrated its performance at various test sites (e.g., Gasperikova et al., 2007, 2009). It is a multi-transmitter multi-receiver active electromagnetic system that is able to discriminate UXO from scrap at a single measurement position, hence eliminates equirement of a very accurate sensor location. The cart-mounted system comprises of three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers (Smith et al., 2007). Receiver coils are located on ymmetry lines through the center of the system and see identical fields during the on-time of the pulse in all of the transmitter coils. They can then be wired in opposition to produce zero output during the n-ime of the pulses in three orthogonal transmitters. Moreover, this configuration dramatically reduces noise in the measurements by canceling the background electromagnetic fields (these fields are uniform ver the scale of the receiver array and are consequently nulled by the differencing operation), and by canceling the noise contributed by the tilt of the receivers in the Earth's magnetic field, and therefore reatly enhances receivers sensitivity to the gradients of the target.

  15. Geometrical and frequential watermarking scheme using similarities (United States)

    Bas, Patrick; Chassery, Jean-Marc; Davoine, Franck


    Watermarking schemes are more and more robust to classical degradations. The NEC system developed by Cox, using both original and marked images, can detect the mark with a JPEG compression ratio of 30. Nevertheless a very simple geometric attack done by the program Stirmark can remove the watermark. Most of the present watermarking schemes only map a mark on the image without geometric reference and therefore are not robust to geometric transformation. We present a scheme based on the modification of a collage map (issued from a fractal code used in fractal compression). We add a mark introducing similarities in the image. The embedding of the mark is done by selection of points of interest supporting blocks on which similarities are hided. This selection is done by the Stephens-Harris detector. The similarity is embedded locally to be robust to cropping. Contrary to many schemes, the reference mark used for the detection comes from the marked image and thus undergoes geometrical distortions. The detection of the mark is done by searching interest blocks and their similarities. It does not use the original image and the robustness is guaranteed by a key. Our first results show that the similarities-based watermarking is quite robust to geometric transformation such as translations, rotations and cropping.

  16. Hermite-Hadamard type fractional integral inequalities for geometric-geometric convex functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenda Liu


    Full Text Available By utilizing two  fractional integral identities and elementaryinequalities via geometric-geometric (GG for short convex functions, we derive new type Hermite-Hadamard inequalities involving Hadamard fractional integrals. Some applications to special means of real numbers are given.

  17. Estimating motors from a variety of geometric data in 3D conformal geometric algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, R.; Dorst, L.; Dorst, L.; Lasenby, J.


    The motion rotors, or motors, are used to model Euclidean motion in 3D conformal geometric algebra. In this chapter we present a technique for estimating the motor which best transforms one set of noisy geometric objects onto another. The technique reduces to an eigenrotator problem and has some

  18. Inclusion of Relevance Information in the Term Discrimination Model. (United States)

    Biru, Tesfaye; And Others


    Discusses the effect of including relevance data on the calculation of term discrimination values in bibliographic databases. Algorithms that calculate the ability of index terms to discriminate between relevant and non-relevant documents are described and tested. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between term frequency and…

  19. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony


    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  20. Discriminant function for classification of genuine and counterfeit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A derivation of the appropriate measure of the separation of the two groups was made. Discriminant analysis technique was used to construct a discriminant function. Test for the significance of differences between the mean values of the variables for each of the two groups (counterfeit and genuine) of the ₦1000 notes was ...

  1. BMD T-score discriminates trochanteric fractures from unfractured controls, whereas geometry discriminates cervical fracture cases from unfractured controls of similar BMD. (United States)

    Pulkkinen, P; Partanen, J; Jalovaara, P; Jämsä, T


    The ability of bone mineral density (BMD) to discriminate cervical and trochanteric hip fractures was studied. Since the majority of fractures occur among people who are not diagnosed as having osteoporosis, we also examined this population to elucidate whether geometrical risk factors can yield additional information on hip fracture risk beside BMD. The study showed that the T-score criterion was able to discriminate fracture patients from controls in the cases of trochanteric fractures, whereas geometrical measures may discriminate cervical fracture cases in patients with T-score >-2.5. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a well-established risk factor for hip fracture. However, majority of fractures occur among people not diagnosed as having osteoporosis. We studied the ability of BMD to discriminate cervical and trochanteric hip fractures. Furthermore, we examined whether geometrical measures can yield additional information on the assessment of hip fracture risk in the fracture cases in subjects with T-score >-2.5. Study group consisted of postmenopausal females with non-pathologic cervical (n = 39) or trochanteric (n = 18) hip fracture (mean age 74.2 years) and 40 age-matched controls. BMD was measured at femoral neck, and femoral neck axis length, femoral neck and shaft cortex thicknesses (FNC and FSC), and femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) were measured from radiographs. BMD T-score threshold of -2.5 was able to discriminate trochanteric fractures from controls (p fractures occurred in individuals with T-score cervical fractures. Twenty of these fractures (51.3%) occurred in individuals with BMD in osteoporotic range and 19 (48.7%) in individuals with T-score >-2.5. Within these non-osteoporotic cervical fracture patients (N = 19) and non-osteoporotic controls (N = 35), 83.3% were classified correctly based on a model including NSA and FNC (p fractures could be discriminated based on a BMD T-score cervical fracture cases would remain under-diagnosed if solely

  2. The Geometric Phase of Stock Trading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Altafini

    Full Text Available Geometric phases describe how in a continuous-time dynamical system the displacement of a variable (called phase variable can be related to other variables (shape variables undergoing a cyclic motion, according to an area rule. The aim of this paper is to show that geometric phases can exist also for discrete-time systems, and even when the cycles in shape space have zero area. A context in which this principle can be applied is stock trading. A zero-area cycle in shape space represents the type of trading operations normally carried out by high-frequency traders (entering and exiting a position on a fast time-scale, while the phase variable represents the cash balance of a trader. Under the assumption that trading impacts stock prices, even zero-area cyclic trading operations can induce geometric phases, i.e., profits or losses, without affecting the stock quote.

  3. MM Algorithms for Geometric and Signomial Programming. (United States)

    Lange, Kenneth; Zhou, Hua


    This paper derives new algorithms for signomial programming, a generalization of geometric programming. The algorithms are based on a generic principle for optimization called the MM algorithm. In this setting, one can apply the geometric-arithmetic mean inequality and a supporting hyperplane inequality to create a surrogate function with parameters separated. Thus, unconstrained signomial programming reduces to a sequence of one-dimensional minimization problems. Simple examples demonstrate that the MM algorithm derived can converge to a boundary point or to one point of a continuum of minimum points. Conditions under which the minimum point is unique or occurs in the interior of parameter space are proved for geometric programming. Convergence to an interior point occurs at a linear rate. Finally, the MM framework easily accommodates equality and inequality constraints of signomial type. For the most important special case, constrained quadratic programming, the MM algorithm involves very simple updates.

  4. Geometric spin echo under zero field (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yuhei; Komura, Yusuke; Mishima, Shota; Tanaka, Touta; Niikura, Naeko; Kosaka, Hideo


    Spin echo is a fundamental tool for quantum registers and biomedical imaging. It is believed that a strong magnetic field is needed for the spin echo to provide long memory and high resolution, since a degenerate spin cannot be controlled or addressed under a zero magnetic field. While a degenerate spin is never subject to dynamic control, it is still subject to geometric control. Here we show the spin echo of a degenerate spin subsystem, which is geometrically controlled via a mediating state split by the crystal field, in a nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond. The demonstration reveals that the degenerate spin is protected by inherent symmetry breaking called zero-field splitting. The geometric spin echo under zero field provides an ideal way to maintain the coherence without any dynamics, thus opening the way to pseudo-static quantum random access memory and non-invasive biosensors.

  5. An Underlying Geometrical Manifold for Hamiltonian Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Horwitz, L P; Levitan, J; Lewkowicz, M


    We show that there exists an underlying manifold with a conformal metric and compatible connection form, and a metric type Hamiltonian (which we call the geometrical picture) that can be put into correspondence with the usual Hamilton-Lagrange mechanics. The requirement of dynamical equivalence of the two types of Hamiltonians, that the momenta generated by the two pictures be equal for all times, is sufficient to determine an expansion of the conformal factor, defined on the geometrical coordinate representation, in its domain of analyticity with coefficients to all orders determined by functions of the potential of the Hamilton-Lagrange picture, defined on the Hamilton-Lagrange coordinate representation, and its derivatives. Conversely, if the conformal function is known, the potential of a Hamilton-Lagrange picture can be determined in a similar way. We show that arbitrary local variations of the orbits in the Hamilton-Lagrange picture can be generated by variations along geodesics in the geometrical pictu...

  6. Geometric inequalities in spherically symmetric spacetimes (United States)

    Csukás, Károly Z.


    In geometric inequalities ADM mass plays more fundamental role than the concept of quasi-local mass. This paper is to demonstrate that using the quasi-local mass some new insights can be acquired. In spherically symmetric spacetimes the Misner-Sharp mass and the concept of the Kodama vector field provides an ideal setting to the investigations of geometric inequalities. We applying the proposed new techniques to investigate the spacetimes containing black hole or cosmological horizons but we shall also apply them in context of normal bodies. Most of the previous investigations applied only the quasi-local charges and the area. Our main point is to include the quasi-local mass in the corresponding geometrical inequalities. This way we recover some known relations but new inequalities are also derived.

  7. Geometric optimization and sums of algebraic functions

    KAUST Repository

    Vigneron, Antoine E.


    We present a new optimization technique that yields the first FPTAS for several geometric problems. These problems reduce to optimizing a sum of nonnegative, constant description complexity algebraic functions. We first give an FPTAS for optimizing such a sum of algebraic functions, and then we apply it to several geometric optimization problems. We obtain the first FPTAS for two fundamental geometric shape-matching problems in fixed dimension: maximizing the volume of overlap of two polyhedra under rigid motions and minimizing their symmetric difference. We obtain the first FPTAS for other problems in fixed dimension, such as computing an optimal ray in a weighted subdivision, finding the largest axially symmetric subset of a polyhedron, and computing minimum-area hulls.

  8. The Geometric Phase of Stock Trading. (United States)

    Altafini, Claudio


    Geometric phases describe how in a continuous-time dynamical system the displacement of a variable (called phase variable) can be related to other variables (shape variables) undergoing a cyclic motion, according to an area rule. The aim of this paper is to show that geometric phases can exist also for discrete-time systems, and even when the cycles in shape space have zero area. A context in which this principle can be applied is stock trading. A zero-area cycle in shape space represents the type of trading operations normally carried out by high-frequency traders (entering and exiting a position on a fast time-scale), while the phase variable represents the cash balance of a trader. Under the assumption that trading impacts stock prices, even zero-area cyclic trading operations can induce geometric phases, i.e., profits or losses, without affecting the stock quote.

  9. The geometric phase controls ultracold chemistry. (United States)

    Kendrick, B K; Hazra, Jisha; Balakrishnan, N


    The geometric phase is shown to control the outcome of an ultracold chemical reaction. The control is a direct consequence of the sign change on the interference term between two scattering pathways (direct and looping), which contribute to the reactive collision process in the presence of a conical intersection (point of degeneracy between two Born-Oppenheimer electronic potential energy surfaces). The unique properties of the ultracold energy regime lead to an effective quantization of the scattering phase shift enabling maximum constructive or destructive interference between the two pathways. By taking the O+OH→H+O2 reaction as an illustrative example, it is shown that inclusion of the geometric phase modifies ultracold reaction rates by nearly two orders of magnitude. Interesting experimental control possibilities include the application of external electric and magnetic fields that might be used to exploit the geometric phase effect reported here and experimentally switch on or off the reactivity.

  10. Connecting Information Geometry and Geometric Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Leok


    Full Text Available The divergence function in information geometry, and the discrete Lagrangian in discrete geometric mechanics each induce a differential geometric structure on the product manifold Q × Q . We aim to investigate the relationship between these two objects, and the fundamental role that duality, in the form of Legendre transforms, plays in both fields. By establishing an analogy between these two approaches, we will show how a fruitful cross-fertilization of techniques may arise from switching formulations based on the cotangent bundle T * Q (as in geometric mechanics and the tangent bundle T Q (as in information geometry. In particular, we establish, through variational error analysis, that the divergence function agrees with the exact discrete Lagrangian up to third order if and only if Q is a Hessian manifold.

  11. Quantum Critical Scaling of the Geometric Tensors (United States)

    Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo


    Berry phases and the quantum-information theoretic notion of fidelity have been recently used to analyze quantum phase transitions from a geometrical perspective. In this Letter we unify these two approaches showing that the underlying mechanism is the critical singular behavior of a complex tensor over the Hamiltonian parameter space. This is achieved by performing a scaling analysis of this quantum geometric tensor in the vicinity of the critical points. In this way most of the previous results are understood on general grounds and new ones are found. We show that criticality is not a sufficient condition to ensure superextensive divergence of the geometric tensor, and state the conditions under which this is possible. The validity of this analysis is further checked by exact diagonalization of the spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg chain.

  12. Understanding geometric algebra for electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, John W


    "This book aims to disseminate geometric algebra as a straightforward mathematical tool set for working with and understanding classical electromagnetic theory. It's target readership is anyone who has some knowledge of electromagnetic theory, predominantly ordinary scientists and engineers who use it in the course of their work, or postgraduate students and senior undergraduates who are seeking to broaden their knowledge and increase their understanding of the subject. It is assumed that the reader is not a mathematical specialist and is neither familiar with geometric algebra or its application to electromagnetic theory. The modern approach, geometric algebra, is the mathematical tool set we should all have started out with and once the reader has a grasp of the subject, he or she cannot fail to realize that traditional vector analysis is really awkward and even misleading by comparison"--Provided by publisher.

  13. Problemas de geometría


    Usunáriz Balanzategui, Ubaldo; Usunáriz Sala, Ignacio


    Este libro, Problemas de Geometría, junto con otros dos, Problemas de Matemáticas y Problemas de Geometría Analítica y Diferencial, están dedicados a la presentación y resolución de problemas que se planteaban hace unas décadas, en la preparación para ingreso en las carreras de ingeniería técnica superior. Incluye 744 problemas que se presentan en dos grandes grupos: • Geometría del plano, con 523 problemas referentes a lugares geométricos, rectas, ángulos, triángulos y su construcción, cuadr...

  14. [Feature extraction for breast cancer data based on geometric algebra theory and feature selection using differential evolution]. (United States)

    Li, Jing; Hong, Wenxue


    The feature extraction and feature selection are the important issues in pattern recognition. Based on the geometric algebra representation of vector, a new feature extraction method using blade coefficient of geometric algebra was proposed in this study. At the same time, an improved differential evolution (DE) feature selection method was proposed to solve the elevated high dimension issue. The simple linear discriminant analysis was used as the classifier. The result of the 10-fold cross-validation (10 CV) classification of public breast cancer biomedical dataset was more than 96% and proved superior to that of the original features and traditional feature extraction method.

  15. Optimal sequential measurements for bipartite state discrimination (United States)

    Croke, Sarah; Barnett, Stephen M.; Weir, Graeme


    State discrimination is a useful test problem with which to clarify the power and limitations of different classes of measurement. We consider the problem of discriminating between given states of a bipartite quantum system via sequential measurement of the subsystems, with classical feed-forward of measurement results. Our aim is to understand when sequential measurements, which are relatively easy to implement experimentally, perform as well, or almost as well, as optimal joint measurements, which are in general more technologically challenging. We construct conditions that the optimal sequential measurement must satisfy, analogous to the well-known Helstrom conditions for minimum error discrimination in the unrestricted case. We give several examples and compare the optimal probability of correctly identifying the state via global versus sequential measurement strategies.

  16. Rebels with a cause : Group identification as a response to perceived discrimination from the mainstream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, Jolanda; Branscombe, NR; Schmitt, MT; Spears, R

    Two studies involving people with body piercings tested the hypothesis that perceived discrimination increases group identification. In Study 1, group identification mediated the positive relationship between perceived discrimination and attempts to differentiate the ingroup from the mainstream. In

  17. Primary School Teacher Candidates' Geometric Habits of Mind (United States)

    Köse, Nilu¨fer Y.; Tanisli, Dilek


    Geometric habits of mind are productive ways of thinking that support learning and using geometric concepts. Identifying primary school teacher candidates' geometric habits of mind is important as they affect the development of their future students' geometric thinking. Therefore, this study attempts to determine primary school teachers' geometric…

  18. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children. (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru


    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test

  19. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena


    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  20. Reconstruction of an InAs nanowire using geometric and algebraic tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennington, Robert S.; König, S.; Alpers, A.


    Geometric tomography and conventional algebraic tomography algorithms are used to reconstruct cross-sections of an InAs nanowire from a tilt series of experimental annular dark-field images. Both algorithms are also applied to a test object to assess what factors affect the reconstruction quality....... When using the present algorithms, geometric tomography is faster, but artifacts in the reconstruction may be difficult to recognize....

  1. Geometric nonlinear functional analysis volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Benyamini, Yoav


    The book presents a systematic and unified study of geometric nonlinear functional analysis. This area has its classical roots in the beginning of the twentieth century and is now a very active research area, having close connections to geometric measure theory, probability, classical analysis, combinatorics, and Banach space theory. The main theme of the book is the study of uniformly continuous and Lipschitz functions between Banach spaces (e.g., differentiability, stability, approximation, existence of extensions, fixed points, etc.). This study leads naturally also to the classification of

  2. Geometric phase morphology of Jones matrices. (United States)

    Lopez-Mago, Dorilian; Canales-Benavides, Arturo; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C


    We demonstrate an innovative technique based on the Pancharatnam-Berry phase that can be used to determine whether an optical system characterized by a Jones matrix is homogeneous or inhomogeneous, containing orthogonal or nonorthogonal eigenpolarizations, respectively. Homogeneous systems have a symmetric geometric phase morphology showing line dislocations and sets of polarization states with an equal geometric phase. In contrast, the morphology of inhomogeneous systems exhibits phase singularities, where the Pancharatnam-Berry phase is undetermined. The results show an alternative to extract polarization properties such as diattenuation and retardance, and can be used to study the transformation of space-variant polarized beams.

  3. Workshop on Topology and Geometric Group Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, James; Lafont, Jean-Francois; Leary, Ian


    This book presents articles at the interface of two active areas of research: classical topology and the relatively new field of geometric group theory. It includes two long survey articles, one on proofs of the Farrell–Jones conjectures, and the other on ends of spaces and groups. In 2010–2011, Ohio State University (OSU) hosted a special year in topology and geometric group theory. Over the course of the year, there were seminars, workshops, short weekend conferences, and a major conference out of which this book resulted. Four other research articles complement these surveys, making this book ideal for graduate students and established mathematicians interested in entering this area of research.

  4. Classical light beams and geometric phases. (United States)

    Mukunda, N; Chaturvedi, S; Simon, R


    We present a study of geometric phases in classical wave and polarization optics using the basic mathematical framework of quantum mechanics. Important physical situations taken from scalar wave optics, pure polarization optics, and the behavior of polarization in the eikonal or ray limit of Maxwell's equations in a transparent medium are considered. The case of a beam of light whose propagation direction and polarization state are both subject to change is dealt with, attention being paid to the validity of Maxwell's equations at all stages. Global topological aspects of the space of all propagation directions are discussed using elementary group theoretical ideas, and the effects on geometric phases are elucidated.

  5. The geometric structure of the Landau bands

    CERN Document Server

    Brüning, J; Geyler, V


    We have proposed a semiclassical explanation of the geometric structure of the spectrum for the two-dimensional Landau Hamiltonian with a two-periodic electric field without any additional assumptions on the potential. Applying an iterative averaging procedure we approximately, with any degree of accuracy, separate variables and describe a given Landau band as the spectrum of a Harper-like operator. The quantized Reeb graph for such an operator is used to obtain the following structure of the Landau band: localized states on the band wings and extended states near the middle of the band. Our approach also shows that different Landau bands have different geometric structure.

  6. Fractal supersymmetric QM, Geometric Probability and the Riemann Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C


    The Riemann's hypothesis (RH) states that the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta-function are of the form $ s_n =1/2+i\\lambda_n $. Earlier work on the RH based on supersymmetric QM, whose potential was related to the Gauss-Jacobi theta series, allows to provide the proper framework to construct the well defined algorithm to compute the probability to find a zero (an infinity of zeros) in the critical line. Geometric probability theory furnishes the answer to the very difficult question whether the probability that the RH is true is indeed equal to unity or not. To test the validity of this geometric probabilistic framework to compute the probability if the RH is true, we apply it directly to the the hyperbolic sine function $ \\sinh (s) $ case which obeys a trivial analog of the RH (the HSRH). Its zeros are equally spaced in the imaginary axis $ s_n = 0 + i n \\pi $. The geometric probability to find a zero (and an infinity of zeros) in the imaginary axis is exactly unity. We proceed with a fractal supersymme...

  7. Geometric Stability and Lens Decentering in Compact Digital Cameras (United States)

    Sanz-Ablanedo, Enoc; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Ramón; Armesto, Julia; Taboada, María Flor Álvarez


    A study on the geometric stability and decentering present in sensor-lens systems of six identical compact digital cameras has been conducted. With regard to geometrical stability, the variation of internal geometry parameters (principal distance, principal point position and distortion parameters) was considered. With regard to lens decentering, the amount of radial and tangential displacement resulting from decentering distortion was related with the precision of the camera and with the offset of the principal point from the geometric center of the sensor. The study was conducted with data obtained after 372 calibration processes (62 per camera). The tests were performed for each camera in three situations: during continuous use of the cameras, after camera power off/on and after the full extension and retraction of the zoom-lens. Additionally, 360 new calibrations were performed in order to study the variation of the internal geometry when the camera is rotated. The aim of this study was to relate the level of stability and decentering in a camera with the precision and quality that can be obtained. An additional goal was to provide practical recommendations about photogrammetric use of such cameras. PMID:22294886

  8. Research on Geometric Calibration of Spaceborne Linear Array Whiskbroom Camera. (United States)

    Sheng, Qinghong; Wang, Qi; Xiao, Hui; Wang, Qing


    The geometric calibration of a spaceborne thermal-infrared camera with a high spatial resolution and wide coverage can set benchmarks for providing an accurate geographical coordinate for the retrieval of land surface temperature. The practice of using linear array whiskbroom Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) arrays to image the Earth can help get thermal-infrared images of a large breadth with high spatial resolutions. Focusing on the whiskbroom characteristics of equal time intervals and unequal angles, the present study proposes a spaceborne linear-array-scanning imaging geometric model, whilst calibrating temporal system parameters and whiskbroom angle parameters. With the help of the YG-14-China's first satellite equipped with thermal-infrared cameras of high spatial resolution-China's Anyang Imaging and Taiyuan Imaging are used to conduct an experiment of geometric calibration and a verification test, respectively. Results have shown that the plane positioning accuracy without ground control points (GCPs) is better than 30 pixels and the plane positioning accuracy with GCPs is better than 1 pixel.

  9. Questionnaire discrimination: (re)-introducing coefficient delta. (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew


    Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error) and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure). Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Ferguson (1949) 1 derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient delta, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect) items. In this paper a general form of the formula, deltaG, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of deltaG are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12) from 2003-2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761). Coefficients for reliability (alpha) and discrimination (deltaG) are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Both scoring methods were reliable (alpha > 0.88). However, deltaG was substantially lower (0.73) for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (deltaG = 0.96), indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Coefficient deltaG was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's delta has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is suggested that the more general

  10. Questionnaire discrimination: (re)-introducing coefficient δ (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew


    Background Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of measurement error) and validity (the extent to which the questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure). Neither of these indices assesses the degree to which the questionnaire is able to discriminate between individuals, an important aspect of measurement. This paper introduces and extends an existing index of a questionnaire's ability to distinguish between individuals, that is, the questionnaire's discrimination. Methods Ferguson (1949) [1] derived an index of test discrimination, coefficient δ, for psychometric tests with dichotomous (correct/incorrect) items. In this paper a general form of the formula, δG, is derived for the more general class of questionnaires allowing for several response choices. The calculation and characteristics of δG are then demonstrated using questionnaire data (GHQ-12) from 2003–2004 British Household Panel Survey (N = 14761). Coefficients for reliability (α) and discrimination (δG) are computed for two commonly-used GHQ-12 coding methods: dichotomous coding and four-point Likert-type coding. Results Both scoring methods were reliable (α > 0.88). However, δG was substantially lower (0.73) for the dichotomous coding of the GHQ-12 than for the Likert-type method (δG = 0.96), indicating that the dichotomous coding, although reliable, failed to discriminate between individuals. Conclusion Coefficient δG was shown to have decisive utility in distinguishing between the cross-sectional discrimination of two equally reliable scoring methods. Ferguson's δ has been neglected in discussions of questionnaire design and performance, perhaps because it has not been implemented in software and was restricted to questionnaires with dichotomous items, which are rare in health care research. It is suggested that the

  11. Colour discrimination of dental professionals and colour deficient laypersons. (United States)

    Poljak-Guberina, Renata; Celebic, Asja; Powers, John M; Paravina, Rade D


    The aim of the present study was to compare results of non-dental (conventional) and dental colour discrimination tests (customized, shade guide test), to evaluate influence of profession, gender and age of colour normal dentists and laboratory technicians on colour discrimination results and to evaluate results of colour deficient laypersons. A total of 36 colour normal dental professionals, all volunteers were divided into two groups consisting of 18 participants each: dentists (DDS) and laboratory technicians (CDT). In addition, a group 15 colour deficient males also volunteered (CDP). Colour discrimination was examined using Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test and total error scores (TES) were calculated. Participants performed a dentistry related colour discrimination test by matching 26 pairs of shade tabs. Shade guide scores (3DS) were calculated. These tests were performed under the controlled conditions of a viewing booth. Mean values and standard deviations were determined. ANOVA, Mann-Whitney test, t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) were used for result analysis. TES and 3DS were correlated for colour normal observers, r = 0.47 (p colour deficient laypersons. Based on TES, 33% of colour deficient laypersons had average discrimination, whilst 67% had low discrimination. Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that results of non-dental and dental colour discrimination tests were correlated, and that profession (DDS/CDT), gender and age gender did not influence colour discrimination of colour normal participants. Although colour and appearance of dental restorations are of paramount importance for the aesthetic outcome, colour vision of dental professionals is not routinely tested. This paper validates and recommends the usage of dental shade guides for a simple, affordable and understandable testing of colour vision, either as a sole test or complementing conventional (professional) tests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. A Radial Age Gradient in the Geometrically Thick Disk of the Milky Way (United States)

    Martig, Marie; Minchev, Ivan; Ness, Melissa; Fouesneau, Morgan; Rix, Hans-Walter


    In the Milky Way, the thick disk can be defined using individual stellar abundances, kinematics, or age, or geometrically, as stars high above the midplane. In nearby galaxies, where only a geometric definition can be used, thick disks appear to have large radial scale lengths, and their red colors suggest that they are uniformly old. The Milky Way’s geometrically thick disk is also radially extended, but it is far from chemically uniform: α-enhanced stars are confined within the inner Galaxy. In simulated galaxies, where old stars are centrally concentrated, geometrically thick disks are radially extended, too. Younger stellar populations flare in the simulated disks’ outer regions, bringing those stars high above the midplane. The resulting geometrically thick disks therefore show a radial age gradient, from old in their central regions to younger in their outskirts. Based on our age estimates for a large sample of giant stars in the APOGEE survey, we can now test this scenario for the Milky Way. We find that the geometrically defined thick disk in the Milky Way has indeed a strong radial age gradient: the median age for red clump stars goes from ∼9 Gyr in the inner disk to 5 Gyr in the outer disk. We propose that at least some nearby galaxies could also have thick disks that are not uniformly old, and that geometrically thick disks might be complex structures resulting from different formation mechanisms in their inner and outer parts.

  13. Analysis of Geometric Thinking Students’ and Process-Guided Inquiry Learning Model (United States)

    Hardianti, D.; Priatna, N.; Priatna, B. A.


    This research aims to analysis students’ geometric thinking ability and theoretically examine the process-oriented guided iquiry (POGIL) model. This study uses qualitative approach with descriptive method because this research was done without any treatment on subjects. Data were collected naturally. This study was conducted in one of the State Junior High School in Bandung. The population was second grade students and the sample was 32 students. Data of students’ geometric thinking ability were collected through geometric thinking test. These questions are made based on the characteristics of geometry thinking based on van hiele’s theory. Based on the results of the analysis and discussion, students’ geometric thinking ability is still low so it needs to be improved. Therefore, an effort is needed to overcome the problems related to students’ geometric thinking ability. One of the efforts that can be done by doing the learning that can facilitate the students to construct their own geometry concept, especially quadrilateral’s concepts so that students’ geometric thinking ability can enhance maximally. Based on study of the theory, one of the learning models that can enhance the students’ geometric thinking ability is POGIL model.

  14. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.


    The alignment of shape data to a common mean before its subsequent processing is an ubiquitous step within the area shape analysis. Current approaches to shape analysis or, as more specifically considered in this work, shape classification perform the alignment in a fully unsupervised way......, not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  15. Perceptual discrimination of vowels in aphasia. (United States)

    Keller, E; Rothenberger, A; Göpfert, M


    In the present study 3 hypotheses were investigated: first, the notion that an aphasic impairment of vowel perception is not associated with particular aphasic syndromes or lesion sites, second, that it is a disorder comparable to a general impairment of perception in a normal speaker caused by some form of interference, and third, that perceptual phonemic discrimination is a separate process from the phonemic discriminative function necessary for speech production. The hypotheses were tested by means of a vowel discrimination test administered to 50 German-speaking aphasic patients (roughly equally divided between Broca's, mixed non-fluent, Wernicke's and mixed fluent groups); the same test, masked by white noise at -10 dB was also administered to 20 normal native speakers of German. Results were in support of all 3 hypotheses. First, aphasic patients' error patterns were similar across fluent and nonfluent groups and for all lesion sites. Second, the error distributions of aphasics with slight auditory impairment resembled those of normal subjects in the -10 dB white noise condition, while distributions of aphasics with severe auditory impairment were indicative of an added component of guessing behaviour. And third, the patients' performance on the discrimination task differed from that shown on a comparable repetition test. (It was argued that repetition involves a patient's expressive capacity in addition to his perceptual capacity). The differentiation of perceptual and expressive phonemic discrimination was further supported by an analysis of the speech errors occurring in the spontaneous (purely expressive) speech and in the repetition (expressive plus perceptual) tasks of 16 French Canadian and 5 English Canadian aphasics.

  16. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Tramadol in Humans (United States)

    Duke, Angela N.; Bigelow, George E.; Lanier, Ryan K.


    Tramadol is an unscheduled atypical analgesic that acts as an agonist at μ-opioid receptors and inhibits monoamine reuptake. Tramadol can suppress opioid withdrawal, and chronic administration can produce opioid physical dependence; however, diversion and abuse of tramadol is low. The present study further characterized tramadol in a three-choice discrimination procedure. Nondependent volunteers with active stimulant and opioid use (n = 8) participated in this residential laboratory study. Subjects were trained to discriminate between placebo, hydromorphone (8 mg), and methylphenidate (60 mg), and tests of acquisition confirmed that all volunteers could discriminate between the training drugs. The following drug conditions were then tested during discrimination test sessions: placebo, hydromorphone (4 and 8 mg), methylphenidate (30 and 60 mg), and tramadol (50, 100, 200, and 400 mg). In addition to discrimination measures, which included discrete choice, point distribution, and operant responding, subjective and physiological effects were measured for each test condition. Both doses of hydromorphone and methylphenidate were identified as hydromorphone- and methylphenidate-like, respectively. Lower doses of tramadol were generally identified as placebo, with higher doses (200 and 400 mg) identified as hydromorphone, or opioid-like. The highest dose of tramadol increased ratings on the stimulant scale, but was not significantly identified as methylphenidate-like. Tramadol did not significantly increase subjective ratings associated with reinforcement. Taken together, these results extend previous work with tramadol as a potential medication for the treatment of opioid dependence and withdrawal, showing acute doses of tramadol exhibit a profile of effects similar to opioid agonists and may have abuse liability in certain populations. PMID:21467190

  17. Wavelength discrimination in the hummingbird hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum. (United States)

    Telles, Francismeire J; Kelber, Almut; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A


    Despite the strong relationship between insect vision and the spectral properties of flowers, the visual system has been studied in detail in only a few insect pollinator species. For instance, wavelength discrimination thresholds have been determined in two species only: the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and the butterfly Papilio xuthus. Here, we present the wavelength discrimination thresholds (Δλ) for the hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum. We compared the data with those found for the honeybee, the butterfly P. xuthus and the predictions of a colour discrimination model. After training moths to feed from a rewarded disc illuminated with a monochromatic light, we tested them in a dual-choice situation, in which they had to choose between light of the training wavelength and a novel unrewarded wavelength. To characterise the Δλ function, we decreased the difference between wavelengths in subsequent tests. We also varied the light intensity to test its effect on the discrimination capacity. In agreement with the predictions of the model, we found two expected minima of discrimination where photoreceptor sensitivities overlap, as well as a third, minor, unpredicted minimum around the peak of the blue photoreceptor. Macroglossum stellatarum is capable of discriminating between lights with a wavelength difference of 1-2 nm. These discrimination minima are similar to those found for the tetrachromatic P. xuthus, and are better than those of the honeybee. The moth is also capable of using achromatic information to discriminate between lights of long wavelengths. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Discriminative Relational Topic Models. (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Xia, Fei; Zhang, Bo


    Relational topic models (RTMs) provide a probabilistic generative process to describe both the link structure and document contents for document networks, and they have shown promise on predicting network structures and discovering latent topic representations. However, existing RTMs have limitations in both the restricted model expressiveness and incapability of dealing with imbalanced network data. To expand the scope and improve the inference accuracy of RTMs, this paper presents three extensions: 1) unlike the common link likelihood with a diagonal weight matrix that allows the-same-topic interactions only, we generalize it to use a full weight matrix that captures all pairwise topic interactions and is applicable to asymmetric networks; 2) instead of doing standard Bayesian inference, we perform regularized Bayesian inference (RegBayes) with a regularization parameter to deal with the imbalanced link structure issue in real networks and improve the discriminative ability of learned latent representations; and 3) instead of doing variational approximation with strict mean-field assumptions, we present collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithms for the generalized relational topic models by exploring data augmentation without making restricting assumptions. Under the generic RegBayes framework, we carefully investigate two popular discriminative loss functions, namely, the logistic log-loss and the max-margin hinge loss. Experimental results on several real network datasets demonstrate the significance of these extensions on improving prediction performance.

  19. Geometric Abstract Art and Public Health Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Salaam Semaan, a CDC behavioral scientist, discusses the similarities between geometric abstract art and public health data analysis.  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  20. Geometric phase topology in weak measurement (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.


    The geometric phase visualization proposed by Bhandari (R Bhandari 1997 Phys. Rep. 281 1–64) in the ellipticity-ellipse orientation basis of the polarization ellipse of light is implemented to understand the geometric aspects of weak measurement. The weak interaction of a pre-selected state, acheived via spin-Hall effect of light (SHEL), results in a spread in the polarization ellipticity (η) or ellipse orientation (χ) depending on the resulting spatial or angular shift, respectively. The post-selection leads to the projection of the η spread in the complementary χ basis results in the appearance of a geometric phase with helical phase topology in the η ‑ χ parameter space. By representing the weak measurement on the Poincaré sphere and using Jones calculus, the complex weak value and the geometric phase topology are obtained. This deeper understanding of the weak measurement process enabled us to explore the techniques’ capabilities maximally, as demonstrated via SHEL in two examples—external reflection at glass-air interface and transmission through a tilted half-wave plate.

  1. Robust Geometric Control of a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymmel, Mogens; Andersen, Henrik Weisberg


    A frequency domain method, which makes it possible to adjust multivariable controllers with respect to both nominal performance and robustness, is presented. The basic idea in the approach is that the designer assigns objectives such as steady-state tracking, maximum resonance peaks, bandwidth, m...... is used to examine and improve geometric control of a binary distillation column....

  2. Pancharatnam geometric phase originating from successive partial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The spin of a polarized neutron beam subjected to a partial projection in another direction, traces a geodesic arc in the 2-sphere ray space. We delineate the geometric phase resulting from two successive partial projections on a general quantal state and derive the direction and strength of the third partial ...

  3. On Arithmetic-Geometric-Mean Polynomials (United States)

    Griffiths, Martin; MacHale, Des


    We study here an aspect of an infinite set "P" of multivariate polynomials, the elements of which are associated with the arithmetic-geometric-mean inequality. In particular, we show in this article that there exist infinite subsets of probability "P" for which every element may be expressed as a finite sum of squares of real…

  4. Modern Geometric Algebra: A (Very Incomplete!) Survey (United States)

    Suzuki, Jeff


    Geometric algebra is based on two simple ideas. First, the area of a rectangle is equal to the product of the lengths of its sides. Second, if a figure is broken apart into several pieces, the sum of the areas of the pieces equals the area of the original figure. Remarkably, these two ideas provide an elegant way to introduce, connect, and…

  5. Impossible Geometric Constructions: A Calculus Writing Project (United States)

    Awtrey, Chad


    This article discusses a writing project that offers students the opportunity to solve one of the most famous geometric problems of Greek antiquity; namely, the impossibility of trisecting the angle [pi]/3. Along the way, students study the history of Greek geometry problems as well as the life and achievements of Carl Friedrich Gauss. Included is…

  6. Geometric singular perturbation theory in biological practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hek, G.


    Geometric singular perturbation theory is a useful tool in the analysis of problems with a clear separation in time scales. It uses invariant manifolds in phase space in order to understand the global structure of the phase space or to construct orbits with desired properties. This paper explains

  7. Geometrical origin of supersymmetric gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caicedo, S.; Gambini, R.


    We show that the kinematical properties of any supersymmetric gauge theory may be obtained by mapping a geometric group structure of loops in superspace into some particular Lie group. The underlying group structure of the usual constrained supergauge theories turns out to be the group of even (bosonic) loops.

  8. The geometrical significance of the Laplacian (United States)

    Styer, Daniel F.


    The Laplacian operator can be defined, not only as a differential operator, but also through its averaging properties. Such a definition lends geometric significance to the operator: a large Laplacian at a point reflects a "nonconformist" (i.e., different from average) character for the function there. This point of view is used to motivate the wave equation for a drumhead.

  9. Geometric Algorithms for Part Orienting and Probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panahi, F.


    In this thesis, detailed solutions are presented to several problems dealing with geometric shape and orientation of an object in the field of robotics and automation. We first have considered a general model for shape variations that allows variation along the entire boundary of an object, both in

  10. Geometric Interpretations of Some Psychophysical Results. (United States)

    Levine, Michael V.

    A theory of psychophysics is discussed that enlarges the classical theory in three general ways: (1) the multidimensional nature of perception is made explicit; (2) the transformations of the theory are interpreted geometrically; and (3) attributes are distinguished from sensations and only partially ordered. It is shown that, with the enlarged…

  11. Spherical projections and liftings in geometric tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodey, Paul; Kiderlen, Markus; Weil, Wolfgang


    We consider a variety of integral transforms arising in Geometric Tomography. It will be shown that these can be put into a common framework using spherical projection and lifting operators. These operators will be applied to support functions and surface area measures of convex bodies and to rad...

  12. A graph spectrum based geometric biclustering algorithm. (United States)

    Wang, Doris Z; Yan, Hong


    Biclustering is capable of performing simultaneous clustering on two dimensions of a data matrix and has many applications in pattern classification. For example, in microarray experiments, a subset of genes is co-expressed in a subset of conditions, and biclustering algorithms can be used to detect the coherent patterns in the data for further analysis of function. In this paper, we present a graph spectrum based geometric biclustering (GSGBC) algorithm. In the geometrical view, biclusters can be seen as different linear geometrical patterns in high dimensional spaces. Based on this, the modified Hough transform is used to find the Hough vector (HV) corresponding to sub-bicluster patterns in 2D spaces. A graph can be built regarding each HV as a node. The graph spectrum is utilized to identify the eigengroups in which the sub-biclusters are grouped naturally to produce larger biclusters. Through a comparative study, we find that the GSGBC achieves as good a result as GBC and outperforms other kinds of biclustering algorithms. Also, compared with the original geometrical biclustering algorithm, it reduces the computing time complexity significantly. We also show that biologically meaningful biclusters can be identified by our method from real microarray gene expression data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Robust topology optimization accounting for geometric imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schevenels, M.; Jansen, M.; Lombaert, Geert


    performance. As a consequence, the actual structure may be far from optimal. In this paper, a robust approach to topology optimization is presented, taking into account two types of geometric imperfections: variations of (1) the crosssections and (2) the locations of structural elements. The first type...

  14. Symbolic Constraints in Constructive Geometric Constraint Solving


    Hoffmann, Christoph M.; Joan-Arinyo, Robert


    In design and manufacturing applications, users of computer aided design systems want to define relationships between dimension variables, since such relationships express design intent very flexibly. This work reports on a technique developed to enhance a class of constructive geometric constraint solvers with the capability of managing functional relationships between dimension variables. The method is shown to be correct.

  15. Evaluation of Design Methods for Geometric Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymmel, Mogens; Beran, M.; Foldager, L.


    Geometric control can produce desirable control by decoupling the input disturbances from the selected output variables. The basic principle for this method was originally introduced by Wonham. The mathematical complexity involved, however, makes the method very hard to get accepted by the chemic...... of the designer, transparency, computer demand, and potential for pole shift....

  16. Left ventricular hypertrophy, geometric patterns and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy can be due to various reasons including hypertension. It constitutes an increased cardiovascular risk. Various left ventricular geometric patterns occur in hypertension and may affect the cardiovascular risk profile of hypertensive subjects. Methods: One hundred and eighty eight ...

  17. Geometric properties of optimal photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Hougaard, Kristian G.


    on numerical optimization studies, we have discovered some surprisingly simple geometric properties of optimal planar band gap structures. We conjecture that optimal structures for gaps between bands n and n+1 correspond to n elliptic rods with centers defined by the generators of an optimal centroidal Voronoi...

  18. Checking the Geometric Accuracy of a Machine Tool for Selected Geometric Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Janásek


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control parameters for selected geometric accuracy measurements for a machine tool. The parameters were needed after a refurbished milling machine was purchased. After setting up the machine, it was necessary to check the geometric accuracy that can be used for precise milling. The whole check was performed in accordance with ISO 10791. Only selected parameters of geometric accuracy were inspected, and they were later compared with the prescribed values. On the basis of a comparison of these values we were able to determine whether the machine tool can be used for accurate machining.

  19. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L. Orbán


    Full Text Available The present study explores two hypotheses: a women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  20. Visual discrimination of primate species based on faces in chimpanzees. (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan A; Tomonaga, Masaki


    Many primate studies have investigated discrimination of individual faces within the same species. However, few studies have looked at discrimination between primate species faces at the categorical level. This study systematically examined the factors important for visual discrimination between primate species faces in chimpanzees, including: colour, orientation, familiarity, and perceptual similarity. Five adult female chimpanzees were tested on their ability to discriminate identical and categorical (non-identical) images of different primate species faces in a series of touchscreen matching-to-sample experiments. Discrimination performance for chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan faces was better in colour than in greyscale. An inversion effect was also found, with higher accuracy for upright than inverted faces. Discrimination performance for unfamiliar (baboon and capuchin monkey) and highly familiar (chimpanzee and human) but perceptually different species was equally high. After excluding effects of colour and familiarity, difficulty in discriminating between different species faces can be best explained by their perceptual similarity to each other. Categorical discrimination performance for unfamiliar, perceptually similar faces (gorilla and orangutan) was significantly worse than unfamiliar, perceptually different faces (baboon and capuchin monkey). Moreover, multidimensional scaling analysis of the image similarity data based on local feature matching revealed greater similarity between chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan faces than between human, baboon and capuchin monkey faces. We conclude our chimpanzees appear to perceive similarity in primate faces in a similar way to humans. Information about perceptual similarity is likely prioritized over the potential influence of previous experience or a conceptual representation of species for categorical discrimination between species faces.

  1. Geometric and dynamic perspectives on phase-coherent and noncoherent chaos. (United States)

    Zou, Yong; Donner, Reik V; Kurths, Jürgen


    Statistically distinguishing between phase-coherent and noncoherent chaotic dynamics from time series is a contemporary problem in nonlinear sciences. In this work, we propose different measures based on recurrence properties of recorded trajectories, which characterize the underlying systems from both geometric and dynamic viewpoints. The potentials of the individual measures for discriminating phase-coherent and noncoherent chaotic oscillations are discussed. A detailed numerical analysis is performed for the chaotic Rössler system, which displays both types of chaos as one control parameter is varied, and the Mackey-Glass system as an example of a time-delay system with noncoherent chaos. Our results demonstrate that especially geometric measures from recurrence network analysis are well suited for tracing transitions between spiral- and screw-type chaos, a common route from phase-coherent to noncoherent chaos also found in other nonlinear oscillators. A detailed explanation of the observed behavior in terms of attractor geometry is given.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Q. Y.; Zhang, Q. F.; Yang, C. Y.; He, H. F. [Department of Computer Science, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Vienne, A. [University of Lille 1, LAL-IMCCE UMR 8028, F-59000 Lille (France); Desmars, J., E-mail: [Sino-French Joint Laboratory for Astrometry, Dynamics and Space Science, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)


    A simple but effective approach is proposed for measuring the geometric distortion of a CCD field of view of a ground-based telescope. For three open clusters (M35, M67, and NGC 2324), 425 CCD frames taken by a 1 m telescope at the Yunnan Observatory are used to test this approach. It is found that the geometric distortion pattern depends strongly on the corresponding filter used. The geometric distortion is then used to correct the pixel positions for Phoebe, the ninth satellite of Saturn, and its reference stars imaged in 220 CCD frames taken by the same telescope. The standard deviation of the (O - C; observed minus computed) residuals of Phoebe is significantly improved after correcting the geometric distortions.

  3. Diagnostics for geometric performance of machine tool linear axes (United States)

    Vogl, Gregory W.; Donmez, M. Alkan; Archenti, Andreas


    Machine tools degrade during operations, yet knowledge of degradation is elusive; accurately detecting degradation of linear axes is typically a manual and time-consuming process. Manufacturers need automated and efficient methods to diagnose the condition of their machine tool linear axes with minimal disruptions to production. A method was developed to use data from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) for identification of changes in the translational and angular errors due to axis degradation. A linear axis testbed, established for the purpose of verification and validation, revealed that the IMU-based method was capable of measuring geometric errors with acceptable test uncertainty ratios. PMID:28603291

  4. Maximum Likelihood and Bayes Estimation in Randomly Censored Geometric Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hare Krishna


    Full Text Available In this article, we study the geometric distribution under randomly censored data. Maximum likelihood estimators and confidence intervals based on Fisher information matrix are derived for the unknown parameters with randomly censored data. Bayes estimators are also developed using beta priors under generalized entropy and LINEX loss functions. Also, Bayesian credible and highest posterior density (HPD credible intervals are obtained for the parameters. Expected time on test and reliability characteristics are also analyzed in this article. To compare various estimates developed in the article, a Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out. Finally, for illustration purpose, a randomly censored real data set is discussed.

  5. Endophilia or Exophobia: Beyond Discrimination


    Feld, J.F.; Salamanca Acosta, N.; Hamermesh, D.


    The immense literature on discrimination treats outcomes as relative: One group suffers compared to another. But does a difference arise because agents discriminate against others – are exophobic – or because they favor their own kind – are endophilic? This difference matters, as the relative importance of the types of discrimination and their inter-relation affect market outcomes. Using a field experiment in which graders at one university were randomly assigned students' exams that did or d...

  6. Optimal discrimination of single-qubit mixed states (United States)

    Weir, Graeme; Barnett, Stephen M.; Croke, Sarah


    We consider the problem of minimum-error quantum state discrimination for single-qubit mixed states. We present a method which uses the Helstrom conditions constructively and analytically; this algebraic approach is complementary to existing geometric methods, and solves the problem for any number of arbitrary signal states with arbitrary prior probabilities. It has long been known that the minimum-error probability is given by the trace of the Lagrange operator Γ . The remarkable feature of our approach is the central role played not by Γ , but by its inverse.

  7. Weight discrimination and bullying. (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M


    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Convex Discriminative Multitask Clustering. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei


    Multitask clustering tries to improve the clustering performance of multiple tasks simultaneously by taking their relationship into account. Most existing multitask clustering algorithms fall into the type of generative clustering, and none are formulated as convex optimization problems. In this paper, we propose two convex Discriminative Multitask Clustering (DMTC) objectives to address the problems. The first one aims to learn a shared feature representation, which can be seen as a technical combination of the convex multitask feature learning and the convex Multiclass Maximum Margin Clustering (M3C). The second one aims to learn the task relationship, which can be seen as a combination of the convex multitask relationship learning and M3C. The objectives of the two algorithms are solved in a uniform procedure by the efficient cutting-plane algorithm and further unified in the Bayesian framework. Experimental results on a toy problem and two benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  9. Geometric Stitching Method for Double Cameras with Weak Convergence Geometry (United States)

    Zhou, N.; He, H.; Bao, Y.; Yue, C.; Xing, K.; Cao, S.


    In this paper, a new geometric stitching method is proposed which utilizes digital elevation model (DEM)-aided block adjustment to solve relative orientation parameters for dual-camera with weak convergence geometry. A rational function model (RFM) with affine transformation is chosen as the relative orientation model. To deal with the weak geometry, a reference DEM is used in this method as an additional constraint in the block adjustment, which only calculates the planimetry coordinates of tie points (TPs). After that we can use the obtained affine transform coefficients to generate virtual grid, and update rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) to complete the geometric stitching. Our proposed method was tested on GaoFen-2(GF-2) dual-camera panchromatic (PAN) images. The test results show that the proposed method can achieve an accuracy of better than 0.5 pixel in planimetry and have a seamless visual effect. For regions with small relief, when global DEM with 1 km grid, SRTM with 90 m grid and ASTER GDEM V2 with 30 m grid replaced DEM with 1m grid as elevation constraint it is almost no loss of accuracy. The test results proved the effectiveness and feasibility of the stitching method.

  10. Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits. (United States)

    Strambini, E; Makarenko, K S; Abulizi, G; de Jong, M P; van der Wiel, W G


    Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young's double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is well known that loss of dynamical nonlocality can occur due to (partial) collapse of the wavefunction due to a measurement, such as which-path detection. However, alternative mechanisms affecting dynamical nonlocality have hardly been considered, although of crucial importance in many schemes for quantum information processing. Here, we present a fundamentally different pathway of losing dynamical nonlocality, demonstrating that the detailed geometry of the detection scheme is crucial to preserve nonlocality. By means of a solid-state quantum-interference experiment we quantify this effect in a diffusive system. We show that interference is not only affected by decoherence, but also by a loss of dynamical nonlocality based on a local reduction of the number of quantum conduction channels of the interferometer. With our measurements and theoretical model we demonstrate that this mechanism is an intrinsic property of quantum dynamics. Understanding the geometrical constraints protecting nonlocality is crucial when designing quantum networks for quantum information processing.

  11. Radar image processing for rock-type discrimination (United States)

    Blom, R. G.; Daily, M.


    Image processing and enhancement techniques for improving the geologic utility of digital satellite radar images are reviewed. Preprocessing techniques such as mean and variance correction on a range or azimuth line by line basis to provide uniformly illuminated swaths, median value filtering for four-look imagery to eliminate speckle, and geometric rectification using a priori elevation data. Examples are presented of application of preprocessing methods to Seasat and Landsat data, and Seasat SAR imagery was coregistered with Landsat imagery to form composite scenes. A polynomial was developed to distort the radar picture to fit the Landsat image of a 90 x 90 km sq grid, using Landsat color ratios with Seasat intensities. Subsequent linear discrimination analysis was employed to discriminate rock types from known areas. Seasat additions to the Landsat data improved rock identification by 7%.

  12. Perceived discrimination: why applicants and employees expect and perceive discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghazaleh, N.


    In this dissertation we have investigated perceptions of discrimination. We have shown discrimination exists in the eyes of applicants and employees and especially when from an ethnic minority group. There are psychological variables that influence these perceptions differently for minority and

  13. Fitting a geometric graph to a protein-protein interaction network. (United States)

    Higham, Desmond J; Rasajski, Marija; Przulj, Natasa


    Finding a good network null model for protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is a fundamental issue. Such a model would provide insights into the interplay between network structure and biological function as well as into evolution. Also, network (graph) models are used to guide biological experiments and discover new biological features. It has been proposed that geometric random graphs are a good model for PPI networks. In a geometric random graph, nodes correspond to uniformly randomly distributed points in a metric space and edges (links) exist between pairs of nodes for which the corresponding points in the metric space are close enough according to some distance norm. Computational experiments have revealed close matches between key topological properties of PPI networks and geometric random graph models. In this work, we push the comparison further by exploiting the fact that the geometric property can be tested for directly. To this end, we develop an algorithm that takes PPI interaction data and embeds proteins into a low-dimensional Euclidean space, under the premise that connectivity information corresponds to Euclidean proximity, as in geometric-random graphs. We judge the sensitivity and specificity of the fit by computing the area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve. The network embedding algorithm is based on multi-dimensional scaling, with the square root of the path length in a network playing the role of the Euclidean distance in the Euclidean space. The algorithm exploits sparsity for computational efficiency, and requires only a few sparse matrix multiplications, giving a complexity of O(N(2)) where N is the number of proteins. The algorithm has been verified in the sense that it successfully rediscovers the geometric structure in artificially constructed geometric networks, even when noise is added by re-wiring some links. Applying the algorithm to 19 publicly available PPI networks of various organisms indicated that: (a

  14. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.


    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  15. Perceived Discrimination in LGBTIQ Discourse: A Typology of Verbal Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Rojas Lizana


    Full Text Available New within the field of Discourse Analysis, Perceived Discrimination (PD is the study of discourse that focuses on the perspective of the victims of discrimination. This article explores the experiences of verbal discrimination as reported by eighteen LGBTIQ participants during semi-structured, co-constructed interviews. Data were classified in order to develop a taxonomy of discrimination based on Mellor’s (2003, 2004. This taxonomy foregrounds two types of discrimination: verbal and behavioural. In this paper, I exemplify the forms of verbal discrimination encountered and offer an analysis of the discourse used in the construction of the experiences and of the effects reported. The results show that verbal discrimination is an overt phenomenon and that participants are stressed by the ever present possibility of facing it. Verbal discrimination is mainly triggered by a perceived transgression to the normalised standards of people’s behaviour, movements and look in a heterosexist society. It presents three subtypes: name calling, abuse and remarks. These subtypes are described through the analysis of keywords, effects and expressions (such as faggot, gay, dyke, queer, the pronoun ‘it’, religious comments and other remarks. The type of discrimination used was associated with the level of acquaintance perpetrators have with the experiencers; that is, name calling was used by people unknown to the victims while abuse and remarks by acquaintances and family members. Participants resorted to several discursive strategies to convey their intentions. They used mitigation strategies when wanting to minimize the experience, hedging and repetition were used for emphasis, and to convey urgency and pervasiveness. Metaphorical expressions related to internal or external injuries were also used to express the powerful effect of verbal discrimination on people.

  16. Prejudice and Discrimination in the Urban Housing Market. Discussion Paper D77-9. (United States)

    Yinger, John

    This paper reviews what is known about the effects of prejudice and discrimination on the urban housing market. Particular attention is given to distinguishing the effects of prejudice from the effects of discrimination. Theories about prejudice and discrimination in the urban housing market are reviewed and tested against available evidence.…

  17. Geometric and Texture Inpainting by Gibbs Sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, David Karl John; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Nielsen, Mads


    This paper discuss a method suitable for inpainting both large scale geometric structures and more stochastic texture components. Image inpainting concerns the problem of reconstructing the intensity contents inside regions of missing data. Common techniques for solving this problem are methods....... In this paper we use the well-known FRAME (Filters, Random Fields and Maximum Entropy) for inpainting. We introduce a temperature term in the learned FRAME Gibbs distribution. By sampling using different temperature in the FRAME Gibbs distribution, different contents of the image are reconstructed. We propose...... a two step method for inpainting using FRAME. First the geometric structure of the image is reconstructed by sampling from a cooled Gibbs distribution, then the stochastic component is reconstructed by sample froma heated Gibbs distribution. Both steps in the reconstruction process are necessary...

  18. Geometric complexity theory and matrix powering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesmundo, Fulvio; Ikenmeyer, Christian; Panova, Greta


    . Their approach works by multiplying the permanent polynomial with a high power of a linear form (a process called padding) and then comparing the orbit closures of the determinant and the padded permanent. This padding was recently used heavily to show no-go results for the method of shifted partial derivatives...... matrix power. This gives an equivalent but much cleaner homogeneous formulation of geometric complexity theory in which the padding is removed. This radically changes the representation theoretic questions involved to prove complexity lower bounds. We prove that in this homogeneous formulation...... there are no orbit occurrence obstructions that prove even superlinear lower bounds on the complexity of the permanent. This is the first no-go result in geometric complexity theory that rules out superlinear lower bounds in some model. Interestingly---in contrast to the determinant---the trace of a variable matrix...

  19. The geometric Hopf invariant and surgery theory

    CERN Document Server

    Crabb, Michael


    Written by leading experts in the field, this monograph provides homotopy theoretic foundations for surgery theory on higher-dimensional manifolds. Presenting classical ideas in a modern framework, the authors carefully highlight how their results relate to (and generalize) existing results in the literature. The central result of the book expresses algebraic surgery theory in terms of the geometric Hopf invariant, a construction in stable homotopy theory which captures the double points of immersions. Many illustrative examples and applications of the abstract results are included in the book, making it of wide interest to topologists. Serving as a valuable reference, this work is aimed at graduate students and researchers interested in understanding how the algebraic and geometric topology fit together in the surgery theory of manifolds. It is the only book providing such a wide-ranging historical approach to the Hopf invariant, double points and surgery theory, with many results old and new. .

  20. New computation methods for geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Psang Dain


    This book employs homogeneous coordinate notation to compute the first- and second-order derivative matrices of various optical quantities. It will be one of the important mathematical tools for automatic optical design. The traditional geometrical optics is based on raytracing only. It is very difficult, if possible, to compute the first- and second-order derivatives of a ray and optical path length with respect to system variables, since they are recursive functions. Consequently, current commercial software packages use a finite difference approximation methodology to estimate these derivatives for use in optical design and analysis. Furthermore, previous publications of geometrical optics use vector notation, which is comparatively awkward for computations for non-axially symmetrical systems.

  1. Geometric methods in PDE’s

    CERN Document Server

    Manfredini, Maria; Morbidelli, Daniele; Polidoro, Sergio; Uguzzoni, Francesco


    The analysis of PDEs is a prominent discipline in mathematics research, both in terms of its theoretical aspects and its relevance in applications. In recent years, the geometric properties of linear and nonlinear second order PDEs of elliptic and parabolic type have been extensively studied by many outstanding researchers. This book collects contributions from a selected group of leading experts who took part in the INdAM meeting "Geometric methods in PDEs", on the occasion of the 70th birthday of Ermanno Lanconelli. They describe a number of new achievements and/or the state of the art in their discipline of research, providing readers an overview of recent progress and future research trends in PDEs. In particular, the volume collects significant results for sub-elliptic equations, potential theory and diffusion equations, with an emphasis on comparing different methodologies and on their implications for theory and applications. .

  2. Geometric formulation of Berezin deformation quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Roknizadeh


    Full Text Available   In this paper we try to formulate the Berezin quantization on projective Hilbert space P(H and use its geometric structure to construct a correspondence between a given classical theory and a given quantum theory. It wil be shown that the star product in berezin quantization is equivalent to the Posson bracket on coherent states manifold M, embodded in P(H, and the Berezin method is used to define a classical limit for geometric quantum mechnics. With this construction to all of the quantum observables are associated their covariant symbols, which form a poisson algebra on P(H and since the corresponding classical phase space has a natural Poisson structure, the Berezin quantization is then a systematic procedure to relate these tow piosson algebras.

  3. Geometrical dynamics of Born-Infeld objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Col. Villas San Sebastian, Colima (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)


    We present a geometrically inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual non-polynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent. We take a closer look at the classical Hamiltonian analysis which is supported by the ADM framework of general relativity. The constraints and their algebra are identified as well as the geometrical role they play in phase space. In order to illustrate our results, we review the dynamics of a D1-brane immersed in a AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} background spacetime. We exhibit the mechanical properties of Born-Infeld objects paving the way to a consistent quantum formulation.

  4. Geometric description of images as topographic maps

    CERN Document Server

    Caselles, Vicent


    This volume discusses the basic geometric contents of an image and presents a tree data structure to handle those contents efficiently. The nodes of the tree are derived from connected components of level sets of the intensity, while the edges represent inclusion information. Grain filters, morphological operators simplifying these geometric contents, are analyzed and several applications to image comparison and registration, and to edge and corner detection, are presented. The mathematically inclined reader may be most interested in Chapters 2 to 6, which generalize the topological Morse description to continuous or semicontinuous functions, while mathematical morphologists may more closely consider grain filters in Chapter 3. Computer scientists will find algorithmic considerations in Chapters 6 and 7, the full justification of which may be found in Chapters 2 and 4 respectively. Lastly, all readers can learn more about the motivation for this work in the image processing applications presented in Chapter 8...

  5. Geometric phase shifts in biological oscillators. (United States)

    Tourigny, David S


    Many intracellular processes continue to oscillate during the cell cycle. Although it is not well-understood how they are affected by discontinuities in the cellular environment, the general assumption is that oscillations remain robust provided the period of cell divisions is much larger than the period of the oscillator. Here, I will show that under these conditions a cell will in fact have to correct for an additional quantity added to the phase of oscillation upon every repetition of the cell cycle. The resulting phase shift is an analogue of the geometric phase, a curious entity first discovered in quantum mechanics. In this letter, I will discuss the theory of the geometric phase shift and demonstrate its relevance to biological oscillations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A practical guide to experimental geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Garbovskiy, Yuriy A


    A concise, yet deep introduction to experimental, geometrical optics, this book begins with fundamental concepts and then develops the practical skills and research techniques routinely used in modern laboratories. Suitable for students, researchers and optical engineers, this accessible text teaches readers how to build their own optical laboratory and to design and perform optical experiments. It uses a hands-on approach which fills a gap between theory-based textbooks and laboratory manuals, allowing the reader to develop their practical skills in this interdisciplinary field, and also explores the ways in which this knowledge can be applied to the design and production of commercial optical devices. Including supplementary online resources to help readers track and evaluate their experimental results, this text is the ideal companion for anyone with a practical interest in experimental geometrical optics.

  7. Universal geometrical scaling of the elliptic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés C.


    Full Text Available The presence of scaling variables in experimental observables provide very valuable indications of the dynamics underlying a given physical process. In the last years, the search for geometric scaling, that is the presence of a scaling variable which encodes all geometrical information of the collision as well as other external quantities as the total energy, has been very active. This is motivated, in part, for being one of the genuine predictions of the Color Glass Condensate formalism for saturation of partonic densities. Here we extend these previous findings to the case of experimental data on elliptic flow. We find an excellent scaling for all centralities and energies, from RHIC to LHC, with a simple generalization of the scaling previously found for other observables and systems. Interestingly, the case of the photons, difficult to reconcile in most formalisms, nicely fit the scaling curve. We discuss on the possible interpretations of this finding in terms of initial or final state effects.

  8. Geometric modeling in probability and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Calin, Ovidiu


    This book covers topics of Informational Geometry, a field which deals with the differential geometric study of the manifold probability density functions. This is a field that is increasingly attracting the interest of researchers from many different areas of science, including mathematics, statistics, geometry, computer science, signal processing, physics and neuroscience. It is the authors’ hope that the present book will be a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students in one of the aforementioned fields. This textbook is a unified presentation of differential geometry and probability theory, and constitutes a text for a course directed at graduate or advanced undergraduate students interested in applications of differential geometry in probability and statistics. The book contains over 100 proposed exercises meant to help students deepen their understanding, and it is accompanied by software that is able to provide numerical computations of several information geometric objects. The reader...

  9. Color fringe projection profilometry using geometric constraints (United States)

    Cheng, Teng; Du, Qingyu; Jiang, Yaxi


    A recently proposed phase unwrapping method using geometric constraints performs well without requiring additional camera, more patterns or global search. The major limitation of this technique is the confined measurement depth range (MDR) within 2π in phase domain. To enlarge the MDR, this paper proposes using color fringes for three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement. Each six fringe periods encoded with six different colors are treated as one group. The local order within one group can be identified with reference to the color distribution. Then the phase wrapped period-by-period is converted into the phase wrapped group-by-group. The geometric constraints of the fringe projection system are used to determine the group order. Such that the MDR is extended from 2π to 12π by six times. Experiment results demonstrate the success of the proposed method to measure two isolated objects with large MDR.

  10. Geometric calibration of ERS satellite SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang


    Geometric calibration of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) slant range images is important in relation to mapping areas without ground reference points and also in relation to automated processing. The relevant SAR system parameters are discussed and calib......Geometric calibration of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) slant range images is important in relation to mapping areas without ground reference points and also in relation to automated processing. The relevant SAR system parameters are discussed...... on a seven-year ERS-1 and a four-year ERS-2 time series, the long term stability is found to be sufficient to allow a single calibration covering the entire mission period. A descending and an ascending orbit tandem pair of the ESA calibration site on Flevoland, suitable for calibration of ERS SAR processors...

  11. Geometric evolutionary dynamics of protein interaction networks. (United States)

    Przulj, Natasa; Kuchaiev, Oleksii; Stevanović, Aleksandar; Hayes, Wayne


    Understanding the evolution and structure of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is a central problem of systems biology. Since most processes in the cell are carried out by groups of proteins acting together, a theoretical model of how PPI networks develop based on duplications and mutations is an essential ingredient for understanding the complex wiring of the cell. Many different network models have been proposed, from those that follow power-law degree distributions and those that model complementarity of protein binding domains, to those that have geometric properties. Here, we introduce a new model for PPI network (and thus gene) evolution that produces well-fitting network models for currently available PPI networks. The model integrates geometric network properties with evolutionary dynamics of PPI network evolution.

  12. Geometric simulation of flexible motion in proteins. (United States)

    Wells, Stephen A


    This chapter describes the use of physically simplified analysis and simulation methods-pebble-game rigidity analysis, coarse-grained elastic network modeling, and template-based geometric simulation-to explore flexible motion in protein structures. Substantial amplitudes of flexible motion can be explored rapidly in an all-atom model, retaining realistic covalent bonding, steric exclusion, and a user-defined network of noncovalent polar and hydrophobic interactions, using desktop computing resources. Detailed instructions are given for simulations using FIRST/FRODA software installed on a UNIX/Linux workstation. Other implementations of similar methods exist, particularly NMSim and FRODAN, and are available online. Topics covered include rigidity analysis and constraints, geometric simulation of flexible motion, targeting between known structures, and exploration of motion along normal mode eigenvectors.

  13. The Geometric Nonlinear Generalized Brazier Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Jan Ánike; Lauridsen, Peter Riddersholm; Damkilde, Lars


    denoted the generalized Brazier effect. The original work of Brazier dealt with very large deformations that changed the cross section significantly and hereby also the bending moment of inertia and the bending moment capacity. In this paper the aim is to describe the Brazier effect for smaller...... to solve the complex non-linear geometric problem with a high accuracy. This is of importance in simulations of wind turbine blades, where the wind load simulations are based on small Finite Element models based on beam type elements in order to be realistic. The linearized solution exploits...... that the generalized Brazier effect is a local effect not influencing the overall mechanical behavior of the structure significantly. The offset is a nonlinear geometric beam-type Finite Element calculation, which takes into account the large displacements and rotations. The beam-type model defines the stresses which...

  14. The geometry of distributional preferences and a non-parametric identification approach: The Equality Equivalence Test. (United States)

    Kerschbamer, Rudolf


    This paper proposes a geometric delineation of distributional preference types and a non-parametric approach for their identification in a two-person context. It starts with a small set of assumptions on preferences and shows that this set (i) naturally results in a taxonomy of distributional archetypes that nests all empirically relevant types considered in previous work; and (ii) gives rise to a clean experimental identification procedure - the Equality Equivalence Test - that discriminates between archetypes according to core features of preferences rather than properties of specific modeling variants. As a by-product the test yields a two-dimensional index of preference intensity.

  15. Multiphase flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections (United States)

    Basagaoglu, H.; Meakin, P.; Green, C.T.; Mathew, M.; ,


    A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interaction potentials was used to study gravity-driven flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections. Simulated scenarios included fluid dripping from a fracture aperture, two-phase flow through intersecting fractures and thin-film flow on smooth and undulating solid surfaces. Qualitative comparisons with recently published experimental findings indicate that for these scenarios the LB model captured the underlying physics reasonably well.

  16. Non-Markovianity of geometrical qudit decoherence (United States)

    Siudzińska, Katarzyna


    In the following paper, we generalize the geometrical framework of qubit decoherence to higher dimensions. The quantum mixed state is represented by the probability distribution which is the Kähler function on the projective Hilbert space. The Markovian master equation for density operators turns out to be equivalent to the Fokker-Planck equation for quantum probability distributions. Several examples are analyzed, featuring different generalizations of the Pauli channel.

  17. Evolution equation for geometric quantum correlation measures


    Hu, Ming-Liang; Fan, Heng


    A simple relation is established for the evolution equation of quantum information processing protocols such as quantum teleportation, remote state preparation, Bell-inequality violation and particularly dynamics of the geometric quantum correlation measures. This relation shows that when the system traverses the local quantum channel, various figures of merit of the quantum correlations for different protocols demonstrate a factorization decay behavior for dynamics. We identified the family ...

  18. Geometric measure theory a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Frank


    Geometric measure theory is the mathematical framework for the study of crystal growth, clusters of soap bubbles, and similar structures involving minimization of energy. Morgan emphasizes geometry over proofs and technicalities, and includes a bibliography and abundant illustrations and examples. This Second Edition features a new chapter on soap bubbles as well as updated sections addressing volume constraints, surfaces in manifolds, free boundaries, and Besicovitch constant results. The text will introduce newcomers to the field and appeal to mathematicians working in the field.

  19. Geometric Measure Theory and Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bombieri, Enrico


    W.K. ALLARD: On the first variation of area and generalized mean curvature.- F.J. ALMGREN Jr.: Geometric measure theory and elliptic variational problems.- E. GIUSTI: Minimal surfaces with obstacles.- J. GUCKENHEIMER: Singularities in soap-bubble-like and soap-film-like surfaces.- D. KINDERLEHRER: The analyticity of the coincidence set in variational inequalities.- M. MIRANDA: Boundaries of Caciopoli sets in the calculus of variations.- L. PICCININI: De Giorgi's measure and thin obstacles.

  20. Robot arm geometric link parameter estimation (United States)

    Hayati, S. A.


    A general method for estimating serial link manipulator geometric parameter errors is proposed in this paper. The positioning accuracy of the end-effector may be increased significantly by updating the nominal link parameters in the control software to represent the physical system more accurately. The proposed method is applicable for serial link manipulators with any combination of revolute or prismatic joints, and is not limited to a specific measurement technique.

  1. Multiphase Flow in Geometrically Simple Fracture Intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakan Basagaoglu; Paul Meakin; Sauro Succi; Timothy R. Ginn


    A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interaction potentials was used to Study gravity-driven flow in geometrically simple fracture intersections. simulated scenarios included fluid dripping from a fracture aperture, two-phase flow through intersecting fractures and thin-filin flow oil smooth and undulating solid surfaces. Qualitative comparisons with recently published experimental findings indicate that for these scenarios the LB model captured the underlying physics reasonably well.

  2. Geometric errors measurement for coordinate measuring machines (United States)

    Pan, Fangyu; Nie, Li; Bai, Yuewei; Wang, Xiaogang; Wu, Xiaoyan


    Error compensation is a good choice to improve Coordinate Measuring Machines’ (CMM) accuracy. In order to achieve the above goal, the basic research is done. Firstly, analyzing the error source which finds out 21 geometric errors affecting CMM’s precision seriously; secondly, presenting the measurement method and elaborating the principle. By the experiment, the feasibility is validated. Therefore, it lays a foundation for further compensation which is better for CMM’s accuracy.

  3. a Geometrical Particle Model for Anyons (United States)

    Nersessian, Armen; Ramos, Eduardo

    We consider the simplest geometrical particle model associated with light-like curves in (2+1) dimensions. The action is proportional to the pseudo-arc length of the particle's path. We show that under quantization, it yields the (2+1)-dimensional anyonic field equation supplemented with a Majorana-like relation on mass and spin, i.e. mass × spin =α2, with α the coupling constant in front of the action.

  4. Quantum Particle-Trajectories and Geometric Phase


    Dima, M.


    "Particle"-trajectories are defined as integrable $dx_\\mu dp^\\mu = 0$ paths in projective space. Quantum states evolving on such trajectories, open or closed, do not delocalise in $(x, p)$ projection, the phase associated with the trajectories being related to the geometric (Berry) phase and the Classical Mechanics action. High Energy Physics properties of states evolving on "particle"-trajectories are discussed.

  5. Noncommutative Geometric Gauge Theory from Superconnections


    Lee, Chang-Yeong


    Noncommutative geometric gauge theory is reconstructed based on the superconnection concept. The bosonic action of the Connes-Lott model including the symmetry breaking Higgs sector is obtained by using a new generalized derivative, which consists of the usual 1-form exterior derivative plus an extra element called the matrix derivative, for the curvatures. We first derive the matrix derivative based on superconnections and then show how the matrix derivative can give rise to spontaneous symm...

  6. Geometrical product specifications. Datums and coordinate systems (United States)

    Glukhov, V. I.; Ivleva, I. A.; Zlatkina, O. Y.


    The work is devoted to the relevant topic such as the technical products quality improvement due to the geometrical specifications accuracy. The research purpose is to ensure the quality indicators on the basis of the systematic approach to the values normalization and geometrical specifications accuracy in the workpiece coordinate systems in the process of design. To achieve the goal two tasks are completed such as the datum features classification according to the number of linear and angular freedom degrees constraints, called the datums informativeness, and the rectangular coordinate systems identification, materialized by workpiece datums sets. The datum features informativeness characterizes the datums functional purpose to limit product workpiece linear and angular degrees of freedom. The datum features informativeness numerically coincides with the kinematic pairs classes and couplings in mechanics. The datum features informativeness identifies the coordinate system without the location redundancy. Each coordinate plane of a rectangular coordinate system has different informativeness 3 + 2 + 1. Each coordinate axis also has different informativeness 4+2+Θ (zero). It is possible to establish the associated workpiece position with three linear and three angular coordinates relative to two axes with the informativeness 4 and 2. is higher, the more informativeness of the coordinate axis or a coordinate plane is, the higher is the linear and angular coordinates accuracy, the coordinate being plotted along the coordinate axis or plane. The systematic approach to the geometrical products specifications positioning in coordinate systems is the scientific basis for a natural transition to the functional dimensions of features position - coordinating dimensions and the size of the features form - feature dimensions of two measures: linear and angular ones. The products technical quality improving is possible due to the coordinate systems introduction materialized by

  7. Kin discrimination between sympatric Bacillus subtilis isolates. (United States)

    Stefanic, Polonca; Kraigher, Barbara; Lyons, Nicholas Anthony; Kolter, Roberto; Mandic-Mulec, Ines


    Kin discrimination, broadly defined as differential treatment of conspecifics according to their relatedness, could help biological systems direct cooperative behavior toward their relatives. Here we investigated the ability of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis to discriminate kin from nonkin in the context of swarming, a cooperative multicellular behavior. We tested a collection of sympatric conspecifics from soil in pairwise combinations and found that despite their history of coexistence, the vast majority formed distinct boundaries when the swarms met. Some swarms did merge, and most interestingly, this behavior was only seen in the most highly related strain pairs. Overall the swarm interaction phenotype strongly correlated with phylogenetic relatedness, indicative of kin discrimination. Using a subset of strains, we examined cocolonization patterns on plant roots. Pairs of kin strains were able to cocolonize roots and formed a mixed-strain biofilm. In contrast, inoculating roots with pairs of nonkin strains resulted in biofilms consisting primarily of one strain, suggestive of an antagonistic interaction among nonkin strains. This study firmly establishes kin discrimination in a bacterial multicellular setting and suggests its potential effect on ecological interactions.

  8. Discrimination of thermophilic and mesophilic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaisman Iosif I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a considerable literature on the source of the thermostability of proteins from thermophilic organisms. Understanding the mechanisms for this thermostability would provide insights into proteins generally and permit the design of synthetic hyperstable biocatalysts. Results We have systematically tested a large number of sequence and structure derived quantities for their ability to discriminate thermostable proteins from their non-thermostable orthologs using sets of mesophile-thermophile ortholog pairs. Most of the quantities tested correspond to properties previously reported to be associated with thermostability. Many of the structure related properties were derived from the Delaunay tessellation of protein structures. Conclusions Carefully selected sequence based indices discriminate better than purely structure based indices. Combined sequence and structure based indices improve performance somewhat further. Based on our analysis, the strongest contributors to thermostability are an increase in ion pairs on the protein surface and a more strongly hydrophobic interior.

  9. Facades structure detection by geometric moment (United States)

    Jiang, Diqiong; Chen, Hui; Song, Rui; Meng, Lei


    This paper proposes a novel method for extracting facades structure from real-world pictures by using local geometric moment. Compared with existing methods, the proposed method has advantages of easy-to-implement, low computational cost, and robustness to noises, such as uneven illumination, shadow, and shade from other objects. Besides, our method is faster and has a lower space complexity, making it feasible for mobile devices and the situation where real-time data processing is required. Specifically, a facades structure modal is first proposed to support the use of our special noise reduction method, which is based on a self-adapt local threshold with Gaussian weighted average for image binarization processing and the feature of the facades structure. Next, we divide the picture of the building into many individual areas, each of which represents a door or a window in the picture. Subsequently we calculate the geometric moment and centroid for each individual area, for identifying those collinear ones based on the feature vectors, each of which is thereafter replaced with a line. Finally, we comprehensively analyze all the geometric moment and centroid to find out the facades structure of the building. We compare our result with other methods and especially report the result from the pictures taken in bad environmental conditions. Our system is designed for two application, i.e, the reconstruction of facades based on higher resolution ground-based on imagery, and the positional system based on recognize the urban building.

  10. Time as a geometric property of space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Chappell


    Full Text Available The proper description of time remains a key unsolved problem in science. Newton conceived of time as absolute and universal which it `flows equably without relation to anything external'}. In the nineteenth century, the four-dimensional algebraic structure of the quaternions developed by Hamilton, inspired him to suggest that they could provide a unified representation of space and time. With the publishing of Einstein's theory of special relativity these ideas then lead to the generally accepted Minkowski spacetime formulation in 1908. Minkowski, though, rejected the formalism of quaternions suggested by Hamilton and adopted rather an approach using four-vectors. The Minkowski framework is indeed found to provide a versatile formalism for describing the relationship between space and time in accordance with Einstein's relativistic principles, but nevertheless fails to provide more fundamental insights into the nature of time itself. In order to answer this question we begin by exploring the geometric properties of three-dimensional space that we model using Clifford geometric algebra, which is found to contain sufficient complexity to provide a natural description of spacetime. This description using Clifford algebra is found to provide a natural alternative to the Minkowski formulation as well as providing new insights into the nature of time. Our main result is that time is the scalar component of a Clifford space and can be viewed as an intrinsic geometric property of three-dimensional space without the need for the specific addition of a fourth dimension.

  11. Geometric Deep Learning: Going beyond Euclidean data (United States)

    Bronstein, Michael M.; Bruna, Joan; LeCun, Yann; Szlam, Arthur; Vandergheynst, Pierre


    Many scientific fields study data with an underlying structure that is a non-Euclidean space. Some examples include social networks in computational social sciences, sensor networks in communications, functional networks in brain imaging, regulatory networks in genetics, and meshed surfaces in computer graphics. In many applications, such geometric data are large and complex (in the case of social networks, on the scale of billions), and are natural targets for machine learning techniques. In particular, we would like to use deep neural networks, which have recently proven to be powerful tools for a broad range of problems from computer vision, natural language processing, and audio analysis. However, these tools have been most successful on data with an underlying Euclidean or grid-like structure, and in cases where the invariances of these structures are built into networks used to model them. Geometric deep learning is an umbrella term for emerging techniques attempting to generalize (structured) deep neural models to non-Euclidean domains such as graphs and manifolds. The purpose of this paper is to overview different examples of geometric deep learning problems and present available solutions, key difficulties, applications, and future research directions in this nascent field.

  12. Edit propagation using geometric relationship functions

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero, Paul


    We propose a method for propagating edit operations in 2D vector graphics, based on geometric relationship functions. These functions quantify the geometric relationship of a point to a polygon, such as the distance to the boundary or the direction to the closest corner vertex. The level sets of the relationship functions describe points with the same relationship to a polygon. For a given query point, we first determine a set of relationships to local features, construct all level sets for these relationships, and accumulate them. The maxima of the resulting distribution are points with similar geometric relationships. We show extensions to handle mirror symmetries, and discuss the use of relationship functions as local coordinate systems. Our method can be applied, for example, to interactive floorplan editing, and it is especially useful for large layouts, where individual edits would be cumbersome. We demonstrate populating 2D layouts with tens to hundreds of objects by propagating relatively few edit operations. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/03- ART15 $15.00.

  13. Modeling interactome: scale-free or geometric? (United States)

    Przulj, N; Corneil, D G; Jurisica, I


    Networks have been used to model many real-world phenomena to better understand the phenomena and to guide experiments in order to predict their behavior. Since incorrect models lead to incorrect predictions, it is vital to have as accurate a model as possible. As a result, new techniques and models for analyzing and modeling real-world networks have recently been introduced. One example of large and complex networks involves protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. We analyze PPI networks of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster using a newly introduced measure of local network structure as well as the standardly used measures of global network structure. We examine the fit of four different network models, including Erdos-Renyi, scale-free and geometric random network models, to these PPI networks with respect to the measures of local and global network structure. We demonstrate that the currently accepted scale-free model of PPI networks fails to fit the data in several respects and show that a random geometric model provides a much more accurate model of the PPI data. We hypothesize that only the noise in these networks is scale-free. We systematically evaluate how well-different network models fit the PPI networks. We show that the structure of PPI networks is better modeled by a geometric random graph than by a scale-free model. Supplementary information is available at

  14. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.


    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  15. Housing Discrimination toward Blind Persons. (United States)

    Smith, Tom E. C.; And Others


    The study involving 68 persons who had advertised apartments for rent was designed to determine if housing discrimination exists toward blind persons. Results indicated that housing discrimination toward blind persons does exist, as nearly 40 percent of the Ss refused to rent the apartment to the blind second caller. (Author/SBH)

  16. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals. (United States)

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.


    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  17. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre (United States)

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.


    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  18. Perceptions of Discrimination during Downsizing. (United States)

    Larkey, Linda Kathryn


    Demonstrates that perceptions of ethnic discrimination during layoffs are moderately correlated with perceptions of selection fairness and information access during the layoff process. Shows that, in the company studied, both minority and majority ethnic group members felt equally discriminated against. (SR)

  19. Endophilia or exophobia: beyond discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, J.F.; Salamanca Acosta, N.; Hamermesh, D.


    The immense literature on discrimination treats outcomes as relative: One group suffers compared to another. But does a difference arise because agents discriminate against others—are exophobic—or because they favor their own kind—are endophilic? This difference matters, as the relative importance

  20. Perceived discrimination in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Henk Fernee; Karin Wittebrood


    Only available in electronic version There is no systematic structure in the Netherlands for mapping out the discrimination experiences of different groups in different areas of society. As in many other countries, discrimination studies in the Netherlands mostly focus on the experiences

  1. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.


    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  2. Experimental and numerical response of rigid slender blocks with geometrical defects under seismic excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathey Charlie


    Full Text Available The present work investigates on the influence of small geometrical defects on the behavior of slender rigid blocks. A comprehensive experimental campaign was carried out on one of the shake tables of CEA/Saclay in France. The tested model was a massive steel block with standard manufacturing quality. Release, free oscillations tests as well as shake table tests revealed a non-negligible out-of-plane motion even in the case of apparently plane initial conditions or excitations. This motion exhibits a highly reproducible part for a short duration that was used to calibrate a numerical geometrically asymmetrical model. The stability of this model when subjected to 2 000 artificial seismic horizontal bidirectional signals was compared to the stability of a symmetrical one. This study showed that the geometrical imperfections slightly increase the rocking and overturning probabilities under bidirectional seismic excitations in a narrow range of peak ground acceleration.

  3. A unified approach to χ2 discriminators for searches of gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences (United States)

    Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Gupta, Anuradha; Gadre, Bhooshan; Bose, Sukanta


    output of the template bank, thus adding negligible cost to the overall search. It is termed so because it makes significant use of the ambiguity function. We first describe the formulation with the help of the Newtonian waveform, apply the ambiguity χ2 to the spinless TaylorF2 waveforms, and test it on simulated data. We show that the ambiguity χ2 essentially gives a clean separation between glitches and signals. We indicate how the ambiguity χ2 can be generalized to detector networks for coherent observations. The effects of mismatch between signal and templates on a χ2 discriminator using general arguments and the geometrical framework are also investigated.

  4. A geometric measure of dark energy with pairs of galaxies. (United States)

    Marinoni, Christian; Buzzi, Adeline


    Observations indicate that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, which is attributed to a ‘dark energy’ component that opposes gravity. There is a purely geometric test of the expansion of the Universe (the Alcock–Paczynski test), which would provide an independent way of investigating the abundance (Ω(X)) and equation of state (W(X)) of dark energy. It is based on an analysis of the geometrical distortions expected from comparing the real-space and redshift-space shape of distant cosmic structures, but it has proved difficult to implement. Here we report an analysis of the symmetry properties of distant pairs of galaxies from archival data. This allows us to determine that the Universe is flat. By alternately fixing its spatial geometry at Ω(k)≡0 and the dark energy equation-of-state parameter at W(X)≡-1, and using the results of baryon acoustic oscillations, we can establish at the 68.3% confidence level that and -0.85>W(X)>-1.12 and 0.60<Ω(X)<0.80.

  5. Geometric Mechanics for Continuous Swimmers on Granular Material (United States)

    Dai, Jin; Faraji, Hossein; Schiebel, Perrin; Gong, Chaohui; Travers, Matthew; Hatton, Ross; Goldman, Daniel; Choset, Howie; Biorobotics Lab Collaboration; LaboratoryRobotics; Applied Mechanics (LRAM) Collaboration; Complex Rheology; Biomechanics Lab Collaboration

    Animal experiments have shown that Chionactis occipitalis(N =10) effectively undulating on granular substrates exhibits a particular set of waveforms which can be approximated by a sinusoidal variation in curvature, i.e., a serpenoid wave. Furthermore, all snakes tested used a narrow subset of all available waveform parameters, measured as the relative curvature equal to 5.0+/-0.3, and number of waves on the body equal to1.8+/-0.1. We hypothesize that the serpenoid wave of a particular choice of parameters offers distinct benefit for locomotion on granular material. To test this hypothesis, we used a physical model (snake robot) to empirically explore the space of serpenoid motions, which is linearly spanned with two independent continuous serpenoid basis functions. The empirically derived height function map, which is a geometric mechanics tool for analyzing movements of cyclic gaits, showed that displacement per gait cycle increases with amplitude at small amplitudes, but reaches a peak value of 0.55 body-lengths at relative curvature equal to 6.0. This work signifies that with shape basis functions, geometric mechanics tools can be extended for continuous swimmers.

  6. A multiple kernel classification approach based on a Quadratic Successive Geometric Segmentation methodology with a fault diagnosis case. (United States)

    Honório, Leonardo M; Barbosa, Daniele A; Oliveira, Edimar J; Garcia, Paulo A Nepomuceno; Santos, Murillo F


    This work presents a new approach for solving classification and learning problems. The Successive Geometric Segmentation technique is applied to encapsulate large datasets by using a series of Oriented Bounding Hyper Box (OBHBs). Each OBHB is obtained through linear separation analysis and each one represents a specific region in a pattern's solution space. Also, each OBHB can be seen as a data abstraction layer and be considered as an individual Kernel. Thus, it is possible by applying a quadratic discriminant function, to assemble a set of nonlinear surfaces separating each desirable pattern. This approach allows working with large datasets using high speed linear analysis tools and yet providing a very accurate non-linear classifier as final result. The methodology was tested using the UCI Machine Learning repository and a Power Transformer Fault Diagnosis real scenario problem. The results were compared with different approaches provided by literature and, finally, the potential and further applications of the methodology were also discussed. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphological variation of the caudal fossa of domestic cat skulls assessed with computed tomography and geometric morphometrics analysis. (United States)

    Gordon, Caroline R; Marchant, Thomas W; Lodzinska, Joanna; Schoenebeck, Jeffery J; Schwarz, Tobias


    Objectives This study aimed to investigate differences and demonstrate a normal range of morphological variation of the caudal fossa of the cranium of domestic cats. Methods CT scans of 32 domestic cat heads of 11 breeds were included. Isosurfaces from skulls were characterised through three-dimensional geometric morphometrics using geographical landmarks placed on the internal surface of the caudal fossa and foramen magnum. Raw data was transformed with a Procrustes fit and coordinate covariance was analysed by principal components to establish breed- and sex-level differences. Skulls were also classified according to the number of concavities along the mid-sagittal vermiform impression. Differences were investigated between breed groups and sex, and correlation was sought with age. Results Analyses revealed size-independent differences in occipital bone morphology across breeds and sex; however, no clustering was evident. Most variability was observed at the exoccipital bones, ventral portion of the supraoccipital bone, dorsum sellae of the basisphenoid and the osseous tentorium cerebelli. No statistically significant differences were identified via two-sample t-tests between breed groups or sexes. No statistically significant correlation using Spearman rho correlation coefficient was identified with age. Conclusions and relevance The feline caudal fossa displays a wide range of intra- and inter-breed variation, not linked to age or sex. Concavities along the vermiform impression have not previously been described. As advanced imaging modalities are becoming more frequently used for domestic felids, an established range of normality is important for discriminating pathological changes from anatomical variances.

  8. Geometric Approaches to Quadratic Equations from Other Times and Places. (United States)

    Allaire, Patricia R.; Bradley, Robert E.


    Focuses on geometric solutions of quadratic problems. Presents a collection of geometric techniques from ancient Babylonia, classical Greece, medieval Arabia, and early modern Europe to enhance the quadratic equation portion of an algebra course. (KHR)

  9. Some Hermite–Hadamard type inequalities for geometrically quasi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the paper, we introduce a new concept 'geometrically quasi-convex function' and establish some Hermite–Hadamard type inequalities for functions whose derivatives are of geometric quasi-convexity.

  10. [Aging and color discrimination after IOL implantation]. (United States)

    Hornová, J; Kuchynka, P


    Colour discrimination was tested by FM 100-hue test in 106 patients (43 women and 63 men) after implantation PMMA IOL to the posterior chamber. Examined group of patients aged from 41-70 years was represented by 132 eyes. As a control were groups of healthy people (without hypertension and diabetes) of the same age categories with physiological eye findings and still clear crystalline lens. After IOL implantation the resulting total score of the test in examined patients of all decades was similar to the control group of healthy people. Even in healthy patients with IOL the colour discrimination is better beginning with 61 years (P red, green and blue colour has improved in comparison with the control groups and getting better with ageing. Clearly better sensitivity was in the area of green colour, it was observed in the age group starting with 61 years (P < 0.05) and for blue colour already since 51 years (P < 0.05). The improvement of colour discrimination in pseudophakic eyes in comparison with healthy population is slightly improving with increasing age.

  11. Family contexts: parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health. (United States)

    Tran, Alisia G T T


    Research on the mental health correlates of discrimination traditionally has been intra-individual, focusing exclusively on the individual directly experiencing discrimination. A small number of studies have begun to consider the links between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health, but little is known about potential underlying mechanisms. The present study tested the independent mediating effects of parent mental health and household socioeconomic status on the associations between parental experiences of discrimination (past-year perceived discrimination and perceptions of being unaccepted culturally) and child mental health (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) using a bootstrapping analytic approach. Data were drawn from racial/ethnic minority (n = 383) and White (n = 574) samples surveyed in an urban Midwestern county. For all measures of discrimination and child mental health, findings supported an association between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health. Whereas parent mental health served as a significant mediator in all analyses, socioeconomic status did not. Mediation findings held for both the White and racial/ethnic minority samples. Results suggest that parental experiences of discrimination and mental health may contribute to child mental health concerns, thus highlighting the role of family contexts in shaping child development.

  12. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lu


    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  13. Representation of Crystallographic Subperiodic Groups by Geometric Algebra


    Hitzer, Eckhard; Ichikawa, Daisuke


    We explain how following the representation of 3D crystallographic space groups in geometric algebra it is further possible to similarly represent the 162 socalled subperiodic groups of crystallography in geometric algebra. We construct a new compact geometric algebra group representation symbol, which allows to read off the complete set of geometric algebra generators. For clarity we moreover state explicitly what generators are chosen. The group symbols are based on the representation of po...

  14. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Radhadevi


    Full Text Available Resourcesat-2 (RS-2 has successfully completed five years of operations in its orbit. This satellite has multi-resolution and multi-spectral capabilities in a single platform. A continuous and autonomous co-registration, geo-location and radiometric calibration of image data from different sensors with widely varying view angles and resolution was one of the challenges of RS-2 data processing. On-orbit geometric performance of RS-2 sensors has been widely assessed and calibrated during the initial phase operations. Since then, as an ongoing activity, various geometric performance data are being generated periodically. This is performed with sites of dense ground control points (GCPs. These parameters are correlated to the direct geo-location accuracy of the RS-2 sensors and are monitored and validated to maintain the performance. This paper brings out the geometric accuracy assessment, calibration and validation done for about 500 datasets of RS-2. The objectives of this study are to ensure the best absolute and relative location accuracy of different cameras, location performance with payload steering and co-registration of multiple bands. This is done using a viewing geometry model, given ephemeris and attitude data, precise camera geometry and datum transformation. In the model, the forward and reverse transformations between the coordinate systems associated with the focal plane, payload, body, orbit and ground are rigorously and explicitly defined. System level tests using comparisons to ground check points have validated the operational geo-location accuracy performance and the stability of the calibration parameters.

  16. Investigations on the ultimate compressive strength of composite plates with geometrical imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirlis, K.; Downes, J.; Dow, R.S.


    A series of studies has been performed within the MARSTRUCT Network of Excellence on Marine Structures in order to investigate the buckling response of glass fibre reinforced polymer plates. These studies include the fabrication, testing and finite element analysis of a large number of plates...... with initial geometric imperfections. This paper presents the validation of finite element models against a series of plate tests that were performed within this framework and parametric studies that were carried out to identify the effects of geometric imperfections on the ultimate compressive strength...... of composite plates with three alternative lay-up configurations....

  17. Explosion-Earthquake Discrimination at Local Distances (United States)

    O'Rourke, C. T.; Baker, G. E.; Sheehan, A. F.; Harder, S. H.


    Event discrimination research has largely focused on regional distances over the last couple of decades. Most regional discriminants have not been thoroughly tested at local distances, and a recent investigation of P/S ratios from the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) found that they were less effective locally. As discrimination thresholds are reduced, local methods will need to be validated and the physical bases for their performance will need to be understood. We are assessing new and existing methods of source discrimination at 10 to 200 km distance. We use data from a temporary array deployed around the Bighorn Mountains in Wyoming and from nearby US Array stations. Small magnitude local earthquakes, coal mine explosions, and controlled borehole shots were recorded at over 200 broadband and short-period seismometers spaced at 5-35 km intervals across the tectonically complex area. We assess the local discrimination performance of the P/S amplitude ratio, the presence of the fundamental Rayleigh wave Rg, and the signature of scattered Rg in the coda. P/S amplitudes are used because earthquakes typically have higher S-wave energy relative to P than shallow explosions, but the separation of populations is not always effective at local distances. Site effects have a significant impact that may need to be accounted for, along with propagation effects. Specifically, relative P and S site amplifications at basin and mountain stations vary in such a way that they limit separation of the event populations. The Rg phase is only excited by near-surface events, so its presence indicates the likelihood of a man-made source since most earthquakes occur at too great a depth to excite Rg. We implement two methods for detecting Rg: one that uses the cross-correlation of the Hilbert transformed vertical and the radial seismograms, and one that scans a time-frequency representation for the signature of scattered Rg in the coda. These methods are effective in low signal

  18. Geometric Error Analysis in Applied Calculus Problem Solving (United States)

    Usman, Ahmed Ibrahim


    The paper investigates geometric errors students made as they tried to use their basic geometric knowledge in the solution of the Applied Calculus Optimization Problem (ACOP). Inaccuracies related to the drawing of geometric diagrams (visualization skills) and those associated with the application of basic differentiation concepts into ACOP…

  19. Novel Strategy for Discrimination of Transcription Factor Binding Motifs Employing Mathematical Neural Network (United States)

    Sugimoto, Asuka; Sumi, Takuya; Kang, Jiyoung; Tateno, Masaru


    Recognition in biological macromolecular systems, such as DNA-protein recognition, is one of the most crucial problems to solve toward understanding the fundamental mechanisms of various biological processes. Since specific base sequences of genome DNA are discriminated by proteins, such as transcription factors (TFs), finding TF binding motifs (TFBMs) in whole genome DNA sequences is currently a central issue in interdisciplinary biophysical and information sciences. In the present study, a novel strategy to create a discriminant function for discrimination of TFBMs by constituting mathematical neural networks (NNs) is proposed, together with a method to determine the boundary of signals (TFBMs) and noise in the NN-score (output) space. This analysis also leads to the mathematical limitation of discrimination in the recognition of features representing TFBMs, in an information geometrical manifold. Thus, the present strategy enables the identification of the whole space of TFBMs, right up to the noise boundary.

  20. Simultaneous discrimination of speed is more difficult than simultaneous discrimination of size for both pigeons and people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga F. Lazareva


    Full Text Available Previous reports suggest that pigeons are highly sensitive to speed of motion (Cook, Beale, Koban, 2011; Herbranson, Fremouw, & Shimp, 2002. In contrast, we found that pigeons required more extensive training to learn speed discrimination than size discrimination (Lazareva, Young, & Wasserman, 2014. However, our results were based on a comparison of two experiments conducted in different laboratories, complicating the interpretation of the data. Here, we trained pigeons to perform size discrimination or speed discrimination in a two-alternative simultaneous discrimination task using a within-subject design. All birds acquired size discrimination much faster than speed discrimination, confirming our prior report. We further explored pigeons’ sensitivity to differences in speed and size by training them to discriminate two end-point stimuli in a two-alternative forced-choice task and then presenting a wide range of testing stimuli located between the training end-point stimuli. The results again indicated weaker control by the differences in speed in comparison to size; comparable results were obtained for human participants.