Sample records for testing geological models

  1. Data to Support Development of Geologic Framework Models for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report summarizes work conducted in FY2017 to identify and document publically available data for developing a Geologic Framework Model (GFM) for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). Data was collected for all four of the sites being considered in 2017 for a DBFT site.

  2. A user interface for the Kansas Geological Survey slug test model. (United States)

    Esling, Steven P; Keller, John E


    The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) developed a semianalytical solution for slug tests that incorporates the effects of partial penetration, anisotropy, and the presence of variable conductivity well skins. The solution can simulate either confined or unconfined conditions. The original model, written in FORTRAN, has a text-based interface with rigid input requirements and limited output options. We re-created the main routine for the KGS model as a Visual Basic macro that runs in most versions of Microsoft Excel and built a simple-to-use Excel spreadsheet interface that automatically displays the graphical results of the test. A comparison of the output from the original FORTRAN code to that of the new Excel spreadsheet version for three cases produced identical results.

  3. Application of multiple-point geostatistics on modelling pumping tests and tracer tests in heterogeneous environments with complex geological structures (United States)

    Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain


    In heterogeneous environments with complex geological structures, analysis of pumping and tracer tests is often problematic. Standard interpretation methods do not account for heterogeneity or simulate this heterogeneity introducing empirical zonation of the calibrated parameters or using variogram-based geostatistical techniques that are often not able to describe realistic heterogeneity in complex geological environments where e.g. sedimentary structures, multi-facies deposits, structures with large connectivity or curvi-linear structures can be present. Multiple-point geostatistics aims to overcome the limitations of the variogram and can be applied in different research domains to simulate heterogeneity in complex environments. In this project, multiple-point geostatistics is applied to the interpretation of pumping tests and a tracer test in an actual case of a sandy heterogeneous aquifer. This study allows to deduce the main advantages and disadvantages of this technique compared to variogram-based techniques for interpretation of pumping tests and tracer tests. A pumping test and a tracer test were performed in the same sandbar deposit consisting of cross-bedded units composed of materials with different grain sizes and hydraulic conductivities. The pumping test and the tracer test are analyzed with a local 3D groundwater model in which fine-scale sedimentary heterogeneity is modelled using multiple-point geostatistics. To reduce CPU and RAM requirements of the multiple-point geostatistical simulation steps, edge properties indicating the presence of irregularly-shaped surfaces are directly simulated. Results show that for the pumping test as well as for the tracer test, incorporating heterogeneity results in a better fit between observed and calculated drawdowns/concentrations. The improvement of the fit is however not as large as expected. In this paper, the reasons for these somewhat unsatisfactory results are explored and recommendations for future

  4. Using outcrop data for geological well test modelling in fractured reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aljuboori, F.; Corbett, P.; Bisdom, K.; Bertotti, G.; Geiger, S.


    Outcrop fracture data sets can now be acquired with ever more accuracy using drone technology augmented by field observations. These models can be used to form realistic, deterministic models of fractured reservoirs. Fractured well test models are traditionally seen to be finite or infinite

  5. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt


    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  6. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton


    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  7. Quantifying uncertainty of geological 3D layer models, constructed with a-priori geological expertise


    Gunnink, J.J.; Maljers, D.; Hummelman, J.


    Uncertainty quantification of geological models that are constructed with additional geological expert-knowledge is not straightforward. To construct sound geological 3D layer models we use a lot of additional knowledge, with an uncertainty that is hard to quantify. Examples of geological expert knowledge are trend surfaces that display a geological plausible basin, additional points that guide the pinching out of geological formations along its depositional extent, etc. All the added geologi...

  8. Verification of geological/engineering model in waterflood areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, B.; Szpakiewicz, M.; Honarpour, M.; Schatzinger, R.A.; Tillman, R.


    The construction of a detailed geological/engineering model is the basis for development of the methodology for characterizing reservoir heterogeneity. The NIPER geological/engineering model is the subject of this report. The area selected for geological and production performance studies is a four-section area within the Powder River Basin which includes the Tertiary Incentive Project (TIP) pilot. Log, well test, production, and core data were acquired for construction of the geological model of a barrier island reservoir. In this investigation, emphasis was on the synthesis and quantification of the abundant geological information acquired from the literature and field studies (subsurface and outcrop) by mapping the geological heterogeneities that influence fluid flow. The geological model was verified by comparing it with the exceptionally complete production data available for Bell Creek field. This integration of new and existing information from various geological, geophysical, and engineering disciplines has enabled better definition of the heterogeneities that influence production during different recovery operations. 16 refs., 26 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of the Effect of Geological Heterogeneity on the Surfactant Transport by Performing Push-Pull Test in a Physical Aquifer Model (PAM) (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Lim, D.; Park, S.; Hong, U.; Lim, J.; Lee, W.; Kwon, S.


    A surfactant flushing process is commonly used to remove light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) by enhancing solubility of the contaminants. Since the surfactant flushing process is significantly affected by the degree of geological heterogeneity, push-pull tests in a physical aquifer model (PAM) was performed to evaluate the surfactant transport and toluene removal efficiency in a lab-scale three layered aquifer. Push-pull tests showed that maximum bromide concentration detected at a sampling port located 15 cm downgradient from an injection port was approximately 95% of average injected bromide concentration in two permeable layers (0.22±0.02 cm/min of hydraulic conductivity) and only 40% in lower permeable layers (0.05±0.02 cm/min of hydraulic conductivity). Through the push-pull tests, we also found the different mass recovery of bromide (58%), toluene (47%) and surfactant (17%) in the PAM, confirming higher absorption characteristics of the surfactant on the soil particle than other solutes. Interestingly, toluene mass recovery in the presence of excessive surfactant decreased, possibly because of adsorption of toluene mass on the surfactant attached to soil particle. Through this work, we proved soil permeability, adsorption rate of surfactant, and amount of injected surfactant should be considered to remove the LNAPL contaminants efficiently by surfactant flushing process from the heterogeneous aquifer.

  10. Quantifying uncertainty of geological 3D layer models, constructed with a-priori geological expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.J.; Maljers, D.; Hummelman, J.


    Uncertainty quantification of geological models that are constructed with additional geological expert-knowledge is not straightforward. To construct sound geological 3D layer models we use a lot of additional knowledge, with an uncertainty that is hard to quantify. Examples of geological expert

  11. Mineral potential mapping with mathematical geological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porwal, A.K.


    Mathematical geological models are being increasingly used by natural resources delineation and planning agencies for mapping areas of mineral potential in order to optimize land use in accordance with socio-economic needs of the society. However, a key problem in spatial-mathematical-model-based

  12. History Matching: Towards Geologically Reasonable Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melnikova, Yulia; Cordua, Knud Skou; Mosegaard, Klaus

    that measures similarity between statistics of a training image and statistics of any smooth model is introduced and its analytical gradient is computed. This allows us to apply any gradientbased method to history matching problem and guide a solution until it satisfies both production data and complexity......This work focuses on the development of a new method for history matching problem that through a deterministic search finds a geologically feasible solution. Complex geology is taken into account evaluating multiple point statistics from earth model prototypes - training images. Further a function...

  13. Impact of geological model uncertainty on integrated catchment hydrological modeling (United States)

    He, Xin; Jørgensen, Flemming; Refsgaard, Jens Christian


    Various types of uncertainty can influence hydrological model performance. Among them, uncertainty originated from geological model may play an important role in process-based integrated hydrological modeling, if the model is used outside the calibration base. In the present study, we try to assess the hydrological model predictive uncertainty caused by uncertainty of the geology using an ensemble of geological models with equal plausibility. The study is carried out in the 101 km2 Norsminde catchment in western Denmark. Geostatistical software TProGS is used to generate 20 stochastic geological realizations for the west side the of study area. This process is done while incorporating the borehole log data from 108 wells and high resolution airborne transient electromagnetic (AEM) data for conditioning. As a result, 10 geological models are generated based solely on borehole data, and another 10 geological models are based on both borehole and AEM data. Distributed surface water - groundwater models are developed using MIKE SHE code for each of the 20 geological models. The models are then calibrated using field data collected from stream discharge and groundwater head observations. The model simulation results are evaluated based on the same two types of field data. The results show that the differences between simulated discharge flows caused by using different geological models are relatively small. The model calibration is shown to be able to account for the systematic bias in different geological realizations and hence varies the calibrated model parameters. This results in an increase in the variance between the hydrological realizations compared to the uncalibrated models that uses the same parameter values in all 20 models. Furthermore, borehole based hydrological models in general show more variance between simulations than the AEM based models; however, the combined total uncertainty, bias plus variance, is not necessarily higher.

  14. Seismically integrated geologic modelling: Guntong Field, Malay Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, Craig S.; Bhuyan, K.; Sterling, J. Helwick; Hill, Rob E.; Hubbard, R. Scott; Khare, Vijay; Wahrmund, Leslie A.; Wang, Gann-Shyong


    This presentation relates to a research project on offshore seismically reservoir modelling. The goal of the project was to develop and test a process for interpreting reservoir properties from 3-D seismic data and for integrating these data into the building of 3-D geologic models that would be suitable for use in flow simulation studies. The project produced a 3-D geologic model for three reservoir intervals and three predominantly non-reservoir intervals. Each reservoir interval was subdivided into faces that were determined by integrating core, well log, and seismic interpretations. predictions of porosity and lithology used in building the geologic model were made using seismic attributes calculated from acoustic impedance data. 8 figs.

  15. Putting the geology back into Earth models (United States)

    McCaffrey, K.; Imber, J.; Holdsworth, R.; Clegg, P.; de Paola, N.; Jones, R.; Hobbs, R.; Holliman, N.


    Geological architectures span at least 12 orders of magnitude length-scale from individual microstructures to lithospheric plates. Traditional paper-based geological mapping and fieldwork techniques have not been able to accurately capture the geospatial properties of mesoscale features in surface outcrops. In addition, geophysical imaging of the subsurface is poor at these length scales. This lack of fine-scale spatial precision has meant that the superbly detailed lithological units and structures we see in surface outcrops have not been integrated directly into predictive numerical and analogue models. As a result, models created to simulate mesoscale geology are currently not well calibrated to natural datasets and it is therefore difficult to demonstrate even partial confirmation of predictive, three dimensional (3D) models. This creates significant problems for industrial users interested in the extraction or storage of fluids in subsurface reservoirs, since accurate predictions of these processes rely critically on a complete 3D understanding of the subsurface mesoscale geology. Terrestrial laser scanners and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS units are the principal tools used to capture digital data from surface outcrops. Automatic data collection involves scanning the outcrop surface with a laser to capture the topography with a cm-spaced grid of spatial coordinates in x,y and z. Using built-in digital cameras, the most recent laser scanners collect registered photographs that allow the software to colour the points to match the outcrop, and produce a photo-realistic 3D image. Laser scanning works best on cliff sections or in mines and quarries where the scanner can be placed directly in front of the outcrop. With RTK GPS data collection, any measurable attribute (surface dip, strike, lithology) can be recorded together with the spatial coordinates at a user-controlled sample spacing down to c. 5 cm. As the method is GPS-based, it works best on sub

  16. Modelling of Geological Structures Using Emergence (United States)

    Hillier, M.; de Kemp, E. A.; Sprague, K.


    A complex system based approach is used to model geological structures. Preliminary work is presented to show how mutually interacting agents can be used to probe local regions and obtain emergent behaviour of its geometrical properties. Models are built bottom up from the smaller components to simulate regions from camp scales to regional scales. In nature, very complex structures exhibiting discontinuous and heterogeneous features are common. Modelling such regions using conventional methods is cumbersome and influences between close proximity zones are generally not considered. Agents are able to detect local and global features in the entire model space, as detailed as the data set allows. These features are incorporated into the interpolation of a modeled zone if those features are coupled to that location. We attempt to see if opportunities exist for exploiting complex systems approaches in what is a classical knowledge driven modelling domain with high emphasis on expert interpretive methods. Geological maps (2D, 3D or 4D) are fundamentally an emergent result of an iterative mental process which focuses on reconciling disparate data. The end goal of our research is to point a way forward in which complexity can support the simulation of maps and thus support the interpretive workflow.

  17. Quantitative geological modeling based on probabilistic integration of geological and geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Mats Lundh

    In order to obtain an adequate geological model of any kind, proper integration of geophysical data, borehole logs and geological expert knowledge is important. Geophysical data provide indirect information about geology, borehole logs provide sparse point wise direct information about geology...... entitled Smart Interpretation is developed. This semi-automatic method learns the relation between a set of data attributes extracted from deterministically inverted airborne electromagnetic data and a set of interpretations of a geological layer that is manually picked by a geological expert....... This relation can then be used to predict the interpreted geological layer, throughout the whole geophysical survey. Two applications of this method are presented. In one study, the distribution of permafrost in the Yukon Flats, Alaska is mapped, and in the other study, Smart Interpretation is using well...

  18. Research and implementation on 3D modeling of geological body (United States)

    Niu, Lijuan; Li, Ligong; Zhu, Renyi; Huang, Man


    This study based on GIS thinking explores the combination of the mixed spatial data model and GIS model to build three-dimensional(3d) model of geological bodies in the Arc Engine platform, describes the interface and method used in the construction of 3d geological body in Arc Engine component platform in detail, and puts forward an indirect method which constructs a set of geological grid layers through Rigging interpolation by the borehole data and then converts it into the geological layers of TIN, which improves the defect in building the geological layers of TIN directly and makes it better to complete the simulation of the real geological layer. This study makes a useful attempt to build 3d model of the geological body based on the GIS, and provides a certain reference value for simulating geological bodies in 3d and constructing the digital system of underground space.

  19. Summary on several key techniques in 3D geological modeling. (United States)

    Mei, Gang


    Several key techniques in 3D geological modeling including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in 3D geological modeling. There are two essential procedures in 3D geological modeling: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in 3D geological modeling are summarized.

  20. Geology in the Vicinity of the TYBO and BENHAM Underground Nuclear Tests, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. B. Prothro


    Recent radiochemical evidence from groundwater characterization and monitoring wells in the vicinity of the TYBO and BENHAM underground nuclear tests in Area 20 of the Nevada Test Site, suggests that migration of radionuclides within groundwater beneath this portion of Area 20 may be more rapid than previously thought. In order to gain a better understanding of the hydrogeologic conditions in the TYBO-BENHAM area for more accurate flow and transport modeling, a reevaluation of the subsurface geologic environment in the vicinity of the two underground tests was conducted. Eight existing drill holes provided subsurface control for the area. These holes included groundwater characterization and monitoring wells, exploratory holes, and large-diameter emplacement holes used for underground nuclear weapons tests. Detailed and consistent geologic descriptions of these holes were produced by updating existing geologic descriptions with data from petrographic, chemical, and mineralogic analyses, and current stratigraphic concepts of the region. The updated descriptions, along with surface geologic data, were used to develop a detailed geologic model of the TYBO-BENHAM area. This model is represented by diagrams that correlate stratigraphic, lithologic, and alteration intervals between holes, and by isopach and structure maps and geologic cross sections. Regional data outside the TYBO-BENHAM area were included in the isopach and structure maps to better evaluate the geology of the TYBO-BENHAM area in a regional context. The geologic model was then evaluated with regard to groundwater flow and radionuclide migration to assess the model's implications for flow and transport modeling. Implications include: (1) confirmation of the general hydrogeology of the area described in previous studies; (2) the presence of two previously unrecognized buried faults that could act as zones of enhanced permeability within aquifers; and (3) secondary alteration within tuff confining

  1. New Rapid Evaluation for Long-Term Behavior in Deep Geological Repository by Geotechnical Centrifuge—Part 2: Numerical Simulation of Model Tests in Isothermal Condition (United States)

    Sawada, Masataka; Nishimoto, Soshi; Okada, Tetsuji


    In high-level radioactive waste disposal repositories, there are long-term complex thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena that involve the generation of heat from the waste, the infiltration of ground water, and swelling of the bentonite buffer. The ability to model such coupled phenomena is of particular importance to the repository design and assessments of its safety. We have developed a T-H-M-coupled analysis program that evaluates the long-term behavior around the repository (called "near-field"). We have also conducted centrifugal model tests that model the long-term T-H-M-coupled behavior in the near-field. In this study, we conduct H-M-coupled numerical simulations of the centrifugal near-field model tests. We compare numerical results with each other and with results obtained from the centrifugal model tests. From the comparison, we deduce that: (1) in the numerical simulation, water infiltration in the rock mass was in agreement with the experimental observation. (2) The constant-stress boundary condition in the centrifugal model tests may cause a larger expansion of the rock mass than in the in situ condition, but the mechanical boundary condition did not affect the buffer behavior in the deposition hole. (3) The numerical simulation broadly reproduced the measured bentonite pressure and the overpack displacement, but did not reproduce the decreasing trend of the bentonite pressure after 100 equivalent years. This indicates the effect of the time-dependent characteristics of the surrounding rock mass. Further investigations are needed to determine the effect of initial heterogeneity in the deposition hole and the time-dependent behavior of the surrounding rock mass.

  2. Geology (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  3. Teaching the geological subsurface with 3D models (United States)

    Thorpe, Steve; Ward, Emma


    3D geological models have great potential as a resource when teaching geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for many students. Today's earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been producing digital 3D geological models for over 10 years. The models produced are revolutionising the working practices, data standards and products of the BGS. Sharing our geoscience information with academia is highlighted throughout the BGS strategy as is instilling practical skills in future geoscience professionals, such as model building and interpretation. In 2009 a project was launched to investigate the potential of the models as a teaching resource. The study included justifying if and how the models help students to learn, how models have been used historically, and how other forms of modelling are being used today. BGS now produce 3D geological models for use by anyone teaching or learning geoscience. They incorporate educational strategies that will develop geospatial skills and alleviate potential problems that some students experience. They are contained within contemporary case studies and show standard geological concepts, structures, sedimentary rocks, cross sections and field techniques. 3D geological models of the Isle of Wight and Ingleborough

  4. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others


    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  5. Estimation of the hydraulic parameters of a confined geologic formation from slug test in fully penetrating well using a complete quasi-steady flow model in a forward and in an inverse optimal estimation procedure (United States)

    Rozos, Evangelos; Akylas, Evangelos; Koussis, Antonis D.


    Slug tests offer a fast and inexpensive means of estimating the hydraulic parameters of a geologic formation, and are very well suited for contaminated site assessment because no water is essentially withdrawn. In the great majority of slug tests performed in wells fully penetrating confined geologic formations, and for over-damped conditions, the response data are evaluated with the transient-flow model of Cooper et al. (1967) when the radial hydraulic conductivity Kr and the coefficient of specific storage Ss are to be estimated. That particular analytical solution, however, is computationally involved and awkward to use. Thus, groundwater professionals often use a few pre-prepared type-curves to fit the data by a rough matching procedure, visually or computationally. On the other hand, the method of Hvorslev (1951), which assumes the flow to be quasi-steady, is much simpler but yields only Kr-estimates. Koussis and Akylas (2012) have derived a complete quasi-steady flow model that includes a storage balance inside the aquifer and allows estimating both Kr and Ss, through matching of the well response data to a (dimensionless) type-curve. That model approximates the model of Cooper et al. closely and has the practical advantage that its solution type-curves are generated very simply, even using an electronic spreadsheet. Thus, an optimal fit of data by a type-curve can be readily embedded in an exhaustive search. That forward procedure, however, is semi-automated; it involves repeated computation of the quasi-steady flow solution, until finding an optimal pair of Kr and Ss values, according to some formal criterion of optimality, or visually. In addition, we have developed a fully automated inverse procedure for estimating the optimal hydraulic formation parameters Kr and Ss. We test and compare these two parameter estimation methods for the slug test and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Cooper, H. H., Jr., J. D. Bredehoeft and I. S. Papadopulos. 1967

  6. The Importance of Geological Uncertainty for Flow and Transport Modelling (United States)

    Refsgaard, J.; Hojberg, A. L.; Troldborg, L.; Sonneborg, T. O.


    The impact of geological uncertainty has during the past decade been studied extensively in Denmark by establishing alternative conceptual models, each representing a plausible geological interpretation, and use these multiple conceptual models to construct multiple groundwater models of the same area. Four published case studies will be reviewed. The cases comprise groundwater modelling for areas ranging from 300 km2 to 1000 km2 with various types of glacial geological settings including multi aquifer systems and buried valleys. The modelling studies have included simulations and uncertainty assessments of groundwater head, groundwater recharge, location of well capture zones, groundwater age and concentrations of environmental tracers. All studies had multiple geological models, while one study compared the impacts of conceptual uncertainty versus parameter uncertainty using the Monte Carlo approach, and another study compared deterministic geological models with stochastic realisations generated by TPROGS. A trivial finding from the studies is that possible errors in a conceptual model (wrong geological interpretation) can be compensated through the calibration with respect to simulations of variables for which data are used in the calibration. However, once extrapolation beyond the calibration base is attempted, different conceptual model formulations result in significantly different results. A key conclusion from the studies is that uncertainties in the conceptual model become of increasing importance, when predictive simulations consider data types that are extrapolated from the data types used for calibration. Examples from the four cases will be shown and a discussion of the future perspectives will be given.

  7. Geological Modelling and Validation of Geological Interpretations via Simulation and Classification of Quantitative Covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Adeli


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a geostatistical approach for geological modelling and for validating an interpreted geological model, by identifying the areas of an ore deposit with a high probability of being misinterpreted, based on quantitative coregionalised covariates correlated with the geological categories. This proposal is presented through a case study of an iron ore deposit at a stage where the only available data are from exploration drill holes. This study consists of jointly simulating the quantitative covariates with no previous geological domaining. A change of variables is used to account for stoichiometric closure, followed by projection pursuit multivariate transformation, multivariate Gaussian simulation, and conditioning to the drill hole data. Subsequently, a decision tree classification algorithm is used to convert the simulated values into a geological category for each target block and realisation. The determination of the prior (ignoring drill hole data and posterior (conditioned to drill hole data probabilities of categories provides a means of identifying the blocks for which the interpreted category disagrees with the simulated quantitative covariates.

  8. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System (United States)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.


    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  9. Geologic constraints on clandestine nuclear testing in South Asia. (United States)

    Davis, D M; Sykes, L R


    Cavity decoupling in salt is the most plausible means by which a nation could conduct clandestine testing of militarily significant nuclear weapons. The conditions under which solution-mined salt can be used for this purpose are quite restrictive. The salt must be thick and reasonably pure. Containment of explosions sets a shallow limit on depth, and cavity stability sets a deep limit. These constraints are met in considerably Ban Treaty (CTBT) is enhanced by their geological conditions, which are quite favorable to verification, not evasion. Thus, their participation in the CTBT is constrained overwhelmingly by political, not scientific, issues. Confidence in the verification of the CTBT could be enhanced if India and Pakistan permitted stations of the various monitoring technologies that are now widely deployed elsewhere to be operated on their territories.

  10. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)


    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  11. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  12. Testing geoscience data visualization systems for geological mapping and training (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Huffman, J. N.; Forsberg, A. S.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Ivanov, M. A.; Dickson, J. L.; Senthil Kumar, P.


    Traditional methods of planetary geological mapping have relied on photographic hard copy and light-table tracing and mapping. In the last several decades this has given way to the availability and analysis of multiple digital data sets, and programs and platforms that permit the viewing and manipulation of multiple annotated layers of relevant information. This has revolutionized the ability to incorporate important new data into the planetary mapping process at all scales. Information on these developments and approaches can be obtained at http://astrogeology.usgs. gov/ Technology/. The processes is aided by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) (see http://astrogeology. and excellent analysis packages (such as ArcGIS) that permit co-registration, rapid viewing, and analysis of multiple data sets on desktop displays (see webgis/). We are currently investigating new technological developments in computer visualization and analysis in order to assess their importance and utility in planetary geological analysis and mapping. Last year we reported on the range of technologies available and on our application of these to various problems in planetary mapping. In this contribution we focus on the application of these techniques and tools to Venus geological mapping at the 1:5M quadrangle scale. In our current Venus mapping projects we have utilized and tested the various platforms to understand their capabilities and assess their usefulness in defining units, establishing stratigraphic relationships, mapping structures, reaching consensus on interpretations and producing map products. We are specifically assessing how computer visualization display qualities (e.g., level of immersion, stereoscopic vs. monoscopic viewing, field of view, large vs. small display size, etc.) influence performance on scientific analysis and geological mapping. We have been exploring four different environments: 1) conventional

  13. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.


    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  14. D Geological Framework Models as a Teaching Aid for Geoscience (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Ward, E.; Geological ModelsTeaching Project Team


    3D geological models have great potential as a resource for universities when teaching foundation geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for all students of geology. Today’s earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including the application of schema’s, spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, memorising figures, mental manipulation and interpretation, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves and the rocks. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. Learning issues faced by students may also be encountered by experts, policy managers, and stakeholders when dealing with environmental problems. Therefore educational research of student learning in earth science may also improve environmental decision making. 3D geological framework models enhance the learning of Geosciences because they: ● enable a student to observe, manipulate and interpret geology; in particular the models instantly convert two-dimensional geology (maps, boreholes and cross-sections) into three dimensions which is a notoriously difficult geospatial skill to acquire. ● can be orientated to whatever the user finds comfortable and most aids recognition and interpretation. ● can be used either to teach geosciences to complete beginners or add to experienced students body of knowledge (whatever point that may be at). Models could therefore be packaged as a complete educational journey or students and tutor can select certain areas of the model

  15. Geological realism in hydrogeological and geophysical inverse modeling: A review (United States)

    Linde, Niklas; Renard, Philippe; Mukerji, Tapan; Caers, Jef


    Scientific curiosity, exploration of georesources and environmental concerns are pushing the geoscientific research community toward subsurface investigations of ever-increasing complexity. This review explores various approaches to formulate and solve inverse problems in ways that effectively integrate geological concepts with geophysical and hydrogeological data. Modern geostatistical simulation algorithms can produce multiple subsurface realizations that are in agreement with conceptual geological models and statistical rock physics can be used to map these realizations into physical properties that are sensed by the geophysical or hydrogeological data. The inverse problem consists of finding one or an ensemble of such subsurface realizations that are in agreement with the data. The most general inversion frameworks are presently often computationally intractable when applied to large-scale problems and it is necessary to better understand the implications of simplifying (1) the conceptual geological model (e.g., using model compression); (2) the physical forward problem (e.g., using proxy models); and (3) the algorithm used to solve the inverse problem (e.g., Markov chain Monte Carlo or local optimization methods) to reach practical and robust solutions given today's computer resources and knowledge. We also highlight the need to not only use geophysical and hydrogeological data for parameter estimation purposes, but also to use them to falsify or corroborate alternative geological scenarios.

  16. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas


    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete national coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology which the

  17. Geostatistical simulation of geological architecture and uncertainty propagation in groundwater modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xiulan

    be compensated by model parameters, e.g. when hydraulic heads are considered. However, geological structure is the primary source of uncertainty with respect to simulations of groundwater age and capture zone. Operational MPS based software has been on stage for just around ten years; yet, issues regarding......Groundwater modeling plays an essential role in modern subsurface hydrology research. It’s generally recognized that simulations and predictions by groundwater models are associated with uncertainties that originate from various sources. The two major uncertainty sources are related to model...... geological structures of these three sites provided appropriate conditions for testing the methods. Our study documented that MPS is an efficient approach for simulating geological heterogeneity, especially for non-stationary system. The high resolution of geophysical data such as SkyTEM is valuable both...

  18. New geological perspectives on earthquake recurrence models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, D.P. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    In most areas of the world the record of historical seismicity is too short or uncertain to accurately characterize the future distribution of earthquakes of different sizes in time and space. Most faults have not ruptured once, let alone repeatedly. Ultimately, the ability to correctly forecast the magnitude, location, and probability of future earthquakes depends on how well one can quantify the past behavior of earthquake sources. Paleoseismological trenching of active faults, historical surface ruptures, liquefaction features, and shaking-induced ground deformation structures provides fundamental information on the past behavior of earthquake sources. These studies quantify (a) the timing of individual past earthquakes and fault slip rates, which lead to estimates of recurrence intervals and the development of recurrence models and (b) the amount of displacement during individual events, which allows estimates of the sizes of past earthquakes on a fault. When timing and slip per event are combined with information on fault zone geometry and structure, models that define individual rupture segments can be developed. Paleoseismicity data, in the form of timing and size of past events, provide a window into the driving mechanism of the earthquake engine--the cycle of stress build-up and release.

  19. A Confidence Index for expressing geological model uncertainty (United States)

    Mathers, Steve; Lark, Murray; Marchant, Andrew; Hulbert, Andrew


    A Confidence Index has been developed that expresses the confidence of experts in the quality of a 3-D model as a representation of the subsurface at particular locations. The Confidence Index is based on the notion that the variation of the height of a particular geological surface represents general geological variability and local variability. The general variability comprises simple trends which allow the modeller to project surface structure at locations remote from direct observations. The local variability limits the extent to which hard data constrain inferences which the modeller can make concerning local fluctuations around the broad trends. The general and local geological variability of particular contacts are modelled in terms of simple trend surfaces and variogram models. These are then used to extend measures of confidence that reflect expert opinion so as to assign a confidence value to any location where a particular contact is represented in a model. The index is illustrated for individual model surfaces and ther thickness of units with examples from the East Midlands region of England.

  20. A novel methodology improves reservoir characterization models using geologic fuzzy variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, Rodolfo [DIGITOIL, Maracaibo (Venezuela); Soto O, David A. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)


    One of the research projects carried out in Cusiana field to explain its rapid decline during the last years was to get better permeability models. The reservoir of this field has a complex layered system that it is not easy to model using conventional methods. The new technique included the development of porosity and permeability maps from cored wells following the same trend of the sand depositions for each facie or layer according to the sedimentary facie and the depositional system models. Then, we used fuzzy logic to reproduce those maps in three dimensions as geologic fuzzy variables. After multivariate statistical and factor analyses, we found independence and a good correlation coefficient between the geologic fuzzy variables and core permeability and porosity. This means, the geologic fuzzy variable could explain the fabric, the grain size and the pore geometry of the reservoir rock trough the field. Finally, we developed a neural network permeability model using porosity, gamma ray and the geologic fuzzy variable as input variables. This model has a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.873 and average absolute error of 33% compared with the actual model with a correlation coefficient of 0.511 and absolute error greater than 250%. We tested different methodologies, but this new one showed dramatically be a promiser way to get better permeability models. The use of the models have had a high impact in the explanation of well performance and workovers, and reservoir simulation models. (author)

  1. The GPlates Geological Information Model and Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qin


    Full Text Available Understanding tectonic and geodynamic processes leading to the present-day configuration of the Earth involves studying data and models across a variety of disciplines, from geochemistry, geochronology and geophysics, to plate kinematics and mantle dynamics. All these data represent a 3-D spatial and 1-D temporal framework, a formalism which is not exploited by traditional spatial analysis tools. This is arguably a fundamental limit in both the rigour and sophistication in which datasets can be combined for geological deep time analysis, and often confines the extent of data analyses to the present-day configurations of geological objects. The GPlates Geological Information Model (GPGIM represents a formal specification of geological and geophysical data in a time-varying plate tectonics context, used by the GPlates virtual-globe software. It provides a framework in which relevant types of geological data are attached to a common plate tectonic reference frame, allowing the data to be reconstructed in a time-dependent spatio-temporal plate reference frame. The GPlates Markup Language (GPML, being an extension of the open standard Geography Markup Language (GML, is both the modelling language for the GPGIM and an XML-based data format for the interoperable storage and exchange of data modelled by it. The GPlates software implements the GPGIM allowing researchers to query, visualise, reconstruct and analyse a rich set of geological data including numerical raster data. The GPGIM has recently been extended to support time-dependent geo-referenced numerical raster data by wrapping GML primitives into the time-dependent framework of the GPGIM. Coupled with GPlates' ability to reconstruct numerical raster data and import/export from/to a variety of raster file formats, as well as its handling of time-dependent plate boundary topologies, interoperability with geodynamic softwares is established, leading to a new generation of deep-time spatio

  2. Visualization of 3D Geological Models on Google Earth (United States)

    Choi, Y.; Um, J.; Park, M.


    Google Earth combines satellite imagery, aerial photography, thematic maps and various data sets to make a three-dimensional (3D) interactive image of the world. Currently, Google Earth is a popular visualization tool in a variety of fields and plays an increasingly important role not only for private users in daily life, but also for scientists, practitioners, policymakers and stakeholders in research and application. In this study, a method to visualize 3D geological models on Google Earth is presented. COLLAborative Design Activity (COLLADA, an open standard XML schema for establishing interactive 3D applications) was used to represent different 3D geological models such as borehole, fence section, surface-based 3D volume and 3D grid by triangle meshes (a set of triangles connected by their common edges or corners). In addition, we designed Keyhole Markup Language (KML, the XML-based scripting language of Google Earth) codes to import the COLLADA files into the 3D render window of Google Earth. The method was applied to the Grosmont formation in Alberta, Canada. The application showed that the combination of COLLADA and KML enables Google Earth to effectively visualize 3D geological structures and properties.; Visualization of the (a) boreholes, (b) fence sections, (c) 3D volume model and (d) 3D grid model of Grossmont formation on Google Earth

  3. Sculpting Mountains: Interactive Terrain Modeling Based on Subsurface Geology. (United States)

    Cordonnier, Guillaume; Cani, Marie-Paule; Benes, Bedrich; Braun, Jean; Galin, Eric


    Most mountain ranges are formed by the compression and folding of colliding tectonic plates. Subduction of one plate causes large-scale asymmetry while their layered composition (or stratigraphy) explains the multi-scale folded strata observed on real terrains. We introduce a novel interactive modeling technique to generate visually plausible, large scale terrains that capture these phenomena. Our method draws on both geological knowledge for consistency and on sculpting systems for user interaction. The user is provided hands-on control on the shape and motion of tectonic plates, represented using a new geologically-inspired model for the Earth crust. The model captures their volume preserving and complex folding behaviors under collision, causing mountains to grow. It generates a volumetric uplift map representing the growth rate of subsurface layers. Erosion and uplift movement are jointly simulated to generate the terrain. The stratigraphy allows us to render folded strata on eroded cliffs. We validated the usability of our sculpting interface through a user study, and compare the visual consistency of the earth crust model with geological simulation results and real terrains.

  4. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Shale Reference Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Spent Fuel and Waste Science and Technology (SFWST) Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level nuclear waste (HLW). Two high priorities for SFWST disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011, Table 6). These priorities are directly addressed in the SFWST Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, shale, and deep borehole disposal).

  5. Challenge to Increase Confidence in Geological Evolution Models (United States)

    Mizuno, T.; Iwatsuki, T.; Saegusa, H.; Kato, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Yasue, K.; Ohyama, T.; Sasao, E.


    The geological evolution models (GEMs) as well as site descriptive models (SDMs) are used to integrate investigation results and to support safety assessment. Even more, enhancing confidence in long-term stability of geological environment is required for geological disposal in Japan where is in active tectonic region. The aim of the study is to provide future direction for increasing GEMs confidence based on review of current GEMs. GEMs has been constructed in following three steps; 1) Features, Events and Processes (FEP) analysis, 2) Scenario development and 3) Numerical modeling. Base on the current status, we looked at the issues for developing GEMs with higher level of confidence. As the result, development of techniques and methodologies for; 1) validation of GEMs, 2) handling uncertainty and 3) digitalization/visualization are identified as open issues. To solve these issues, we specified three approaches. First approach is using multiple lines of evidence. Consistency between various study fields will be important information for validation of the GEMs. Second one is revealing the argument behind GEMs. Confidence/uncertainty of GEMs will be able to be confirmed by synthesizing the basic information behind the GEMs because GEMs are built on many evidences, hypothesis and assumptions. In addition, the optional cases will be needed for demonstrating the level of understanding. Third is development of elemental technology, such as the integrated system between numerical simulation and visualization which can take into account large size of model and composite phenomenon. In the future, we will focus on increasing GEMs confidence in keeping with this notion. This study was carried out under a contract with METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) as part of its R&D supporting program for developing geological disposal technology.

  6. Digital Geological Model (DGM): a 3D raster model of the subsurface of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.L.; Maljers, D.; Gessel, S.F. van; Menkovic, A.; Hummelman, H.J.


    A 3D geological raster model has been constructed of the onshore of the Netherlands. The model displays geological units for the upper 500 m in 3D in an internally consistent way. The units are based on the lithostratigraphical classification of the Netherlands. This classification is used to

  7. A Test of the Circumvention-of-Limits Hypothesis in Scientific Problem Solving: The Case of Geological Bedrock Mapping (United States)

    Hambrick, David Z.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Petcovic, Heather L.; Baker, Kathleen M.; Elkins, Joe; Callahan, Caitlin N.; Turner, Sheldon P.; Rench, Tara A.; LaDue, Nicole D.


    Sources of individual differences in scientific problem solving were investigated. Participants representing a wide range of experience in geology completed tests of visuospatial ability and geological knowledge, and performed a geological bedrock mapping task, in which they attempted to infer the geological structure of an area in the Tobacco…

  8. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Drake, Henrik (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Juhlin, Christopher (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))


    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  9. The Couplex test cases: models and lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeat, A. [Lyon-1 Univ., MCS, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Kern, M. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 78 - Le Chesnay (France); Schumacher, S.; Talandier, J. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)


    The Couplex test cases are a set of numerical test models for nuclear waste deep geological disposal simulation. They are centered around the numerical issues arising in the near and far field transport simulation. They were used in an international contest, and are now becoming a reference in the field. We present the models used in these test cases, and show sample results from the award winning teams. (authors)

  10. Reservoir architecture modeling: Nonstationary models for quantitative geological characterization. Final report, April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.


    The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.

  11. Developing seismogenic source models based on geologic fault data (United States)

    Haller, Kathleen M.; Basili, Roberto


    Calculating seismic hazard usually requires input that includes seismicity associated with known faults, historical earthquake catalogs, geodesy, and models of ground shaking. This paper will address the input generally derived from geologic studies that augment the short historical catalog to predict ground shaking at time scales of tens, hundreds, or thousands of years (e.g., SSHAC 1997). A seismogenic source model, terminology we adopt here for a fault source model, includes explicit three-dimensional faults deemed capable of generating ground motions of engineering significance within a specified time frame of interest. In tectonically active regions of the world, such as near plate boundaries, multiple seismic cycles span a few hundred to a few thousand years. In contrast, in less active regions hundreds of kilometers from the nearest plate boundary, seismic cycles generally are thousands to tens of thousands of years long. Therefore, one should include sources having both longer recurrence intervals and possibly older times of most recent rupture in less active regions of the world rather than restricting the model to include only Holocene faults (i.e., those with evidence of large-magnitude earthquakes in the past 11,500 years) as is the practice in tectonically active regions with high deformation rates. During the past 15 years, our institutions independently developed databases to characterize seismogenic sources based on geologic data at a national scale. Our goal here is to compare the content of these two publicly available seismogenic source models compiled for the primary purpose of supporting seismic hazard calculations by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); hereinafter we refer to the two seismogenic source models as INGV and USGS, respectively. This comparison is timely because new initiatives are emerging to characterize seismogenic sources at the continental scale (e.g., SHARE in the

  12. Development of a permanent geological environment model of Kazan city aimed to solve various engineering-geological problems (Russia) (United States)

    Zharkova, N.; Latypov, A.; Shevelev, A.; Khuzin, I.


    The article discusses the composition, structure and operation principles of a digital geological environment model for the urban area located in the valley of a large lowland river (the Volga). The model is implemented in ESRI (ArcView and ArcGis) and MapInfo software environments. The basis of the model is the data on the composition and physical and mechanical properties of soils, the information about ground waters and industrial loads. The model has been used to conduct zoning of soil conditions, groundwater aggressivity to the materials of underground structures. Also, the areas of existing and possible exogenous geological processes (flooding, karst, suffusion, erosion, landslides) have been identified. According to the model, it is offered to evaluate the stability of geological environment to human impact using typification on the soil conditions based on the pre-zoning of water content and the degree of drainage. A new monitoring system of dangerous exogenous geological processes has been developed, the impact of exogenous processes on the residential buildings has been estimated, and, also, the analysis and evaluation of geological risks have been performed. According to the data on the composition, density and water saturation of soils, the stability of the ground bases to a dynamic impact has been estimated.

  13. Digital geologic map database of the Nevada Test Site area, Nevada (United States)

    Wahl, R.R.; Sawyer, D.A.; Minor, S.A.; Carr, M.D.; Cole, J.C.; Swadley, W.C.; Laczniak, R.J.; Warren, R.G.; Green, K.S.; Engle, C.M.


    Forty years of geologic investigations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been digitized. These data include all geologic information that: (1) has been collected, and (2) can be represented on a map within the map borders at the map scale is included in the map digital coverages. The following coverages are included with this dataset: Coverage Type Description geolpoly Polygon Geologic outcrops geolflts line Fault traces geolatts Point Bedding attitudes, etc. geolcald line Caldera boundaries geollins line Interpreted lineaments geolmeta line Metamorphic gradients The above coverages are attributed with numeric values and interpreted information. The entity files documented below show the data associated with each coverage.

  14. Grimsel test site. Research on safe geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    safety of geological repositories, the properties of suitable host rock formations and the functioning of the engineered safety barriers. There are two rock laboratories in Switzerland, the Grimsel Test Site and the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Rock laboratories make a key contribution to answering the questions raised by safety analyses and to confirming the feasibility of deep disposal of radioactive waste from an engineering viewpoint. The research activities are focused on: geological and hydro geological characterisation of rock formations for deep disposal; properties and long-term behaviour of the components of the engineered safety barriers; transport and retention of radionuclides in the engineered barrier system and the surrounding geosphere; verification of the data and models used in safety analysis; technologies for tunnel excavation and waste emplacement; providing information to the public politicians and the authorities; and international collaboration and exchange of know-how. The research activities over the last two decades have focused mainly on: developing techniques for site investigations like seismic tomography; testing technologies for repository construction and evaluating their impact on the functioning of the geological barrier like the disturbed zone in the rock caused by tunnel construction and borehole sealing systems; developing and testing the engineered barrier system; testing of the models and databases used in safety analysis. The feasibility and operational safety of deep disposal are in the foreground. The investigations in the rock laboratory look at the behaviour of disposal systems over periods of decades under repository-relevant conditions, to optimise technical procedures and to document their safety. The objectives for the coming years are: performing experiments that demonstrate and verify the functions of the engineered and geological barriers of a deep repository; development of new technologies for the emplacement of

  15. Mapping three-dimensional geological features from remotely-sensed images and digital elevation models (United States)

    Morris, Kevin Peter

    Accurate mapping of geological structures is important in numerous applications, ranging from mineral exploration through to hydrogeological modelling. Remotely sensed data can provide synoptic views of study areas enabling mapping of geological units within the area. Structural information may be derived from such data using standard manual photo-geologic interpretation techniques, although these are often inaccurate and incomplete. The aim of this thesis is, therefore, to compile a suite of automated and interactive computer-based analysis routines, designed to help a the user map geological structure. These are examined and integrated in the context of an expert system. The data used in this study include Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Airborne Thematic Mapper images, both with a spatial resolution of 5m, for a 5 x 5 km area surrounding Llyn Cow lyd, Snowdonia, North Wales. The geology of this area comprises folded and faulted Ordo vician sediments intruded throughout by dolerite sills, providing a stringent test for the automated and semi-automated procedures. The DEM is used to highlight geomorphological features which may represent surface expressions of the sub-surface geology. The DEM is created from digitized contours, for which kriging is found to provide the best interpolation routine, based on a number of quantitative measures. Lambertian shading and the creation of slope and change of slope datasets are shown to provide the most successful enhancement of DEMs, in terms of highlighting a range of key geomorphological features. The digital image data are used to identify rock outcrops as well as lithologically controlled features in the land cover. To this end, a series of standard spectral enhancements of the images is examined. In this respect, the least correlated 3 band composite and a principal component composite are shown to give the best visual discrimination of geological and vegetation cover types. Automatic edge detection (followed by line

  16. GIS Data Modeling of a Regional Geological Structure by Integrating Geometric and Semantic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Handong


    Full Text Available Using GIS, data models of geology via geometric descriptions and expressions are being developed. However, the role played by these data models in terms of the description and expression of geological structure phenomenon is limited. To improve the semantic information in geological GIS data models, this study adopts an object-oriented method that describes and expresses the geometric and semantic features of the geological structure phenomenon using geological objects and designs a data model of regional geological structures by integrating geometry and semantics. Moreover, the study designs a semantic "vocabulary-explanation-graph" method for describing the geological phenomenon of structures. Based on the semantic features of regional geological structures and a linear classification method, it divides the regional geological structure phenomenon into 3 divisions, 10 groups, 33 classes and defines the element set and element class. Moreover, it builds the basic geometric network for geological elements based on the geometric and semantic relations among geological objects. Using the ArcGIS Diagrammer Geodatabase, it considers the regional geological structure of the Ning-Zhen Mountains to verify the data model, and the results indicate a high practicability.

  17. Using digital databases to create geologic maps for the 21st century : a GIS model for geologic, environmental, cultural and transportation data from southern Rhode Island (United States)


    Knowledge of surface and subsurface geology is fundamental to the planning and development of new or modified transportation systems. Toward this : end, we have compiled a model GIS database consisting of important geologic, cartographic, environment...

  18. The geological model calibration - Learnings from integration of reservoir geology and field performance - Example from the upper carboniferous reservoirs of the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscariello, A.; Hoof, T.B. van; Kunakbayeva, G.; Veen, J.H. ten; Belt, F. van den; Twerda, A.; Peters, L.; Davis, P.; Williams, H.


    The Geological Model Calibration - Learnings from Integration of Reservoir Geology and Field Performance: example from the Upper Carboniferous Reservoirs of the Southern North Sea. Copyright © (2012) by the European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers All rights reserved.

  19. Subsurface Flow Model Calibration under Uncertain Geologic Scenarios with Adaptive Sparse Reconstruction Techniques (United States)

    Khaninezhad, M. M.; Jafarpour, B.


    Construction of predictive aquifer and reservoir models involves subjective interpretation and interpolation of spatially limited data and imperfect modeling assumptions. Hence, the process can introduce significant uncertainty and bias into subsurface flow and transport modeling. In particular, the uncertainty in the geologic continuity model can markedly degrade the quality of fluid displacement predictions and, hence, the efficiency of resource development plans. We present a novel approach for flow model calibration under uncertainty in geologic continuity model. Our approach is inspired by recent advances in sparse reconstruction and takes advantage of the selection property of the l1-norm minimization in sparse bases. Using an adaptive saprse reconstruction framework, we develop a prior model identification method to discriminate against distinct prior geologic continuity models (e.g., variograms) that are proposed for model calibration. Realizations from each geologic continuity model are used to generate a diverse geologic dictionary that compactly represents models from each proposed prior geologic scenario. The inversion method is initialized by taking the same number of elements from each prior geologic continuity model. At each iteration of the nonlinear model calibration process the contribution of the proposed prior models to the reconstructed solution is monitored and, to improve the solution quality, elements from inconsistent prior models are replaced with additional elements from geologically consistent priors. We use several numerical examples to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive prior identification approach for model calibration under uncertainty in prior geologic continuity.

  20. Stress field modelling from digital geological map data (United States)

    Albert, Gáspár; Barancsuk, Ádám; Szentpéteri, Krisztián


    To create a model for the lithospheric stress a functional geodatabase is required which contains spatial and geodynamic parameters. A digital structural-geological map is a geodatabase, which usually contains enough attributes to create a stress field model. Such a model is not accurate enough for engineering-geological purposes because simplifications are always present in a map, but in many cases maps are the only sources for a tectonic analysis. The here presented method is designed for field geologist, who are interested to see the possible realization of the stress field over the area, on which they are working. This study presents an application which can produce a map of 3D stress vectors from a kml-file. The core application logic is implemented on top of a spatially aware relational database management system. This allows rapid and geographically accurate analysis of the imported geological features, taking advantage of standardized spatial algorithms and indexing. After pre-processing the map features in a GIS, according to the Type-Property-Orientation naming system, which was described in a previous study (Albert et al. 2014), the first stage of the algorithm generates an irregularly spaced point cloud by emitting a pattern of points within a user-defined buffer zone around each feature. For each point generated, a component-wise approximation of the tensor field at the point's position is computed, derived from the original feature's geodynamic properties. In a second stage a weighted moving average method calculates the stress vectors in a regular grid. Results can be exported as geospatial data for further analysis or cartographic visualization. Computation of the tensor field's components is based on the implementation of the Mohr diagram of a compressional model, which uses a Coulomb fracture criterion. Using a general assumption that the main principal stress must be greater than the stress from the overburden, the differential stress is

  1. 3D geological modelling from boreholes, cross-sections and geological maps, application over former natural gas storages in coal mines (United States)

    Kaufmann, Olivier; Martin, Thierry


    In a wide range of applications involving geological modelling, geological data available at low cost usually consist of documents such as cross-sections or geological maps and punctual data like borehole logs or outcrop descriptions. In order to build accurate 3D geological models based on this information, it is necessary to develop a methodology that takes into account the variety of available data. Such models, of the geometry of geological bodies, should also be easy to edit and update to integrate new data. This kind of model should produce a consistent representation of subsurface geology that may be a support for modelling other subsoil characteristics such as hydrogeologic or geothermic properties of the geological bodies. This paper presents a methodology developed to process geological information in this context. The aims of this methodology are comprehensive data description, effective data validation and easier model updates. Thus, special attention has been given to data structures and processing flows. The adopted methodology is implemented on a system architecture formed by a geographic information system, a geomodeler and a database communicating by file transfers. An application of this methodology, to build a 3D geological model of the subsoil over former coalmines used to store natural gas, is then presented. This model integrates the geological information available and is representative of the geological context. It is a support to the environmental follow-up needed after the end of gas-storage operations.

  2. Drilling a Deep Geologic Test Well at Fort Pulaski National Monument, Georgia (United States)

    Schultz, Arthur P.; Seefelt, Ellen L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, is drilling a deep geologic test well at Fort Pulaski National Monument, Georgia. The operation is scheduled to run between mid-February and mid-April 2010. When completed, the well will be about 1,500 feet deep. The purpose of this test well is to gain knowledge about the regional-scale Floridan aquifer, an important source of groundwater in the Savannah area. Also, cores obtained during drilling will enable geologists to study the last 60 million years of Earth history in this area.

  3. Test of airborne fluorometer over land surfaces and geologic materials (United States)

    Stoertz, G. E.; Hemphill, W. R.


    Response of an experimental Fraunhofer line discriminator to a wide range of surficial deposits common in deserts and semideserts was tested in the laboratory and from an H-19 helicopter. No signals attributable to fluorescence were recorded during 540 miles of aerial traverses over southeastern California and west-central Arizona. It was concluded that exposed surfaces of target materials throughout the traverses were either nonluminescent at 5890 A or not sufficiently so to be detectable. It cannot be ruled out that the lack of fluorescence is partly attributable to surficial coatings of nonluminescent weathered material. The principal route surveyed from the air was from Needles, California to Furnace Creek Ranch, Death Valley and return, via the Amargosa River valley, Silurian Lake (dry), Silver Lake (dry), and Soda Lake (dry). Principal targets traversed were unconsolidated clastic sediments ranging from silty clay to cobbles, and a wide range of evaporite deposits.

  4. Assessing simulation uncertainty of hydrological models using stochastic geological models generated with air borne geophysical data (United States)

    He, Xin; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Joergensen, Flemming; Schamper, Cyril


    Uncertainty in hydrological simulations can be originated from various sources such as observational uncertainty of input data, model structural uncertainty, model parameter uncertainty, and/or local scale heterogeneity. The model structural uncertainty is essential since it accounts for the majority of the uncertainty during model conceptualization, and it becomes the dominating factor in the overall simulation uncertainty when the subject being simulated is an indirect extrapolation from the model calibration. In the present study, we assess the simulation uncertainty of coupled surface water - groundwater models by using multiple geological models that are generated stochastically. The study area is the Norsminde catchment located in eastern Jutland, Denmark, where the complex terrain and heterogeneous geological structure makes it an ideal example to showcase the scientific challenge described above. To establish the geological model, it is first delineated with dominant geological elements by an experienced geologist using all available field data. Subsequently the internal heterogeneity within the large scale geological elements is introduced by using TProGS realizations, which are generated based on information from both borehole data and airborne geophysical data (SkyTEM). Due to the high spatial resolution and exhaustiveness, the SkyTEM data is used in two ways. First it is used to estimate the horizontal transition probability, and afterwards used as information for soft conditioning in stochastic simulations with TProGS. 10 hydrological models are developed using MIKE SHE code, to which the individual geological models are associated. The hydrological models are inversely calibrated against groundwater head and stream discharge data using PEST optimization tool. Finally the simulated flows from the 10 models are collected and presented as an ensemble in order to assess the hydrological simulation uncertainty.

  5. A Geological Model for the Evolution of Early Continents (Invited) (United States)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.; Thébaud, N.


    Geochemical probing of ancient sediments (REE in black shales, strontium composition of carbonates, oxygen isotopes in zircons...) suggests that continents were a late Archean addition at Earth's surface. Yet, geochemical probing of ancient basalts reveals that they were extracted from a mantle depleted of its crustal elements early in the Archean. Considerations on surface geology, the early Earth hypsometry and the rheology and density structure of Archean continents can help solve this paradox. Surface geology: The surface geology of Archean cratons is characterized by thick continental flood basalts (CFBs, including greenstones) emplaced on felsic crusts dominated by Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids. This simple geology is peculiar because i/ most CFBs were emplaced below sea level, ii/ after their emplacement, CFBs were deformed into relatively narrow, curviplanar belts (greenstone basins) wrapping around migmatitic TTG domes, and iii/ Archean greenstone belts are richly endowed with gold and other metals deposits. Flat Earth hypothesis: From considerations on early Earth continental geotherm and density structure, Rey and Coltice (2008) propose that, because of the increased ability of the lithosphere to flow laterally, orogenic processes in the Archean produced only subdued topography (Water world hypothesis: From the observation that most Archean CFB were emplaced on flooded continents, Flament et al. (2008) proposed a theory for the hypsometry of the early Earth showing that, until the late Archean, most continents were flooded and Earth was largely a water world. From this, a model consistent with many of the peculiar attributes of Archean geology, can be proposed: 1/ Continents appeared at Earth's surface at an early stage during the Hadean/Archean. However, because they were i/ covered by continental flood basalts, ii/ below sea level, and iii/ deprived of modern-style mountain belts and orogenic plateaux, early felsic continents were

  6. Loglinear Rasch model tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, Hendrikus


    Existing statistical tests for the fit of the Rasch model have been criticized, because they are only sensitive to specific violations of its assumptions. Contingency table methods using loglinear models have been used to test various psychometric models. In this paper, the assumptions of the Rasch

  7. Thermal hydraulics modeling of the US Geological Survey TRIGA reactor (United States)

    Alkaabi, Ahmed K.

    The Geological Survey TRIGA reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW Mark I TRIGA reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. Single channel GSTR thermal hydraulics models built using RELAP5/MOD3.3, RELAP5-3D, TRACE, and COMSOL Multiphysics predict the fuel, outer clad, and coolant temperatures as a function of position in the core. The results from the RELAP5/MOD3.3, RELAP5-3D, and COMSOL models are similar. The TRACE model predicts significantly higher temperatures, potentially resulting from inappropriate convection correlations. To more accurately study the complex fluid flow patterns within the core, this research develops detailed RELAP5/MOD3.3 and COMSOL multichannel models of the GSTR core. The multichannel models predict lower fuel, outer clad, and coolant temperatures compared to the single channel models by up to 16.7°C, 4.8°C, and 9.6°C, respectively, as a result of the higher mass flow rates predicted by these models. The single channel models and the RELAP5/MOD3.3 multichannel model predict that the coolant temperatures in all fuel rings rise axially with core height, as the coolant in these models flows predominantly in the axial direction. The coolant temperatures predicted by the COMSOL multichannel model rise with core height in the B-, C-, and D-rings and peak and then decrease in the E-, F-, and G-rings, as the coolant tends to flow from the bottom sides of the core to the center of the core in this model. Experiments at the GSTR measured coolant temperatures in the GSTR core to validate the developed models. The axial temperature profiles measured in the GSTR show that the flow patterns predicted by the COMSOL multichannel model are consistent with the actual conditions in the core. Adjusting the RELAP5/MOD3.3 single and multichannel models by modifying the axial and cross-flow areas allow them to better predict the GSTR coolant temperatures; however, the adjusted models still fail to predict accurate axial temperature profiles in the E-, F-, and G-rings.

  8. Usage of ensemble geothermal models to consider geological uncertainties (United States)

    Rühaak, Wolfram; Steiner, Sarah; Welsch, Bastian; Sass, Ingo


    The usage of geothermal energy for instance by borehole heat exchangers (BHE) is a promising concept for a sustainable supply of heat for buildings. BHE are closed pipe systems, in which a fluid is circulating. Heat from the surrounding rocks is transferred to the fluid purely by conduction. The fluid carries the heat to the surface, where it can be utilized. Larger arrays of BHE require typically previous numerical models. Motivations are the design of the system (number and depth of the required BHE) but also regulatory reasons. Especially such regulatory operating permissions often require maximum realistic models. Although such realistic models are possible in many cases with today's codes and computer resources, they are often expensive in terms of time and effort. A particular problem is the knowledge about the accuracy of the achieved results. An issue, which is often neglected while dealing with highly complex models, is the quantification of parameter uncertainties as a consequence of the natural heterogeneity of the geological subsurface. Experience has shown, that these heterogeneities can lead to wrong forecasts. But also variations in the technical realization and especially of the operational parameters (which are mainly a consequence of the regional climate) can lead to strong variations in the simulation results. Instead of one very detailed single forecast model, it should be considered, to model numerous more simple models. By varying parameters, the presumed subsurface uncertainties, but also the uncertainties in the presumed operational parameters can be reflected. Finally not only one single result should be reported, but instead the range of possible solutions and their respective probabilities. In meteorology such an approach is well known as ensemble-modeling. The concept is demonstrated at a real world data set and discussed.

  9. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM{sub C}, FSM{sub E}W007, FSM{sub N}, FSM{sub N}E005, FSM{sub S}, and FSM{sub W}. The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the

  10. Simultaneous geologic scenario identification and flow model calibration with group-sparsity formulations (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Azarang; Jafarpour, Behnam


    Adopting representative geologic connectivity scenarios is critical for reliable modeling and prediction of flow and transport processes in subsurface environments. Geologic scenarios are often developed by integrating several sources of information, including knowledge of the depositional environment, qualitative and quantitative data such as outcrop and well logs, and process-based geologic modeling. In general, flow and transport response data are usually not included in constructing geologic scenarios for a basin. Instead, these data are typically matched using a given prior geologic scenario as constraint. Since data limitations, modeling assumptions and subjective interpretations can lead to significant uncertainty in the adopted geologic scenarios, flow and transport data may also be useful for constraining the uncertainty in proposed geologic scenarios. Constraining geologic scenarios with flow-related data opens an interesting and challenging research area, which goes beyond the traditional model calibration formulations where the geologic scenario is assumed given. In this paper, a novel concept, known as group-sparsity regularization, is proposed as an effective formulation to constrain the uncertainty in the prior geologic scenario during subsurface flow model calibration. Given a collection of model realizations from several plausible geologic scenarios, the proposed method first applies the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) to compactly represent the models from each geologic scenario. The TSVD basis for representing each scenario forms a distinct group. The proposed approach searches over these groups (i.e., geologic scenarios) to eliminate inconsistent groups that are not supported by the observed flow/pressure data. The group-sparsity regularization minimizes a l1/l2mixed norm, where the l2-norm quantifies the contribution of each group and operates on the coefficients within the groups while the l1-norm, having a selection property, is

  11. Statistical geological discrete fracture network model. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the geological modeling team with respect to a geological and statistical model of fractures and minor deformation zones (henceforth referred to as the geological DFN), version 2.2, at the Forsmark site. The geological DFN builds upon the work of other geological modelers, including the deformation zone (DZ), rock domain (RD), and fracture domain (FD) models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones as a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within four specific fracture domains inside the local model region, and encompassing the candidate volume at Forsmark: FFM01, FFM02, FFM03, and FFM06. The models are build using data from detailed surface outcrop maps and the cored borehole record at Forsmark. The conceptual model for the Forsmark 2.2 geological revolves around the concept of orientation sets; for each fracture domain, other model parameters such as size and intensity are tied to the orientation sets. Two classes of orientation sets were described; Global sets, which are encountered everywhere in the model region, and Local sets, which represent highly localized stress environments. Orientation sets were described in terms of their general cardinal direction (NE, NW, etc). Two alternatives are presented for fracture size modeling: - the tectonic continuum approach (TCM, TCMF) described by coupled size-intensity scaling following power law distributions

  12. Review of strategies for handling geological uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Christensen, Steen; Sonnenborg, Torben O.


    The geologically related uncertainty in groundwater modeling originates from two main sources: geological structures and hydraulic parameter values within these structures. Within a geological structural element the parameter values will always exhibit local scale heterogeneity, which can...... be accounted for, but is often neglected, in assessments of prediction uncertainties. Strategies for assessing prediction uncertainty due to geologically related uncertainty may be divided into three main categories, accounting for uncertainty due to: (a) the geological structure; (b) effective model...... are made with respect to identifying key subjects for which further research is needed. When all sources of uncertainty are analyzed by exploring model parameter and local scale heterogeneity uncertainty for several plausible geological model structures the joint uncertainties can be assessed by use...

  13. Geological model of supercritical geothermal reservoir related to subduction system (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi


    Following the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power station on 3.11 (11th March) 2011, geothermal energy came to be considered one of the most promising sources of renewable energy for the future in Japan. The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. Supercritical geothermal resources could be evaluated in terms of present volcanic activities, thermal structure, dimension of hydrothermal circulation, properties of fracture system, depth of heat source, depth of brittle factures zone, dimension of geothermal reservoir. On the basis of the GIS, potential of supercritical geothermal resources could be characterized into the following four categories. 1. Promising: surface manifestation d shallow high temperature, 2 Probability: high geothermal gradient, 3 Possibility: Aseismic zone which indicates an existence of melt, 4 Potential : low velocity zone which indicates magma input. Base on geophysical data for geothermal reservoirs, we have propose adequate tectonic model of development of the supercritical geothermal reservoirs. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550

  14. Constructing a large-scale 3D Geologic Model for Analysis of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J; Myers, S


    We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5{sup o} to -112.6{sup o} and latitude 34.5{sup o} to 39.8{sup o}; the depth ranges from the topographic surface to 150 km below sea level. The model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by both geologic and geophysical studies, while the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The mapped upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks of all ages, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 5 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas geologic maps for California and Utah were scanned and hand-digitized. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and thus estimate the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m lateral resolution DEM elsewhere. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a framework compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is a unique integer index value representing the geologic unit. For seismic studies, the geologic units are mapped to specific seismic velocities. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface

  15. How much can we trust a geological model underlying a subsurface hydrological investigation? (United States)

    Wellmann, Florian; de la Varga, Miguel; Schaaf, Alexander; Burs, David


    Geological models often provide an important basis for subsequent hydrological investigations. As these models are generally built with a limited amount of information, they can contain significant uncertainties - and it is reasonable to assume that these uncertainties can potentially influence subsequent hydrological simulations. However, the investigation of uncertainties in geological models is not straightforward - and, even though recent advances have been made in the field, there is no out-of-the-box implementation to analyze uncertainties in a standard geological modeling package. We present here results of recent developments to address this problem with an efficient implementation of a geological modeling method for complex structural models, integrated in a Bayesian inference framework. The implemented geological modeling approach is based on a full 3-D implicit interpolation that directly respects interface positions and orientation measurements, as well as the influence of faults. In combination, the approach allows us to generate ensembles of geological model realizations, constrained by additional information in the form of likelihood functions to ensure consistency with additional geological aspects (e.g. sequence continuity, topology, fault network consistency), and we demonstrate the potential of the method in an exemplified case study. With this approach, we aim to contribute to a better understanding of the influence of geological uncertainties on subsurface hydrological investigations.

  16. New Age of 3D Geological Modelling or Complexity is not an Issue Anymore (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Aleksandr


    Geological model has a significant value in almost all types of researches related to regional mapping, geodynamics and especially to structural and resource geology of mineral deposits. Well-developed geological model must take into account all vital features of modelling object without over-simplification and also should adequately represent the interpretation of the geologist. In recent years with the gradual exhaustion deposits with relatively simple morphology geologists from all over the world are faced with the necessity of building the representative models for more and more structurally complex objects. Meanwhile, the amount of tools used for that has not significantly changed in the last two-three decades. The most widespread method of wireframe geological modelling now was developed in 1990s and is fully based on engineering design set of instruments (so-called CAD). Strings and polygons representing the section-based interpretation are being used as an intermediate step in the process of wireframes generation. Despite of significant time required for this type of modelling, it still can provide sufficient results for simple and medium-complexity geological objects. However, with the increasing complexity more and more vital features of the deposit are being sacrificed because of fundamental inability (or much greater time required for modelling) of CAD-based explicit techniques to develop the wireframes of the appropriate complexity. At the same time alternative technology which is not based on sectional approach and which uses the fundamentally different mathematical algorithms is being actively developed in the variety of other disciplines: medicine, advanced industrial design, game and cinema industry. In the recent years this implicit technology started to being developed for geological modelling purpose and nowadays it is represented by very powerful set of tools that has been integrated in almost all major commercial software packages. Implicit

  17. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2


    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.


    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine formations or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2 capture and related p...

  18. Acoustic Model Testing Chronology (United States)

    Nesman, Tom


    Scale models have been used for decades to replicate liftoff environments and in particular acoustics for launch vehicles. It is assumed, and analyses supports, that the key characteristics of noise generation, propagation, and measurement can be scaled. Over time significant insight was gained not just towards understanding the effects of thruster details, pad geometry, and sound mitigation but also to the physical processes involved. An overview of a selected set of scale model tests are compiled here to illustrate the variety of configurations that have been tested and the fundamental knowledge gained. The selected scale model tests are presented chronologically.

  19. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, P.; Nummela, J. [FINTACT Oy (Finland)


    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km{sup 3}. Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that

  20. GIS-based modelling of deep-seated slope stability in complex geology (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Marchesini, Ivan; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Cardinali, Mauro; Fiorucci, Federica; Valigi, Daniela; Santangelo, Michele; Bucci, Francesco; Guzzetti, Fausto


    We use the model r.slope.stability to explore the chances and challenges of physically-based modelling of deep-seated slope stability in complex geology over broad areas and not on individual slopes. The model is developed as a C and python-based raster module within the GRASS GIS software. It makes use of a modification of the three-dimensional sliding surface model proposed by Hovland (1977) and revised and extended by Xie and co-workers (2006). Given a digital elevation model and a set of thematic layers (lithological classes and related geotechnical parameters), the model evaluates the slope stability for a large number of randomly selected potential slip surfaces, ellipsoidal in shape. The bottoms of soil or bedrock layers can also be considered as potential slip surfaces by truncating the ellipsoids. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a computed safety factor. For each pixel, the lowest value of the safety factor and the depth of the associated slip surface are stored. This information can be used to obtain a spatial overview of the potentially unstable regions in the study area. The r.slope.stability model can be executed both in a soil class-based mode, where the input data are mainly structured according to horizontally defined soil classes, and in a layer-based mode, where the data are structured according to a potentially large number of layers. Here, we test the model for the layer-based mode, allowing for the analysis of relatively complex geologic structures. We test the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, central Italy, which is susceptible to landslides of different types. According to field observations in this area, morpho-structural settings (i.e., the orientation and dip of the geological layers) play a crucial role for the distribution of the deep-seated landslides. We have prepared a lithological model based on aerial photointerpretation, field survey and surface information on the

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Distribution Models (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP distribution models represent the areas where species are predicted to occur based on habitat associations. GAP distribution models are the spatial arrangement...

  2. A universal surface complexation framework for modeling proton binding onto bacterial surfaces in geologic settings (United States)

    Borrok, D.; Turner, B.F.; Fein, J.B.


    Adsorption onto bacterial cell walls can significantly affect the speciation and mobility of aqueous metal cations in many geologic settings. However, a unified thermodynamic framework for describing bacterial adsorption reactions does not exist. This problem originates from the numerous approaches that have been chosen for modeling bacterial surface protonation reactions. In this study, we compile all currently available potentiometric titration datasets for individual bacterial species, bacterial consortia, and bacterial cell wall components. Using a consistent, four discrete site, non-electrostatic surface complexation model, we determine total functional group site densities for all suitable datasets, and present an averaged set of 'universal' thermodynamic proton binding and site density parameters for modeling bacterial adsorption reactions in geologic systems. Modeling results demonstrate that the total concentrations of proton-active functional group sites for the 36 bacterial species and consortia tested are remarkably similar, averaging 3.2 ?? 1.0 (1??) ?? 10-4 moles/wet gram. Examination of the uncertainties involved in the development of proton-binding modeling parameters suggests that ignoring factors such as bacterial species, ionic strength, temperature, and growth conditions introduces relatively small error compared to the unavoidable uncertainty associated with the determination of cell abundances in realistic geologic systems. Hence, we propose that reasonable estimates of the extent of bacterial cell wall deprotonation can be made using averaged thermodynamic modeling parameters from all of the experiments that are considered in this study, regardless of bacterial species used, ionic strength, temperature, or growth condition of the experiment. The average site densities for the four discrete sites are 1.1 ?? 0.7 ?? 10-4, 9.1 ?? 3.8 ?? 10-5, 5.3 ?? 2.1 ?? 10-5, and 6.6 ?? 3.0 ?? 10-5 moles/wet gram bacteria for the sites with pKa values of 3

  3. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)


    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be

  4. Geologic simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. [AEGIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, G.M.; Zellmer, J.T.; Lindberg, J.W.; Foley, M.G.


    This report describes the structure and operation of the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Geologic Simulation Model, a computer simulation model of the geology and hydrology of an area of the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The model is used to study the long-term suitability of the Columbia Plateau Basalts for the storage of nuclear waste in a mined repository. It is also a starting point for analyses of such repositories in other geologic settings. The Geologic Simulation Model will aid in formulating design disruptive sequences (i.e. those to be used for more detailed hydrologic, transport, and dose analyses) from the spectrum of hypothetical geological and hydrological developments that could result in transport of radionuclides out of a repository. Quantitative and auditable execution of this task, however, is impossible without computer simulation. The computer simulation model aids the geoscientist by generating the wide spectrum of possible future evolutionary paths of the areal geology and hydrology, identifying those that may affect the repository integrity. This allows the geoscientist to focus on potentially disruptive processes, or series of events. Eleven separate submodels are used in the simulation portion of the model: Climate, Continental Glaciation, Deformation, Geomorphic Events, Hydrology, Magmatic Events, Meteorite Impact, Sea-Level Fluctuations, Shaft-Seal Failure, Sub-Basalt Basement Faulting, and Undetected Features. Because of the modular construction of the model, each submodel can easily be replaced with an updated or modified version as new information or developments in the state of the art become available. The model simulates the geologic and hydrologic systems of a hypothetical repository site and region for a million years following repository decommissioning. The Geologic Simulation Model operates in both single-run and Monte Carlo modes.

  5. 3D subsurface modelling reveals the shallow geology of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, J.; Bakker, M.A.W.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Dambrink, R.M.; Harting, R.


    Amsterdam is situated on the coastal-deltaic plain of the western Netherlands. Its geographical position brought the city prosperity, but also created huge challenges associated with heterogeneous and often adverse ground conditions. This paper explores the geology of Amsterdam to a depth of c. 100

  6. Model-Based Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Mark; Brinksma, Hendrik; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Broy, M.; Leuxner, C.; Hoare, C.A.R.

    This paper provides a comprehensive introduction to a framework for formal testing using labelled transition systems, based on an extension and reformulation of the ioco theory introduced by Tretmans. We introduce the underlying models needed to specify the requirements, and formalise the notion of

  7. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...... wave overtopping was studied as well....

  8. Iterative refinement of implicit boundary models for improved geological feature reproduction (United States)

    Martin, Ryan; Boisvert, Jeff B.


    Geological domains contain non-stationary features that cannot be described by a single direction of continuity. Non-stationary estimation frameworks generate more realistic curvilinear interpretations of subsurface geometries. A radial basis function (RBF) based implicit modeling framework using domain decomposition is developed that permits introduction of locally varying orientations and magnitudes of anisotropy for boundary models to better account for the local variability of complex geological deposits. The interpolation framework is paired with a method to automatically infer the locally predominant orientations, which results in a rapid and robust iterative non-stationary boundary modeling technique that can refine locally anisotropic geological shapes automatically from the sample data. The method also permits quantification of the volumetric uncertainty associated with the boundary modeling. The methodology is demonstrated on a porphyry dataset and shows improved local geological features.

  9. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.


    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach.

  10. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  11. An interpretation model of GPR point data in tunnel geological prediction (United States)

    He, Yu-yao; Li, Bao-qi; Guo, Yuan-shu; Wang, Teng-na; Zhu, Ya


    GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) point data plays an absolutely necessary role in the tunnel geological prediction. However, the research work on the GPR point data is very little and the results does not meet the actual requirements of the project. In this paper, a GPR point data interpretation model which is based on WD (Wigner distribution) and deep CNN (convolutional neural network) is proposed. Firstly, the GPR point data is transformed by WD to get the map of time-frequency joint distribution; Secondly, the joint distribution maps are classified by deep CNN. The approximate location of geological target is determined by observing the time frequency map in parallel; Finally, the GPR point data is interpreted according to the classification results and position information from the map. The simulation results show that classification accuracy of the test dataset (include 1200 GPR point data) is 91.83% at the 200 iteration. Our model has the advantages of high accuracy and fast training speed, and can provide a scientific basis for the development of tunnel construction and excavation plan.

  12. Geological explorations of clay deposit near Pragersko and clay quality tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duška Rokavec


    Full Text Available A series of illite clays located near Pragersko, at the southern boundary of the Maribor – Ptuj depression, was investigated. The results of mining geological investigations showed the extension and characteristics of clay occurrences in the area. Primary characteristics of single types of raw clay from the deposit (mineral composition, grain size distribution, plasticity, etc., and the quality of biscuit were determined with laboratory tests.In a 4-9 m thick bed of clay we identified four different types of clay, which are, as a mixture, suitable for use in brick industry.

  13. Final Report: Optimal Model Complexity in Geological Carbon Sequestration: A Response Surface Uncertainty Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ye [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)


    The critical component of a risk assessment study in evaluating GCS is an analysis of uncertainty in CO2 modeling. In such analyses, direct numerical simulation of CO2 flow and leakage requires many time-consuming model runs. Alternatively, analytical methods have been developed which allow fast and efficient estimation of CO2 storage and leakage, although restrictive assumptions on formation rock and fluid properties are employed. In this study, an intermediate approach is proposed based on the Design of Experiment and Response Surface methodology, which consists of using a limited number of numerical simulations to estimate a prediction outcome as a combination of the most influential uncertain site properties. The methodology can be implemented within a Monte Carlo framework to efficiently assess parameter and prediction uncertainty while honoring the accuracy of numerical simulations. The choice of the uncertain properties is flexible and can include geologic parameters that influence reservoir heterogeneity, engineering parameters that influence gas trapping and migration, and reactive parameters that influence the extent of fluid/rock reactions. The method was tested and verified on modeling long-term CO2 flow, non-isothermal heat transport, and CO2 dissolution storage by coupling two-phase flow with explicit miscibility calculation using an accurate equation of state that gives rise to convective mixing of formation brine variably saturated with CO2. All simulations were performed using three-dimensional high-resolution models including a target deep saline aquifer, overlying caprock, and a shallow aquifer. To evaluate the uncertainty in representing reservoir permeability, sediment hierarchy of a heterogeneous digital stratigraphy was mapped to create multiple irregularly shape stratigraphic models of decreasing geologic resolutions: heterogeneous (reference), lithofacies, depositional environment, and a (homogeneous) geologic formation. To ensure model

  14. Geologic Site Characterization of the North Korean Nuclear Test Site at Punggye-Ri: A Reconnaissance Mapping Redux (United States)


    clandestine nuclear test (e.g., the evaluation of seismic wave propagation, the prediction of gas releases, and evaluation of tunnel layouts). An...produce a high-resolution (5-meter) geologic map of the site. This map helps refine the USGS reconnaissance geology map (which was based on the...test locations, the relationship between fracture rock and containment, and possible motivation for continued tunneling at the â\\”South Portalâ

  15. A three-dimensional gravity model of the geologic structure of Long Valley caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, S.F.; Goldstein, N.E.


    Several attempts to define and interpret this anomaly have been made in the past using 2-D and 3-D models. None of the previous interpretations have yielded definitive results, but in fairness, the interpretation here has benefited from a larger gravity data base and more subsurface control than available to previous workers. All published 3-D models simplistically assumed constant density of fill. All 2-D models suffered from the inherent three-dimensionality of the complicated density structure of Long Valley caldera. In addition, previous interpreters have lacked access to geological data, such as well lithologies and density logs, seismic refraction interpretations, suface geology, and structural geology interpretations. The purpose of this study is to use all available gravity data and geological information to constrain a multi-unit, 3-D density model based on the geology of Long Valley caldera and its vicinity. Insights on the geologic structure of the caldera fill can help other geophysical interpretations in determining near-surface effects so that deeper structure may be resolved. With adequate control on the structure of the caldera fill, we are able to examine the gravity data for the presence of deeper density anomalies in the crust. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Proposed geologic model based on geophysical well logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz C, S.; Puente C, I.; de la Pena L, A.


    An investigation of the subsurface based on a qualitative interpretation of well logs was carried out at Cerro Prieto to obtain information on the distribution of the different lithofacies that make up a deltaic depositional system. The sedimentological interpretation derived from the resistivity and spontaneous potential are shown in several cross-sections of the field. In addition to the sedimentological interpretation, a map of the structural geology of the region based on well logs and available geophysical information was prepared, including the results of gravity and seismic refraction surveys. The depth to the zone of hydrothermal alteration described by Elders (1980) was found by means of temperature, electrical, and radioactive logs. Two maps showing the configuration of the top of this anomaly show a clear correlation with the gravity anomalies found in the area.

  17. Processing-optimised imaging of analog geological models by electrical capacitance tomography (United States)

    Ortiz Alemán, C.; Espíndola-Carmona, A.; Hernández-Gómez, J. J.; Orozco Del Castillo, MG


    In this work, the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) technique is applied in monitoring internal deformation of geological analog models, which are used to study structural deformation mechanisms, in particular for simulating migration and emplacement of allochtonous salt bodies. A rectangular ECT sensor was used for internal visualization of analog geologic deformation. The monitoring of analog models consists in the reconstruction of permittivity images from the capacitance measurements obtained by introducing the model inside the ECT sensor. A simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is used as a reconstruction method, and is optimized by taking full advantage of some special features in a linearized version of this inverse approach. As a second part of this work our SA image reconstruction algorithm is applied to synthetic models, where its performance is evaluated in comparison to other commonly used algorithms such as linear back-projection and iterative Landweber methods. Finally, the SA method is applied to visualise two simple geological analog models. Encouraging results were obtained in terms of the quality of the reconstructed images, as interfaces corresponding to main geological units in the analog model were clearly distinguishable in them. We found reliable results quite useful for real time non-invasive monitoring of internal deformation of analog geological models.

  18. Geologic conceptual model of the municipality of Sete Lagoas (MG, Brazil) and the surroundings. (United States)

    Galvão, Paulo; Hirata, Ricardo; Cordeiro, Arnaldo; Barbati, Daniela; Peñaranda, Jorge


    The study area is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, among the municipalities of Pedro Leopoldo, Matozinhos, and Sete Lagoas, with Velhas River as the eastern boundary. It is located in the São Francisco Craton, where carbonated argillo-arenaceous sediments are emplaced giving origin to the Bambuí Group, in the São Francisco Basin. Despite the geological knowledge previously developed, the region needs work on integration and detailing of such information. For this reason, the main objective was to contribute to the quality of the geologic cartography, the spatial distribution, and the structural framework geometry. Thus, geologic mapping, aerial photography interpretation, and evaluation of 270 lithologic well profiles were carried out. It was possible to establish a new geologic perspective of the region by obtaining the detailed geologic map of the municipality of Sete Lagoas, 14 geologic cross sections, and a geologic conceptual model. The study showed that the area is within a basin border, presenting a geometry conditioned by horst and graben system controlled by faulting. This structural feature displaced stratigraphic sequences positioning them side by side with lithologic sequences with different ages.

  19. Geologic conceptual model of the municipality of Sete Lagoas (MG, Brazil and the surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study area is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, among the municipalities of Pedro Leopoldo, Matozinhos, and Sete Lagoas, with Velhas River as the eastern boundary. It is located in the São Francisco Craton, where carbonated argillo-arenaceous sediments are emplaced giving origin to the Bambuí Group, in the São Francisco Basin. Despite the geological knowledge previously developed, the region needs work on integration and detailing of such information. For this reason, the main objective was to contribute to the quality of the geologic cartography, the spatial distribution, and the structural framework geometry. Thus, geologic mapping, aerial photography interpretation, and evaluation of 270 lithologic well profiles were carried out. It was possible to establish a new geologic perspective of the region by obtaining the detailed geologic map of the municipality of Sete Lagoas, 14 geologic cross sections, and a geologic conceptual model. The study showed that the area is within a basin border, presenting a geometry conditioned by horst and graben system controlled by faulting. This structural feature displaced stratigraphic sequences positioning them side by side with lithologic sequences with different ages.

  20. Selected geologic data for wells and test holes in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This point dataset contains geologic information concerning regolith thickness and top-of-bedrock altitude at selected well and test-hole locations in and near the...

  1. Three-dimensional geologic model of the southeastern Espanola Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, Scott A.


    This multimedia model and report show and describe digital three-dimensional faulted surfaces and volumes of lithologic units that confine and constrain the basin-fill aquifers within the Espanola Basin of north-central New Mexico. These aquifers are the primary groundwater resource for the cities of Santa Fe and Espanola, six Pueblo nations, and the surrounding areas. The model presented in this report is a synthesis of geologic information that includes (1) aeromagnetic and gravity data and seismic cross sections; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from selected drill holes; (3) geologic maps, geologic cross sections, and interpretations; and (4) mapped faults and interpreted faults from geophysical data. Modeled faults individually or collectively affect the continuity of the rocks that contain the basin aquifers; they also help define the form of this rift basin. Structure, trend, and dip data not previously published were added; these structures are derived from interpretations of geophysical information and recent field observations. Where possible, data were compared and validated and reflect the complex relations of structures in this part of the Rio Grande rift. This interactive geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Espanola Basin, to show the connectivity of geologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults, and to show approximate dips of the lithologic units. The viewing software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, within this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  2. Conversion of the Bayou Choctaw geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Rautman, Christopher Arthur


    The geologic model implicit in the original site characterization report for the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, has been converted to a numerical, computer-based three-dimensional model. The original site characterization model was successfully converted with minimal modifications and use of new information. The geometries of the salt diapir, selected adjacent sedimentary horizons, and a number of faults have been modeled. Models of a partial set of the several storage caverns that have been solution-mined within the salt mass are also included. Collectively, the converted model appears to be a relatively realistic representation of the geology of the Bayou Choctaw site as known from existing data. A small number of geometric inconsistencies and other problems inherent in 2-D vs. 3-D modeling have been noted. Most of the major inconsistencies involve faults inferred from drill hole data only. Modem computer software allows visualization of the resulting site model and its component submodels with a degree of detail and flexibility that was not possible with conventional, two-dimensional and paper-based geologic maps and cross sections. The enhanced visualizations may be of particular value in conveying geologic concepts involved in the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve site to a lay audience. A Microsoft WindowsTM PC-based viewer and user-manipulable model files illustrating selected features of the converted model are included in this report.

  3. A machine learning approach to the potential-field method for implicit modeling of geological structures (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ítalo Gomes; Kumaira, Sissa; Guadagnin, Felipe


    Implicit modeling has experienced a rise in popularity over the last decade due to its advantages in terms of speed and reproducibility in comparison with manual digitization of geological structures. The potential-field method consists in interpolating a scalar function that indicates to which side of a geological boundary a given point belongs to, based on cokriging of point data and structural orientations. This work proposes a vector potential-field solution from a machine learning perspective, recasting the problem as multi-class classification, which alleviates some of the original method's assumptions. The potentials related to each geological class are interpreted in a compositional data framework. Variogram modeling is avoided through the use of maximum likelihood to train the model, and an uncertainty measure is introduced. The methodology was applied to the modeling of a sample dataset provided with the software Move™. The calculations were implemented in the R language and 3D visualizations were prepared with the rgl package.

  4. Presenting 3-D models of geological materials on the World Wide Web (United States)

    Marschallinger, R.; Johnson, S. E.


    In this article, we show how current World Wide Web technology can be used to present computerized 3-D models of geological materials. Unlike traditional, paper-based publishing, World Wide Web documents can incorporate several visualization techniques, some of which allow interactive user control. The concepts behind still images, animations, video sequences, object movies and virtual reality models are introduced. The advantages and pitfalls of the different visualization techniques are described, and their potential for the communication of 3-D models of geological materials is discussed. Web-resources providing the necessary browsing, playback and interaction software as well as specific authoring tools are referenced. In the HTML version of this article, which can be found on the accompanying CD-ROM, examples of 3-D macro- and microstructure reconstructions of geological materials are included as color images, animated sequences and interactive 3-D models.

  5. Statistical tests of simple earthquake cycle models (United States)

    DeVries, Phoebe M. R.; Evans, Eileen L.


    A central goal of observing and modeling the earthquake cycle is to forecast when a particular fault may generate an earthquake: a fault late in its earthquake cycle may be more likely to generate an earthquake than a fault early in its earthquake cycle. Models that can explain geodetic observations throughout the entire earthquake cycle may be required to gain a more complete understanding of relevant physics and phenomenology. Previous efforts to develop unified earthquake models for strike-slip faults have largely focused on explaining both preseismic and postseismic geodetic observations available across a few faults in California, Turkey, and Tibet. An alternative approach leverages the global distribution of geodetic and geologic slip rate estimates on strike-slip faults worldwide. Here we use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for similarity of distributions to infer, in a statistically rigorous manner, viscoelastic earthquake cycle models that are inconsistent with 15 sets of observations across major strike-slip faults. We reject a large subset of two-layer models incorporating Burgers rheologies at a significance level of α = 0.05 (those with long-term Maxwell viscosities ηM 4.6 × 1020 Pa s) but cannot reject models on the basis of transient Kelvin viscosity ηK. Finally, we examine the implications of these results for the predicted earthquake cycle timing of the 15 faults considered and compare these predictions to the geologic and historical record.

  6. 3D modeling of geological anomalies based on segmentation of multiattribute fusion (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Ning; Song, Cheng-Yun; Li, Zhi-Yong; Cai, Han-Peng; Yao, Xing-Miao; Hu, Guang-Min


    3D modeling of geological bodies based on 3D seismic data is used to define the shape and volume of the bodies, which then can be directly applied to reservoir prediction, reserve estimation, and exploration. However, multiattributes are not effectively used in 3D modeling. To solve this problem, we propose a novel method for building of 3D model of geological anomalies based on the segmentation of multiattribute fusion. First, we divide the seismic attributes into edge- and region-based seismic attributes. Then, the segmentation model incorporating the edge- and region-based models is constructed within the levelset-based framework. Finally, the marching cubes algorithm is adopted to extract the zero level set based on the segmentation results and build the 3D model of the geological anomaly. Combining the edge-and region-based attributes to build the segmentation model, we satisfy the independence requirement and avoid the problem of insufficient data of single seismic attribute in capturing the boundaries of geological anomalies. We apply the proposed method to seismic data from the Sichuan Basin in southwestern China and obtain 3D models of caves and channels. Compared with 3D models obtained based on single seismic attributes, the results are better agreement with reality.

  7. Setting up The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service for EPOS (United States)

    Grellet, Sylvain; Häner, Rainer; Pedersen, Mikael; Lorenz, Henning; Carter, Mary; Cipolloni, Carlo; Robida, François


    Geological data and models are key assets for the EPOS community. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS is being designed as an efficient and sustainable access system for geological multi-scale data assets for EPOS through the integration of distributed infrastructure components (nodes) of geological surveys, research institutes and the international drilling community (ICDP/IODP). The TCS will develop and take benefit of the synergy between the existing data infrastructures of the Geological Surveys of Europe (EuroGeoSurveys / OneGeology-Europe / EGDI) and of the large amount of information produced by the research organisations. These nodes will offer a broad range of resources including: geological maps, borehole data, borehole associated observations (borehole log data, groundwater level, groundwater quality…) and archived information on physical material (samples, cores), geological models (3D, 4D), geohazards, geophysical data such as active seismic data and other analyses of rocks, soils and minerals. The services will be implemented based on international standards (such as INSPIRE, IUGS/CGI, OGC, W3C, ISO) in order to guarantee their interoperability with other EPOS TCS as well as their compliance with INSPIRE European Directive or international initiatives (such as OneGeology). We present the implementation of the thematic core services for geology and modelling, including scheduling of the development of the different components. The activity with the OGC groups already started in 2016 through an ad-hoc meeting on Borehole and 3D/4D and the way both will be interlinked will also be introduced. This will provide future virtual research environments with means to facilitate the use of existing information for future applications. In addition, workflows will be established that allow the integration of other existing and new data and applications. Processing and the use of simulation and visualization tools will

  8. From new generation of remote sensing geological maps to 3-D model: the Central Kyzylkum (Western Uzbekistan) is taken as example (United States)

    Sidorova, Elena


    Geographic information systems (GIS) together with remote sensing (RS) have become powerful tools in geosciences. The application of GIS technologies in geological exploration including mapping of remote sensing geological bases represents new trend in space-geological studies. GIS technologies are a multifunctional tool of input, visualization, analysis and output of information necessary for achieving geological objectives. They enable a prompt processing of geological information for various territories and levels - from a province to ore area or deposit. A modern remote sensing geological map reflects a new level of organization of source data, and involves a vast territory and previously unknown or unused factors, which proceed from non-traditional methods of studies. This is the benefit of distance bases as they explain the structure of geological complexes but also contribute to revealing new elements that cannot be established using traditional methods of geological studies. Data obtained from computational analysis of Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and from plotting the remotely sensed geological structures are complemented by data acquired in the field using traditional mapping methods. In this paper, the new improved results are tested in the western part of Uzbekistan — the region of Central Kyzylkum, which include of numerous ore deposits. Landsat TM imagery was successfully used for geological structures recognition due to its synoptic view over large areas that allow the detection of regional geological features — faults, ring structures. Spatial information is crucial for ore structure detection; nevertheless spectral data can also help in the geological interpretation of space images. In order to combine the spatial and spectral information of Landsat TM data, panchromatic and multispectral images were fused in a synergetic imagery using PCA analysis. Edge enhancement filtering techniques were also applied on the Landsat images to facilitate

  9. Geologic heterogeneity and a comparison of two geostatistical models: Sequential Gaussian and transition probability-based geostatistical simulation (United States)

    Lee, Si-Yong; Carle, Steven F.; Fogg, Graham E.


    A covariance-based model-fitting approach is often considered valid to represent field spatial variability of hydraulic properties. This study examines the representation of geologic heterogeneity in two types of geostatistical models under the same mean and spatial covariance structure, and subsequently its effect on the hydraulic response to a pumping test based on 3D high-resolution numerical simulation and field data. Two geostatistical simulation methods, sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and transition probability indicator simulation (TPROGS) were applied to create conditional realizations of alluvial fan aquifer systems in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) area. The simulated K fields were then used in a numerical groundwater flow model to simulate a pumping test performed at the LLNL site. Spatial connectivity measures of high- K materials (channel facies) captured connectivity characteristics of each geostatistical model and revealed that the TPROGS model created an aquifer (channel) network having greater lateral connectivity. SGS realizations neglected important geologic structures associated with channel and overbank (levee) facies, even though the covariance model used to create these realizations provided excellent fits to sample covariances computed from exhaustive samplings of TPROGS realizations. Observed drawdown response in monitoring wells during a pumping test and its numerical simulation shows that in an aquifer system with strongly connected network of high- K materials, the Gaussian approach could not reproduce a similar behavior in simulated drawdown response found in TPROGS case. Overall, the simulated drawdown responses demonstrate significant disagreement between TPROGS and SGS realizations. This study showed that important geologic characteristics may not be captured by a spatial covariance model, even if that model is exhaustively determined and closely fits the exponential function.

  10. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.


    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU

  11. Hands-On Exercise in Environmental Structural Geology Using a Fracture Block Model. (United States)

    Gates, Alexander E.


    Describes the use of a scale analog model of an actual fractured rock reservoir to replace paper copies of fracture maps in the structural geology curriculum. Discusses the merits of the model in enabling students to gain experience performing standard structural analyses. (DDR)

  12. Near-surface test facility. Phase I. Geologic site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moak, D.J.; Wintczak, T.M.


    The report is a description of the geology and characterization of the rock mass of the area in which the Phase I qualification tests at the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) are being performed. The NSTF is located on Gable Mountain within the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It is located in the entablature of the Pomona Member, an upper flow in the Columbia River Basalt Group, and is approximately 150 feet (47.5 meters) below the surface. Core logging from the instrument boreholes coupled with joint mapping, statistics, and other test data provided the basis for a detailed characterization of the 16-foot x 20-foot x 28-foot (5-meter x 6-meter x 9-meter) rock masses surrounding Full-Scale Heater Tests No. 1 and No. 2. The Pomona entablature contains three joint sets delineated by their degree of dip, each with apertures averaging 0.25 millimeter and having no preferred strike orientation. Although joint frequencies in the study area exceed 4 joints per foot (13 per meter), the rock-mass classification rating is good.

  13. Desert Rats 2010 Operations Tests: Insights from the Geology Crew Members (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Hurtado, J. M., Jr.; Young, K. E.; Rice, J.; Garry, W. B.; Eppler, D.


    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of tests of NASA hardware and operations deployed in the high desert of Arizona. Conducted annually since 1997, these activities exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in relatively harsh conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable. Such activities not only test vehicle subsystems, they also stress communications and operations systems and enable testing of science operations approaches that advance human and robotic surface exploration capabilities. Desert RATS 2010 tested two crewed rovers designed as first-generation prototypes of small pressurized vehicles, consistent with exploration architecture designs. Each rover provided the internal volume necessary for crewmembers to live and work for periods up to 14 days, as well as allowing for extravehicular activities (EVAs) through the use of rear-mounted suit ports. The 2010 test was designed to simulate geologic science traverses over a 14-day period through a volcanic field that is analogous to volcanic terrains observed throughout the Solar System. The test was conducted between 31 August and 13 September 2010. Two crewmembers lived in and operated each rover for a week with a "shift change" on day 7, resulting in a total of eight test subjects for the two-week period. Each crew consisted of an engineer/commander and an experienced field geologist. Three of the engineer/commanders were experienced astronauts with at least one Space Shuttle flight. The field geologists were drawn from the scientific community, based on funded and published field expertise.

  14. Construction of 3-D geologic framework and textural models for Cuyama Valley groundwater basin, California (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Hanson, Randall T.


    Groundwater is the sole source of water supply in Cuyama Valley, a rural agricultural area in Santa Barbara County, California, in the southeasternmost part of the Coast Ranges of California. Continued groundwater withdrawals and associated water-resource management concerns have prompted an evaluation of the hydrogeology and water availability for the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Water Agency Division of the Santa Barbara County Department of Public Works. As a part of the overall groundwater evaluation, this report documents the construction of a digital three-dimensional geologic framework model of the groundwater basin suitable for use within a numerical hydrologic-flow model. The report also includes an analysis of the spatial variability of lithology and grain size, which forms the geologic basis for estimating aquifer hydraulic properties. The geologic framework was constructed as a digital representation of the interpreted geometry and thickness of the principal stratigraphic units within the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin, which include younger alluvium, older alluvium, and the Morales Formation, and underlying consolidated bedrock. The framework model was constructed by creating gridded surfaces representing the altitude of the top of each stratigraphic unit from various input data, including lithologic and electric logs from oil and gas wells and water wells, cross sections, and geologic maps. Sediment grain-size data were analyzed in both two and three dimensions to help define textural variations in the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin and identify areas with similar geologic materials that potentially have fairly uniform hydraulic properties. Sediment grain size was used to construct three-dimensional textural models that employed simple interpolation between drill holes and two-dimensional textural models for each stratigraphic unit that incorporated spatial structure of the textural data.

  15. Real-time reservoir geological model updating using the hybrid EnKF and geostatistical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Chen, S.; Yang, D. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada). Petroleum Technology Research Centre


    Reservoir simulation plays an important role in modern reservoir management. Multiple geological models are needed in order to analyze the uncertainty of a given reservoir development scenario. Ideally, dynamic data should be incorporated into a reservoir geological model. This can be done by using history matching and tuning the model to match the past performance of reservoir history. This study proposed an assisted history matching technique to accelerate and improve the matching process. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) technique, which is an efficient assisted history matching method, was integrated with a conditional geostatistical simulation technique to dynamically update reservoir geological models. The updated models were constrained to dynamic data, such as reservoir pressure and fluid saturations, and approaches geologically realistic at each time step by using the EnKF technique. The new technique was successfully applied in a heterogeneous synthetic reservoir. The uncertainty of the reservoir characterization was significantly reduced. More accurate forecasts were obtained from the updated models. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Geological maps and models: are we certain how uncertain they are? (United States)

    Mathers, Steve; Waters, Colin; McEvoy, Fiona


    Geological maps and latterly 3D models provide the spatial framework for geology at diverse scales or resolutions. As demands continue to rise for sustainable use of the subsurface, use of these maps and models is informing decisions on management of natural resources, hazards and environmental change. Inaccuracies and uncertainties in geological maps and models can impact substantially on the perception, assessment and management of opportunities and the associated risks . Lithostratigraphical classification schemes predominate, and are used in most geological mapping and modelling. The definition of unit boundaries, as 2D lines or 3D surfaces is the prime objective. The intervening area or volume is rarely described other than by its bulk attributes, those relating to the whole unit. Where sufficient data exist on the spatial and/or statistical distribution of properties it can be gridded or voxelated with integrity. Here we only discuss the uncertainty involved in defining the boundary conditions. The primary uncertainty of any geological map or model is the accuracy of the geological boundaries, i.e. tops, bases, limits, fault intersections etc. Traditionally these have been depicted on BGS maps using three line styles that reflect the uncertainty of the boundary, e.g. observed, inferred, conjectural. Most geological maps tend to neglect the subsurface expression (subcrops etc). Models could also be built with subsurface geological boundaries (as digital node strings) tagged with levels of uncertainty; initial experience suggests three levels may again be practicable. Once tagged these values could be used to autogenerate uncertainty plots. Whilst maps are predominantly explicit and based upon evidence and the conceptual the understanding of the geologist, models of this type are less common and tend to be restricted to certain software methodologies. Many modelling packages are implicit, being driven by simple statistical interpolation or complex algorithms

  17. Geo3DML: A standard-based exchange format for 3D geological models (United States)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Wang, Xianghong


    A geological model (geomodel) in three-dimensional (3D) space is a digital representation of the Earth's subsurface, recognized by geologists and stored in resultant geological data (geodata). The increasing demand for data management and interoperable applications of geomodelscan be addressed by developing standard-based exchange formats for the representation of not only a single geological object, but also holistic geomodels. However, current standards such as GeoSciML cannot incorporate all the geomodel-related information. This paper presents Geo3DML for the exchange of 3D geomodels based on the existing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. Geo3DML is based on a unified and formal representation of structural models, attribute models and hierarchical structures of interpreted resultant geodata in different dimensional views, including drills, cross-sections/geomaps and 3D models, which is compatible with the conceptual model of GeoSciML. Geo3DML aims to encode all geomodel-related information integrally in one framework, including the semantic and geometric information of geoobjects and their relationships, as well as visual information. At present, Geo3DML and some supporting tools have been released as a data-exchange standard by the China Geological Survey (CGS).

  18. The three-dimensional regional geological model of the Mura-Zala Basin, northeastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Šram


    Full Text Available The Mura-Zala sedimentary Basin is a Neogene basin with many competing geopotentials, spanning parts of Slovenia, Austria, Croatia and Hungary. Here we present the 3D regional geological model of the Slovenian part of the Mura-Zala Basin, which was developed to integrate the latest information on the geological structure of NE Slovenia and to publish the model in an open-access mode for easier and faster assessment of geopotentials. This was achieved through the harmonisation of the legacy geological models, the reinterpretation of 145 borehole logs, the construction of the 3D numerical geological model in JewelSuiteTM, and delivering it into a 3D-Explorer environment. The model comprises nine lithostratigraphical units. The Pre-Neogene basement rocks are covered by the Haloze Formation; the Špilje Formation – Badenian and Sarmatian; the Lendava Formation – turbidites and slope; the Mura Formation – delta front and delta plain; and the alluvial Ptuj-Grad Formation. The model has two principal shortcomings, related to currently unavailable seismic reflction data faults were not implemented, and the Quaternary formations were not delimited. The model is useful for regional-scale studies and may reduce geological risks related to exploration in NE Slovenia. It will also support a better assessment of geopotentials and a more feasible approach to their development, and, eventually, will enable the harmonized management of our subsurface in 3D space. This can be achieved using the 3D-Explorer platform which enables the creation of arbitrary vertical cross-sections, horizontal slices and virtual boreholes.

  19. Modelling tools for integrating geological, geophysical and contamination data for characterization of groundwater plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola

    on borehole investigations to collect the geological, hydrological, and contaminant data. These data are integrated in conceptual and mathematical models describing the lithology, the groundwater flow, and the distribution of contaminant concentrations. Models are needed to analyze the potential risks to all...... in modelling tools used for investigations of contaminated sites. This thesis presents the development of modelling tools to integrate DCIP methods with geological, hydrological and contaminant concentration data. The developed tools describe groundwater flow to meandering streams, map the distribution...... factors, including stream channel geometry. In this study, numerical models simulating groundwater flow to synthetic sinuous streams and to a real meandering stream were developed. Comparison of the models showed that groundwater discharge to streams is greatly affected by the geometry of meanders...

  20. The egg model - A geological ensemble for reservoir simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.


    The ‘Egg Model’ is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized oil reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four oil producers. It has been used in numerous publications to

  1. The egg model - A geological ensemble for reservoir simulation


    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.


    The ‘Egg Model’ is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized oil reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four oil producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate a variety of aspects related to computer-assisted flooding optimization and history matching. Unfortunately the details of the parameter settings are not always identical and not always ful...

  2. Digital surface models and the landscape: interaction between bedrock and glacial geology in the Ullapool area


    Goodenough, K.M.; Krabbendam, M.; T. Bradwell; Finlayson, A; Leslie, A. G.


    The front cover image for this volume is a hill-shaded digital surface model (DSM) of the Ullapool area, created using NEXTMap Britain elevation data from Intermap Technologies. This is a classic area for bedrock geology, transected by the Moine Thrust Zone, and in recent years has also been studied in detail for its glacial history. Perhaps equally important, this is one of Scotland’s most iconic landscapes. The geology of the area comprises a number of distinct sequences, each of which has ...

  3. Conceptual Model Summary Report Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO2 Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    A conceptual model was developed for the Arches Province that integrates geologic and hydrologic information on the Eau Claire and Mt. Simon formations into a geocellular model. The conceptual model describes the geologic setting, stratigraphy, geologic structures, hydrologic features, and distribution of key hydraulic parameters. The conceptual model is focused on the Mt. Simon sandstone and Eau Claire formations. The geocellular model depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array that may be imported into the numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, geotechnical test results, and reservoir tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km2 study area centered on the Arches Province. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional (3D) grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO2 injection. Permeability data were corrected in locations where reservoir tests have been performed in Mt. Simon injection wells. The final geocellular model covers an area of 600 km by 600 km centered on the Arches Province. The geocellular model includes a total of 24,500,000 cells representing estimated porosity and permeability distribution. CO2 injection scenarios were developed for on-site and regional injection fields at rates of 70 to 140 million metric tons per year.

  4. Groundwater Flow Systems at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada: A Synthesis of Potentiometric Contours, Hydrostratigraphy, and Geologic Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Laczniak, Randell J.


    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. The potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by groundwater transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the hydraulic-head distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. A map of the hydraulic-head distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped and discussed in general terms as being one of two types: alluvial-volcanic, or carbonate. Both aquifer types are subdivided and mapped as independent regional and local aquifers, based on the continuity of their component rock. Groundwater-flow directions, approximated from potentiometric contours that were developed from the hydraulic-head distribution, are indicated on the maps and discussed for each of the regional aquifers and for selected local aquifers. Hydraulic heads vary across the study area and are interpreted to range in altitude from greater than 5,000 feet in a regional alluvial-volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,300 feet in regional alluvial-volcanic and carbonate aquifers in the southwestern part of the study area. Flow directions throughout the study area are dominantly south-southwest with some local deviations. Vertical hydraulic

  5. Groundwater Flow Systems at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada: A Synthesis of Potentiometric Contours, Hydrostratigraphy, and Geologic Structures (United States)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Laczniak, Randell J.


    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. The potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by groundwater transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the hydraulic-head distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. A map of the hydraulic-head distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped and discussed in general terms as being one of two types: alluvial-volcanic, or carbonate. Both aquifer types are subdivided and mapped as independent regional and local aquifers, based on the continuity of their component rock. Groundwater-flow directions, approximated from potentiometric contours that were developed from the hydraulic-head distribution, are indicated on the maps and discussed for each of the regional aquifers and for selected local aquifers. Hydraulic heads vary across the study area and are interpreted to range in altitude from greater than 5,000 feet in a regional alluvial-volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,300 feet in regional alluvial-volcanic and carbonate aquifers in the southwestern part of the study area. Flow directions throughout the study area are dominantly south-southwest with some local deviations. Vertical hydraulic

  6. Testing and validating environmental models (United States)

    Kirchner, J.W.; Hooper, R.P.; Kendall, C.; Neal, C.; Leavesley, G.


    Generally accepted standards for testing and validating ecosystem models would benefit both modellers and model users. Universally applicable test procedures are difficult to prescribe, given the diversity of modelling approaches and the many uses for models. However, the generally accepted scientific principles of documentation and disclosure provide a useful framework for devising general standards for model evaluation. Adequately documenting model tests requires explicit performance criteria, and explicit benchmarks against which model performance is compared. A model's validity, reliability, and accuracy can be most meaningfully judged by explicit comparison against the available alternatives. In contrast, current practice is often characterized by vague, subjective claims that model predictions show 'acceptable' agreement with data; such claims provide little basis for choosing among alternative models. Strict model tests (those that invalid models are unlikely to pass) are the only ones capable of convincing rational skeptics that a model is probably valid. However, 'false positive' rates as low as 10% can substantially erode the power of validation tests, making them insufficiently strict to convince rational skeptics. Validation tests are often undermined by excessive parameter calibration and overuse of ad hoc model features. Tests are often also divorced from the conditions under which a model will be used, particularly when it is designed to forecast beyond the range of historical experience. In such situations, data from laboratory and field manipulation experiments can provide particularly effective tests, because one can create experimental conditions quite different from historical data, and because experimental data can provide a more precisely defined 'target' for the model to hit. We present a simple demonstration showing that the two most common methods for comparing model predictions to environmental time series (plotting model time series

  7. Geologic characteristics of sediment- and volcanic-hosted disseminated gold deposits - Search for an occurrence model (United States)

    White, Donald E.; Fournier, Robert O.; Rytuba, James J.; Rye, Robert O.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Berger, Byron R.; Silberman, Miles L.; Bonham, Harold F.; Strachan, Donald G.; Birak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Robert J.; Tooker, Edwin W.; Tooker, Edwin W.


    The current expansion of resource information, particularly on "disseminated" gold, and the improved technologies now available for resource investigations should place us in an enhanced position for developing a better predictive methodology for meeting one of the important responsibilities of the U.S. Geological Survey-to examine and assess the mineral resources of the geologic terranes composing the public (and privately owned) lands of the United States. The first step is systematic organization of these data. Geologic-occurrence models are an effective systematic method by which to organize large amounts of resource information into a logical sequence facilitating its use more effectively in meeting several industry and Survey objectives, which include the exploration for resources and the assessment of resource potential for land-use decisions. Such models also provide a scientific basis for metallogenesis research, which considers the observable features or attributes of ore occurrence and their "fit" into the Earth's resource puzzle. The use of models in making resource assessments/appraisals was addressed by Shawe (1981), who reported the results of a workshop on methods for resource appraisal of Wilderness and Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program (CUSMAP; 1:250,000-scale quadrangles) areas. The Survey's main objective in the 1982 workshop was to evaluate the status of knowledge about disseminated or very fine grained gold deposits and, if possible, to develop an occurrence model(s).This report on the workshop proceedings has three main objectives: (1) Education through the publication of a summary review and presentation of new thinking and observations about the scientific bases for those geologic processes and environments that foster disseminated gold-ore formation; (2) systematic organization of available geologic, geochemical, and geophysical information for a range of typical disseminated gold deposits (including recognition of gaps

  8. Geologic and Isotopic Models for the Carpathian Crystalline Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Coriolan Balintoni


    Full Text Available The majority of Carpathian metamorphics protoliths have TDM model Sm/Nd ages between 1.6 and 2.0 Ga. This suggests an important episode of continental crust formation after the 2.0 Ga. The Biharia lithogroup (Apuseni Mountains and the Tulghes lithogroup (East Carpathians furnished Zircon U/Pb ages from metagranitoids and acid metavolcanics, respective, around 500 Ma; this is a sign of existence of some Lower Proterozoic protoliths among Carpathian metamorphics. The bimodal intrusions which are piercing the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Paiuseni lithogroup in Highiş Massif (Apuseni Mountains have given Permian ages on Zircon U/Pb data. The Paiuseni lithogroup probably represents the fill of a rift basin of the same age. The Arieseni, Muntele Mare and Vinta granitoid intrusions from Apuseni Mountains, with U/Pb ages between Lower Devonian and Permian, indicates some contractional and extensional processes, in connection with Variscan Orogeny.

  9. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Application to Crystalline Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fascitelli, D. G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW). Two of the high priorities for UFDC disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011). These priorities are directly addressed in the UFDC Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, clay, and deep borehole disposal). This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2016 (FY 2016) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code. Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to the biosphere. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  10. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.


    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  11. Vel-IO 3D: A tool for 3D velocity model construction, optimization and time-depth conversion in 3D geological modeling workflow (United States)

    Maesano, Francesco E.; D'Ambrogi, Chiara


    We present Vel-IO 3D, a tool for 3D velocity model creation and time-depth conversion, as part of a workflow for 3D model building. The workflow addresses the management of large subsurface dataset, mainly seismic lines and well logs, and the construction of a 3D velocity model able to describe the variation of the velocity parameters related to strong facies and thickness variability and to high structural complexity. Although it is applicable in many geological contexts (e.g. foreland basins, large intermountain basins), it is particularly suitable in wide flat regions, where subsurface structures have no surface expression. The Vel-IO 3D tool is composed by three scripts, written in Python 2.7.11, that automate i) the 3D instantaneous velocity model building, ii) the velocity model optimization, iii) the time-depth conversion. They determine a 3D geological model that is consistent with the primary geological constraints (e.g. depth of the markers on wells). The proposed workflow and the Vel-IO 3D tool have been tested, during the EU funded Project GeoMol, by the construction of the 3D geological model of a flat region, 5700 km2 in area, located in the central part of the Po Plain. The final 3D model showed the efficiency of the workflow and Vel-IO 3D tool in the management of large amount of data both in time and depth domain. A 4 layer-cake velocity model has been applied to a several thousand (5000-13,000 m) thick succession, with 15 horizons from Triassic up to Pleistocene, complicated by a Mesozoic extensional tectonics and by buried thrusts related to Southern Alps and Northern Apennines.

  12. Coalbed natural gas exploration, drilling activities, and geologic test results, 2007-2010 (United States)

    Clark, Arthur C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the North Slope Borough, and the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation conducted a four-year study designed to identify, define, and delineate a shallow coalbed natural gas (CBNG) resource with the potential to provide locally produced, affordable power to the community of Wainwright, Alaska. From 2007 through 2010, drilling and testing activities conducted at three sites in or near Wainwright, identified and evaluated an approximately 7.5-ft-thick, laterally continuous coalbed that contained significant quantities of CBNG. This coalbed, subsequently named the Wainwright coalbed, was penetrated at depths ranging from 1,167 ft to 1,300 ft below land surface. Core samples were collected from the Wainwright coalbed at all three drill locations and desorbed-gas measurements were taken from seventeen 1-ft-thick sections of the core. These measurements indicate that the Wainwright coalbed contains enough CBNG to serve as a long-term energy supply for the community. Although attempts to produce viable quantities of CBNG from the Wainwright coalbed proved unsuccessful, it seems likely that with proper well-field design and by utilizing currently available drilling and reservoir stimulation techniques, this CBNG resource could be developed as a long-term economically viable energy source for Wainwright.

  13. Compilation of data used for the analysis of the geological and hydrogeological DFN models. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, Jan; Fox, Aaron; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO (Sweden))


    This report provides an overview and compilation of the various data that constitutes the basis for construction of the geological and hydrogeological discrete feature network (DFN) models as part of model version SDM-Site Laxemar. This includes a review of fracture data in boreholes and in outcrop. Furthermore, the basis for the construction of lineament maps is given as well as a review of the hydraulic test data from cored and percussion-drilled boreholes. An emphasis is put on graphical representation of borehole logs in the form of composites of geological, hydrogeological and even hydrogeochemical data in the case of cored boreholes. One major contribution is a compilation of characteristics of minor local deformation zones (MDZs) identified in cored boreholes. Basic orientation data and fracture intensity data are presented as a function of depth for individual boreholes. The coupling between hydrogeological data and geological data is further refined in plots of Posiva flow log (PFL) data vs. geological single hole interpretation data

  14. Reprint of “3D geological modelling from boreholes, cross-sections and geological maps, application over former natural gas storages in coal mines” [Comput. Geosci. 34 (2008) 278 290 (United States)

    Kaufmann, Olivier; Martin, Thierry


    In a wide range of applications involving geological modelling, geological data available at low cost usually consist of documents such as cross-sections or geological maps and punctual data like borehole logs or outcrop descriptions. In order to build accurate 3D geological models based on this information, it is necessary to develop a methodology that takes into account the variety of available data. Such models, of the geometry of geological bodies, should also be easy to edit and update to integrate new data. This kind of model should produce a consistent representation of subsurface geology that may be a support for modelling other subsoil characteristics such as hydrogeologic or geothermic properties of the geological bodies. This paper presents a methodology developed to process geological information in this context. The aims of this methodology are comprehensive data description, effective data validation and easier model updates. Thus, special attention has been given to data structures and processing flows. The adopted methodology is implemented on a system architecture formed by a geographic information system, a geomodeler and a database communicating by file transfers. An application of this methodology, to build a 3D geological model of the subsoil over former coalmines used to store natural gas, is then presented. This model integrates the geological information available and is representative of the geological context. It is a support to the environmental follow-up needed after the end of gas-storage operations.

  15. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS imagery using snow enhancement techniques. [geological mapping of New England test area (United States)

    Wobber, F. J.; Martin, K. R. (Principal Investigator); Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.


    The author has identified the following significant results. The procedure for conducting a regional geological mapping program utilizing snow-enhanced ERTS-1 imagery has been summarized. While it is recognized that mapping procedures in geological programs will vary from area to area and from geologist to geologist, it is believed that the procedure tested in this project is applicable over a wide range of mapping programs. The procedure is designed to maximize the utility and value of ERTS-1 imagery and aerial photography within the initial phase of geological mapping programs. Sample products which represent interim steps in the mapping formula (e.g. the ERTS Fracture-Lineament Map) have been prepared. A full account of these procedures and products will be included within the Snow Enhancement Users Manual.

  16. Digital Geologic Map of the Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California (United States)

    Slate, Janet L.; Berry, Margaret E.; Rowley, Peter D.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; Morgan, Karen S.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Young, Owen D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Williams, Van S.; McKee, Edwin H.; Ponce, David A.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Swadley, W.C.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Warren, Richard G.; Cole, James C.; Fleck, Robert J.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Sawyer, David A.; Minor, Scott A.; Grunwald, Daniel J.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Menges, Christopher M.; Yount, James C.; Jayko, Angela S.


    This digital geologic map of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity, as well as its accompanying digital geophysical maps, are compiled at 1:100,000 scale. The map compilation presents new polygon (geologic map unit contacts), line (fault, fold axis, metamorphic isograd, dike, and caldera wall) and point (structural attitude) vector data for the NTS and vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California. The map area covers two 30 x 60-minute quadrangles-the Pahute Mesa quadrangle to the north and the Beatty quadrangle to the south-plus a strip of 7.5-minute quadrangles on the east side-72 quadrangles in all. In addition to the NTS, the map area includes the rest of the southwest Nevada volcanic field, part of the Walker Lane, most of the Amargosa Desert, part of the Funeral and Grapevine Mountains, some of Death Valley, and the northern Spring Mountains. This geologic map improves on previous geologic mapping of the same area (Wahl and others, 1997) by providing new and updated Quaternary and bedrock geology, new geophysical interpretations of faults beneath the basins, and improved GIS coverages. Concurrent publications to this one include a new isostatic gravity map (Ponce and others, 1999) and a new aeromagnetic map (Ponce, 1999).

  17. High resolution numerical modelling of high temperature heat storage in geological media (United States)

    Boockmeyer, Anke; Bauer, Sebastian


    Increasing use of energy stemming from renewable sources, such as wind or solar power plants, requires development of new and improvement of existing energy storage options on different time scales. One potential storage option is high temperature heat storage with temperatures of up to 100°C in the geological subsurface using borehole heat exchanger (BHE). Numerical scenario simulations are performed to assess feasibility and storage capacity and, furthermore, to predict the effects induced. To allow for accurate and reliable results, the BHE must be represented correctly and realistic in the numerical model. Therefore, a detailed model of a single BHE and the surrounding aquifer, accounting for the full geometry and component parametrisation (circulating working fluid, pipe and grout), is set up. This model setup is used to simulate an experimental data set from a laboratory sandbox by Beier et al. (2011), containing an 18 m long single U-tube BHE centered horizontally along it. Temperature curves observed in different radial distances as well as at the pipe outflow can be matched well with the model setup used, which is thus verified. Potential geological formations for high temperature heat storage are located in greater depths below fresh water aquifers that are used for drinking water. Therefore, the above model is adapted to represent a 100 m long vertical double U-tube BHE placed in an average depth of 500 m. The processes of heat transport and groundwater flow are coupled by water density and viscosity, which both depend on pressure and temperature. A sensitivity study is done to quantify the effects of the thermal parameters of grout and aquifer on the amount of heat stored and the temperature distribution in the aquifer. It was found that the amount of heat stored through the BHE is most sensitive to the heat conductivity of the aquifer. Increasing the aquifer heat conductivity by 50 % increases the amount of heat stored in the numerical model by 30

  18. Model-Based Security Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Schieferdecker


    Full Text Available Security testing aims at validating software system requirements related to security properties like confidentiality, integrity, authentication, authorization, availability, and non-repudiation. Although security testing techniques are available for many years, there has been little approaches that allow for specification of test cases at a higher level of abstraction, for enabling guidance on test identification and specification as well as for automated test generation. Model-based security testing (MBST is a relatively new field and especially dedicated to the systematic and efficient specification and documentation of security test objectives, security test cases and test suites, as well as to their automated or semi-automated generation. In particular, the combination of security modelling and test generation approaches is still a challenge in research and of high interest for industrial applications. MBST includes e.g. security functional testing, model-based fuzzing, risk- and threat-oriented testing, and the usage of security test patterns. This paper provides a survey on MBST techniques and the related models as well as samples of new methods and tools that are under development in the European ITEA2-project DIAMONDS.

  19. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, L.B., Townsend, M.J.; Drellack, S.L. Jr. [and others


    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1.

  20. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland. Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, A.; Forchhammer, K.; Pettersson, A. [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); La Pointe, P.; Lim, D-H. [Golder Associates Inc. (Finland)


    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modeling team in the production of the 2010 revision to the geological discrete fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 565m; deformation zones are expressly excluded from the DFN model. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modeling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is selected to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches, geological and structural data from cored drillholes, and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory. Unlike the initial geological DFN, which was focused on the vicinity of the ONKALO tunnel, the 2010 revisions present a model parameterization for the entire island. Fracture domains are based on the tectonic subdivisions at the site (northern, central, and southern tectonic units) presented in the Geological Site Model (GSM), and are further subdivided along the intersection of major brittle-ductile zones. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east that is subparallel to the mean bedrock foliation direction, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking approximately east-west. The subhorizontally-dipping fractures

  1. Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS), established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS; formerly the Nevada Test Site) that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The initial NCNS project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment at the NNSS (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks at the Climax stock in northern Yucca Flat. The SPE-N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The data will be used to improve the predictive capability of calculational models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. The first SPE-N test (SPE-N-1) was a “calibration” shot conducted in May 2011, using 100 kilograms (kg) of explosives at the depth of 54.9 meters (m) (180 feet [ft]) in the U-15n source hole. SPE-N-2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1,000 kg of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m (150 ft) in the same source hole. Following the SPE-N-2 test, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE-N-2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The desire was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast side, where the core hole penetrated it. The three-dimensional shape and symmetry of the damage zone are unknown at this time. Rather than spherical in shape, the dimensions of the damage zone could be influenced by the natural fracture sets in the vicinity. Geologic characterization of the borehole included geophysical logging, a directional survey

  2. Model Comparison and Uncertainty Quantification for Geologic Carbon Storage. The Sim-SEQ Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hou, Zhangshuan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gosink, Luke J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bacon, Diana H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doughty, Christine A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, J. J. [Shell (China) Innovation and R& D Centre, Beijing (China); Wei, L. [Shell (China) Innovation and R& D Centre, Beijing (China); Gasda, S. [Centre for Integrated Petroleum Research, Bergen (Norway); Bacci, Giacomo [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Govindan, Rajesh [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Shi, Ji-Quan [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Yamamoto, H. [Taisei Corporation (Japan); Ramanathan, Ramya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nicot, Jean-Philippe [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Hosseini, Seyyed [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bonneville, Alain [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Sim-SEQ is a model comparison initiative for geologic carbon storage (GCS). In Sim-SEQ, fifteen different modeling teams are developing conceptual models for flow and transport of an injected CO2 plume at the Sim-SEQ study site (or the S-3 site) located near Cranfield, Mississippi. The objective of the project is to understand the sources of model uncertainty in GCS, and if possible, to quantify these uncertainties through comparison of the different conceptual models and also through comparison with observed data from the S-3 site. In this paper, we compare six different conceptual models of the S-3 site, and present a preliminary uncertainty analysis of these six models using a generalized linear model approach. We show that differences in model conceptualization and interpretation of site characterization data caus a significant range in predictions.

  3. Transition probability-based stochastic geological modeling using airborne geophysical data and borehole data (United States)

    He, Xin; Koch, Julian; Sonnenborg, Torben O.; Jørgensen, Flemming; Schamper, Cyril; Christian Refsgaard, Jens


    Geological heterogeneity is a very important factor to consider when developing geological models for hydrological purposes. Using statistically based stochastic geological simulations, the spatial heterogeneity in such models can be accounted for. However, various types of uncertainties are associated with both the geostatistical method and the observation data. In the present study, TProGS is used as the geostatistical modeling tool to simulate structural heterogeneity for glacial deposits in a head water catchment in Denmark. The focus is on how the observation data uncertainty can be incorporated in the stochastic simulation process. The study uses two types of observation data: borehole data and airborne geophysical data. It is commonly acknowledged that the density of the borehole data is usually too sparse to characterize the horizontal heterogeneity. The use of geophysical data gives an unprecedented opportunity to obtain high-resolution information and thus to identify geostatistical properties more accurately especially in the horizontal direction. However, since such data are not a direct measurement of the lithology, larger uncertainty of point estimates can be expected as compared to the use of borehole data. We have proposed a histogram probability matching method in order to link the information on resistivity to hydrofacies, while considering the data uncertainty at the same time. Transition probabilities and Markov Chain models are established using the transformed geophysical data. It is shown that such transformation is in fact practical; however, the cutoff value for dividing the resistivity data into facies is difficult to determine. The simulated geological realizations indicate significant differences of spatial structure depending on the type of conditioning data selected. It is to our knowledge the first time that grid-to-grid airborne geophysical data including the data uncertainty are used in conditional geostatistical simulations in TPro

  4. Geological and geophysical modeling on virtual globes using KML, COLLADA, and Javascript (United States)

    De Paor, Declan G.; Whitmeyer, Steven J.


    Keyhole Markup Language (KML) has become established as the universal standard for scientific research using virtual globes such as Google Earth and NASA World Wind. We use KML to render geological maps and link associated COLLADA models to represent data such as structural orientations, cross-sections, and geophysical moment tensor solutions. Many other geologists and geophysicists have draped digital maps over a virtual globe's terrain, but some have paid little attention to the problems of image file size and orientation conservation. To maintain application responsiveness and enhance interactivity, we have created data pyramids matching Google Earth's own image pyramids for terrain rendering. This is critical in areas of the world where the terrain is poorly rendered, such as our field areas in the west of Ireland. Following four weeks in the field, we constructed data pyramid structures by hand and coded KML to control data fade-in and blending. This resulted in geological maps that show content appropriate to the current level of detail as defined by the tag in KML. Recent and current implementations of standard KML (versions 1.0 through 2.2) have limitations when it comes to mapping and modeling of subsurface geological and geophysical features. Initially, we overcame these limitations by rendering data in the style of seismic first motion "beach balls" hovering over their respective hypo-centers, and we developed KML code that permits COLLADA models to emerge from the subsurface using the Google Earth slider control. Our latest work includes subsurface views that are made possible by using the Google Earth application program interface (API) with multiple Javascript controls. The methods we have developed are applicable to a wide range of geological and geophysical mapping and modeling problems and have potential uses in both geoscience research and education.

  5. Multi-scale interactions of geological processes during mineralization: cascade dynamics model and multifractal simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yao


    Full Text Available Relations between mineralization and certain geological processes are established mostly by geologist's knowledge of field observations. However, these relations are descriptive and a quantitative model of how certain geological processes strengthen or hinder mineralization is not clear, that is to say, the mechanism of the interactions between mineralization and the geological framework has not been thoroughly studied. The dynamics behind these interactions are key in the understanding of fractal or multifractal formations caused by mineralization, among which singularities arise due to anomalous concentration of metals in narrow space. From a statistical point of view, we think that cascade dynamics play an important role in mineralization and studying them can reveal the nature of the various interactions throughout the process. We have constructed a multiplicative cascade model to simulate these dynamics. The probabilities of mineral deposit occurrences are used to represent direct results of mineralization. Multifractal simulation of probabilities of mineral potential based on our model is exemplified by a case study dealing with hydrothermal gold deposits in southern Nova Scotia, Canada. The extent of the impacts of certain geological processes on gold mineralization is related to the scale of the cascade process, especially to the maximum cascade division number nmax. Our research helps to understand how the singularity occurs during mineralization, which remains unanswered up to now, and the simulation may provide a more accurate distribution of mineral deposit occurrences that can be used to improve the results of the weights of evidence model in mapping mineral potential.

  6. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management


    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line

  7. Bayesian inversion of seismic attributes for geological facies using a Hidden Markov Model (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Curtis, Andrew


    Markov chain Monte-Carlo (McMC) sampling generates correlated random samples such that their distribution would converge to the true distribution only as the number of samples tends to infinity. In practice, McMC is found to be slow to converge, convergence is not guaranteed to be achieved in finite time, and detection of convergence requires the use of subjective criteria. Although McMC has been used for decades as the algorithm of choice for inference in complex probability distributions, there is a need to seek alternative approaches, particularly in high dimensional problems. Walker & Curtis (2014) developed a method for Bayesian inversion of 2-D spatial data using an exact sampling alternative to McMC which always draws independent samples of the target distribution. Their method thus obviates the need for convergence and removes the concomitant bias exhibited by finite sample sets. Their algorithm is nevertheless computationally intensive and requires large memory. We propose a more efficient method for Bayesian inversion of categorical variables, such as geological facies that requires no sampling at all. The method is based on a 2-D Hidden Markov Model (2D-HMM) over a grid of cells where observations represent localized data constraining each cell. The data in our example application are seismic attributes such as P- and S-wave impedances and rock density; our categorical variables are the hidden states and represent the geological rock types in each cell-facies of distinct subsets of lithology and fluid combinations such as shale, brine-sand and gas-sand. The observations at each location are assumed to be generated from a random function of the hidden state (facies) at that location, and to be distributed according to a certain probability distribution that is independent of hidden states at other locations - an assumption referred to as `localized likelihoods'. The hidden state (facies) at a location cannot be determined solely by the observation at that

  8. Geology, water supply, and waste disposal at sites II and IIA, burial ground D, and vicinity, national reactor testing station, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voegeli, P. T.; Deutson, M.


    The problems of geology, water-supply, and waste disposal at the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS), Idaho are studied. The geologic and hydrologic information about sites II and IIA are summarized. Information about the physical properties of geologic materials is summarized. Information obtained from deep test holes and wells near the mapped area and data from test pits and shallow test holes within the area are included. Chemical analysis of samples of ground water was performed. Ion exchange tests of sediments were also performed. These results are included. (DC)

  9. Geologically based model of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity in an alluvial setting (United States)

    Fogg, Graham E.; Noyes, Charles D.; Carle, Steven F.

    Information on sediment texture and spatial continuity are inherent to sedimentary depositional facies descriptions, which are therefore potentially good predictors of spatially varying hydraulic conductivity (K). Analysis of complex alluvial heterogeneity in Livermore Valley, California, USA, using relatively abundant core descriptions and field pumping-test data, demonstrates a depositional-facies approach to characterization of subsurface heterogeneity. Conventional textural classifications of the core show a poor correlation with K; however, further refinement of the textural classifications into channel, levee, debris-flow, and flood-plain depositional facies reveals a systematic framework for spatial modeling of K. This geologic framework shows that most of the system is composed of very low-K flood-plain materials, and that the K measurements predominantly represent the other, higher-K facies. Joint interpretation of both the K and geologic data shows that spatial distribution of K in this system could not be adequately modeled without geologic data and analysis. Furthermore, it appears that K should not be assumed to be log-normally distributed, except perhaps within each facies. Markov chain modeling of transition probability, representing spatial correlation within and among the facies, captures the relevant geologic features while highlighting a new approach for statistical characterization of hydrofacies spatial variability. The presence of fining-upward facies sequences, cross correlation between facies, as well as other geologic attributes captured by the Markov chains provoke questions about the suitability of conventional geostatistical approaches based on variograms or covariances for modeling geologic heterogeneity. Résumé Les informations sur la texture des sédiments et leur continuité spatiale font partie des descriptions de faciès sédimentaires de dépôt. Par conséquent, ces descriptions sont d'excellents prédicteurs potentiels des

  10. U.S. Geological Survey: A synopsis of Three-dimensional Modeling (United States)

    Jacobsen, Linda J.; Glynn, Pierre D.; Phelps, Geoff A.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Grauch, V.J.S.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a multidisciplinary agency that provides assessments of natural resources (geological, hydrological, biological), the disturbances that affect those resources, and the disturbances that affect the built environment, natural landscapes, and human society. Until now, USGS map products have been generated and distributed primarily as 2-D maps, occasionally providing cross sections or overlays, but rarely allowing the ability to characterize and understand 3-D systems, how they change over time (4-D), and how they interact. And yet, technological advances in monitoring natural resources and the environment, the ever-increasing diversity of information needed for holistic assessments, and the intrinsic 3-D/4-D nature of the information obtained increases our need to generate, verify, analyze, interpret, confirm, store, and distribute its scientific information and products using 3-D/4-D visualization, analysis, modeling tools, and information frameworks. Today, USGS scientists use 3-D/4-D tools to (1) visualize and interpret geological information, (2) verify the data, and (3) verify their interpretations and models. 3-D/4-D visualization can be a powerful quality control tool in the analysis of large, multidimensional data sets. USGS scientists use 3-D/4-D technology for 3-D surface (i.e., 2.5-D) visualization as well as for 3-D volumetric analyses. Examples of geological mapping in 3-D include characterization of the subsurface for resource assessments, such as aquifer characterization in the central United States, and for input into process models, such as seismic hazards in the western United States.

  11. Basalt models for the Mars penetrator mission: Geology of the Amboy Lava Field, California (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Bunch, T. E.


    Amboy lava field (San Bernardino County, California) is a Holocene basalt flow selected as a test site for potential Mars Penetrators. A discussion is presented of (1) the general relations of basalt flow features and textures to styles of eruptions on earth, (2) the types of basalt flows likely to be encountered on Mars and the rationale for selection of the Amboy lava field as a test site, (3) the general geology of the Amboy lava field, and (4) detailed descriptions of the target sites at Amboy lava field.

  12. Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, M. J.; Huckins-Gang, H. E.; Prothro, L. B.; Reed, D. N.


    The National Center for Nuclear Security, established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The initial project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks. The SPE-N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The results will help advance the seismic monitoring capability of the United States by improving the predictive capability of physics-based modeling of explosive phenomena. The first SPE N (SPE-N-1) test was conducted in May 2011, using 100 kg of explosives at the depth of 54.9 m in the U 15n source hole. SPE-N-2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1,000 kg of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m in the same source hole. The SPE-N-3 test was conducted in the same source hole in July 2012, using the same amount and type of explosive as for SPE-N-2, and at the same depth as SPE-N-2, within the damage zone created by the SPE-N-2 explosion to investigate damage effects on seismic wave propagation. Following the SPE-N-2 shot and prior to the SPE-N-3 shot, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE-N-2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The objective was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast, where the core hole penetrated it, and obtain information on the properties of the damaged medium. Geologic characterization of the post-SPE-N-2 core hole included


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini


    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic

  14. How Old? Tested and Trouble-Free Ways to Convey Geologic Time (United States)

    Clary, Renee


    Geologic time, or the time frame of our planet's history, is several orders of magnitude greater than general human understanding of "time." When students hear that our planet has a 4.6-billion-year history, they do not necessarily comprehend the magnitude of deep time, the huge expanse of time that has passed from the origin of Earth through the…

  15. Stochastic simulation by image quilting of process-based geological models (United States)

    Hoffimann, Júlio; Scheidt, Céline; Barfod, Adrian; Caers, Jef


    Process-based modeling offers a way to represent realistic geological heterogeneity in subsurface models. The main limitation lies in conditioning such models to data. Multiple-point geostatistics can use these process-based models as training images and address the data conditioning problem. In this work, we further develop image quilting as a method for 3D stochastic simulation capable of mimicking the realism of process-based geological models with minimal modeling effort (i.e. parameter tuning) and at the same time condition them to a variety of data. In particular, we develop a new probabilistic data aggregation method for image quilting that bypasses traditional ad-hoc weighting of auxiliary variables. In addition, we propose a novel criterion for template design in image quilting that generalizes the entropy plot for continuous training images. The criterion is based on the new concept of voxel reuse-a stochastic and quilting-aware function of the training image. We compare our proposed method with other established simulation methods on a set of process-based training images of varying complexity, including a real-case example of stochastic simulation of the buried-valley groundwater system in Denmark.

  16. Silo model tests with sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures...

  17. Digital map of the test-hole and well data used to estimate the configuration of the base of the principal aquifer and the geologic units underlying the principal aquifer in the Elkhorn-Loup model area, north-central Nebraska (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District (NRD), Lower Elkhorn NRD, Lower Loup NRD, Lower Platte North...

  18. Mathematical programming (MP) model to determine optimal transportation infrastructure for geologic CO2 storage in the Illinois basin (United States)

    Rehmer, Donald E.

    Analysis of results from a mathematical programming model were examined to 1) determine the least cost options for infrastructure development of geologic storage of CO2 in the Illinois Basin, and 2) perform an analysis of a number of CO2 emission tax and oil price scenarios in order to implement development of the least-cost pipeline networks for distribution of CO2. The model, using mixed integer programming, tested the hypothesis of whether viable EOR sequestration sites can serve as nodal points or hubs to expand the CO2 delivery infrastructure to more distal locations from the emissions sources. This is in contrast to previous model results based on a point-to- point model having direct pipeline segments from each CO2 capture site to each storage sink. There is literature on the spoke and hub problem that relates to airline scheduling as well as maritime shipping. A large-scale ship assignment problem that utilized integer linear programming was run on Excel Solver and described by Mourao et al., (2001). Other literature indicates that aircraft assignment in spoke and hub routes can also be achieved using integer linear programming (Daskin and Panayotopoulos, 1989; Hane et al., 1995). The distribution concept is basically the reverse of the "tree and branch" type (Rothfarb et al., 1970) gathering systems for oil and natural gas that industry has been developing for decades. Model results indicate that the inclusion of hubs as variables in the model yields lower transportation costs for geologic carbon dioxide storage over previous models of point-to-point infrastructure geometries. Tabular results and GIS maps of the selected scenarios illustrate that EOR sites can serve as nodal points or hubs for distribution of CO2 to distal oil field locations as well as deeper saline reservoirs. Revenue amounts and capture percentages both show an improvement over solutions when the hubs are not allowed to come into the solution. Other results indicate that geologic

  19. Nuclear Waste Facing the Test of Time: The Case of the French Deep Geological Repository Project. (United States)

    Poirot-Delpech, Sophie; Raineau, Laurence


    The purpose of this article is to consider the socio-anthropological issues raised by the deep geological repository project for high-level, long-lived nuclear waste. It is based on fieldwork at a candidate site for a deep storage project in eastern France, where an underground laboratory has been studying the feasibility of the project since 1999. A project of this nature, based on the possibility of very long containment (hundreds of thousands of years, if not longer), involves a singular form of time. By linking project performance to geology's very long timescale, the project attempts "jump" in time, focusing on a far distant future, without understanding it in terms of generations. But these future generations remain measurements of time on the surface, where the issue of remembering or forgetting the repository comes to the fore. The nuclear waste geological storage project raises questions that neither politicians nor scientists, nor civil society, have ever confronted before. This project attempts to address a problem that exists on a very long timescale, which involves our responsibility toward generations in the far future.

  20. Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca


    ABSTRACT Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage Rebecca Allen Geological CO2 storage is an engineering feat that has been undertaken around the world for more than two decades, thus accurate modeling of flow and transport behavior is of practical importance. Diffusive and convective transport are relevant processes for buoyancy-driven convection of CO2 into underlying fluid, a scenario that has received the attention of numerous modeling studies. While most studies focus on Darcy-scale modeling of this scenario, relatively little work exists at the pore-scale. In this work, properties evaluated at the pore-scale are used to investigate the transport behavior modeled at the Darcy-scale. We compute permeability and two different forms of tortuosity, namely hydraulic and diffusive. By generating various pore ge- ometries, we find hydraulic and diffusive tortuosity can be quantitatively different in the same pore geometry by up to a factor of ten. As such, we emphasize that these tortuosities should not be used interchangeably. We find pore geometries that are characterized by anisotropic permeability can also exhibit anisotropic diffusive tortuosity. This finding has important implications for buoyancy-driven convection modeling; when representing the geological formation with an anisotropic permeabil- ity, it is more realistic to also account for an anisotropic diffusivity. By implementing a non-dimensional model that includes both a vertically and horizontally orientated 5 Rayleigh number, we interpret our findings according to the combined effect of the anisotropy from permeability and diffusive tortuosity. In particular, we observe the Rayleigh ratio may either dampen or enhance the diffusing front, and our simulation data is used to express the time of convective onset as a function of the Rayleigh ratio. Also, we implement a lattice Boltzmann model for thermal convective flows, which we treat as an analog for

  1. Intermediate Scale Laboratory Testing to Understand Mechanisms of Capillary and Dissolution Trapping during Injection and Post-Injection of CO2 in Heterogeneous Geological Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illangasekare, Tissa [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Trevisan, Luca [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Agartan, Elif [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mori, Hiroko [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Vargas-Johnson, Javier [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Gonzalez-Nicolas, Ana [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Cihan, Abdullah [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Quanlin [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)


    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) represents a technology aimed to reduce atmospheric loading of CO2 from power plants and heavy industries by injecting it into deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers. A number of trapping mechanisms contribute to effective and secure storage of the injected CO2 in supercritical fluid phase (scCO2) in the formation over the long term. The primary trapping mechanisms are structural, residual, dissolution and mineralization. Knowledge gaps exist on how the heterogeneity of the formation manifested at all scales from the pore to the site scales affects trapping and parameterization of contributing mechanisms in models. An experimental and modeling study was conducted to fill these knowledge gaps. Experimental investigation of fundamental processes and mechanisms in field settings is not possible as it is not feasible to fully characterize the geologic heterogeneity at all relevant scales and gathering data on migration, trapping and dissolution of scCO2. Laboratory experiments using scCO2 under ambient conditions are also not feasible as it is technically challenging and cost prohibitive to develop large, two- or three-dimensional test systems with controlled high pressures to keep the scCO2 as a liquid. Hence, an innovative approach that used surrogate fluids in place of scCO2 and formation brine in multi-scale, synthetic aquifers test systems ranging in scales from centimeter to meter scale developed used. New modeling algorithms were developed to capture the processes controlled by the formation heterogeneity, and they were tested using the data from the laboratory test systems. The results and findings are expected to contribute toward better conceptual models, future improvements to DOE numerical codes, more accurate assessment of storage capacities, and optimized placement strategies. This report presents the experimental and modeling methods

  2. Geological and Geophysical Models Underneath Bucharest City Responsible for the Variability of Seismic Site Effects (United States)

    Bala, A.; Aldea, A.; Balan, S. F.; Arion, C.


    assembled which contains: Vp and Vs values for each sedimentary layer, density and geologic characteristics of each layer, which are the basic data for equivalent linear modelling of the site; other geotechnical parameters measured in the laboratory on the rock samples will permit the nonlinear modelling of the site. Using the program SHAKE2000 and EERA we compute spectral acceleration functions at specific depths and transfer functions for the 1D models obtained from the in situ measurements. The acceleration response spectra correspond to the wave amplifications due to the package of sedimentary layers from 50 m depth (maximum depth) up to the surface, that are expected for a moderate real earthquake motion incident at the bottom of each 1D model. Because of the lack of outcropping bedrock in the Bucharest area, a seismic signal recorded in a borehole (PRI - 50 m depth; TEI- 78 m depth; INC - 140 m depth) at a moderate earthquake (Mw= 6), is used as input for the entire study area. 1D models obtained were tested in order to strengthen the importance of various input parameters in the obtained results. The results of the equivalent linear modeling with SHAKE2000 program for the 10 boreholes are presented and compared as graphs of spectral acceleration. The maximum values of the spectral accelerations occur around the 3 main the periods: T1 = 0.13 s; T2 = 0.2 s; T3 = 0.55 s. The highest values occured at the period T2 = 0.2 s, and they are between 0.22 g and 0.48 g. If we consider a comparison of the values at surface, they are between 0.22 g at Romanian Shooting Fed. (northern part of Bucharest) and 0.48 g (Ecologic Univ. in the central part of Bucharest).

  3. Engineering geology model of the Crater Lake outlet, Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand, to inform rim breakout hazard (United States)

    Cook, Stefan C. W.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Villeneuve, Marlène C.


    Mt. Ruapehu, in the central North Island of New Zealand, hosts a hot acidic Crater Lake over the active volcanic vent with a surface elevation of c. 2530 m.a.s.l. Volcanic activity and other montane processes have previously resulted in catastrophic releases of some or all of the c. 10 Mm3 of water retained in the lake, creating serious hazards downstream. A major lahar in March 2007 exposed a 10 m high face representative of the rock units impounding the lake, providing an opportunity to conduct both field and laboratory analysis to characterise the rock mass conditions at the outlet to assess the stability of the outlet area. This paper presents an engineering geology model of Crater Lake outlet. Our model shows three andesitic geological units at the outlet, each with different geological histories and physical and mechanical properties, which impact its stability. Geotechnical methods used to characterise the outlet include laboratory testing of the strength, stiffness, porosity and unit weight, and field-based rock mass characterisation using the geological strength index (GSI) and rock mass rating (RMR). Field observations, geomorphology mapping, historic and contemporary photographs, and laboratory results are combined to create cross sections that provide key information for establishing the engineering geology model. The units are recognised in what is informally termed the Crater Lake Formation: i) The upper surface layer is a c. 2 m thick sub-horizontal dark grey lava unit (Armoured Lava Ledge) with sub-horizontal cooling joints spaced at 0.2 m to 2.0 m intervals. The intact rock has a porosity range of 15-27%, density range of 1723-2101 kg/m3, GSI range of 45-75, and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) range of 19-48 MPa. ii) Below this, and outcropping down the majority of the outlet waterfall is a poorly sorted breccia unit composed of block and matrix material (Lava Breccia). The blocks range from 0.1 m to 0.8 m in diameter with an average porosity

  4. Study on fine geological modelling of the fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oilfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhoa Han-Qing [Daqing Research Institute, Helongjiang (China)


    These paper aims at developing a method for fine reservoir description in maturing oilfields by using close spaced well logging data. The main productive reservoirs in Daqing oilfield is a set of large fluvial-deltaic deposits in the Songliao Lake Basin, characterized by multi-layers and serious heterogeneities. Various fluvial channel sandstone reservoirs cover a fairly important proportion of reserves. After a long period of water flooding, most of them have turned into high water cut layers, but there are considerable residual reserves within them, which are difficult to find and tap. Making fine reservoir description and developing sound a geological model is essential for tapping residual oil and enhancing oil recovery. The principal reason for relative lower precision of predicting model developed by using geostatistics is incomplete recognition of complex distribution of fluvial reservoirs and their internal architecture`s. Tasking advantage of limited outcrop data from other regions (suppose no outcrop data available in oilfield) can only provide the knowledge of subtle changing of reservoir parameters and internal architecture. For the specific geometry distribution and internal architecture of subsurface reservoirs (such as in produced regions) can be gained only from continuous infilling logging well data available from studied areas. For developing a geological model, we think the first important thing is to characterize sandbodies geometries and their general architecture`s, which are the framework of models, and then the slight changing of interwell parameters and internal architecture`s, which are the contents and cells of the model. An excellent model should possess both of them, but the geometry is the key to model, because it controls the contents and cells distribution within a model.

  5. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies (United States)

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.


    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like a medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernel approach allows one to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to be performed in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to be constructed. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon-gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless for constraining the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly, the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for the La Soufrière volcano of Guadeloupe.

  6. Transboundary study of the Milk River aquifer (Canada, USA): geological, conceptual and numerical models for the sound management of the regional groundwater resources (United States)

    Pétré, Marie-Amélie; Rivera, Alfonso; Lefebvre, René


    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), a semi-arid and water-short region. The extensive use of this regional sandstone aquifer over the 20th century has led to a major drop in water levels locally, and concerns about the durability of the resources have been raised since the mid-1950. Even though the Milk River Aquifer (MRA) has been studied for decades, most of the previous studies were limited by the international border, preventing a sound understanding of the aquifer dynamics. Yet, a complete portrait of the aquifer is required for proper management of this shared resource. The transboundary study of the MRA aims to overcome transboundary limitations by providing a comprehensive characterization of the groundwater resource at the aquifer scale, following a three-stage approach: 1) The development of a 3D unified geological model of the MRA (50,000 km2). The stratigraphic framework on both sides of the border was harmonized and various sources of geological data were unified to build the transboundary geological model. The delineation of the aquifer and the geometry and thicknesses of the geological units were defined continuously across the border. 2) Elaboration of a conceptual hydrogeological model by linking hydrogeological and geochemical data with the 3D unified geological model. This stage is based on a thorough literature review and focused complementary field work on both sides of the border. The conceptual model includes the determination of the groundwater flow pattern, the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties, a groundwater budget and the definition of the groundwater types. Isotopes (3H, 14C, 36Cl) were used to delineate the recharge area as well as the active and low-flow areas. 3) The building of a 3D numerical groundwater flow model of the MRA (26,000 km2). This model is a transposition of the geological and hydrogeological conceptual models. A pre

  7. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.


    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act over multiple spatial and temporal scales. One example involves centimeter-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO 2 region leading to large-scale convective mixing that can be a significant driver for CO 2 dissolution. Another example is the potentially important effect of capillary forces, in addition to buoyancy and viscous forces, on the evolution of mobile CO 2. Local capillary effects lead to a capillary transition zone, or capillary fringe, where both fluids are present in the mobile state. This small-scale effect may have a significant impact on large-scale plume migration as well as long-term residual and dissolution trapping. Computational models that can capture both large and small-scale effects are essential to predict the role of these processes on the long-term storage security of CO 2 sequestration operations. Conventional modeling tools are unable to resolve sufficiently all of these relevant processes when modeling CO 2 migration in large-scale geological systems. Herein, we present a vertically-integrated approach to CO 2 modeling that employs upscaled representations of these subgrid processes. We apply the model to the Johansen formation, a prospective site for sequestration of Norwegian CO 2 emissions, and explore the sensitivity of CO 2 migration and trapping to subscale physics. Model results show the relative importance of different physical processes in large-scale simulations. The ability of models such as this to capture the relevant physical processes at large spatial and temporal scales is important for prediction and analysis of CO 2 storage sites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Multidisciplinary study of Wyoming test sites. [hydrology, biology, geology, lithology, geothermal, and land use (United States)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Marrs, R. W.; Agard, S. S.; Downing, K. G.; Earle, J. L.; Froman, N. L.; Gordon, R.; Kolm, K. E.; Tomes, B.; Vietti, J.


    The author has identified the following significant results. Investigation of a variety of applications of EREP photographic data demonstrated that EREP S-190 data offer a unique combination of synoptic coverage and image detail. The broad coverage is ideal for regional geologic mapping and tectonic analysis while the detail is adequate for mapping of crops, mines, urban areas, and other relatively small features. The investigative team at the University of Wyoming has applied the EREP S-190 data to: (1) analysis of photolinear elements of the Powder River Basin, southern Montana, and the Wind River Mountains; (2) drainage analysis of the Powder River Basin and Beartooth Mountains; (3) lithologic and geologic mapping in the Powder River Basin, Black Hills, Green River Basin, Bighorn Basin and Southern Bighorn Mountains; (4) location of possible mineralization in the Absaroka Range; and (5) land use mapping near Riverton and Gillette. All of these applications were successful to some degree. Image enhancement procedures were useful in some efforts requiring distinction of small objects or subtle contrasts.

  9. Geological modelling of AEM and borehole data - comparison of three different approaches (United States)

    Høyer, Anne-Sophie; Jørgensen, Flemming; Foged, Nikolaj; He, Xin; Vest Christiansen, Anders


    In the last decades, Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM) surveys have been used more and more in relation to groundwater mapping campaigns worldwide. AEM surveys provide information that is highly valuable when understanding the 3-D architecture of the structures in the subsurface. The airborne surveys provide huge datasets and thus, a degree of detail that is very time-consuming and sometimes even impossible to interpret manually in three dimensions. Recently, semi-automatic modelling approaches have therefore been developed and investigated, just as AEM data has been incorporated into stochastic modelling with the objective to utilize data in a more time-efficient way. In this presentation, we will compare and evaluate the results of three different modelling approaches of AEM and borehole data in a study area in Denmark. This area consists of Quaternary clay tills and meltwater sands deposited on top of largely horizontal Pre-Quaternary sand and clay deposits. The modelling approaches are the following: 1) A manual 'cognitive' modelling approach based on the geological understanding of the area and including the knowledge of strengths and limitations of the AEM method. 2) A semi-automatic 'clay fraction model', in which borehole and AEM information are related through inversion to provide a 3-D model that shows the fraction of clay in each voxel 3) A statistical 'TPRoGS' model, where borehole information is used as 'hard information' and AEM data is used for soft conditioning. This model results in a binary voxel grid containing 'sand' and 'clay' One of the challenges when comparing the models, are the different nature of the modelling approaches. Thus, while the cognitive and the clay fraction models both provide 'the best estimate' given the information available, the statistical model provides a range of realizations that are considered equally realistic. In the comparison we therefore need to use a single realization to represent the results of the statistical

  10. Multi-source data integration of Lower Cretaceous units with geothermal potential in Lisbon region, Portugal, to support geological modelling


    Ramada, A.; R Diaz; Carvalho, J


    The Lisbon region, the urban area with the highest population density and energy demand in Portugal, presents a favourable geological environment for geothermal purposes. The objective of this study was to integrate all the information known from different sources to support the construction of a geological model of the Lower Cretaceous units, which reveal the geothermal potential. The methodology developed in this study allows the integration of data from different sources into a single geor...

  11. Mathematical Modeling of Non-Fickian Diffusional Mass Exchange of Radioactive Contaminants in Geological Disposal Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Suzuki


    Full Text Available Deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes consist of both engineered and natural geologic barriers to isolate the radioactive material from the human environment. Inappropriate repositories of nuclear waste would cause severe contamination to nearby aquifers. In this complex environment, mass transport of radioactive contaminants displays anomalous behaviors and often produces power-law tails in breakthrough curves due to spatial heterogeneities in fractured rocks, velocity dispersion, adsorption, and decay of contaminants, which requires more sophisticated models beyond the typical advection-dispersion equation. In this paper, accounting for the mass exchange between a fracture and a porous matrix of complex geometry, the universal equation of mass transport within a fracture is derived. This equation represents the generalization of the previously used models and accounts for anomalous mass exchange between a fracture and porous blocks through the introduction of the integral term of convolution type and fractional derivatives. This equation can be applied for the variety of processes taking place in the complex fractured porous medium, including the transport of radioactive elements. The Laplace transform method was used to obtain the solution of the fractional diffusion equation with a time-dependent source of radioactive contaminant.

  12. Geologic modeling constrained by seismic and dynamical data; Modelisation geologique contrainte par les donnees sismiques et dynamiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pianelo, L.


    Matching procedures are often used in reservoir production to improve geological models. In reservoir engineering, history matching leads to update petrophysical parameters in fluid flow simulators to fit the results of the calculations with observed data. In the same line, seismic parameters are inverted to allow the numerical recovery of seismic acquisitions. However, it is well known that these inverse problems are poorly constrained. The idea of this original work is to simultaneous match both the permeability and the acoustic impedance of the reservoir, for an enhancement of the resulting geological model. To do so, both parameters are linked using either observed relations and/or the classic Wyllie (porosity impedance) and Carman-Kozeny (porosity-permeability) relationships. Hence production data are added to the seismic match, and seismic observations are used for the permeability recovery. The work consists in developing numerical prototypes of a 3-D fluid flow simulator and a 3-D seismic acquisition simulator. Then, in implementing the coupled inversion loop of the permeability and the acoustic impedance of the two models. We can hence test our theory on a 3-D realistic case. Comparison of the coupled matching with the two classical ones demonstrates the efficiency of our method. We reduce significantly the number of possible solutions, and then the number of scenarios. In addition to that, the augmentation of information leads to a natural improvement of the obtained models, especially in the spatial localization of the permeability contrasts. The improvement is significant, at the same time in the distribution of the two inverted parameters, and in the rapidity of the operation. This work is an important step in a way of data integration, and leads to a better reservoir characterization. This original algorithm could also be useful in reservoir monitoring, history matching and in optimization of production. This new and original method is patented and

  13. Engineering-Geological Data Model - The First Step to Build National Polish Standard for Multilevel Information Management (United States)

    Ryżyński, Grzegorz; Nałęcz, Tomasz


    The efficient geological data management in Poland is necessary to support multilevel decision processes for government and local authorities in case of spatial planning, mineral resources and groundwater supply and the rational use of subsurface. Vast amount of geological information gathered in the digital archives and databases of Polish Geological Survey (PGS) is a basic resource for multi-scale national subsurface management. Data integration is the key factor to allow development of GIS and web tools for decision makers, however the main barrier for efficient geological information management is the heterogeneity of data in the resources of the Polish Geological Survey. Engineering-geological database is the first PGS thematic domain applied in the whole data integration plan. The solutions developed within this area will facilitate creation of procedures and standards for multilevel data management in PGS. Twenty years of experience in delivering digital engineering-geological mapping in 1:10 000 scale and archival geotechnical reports acquisition and digitisation allowed gathering of more than 300 thousands engineering-geological boreholes database as well as set of 10 thematic spatial layers (including foundation conditions map, depth to the first groundwater level, bedrock level, geohazards). Historically, the desktop approach was the source form of the geological-engineering data storage, resulting in multiple non-correlated interbase datasets. The need for creation of domain data model emerged and an object-oriented modelling (UML) scheme has been developed. The aim of the aforementioned development was to merge all datasets in one centralised Oracle server and prepare the unified spatial data structure for efficient web presentation and applications development. The presented approach will be the milestone toward creation of the Polish national standard for engineering-geological information management. The paper presents the approach and methodology

  14. Geologic evolution of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres: results from geologic mapping using Dawn FC2 camera imaging data and an update in cratering model ages (United States)

    Wagner, Roland J.; Schmedemann, Nico; Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Neesemann, Adrian; Krohn, Katrin; Otto, Katharina; Preusker, Frank; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Hiesinger, Harald; Williams, David A.; Aileen Yingst, R.; Crown, David A.; Mest, Scott C.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.


    The Dawn spacecraft, in orbit around the dwarf planet (1) Ceres since March 6, 2015, has carried out global imaging with the FC2 framing camera in three orbital phases: Survey (4424 km altitude above the surface; 400 m/pxl spatial resolution), high-altitude (HAMO; 1475 km; 140 m/pxl) and low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO; 375 km; 30 m/pxl) [1]. In this study we combine FC images with topographic data from digital elevation models (DEMs) for geologic mapping and age determination with crater size-frequency distribution measurements. For the latter we use an updated impact chronology model [2]. Globally, Ceres' surface is characterized by ubiquitous cratered plains, separable in units with higher or lower crater frequencies at high, medium, and low topographic levels. A second major geologic unit are individual impact craters with a wide range of morphologies. Craters provide important stratigraphic markers, especially the larger ones, those with rays, or craters with specific spectral properties. A third remarkable type of surface features are mountains. Densely cratered plains occur at all three topographic levels, but no correlation between absolute mode age (AMA) and topographic position can be found. In a lunar-derived model chronology [2], AMAs are on the order of 3 - 3.4 Ga, i.e., younger than in a previous version of the model. The three large major impact features characterizing time boundaries in Ceres' geologic history, Kerwan, Yalode, and Urvara, have AMAs [2] of 1.1 ± 0.2 Ga, 540 ± 80 Ma, and 120 ± 20 Ma, respectively. Other craters whose superimposed crater frequencies were measured in Survey images show wide ranges in AMAs, such as Asari (2.8 ± 0.6 Ga), Jarovit (2.1 ± 1.0 Ga), Ghanan (980 ± 380 Ma), or Dantu (AMAs range from 65 ± 20 Ma (ejecta) to 30 ± 15 Ma (floor)). The enigmatic feature Ahuna Mons, a mountain several kilometers high, has an AMA of 2 ± 0.8 Ma measured on its summit region indicating that Ceres most likely was geologically

  15. Implementations of a Flexible Framework for Managing Geologic Sequestration Modeling Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Signe K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gosink, Luke J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Black, Gary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purohit, Sumit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bacon, Diana H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hou, Zhangshuan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lin, Guang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gorton, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonneville, Alain [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Numerical simulation is a standard practice used to support designing, operating, and monitoring CO2 injection projects. Although a variety of computational tools have been developed that support the numerical simulation process, many are single-purpose or platform specific and have a prescribed workflow that may or may not be suitable for a particular project. We are developing an open-source, flexible framework named Velo that provides a knowledge management infrastructure and tools to support modeling and simulation for various types of projects in a number of scientific domains. The Geologic Sequestration Software Suite (GS3) is a version of this framework with features and tools specifically tailored for geologic sequestration studies. Because of its general nature, GS3 is being employed in a variety of ways on projects with differing goals. GS3 is being used to support the Sim-SEQ international model comparison study, by providing a collaborative framework for the modeling teams and providing tools for model comparison. Another customized deployment of GS3 has been made to support the permit application process. In this case, GS3 is being used to manage data in support of conceptual model development and provide documentation and provenance for numerical simulations. An additional customized deployment of GS3 is being created for use by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) to aid in the CO2 injection permit application review process in one of its regions. These use cases demonstrate GS3’s flexibility, utility, and broad applicability

  16. 3d-modelling workflows for trans-nationally shared geological models - first approaches from the project GeoMol (United States)

    Rupf, Isabel


    To meet the EU's ambitious targets for carbon emission reduction, renewable energy production has to be strongly upgraded and made more efficient for grid energy storage. Alpine Foreland Basins feature a unique geological inventory which can contribute substantially to tackle these challenges. They offer a geothermal potential and storage capacity for compressed air, as well as space for underground storage of CO2. Exploiting these natural subsurface resources will strongly compete with existing oil and gas claims and groundwater issues. The project GeoMol will provide consistent 3-dimensional subsurface information about the Alpine Foreland Basins based on a holistic and transnational approach. Core of the project GeoMol is a geological framework model for the entire Northern Molasse Basin, complemented by five detailed models in pilot areas, also in the Po Basin, which are dedicated to specific questions of subsurface use. The models will consist of up to 13 litho-stratigraphic horizons ranging from the Cenozoic basin fill down to Mesozoic and late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and the crystalline basement. More than 5000 wells and 28 000 km seismic lines serve as input data sets for the geological subsurface model. The data have multiple sources and various acquisition dates, and their interpretations have gone through several paradigm changes. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the data with regards to technical parameters and content prior to further analysis (cf. Capar et al. 2013, EGU2013-5349). Each partner will build its own geological subsurface model with different software solutions for seismic interpretation and 3d-modelling. Therefore, 3d-modelling follows different software- and partner-specific workflows. One of the main challenges of the project is to ensure a seamlessly fitting framework model. It is necessary to define several milestones for cross border checks during the whole modelling process. Hence, the main input data set of the

  17. The evolution, approval and implementation of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Data Lifecycle Model (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Hutchison, Vivian


    This paper details how the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Community for Data Integration (CDI) Data Management Working Group developed a Science Data Lifecycle Model, and the role the Model plays in shaping agency-wide policies. Starting with an extensive literature review of existing data Lifecycle models, representatives from various backgrounds in USGS attended a two-day meeting where the basic elements for the Science Data Lifecycle Model were determined. Refinements and reviews spanned two years, leading to finalization of the model and documentation in a formal agency publication . The Model serves as a critical framework for data management policy, instructional resources, and tools. The Model helps the USGS address both the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) for increased public access to federally funded research, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 2013 Open Data directives, as the foundation for a series of agency policies related to data management planning, metadata development, data release procedures, and the long-term preservation of data. Additionally, the agency website devoted to data management instruction and best practices ( is designed around the Model’s structure and concepts. This paper also illustrates how the Model is being used to develop tools for supporting USGS research and data management processes.

  18. Modelling tools for integrating geological, geophysical and contamination data for characterization of groundwater plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola

    Contaminated sites are a major issue threatening the environment and the human health. The large number of contaminated sites require cost effective investigations to perform risk assessment and prioritize the sites that need remediation. Contaminated soil and groundwater investigations rely...... on borehole investigations to collect the geological, hydrological, and contaminant data. These data are integrated in conceptual and mathematical models describing the lithology, the groundwater flow, and the distribution of contaminant concentrations. Models are needed to analyze the potential risks to all...... receptors, including streams. Key risk assessment parameters, such as contaminant mass discharge estimates, and tools are then used to evaluate the risk. The cost of drilling often makes investigations of large and/or deep contaminant plumes unfeasible. For this reason, it is important to develop cost...

  19. 3D Geological modelling of the Monfrague synform: a value added to the geologic heritage of the National Park; Modelo geologico 3D de la estructura en sinforme de Monfrague: un valor anadido al patrimonio geologico del Parque Nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumiel, P.; Arias, M.; Monteserin, V.; Segura, M.


    3D geological modelling of a tectonic structure called the Monfrague synform has been carried out to obtain a better insight into the geometry of this folding structure. It is a kilometric variscan WNW-ESE trending fold verging towards north and made up by a Palaeozoic sequence (Ordovician-Silurian).This structure with its lithology make up the morphology and the relief of the Park. The Monfrague synform is an asymmetrical folding structure showing southern limb dipping steeply to the south (reverse limb) what is well observed in the Armorican Quartzite at the Salto del Gitano. However, northern limb dips gently (less than 40 degree centigrade) to the south (normal limb). 3D geological modelling has been built on the basis of the geological knowledge and the structural interpretation, using 3D GeoModeller. ( In this software, lithological units are described by a stratigraphic pile. A major original feature of this software is that the 3D description of the geological space is achieved through a potential field formulation in which geological boundaries are isopotential surfaces, and their dips are represented by gradients of the potential. Finally, it is emphasized the idea that a 3D geologic model of these characteristics, with its three-dimensional representation, together with suitable geological sections that clarify the structure in depth, represents a value added to the Geologic Heritage of the National Park and besides it supposes an interesting academic exercise which have a great didactic value. (Author)

  20. Quantifying Uncertainty in Inverse Models of Geologic Data from Shear Zones (United States)

    Davis, J. R.; Titus, S.


    We use Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation to quantify uncertainty in inverse models of geologic data. Although this approach can be applied to many tectonic settings, field areas, and mathematical models, we focus on transpressional shear zones. The underlying forward model, either kinematic or dynamic, produces a velocity field, which predicts the dikes, foliation-lineations, crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), shape preferred orientation (SPO), and other geologic data that should arise in the shear zone. These predictions are compared to data using modern methods of geometric statistics, including the Watson (for lines such as dike poles), isotropic matrix Fisher (for orientations such as foliation-lineations and CPO), and multivariate normal (for log-ellipsoids such as SPO) distributions. The result of the comparison is a likelihood, which is a key ingredient in the Bayesian approach. The other key ingredient is a prior distribution, which reflects the geologist's knowledge of the parameters before seeing the data. For some parameters, such as shear zone strike and dip, we identify realistic informative priors. For other parameters, where the geologist has no prior knowledge, we identify useful uninformative priors.We investigate the performance of this approach through numerical experiments on synthetic data sets. A fundamental issue is that many models of deformation exhibit asymptotic behavior (e.g., flow apophyses, fabric attractors) or periodic behavior (e.g., SPO when the clasts are rigid), which causes the likelihood to be too uniform. Based on our experiments, we offer rules of thumb for how many data, of which types, are needed to constrain deformation.

  1. Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar Test for Sonic-Frequency Acoustic Velocity and Attenuation Measurements of Small, Isotropic Geologic Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S.


    Mechanical properties (seismic velocities and attenuation) of geological materials are often frequency dependent, which necessitates measurements of the properties at frequencies relevant to a problem at hand. Conventional acoustic resonant bar tests allow measuring seismic properties of rocks and sediments at sonic frequencies (several kilohertz) that are close to the frequencies employed for geophysical exploration of oil and gas resources. However, the tests require a long, slender sample, which is often difficult to obtain from the deep subsurface or from weak and fractured geological formations. In this paper, an alternative measurement technique to conventional resonant bar tests is presented. This technique uses only a small, jacketed rock or sediment core sample mediating a pair of long, metal extension bars with attached seismic source and receiver - the same geometry as the split Hopkinson pressure bar test for large-strain, dynamic impact experiments. Because of the length and mass added to the sample, the resonance frequency of the entire system can be lowered significantly, compared to the sample alone. The experiment can be conducted under elevated confining pressures up to tens of MPa and temperatures above 100 C, and concurrently with x-ray CT imaging. The described Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar (SHRB) test is applied in two steps. First, extension and torsion-mode resonance frequencies and attenuation of the entire system are measured. Next, numerical inversions for the complex Young's and shear moduli of the sample are performed. One particularly important step is the correction of the inverted Young's moduli for the effect of sample-rod interfaces. Examples of the application are given for homogeneous, isotropic polymer samples and a natural rock sample.

  2. Coal geology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Larry


    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the field of coal geology. All aspects of coal geology are covered in one volume, bridgint the gap between the academic aspects and the practical role of geology in the coal industry...

  3. South Louisiana Enhanced Oil Recovery/Sequestration R&D Project Small Scale Field Tests of Geologic Reservoir Classes for Geologic Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hite, Roger [Blackhorse Energy LLC, Houston, TX (United States)


    The project site is located in Livingston Parish, Louisiana, approximately 26 miles due east of Baton Rouge. This project proposed to evaluate an early Eocene-aged Wilcox oil reservoir for permanent storage of CO2. Blackhorse Energy, LLC planned to conduct a parallel CO2 oil recovery project in the First Wilcox Sand. The primary focus of this project was to examine and prove the suitability of South Louisiana geologic formations for large-scale geologic sequestration of CO2 in association with enhanced oil recovery applications. This was to be accomplished through the focused demonstration of small-scale, permanent storage of CO2 in the First Wilcox Sand. The project was terminated at the request of Blackhorse Energy LLC on October 22, 2014.

  4. The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal (United States)

    Bock, Andy


    Simulations of future climate suggest profiles of temperature and precipitation may differ significantly from those in the past. These changes in climate will likely lead to changes in the hydrologic cycle. As such, natural resource managers are in need of tools that can provide estimates of key components of the hydrologic cycle, uncertainty associated with the estimates, and limitations associated with the climate forcing data used to estimate these components. To help address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal ( provides a user friendly interface to deliver hydrologic and meteorological variables for monthly historic and potential future climatic conditions across the continental United States.

  5. Topography and geology site effects from the intensity prediction model (ShakeMap) for Austria (United States)

    del Puy Papí Isaba, María; Jia, Yan; Weginger, Stefan


    The seismicity in Austria can be categorized as moderated. Despite the fact that the hazard seems to be rather low, earthquakes can cause great damage and losses, specially in densely populated and industrialized areas. It is well known, that equations which predict intensity as a function of magnitude and distance, among other parameters, are useful tool for hazard and risk assessment. Therefore, this study aims to determine an empirical model of the ground shaking intensities (ShakeMap) of a series of earthquakes occurred in Austria between 1000 and 2014. Furthermore, the obtained empirical model will lead to further interpretation of both, contemporary and historical earthquakes. A total of 285 events, which epicenters were located in Austria, and a sum of 22.739 reported macreoseismic data points from Austria and adjoining countries, were used. These events are enclosed in the period 1000-2014 and characterized by having a local magnitude greater than 3. In the first state of the model development, the data was careful selected, e.g. solely intensities equal or greater than III were used. In a second state the data was adjusted to the selected empirical model. Finally, geology and topography corrections were obtained by means of the model residuals in order to derive intensity-based site amplification effects.

  6. The Potential of Diffusion Modelling to Unravel the P-T-t History of Geological Processe (United States)

    Mueller, T.


    Geothermobarometry is a commonly used tool to constrain pressure and temperature conditions a rock has experienced, typically relying on thermodynamic calculations assuming phase equilibria. However, both metamorphic and igneous processes are driven by deviations from the equilibrium state resulting in transport of heat and mass in order to reach a new equilibrium state. It is well known that failure to reach equilibrium results in inaccurate PT estimates when applying traditional geothermobarometry methods. Over the past decade, advances in acquiring high resolution chemical zoning profiles and increasing availability of diffusion data has enabled us to use element and isotope zoning to assess the effect of kinetically controlled transport processes and use such information to obtain better temperature estimates and even timescales of geological processes. In this contribution it is shown how the temperature dependent Fe-Mg exchange between co-existing minerals can be used to constrain metamorphic temperatures or timescales of geological processes. Experimental strategies are presented to derive diffusivities and are discussed in the light of interpreting the so-called diffusive closure temperature in minerals, i.e. its effect on geothermometry. Subsequently, two examples are shown in which diffusion modelling is used to a) constrain a P-T-t path in high grade metamorphic rocks from the Granulite massif (GER) and b) identifying pulses and timescales of mineral residences in magma plumbing systems using pyroxenes from the Westeifel volcanic field (GER). In summary, diffusion modeling is a powerful tool that provide information on timescales necessary to equilibrate commonly used thermo(baro)meters and more importantly to identify the extent of partial reset leading to erroneous temperature estimates. Taken together, the quantitative knowledge of transport properties can be used to determine the mechanisms and rates of element and isotope transport through the Earth

  7. Oases on Snowball Earth: Confluence of Ice Dynamics Modeling and Geological Observations (United States)

    Hoffman, P. F.; Maloof, A. C.; Halverson, G. P.; Schrag, D. P.


    Recent model experiments suggest that marine ice dynamics are important in the initiation and development of a snowball Earth. Ice-line advance is facilitated by the transport of latent heat and freshwater associated with Ekman forcing in the zone of westerlies (Lewis et al., 2002 this meeting) and with equatorward glacial flow of thick, multi-annual, marine ice (Goodman and Pierrehumbert, 2002 this meeting). After ice lines meet at the equator (snowball Earth), continued invasion by marine glaciers from higher latitudes maintains tropical marine ice >2.25 times thicker (fraction (critical oversaturation with respect to calcite or dolomite in snowball oases that are buffered by carbonate-rich bedrock and glacial debris (Fairchild, 1994). As snowball oases are small pools of water in contact with a pCO2-rich (>0.1 bar) atmosphere, the carbon isotopic composition of any carbonates they precipitate should evolve accordingly. Initially, oasis water may resemble evolved snowball seawater, which will be dominated by hydrothermal activity buffered by dissolution of sea-floor carbonate (Higgins and Schrag, G-cubed, 2003). Oasis water should evolve rapidly towards equilibrium with the atmospheric reservoir, whose isotopic composition is set by volcanic outgassing, not by the ocean. Oasis carbonate strata should exhibit a rapid rise in δ 13C with time, and may well have values substantially greater than 0 per mil PDB. We believe there are numerous examples of snowball oases in the geologic record associated with the Neoproterozoic Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations. Examples in NE Svalbard, SW Oman, SE California, and central and South Australia are well documented. In all but the first, the lithologic and isotopic evidence has been cited as precluding a snowball Earth altogether. In contrast, we consider that oases are a natural and important part of the snowball Earth cycle. Our concept of snowball oases combines insights from geophysical modeling and geology.

  8. Hybrid mesh/particle meshless method for modeling geological flows with discontinuous transport properties (United States)

    Bourantas, Georgios; Lavier, Luc; Claus, Susanne; Van Dam, Tonie; Bordas, Stephane


    Geodynamic modeling is an important branch of Earth Sciences. Direct observation of geodynamic processes is limited in both time and space, while on the other hand numerical methods are capable of simulating millions of years in a matter of days on a desktop computer. The model equations can be reduced to a set of Partial Differential Equations with possibly discontinuous coefficients, governing mass, momentum and heat transfer over the domain. Some of the major challenges associated with such simulations are (1) geological time scales, which require long (in physical time) simulations using small time steps; (2) the presence of localization zones over which large gradients are present and which are much smaller than the overall physical dimensions of the computational domain and require much more refined discretization than for the rest of the domain, much like in fracture or shear band mechanics. An added difficulty is that such structures in the solution may appear after long periods of stagnant behaviour; (3) the definition of boundary conditions, material parameters and that of a suitable computational domain in terms of size; (4) a posteriori error estimation, sensitivity analysis and discretization adaptivity for the resulting coupled problem, including error propagation between different unknown fields. Consequently, it is arguable that any suitable numerical methods aimed at the solution of such problems on a large scale must be able to (i) provide ease of discretization refinement, including possible partition of unity enrichment; (ii) offer a large stability domain, so that "large" time steps can be chosen; (iii) ease of parallelization and good scalability. Our approach is to rely on "meshless" methods based on a point collocation strategy for the discretization of the set of PDEs. The method is hybrid Eulerian/Lagrangian, which enables to switch easily between stagnant periods and periods of localization. Mass and momentum equations are solved using a

  9. Controls on SEDEX Mineralization in the Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt: Insights from Integrated 3D Geological and Geophysical Modelling (United States)

    Yadav, Shilpi; Porwal, Alok


    3D modelling provides a representation of the uncertainty when sparse or no data are available for a region. 3D geological model can provide important insights on the geometrical behavior of the rock units and also the locations of the crustal scale structures which in turn can provide the 3D (depth) and 4D (time) geodynamic evolution of the region. The Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt which is located in the state of Rajasthan, India covers the geological history from Archaean to Recent. It underwent two stage tectonic evolution during Proterozoic, which lead to the formation of substantial Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc deposits i.e. Rampura-Agucha deposit ( 1800 Ma.), Rajpura-Dariba deposit ( 1800 Ma), Pur-Banera deposit ( 1800 Ma) and Zawar deposit ( 1700 Ma). The Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc deposits with easy surface expressions have already been discovered based on the conventional 2D conceptual geological models approach, therefore now it is very important to discover and explore the deep-seated deposits which have no or indirect surface expressions. These deposits are formed due to the mineralization process which run in three dimensional space and time, and hence are the result of the 3D and 4D geodynamic processes operating in the region. The 3D geological modelling of the Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt and the mineral system of the Sediment-Hosted Lead-Zinc deposit will identify the new controls of mineralization for the Lead-Zinc deposits in the fold belt.. A 3D crustal model for Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt will be created for an area of about 275×200 square kilometers of Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt, which will convert into a 3D block of about 275×200×60 cubic kilometers by applying forward gravity modelling technique. The 3D geological model will be based on the detailed geological and structural mapping, and the use of the 2D forward gravity models created for the entire fold belt. Keywords: Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt; 3D Geological Modelling; 3D and 4D Geological Evolution

  10. Geologic and hydrologic records of observation wells, test holes, test wells, supply wells, springs, and surface water stations in the Los Alamos area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.


    Hundreds of holes have been drilled into the Pajarito Plateau and surrounding test areas of the Los Alamos National Laboratory since the end of World War II. They range in depth from a few feet to more than 14,000 ft. The holes were drilled to provide geologic, hydrologic, and engineering information related to development of a water supply, to provide data on the likelihood or presence of subsurface contamination from hazardous and nuclear materials, and for engineering design for construction. The data contained in this report provide a basis for further investigations into the consequences of our past, present, and future interactions with the environment.

  11. Modeling the Population-Level Processes of Biodiversity Gain and Loss at Geological Timescales. (United States)

    Fortelius, Mikael; Geritz, Stefan; Gyllenberg, Mats; Raia, Pasquale; Toivonen, Jaakko


    The path of species diversification is commonly observed by inspecting the fossil record. Yet, how species diversity changes at geological timescales relate to lower-level processes remains poorly understood. Here we use mathematical models of spatially structured populations to show that natural selection and gradual environmental change give rise to discontinuous phenotype changes that can be connected to speciation and extinction at the macroevolutionary level. In our model, new phenotypes arise in the middle of the environmental gradient, while newly appearing environments are filled by existing phenotypes shifting their adaptive optima. Slow environmental change leads to loss of phenotypes in the middle of the extant environmental range, whereas fast change causes extinction at one extreme of the environmental range. We compared our model predictions against a well-known yet partially unexplained pattern of intense hoofed mammal diversification associated with grassland expansion during the Late Miocene. We additionally used the model outcomes to cast new insight into Cope's law of the unspecialized. Our general finding is that the rate of environmental change determines where generation and loss of diversity occur in the phenotypic and physical spaces.

  12. Research on Geo-information Data Model for Preselected Areas of Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste (United States)

    Gao, M.; Huang, S. T.; Wang, P.; Zhao, Y. A.; Wang, H. B.


    The geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (hereinafter referred to "geological disposal") is a long-term, complex, and systematic scientific project, whose data and information resources in the research and development ((hereinafter referred to ”R&D”) process provide the significant support for R&D of geological disposal system, and lay a foundation for the long-term stability and safety assessment of repository site. However, the data related to the research and engineering in the sitting of the geological disposal repositories is more complicated (including multi-source, multi-dimension and changeable), the requirements for the data accuracy and comprehensive application has become much higher than before, which lead to the fact that the data model design of geo-information database for the disposal repository are facing more serious challenges. In the essay, data resources of the pre-selected areas of the repository has been comprehensive controlled and systematic analyzed. According to deeply understanding of the application requirements, the research work has made a solution for the key technical problems including reasonable classification system of multi-source data entity, complex logic relations and effective physical storage structures. The new solution has broken through data classification and conventional spatial data the organization model applied in the traditional industry, realized the data organization and integration with the unit of data entities and spatial relationship, which were independent, holonomic and with application significant features in HLW geological disposal. The reasonable, feasible and flexible data conceptual models, logical models and physical models have been established so as to ensure the effective integration and facilitate application development of multi-source data in pre-selected areas for geological disposal.

  13. Geological modeling of a fault zone in clay rocks at the Mont-Terri laboratory (Switzerland) (United States)

    Kakurina, M.; Guglielmi, Y.; Nussbaum, C.; Valley, B.


    Clay-rich formations are considered to be a natural barrier for radionuclides or fluids (water, hydrocarbons, CO2) migration. However, little is known about the architecture of faults affecting clay formations because of their quick alteration at the Earth's surface. The Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory provides exceptional conditions to investigate an un-weathered, perfectly exposed clay fault zone architecture and to conduct fault activation experiments that allow explore the conditions for stability of such clay faults. Here we show first results from a detailed geological model of the Mont Terri Main Fault architecture, using GoCad software, a detailed structural analysis of 6 fully cored and logged 30-to-50m long and 3-to-15m spaced boreholes crossing the fault zone. These high-definition geological data were acquired within the Fault Slip (FS) experiment project that consisted in fluid injections in different intervals within the fault using the SIMFIP probe to explore the conditions for the fault mechanical and seismic stability. The Mont Terri Main Fault "core" consists of a thrust zone about 0.8 to 3m wide that is bounded by two major fault planes. Between these planes, there is an assembly of distinct slickensided surfaces and various facies including scaly clays, fault gouge and fractured zones. Scaly clay including S-C bands and microfolds occurs in larger zones at top and bottom of the Mail Fault. A cm-thin layer of gouge, that is known to accommodate high strain parts, runs along the upper fault zone boundary. The non-scaly part mainly consists of undeformed rock block, bounded by slickensides. Such a complexity as well as the continuity of the two major surfaces are hard to correlate between the different boreholes even with the high density of geological data within the relatively small volume of the experiment. This may show that a poor strain localization occurred during faulting giving some perspectives about the potential for

  14. Interpretation and mapping of geological features using mobile devices for 3D outcrop modelling (United States)

    Buckley, Simon J.; Kehl, Christian; Mullins, James R.; Howell, John A.


    Advances in 3D digital geometric characterisation have resulted in widespread adoption in recent years, with photorealistic models utilised for interpretation, quantitative and qualitative analysis, as well as education, in an increasingly diverse range of geoscience applications. Topographic models created using lidar and photogrammetry, optionally combined with imagery from sensors such as hyperspectral and thermal cameras, are now becoming commonplace in geoscientific research. Mobile devices (tablets and smartphones) are maturing rapidly to become powerful field computers capable of displaying and interpreting 3D models directly in the field. With increasingly high-quality digital image capture, combined with on-board sensor pose estimation, mobile devices are, in addition, a source of primary data, which can be employed to enhance existing geological models. Adding supplementary image textures and 2D annotations to photorealistic models is therefore a desirable next step to complement conventional field geoscience. This contribution reports on research into field-based interpretation and conceptual sketching on images and photorealistic models on mobile devices, motivated by the desire to utilise digital outcrop models to generate high quality training images (TIs) for multipoint statistics (MPS) property modelling. Representative training images define sedimentological concepts and spatial relationships between elements in the system, which are subsequently modelled using artificial learning to populate geocellular models. Photorealistic outcrop models are underused sources of quantitative and qualitative information for generating TIs, explored further in this research by linking field and office workflows through the mobile device. Existing textured models are loaded to the mobile device, allowing rendering in a 3D environment. Because interpretation in 2D is more familiar and comfortable for users, the developed application allows new images to be captured

  15. Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage (United States)

    Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.


    The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15 concentration of NaCl up to 6 mol/kgH2O. The EoS allows us to predict equilibrium composition in both liquid and vapor phases, fugacity coefficients of components, and phase densities. Predictions show that inclusion of H2S in CO2 streams may lead to two-phase flow in pipelines. For H2S-CO2 mixtures at a given temperature the bubble and dew pressures decrease with increasing H2S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. Furthermore, the EoS can be incorporated into reservoir simulators so that the dynamic development of mixed fluid plumes in the reservoir can be simulated. Accurate modeling of fluid-mineral interactions must confront unresolved uncertainties of silicate dissolution - precipitation reaction kinetics. Most prominent among these uncertainties is the well-known lab-field apparent discrepancy in dissolution rates. Although reactive transport models that simulate the interactions between reservoir rocks and brine, and their attendant effects on porosity and permeability changes, have proliferated, whether these results have acceptable uncertainties are unknown. We have conducted a series of batch experiments at elevated temperatures and numerical simulations of coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions. The results show that taking into account of reaction coupling is able

  16. 3D numerical modelling of the thermal state of deep geological nuclear waste repositories (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, Yu. N.


    One of the important aspects of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in deep geological repositories is ensuring the integrity of the engineered barriers which is, among other phenomena, considerably influenced by the thermal loads. As the HLW produce significant amount of heat, the design of the repository should maintain the balance between the cost-effectiveness of the construction and the sufficiency of the safety margins, including those imposed on the thermal conditions of the barriers. The 3D finite-element computer code FENIA was developed as a tool for simulation of thermal processes in deep geological repositories. Further the models for mechanical phenomena and groundwater hydraulics will be added resulting in a fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) solution. The long-term simulations of the thermal state were performed for two possible layouts of the repository. One was based on the proposed project of Russian repository, and another features larger HLW amount within the same space. The obtained results describe the spatial and temporal evolution of the temperature filed inside the repository and in the surrounding rock for 3500 years. These results show that practically all generated heat was ultimately absorbed by the host rock without any significant temperature increase. Still in the short time span even in case of smaller amount of the HLW the temperature maximum exceeds 100 °C, and for larger amount of the HLW the local temperature remains above 100 °C for considerable time. Thus, the substantiation of the long-term stability of the repository would require an extensive study of the materials properties and behaviour in order to remove the excessive conservatism from the simulations and to reduce the uncertainty of the input data.

  17. The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal (United States)

    Bock, Andrew R.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Emmerich, Christopher; Talbert, Marian


    The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal ( is a user-friendly interface that summarizes monthly historical and simulated future conditions for seven hydrologic and meteorological variables (actual evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, precipitation, runoff, snow water equivalent, atmospheric temperature, and streamflow) at locations across the conterminous United States (CONUS).The estimates of these hydrologic and meteorological variables were derived using a Monthly Water Balance Model (MWBM), a modular system that simulates monthly estimates of components of the hydrologic cycle using monthly precipitation and atmospheric temperature inputs. Precipitation and atmospheric temperature from 222 climate datasets spanning historical conditions (1952 through 2005) and simulated future conditions (2020 through 2099) were summarized for hydrographic features and used to drive the MWBM for the CONUS. The MWBM input and output variables were organized into an open-access database. An Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc., Web Feature Service allows the querying and identification of hydrographic features across the CONUS. To connect the Web Feature Service to the open-access database, a user interface—the Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal—was developed to allow the dynamic generation of summary files and plots  based on plot type, geographic location, specific climate datasets, period of record, MWBM variable, and other options. Both the plots and the data files are made available to the user for download 

  18. Rapid Calibration of High Resolution Geologic Models to Dynamic Data Using Inverse Modeling: Field Application and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta


    Streamline-based assisted and automatic history matching techniques have shown great potential in reconciling high resolution geologic models to production data. However, a major drawback of these approaches has been incompressibility or slight compressibility assumptions that have limited applications to two-phase water-oil displacements only. We propose an approach to history matching three-phase flow using a novel compressible streamline formulation and streamline-derived analytic sensitivities. First, we utilize a generalized streamline model to account for compressible flow by introducing an 'effective density' of total fluids along streamlines. Second, we analytically compute parameter sensitivities that define the relationship between the reservoir properties and the production response, viz. water-cut and gas/oil ratio (GOR). These sensitivities are an integral part of history matching, and streamline models permit efficient computation of these sensitivities through a single flow simulation. We calibrate geologic models to production data by matching the water-cut and gas/oil ratio using our previously proposed generalized travel time inversion (GTTI) technique. For field applications, however, the highly non-monotonic profile of the gas/oil ratio data often presents a challenge to this technique. In this work we present a transformation of the field production data that makes it more amenable to GTTI. Further, we generalize the approach to incorporate bottom-hole flowing pressure during three-phase history matching. We examine the practical feasibility of the method using a field-scale synthetic example (SPE-9 comparative study) and a field application. Recently Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF) has gained increased attention for history matching and continuous reservoir model updating using data from permanent downhole sensors. It is a sequential Monte-Carlo approach that works with an ensemble of reservoir models. Specifically, the method

  19. Preliminary report on engineering geology of thirteen tunnel sites, Nevada Test Site (United States)

    Wilmarth, Verl Richard; McKeown, Francis Alexander; Dobrovolny, Ernest


    Reconnaissance of 13 areas in and adjacent to Nevada Test Site was completed. Of the 13 areas, Forty Mile Canyon, South-central Shoshone Mountain, and Southeast Shoshone Mountain named in order of preference, offer many advantages for carrying on future underground nuclear explosions.

  20. Building a Community Thermal Model for Southern California Using Heat Flow, Geologic, Seismologic and Petrologic Constraints I: Thermophysical Parameters (United States)

    Chapman, D. S.; Thatcher, W. R.; Williams, C. F.


    We are building a community thermal model (CTM) for Southern California that will provide temperatures and their uncertainties throughout the lithosphere. The CTM is an essential ingredient for a community rheologic model to simulate lithospheric deformation and constrain earthquake cycle movements in southern California. Lithospheric geotherms parametric in surface heat flow include: (1) models of conductive heat transfer in the lithosphere, (2) lithology of the crust and lithospheric mantle, and (3) thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, k, and radiogenic heat production, A) to be assigned in the lithologic model. Inexact knowledge of the lithology of the crust can lead to large temperature uncertainties. Lab measurements show that thermal conductivity can vary from 1 to 6 W m-1 K-1 in near-surface rocks depending primarily on quartz vs clay content, but varies only from 2 to 3 W m-1 K-1 for mafic rocks of the lower crust and ultramafic rocks of the upper mantle. Likewise, heat production is highly variable at the surface but decreases progressively by three orders of magnitude between likely upper crustal felsic rocks, the more mafic rocks of the lower crust, and ultramafic mantle rocks. In southern California the lithologic model is constrained by mapped surface geology and subsurface structure is guided by seismic investigations. Where direct sampling of the crust and upper mantle is not possible we apply empirical fits between seismic velocity and thermophysical parameters. As a test case we apply our thermophysical parameter assignment along the LARSE 1 seismic transect. Even along this relatively well studied transect the model uncertainties are large, forcing us to seek bounds on deeper lithospheric temperatures. As shown in our companion poster (Thatcher et al., this meeting) seismic estimates of lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depth and temperature inferred from petrologic bounds on asthenospheric melting provide useful additional

  1. NNR-MORVEL56: No-net-rotation model of geologically current plate motions (United States)

    Argus, D.; Gordon, R. G.; Demets, C.; Zheng, L.


    We determine NNR-MORVEL56, a set of estimates of the velocities of 56 plates relative to the reference frame yielding no net rotation of the plates. We furthermore determine the full 168 by 168 covariance matrix describing uncertainties in the 56 velocities. 25 plate velocities are from geologically current plate motion model MORVEL [DeMets et al. 2010]; 31 plate velocities are from Bird [2003]. We calculate the 31 plate velocities relative to the MORVEL plates in the same manner by which Bird [2003] calculated them relative to NUVEL-1A. Because the 31 plates from Bird [2003] comprise just 2.8% of Earth’s surface, NNR-MORVEL56, they contribute insignificantly to the no-net-rotation frame; The estimates of the 31 plates from Bird [2003] relative to the 25 plates in MORVEL are nevertheless useful. The velocity of the Pacific plate differs between NNR-MORVEL56 and hotspot model HS3B-MORVEL [Zheng et al., abstract in GP session] on plate motion and reference frames] by a highly significant 0.34 °/Myr, which is up to 38 mm/y on Earth’s surface. This difference is 23 per cent smaller than our prior estimate of the difference from NNR-NUVEL1A [Argus and Gordon 2001] and HS3-NUVEL1A [Gripp and Gordon 2002].

  2. Geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States (excluding California) national seismic hazard maps (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Haller, Kathleen M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Hammond, William C.; Bird, Peter; Moschetti, Morgan; Shen, Zhengkang; Bormann, Jayne; Thatcher, Wayne


    The 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the conterminous United States incorporate additional uncertainty in fault slip-rate parameter that controls the earthquake-activity rates than was applied in previous versions of the hazard maps. This additional uncertainty is accounted for by new geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States. Models that were considered include an updated geologic model based on expert opinion and four combined inversion models informed by both geologic and geodetic input. The two block models considered indicate significantly higher slip rates than the expert opinion and the two fault-based combined inversion models. For the hazard maps, we apply 20 percent weight with equal weighting for the two fault-based models. Off-fault geodetic-based models were not considered in this version of the maps. Resulting changes to the hazard maps are generally less than 0.05 g (acceleration of gravity). Future research will improve the maps and interpret differences between the new models.

  3. Model-Based Testing of Probabilistic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerhold, Marcus; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Stevens, Perdita; Wasowski, Andzej

    This paper presents a model-based testing framework for probabilistic systems. We provide algorithms to generate, execute and evaluate test cases from a probabilistic requirements model. In doing so, we connect ioco-theory for model-based testing and statistical hypothesis testing: our ioco-style

  4. Importance of geologic study and load test of log pod mangartom arch bridge (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Meshcheryakova, Tatiana; Kovačič, Boštjan


    Some structures and their relationships, positions in space and shifts represent the structural set of an area, as included within regional units, and smaller or larger portions of the earth’s crust known as the Earth’s plates and micro plates. The most important fact is that tectonic movements are always possible around the locations of considered bridges. Therefore, it is certainly necessary to define in detail their characteristics due to the potential impacts on individual bridges. A recent structural set was made for the Log pod Mangartom. To assess the bridge in micro sense the load test of the bridge was performed.

  5. Motivation, Classroom Environment, and Learning in Introductory Geology: A Hierarchical Linear Model (United States)

    Gilbert, L. A.; Hilpert, J. C.; Van Der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Budd, D.; Jones, M. H.; Matheney, R.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Perkins, D.; Stempien, J. A.; Wirth, K. R.


    Prior research has indicated that highly motivated students perform better and that learning increases in innovative, reformed classrooms, but untangling the student effects from the instructor effects is essential to understanding how to best support student learning. Using a hierarchical linear model, we examine these effects separately and jointly. We use data from nearly 2,000 undergraduate students surveyed by the NSF-funded GARNET (Geoscience Affective Research NETwork) project in 65 different introductory geology classes at research universities, public masters-granting universities, liberal arts colleges and community colleges across the US. Student level effects were measured as increases in expectancy and self-regulation using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ; Pintrich et al., 1991). Instructor level effects were measured using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol, (RTOP; Sawada et al., 2000), with higher RTOP scores indicating a more reformed, student-centered classroom environment. Learning was measured by learning gains on a Geology Concept Inventory (GCI; Libarkin and Anderson, 2005) and normalized final course grade. The hierarchical linear model yielded significant results at several levels. At the student level, increases in expectancy and self-regulation are significantly and positively related to higher grades regardless of instructor; the higher the increase, the higher the grade. At the instructor level, RTOP scores are positively related to normalized average GCI learning gains. The higher the RTOP score, the higher the average class GCI learning gains. Across both levels, average class GCI learning gains are significantly and positively related to student grades; the higher the GCI learning gain, the higher the grade. Further, the RTOP scores are significantly and negatively related to the relationship between expectancy and course grade. The lower the RTOP score, the higher the correlation between change in

  6. Geologic Investigations Spurred by Analog Testing at the 7504 Cone-SP Mountain Area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.


    The SP Mountain area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, AZ, has been used as an analog mission development site for NASA since 1998. This area consists of basaltic cinder cones, lava flows and maar craters that have been active since mid-Miocene, with the youngest events occurring within the last 10,000 years. The area has been used because its geologic and topographic resemblance to lunar and Martian terrains provides an ideal venue for testing hardware and science operations practices that might be employed on planetary surfaces, as well as training astronauts in field geology. Analog operations have often led to insights that spurred new scientific investigations. Most recently, an investigation of the 7504 cone was initiated due to perceptions that Apollo-style traverse plans executed during the Desert RATS 2010 mission had characterized the area incorrectly, leading to concerns that the Apollo traverse planning process was scientifically flawed. This investigation revealed a complex history of fissure eruptions of lava and cinders, cinder cone development, a cone-fill-and-spill episode, extensive rheomorphic lava flow initiation and emplacement, and cone sector collapse that led to a final lava flow. This history was not discernible on pre-RATS mission photogeology, although independent analysis of RATS 2010 data and samples develped a "75% complete solution" that validated the pre-RATS mission planning and Apollo traverse planning and execution. The study also pointed out that the development of scientific knowledge with time in a given field area is not linear, but may follow a functional form that rises steeply in the early period of an investigation but flattens out in the later period, asymptotically approaching a theoretical "complete knowledge" point that probably cannot be achieved. This implies that future human missions must be prepared to shift geographic areas of investigation regularly if significant science returns are to be forthcoming.

  7. 3D Modelling of Geological Objects and Phenomena in GIS systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blišťan


    Full Text Available Elaboration of geological information using GIS brings also some serious problems. A correct and effective analysis of the complex system of surficial and subsurficial objects requires a whole palette of specific data, which are typical for the problems of geology. Traditional GIS technologies are oriented especially toward the administration and management of 2D data. The geological GIS require the data analysis and elaboration in a 3D space. Consequently, it is later possible to solve some problems connected with the simulation of geological phenomena and also to solve some problems of geological prospecting. The simulation of spatial processes and objects requires empirical data, which are maintaining the essence of the natural systems. The spatial analysis includes the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of discrete and continuous geological data at the small and also the big scale. GIS contains sub-systems for the input, management and the output of data. These subsystems arose as an answer to the need of visualization of complicated spatial databases. These subsystems are designed for the description of causal presence of geological phenomena as a function of time and for analysing of spatial relations of variables.

  8. Modeling coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical processes including plastic deformation in geological porous media (United States)

    Kelkar, S.; Karra, S.; Pawar, R. J.; Zyvoloski, G.


    There has been an increasing interest in the recent years in developing computational tools for analyzing coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical (THM) processes that occur in geological porous media. This is mainly due to their importance in applications including carbon sequestration, enhanced geothermal systems, oil and gas production from unconventional sources, degradation of Arctic permafrost, and nuclear waste isolation. Large changes in pressures, temperatures and saturation can result due to injection/withdrawal of fluids or emplaced heat sources. These can potentially lead to large changes in the fluid flow and mechanical behavior of the formation, including shear and tensile failure on pre-existing or induced fractures and the associated permeability changes. Due to this, plastic deformation and large changes in material properties such as permeability and porosity can be expected to play an important role in these processes. We describe a general purpose computational code FEHM that has been developed for the purpose of modeling coupled THM processes during multi-phase fluid flow and transport in fractured porous media. The code uses a continuum mechanics approach, based on control volume - finite element method. It is designed to address spatial scales on the order of tens of centimeters to tens of kilometers. While large deformations are important in many situations, we have adapted the small strain formulation as useful insight can be obtained in many problems of practical interest with this approach while remaining computationally manageable. Nonlinearities in the equations and the material properties are handled using a full Jacobian Newton-Raphson technique. Stress-strain relationships are assumed to follow linear elastic/plastic behavior. The code incorporates several plasticity models such as von Mises, Drucker-Prager, and also a large suite of models for coupling flow and mechanical deformation via permeability and stresses

  9. Investigation on the geological structures obstructing the propagation of seismic waves - Based on physical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Yul; Hyun, Hye ja; Kim, Yoo Sung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    In petroleum exploration seismic reflection method is by far the most widely used. The resulting seismogram or seismic trace consists of many wavelets with different strengths and arrival times, due to the wavefront that have traveled different source-to receiver paths. In this sense, the seismic trace may be represented as a convolution of a wavelet with an impulse response denoting the various wavelet amplitudes and arrival times present in the trace. However, the wavelet suffers different attenuations while traveling through the earth layers. For example, the weathered layer (near-surface structure : e.g. valley) affect the propagating seismic wave in ways that cannot be simply modeled, but rather described in terms of an overall time delay and significant distortion of the source wavelet as it travels downward. Of course, the weathered layer will also affect the upgoing wave. Thus, the reflection method does not always lead to a desirable resolution in reflection section, because some specific constraints on the illumination of the deeper reflectors can be often imposed by the near-surface effect. Among other things, the mechanism for attenuation in many types of rocks is not very well understood. The present work is then mostly focussed on studying problems of wave propagation especially dealing with the near-surface structure problem by using physical modeling. An attempt was made to compare the measured data in detail with those from numerical method (ray theory). Besides, various kinds of physical models were additionally built to simulate the complex geological structures comprising wavy layer, coal seam structure, absorbing inhomogeneities, gradient layer that are not simply amenable to theory. Hereby, an attention was given on the reflection and transmission responses. The results illustrated in this work will provide a basis for the future oil exploration in Korea and demonstrate the potential of physical modeling as well. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs., 62

  10. 3D geological modelling and geothermal mapping - the first results of the transboundary Polish - Saxon project "TransGeoTherm" (United States)

    Kozdrój, Wiesław; Kłonowski, Maciej; Mydłowski, Adam; Ziółkowska-Kozdrój, Małgorzata; Badura, Janusz; Przybylski, Bogusław; Russ, Dorota; Zawistowski, Karol; Domańska, Urszula; Karamański, Paweł; Krentz, Ottomar; Hofmann, Karina; Riedel, Peter; Reinhardt, Silke; Bretschneider, Mario


    TransGeoTherm is a common project of the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute Lower Silesian Branch (Lead Partner) and the Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, co-financed by the European Union (EU) under the framework of the Operational Programme for Transboundary Co-operation Poland-Saxony 2007-2013. It started in October 2012 and will last until June 2014. The main goal of the project is to introduce and establish the use of low temperature geothermal energy as a low emission energy source in the Saxon-Polish transboundary project area. The numerous geological, hydrogeological and geothermal data have been gathered, analysed, combined and interpreted with respect to 3D numerical modelling and subsequently processed with use of the GOCAD software. The resulting geological model covers the transboundary project area exceeding 1.000 km2 and comprises around 70 units up to the depth of about 200 metres (locally deeper) below the terrain. The division of the above units has been based on their litho-stratigraphy as well as geological, hydrogeological and geothermal settings. The model includes two lignite deposits: Berzdorf deposit in Saxony-mined out and already recultivated and Radomierzyce deposit in Poland - documented but still not excavated. At the end of the modelling procedure the raster data sets of the top, bottom and thickness of every unit will be deduced from the 3D geological model with a gridsize of 25 by 25 metres. Based on the geothermal properties of the rocks and their groundwater content a specific value of geothermal conductivity will be allocated to each layer of every borehole. Thereafter for every section of a borehole, belonging to a certain unit of the 3D geological model, a weighted mean value will be calculated. Next the horizontal distribution of these values within every unit will be interpolated. This step / procedure has to be done for all units. As a result of further calculations a series

  11. Geotectonic setting of the Suwałki Anorthosite Massif (NE-Poland) - constraints for 3D geological modelling (United States)

    Wiszniewska, Janina; Petecki, Zdzislaw; Rosowiecka, Olga; Krzemińska, Ewa


    zircons and titanite) and tectonic testing from SAM were carried out. Structural analysis were also performed on a basis of the identified tectonic structures on selected cores. Recognition of possible connections of tectonic structures with magmatic processes and pegmatite, aplite, quartz veins including their mineral composition have been checked. For pegmatite, aplite, hydrothermal and quartz veins age determinations, U-Pb SHRIMP IIe method on zircon, monazite and titanite have been done. The primary age measurements of zircons from microgranite veins within anorthosite have shown consistent Paleoproterozoic ages of protolith ( 1844±11 Ma for Krzemianka 73) with Mezoproterozoic ages ( 1.5 Ga) of metamorphic rims, similar to monazite ages ( 1469±16 Ma). The microgranite veins are probably derived from the older Paleoproterozoic crust, carrying a relic zircons of 1.84 Ga ages but also some inherited older ages as 2.0 to 2.3 Ga. The future planned works will concern the genesis and evolution of igneous AMCG rocks suite and related ore mineralization of the SAM. Petecki Z., 2006: Integrated gravity and magnetic modelling along P4 seismic profile (in Polish). Pr. Państw. Inst. Geol. CLXI., 193p. Wiszniewska J., Claesson S., Stein H., Vander Auwera J., Duchense J-C., 2002: The north-eastern Polish anorthosite massifs: petrological, geochemical and isotopic evidence for a crustal derivation. Terra Nova 14, p.451-460 This is a contribution to the project " Determination of architecture and geological evolution of the Suwałki Anothosite Massif by 3D geological and geophysical data modelling method" NCN grant 51.2115.1601.09.0

  12. Modeling non-isothermal multiphase multi-species reactive chemical transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianfu Xu; Gerard, F.; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.


    The assessment of mineral deposits, the analysis of hydrothermal convection systems, the performance of radioactive, urban and industrial waste disposal, the study of groundwater pollution, and the understanding of natural groundwater quality patterns all require modeling tools that can consider both the transport of dissolved species as well as their interactions with solid (or other) phases in geologic media and engineered barriers. Here, a general multi-species reactive transport formulation has been developed, which is applicable to homogeneous and/or heterogeneous reactions that can proceed either subject to local equilibrium conditions or kinetic rates under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions. Two numerical solution methods, the direct substitution approach (DSA) and sequential iteration approach (SIA) for solving the coupled complex subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes, are described. An efficient sequential iteration approach, which solves transport of solutes and chemical reactions sequentially and iteratively, is proposed for the current reactive chemical transport computer code development. The coupled flow (water, vapor, air and heat) and solute transport equations are also solved sequentially. The existing multiphase flow code TOUGH2 and geochemical code EQ3/6 are used to implement this SIA. The flow chart of the coupled code TOUGH2-EQ3/6, required modifications of the existing codes and additional subroutines needed are presented.

  13. Hierarchical modeling of indoor radon concentration: how much do geology and building factors matter? (United States)

    Borgoni, Riccardo; De Francesco, Davide; De Bartolo, Daniela; Tzavidis, Nikos


    Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and only second to smoking as major leading cause of lung cancer. The main concern is in indoor environments where the gas tends to accumulate and can reach high concentrations. The primary contributor of this gas into the building is from the soil although architectonic characteristics, such as building materials, can largely affect concentration values. Understanding the factors affecting the concentration in dwellings and workplaces is important both in prevention, when the construction of a new building is being planned, and in mitigation when the amount of Radon detected inside a building is too high. In this paper we investigate how several factors, such as geologic typologies of the soil and a range of building characteristics, impact on indoor concentration focusing, in particular, on how concentration changes as a function of the floor level. Adopting a mixed effects model to account for the hierarchical nature of the data, we also quantify the extent to which such measurable factors manage to explain the variability of indoor radon concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Landslide modeling and forecasting—recent progress by the u.s. geological survey (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Kean, Jason W.


    Landslide studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are focused on two main objectives: scientific understanding and forecasting. The first objective is to gain better understanding of the physical processes involved in landslide initiation and movement. This objective is largely in support of the second objective, to develop predictive capabilities to answer the main hazard questions. Answers to the following six questions are needed to characterize the hazard from landslides: (1) Where will landslides occur? (2) What kind(s) of landslides will occur? (3) When will landslides occur? (4) How big will the landslides be? (5) How fast will the landslides travel? (6) How far will the landslides go? Although these questions are sometimes recast in different terms, such as frequency or recurrence rather than timing (when), the questions or their variants address the spatial, physical, and temporal aspects of landslide hazards. Efforts to develop modeling and forecasting capabilities by the USGS are primarily focused on specific landslide types that pose a high degree of hazard and show relatively high potential for predictability.

  15. Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, M.R.


    The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs.

  16. Geological 3D modelling : scientific discovery and enhanced understanding of the subsurface, with examples from the UK


    Ford, Jon; Mathers, Steve; Royse, Kate; Aldiss, Don; Morgan, David J.R.


    In recent years, with the improvement of computer processing power and the development of sophisticated visualisation software, the traditional static views of geological maps, cross-sections and other analogue representations have been replaced by digital, three-dimensional (3D) models. Building these 3D models involves the assembly of many previously isolated and disparate datasets into a single 3D spatial framework for visualisation and analysis. This enables the construction of the best p...

  17. Three-dimensional geological modelling of anthropogenic deposits at small urban sites: a case study from Sheepcote Valley, Brighton, UK. (United States)

    Tame, C; Cundy, A B; Royse, K R; Smith, M; Moles, N R


    Improvements in computing speed and capacity and the increasing collection and digitisation of geological data now allow geoscientists to produce meaningful 3D spatial models of the shallow subsurface in many large urban areas, to predict ground conditions and reduce risk and uncertainty in urban planning. It is not yet clear how useful this 3D modelling approach is at smaller urban scales, where poorly characterised anthropogenic deposits (artificial/made ground and fill) form the dominant subsurface material and where the availability of borehole and other geological data is less comprehensive. This is important as it is these smaller urban sites, with complex site history, which frequently form the focus of urban regeneration and redevelopment schemes. This paper examines the extent to which the 3D modelling approach previously utilised at large urban scales can be extended to smaller less well-characterised urban sites, using a historic landfill site in Sheepcote Valley, Brighton, UK as a case study. Two 3D models were generated and compared using GSI3D™ software, one using borehole data only, one combining borehole data with local geological maps and results from a desk study (involving collation of available site data, including ground contour plans). These models clearly delimit the overall subsurface geology at the site, and allow visualisation and modelling of the anthropogenic deposits present. Shallow geophysical data collected from the site partially validate the 3D modelled data, and can improve GSI3D™ outputs where boundaries of anthropogenic deposits may not be clearly defined by surface, contour or borehole data. Attribution of geotechnical and geochemical properties to the 3D model is problematic without intrusive investigations and sampling. However, combining available borehole data, shallow geophysical methods and site histories may allow attribution of generic fill properties, and consequent reduction of urban development risk and

  18. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments — A framework for assessing the scale of predictive capability of hydrological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian, E-mail: [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Auken, Esben [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Bamberg, Charlotte A. [City of Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Britt S.B. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Clausen, Thomas [DHI, Hørsholm (Denmark); Dalgaard, Esben [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Effersø, Flemming [SkyTEM Aps, Beder (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Gertz, Flemming [Knowledge Center for Agriculture, Skejby (Denmark); Hansen, Anne Lausten [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); He, Xin [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Jacobsen, Brian H. [Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jensen, Karsten Høgh [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jørgensen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Koch, Julian [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Nilsson, Bertel [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Petersen, Christian [City of Odder (Denmark); De Schepper, Guillaume [Université Laval, Québec (Canada); Schamper, Cyril [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); and others


    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root zone is reduced in the saturated zone before reaching the streams, and vulnerable areas, where no subsurface reduction takes place, and then only impose regulations/restrictions on the vulnerable areas. Distributed hydrological models can make predictions at grid scale, i.e. at much smaller scale than the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface and for assessing at which spatial scales modelling tools have predictive capabilities. A new instrument has been developed for airborne geophysical measurements, Mini-SkyTEM, dedicated to identifying geological structures and heterogeneities with horizontal and lateral resolutions of 30–50 m and 2 m, respectively, in the upper 30 m. The geological heterogeneity and uncertainty are further analysed by use of the geostatistical software TProGS by generating stochastic geological realisations that are soft conditioned against the geophysical data. Finally, the flow paths within the catchment are simulated by use of the MIKE SHE hydrological modelling system for each of the geological models generated by TProGS and the prediction uncertainty is characterised by the variance between the

  19. A Java and XML Application to Support Numerical Model Development within the Geologic Sequestration Software Suite (GS3) (United States)

    Williams, M. D.; Wurstner, S. K.; Thorne, P. D.; Freedman, V. L.; Litofsky, A.; Huda, S. A.; Gurumoorthi, V.


    A Java and XML based application is currently under development as part of the Geologic Sequestration Software Suite (GS3) to support the generation of input files for multiple subsurface multifluid flow and transport simulators. The application will aid in the translation of conceptual models to a numerical modeling framework, and will provide the capability of generating multi-scale (spatial and temporal) numerical models in support of a variety of collaborative geologic sequestration studies. User specifications for numerical models include grids, geology, boundary and initial conditions, source terms, material properties, geochemical reactions, and geomechanics. Some of these inputs are defined as part of the conceptual model, while others are specified during the numerical model development process. To preserve the distinction between the conceptual model and its translation to a numerical modeling framework, the application manages data associated with each specification independently. This facilitates 1) building multi-scale numerical models from a common conceptual model, 2) building numerical models from multiple conceptual models, 3) building numerical models and input files for different simulators from a common conceptual model, 4) ease in re-generating numerical models in response to revisions of the conceptual model, and 5) revising the numerical model specification during the development process (e.g., grid modifications and resulting re-assignment of material property values and distributions). A key aspect of the model definition software is the ability to define features in the numerical model by specifying them as geometric objects, eliminating the need for the user to specify node/element numbers that often change when the grid is revised. The GS3 platform provides the capability of tracking provenance and dependencies for data files used in the numerical model definition. Within this framework, metadata is generated to support configuration

  20. 46 CFR 154.431 - Model test. (United States)


    ...(c). (b) Analyzed data of a model test for the primary and secondary barrier of the membrane tank... Model test. (a) The primary and secondary barrier of a membrane tank, including the corners and joints...

  1. A geological model for the management of subsurface data in the urban environment of Barcelona and surrounding area (United States)

    Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Ángel Marazuela, Miguel; Velasco, Violeta; Diviu, Marc; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Álvarez-Marrón, Joaquina


    The overdevelopment of cities since the industrial revolution has shown the need to incorporate a sound geological knowledge in the management of required subsurface infrastructures and in the assessment of increasingly needed groundwater resources. Additionally, the scarcity of outcrops and the technical difficulty to conduct underground exploration in urban areas highlights the importance of implementing efficient management plans that deal with the legacy of heterogeneous subsurface information. To deal with these difficulties, a methodology has been proposed to integrate all the available spatio-temporal data into a comprehensive spatial database and a set of tools that facilitates the analysis and processing of the existing and newly added data for the city of Barcelona (NE Spain). Here we present the resulting actual subsurface 3-D geological model that incorporates and articulates all the information stored in the database. The methodology applied to Barcelona benefited from a good collaboration between administrative bodies and researchers that enabled the realization of a comprehensive geological database despite logistic difficulties. Currently, the public administration and also private sectors both benefit from the geological understanding acquired in the city of Barcelona, for example, when preparing the hydrogeological models used in groundwater assessment plans. The methodology further facilitates the continuous incorporation of new data in the implementation and sustainable management of urban groundwater, and also contributes to significantly reducing the costs of new infrastructures.

  2. Testing linear models for ability parameters in item response models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Hendrawan, I.


    Methods for testing hypotheses concerning the regression parameters in linear models for the latent person parameters in item response models are presented. Three tests are outlined: A likelihood ratio test, a Lagrange multiplier test and a Wald test. The tests are derived in a marginal maximum

  3. Integrated 3D geophysical and geological modelling of the Hercynian Suture Zone in the Champtoceaux area (south Brittany, France) (United States)

    Martelet, G.; Calcagno, P.; Gumiaux, C.; Truffert, C.; Bitri, A.; Gapais, D.; Brun, J. P.


    This paper combines geological knowledge and geophysical imagery at the crustal scale to model the 3D geometry of a segment of the Hercynian suture zone of western Europe in the Champtoceaux area (Brittany, France). The Champtoceaux complex consists of a stack of metamorphic nappes of gneisses and micaschists, with eclogite-bearing units. The exhumation of the complex, during early Carboniferous times, was accompanied by deformation during regional dextral strike-slip associated with a major Hercynian shear zone (the South Armorican Shear Zone, SASZ). Dextral shearing produced a km-scale antiformal structure with a steeply dipping axial plane and a steeply eastward plunging axis. Armor 2 deep seismic profile shows that the regional structure was cut by a set of faults with northward thrusting components. Based on the seismic constraint, direct 2D crustal-scale modelling was performed throughout the Champtoceaux fold on seven radial gravity profiles, also using geological data, and density measurements from field and drill-hole samples. The 3D integration of the cross-sections, the digitised geological map, and the structural information (foliation dips) insure the geometrical and topological consistency of all sources of data. The 2D information is interpolated to the whole 3D space using a geostatistical analysis. Finally, the 3D gravity contribution of the resulting model is computed taking into account densities for each modelled geological body and compared to the Bouguer anomaly. The final 3D model is thus compatible with the seismic and gravity data, as well as with geological data. Main geological results derived from the modelling are (i) the overall 3D geometry of the south dipping thrust system interpreted on the seismic profile emphasises northward thrusting and folding of the Champtoceaux complex which was coeval with strike-slip along the South Armorican Shear Zone; (ii) the gravity modelling suggests the presence of a relatively dense body below the

  4. Model-based testing for software safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurbuz, Havva Gulay; Tekinerdogan, Bedir


    Testing safety-critical systems is crucial since a failure or malfunction may result in death or serious injuries to people, equipment, or environment. An important challenge in testing is the derivation of test cases that can identify the potential faults. Model-based testing adopts models of a

  5. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments--a framework for assessing the scale of predictive capability of hydrological models. (United States)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, Charlotte A; Christensen, Britt S B; Clausen, Thomas; Dalgaard, Esben; Effersø, Flemming; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Gertz, Flemming; Hansen, Anne Lausten; He, Xin; Jacobsen, Brian H; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Jørgensen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt; Koch, Julian; Nilsson, Bertel; Petersen, Christian; De Schepper, Guillaume; Schamper, Cyril; Sørensen, Kurt I; Therrien, Rene; Thirup, Christian; Viezzoli, Andrea


    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root zone is reduced in the saturated zone before reaching the streams, and vulnerable areas, where no subsurface reduction takes place, and then only impose regulations/restrictions on the vulnerable areas. Distributed hydrological models can make predictions at grid scale, i.e. at much smaller scale than the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface and for assessing at which spatial scales modelling tools have predictive capabilities. A new instrument has been developed for airborne geophysical measurements, Mini-SkyTEM, dedicated to identifying geological structures and heterogeneities with horizontal and lateral resolutions of 30-50 m and 2m, respectively, in the upper 30 m. The geological heterogeneity and uncertainty are further analysed by use of the geostatistical software TProGS by generating stochastic geological realisations that are soft conditioned against the geophysical data. Finally, the flow paths within the catchment are simulated by use of the MIKE SHE hydrological modelling system for each of the geological models generated by TProGS and the prediction uncertainty is characterised by the variance between the

  6. Vehicle rollover sensor test modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, R.W.; Chou, C.C.; Velde, R. van de; Twisk, D.; Schie, C. van


    A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension

  7. Reliability of the k{sub 0}-standardization method using geological sample analysed in a proficiency test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaes, Ana Clara O.; Menezes, Maria Ângela de B.C., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique to determine the elemental chemical composition in samples of several matrices, that has been applied by the Laboratory for Neutron Activation Analysis, located at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear /Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Nuclear Technology Development Center/Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy), CDTN/CNEN, since the starting up of the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor, in 1960. Among the methods of application of the technique, the k{sub 0}-standardization method, which was established at CDTN in 1995, is the most efficient and in 2003 it was reestablished and optimized. In order to verify the reproducibility of the results generated by the application of the k{sub 0}-standardization method at CDTN, aliquots of a geological sample sent by WEPAL (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories) were analysed and its results were compared with the results obtained through the Intercomparison of Results organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2015. WEPAL is an accredited institution for the organisation of interlaboratory studies, preparing and organizing proficiency testing schemes all over the world. Therefore, the comparison with the results provided aims to contribute to the continuous improvement of the quality of the results obtained by the CDTN. The objective of this study was to verify the reliability of the method applied two years after the intercomparison round. (author)

  8. Pore-scale modeling of wettability effects on CO2-brine displacement during geological storage (United States)

    Basirat, Farzad; Yang, Zhibing; Niemi, Auli


    Wetting properties of reservoir rocks and caprocks can vary significantly, and they strongly influence geological storage of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers, during which CO2 is supposed to displace the resident brine and to become permanently trapped. Fundamental understanding of the effect of wettability on CO2-brine displacement is thus important for improving storage efficiency and security. In this study, we investigate the influence of wetting properties on two-phase flow of CO2 and brine at the pore scale. A numerical model based on the phase field method is implemented to simulate the two-phase flow of CO2-brine in a realistic pore geometry. Our focus is to study the pore-scale fluid-fluid displacement mechanisms under different wetting conditions and to quantify the effect of wettability on macroscopic parameters such as residual brine saturation, capillary pressure, relative permeability, and specific interfacial area. Our simulation results confirm that both the trapped wetting phase saturation and the normalized interfacial area increase with decreasing contact angle. However, the wetting condition does not appear to influence the CO2 breakthrough time and saturation. We also show that the macroscopic capillary pressures based on the pressure difference between inlet and outlet can differ significantly from the phase averaging capillary pressures for all contact angles when the capillary number is high (log Ca > -5). This indicates that the inlet-outlet pressure difference may not be a good measure of the continuum-scale capillary pressure. In addition, the results show that the relative permeability of CO2 can be significantly lower in strongly water-wet conditions than in the intermediate-wet conditions.

  9. A slingram survey on the Nevada Test Site: part of an integrated geologic geophysical study of site evaluation for nuclear waste disposal (United States)

    Flanigan, Vincent J.


    A slingram geophysical survey was made in early 1978 as part of the integrated geologlcal-geophysical study aimed at evaluating the Eleana Formation as a possible repository for nuclear waste. The slingram data were taken over an alluvial fan and pediments along the eastern flank of Syncline Ridge about 45 km north of Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. The data show that the more conductive argillaceous Eleana Formation varies in depth from 40 to 85 m from west to east along traverse lines. Northeast-trending linear anomalies suggest rather abrupt changes in subsurface geology that may be associated with faults and fractures. The results of the slingram survey will, when interpreted in the light of other geologic and geophysical evidence, assist in understanding the shallow parts of the geologic setting of the Eleana Formation.

  10. Shallow subsurface control on earthquake damage patterns: first results from a 3D geological voxel model study (Tokyo Lowland, Japan) (United States)

    Stafleu, Jan; Busschers, Freek; Tanabe, Susumu


    The Tokyo Lowland is situated in a Neogene sedimentary basin near the triple junction of the North American, Pacific, and Philippine tectonic plates. The basin is filled with Neogene and Quaternary sediments up to a thickness of 3 km. In the upper 70 m of the basin, thick sequences of soft Holocene sediments occur which are assumed to have played a key role in the spatial variation of damage intensity during the 1923 Kanto earthquake (Magnitude 7.9 to 8.3). Historical records show this earthquake destroyed large parts of the Tokyo urban area which in that time was largely made up by wooden houses. Although the epicentre was 70 km to the southwest of Tokyo, severe damage occurred north of the city centre, presumably due to ground motion amplification in the soft Holocene sediments in the shallow subsurface. In order to assess the presumed relation between the damage pattern of the 1923 earthquake and the occurrence of soft Holocene sediments in the shallow subsurface, we constructed a 3D geological voxel model of the central part of the Tokyo Lowland. The model was constructed using a methodology originally developed for the lowlands of the Netherlands. The modelling workflow basically consists of three steps. First, some 10,000 borehole descriptions (gathered for geomechanical purposes), were subdivided into geological units that have uniform sediment characteristics, using both lithological and geomechanical (N-value) criteria. Second, 2D bounding surfaces were constructed, representing tops and bases of the geological units. These surfaces were used to place each voxel (100 by 100 by 1 m) within the correct geological unit. The N-values and lithological units in the borehole descriptions were subsequently used to perform a 3D stochastic interpolation of N-value and lithological class within each geological unit. Using a vertical voxel stack analysis, we were able to create a map showing the accumulated thickness of soft muds in the Holocene succession. A

  11. Spent nuclear fuel as a waste form for geologic disposal: Assessment and recommendations on data and modeling needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Luik, A.E.; Apted, M.J.; Bailey, W.J.; Haberman, J.H.; Shade, J.S.; Guenther, R.E.; Serne, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Peters, R.; Williford, R.E.


    This study assesses the status of knowledge pertinent to evaluating the behavior of spent nuclear fuel as a waste form in geologic disposal systems and provides background information that can be used by the DOE to address the information needs that pertain to compliance with applicable standards and regulations. To achieve this objective, applicable federal regulations were reviewed, expected disposal environments were described, the status of spent-fuel modeling was summarized, and information regarding the characteristics and behavior of spent fuel was compiled. This compiled information was then evaluated from a performance modeling perspective to identify further information needs. A number of recommendations were made concerning information still needed to enhance understanding of spent-fuel behavior as a waste form in geologic repositories. 335 refs., 22 figs., 44 tabs.

  12. Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation. (United States)

    Lawley, Russell; Barron, Mark; Lee, Katy


    Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation. R. Lawley, M. Barron and K. Lee. NERC - British Geological Survey, Environmental Science Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK, NG12 5GG The boundaries mapped in traditional field geological survey are subject to a wide range of inherent uncertainties. A map at a survey-scale of 1:10,000 is created by a combination of terrain interpretation, direct observations from boreholes and exposures (often sparsely distributed), and indirect interpretation of proxy variables such as soil properties, vegetation and remotely sensed images. A critical factor influencing the quality of the final map is the skill and experience of the surveyor to bring this information together in a coherent conceptual model. The users of geological data comprising or based on mapped boundaries are increasingly aware of these uncertainties, and want to know how to manage them. The growth of 3D modelling, which takes 2D surveys as a starting point, adds urgency to the need for a better understanding of survey uncertainties; particularly where 2D mapping of variable vintage has been compiled into a national coverage. Previous attempts to apply confidence on the basis of metrics such as data density, survey age or survey techniques have proved useful for isolating single, critical, factors but do not generally succeed in evaluating geological mapping 'in the round', because they cannot account for the 'conceptual' skill set of the surveyor. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is using expert elicitation methods to gain a better understanding of uncertainties within the national geological map of Great Britain. The expert elicitation approach starts with the assumption that experienced surveyors have an intuitive sense of the uncertainty of the boundaries that they map, based on a tacit model of geology and its complexity and the nature of the surveying process. The objective of

  13. 3D geological modeling of the transboundary Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin in Upper Lusatia (Germany/Poland) (United States)

    Woloszyn, Iwona; Merkel, Broder; Stanek, Klaus


    The management of natural resources has to follow the principles of sustainable development. Therefore, before starting new mining activities, it should be checked, whether existing deposits have been completely exploited. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) cross-border geologic model was created to generalize the existing data of the Neogene Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin, located in Upper Lusatia on the Polish-German border south of the city of Görlitz-Zgorzelec. The model based on boreholes and cross sections of abandoned and planned lignite fields was extended to the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, an important tectonic structure at the southern rim of the basin. The partly detailed stratigraphy of Neogene sequences was combined to five stratigraphic units, considering the lithological variations and the main tectonic structures. The model was used to check the ability of a further utilization of the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, containing lignite deposits. Moreover, it will serve as a basis for the construction of a 3D cross-border groundwater model, to investigate the groundwater flow and transport in the Miocene and Quaternary aquifer systems. The large amount of data and compatibility with other software favored the application of the 3D geo-modeling software Paradigm GOCAD. The results demonstrate a very good fit between model and real geological boundaries. This is particularly evident by matching the modeled surfaces to the implemented geological cross sections. The created model can be used for planning of full-scale mining operations in the eastern part of the basin (Radomierzyce).

  14. Model-Based Testing: The New Revolution in Software Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The efforts spent on testing are enormous due to the continuing quest for better software quality, and the ever growing complexity of software systems. The situation is aggravated by the fact that the complexity of testing tends to grow faster than the complexity of the systems being tested, in the worst case even exponentially. Whereas development and construction methods for software allow the building of ever larger and more complex systems, there is a real danger that testing methods cannot keep pace with construction, hence these new systems cannot be sufficiently fast and thoroughly be tested. This may seriously hamper the development of future generations of software systems. One of the new technologies to meet the challenges imposed on software testing is model-based testing. Models can be utilized in many ways throughout the product life-cycle, including: improved quality of specifications, code generation, reliability analysis, and test generation. This paper will focus on the testing benefits from MBT methods and review some of the historical challenges that prevented model based testing and we also try to present the solutions that can overcome these challenges.

  15. Surficial Geology of the Mosier Creek Basin (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A surficial and structural geologic map (SIR-2012-5002, fig. 2) was compiled to aid in the building of the three-dimensional geologic model. The map covers 327...

  16. Structural Geology of the Mosier Creek Basin (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A surficial and structural geologic map (SIR-2012-5002, fig. 2) was compiled to aid in the building of the three-dimensional geologic model. The map covers 327...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

  18. A model for optimal constrained adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Reese, Lynda M.


    A model for constrained computerized adaptive testing is proposed in which the information on the test at the ability estimate is maximized subject to a large variety of possible constraints on the contents of the test. At each item-selection step, a full test is first assembled to have maximum

  19. Atomic Action Refinement in Model Based Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bijl, H.M.; Rensink, Arend; Tretmans, G.J.


    In model based testing (MBT) test cases are derived from a specification of the system that we want to test. In general the specification is more abstract than the implementation. This may result in 1) test cases that are not executable, because their actions are too abstract (the implementation

  20. Traceability in Model-Based Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew George


    Full Text Available The growing complexities of software and the demand for shorter time to market are two important challenges that face today’s IT industry. These challenges demand the increase of both productivity and quality of software. Model-based testing is a promising technique for meeting these challenges. Traceability modeling is a key issue and challenge in model-based testing. Relationships between the different models will help to navigate from one model to another, and trace back to the respective requirements and the design model when the test fails. In this paper, we present an approach for bridging the gaps between the different models in model-based testing. We propose relation definition markup language (RDML for defining the relationships between models.

  1. Finite element code FENIA verification and application for 3D modelling of thermal state of radioactive waste deep geological repository (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, U. N.


    The verification of the FENIA finite element code on some problems and an example of its application are presented in the paper. The code is being developing for 3D modelling of thermal, mechanical and hydrodynamical (THM) problems related to the functioning of deep geological repositories. Verification of the code for two analytical problems has been performed. The first one is point heat source with exponential heat decrease, the second one - linear heat source with similar behavior. Analytical solutions have been obtained by the authors. The problems have been chosen because they reflect the processes influencing the thermal state of deep geological repository of radioactive waste. Verification was performed for several meshes with different resolution. Good convergence between analytical and numerical solutions was achieved. The application of the FENIA code is illustrated by 3D modelling of thermal state of a prototypic deep geological repository of radioactive waste. The repository is designed for disposal of radioactive waste in a rock at depth of several hundred meters with no intention of later retrieval. Vitrified radioactive waste is placed in the containers, which are placed in vertical boreholes. The residual decay heat of radioactive waste leads to containers, engineered safety barriers and host rock heating. Maximum temperatures and corresponding times of their establishment have been determined.

  2. Joint test for structural model specification


    Serkan YÜKSEL


    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Aim of this thesis is to propose a test statistic that can test for true structural model in time series. Main concern of the thesis is to suggest a test statistic, which has joint null of unit root and no structural break (difference stationary model). When joint null hypothesis is rejected, source of deviation from the null model may be structural break or (and) stationarity. Sources of the deviation correspond to different structural...

  3. Enhancement of subsurface geologic structure model based on gravity, magnetotelluric, and well log data in Kamojang geothermal field (United States)

    Yustin Kamah, Muhammad; Armando, Adilla; Larasati Rahmani, Dinda; Paramitha, Shabrina


    Geophysical methods such as gravity and magnetotelluric methods commonly used in conventional and unconventional energy exploration, notably for exploring geothermal prospect. They used to identify the subsurface geology structures which is estimated as a path of fluid flow. This study was conducted in Kamojang Geothermal Field with the aim of highlighting the volcanic lineament in West Java, precisely in Guntur-Papandayan chain where there are three geothermal systems. Kendang Fault has predominant direction NE-SW, identified by magnetotelluric techniques and gravity data processing techniques. Gravity techniques such as spectral analysis, derivative solutions, and Euler deconvolution indicate the type and geometry of anomaly. Magnetotelluric techniques such as inverse modeling and polar diagram are required to know subsurface resistivity charactersitics and major orientation. Furthermore, the result from those methods will be compared to geology information and some section of well data, which is sufficiently suitable. This research is very useful to trace out another potential development area.

  4. The 3-D geological model around Chang'E-3 landing site based on lunar penetrating radar Channel 1 data (United States)

    Yuan, Yuefeng; Zhu, Peimin; Zhao, Na; Xiao, Long; Garnero, Edward; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jiannan; Qiao, Le


    High-frequency lunar penetrating radar (LPR) data from an instrument on the lunar rover Yutu, from the Chang'E-3 (CE-3) robotic lander, were used to build a three-dimensional (3-D) geological model of the lunar subsurface structure. The CE-3 landing site is in the northern Mare Imbrium. More than five significant reflection horizons are evident in the LPR profile, which we interpret as different period lava flow sequences deposited on the lunar surface. The most probable directions of these flows were inferred from layer depths, thicknesses, and other geological information. Moreover, the apparent Imbrian paleoregolith homogeneity in the profile supports the suggestion of a quiescent period of lunar surface evolution. Similar subsurface structures are found at the NASA Apollo landing sites, indicating that the cause and time of formation of the imaged phenomena may be similar between the two distant regions.

  5. Compiling geophysical and geological information into a 3-D model of the glacially-affected island of Föhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Burschil


    Full Text Available Within the scope of climatic change and associated sea level rise, coastal aquifers are endangered and are becoming more a focus of research to ensure the future water supply in coastal areas. For groundwater modelling a good understanding of the geological/hydrogeological situation and the aquifer behavior is necessary. In preparation of groundwater modelling and assessment of climate change impacts on coastal water resources, we setup a geological/hydrogeological model for the North Sea Island of Föhr.

    Data from different geophysical methods applied from the air, the surface and in boreholes contribute to the 3-D model, e.g. airborne electromagnetics (SkyTEM for spatial mapping the resistivity of the entire island, seismic reflections for detailed cross-sections in the groundwater catchment area, and geophysical borehole logging for calibration of these measurements. An iterative and integrated evaluation of the results from the different geophysical methods contributes to reliable data as input for the 3-D model covering the whole island and not just the well fields.

    The complex subsurface structure of the island is revealed. The local waterworks use a freshwater body embedded in saline groundwater. Several glaciations reordered the youngest Tertiary and Quaternary sediments by glaciotectonic thrust faulting, as well as incision and refill of glacial valleys. Both subsurface structures have a strong impact on the distribution of freshwater-bearing aquifers. A digital geological 3-D model reproduces the hydrogeological structure of the island as a base for a groundwater model. In the course of the data interpretation, we deliver a basis for rock identification.

    We demonstrate that geophysical investigation provide petrophysical parameters and improve the understanding of the subsurface and the groundwater system. The main benefit of our work is that the successful combination of electromagnetic, seismic and borehole

  6. Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene warm period (United States)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.


    The mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of numerical climate models. Environmental reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate environmental synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change. PMID:26879640

  7. Used Fuel Testing Transportation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); LeDuc, Dan [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This report identifies shipping packages/casks that might be used by the Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign Program (UFDC) to ship fuel rods and pieces of fuel rods taken from high-burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) assemblies to and between research facilities for purposes of evaluation and testing. Also identified are the actions that would need to be taken, if any, to obtain U.S. Nuclear Regulatory (NRC) or other regulatory authority approval to use each of the packages and/or shipping casks for this purpose.

  8. Modeling and Testing Landslide Hazard Using Decision Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutasem Sh. Alkhasawneh


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a decision tree model for specifying the importance of 21 factors causing the landslides in a wide area of Penang Island, Malaysia. These factors are vegetation cover, distance from the fault line, slope angle, cross curvature, slope aspect, distance from road, geology, diagonal length, longitude curvature, rugosity, plan curvature, elevation, rain perception, soil texture, surface area, distance from drainage, roughness, land cover, general curvature, tangent curvature, and profile curvature. Decision tree models are used for prediction, classification, and factors importance and are usually represented by an easy to interpret tree like structure. Four models were created using Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID, Exhaustive CHAID, Classification and Regression Tree (CRT, and Quick-Unbiased-Efficient Statistical Tree (QUEST. Twenty-one factors were extracted using digital elevation models (DEMs and then used as input variables for the models. A data set of 137570 samples was selected for each variable in the analysis, where 68786 samples represent landslides and 68786 samples represent no landslides. 10-fold cross-validation was employed for testing the models. The highest accuracy was achieved using Exhaustive CHAID (82.0% compared to CHAID (81.9%, CRT (75.6%, and QUEST (74.0% model. Across the four models, five factors were identified as most important factors which are slope angle, distance from drainage, surface area, slope aspect, and cross curvature.

  9. Bathymetric Terrain Model of the Puerto Rico Trench and the Northeastern Caribbean Region for Marine Geological Investigations (United States)

    Andrews, Brian D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Danforth, William W.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Granja-Bruna, J; Carbo-Gorosabel, A


    Multibeam bathymetry data collected in the Puerto Rico Trench and Northeast Caribbean region are compiled into a seamless bathymetric terrain model for broad-scale geological investigations of the trench system. These data, collected during eight separate surveys between 2002 and 2013, covering almost 180,000 square kilometers are published here in large format map sheet and digital spatial data. This report describes the common multibeam data collection, and processing methods used to produce the bathymetric terrain model and corresponding data source polygon. Details documenting the complete provenance of the data are also provided in the metadata in the Data Catalog section.

  10. Three-dimensional geologic framework modeling of faulted hydrostratigraphic units within the Edwards Aquifer, Northern Bexar County, Texas (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Cole, James C.


    This report describes a digital, three-dimensional faulted hydrostratigraphic model constructed to represent the geologic framework of the Edwards aquifer system in the area of San Antonio, northern Bexar County, Texas. The model is based on mapped geologic relationships that reflect the complex structures of the Balcones fault zone, detailed lithologic descriptions and interpretations of about 40 principal wells (and qualified data from numerous other wells), and a conceptual model of the gross geometry of the Edwards Group units derived from prior interpretations of depositional environments and paleogeography. The digital model depicts the complicated intersections of numerous major and minor faults in the subsurface, as well as their individual and collective impacts on the continuity of the aquifer-forming units of the Edwards Group and the Georgetown Formation. The model allows for detailed examination of the extent of fault dislocation from place to place, and thus the extent to which the effective cross-sectional area of the aquifer is reduced by faulting. The model also depicts the internal hydrostratigraphic subdivisions of the Edwards aquifer, consisting of three major and eight subsidiary hydrogeologic units. This geologic framework model is useful for visualizing the geologic structures within the Balcones fault zone and the interactions of en-echelon fault strands and flexed connecting fault-relay ramps. The model also aids in visualizing the lateral connections between hydrostratigraphic units of relatively high and low permeability across the fault strands. Introduction The Edwards aquifer is the principal source of water for municipal, agricultural, industrial, and military uses by nearly 1.5 million inhabitants of the greater San Antonio, Texas, region (Hovorka and others, 1996; Sharp and Banner, 1997). Discharges from the Edwards aquifer also support local recreation and tourism industries at Barton, Comal, and San Marcos Springs located

  11. Interpretation and Modelling of Data from Site Investigations for a Geological Disposal facility located in the UK (United States)

    Clark, H.; Bailey, L.; Parkes, A.


    The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been given the responsibility for implementing geological disposal in the United Kingdom. The implementation process envisaged is that once a candidate site or sites for a geological disposal facility have been identified, NDA-RWMD will undertake surface-based investigations at the site or sites. The information acquired through these investigations would be used as an input to the development of the safety case, for engineering design of the disposal facility and to demonstrate confidence to the key stakeholders that the potential disposal facility site is adequately understood. NDA-RWMD proposes to develop and present the information derived from site characterisation activities in the form of a single integrated Site Descriptive Model, i.e. a description of the geometry, properties of the bedrock and water, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms, which will be used to address the information requirements of all the end users (including the safety case). It is anticipated that, in a similar way to the approach adopted by international radioactive waste programmes led by SKB (Sweden) and Posiva (Finland), the integrated Site Descriptive Model will be divided into parts comprising clearly defined disciplines which may form either chapters or discipline-based models such as: • Geology; • Hydrogeology; • Hydrochemistry; • Geotechnical; • Radionuclide Transport Properties; • Thermal Properties; and • Biosphere. The integrated Site Descriptive Model will evolve as understanding of the particular site advances and will describe the current understanding of a specific site and, where relevant, the historical development of conditions at the site where this supports the conceptual understanding. The Site Descriptive Model will not include prediction of the future evolution of the conditions at the site: this will be an important component

  12. Testing the ability of the ExoMars 2018 payload to document geological context and potential habitability on Mars (United States)

    Bost, N.; Ramboz, C.; LeBreton, N.; Foucher, F.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; De Angelis, S.; Josset, M.; Venegas, G.; Sanz-Arranz, A.; Rull, F.; Medina, J.; Josset, J.-L.; Souchon, A.; Ammannito, E.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Di Iorio, T.; Carli, C.; Vago, J. L.; Westall, F.


    The future ExoMars rover mission (ESA/Roscosmos), to be launched in 2018, will investigate the habitability of the Martian surface and near subsurface, and search for traces of past life in the form of textural biosignatures and organic molecules. In support of this mission, a selection of relevant Mars analogue materials has been characterised and stored in the International Space Analogue Rockstore (ISAR), hosted in Orléans, France. Two ISAR samples were analysed by prototypes of the ExoMars rover instruments used for petrographic study. The objective was to determine whether a full interpretation of the rocks could be achieved on the basis of the data obtained by the ExoMars visible-IR imager and spectrometer (MicrOmega), the close-up imager (CLUPI), the drill infrared spectrometer (Ma_Miss) and the Raman spectrometer (RLS), first separately then in their entirety. In order to not influence the initial instrumental interpretation, the samples were sent to the different teams without any additional information. This first step was called the "Blind Test" phase. The data obtained by the instruments were then complemented with photography of the relevant outcrops (as would be available during the ExoMars mission) before being presented to two geologists tasked with the interpretation. The context data and photography of the outcrops and of the samples were sufficient for the geologists to identify the rocks. This initial identification was crucial for the subsequent, iterative interpretation of the spectroscopic data. The data from the different spectrometers was, thus, cross-calibrated against the photographic interpretations and against each other. In this way, important mineralogical details, such as evidence of aqueous alteration of the rocks, provided relevant information concerning potential habitable conditions. The final conclusion from this test is that, when processed together, the ExoMars payload instruments produce complementary data allowing reliable

  13. lmerTest Package: Tests in Linear Mixed Effects Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Brockhoff, Per B.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen


    One of the frequent questions by users of the mixed model function lmer of the lme4 package has been: How can I get p values for the F and t tests for objects returned by lmer? The lmerTest package extends the 'lmerMod' class of the lme4 package, by overloading the anova and summary functions...... by providing p values for tests for fixed effects. We have implemented the Satterthwaite's method for approximating degrees of freedom for the t and F tests. We have also implemented the construction of Type I - III ANOVA tables. Furthermore, one may also obtain the summary as well as the anova table using...

  14. Linear Logistic Test Modeling with R (United States)

    Baghaei, Purya; Kubinger, Klaus D.


    The present paper gives a general introduction to the linear logistic test model (Fischer, 1973), an extension of the Rasch model with linear constraints on item parameters, along with eRm (an R package to estimate different types of Rasch models; Mair, Hatzinger, & Mair, 2014) functions to estimate the model and interpret its parameters. The…

  15. Testing predictive performance of binary choice models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.D. Donkers (Bas); B. Melenberg (Bertrand)


    textabstractBinary choice models occur frequently in economic modeling. A measure of the predictive performance of binary choice models that is often reported is the hit rate of a model. This paper develops a test for the outperformance of a predictor for binary outcomes over a naive prediction

  16. Modeling pN2 through Geological Time: Implications for Planetary Climates and Atmospheric Biosignatures (United States)

    Stüeken, E. E.; Kipp, M. A.; Koehler, M. C.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Johnson, B.; Buick, R.


    Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean - presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure. Parameters for our model are constrained by observations of modern Earth and reconstructions of biomass burial and oxidative weathering in deep time. A 1-D climate model was used to model potential effects on atmospheric climate. In a second set of tests, we perturbed our box model to investigate which parameters have the greatest impact on the evolution of atmospheric pN2 and consider possible implications for nitrogen cycling on other planets. Our results suggest that (a) a high rate of biomass burial would have been needed in the Archean to draw down atmospheric pN2 to less than half modern levels, (b) the resulting effect on temperature could probably have been compensated by increasing solar luminosity and a mild increase in pCO2, and (c) atmospheric oxygenation could have initiated a stepwise pN2 rebound through oxidative weathering. In general, life appears to be necessary for significant atmospheric pN2 swings on Earth-like planets. Our results further support the idea that an exoplanetary atmosphere rich in both N2 and O2 is a signature of an oxygen-producing biosphere.

  17. Modeling pN2 through Geological Time: Implications for Planetary Climates and Atmospheric Biosignatures. (United States)

    Stüeken, E E; Kipp, M A; Koehler, M C; Schwieterman, E W; Johnson, B; Buick, R


    Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean-presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure. Parameters for our model are constrained by observations of modern Earth and reconstructions of biomass burial and oxidative weathering in deep time. A 1-D climate model was used to model potential effects on atmospheric climate. In a second set of tests, we perturbed our box model to investigate which parameters have the greatest impact on the evolution of atmospheric pN2 and consider possible implications for nitrogen cycling on other planets. Our results suggest that (a) a high rate of biomass burial would have been needed in the Archean to draw down atmospheric pN2 to less than half modern levels, (b) the resulting effect on temperature could probably have been compensated by increasing solar luminosity and a mild increase in pCO2, and (c) atmospheric oxygenation could have initiated a stepwise pN2 rebound through oxidative weathering. In general, life appears to be necessary for significant atmospheric pN2 swings on Earth-like planets. Our results further support the idea that an exoplanetary atmosphere rich in both N2 and O2 is a signature of an oxygen-producing biosphere. Key Words: Biosignatures-Early Earth-Planetary atmospheres. Astrobiology 16, 949-963.

  18. Modeled temperature data developed for study of shallow mountain bedrock limits seepage-based headwater climate refugia, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey data release (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — 1D transient numerical simulations with a modified version of the SUTRA model (preliminary code) that accounts for variably-saturated freeze-thaw dynamics (e.g....

  19. DOE/NV/25946--1586 Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N) (United States)

    Townsend, M.; Huckins-Gang, H.; Prothro, L.; Reed, D.


    The National Center for Nuclear Security, established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The initial project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks. The SPE N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The results will help advance the seismic monitoring capability of the United States by improving the predictive capability of physics-based modeling of explosive phenomena. The first SPE N (SPE N1) test was conducted in May 2011, using 0.1 ton of explosives at the depth of 54.9 m in the U 15n source hole. SPE N2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1.0 ton of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m in the same source hole. The SPE N3 test was conducted in the same source hole in July 2012, using the same amount and type of explosive as for SPE N2, and at the same depth as SPE N2, within the damage zone created by the SPE N2 explosion to investigate damage effects on seismic wave propagation. Following the SPE N2 shot and prior to the SPE N3 shot, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE N2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The desire was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast, where the core hole penetrated it, and obtain information on the properties of the damaged medium. Geologic characterization of the post-SPE N2 core hole included geophysical logging, a

  20. Testing models for structure formation. (United States)

    Kaiser, N.

    The author reviews a number of tests of theories for structure formation. Large-scale flows and IRAS galaxies indicate a high density parameter Ω ≅ 1, in accord with inflationary predictions, but it is not clear how this meshes with the uniformly low values obtained from virial analysis on scales ≡1 Mpc. Gravitational distortion of faint galaxies behind clusters allows one to construct maps of the mass surface density, and this should shed some light on the large vs. small-scale Ω discrepancy. Power spectrum analysis reveals too red a spectrum on scales λ ≡ 10 - 100 h-1Mpc, but the gaussian fluctuation hypothesis appears to be in good shape. These results suggest that the problem for CDM lies not in the very early universe but in the assumed matter content. The power spectrum problem can be solved by invoking a cocktail of mixed dark matter. However, if gravitational lensing fails to reveal extended dark mass around clusters then we may be forced to explore more radical possibilities for the dark matter.

  1. Biglan Model Test Based on Institutional Diversity. (United States)

    Roskens, Ronald W.; Creswell, John W.

    The Biglan model, a theoretical framework for empirically examining the differences among subject areas, classifies according to three dimensions: adherence to common set of paradigms (hard or soft), application orientation (pure or applied), and emphasis on living systems (life or nonlife). Tests of the model are reviewed, and a further test is…

  2. Multivariate Model for Test Response Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, Shaji; Krishnan, Shaji; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    A systematic approach to construct an effective multivariate test response model for capturing manufacturing defects in electronic products is described. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by its capability in reducing the number of test-points, while achieving the maximal coverage

  3. Geodatabase model for global geologic mapping: concept and implementation in planetary sciences (United States)

    Nass, Andrea


    One aim of the NASA Dawn mission is to generate global geologic maps of the asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. To accomplish this, the Dawn Science Team followed the technical recommendations for cartographic basemap production. The geological mapping campaign of Vesta was completed and published, but mapping of the dwarf planet Ceres is still ongoing. The tiling schema for the geological mapping is the same for both planetary bodies and for Ceres it is divided into two parts: four overview quadrangles (Survey Orbit, 415 m/pixel) and 15 more detailed quadrangles (High Altitude Mapping HAMO, 140 m/pixel). The first global geologic map was based on survey images (415 m/pixel). The combine 4 Survey quadrangles completed by HAMO data served as basis for generating a more detailed view of the geologic history and also for defining the chronostratigraphy and time scale of the dwarf planet. The most detailed view can be expected within the 15 mapping quadrangles based on HAMO resolution and completed by the Low Altitude Mapping (LAMO) data with 35 m/pixel. For the interpretative mapping process of each quadrangle one responsible mapper was assigned. Unifying the geological mapping of each quadrangle and bringing this together to regional and global valid statements is already a very time intensive task. However, another challenge that has to be accomplished is to consider how the 15 individual mappers can generate one homogenous GIS-based project (w.r.t. geometrical and visual character) thus produce a geologically-consistent final map. Our approach this challenge was already discussed for mapping of Vesta. To accommodate the map requirements regarding rules for data storage and database management, the computer-based GIS environment used for the interpretative mapping process must be designed in a way that it can be adjusted to the unique features of the individual investigation areas. Within this contribution the template will be presented that uses standards


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Søndergaard; Rahbek, Anders


    We present novel theory for testing for reduction of GARCH-X type models with an exogenous (X) covariate to standard GARCH type models. To deal with the problems of potential nuisance parameters on the boundary of the parameter space as well as lack of identification under the null, we exploit...... a noticeable property of specific zero-entries in the inverse information of the GARCH-X type models. Specifically, we consider sequential testing based on two likelihood ratio tests and as demonstrated the structure of the inverse information implies that the proposed test neither depends on whether...

  5. Hydraulic Model Tests on Modified Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tue; Lynggaard, Jakob

    are found in Hald and Lynggaard (2001). Model tests and reconstruction are carried out during the phase 3 project: ”Wave Dragon. Reconstruction of an existing model in scale 1:50 and sequentiel tests of changes to the model geometry and mass distribution parameters” sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency...... (DEA) wave energy programme. The tests will establish a well documented basis for the development of a 1:4.5 scale prototype planned for testing Nissum Bredning, a sea inlet on the Danish West Coast....

  6. Experiments and Modeling to Support Field Test Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Peter Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bourret, Suzanne Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Disposition of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) remains a continuing technical and sociopolitical challenge. We define HGNW as the combination of both heat generating defense high level waste (DHLW) and civilian spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Numerous concepts for HGNW management have been proposed and examined internationally, including an extensive focus on geologic disposal (c.f. Brunnengräber et al., 2013). One type of proposed geologic material is salt, so chosen because of its viscoplastic deformation that causes self-repair of damage or deformation induced in the salt by waste emplacement activities (Hansen and Leigh, 2011). Salt as a repository material has been tested at several sites around the world, notably the Morsleben facility in Germany (c.f. Fahland and Heusermann, 2013; Wollrath et al., 2014; Fahland et al., 2015) and at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. Evaluating the technical feasibility of a HGNW repository in salt is an ongoing process involving experiments and numerical modeling of many processes at many facilities.

  7. Testing Expected Shortfall Models for Derivative Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, F.L.J.; Melenberg, B.; Schumacher, J.M.


    In this paper we test several risk management models for computing expected shortfall for one-period hedge errors of hedged derivatives positions.Contrary to value-at-risk, expected shortfall cannot be tested using the standard binomial test, since we need information of the distribution in the

  8. Dynamics of Great Basin Crust-Mantle Coupling Through Combined Analysis and Modeling of EarthScope Seismic, Geodetic, and Geologic Data (United States)

    Fouch, M. J.; Wernicke, B. P.; Holt, W. E.; Davis, J. L.; Porter, R. C.; Hollingsworth, J.; Shcherbenko, G.; Wang, L.; Liu, Y.; Lockridge, J.


    This project is focused on conducting a comprehensive suite of new and integrated investigations to test hypotheses of linkages between mantle flow, lithospheric decoupling, and lithospheric destabilization for the Great Basin region of the western United States. The primary motivation for our work is the need to reconcile a range of recent geophysical, geodetic, and geological findings to investigate hypotheses regarding both the present-day structure and geological evolution of the Great Basin region. Seismic imaging of the Great Basin reveals a cylindrical mass of higher than average wavespeeds east of the actively subducting Juan de Fuca plate near the zone of weakest azimuthal anisotropy in the western United States, along with a swirl-like pattern of fast polarization directions. Geodetic data for the area reveal transient changes in crustal velocities that are consistent with the hypothesis of an active decoupling horizon. Moreover, relative to a dynamic model that matches Quaternary rates and orientations of deformation, a time-averaged strain rate solution from campaign and continuous GPS shows a contractional dilatation anomaly in the same vicinity as the geodetic and seismic anomalies. The geophysical, geodetic, and geologic anomalies beneath the broadly extending Great Basin defy conventional models of a classic extensional tectonic regime. We will present preliminary results of a multiyear, collaborative research effort to integrate seismological, geodetic, and geological data from multiple components of the EarthScope Program to understand the complex dynamics of the Great Basin from the surface to the lower mantle. Newly-constructed geodograms (time series of geodetic velocity) for a large fraction of sites in the central Basin and Range provide important targets for geological, geophysical, and geodynamical studies. We have begun compiling a tectonic map and associated digital database of fault slip rates, with the ultimate goal of comparing

  9. Test-driven modeling of embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Allan; Madsen, Jan


    To benefit maximally from model-based systems engineering (MBSE) trustworthy high quality models are required. From the software disciplines it is known that test-driven development (TDD) can significantly increase the quality of the products. Using a test-driven approach with MBSE may have...... a similar positive effect on the quality of the system models and the resulting products and may therefore be desirable. To define a test-driven model-based systems engineering (TD-MBSE) approach, we must define this approach for numerous sub disciplines such as modeling of requirements, use cases......, scenarios, behavior, architecture, etc. In this paper we present a method that utilizes the formalism of timed automatons with formal and statistical model checking techniques to apply TD-MBSE to the modeling of system architecture and behavior. The results obtained from applying it to an industrial case...

  10. Data assimilation using Bayesian filters and B-spline geological models

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Lian


    This paper proposes a new approach to problems of data assimilation, also known as history matching, of oilfield production data by adjustment of the location and sharpness of patterns of geological facies. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using gradient based approaches with a level set parameterization of the geology. Gradient-based methods are robust, but computationally demanding with real-world reservoir problems and insufficient for reservoir management uncertainty assessment. Recently, the ensemble filter approach has been used to tackle this problem because of its high efficiency from the standpoint of implementation, computational cost, and performance. Incorporation of level set parameterization in this approach could further deal with the lack of differentiability with respect to facies type, but its practical implementation is based on some assumptions that are not easily satisfied in real problems. In this work, we propose to describe the geometry of the permeability field using B-spline curves. This transforms history matching of the discrete facies type to the estimation of continuous B-spline control points. As filtering scheme, we use the ensemble square-root filter (EnSRF). The efficacy of the EnSRF with the B-spline parameterization is investigated through three numerical experiments, in which the reservoir contains a curved channel, a disconnected channel or a 2-dimensional closed feature. It is found that the application of the proposed method to the problem of adjusting facies edges to match production data is relatively straightforward and provides statistical estimates of the distribution of geological facies and of the state of the reservoir.

  11. Collider Tests of the Little Higgs Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Aaron T


    The little Higgs model provides an alternative to traditional candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. The new heavy gauge bosons predicted by this model should be observable at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We discuss how the LHC experiments could test the little Higgs model by studying the production and decay of these particles.

  12. Polygon boundary describing the source surveys used to build the Bathymetric Terrain Model of the U.S. Atlantic Margin of 100-meter resolution compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (Esri Shapefile, Geographic WGS 84 Coordinate System) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bathymetric Terrain Models (BTMs) of seafloor morphology are an important component of marine geological investigations. Advances in acquisition and processing...

  13. Polygon Boundary Describing the Source Surveys Used to Build the Bathymetric Terrain Model of the Puerto Rico Trench and Northeastern Caribbean Region Compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (PRBATHSOURCE, Esri Shapefile, Geographic projection WGS 84). (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bathymetric terrain models (BTMs) of seafloor morphology are an important component of marine geological investigations. Advances in acquisition and processing...

  14. Bathymetric Terrain Model of the U.S. Atlantic Margin (100-meter resolution) compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (32-bit GeoTIFF, MERCATOR Projection, WGS 84) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bathymetric terrain models of seafloor morphology are an important component of marine geological investigations. Advances in acquisition and processing technologies...

  15. Comparison of space geodetic and geologic plate models. Are the differences real and what what do they tell us? (United States)

    Sella, G. F.; Stein, S.; Dixon, T.


    GPS geodesy can improve understanding of plate motions, diffuse and poorly-located plate boundaries, and striking intraplate deformation. Although much has been learned using by geologic GPS geodesy can improve understanding of plate motions, diffuse and poorly-located plate boundaries, and striking intraplate deformation. Although much has been learned using by geologic plate motion models based on magnetic anomalies, transform azimuths, and earthquake slip vectors, comparison of their results with GPS offers valuable insight. GPS sites in plate interiors directly resolve motion between plate pairs, such as Nubia-Somalia and India-Eurasia, where we do not have marine magnetic data. GPS data can be compared to data spanning longer time intervals to identify both limitations of models and real temporal changes in plate motion, which are suggested by initial data and seem likely in areas where boundary geometry has been evolving. Finally, GPS data can directly measure deformation within plates. Once space geodetic results become robust (long enough time series of data at a suitable number of sites), discrepancies between them and geologic models spanning millions of years can indicate either limitations in the million-year models, or changes in plate motions over time. Analyses of different plate pairs around the world have found both effects. For example, present Nazca-Pacific spreading and Nazca-South America convergence are significantly slower than the 3 Ma average rate predicted by NUVEL-1A. The convergence deceleration is consistent with a trend extending back to at least 20 Ma implied by paleomagnetic data, implying a possible negative feedback between Andean uplift and plate convergence. Conversely, GPS data resolve recognized problems with the Caribbean plate motion in NUVEL-1A, giving a better and geologically plausible result. Another interesting case is in the Indian Ocean region. Nubia-South America motion has been slowing and may be part of a regional

  16. Integrated Reflection Seismic Monitoring and Reservoir Modeling for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rogers


    The US DOE/NETL CCS MVA program funded a project with Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc. (now SIGMA) to model the proof of concept of using sparse seismic data in the monitoring of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers. The goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate an active source reflection seismic imaging strategy based on deployment of spatially sparse surface seismic arrays. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of sparse seismic array systems to monitor the CO{sub 2} plume migration injected into deep saline aquifers. The USDOE/RMOTC Teapot Dome (Wyoming) 3D seismic and reservoir data targeting the Crow Mountain formation was used as a realistic proxy to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. Though the RMOTC field has been well studied, the Crow Mountain as a saline aquifer has not been studied previously as a CO{sub 2} sequestration (storage) candidate reservoir. A full reprocessing of the seismic data from field tapes that included prestack time migration (PSTM) followed by prestack depth migration (PSDM) was performed. A baseline reservoir model was generated from the new imaging results that characterized the faults and horizon surfaces of the Crow Mountain reservoir. The 3D interpretation was integrated with the petrophysical data from available wells and incorporated into a geocellular model. The reservoir structure used in the geocellular model was developed using advanced inversion technologies including Fusion's ThinMAN{trademark} broadband spectral inversion. Seal failure risk was assessed using Fusion's proprietary GEOPRESS{trademark} pore pressure and fracture pressure prediction technology. CO{sub 2} injection was simulated into the Crow Mountain with a commercial reservoir simulator. Approximately 1.2MM tons of CO{sub 2} was simulated to be injected into the Crow Mountain reservoir over 30 years and subsequently let 'soak' in the reservoir for 970 years. The relatively small plume

  17. Logistics Modeling of Emplacement Rate and Duration of Operations for Generic Geologic Repository Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Hardin, Ernest


    This study identified potential geologic repository concepts for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and (2) evaluated the achievable repository waste emplacement rate and the time required to complete the disposal for these concepts. Total repository capacity is assumed to be approximately 140,000 MT of spent fuel. The results of this study provide an important input for the rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) disposal cost analysis. The disposal concepts cover three major categories of host geologic media: crystalline or hard rock, salt, and argillaceous rock. Four waste package sizes are considered: 4PWR/9BWR; 12PWR/21BWR; 21PWR/44BWR, and dual purpose canisters (DPCs). The DPC concepts assume that the existing canisters will be sealed into disposal overpacks for direct disposal. Each concept assumes one of the following emplacement power limits for either emplacement or repository closure: 1.7 kW; 2.2 kW; 5.5 kW; 10 kW; 11.5 kW, and 18 kW.

  18. Model-based testing for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zander, Justyna; Mosterman, Pieter J


    What the experts have to say about Model-Based Testing for Embedded Systems: "This book is exactly what is needed at the exact right time in this fast-growing area. From its beginnings over 10 years ago of deriving tests from UML statecharts, model-based testing has matured into a topic with both breadth and depth. Testing embedded systems is a natural application of MBT, and this book hits the nail exactly on the head. Numerous topics are presented clearly, thoroughly, and concisely in this cutting-edge book. The authors are world-class leading experts in this area and teach us well-used


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini


    reservoir architecture and geographic distribution of Smackover reservoirs is the fabric and texture of the depositional lithofacies, diagenesis (chiefly dolomitization) is a significant factor that preserves and enhances reservoir quality. The evaporative pumping mechanism is favored to explain the dolomitization of the thrombolite doloboundstone and dolostone reservoir flow units at Appleton and Vocation Fields. Geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and the testing and applying the resulting integrated geologic-engineering models have shown that little oil remains to be recovered at Appleton Field and a significant amount of oil remains to be recovered at Vocation Field through a strategic infill drilling program. The drive mechanisms for primary production in Appleton and Vocation Fields remain effective; therefore, the initiation of a pressure maintenance program or enhanced recovery project is not required at this time. The integrated geologic-engineering model developed for a low-relief paleohigh (Appleton Field) was tested for three scenarios involving the variables of present-day structural elevation and the presence/absence of potential reef thrombolite lithofacies. In each case, the predictions based upon the model were correct. From this modeling, the characteristics of the ideal prospect in the basement ridge play include a low-relief paleohigh associated with dendroidal/chaotic thrombolite doloboundstone and dolostone that has sufficient present-day structural relief so that these carbonates rest above the oil-water contact. Such a prospect was identified from the modeling, and it is located northwest of well Permit No. 3854B (Appleton Field) and south of well No. Permit No.11030B (Northwest Appleton Field).

  20. Hydromechanical coupling in geologic processes (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.


    Earth's porous crust and the fluids within it are intimately linked through their mechanical effects on each other. This paper presents an overview of such "hydromechanical" coupling and examines current understanding of its role in geologic processes. An outline of the theory of hydromechanics and rheological models for geologic deformation is included to place various analytical approaches in proper context and to provide an introduction to this broad topic for nonspecialists. Effects of hydromechanical coupling are ubiquitous in geology, and can be local and short-lived or regional and very long-lived. Phenomena such as deposition and erosion, tectonism, seismicity, earth tides, and barometric loading produce strains that tend to alter fluid pressure. Resulting pressure perturbations can be dramatic, and many so-called "anomalous" pressures appear to have been created in this manner. The effects of fluid pressure on crustal mechanics are also profound. Geologic media deform and fail largely in response to effective stress, or total stress minus fluid pressure. As a result, fluid pressures control compaction, decompaction, and other types of deformation, as well as jointing, shear failure, and shear slippage, including events that generate earthquakes. By controlling deformation and failure, fluid pressures also regulate states of stress in the upper crust. Advances in the last 80 years, including theories of consolidation, transient groundwater flow, and poroelasticity, have been synthesized into a reasonably complete conceptual framework for understanding and describing hydromechanical coupling. Full coupling in two or three dimensions is described using force balance equations for deformation coupled with a mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Fully coupled analyses allow hypothesis testing and conceptual model development. However, rigorous application of full coupling is often difficult because (1) the rheological behavior of geologic media is complex

  1. A SKOS-based multilingual thesaurus of geological time scale for interoperability of online geological maps (United States)

    Ma, Xiaogang; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Wu, Chonglong; van der Meer, Freek D.; Liu, Gang


    The usefulness of online geological maps is hindered by linguistic barriers. Multilingual geoscience thesauri alleviate linguistic barriers of geological maps. However, the benefits of multilingual geoscience thesauri for online geological maps are less studied. In this regard, we developed a multilingual thesaurus of geological time scale (GTS) to alleviate linguistic barriers of GTS records among online geological maps. We extended the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model to represent the ordinal hierarchical structure of GTS terms. We collected GTS terms in seven languages and encoded them into a thesaurus by using the extended SKOS model. We implemented methods of characteristic-oriented term retrieval in JavaScript programs for accessing Web Map Services (WMS), recognizing GTS terms, and making translations. With the developed thesaurus and programs, we set up a pilot system to test recognitions and translations of GTS terms in online geological maps. Results of this pilot system proved the accuracy of the developed thesaurus and the functionality of the developed programs. Therefore, with proper deployments, SKOS-based multilingual geoscience thesauri can be functional for alleviating linguistic barriers among online geological maps and, thus, improving their interoperability.

  2. Detailed Geological Modelling in Urban Areas focused on Structures relevant to the Near Surface Groundwater Flow in the context of Climatic Changes (United States)

    Bach, T.; Pallesen, T. M.; Jensen, N. P.; Mielby, S.; Sandersen, P.; Kristensen, M.


    This case demonstrates a practical example from the city of Odense (DK) where new geological modeling techniques has been developed and used in the software GeoScene3D, to create a detailed voxel model of the anthropogenic layer. The voxel model has been combined with a regional hydrostratigraphic layer model. The case is part of a pilot project partly financed by VTU (Foundation for Development of Technology in the Danish Water Sector) and involves many different datatypes such as borehole information, geophysical data, human related elements (landfill, pipelines, basements, roadbeds etc). In the last few years, there has been increased focus on detailed geological modeling in urban areas. The models serve as important input to hydrological models. This focus is partly due to climate changes as high intensity rainfalls are seen more often than in the past, and water recharge is a topic too. In urban areas, this arises new challenges. There is a need of a high level of detailed geological knowledge for the uppermost zone of the soil, which typically are problematic due to practically limitations, especially when using geological layer models. Furthermore, to accommodate the need of a high detail, all relevant available data has to be used in the modeling process. Human activity has deeply changed the soil layers, e.g. by constructions as roadbeds, buildings with basements, pipelines, landfill etc. These elements can act as barriers or pathways regarding surface near groundwater flow and can attribute to local flooding or mobilization and transport of contaminants etc. A geological voxel model is built by small boxes (a voxel). Each box can contain several parameters, ex. lithology, transmissivity or contaminant concentration. Human related elements can be implemented using tools, which gives the modeler advanced options for making detailed small-scale models. This case demonstrates the workflow and the resulting geological model for the pilot area.

  3. Challenges in conditioning a stochastic geological model of a heterogeneous glacial aquifer to a comprehensive soft data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Julian; He, Xin; Jensen, Karsten Høgh


    In traditional hydrogeological investigations, one geological model is often used based on subjective interpretations and sparse data availability. This deterministic approach usually does not account for any uncertainties. Stochastic simulation methods address this problem and can capture......-density (20 m × 20 m × 2 m) airborne geophysical data (SkyTEM) and categorized borehole data are utilized to define the model of spatial variability in horizontal and vertical direction, respectively, and both are used for soft conditioning of the TProGS simulations. The category probabilities for the Sky......TEM data set are derived from a histogram probability matching method, where resistivity is paired with the corresponding lithology from the categorized borehole data. This study integrates two distinct data sources into the stochastic modeling process that represent two extremes of the conditioning...

  4. Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing (United States)

    Nance, Donald K.; Liever, Peter A.


    The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT), conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.

  5. Do Test Design and Uses Influence Test Preparation? Testing a Model of Washback with Structural Equation Modeling (United States)

    Xie, Qin; Andrews, Stephen


    This study introduces Expectancy-value motivation theory to explain the paths of influences from perceptions of test design and uses to test preparation as a special case of washback on learning. Based on this theory, two conceptual models were proposed and tested via Structural Equation Modeling. Data collection involved over 870 test takers of…

  6. Modeling Reliability Growth in Accelerated Stress Testing (United States)


    and E. Elsayed, "A general accelerated life model for step stress testing," IIE Transactions , vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1059-1069, 2005. [57] D. Nicholls...W. Nelson, "Accelerated Life Testing - step-stress models and data analyses," IEEE Transactions on Reliability, vol. 29, pp. 103-108, 1980. [19] G...34 IEEE Transactions on Reliability, Vols. R-26, no. 5, pp. 348-351, 1977. [35] D. E. Olsen, "Estimating reliability growth," IEEE Transactions on

  7. Modelling ties in the sign test. (United States)

    Rayner, J C; Best, D J


    If ties occur in the sign test, the procedure recommended by Coakley and Heise (1996, Biometrics 52, 1242-1251) is the asymptotic uniformly most powerful nonrandomised test due to Putter (1955, Annals of Mathematical Statistics 26, 368-386). It may be shown that this is a consequence of how the probability of a tie is modelled. Other models with different optimal procedures can be constructed.

  8. iBem3D, a three-dimensional iterative boundary element method using angular dislocations for modeling geologic structures (United States)

    Maerten, F.; Maerten, L.; Pollard, D. D.


    Most analytical solutions to engineering or geological problems are limited to simple geometries. For example, analytical solutions have been found to solve for stresses around a circular hole in a plate. To solve more complex problems, mathematicians and engineers have developed powerful computer-aided numerical methods, which can be categorized into two main types: differential methods and integral methods. The finite element method (FEM) is a differential method that was developed in the 1950s and is one of the most commonly used numerical methods today. Since its development, other differential methods, including the boundary element method (BEM), have been developed to solve different types of problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe iBem3D, formally called Poly3D, a C++ and modular 3D boundary element computer program based on the theory of angular dislocations for modeling three-dimensional (3D) discontinuities in an elastic, heterogeneous, isotropic whole- or half-space. After 20 years and more than 150 scientific publications, we present in detail the formulation behind this method, its enhancements over the years as well as some important applications in several domains of the geosciences. The main advantage of using this formulation, for describing geological objects such as faults, resides in the possibility of modeling complex geometries without gaps and overlaps between adjacent triangular dislocation elements, which is a significant shortcoming for models using rectangular dislocation elements. Reliability, speed, simplicity, and accuracy are enhanced in the latest version of the computer code. Industrial applications include subseismic fault modeling, fractured reservoir modeling, interpretation and validation of fault connectivity and reservoir compartmentalization, depleted area and fault reactivation, and pressurized wellbore stability. Academic applications include earthquake and volcano monitoring, hazard mitigation, and slope

  9. Torsion vehicle model test for automotive vehicle (United States)

    Nor, M. K. Mohd; Ho, C. S.; Ma'at, N.


    Torsion vehicle model test of Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) model for automotive vehicle sedan is proposed in this paper to demonstrate the importance of providing continuous load path within the vehicle structures. The proposed approach is relatively easy to understand as compared to Finite Element Method (FEM). The results prove that the proposed vehicle model test is capable to show that a satisfactory load paths can five a sufficient structural stiffness within the vehicle structure. It is clearly observed that the global torsion stiffness reduces significantly when only one panel is removed from the complete SSS model. The results also five a food agreement with respect to the theoretical hypothesis as the structure is less stiff in torsion in an open section condition. The SSS model and the corresponding torsion test is obviously useful to give an overview of vehicle structural integrity. It can be potentially integrated with FEM to speed up the design process of automotive vehicle.

  10. Pembuatan Model Geologi Bawah Permukaan dengan Metode Geolistrik Dan Studi Stratigrafi pada Rembesan Gas DiJatilawang, Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Bayu Purwasatriya


    Full Text Available Banyumas basin is oneof sedimentary basin inIndonesia whichhasn’t proven yet its economical hydrocarbonreserves, although there are several oil and gas seeps in this area which is indicate mature source rocks had been migrated. One of itsgas seep is located on Karanglewas village, Jatilawang, Banyumas which hadbeen flowing its gases since tens years ago. Geoelectrical method and Stratigraphic studyare the methods usedin this research to built a geological subsurface model of Jatilawang’s gas seep.Geoelectrical method isintent to finding the distribution of gas seep over the area and also to finding the direction of fault structure which can be act asa path for gases to flowing up. Stratigraphic study comprise of lithology description, strike and dip measurement, and study of other secondary geological data. Interpreted subsurfacegeological model showing that sandstone dominated bed of Halang Formation is filled by gases and become gas pockets near the surface. Fault direction also interpreted from correlation of these gas pockets and resulting directionof N 115° E and dip of fault plane is45°.Gas flowing through fault and probably the source comes from gas cap of Jatilawang’s anticline. Predicted location of gas cap is about 610 meters to the south, and depthabout 620 meters.

  11. Geological characterization and solute transport model investigations of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. On a national level, there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated sites. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken. R...... the uncertainties of projections on the fate of the contaminant. Based on the work, we were able to pinpoint the best strategies and solutions for future remediation efforts at the two sites.......In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. On a national level, there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated sites. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken...... efforts are often challenged by logistics. The general lack of knowledge about theses contaminations introduces significant uncertainties in the projections on the fate of the contaminant. We carry out a geological characterization of two contaminated sites situated in urban areas. The existing data from...

  12. Sample Size Determination for Rasch Model Tests (United States)

    Draxler, Clemens


    This paper is concerned with supplementing statistical tests for the Rasch model so that additionally to the probability of the error of the first kind (Type I probability) the probability of the error of the second kind (Type II probability) can be controlled at a predetermined level by basing the test on the appropriate number of observations.…

  13. Development of Phenomenological Models of Underground Nuclear Tests on Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site - BENHAM and TYBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G.A.


    Although it is well accepted that underground nuclear explosions modify the in situ geologic media around the explosion point, the details of these changes are neither well understood nor well documented. As part of the engineering and containment process before a nuclear test, the physical environment is characterized to some extent to predict how the explosion will interact with the in situ media. However, a more detailed characterization of the physical environment surrounding an expended site is needed to successfully model radionuclide transport in the groundwater away from the detonation point. It is important to understand how the media have been altered and where the radionuclides are deposited. Once understood, this information on modified geologic media can be incorporated into a phenomenological model that is suitable for input to computer simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. The primary goals of this study are to (1) identify the modification of the media at a pertinent scale, and (2) provide this information to researchers modeling radionuclide transport in groundwater for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. Results from this study are most applicable at near-field scale (a model domain of about 500 m) and intermediate-field scale (a model domain of about 5 km) for which detailed information can be maximized as it is incorporated in the modeling grids. UGTA collected data on radionuclides in groundwater during recent drilling at the ER-20-5 site, which is near BENHAM and TYBO on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Computer simulations are being performed to better understand radionuclide transport. The objectives of this modeling effort include: evaluating site-specific information from the BENHAM and TYBO tests on Pahute Mesa; augmenting the above data set with generalized containment data; and developing a phenomenological model suitable for input to

  14. High-resolution 3D spatial modelling of complex geological structures for an environmental risk assessment of abundant mining and industrial megasites (United States)

    Wycisk, P.; Hubert, T.; Gossel, W.; Neumann, Ch.


    Conceptual geological models of industrial and mining megasites are an essential task of groundwater investigations as well as environmental risk assessment studies. Therefore, the conceptualization process of the structural geological model has depended on the development of a set of 2D cross-sections to portray a 3D picture of groundwater flow. This attempt always includes some simplifications that require, only to some extent, the true 3D situation of heterogeneous aquifers. Consequently, the modelled predictions of the path flow and transport conditions of contaminated groundwater are not satisfying in terms of a flow-path and risk based modelling approach. A more structured approach to develop the hydrogeological framework for the conceptual model is advocated, using different 3D geological modelling software packages to assemble the data, working in three dimensions and using this platform for subsequent groundwater flow modelling. Attention is given to the capability of different 3D modelling approaches, indicated by geostatistically based versus constructive cross-section based interpolations of complex sedimentary successions, that are compared in their results and suitability for subsequent hydrogeological modelling requirements. The paper describes the results, in high-resolution 3D modelling, of the complex geological environment of the Bitterfeld/Wolfen megasite in the eastern part of Germany. Identification, assessment, and remediation of large-scale groundwater contamination require a detailed knowledge of the heterogeneous geological structure to predict the fate and pathways of contaminants and their potential interaction with, e.g., surface water. An area of 16 km 2 of the model area of the Bitterfeld/Wolfen area was chosen to transfer the complex structural geological setting. The subsurface geology could be assigned to 31 lithostratigraphic units and depicted using a 10×10 m GIS grid. This constructive and "knowledge-driven" 3D modelling allows

  15. Destination: Geology? (United States)

    Price, Louise


    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  16. Plateau Uplift, Erosion, and Geodynamic Forcing in Southern Africa from Integration of Landscape Evolution Modeling with Geologic and Thermochronologic Constraints (United States)

    Stanley, J. R.; Braun, J.; Flowers, R. M.


    The southern African plateau is a dominant feature of African topography but there is considerable debate about when and how it formed. Cretaceous kimberlite activity and the presence of a large low shear seismic velocity province (LLSVP) in the deep mantle below southern Africa have lead many to propose uplift related to mantle processes. Better constraints on the timing of uplift have the potential to constrain the nature of the LLSVP and the source of support for southern Africa's anomalous elevations. However, surface uplift is difficult to detect directly in the geologic record and the relationships between mantle sourced uplift and erosion are not necessarily direct. Here, we use a landscape evolution model combined with data constraining the spatiotemporal erosion patterns across southern Africa to explore how topographic development and erosion are related. We integrate a highly efficient landscape evolution model (FastScape, Braun and Willett, 2013) and a thermal module with a large apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronologic dataset, sedimentary flux volumes for the major offshore basins, and geologic observations to address these questions. We used inversion methods based on the Neighborhood Algorithm to investigate how data is best simulated by the model while varying model parameters related to plateau uplift and the physical characteristics of the eroding material. Results from the inversions show that the data are sufficient to constrain many model parameters. Additionally, we show that the combination of different types of data, and in particular the spatiotemporal erosion information from the AHe thermochronologic results, is valuable for constraining many of these parameters. We show that the geometry and physical characteristics of the overlying sedimentary basin, as well as the characteristics of the geodynamic forcing, have significant control on plateau erosion patterns. It is therefore important to consider both geodynamics and surface controls

  17. Three-Dimensional Geologic Model of Glacial Outwash in Mclean County, Illinois, Based on Seismic Refraction Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hartz


    Full Text Available Seven two-dimensional (2-D seismic refraction lines were used to determine the thickness and geometry of a valley train outwash deposit of the Quaternary Henry Formation near Heyworth in southern McLean County, Illinois. These refraction data were collected and processed in 2-D, then imported into a Petrel, a three-dimensional (3-D geological modeling software package. The 3-D geologic model was built using the velocity attribute of the seismic refraction data. The 3-D velocity model was then verified manually by moving a cross-section through the velocity model at 20 m increments. These selected data points were used to create 3-D horizons, surfaces, and contacts constraining the target Henry Formation from the overlying alluvium of the Cahokia Formation and the underlying Delavan Till. Results of the 3-D model show the Henry Formation outwash trends about S10°E, which is oblique to S55°W-trending modern Kickapoo Creek valley. The Henry Formation outwash is confined to the Kickapoo valley, and consists of well-stratified sand and gravel at that is as much as 25 m in thickness in the channel. The thickness of the Henry Formation in the terrace is 8–10 m. The Cahokia Formation is everywhere about 2 m in thickness. The Henry Formation here is interpreted to be deposited in a subglacial tunnel valley that was deposited about 20,000 years ago as the Laurentide ice sheet retreated from its maximum southerly extent.

  18. Modeling answer changes on test items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.


    The probability of test takers changing answers upon review of their initial choices is modeled. The primary purpose of the model is to check erasures on answer sheets recorded by an optical scanner for numbers and patterns that may be indicative of irregular behavior, such as teachers or school

  19. Modelling and Testing of Friction in Forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels


    Knowledge about friction is still limited in forging. The theoretical models applied presently for process analysis are not satisfactory compared to the advanced and detailed studies possible to carry out by plastic FEM analyses and more refined models have to be based on experimental testing...

  20. GO2OGS 1.0: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models (United States)

    Fischer, T.; Naumov, D.; Sattler, S.; Kolditz, O.; Walther, M.


    We offer a versatile workflow to convert geological models built with the ParadigmTM GOCAD© (Geological Object Computer Aided Design) software into the open-source VTU (Visualization Toolkit unstructured grid) format for usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed as a way of communication between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform-independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of environmental studies. With two application examples in the Thuringian Syncline, we show how a heterogeneous geological GOCAD model including multiple layers and faults can be used for numerical groundwater flow modeling, in our case employing the OpenGeoSys open-source numerical toolbox for groundwater flow simulations. The presented workflow offers the chance to incorporate increasingly detailed data, utilizing the growing availability of computational power to simulate numerical models.

  1. Modeling and Testing Legacy Data Consistency Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard


    . This paper addresses the need for new techniques that enable the modeling and consistency checking for legacy data sources. Specifically, the paper contributes to the development of a framework that enables consistency testing of data coming from different types of data sources. The vehicle is UML and its...... accompanying XMI. The paper presents techniques for modeling consistency requirements using OCL and other UML modeling elements: it studies how models that describe the required consistencies among instances of legacy models can be designed in standard UML tools that support XMI. The paper also considers...

  2. Development of Geostatistical Models to Estimate CO2 Storage Resource in Sedimentary Geologic Formations (United States)

    Popova, Olga H.

    Dental hygiene students must embody effective critical thinking skills in order to provide evidence-based comprehensive patient care. The problem addressed in this study it was not known if and to what extent concept mapping and reflective journaling activities embedded in a curriculum over a 4-week period, impacted the critical thinking skills of 22 first and second-year dental hygiene students attending a community college in the Midwest. The overarching research questions were: what is the effect of concept mapping, and what is the effect of reflective journaling on the level of critical thinking skills of first and second year dental hygiene students? This quantitative study employed a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) assessed students' mean scores of critical thinking on the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) pretest and posttest for the concept mapping and reflective journaling treatment groups. The results of the study found an increase in CCTST posttest scores with the use of both concept mapping and reflective journaling. However, the increase in scores was not found to be statistically significant. Hence, this study identified concept mapping using Ausubel's assimilation theory and reflective journaling incorporating Johns's revision of Carper's patterns of knowing as potential instructional strategies and theoretical models to enhance undergraduate students' critical thinking skills. More research is required in this area to draw further conclusions. Keywords: Critical thinking, critical thinking development, critical thinking skills, instructional strategies, concept mapping, reflective journaling, dental hygiene, college students.

  3. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern (ed.)


    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  4. A method to generate small-scale, high-resolution sedimentary bedform architecture models representing realistic geologic facies. (United States)

    Meckel, T A; Trevisan, L; Krishnamurthy, P G


    Small-scale (mm to m) sedimentary structures (e.g. ripple lamination, cross-bedding) have received a great deal of attention in sedimentary geology. The influence of depositional heterogeneity on subsurface fluid flow is now widely recognized, but incorporating these features in physically-rational bedform models at various scales remains problematic. The current investigation expands the capability of an existing set of open-source codes, allowing generation of high-resolution 3D bedform architecture models. The implemented modifications enable the generation of 3D digital models consisting of laminae and matrix (binary field) with characteristic depositional architecture. The binary model is then populated with petrophysical properties using a textural approach for additional analysis such as statistical characterization, property upscaling, and single and multiphase fluid flow simulation. One example binary model with corresponding threshold capillary pressure field and the scripts used to generate them are provided, but the approach can be used to generate dozens of previously documented common facies models and a variety of property assignments. An application using the example model is presented simulating buoyant fluid (CO2) migration and resulting saturation distribution.

  5. Observation-Based Modeling for Model-Based Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanstrén, T.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.G.


    One of the single most important reasons that modeling and modelbased testing are not yet common practice in industry is the perceived difficulty of making the models up to the level of detail and quality required for their automated processing. Models unleash their full potential only through

  6. Innovative 3D and 4D geological interpretation, modelling and visualisation techniques for subsurface characterisation of complex industrial sites - examples in the UK nuclear industry (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Shevelan, John; Hodgetts, David; Head, William


    Industrial sites are typically complex, with numerous plants within their (often) relatively small footprint. The 'cramped' nature of these sites means that the geological characterisation that is essential to the development of environmental safety cases may be hampered by a lack of access to exposures, if they exist at all. Due to access limitations and potential for ground vibration affecting key plants, geophysical data are typically limited to those gathered from lower resolution surveys (e.g. electrical resistivity tomography) rather than those gathered from more informative vibroseis seismic reflection surveys. Thus, whilst many industrial sites may possess numerous intrusive boreholes (Sellafield, perhaps the UK's most complex industrial site, has over 3000), there is a lack of ties to either high resolution geophysical data, or important regional lithostratigraphic data provided by exposure of key sequences. This poses a conundrum: the hydrogeological 3D and 4D numerical models required to show the predicted migration paths of potential contamination within the subsurface require the best geological understanding possible, yet without high resolution geophysical data or geological exposure within the sites themselves geological interpretation is often restricted to attempting to correlate between boreholes that may be tens to hundreds of metres apart and only a few metres deep, which one could assume may not provide a good geological understanding. In this paper, using examples from the nuclear industry, we describe how the use of outcrop analogues and innovative GIS-based, 3D/4D geological interpretation, characterisation, modelling and visualisation techniques goes some way to addressing these issues. Regional outcrops of Triassic sandstone and unconsolidated Quaternary sequences are ideal analogues for unexposed sequences underlying key nuclear sites in West Cumbria (UK), providing important sedimentological (and depositional), lithostratigraphic and

  7. An Inverse MOOC Model: Small Virtual Field Geology Classes with Many Teachers (Invited) (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.


    In the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) mode of instruction, one or a small group of collaborating instructors lecture online to a large (often extremely large) number of students. We are experimenting with an inverse concept: an online classroom in which a small group of collaborating students are taught by dozens of collaborating instructors. This experiment is part of a new NSF TUES Type 3 project titled 'Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE).' Among the goals of the project are the development of an online course called the 'Grand Tour.' We are inviting dozens of colleagues to record virtual field trips (VFTs) and upload them to Google Earth. Students enrolled in the course will be assigned to a small group and tasked with a research project--for example to write a report on foreland thrust belts. They will select a small subset of available VFTs to follow and will be scaffolded by virtual specimens, emergent cross sections, analytical simulations (virtual tricorders), and a game style environment. Instant feedback based on auto-logging will enable adaptive learning. The design is suited to both onsite and distance education and will facilitate access to iconic geologic sites around the world to persons with mobility constraints. We invite input from the community to help guide the design phase of this project. Prototypes of the above-listed learning resources have already been developed and are freely available at

  8. Molecular Sieve Bench Testing and Computer Modeling (United States)

    Mohamadinejad, Habib; DaLee, Robert C.; Blackmon, James B.


    The design of an efficient four-bed molecular sieve (4BMS) CO2 removal system for the International Space Station depends on many mission parameters, such as duration, crew size, cost of power, volume, fluid interface properties, etc. A need for space vehicle CO2 removal system models capable of accurately performing extrapolated hardware predictions is inevitable due to the change of the parameters which influences the CO2 removal system capacity. The purpose is to investigate the mathematical techniques required for a model capable of accurate extrapolated performance predictions and to obtain test data required to estimate mass transfer coefficients and verify the computer model. Models have been developed to demonstrate that the finite difference technique can be successfully applied to sorbents and conditions used in spacecraft CO2 removal systems. The nonisothermal, axially dispersed, plug flow model with linear driving force for 5X sorbent and pore diffusion for silica gel are then applied to test data. A more complex model, a non-darcian model (two dimensional), has also been developed for simulation of the test data. This model takes into account the channeling effect on column breakthrough. Four FORTRAN computer programs are presented: a two-dimensional model of flow adsorption/desorption in a packed bed; a one-dimensional model of flow adsorption/desorption in a packed bed; a model of thermal vacuum desorption; and a model of a tri-sectional packed bed with two different sorbent materials. The programs are capable of simulating up to four gas constituents for each process, which can be increased with a few minor changes.

  9. A 'Turing' Test for Landscape Evolution Models (United States)

    Parsons, A. J.; Wise, S. M.; Wainwright, J.; Swift, D. A.


    Resolving the interactions among tectonics, climate and surface processes at long timescales has benefited from the development of computer models of landscape evolution. However, testing these Landscape Evolution Models (LEMs) has been piecemeal and partial. We argue that a more systematic approach is required. What is needed is a test that will establish how 'realistic' an LEM is and thus the extent to which its predictions may be trusted. We propose a test based upon the Turing Test of artificial intelligence as a way forward. In 1950 Alan Turing posed the question of whether a machine could think. Rather than attempt to address the question directly he proposed a test in which an interrogator asked questions of a person and a machine, with no means of telling which was which. If the machine's answer could not be distinguished from those of the human, the machine could be said to demonstrate artificial intelligence. By analogy, if an LEM cannot be distinguished from a real landscape it can be deemed to be realistic. The Turing test of intelligence is a test of the way in which a computer behaves. The analogy in the case of an LEM is that it should show realistic behaviour in terms of form and process, both at a given moment in time (punctual) and in the way both form and process evolve over time (dynamic). For some of these behaviours, tests already exist. For example there are numerous morphometric tests of punctual form and measurements of punctual process. The test discussed in this paper provides new ways of assessing dynamic behaviour of an LEM over realistically long timescales. However challenges remain in developing an appropriate suite of challenging tests, in applying these tests to current LEMs and in developing LEMs that pass them.

  10. Drug progression model: a social control test. (United States)

    Marcos, A C; Bahr, S J


    A social control drug progression model was delineated and tested using a sample of 2,626 high school students from the southwestern United States. Along with the social control constructs of parental attachment, educational attachment, religious attachment, and conventional values, we incorporated alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use into the model as intervening variables. The model explains 39% of the variation in the self-reported amphetamine use and 24% of the variation in "hard drug" use (cocaine, heroin, LSD, and PCP). The findings suggest that the integration of social control theory and drug progression improves the predictive power of the model of adolescent drug use.

  11. Material Response Models and Ground Motion Calculations for High Explosive Tests in G-Tunnel Tuff. (United States)


    through the use of a viscoelastic model in the form of a standard linear solid. 2.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Physical properties from five G- Tunnel , U12G -OT...34Determination of In Situ Stress in U12g Tunnel , Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,’ U.S. Geological Survey, USGS-474-219, January 1976. 7. Patch, D. F...A -’"’- "’ " [ N • HilM61 AD-A151 737 DNA-TR-84-124 MATERIAL RESPONSE MODELS AND GROUND MOTION CALCULATIONS FOR HIGH EXPLOSIVE TESTS IN G- TUNNEL TUFF

  12. Modeling and adapting production environmental stress testing


    Wilson, Simon


    PUBLISHED This study describes the production sampling environmental stress test (PSEST) process and the offline analysis conducted. Some of the key characteristics and parameters of the test are outlined. The analytical process is based on two types of regression model, each of which links a dependent variable (the log of time to failure in each dwell, or the log of the number failed in each dwell) to independent variables such as temperature and age. These two types of regres...

  13. Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Marte


    Colorado School of Mines conducted research and training in the development and validation of an advanced CO{sub 2} GS (Geological Sequestration) probabilistic simulation and risk assessment model. CO{sub 2} GS simulation and risk assessment is used to develop advanced numerical simulation models of the subsurface to forecast CO2 behavior and transport; optimize site operational practices; ensure site safety; and refine site monitoring, verification, and accounting efforts. As simulation models are refined with new data, the uncertainty surrounding the identified risks decrease, thereby providing more accurate risk assessment. The models considered the full coupling of multiple physical processes (geomechanical and fluid flow) and describe the effects of stochastic hydro-mechanical (H-M) parameters on the modeling of CO{sub 2} flow and transport in fractured porous rocks. Graduate students were involved in the development and validation of the model that can be used to predict the fate, movement, and storage of CO{sub 2} in subsurface formations, and to evaluate the risk of potential leakage to the atmosphere and underground aquifers. The main major contributions from the project include the development of: 1) an improved procedure to rigorously couple the simulations of hydro-thermomechanical (H-M) processes involved in CO{sub 2} GS; 2) models for the hydro-mechanical behavior of fractured porous rocks with random fracture patterns; and 3) probabilistic methods to account for the effects of stochastic fluid flow and geomechanical properties on flow, transport, storage and leakage associated with CO{sub 2} GS. The research project provided the means to educate and train graduate students in the science and technology of CO{sub 2} GS, with a focus on geologic storage. Specifically, the training included the investigation of an advanced CO{sub 2} GS simulation and risk assessment model that can be used to predict the fate, movement, and storage of CO{sub 2} in

  14. Experimental Concepts for Testing Seismic Hazard Models (United States)

    Marzocchi, W.; Jordan, T. H.


    Seismic hazard analysis is the primary interface through which useful information about earthquake rupture and wave propagation is delivered to society. To account for the randomness (aleatory variability) and limited knowledge (epistemic uncertainty) of these natural processes, seismologists must formulate and test hazard models using the concepts of probability. In this presentation, we will address the scientific objections that have been raised over the years against probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Owing to the paucity of observations, we must rely on expert opinion to quantify the epistemic uncertainties of PSHA models (e.g., in the weighting of individual models from logic-tree ensembles of plausible models). The main theoretical issue is a frequentist critique: subjectivity is immeasurable; ergo, PSHA models cannot be objectively tested against data; ergo, they are fundamentally unscientific. We have argued (PNAS, 111, 11973-11978) that the Bayesian subjectivity required for casting epistemic uncertainties can be bridged with the frequentist objectivity needed for pure significance testing through "experimental concepts." An experimental concept specifies collections of data, observed and not yet observed, that are judged to be exchangeable (i.e., with a joint distribution independent of the data ordering) when conditioned on a set of explanatory variables. We illustrate, through concrete examples, experimental concepts useful in the testing of PSHA models for ontological errors in the presence of aleatory variability and epistemic uncertainty. In particular, we describe experimental concepts that lead to exchangeable binary sequences that are statistically independent but not identically distributed, showing how the Bayesian concept of exchangeability generalizes the frequentist concept of experimental repeatability. We also address the issue of testing PSHA models using spatially correlated data.

  15. Design, modeling and testing of data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kiaei, Sayfe; Xu, Fang


    This book presents the a scientific discussion of the state-of-the-art techniques and designs for modeling, testing and for the performance analysis of data converters. The focus is put on sustainable data conversion. Sustainability has become a public issue that industries and users can not ignore. Devising environmentally friendly solutions for data conversion designing, modeling and testing is nowadays a requirement that researchers and practitioners must consider in their activities. This book presents the outcome of the IWADC workshop 2011, held in Orvieto, Italy.

  16. Integration of the geological/engineering model with production performance for Patrick Draw Field, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.


    The NIPER Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program incorporates elements of the near-term, mid-term and long-term objectives of the National Energy Strategy-Advanced Oil Recovery Program. The interdisciplinary NIPER team focuses on barrier island reservoirs, a high priority class of reservoirs, that contains large amounts of remaining oil in place located in mature fields with a high number of shut-in and abandoned wells. The project objectives are to: (1) identify heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of reservoir fluids in two examples of shoreline barrier reservoirs (Patrick Draw Field, WY and Bell Creek Field, MT); (2) develop geological and engineering reservoir characterization methods to quantify reservoir architecture and predict mobile oil saturation distribution for application of targeted infill drilling and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes; and (3) summarize reservoir and production characteristics of shoreline barrier reservoirs to determine similarities and differences. The major findings of the research include: (1) hydrogeochemical analytical techniques were demonstrated to be an inexpensive reservoir characterization tool that provides information on reservoir architecture and compartmentalization; (2) the formation water salinity in Patrick Draw Field varies widely across the field and can result in a 5 to 12% error in saturation values calculated from wireline logs if the salinity variations and corresponding resistivity values are not accounted for; and (3) an analysis of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of Patrick Draw Field indicates that CO[sub 2] flooding in the Monell Unit and horizontal drilling in the Arch Unit are potential methods to recover additional oil from the field.

  17. Integration of the geological/engineering model with production performance for Patrick Draw Field, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.


    The NIPER Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program incorporates elements of the near-term, mid-term and long-term objectives of the National Energy Strategy-Advanced Oil Recovery Program. The interdisciplinary NIPER team focuses on barrier island reservoirs, a high priority class of reservoirs, that contains large amounts of remaining oil in place located in mature fields with a high number of shut-in and abandoned wells. The project objectives are to: (1) identify heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of reservoir fluids in two examples of shoreline barrier reservoirs (Patrick Draw Field, WY and Bell Creek Field, MT); (2) develop geological and engineering reservoir characterization methods to quantify reservoir architecture and predict mobile oil saturation distribution for application of targeted infill drilling and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes; and (3) summarize reservoir and production characteristics of shoreline barrier reservoirs to determine similarities and differences. The major findings of the research include: (1) hydrogeochemical analytical techniques were demonstrated to be an inexpensive reservoir characterization tool that provides information on reservoir architecture and compartmentalization; (2) the formation water salinity in Patrick Draw Field varies widely across the field and can result in a 5 to 12% error in saturation values calculated from wireline logs if the salinity variations and corresponding resistivity values are not accounted for; and (3) an analysis of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of Patrick Draw Field indicates that CO{sub 2} flooding in the Monell Unit and horizontal drilling in the Arch Unit are potential methods to recover additional oil from the field.

  18. Plavica epithermal Au-Ag-Cu deposit in eastern Macedonia: Geology and 3D model of valuable component distribution in ore (United States)

    Serafimovski, T.; Volkov, A. V.; Serafimovski, D.; Tasev, G.; Ivanovski, I.; Murashov, K. Yu.


    The Plavica Au-Ag-Cu deposit is related to the large Neogene volcanic center, which complicates the paleocaldera in the central Kratovo-Zletovo ore district of eastern Macedonia. Based on the geology, ore mineralogy, wall-rock alteration, and fluid inclusions, the Plavica deposit has been referred to the epithermal high-sulfidation type. The general 3D model of orebody at this deposit is based on its general geological structure and complex distribution of metal contents. The framework of the 3D model, which has been constructed in the ArcGIS System, comprises 195 exploration boreholes 47295.8 m in total length. The 3D model allows to a better understanding of distribution of mineralization and supplements the geological data on the deposit.

  19. Damage modeling in Small Punch Test specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Cuesta, I.I.; Peñuelas, I.


    Ductile damage modeling within the Small Punch Test (SPT) is extensively investigated. The capabilities ofthe SPT to reliably estimate fracture and damage properties are thoroughly discussed and emphasis isplaced on the use of notched specimens. First, different notch profiles are analyzed....... Furthermore,Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model predictions from a top-down approach are employed to gain insightinto the mechanisms governing crack initiation and subsequent propagation in small punch experiments.An accurate assessment of micromechanical toughness parameters from the SPT...

  20. The station of modeling the mine resources in economical geology investigations and determination of mineral deposits genes & reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif, J.A.


    Full Text Available In recent days, computer is becoming one of the most essential instruments in advanced countries for the researchers and the domain of its application is going to be increased every day. Using the 3D modeling of the earth, its mine resources and the brilliant details which are given by the models, the researching and exploring groups will find out the inconspicuous and attractive aspects of the genetic structure and the geological history of these resources. In this paper which is a result of the researches done as the case study on a group of aragonite deposits in West Azarbaijan province, modeling of under study mineral deposits and the genetic approaches obtained from the models lead into explore and discover some other resources of the same minerals which is widely accepted recently in the market of decorative rocks in Iran. In modeling procedure of these resources which is a product of the geysers, the profile of these lime generating springs and their directional order on some specific hidden fracture is determined and approximate location of the new resources for the next explorations is assigned. At the moment, these assigned locations as new resources are being explored and even exploited.

  1. Postglacial Rebound Model ICE-6G_C (VM5a) Constrained by Geodetic and Geologic Observations (United States)

    Peltier, W. R.; Argus, D. F.; Drummond, R.


    We fit the revised global model of glacial isostatic adjustment ICE-6G_C (VM5a) to all available data, consisting of several hundred GPS uplift rates, a similar number of 14C dated relative sea level histories, and 62 geologic estimates of changes in Antarctic ice thickness. The mantle viscosity profile, VM5a is a simple multi-layer fit to prior model VM2 of Peltier (1996, Science). However, the revised deglaciation history, ICE-6G (VM5a), differs significantly from previous models in the Toronto series. (1) In North America, GPS observations of vertical uplift of Earth's surface from the Canadian Base Network require the thickness of the Laurentide ice sheet at Last Glacial Maximum to be significantly revised. At Last Glacial Maximum the new model ICE-6G_C in this region, relative to ICE-5G, roughly 50 percent thicker east of Hudson Bay (in and northern Quebec and Labrador region) and roughly 30 percent thinner west of Hudson Bay (in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and the Northwest Territories).the net change in mass, however, is small. We find that rates of gravity change determined by GRACE when corrected for the predictions of ICE-6G_C (VM5a) are significantly smaller than residuals determined on the basis of earlier models. (2) In Antarctica, we fit GPS uplift rates, geologic estimates of changes in ice thickness, and geologic constraints on the timing of ice loss. The resulting deglaciation history also differs significantly from prior models. The contribution of Antarctic ice loss to global sea level rise since Last Glacial Maximum in ICE-6G_C is 13.6 meters, less than in ICE-5G (17.5 m), but significantly larger than in both the W12A model of Whitehouse et al. [2012] (8 m) and the IJ05 R02 model of Ivins et al. [2013] (7.5 m). In ICE-6G_C rapid ice loss occurs in Antarctica from 11.5 to 8 thousands years ago, with a rapid onset at 11.5 ka thereby contributing significantly to Meltwater Pulse 1B. In ICE-6G_C (VM5a), viscous uplift of Antarctica is increasing

  2. Towards a high-accuracy geological model of the 67P comet (United States)

    Franceschi, M.; Penasa, L.; Massironi, M.; Ferrari, S.; Naletto, G.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Ferri, F.; Frattin, F.; La Forgia, F.; Lazzarin, M.; Lucchetti, A.; Marzari, F.; Pajola, M.; Simioni, E.


    It was recently shown that the layered structure of each of the two lobes of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) can be modelled as a set of concentric ellipsoidal shells. The ellipsoidal model is able to correctly predict the major layering-related features on the comet surface; however, the ellipsoidal model is a first order approximation of a more complex internal structure. A better description of this latter requires an improved model. In this contribution preliminary results in building a refined three-dimensional model of the comet are presented with focus on the Small Lobe. The model is realized using a 3D geo-modeling technique that embeds linear and planar features (layer joints and terraces) as well as other geometric characteristics (e.g. vectorial fields) as constraints, influencing the reconstruction of the comet layered structure. Results allow accounting for features that are not predicted by the ellipsoidal model, therefore such refined 3D model is a step towards a model of the comet nucleus that may clues useful in unraveling the complex history that shaped it to its present configuration.

  3. Testing spatial heterogeneity with stock assessment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jardim, Ernesto; Eero, Margit; Silva, Alexandra


    This paper describes a methodology that combines meta-population theory and stock assessment models to gain insights about spatial heterogeneity of the meta-population in an operational time frame. The methodology was tested with stochastic simulations for different degrees of connectivity betwee...

  4. Guidelines for sinkhole and subsidence rehabilitation based on generic geological models of a dolomite environment on the East Rand, South Africa (United States)

    Kleinhans, Ilse; Van Rooy, J. Louis


    A sound understanding of the various factors influencing and associated with the formation of sinkholes or subsidences on dolomite land is essential for the selection of appropriate rehabilitation methods. The investigation and rehabilitation of numerous sinkholes and subsidences located on dolomite in the East Rand of South Africa, created an opportunity to develop a broad based understanding of different karst environments, their susceptibility to sinkhole and subsidence formation and best practice rehabilitation methods. This paper is based on the guidelines developed whereby the geological model of the sinkhole or subsidence is used to recommend an appropriate rehabilitation method. Nine typical geological models with recommended rehabilitation methods are presented in this paper.

  5. Testing mechanistic models of growth in insects. (United States)

    Maino, James L; Kearney, Michael R


    Insects are typified by their small size, large numbers, impressive reproductive output and rapid growth. However, insect growth is not simply rapid; rather, insects follow a qualitatively distinct trajectory to many other animals. Here we present a mechanistic growth model for insects and show that increasing specific assimilation during the growth phase can explain the near-exponential growth trajectory of insects. The presented model is tested against growth data on 50 insects, and compared against other mechanistic growth models. Unlike the other mechanistic models, our growth model predicts energy reserves per biomass to increase with age, which implies a higher production efficiency and energy density of biomass in later instars. These predictions are tested against data compiled from the literature whereby it is confirmed that insects increase their production efficiency (by 24 percentage points) and energy density (by 4 J mg(-1)) between hatching and the attainment of full size. The model suggests that insects achieve greater production efficiencies and enhanced growth rates by increasing specific assimilation and increasing energy reserves per biomass, which are less costly to maintain than structural biomass. Our findings illustrate how the explanatory and predictive power of mechanistic growth models comes from their grounding in underlying biological processes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Testing mechanistic models of growth in insects (United States)

    Maino, James L.; Kearney, Michael R.


    Insects are typified by their small size, large numbers, impressive reproductive output and rapid growth. However, insect growth is not simply rapid; rather, insects follow a qualitatively distinct trajectory to many other animals. Here we present a mechanistic growth model for insects and show that increasing specific assimilation during the growth phase can explain the near-exponential growth trajectory of insects. The presented model is tested against growth data on 50 insects, and compared against other mechanistic growth models. Unlike the other mechanistic models, our growth model predicts energy reserves per biomass to increase with age, which implies a higher production efficiency and energy density of biomass in later instars. These predictions are tested against data compiled from the literature whereby it is confirmed that insects increase their production efficiency (by 24 percentage points) and energy density (by 4 J mg−1) between hatching and the attainment of full size. The model suggests that insects achieve greater production efficiencies and enhanced growth rates by increasing specific assimilation and increasing energy reserves per biomass, which are less costly to maintain than structural biomass. Our findings illustrate how the explanatory and predictive power of mechanistic growth models comes from their grounding in underlying biological processes. PMID:26609084

  7. Multi-dimensional transport modelling of corrosive agents through a bentonite buffer in a Canadian deep geological repository. (United States)

    Briggs, Scott; McKelvie, Jennifer; Sleep, Brent; Krol, Magdalena


    The use of a deep geological repository (DGR) for the long-term disposal of used nuclear fuel is an approach currently being investigated by several agencies worldwide, including Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Within the DGR, used nuclear fuel will be placed in copper-coated steel containers and surrounded by a bentonite clay buffer. While copper is generally thermodynamically stable, corrosion can occur due to the presence of sulphide under anaerobic conditions. As such, understanding transport of sulphide through the engineered barrier system to the used fuel container is an important consideration in DGR design. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) model of sulphide transport in a DGR was developed. The numerical model is implemented using COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercial finite element software package. Previous sulphide transport models of the NWMO repository used a simplified one-dimensional system. This work illustrates the importance of 3D modelling to capture non-uniform effects, as results showed locations of maximum sulphide flux are 1.7 times higher than the average flux to the used fuel container. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Comparison of CO2 Detection Methods Tested in Shallow Groundwater Monitoring Wells at a Geological Sequestration Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenborn, Harry M.; Jain, Jinesh N.


    The geological storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is one method of reducing the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. Monitoring programs typically determine baseline conditions in surface and near-surface environments before, during, and after CO2 injection to evaluate if impacts related to injection have occurred. Because CO2 concentrations in groundwater fluctuate naturally due to complex geochemical and geomicrobiologicalinteractions, a clear understanding of the baseline behavior of CO2 in groundwater near injection sites is important. Numerous ways of measuring aqueous CO2 in the field and lab are currently used, but most methods have significant shortcomings (e.g., are tedious, lengthy, have interferences, or have significant lag time before a result is determined). In this study, we examined the effectiveness of two novel CO2 detection methods and their ability to rapidly detect CO2in shallow groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Illinois Basin –Decatur Project geological sequestration site. The CarboQC beverage carbonation meter was used to measure the concentration of CO2 in water by monitoring temperature and pressure changes and calculating the PCO2 from the ideal gas law. Additionally, a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO< sub>2sensor enclosed in a gas-permeable, water-impermeable membrane measured CO2by determining an equilibrium concentration. Results showed that the CarboQC method provided rapid (< 3 min) and repeatable results under field conditions within a measured concentration range of 15 –125 mg/L CO2. The NDIR sensor results correlated well (r2= 0.93) with the CarboQC data, but CO2 equilibration required at least 15 minutes, making the method somewhat less desirable under field conditions. In contrast, NDIR-based sensors have a greater potential for long-term deployment. Both

  9. Testing co-evolutionary hypotheses over geological timescales: interactions between Mesozoic non-avian dinosaurs and cycads. (United States)

    Butler, Richard J; Barrett, Paul M; Kenrick, Paul; Penn, Malcolm G


    The significance of co-evolution over ecological timescales is well established, yet it remains unclear to what extent co-evolutionary processes contribute to driving large-scale evolutionary and ecological changes over geological timescales. Some of the most intriguing and pervasive long-term co-evolutionary hypotheses relate to proposed interactions between herbivorous non-avian dinosaurs and Mesozoic plants, including cycads. Dinosaurs have been proposed as key dispersers of cycad seeds during the Mesozoic, and temporal variation in cycad diversity and abundance has been linked to dinosaur faunal changes. Here we assess the evidence for proposed hypotheses of trophic and evolutionary interactions between these two groups using diversity analyses, a new database of Cretaceous dinosaur and plant co-occurrence data, and a geographical information system (GIS) as a visualisation tool. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that the origins of several key biological properties of cycads (e.g. toxins, bright-coloured seeds) likely predated the origin of dinosaurs. Direct evidence of dinosaur-cycad interactions is lacking, but evidence from extant ecosystems suggests that dinosaurs may plausibly have acted as seed dispersers for cycads, although it is likely that other vertebrate groups (e.g. birds, early mammals) also played a role. Although the Late Triassic radiations of dinosaurs and cycads appear to have been approximately contemporaneous, few significant changes in dinosaur faunas coincide with the late Early Cretaceous cycad decline. No significant spatiotemporal associations between particular dinosaur groups and cycads can be identified - GIS visualisation reveals disparities between the spatiotemporal distributions of some dinosaur groups (e.g. sauropodomorphs) and cycads that are inconsistent with co-evolutionary hypotheses. The available data provide no unequivocal support for any of the proposed co-evolutionary interactions between cycads and herbivorous dinosaurs

  10. Geological evolution of the North Sea: Cross-border basin modeling study on the schillground high

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heim, S.; Lutz, R.; Nelskamp, S.; Verweij, J.M.; Kaufmann, D.; Reinhardt, L.


    This study presents the results of a basin modeling study covering the cross-border area of the southern Schillground High in the Dutch-German offshore area. A high resolution petroleum system model has been constructed with the aim to evaluate the hydrocarbon generation potential of Carboniferous

  11. Geology Fulbrights (United States)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  12. Comparative modeling of fault reactivation and seismicity in geologic carbon storage and shale-gas reservoir stimulation (United States)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio; Cappa, Frederic


    The potential for fault reactivation and induced seismicity are issues of concern related to both geologic CO2 sequestration and stimulation of shale-gas reservoirs. It is well known that underground injection may cause induced seismicity depending on site-specific conditions, such a stress and rock properties and injection parameters. To date no sizeable seismic event that could be felt by the local population has been documented associated with CO2 sequestration activities. In the case of shale-gas fracturing, only a few cases of felt seismicity have been documented out of hundreds of thousands of hydraulic fracturing stimulation stages. In this paper we summarize and review numerical simulations of injection-induced fault reactivation and induced seismicity associated with both underground CO2 injection and hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs. The simulations were conducted with TOUGH-FLAC, a simulator for coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical modeling. In this case we employed both 2D and 3D models with an explicit representation of a fault. A strain softening Mohr-Coulomb model was used to model a slip-weakening fault slip behavior, enabling modeling of sudden slip that was interpreted as a seismic event, with a moment magnitude evaluated using formulas from seismology. In the case of CO2 sequestration, injection rates corresponding to expected industrial scale CO2 storage operations were used, raising the reservoir pressure until the fault was reactivated. For the assumed model settings, it took a few months of continuous injection to increase the reservoir pressure sufficiently to cause the fault to reactivate. In the case of shale-gas fracturing we considered that the injection fluid during one typical 3-hour fracturing stage was channelized into a fault along with the hydraulic fracturing process. Overall, the analysis shows that while the CO2 geologic sequestration in deep sedimentary formations are capable of producing notable events (e

  13. Maximum magnitude (Mmax) in the central and eastern United States for the 2014 U.S. Geological Survey Hazard Model (United States)

    Wheeler, Russell L.


    Probabilistic seismic‐hazard assessment (PSHA) requires an estimate of Mmax, the moment magnitude M of the largest earthquake that could occur within a specified area. Sparse seismicity hinders Mmax estimation in the central and eastern United States (CEUS) and tectonically similar regions worldwide (stable continental regions [SCRs]). A new global catalog of moderate‐to‐large SCR earthquakes is analyzed with minimal assumptions about enigmatic geologic controls on SCR Mmax. An earlier observation that SCR earthquakes of M 7.0 and larger occur in young (250–23 Ma) passive continental margins and associated rifts but not in cratons is not strongly supported by the new catalog. SCR earthquakes of M 7.5 and larger are slightly more numerous and reach slightly higher M in young passive margins and rifts than in cratons. However, overall histograms of M from young margins and rifts and from cratons are statistically indistinguishable. This conclusion is robust under uncertainties inM, the locations of SCR boundaries, and which of two available global SCR catalogs is used. The conclusion stems largely from recent findings that (1) large southeast Asian earthquakes once thought to be SCR were in actively deforming crust and (2) long escarpments in cratonic Australia were formed by prehistoric faulting. The 2014 seismic‐hazard model of the U.S. Geological Survey represents CEUS Mmax as four‐point probability distributions. The distributions have weighted averages of M 7.0 in cratons and M 7.4 in passive margins and rifts. These weighted averages are consistent with Mmax estimates of other SCR PSHAs of the CEUS, southeastern Canada, Australia, and India.

  14. Earth modeling and estimation of the local seismic ground motion due to site geology in complex volcanoclastic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Di Fiore


    Full Text Available Volcanic areas often show complex behaviour as far as seismic waves propagation and seismic motion at surface are concerned. In fact, the finite lateral extent of surface layers such as lava flows, blocks, differential welding and/or zeolitization within pyroclastic deposits, introduces in the propagation of seismic waves effects such as the generation of surface waves at the edge, resonance in lateral direction, diffractions and scattering of energy, which tend to modify the amplitude as well as the duration of the ground motion. The irregular topographic surface, typical of volcanic areas, also strongly influences the seismic site response. Despite this heterogeneity, it is unfortunately a common geophysical and engineering practice to evaluate even in volcanic environments the subsurface velocity field with monodimensional investigation method (i.e. geognostic soundings, refraction survey, down-hole, etc. prior to the seismic site response computation which in a such cases is obviously also made with 1D algorithms. This approach often leads to highly inaccurate results. In this paper we use a different approach, i.e. a fully 2D P-wave Çturning rayÈ tomographic survey followed by 2D seismic site response modeling. We report here the results of this approach in three sites located at short distance from Mt. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei and characterized by overburdens constituted by volcanoclastic deposits with large lateral and vertical variations of their elastic properties. Comparison between 1D and 2D Dynamic Amplification Factor shows in all reported cases entirely different results, both in terms of peak period and spectral contents, as expected from the clear bidimensionality of the geological section. Therefore, these studies suggest evaluating carefully the subsoil geological structures in areas characterized by possible large lateral and vertical variations of the elastic properties in order to reach correct seismic site response

  15. Parametric Testing of Launch Vehicle FDDR Models (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Bajwa, Anupa; Berg, Peter; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar


    For the safe operation of a complex system like a (manned) launch vehicle, real-time information about the state of the system and potential faults is extremely important. The on-board FDDR (Failure Detection, Diagnostics, and Response) system is a software system to detect and identify failures, provide real-time diagnostics, and to initiate fault recovery and mitigation. The ERIS (Evaluation of Rocket Integrated Subsystems) failure simulation is a unified Matlab/Simulink model of the Ares I Launch Vehicle with modular, hierarchical subsystems and components. With this model, the nominal flight performance characteristics can be studied. Additionally, failures can be injected to see their effects on vehicle state and on vehicle behavior. A comprehensive test and analysis of such a complicated model is virtually impossible. In this paper, we will describe, how parametric testing (PT) can be used to support testing and analysis of the ERIS failure simulation. PT uses a combination of Monte Carlo techniques with n-factor combinatorial exploration to generate a small, yet comprehensive set of parameters for the test runs. For the analysis of the high-dimensional simulation data, we are using multivariate clustering to automatically find structure in this high-dimensional data space. Our tools can generate detailed HTML reports that facilitate the analysis.

  16. Optimization of Geothermal Well Placement under Geological Uncertainty (United States)

    Schulte, Daniel O.; Arnold, Dan; Demyanov, Vasily; Sass, Ingo; Geiger, Sebastian


    Well placement optimization is critical to commercial success of geothermal projects. However, uncertainties of geological parameters prohibit optimization based on a single scenario of the subsurface, particularly when few expensive wells are to be drilled. The optimization of borehole locations is usually based on numerical reservoir models to predict reservoir performance and entails the choice of objectives to optimize (total enthalpy, minimum enthalpy rate, production temperature) and the development options to adjust (well location, pump rate, difference in production and injection temperature). Optimization traditionally requires trying different development options on a single geological realization yet there are many possible different interpretations possible. Therefore, we aim to optimize across a range of representative geological models to account for geological uncertainty in geothermal optimization. We present an approach that uses a response surface methodology based on a large number of geological realizations selected by experimental design to optimize the placement of geothermal wells in a realistic field example. A large number of geological scenarios and design options were simulated and the response surfaces were constructed using polynomial proxy models, which consider both geological uncertainties and design parameters. The polynomial proxies were validated against additional simulation runs and shown to provide an adequate representation of the model response for the cases tested. The resulting proxy models allow for the identification of the optimal borehole locations given the mean response of the geological scenarios from the proxy (i.e. maximizing or minimizing the mean response). The approach is demonstrated on the realistic Watt field example by optimizing the borehole locations to maximize the mean heat extraction from the reservoir under geological uncertainty. The training simulations are based on a comprehensive semi

  17. Temperature Buffer Test. Final THM modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Malmberg, Daniel; Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, Jan [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Ledesma, Alberto; Jacinto, Abel [UPC, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)


    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the final THM modelling which was resumed subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main part of this work has been numerical modelling of the field test. Three different modelling teams have presented several model cases for different geometries and different degree of process complexity. Two different numerical codes, Code{sub B}right and Abaqus, have been used. The modelling performed by UPC-Cimne using Code{sub B}right, has been divided in three subtasks: i) analysis of the response observed in the lower part of the test, by inclusion of a number of considerations: (a) the use of the Barcelona Expansive Model for MX-80 bentonite; (b) updated parameters in the vapour diffusive flow term; (c) the use of a non-conventional water retention curve for MX-80 at high temperature; ii) assessment of a possible relation between the cracks observed in the bentonite blocks in the upper part of TBT, and the cycles of suction and stresses registered in that zone at the start of the experiment; and iii) analysis of the performance, observations and interpretation of the entire test. It was however not possible to carry out a full THM analysis until the end of the test due to

  18. Bibliography of reports on studies of the geology, hydrogeology and hydrology at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, from 1951--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaber, P.R.; Stowers, E.D.; Pearl, R.H.


    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was established in 1951 as a proving ground for nuclear weapons. The site had formerly been part of an Air Force bombing and gunnery range during World War II. Sponsor-directed studies of the geology, hydrogeology, and hydrology of the NTS began about 1956 and were broad based in nature, but were related mainly to the effects of the detonation of nuclear weapons. These effects included recommending acceptable media and areas for underground tests, the possibility of off-site contamination of groundwater, air blast and surface contamination in the event of venting, ground-shock damage that could result from underground blasts, and studies in support of drilling and emplacement. The studies were both of a pure scientific nature and of a practical applied nature. The NTS was the site of 828 underground nuclear tests and 100 above-ground tests conducted between 1951 and 1992 (U.S. Department of Energy, 1994a). After July 1962, all nuclear tests conducted in the United States were underground, most of them at the NTS. The first contained underground nuclear explosion was detonated on September 19, 1957, following extensive study of the underground effect of chemical explosives. The tests were performed by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Energy Research and Development Administration. As part of a nationwide complex for nuclear weapons design, testing and manufacturing, the NTS was the location for continental testing of new and stockpiled nuclear devices. Other tests, including Project {open_quotes}Plowshare{close_quotes} experiments to test the peaceful application of nuclear explosives, were conducted on several parts of the site. In addition, the Defense Nuclear Agency tested the effect of nuclear detonations on military hardware.

  19. Operating manual for the U.S. Geological Survey minimonitor, 1988 revised edition; punched-paper-tape model (United States)

    Ficken, James H.; Scott, Carl T.


    This manual describes the U.S. Geological Survey Minimonitor Water Quality Data Measuring and Recording System. Instructions for calibrating, servicing, maintaining, and operating the system are provided. The Survey Minimonitor is a battery-powered , multiparameter water quality monitoring instrument designed for field use. A watertight can containing signal conditioners is connected with cable and waterproof connectors to various water quality sensors. Data are recorded on a punched paper-tape recorder. An external battery is required. The operation and maintenance of various sensors and signal conditioners are discussed, for temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Calibration instructions are provided for each parameter, along with maintenance instructions. Sections of the report explain how to connect the Minimonitor to measure direct-current voltages, such as signal outputs from other instruments. Instructions for connecting a satellite data-collection platform or a solid-state data recorder to the Minimonitor are given also. Basic information is given for servicing the Minimonitor and trouble-shooting some of its electronic components. The use of test boxes to test sensors, isolate component problems, and verify calibration values is discussed. (USGS)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini


    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and

  1. Business model stress testing : A practical approach to test the robustness of a business model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaker, T.I.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.; Janssen, W; de Reuver, G.A.

    Business models and business model innovation are increasingly gaining attention in practice as well as in academic literature. However, the robustness of business models (BM) is seldom tested vis-à-vis the fast and unpredictable changes in digital technologies, regulation and markets. The

  2. Novice to Expert Cognition During Geologic Bedrock Mapping (United States)

    Petcovic, H. L.; Libarkin, J.; Hambrick, D. Z.; Baker, K. M.; Elkins, J. T.; Callahan, C. N.; Turner, S.; Rench, T. A.; LaDue, N.


    Bedrock geologic mapping is a complex and cognitively demanding task. Successful mapping requires domain-specific content knowledge, visuospatial ability, navigation through the field area, creating a mental model of the geology that is consistent with field data, and metacognition. Most post-secondary geology students in the United States receive training in geologic mapping, however, not much is known about the cognitive processes that underlie successful bedrock mapping, or about how these processes change with education and experience. To better understand cognition during geologic mapping, we conducted a 2-year research study in which 67 volunteers representing a range from undergraduate sophomore to 20+ years professional experience completed a suite of cognitive measures plus a 1-day bedrock mapping task in the Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA. In addition to participants' geologic maps and field notes, the cognitive suite included tests and questionnaires designed to measure: (1) prior geologic experience, via a self-report survey; (2) geologic content knowledge, via a modified version of the Geoscience Concept Inventory; (3) visuospatial ability, working memory capacity, and perceptual speed, via paper-and-pencil and computerized tests; (4) use of space and time during mapping via GPS tracking; and (5) problem-solving in the field via think-aloud audio logs during mapping and post-mapping semi-structured interviews. Data were examined for correlations between performance on the mapping task and other measures. We found that both geological knowledge and spatial visualization ability correlated positively with accuracy in the field mapping task. More importantly, we found a Visuospatial Ability × Geological Knowledge interaction, such that visuospatial ability positively predicted mapping performance at low, but not high, levels of geological knowledge. In other words, we found evidence to suggest that visuospatial ability mattered for bedrock mapping for the

  3. Overload prevention in model supports for wind tunnel model testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Preventing overloads in wind tunnel model supports is crucial to the integrity of the tested system. Results can only be interpreted as valid if the model support, conventionally called a sting remains sufficiently rigid during testing. Modeling and preliminary calculation can only give an estimate of the sting’s behavior under known forces and moments but sometimes unpredictable, aerodynamically caused model behavior can cause large transient overloads that cannot be taken into account at the sting design phase. To ensure model integrity and data validity an analog fast protection circuit was designed and tested. A post-factum analysis was carried out to optimize the overload detection and a short discussion on aeroelastic phenomena is included to show why such a detector has to be very fast. The last refinement of the concept consists in a fast detector coupled with a slightly slower one to differentiate between transient overloads that decay in time and those that are the result of aeroelastic unwanted phenomena. The decision to stop or continue the test is therefore conservatively taken preserving data and model integrity while allowing normal startup loads and transients to manifest.

  4. Measurement and modelling of reactive transport in geological barriers for nuclear waste containment. (United States)

    Xiong, Qingrong; Joseph, Claudia; Schmeide, Katja; Jivkov, Andrey P


    Compacted clays are considered as excellent candidates for barriers to radionuclide transport in future repositories for nuclear waste due to their very low hydraulic permeability. Diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism, controlled by a nano-scale pore system. Assessment of the clays' long-term containment function requires adequate modelling of such pore systems and their evolution. Existing characterisation techniques do not provide complete pore space information for effective modelling, such as pore and throat size distributions and connectivity. Special network models for reactive transport are proposed here using the complimentary character of the pore space and the solid phase. This balances the insufficient characterisation information and provides the means for future mechanical-physical-chemical coupling. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of clays is represented using different length parameters and percentage of pores in different directions. Resulting networks are described as mathematical graphs with efficient discrete calculus formulation of transport. Opalinus Clay (OPA) is chosen as an example. Experimental data for the tritiated water (HTO) and U(vi) diffusion through OPA are presented. Calculated diffusion coefficients of HTO and uranium species are within the ranges of the experimentally determined data in different clay directions. This verifies the proposed pore network model and validates that uranium complexes are diffusing as neutral species in OPA. In the case of U(vi) diffusion the method is extended to account for sorption and convection. Rather than changing pore radii by coarse grained mathematical formula, physical sorption is simulated in each pore, which is more accurate and realistic.

  5. Geological computer modeling and geographic information systems applied to coal data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.D. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada).


    Coalbed methane is an immense Canadian resource. A large amount of subsurface data is available for optimizing exploration before drilling. The construction, visualization, and analysis of computer models to provide consistent protocols for retrieving this information and the application of the geographical information system (GIS) to exploration for coalbed methane are discussed. Some of the applications of the GIS are illustrated. 46 figs.

  6. Study on detailed geological modelling for fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Hanqing; Fu Zhiguo; Lu Xiaoguang [Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Daqing (China)


    Guided by the sedimentation theory and knowledge of modern and ancient fluvial deposition and utilizing the abundant information of sedimentary series, microfacies type and petrophysical parameters from well logging curves of close spaced thousands of wells located in a large area. A new method for establishing detailed sedimentation and permeability distribution models for fluvial reservoirs have been developed successfully. This study aimed at the geometry and internal architecture of sandbodies, in accordance to their hierarchical levels of heterogeneity and building up sedimentation and permeability distribution models of fluvial reservoirs, describing the reservoir heterogeneity on the light of the river sedimentary rules. The results and methods obtained in outcrop and modem sedimentation studies have successfully supported the study. Taking advantage of this method, the major producing layers (PI{sub 1-2}), which have been considered as heterogeneous and thick fluvial reservoirs extending widely in lateral are researched in detail. These layers are subdivided into single sedimentary units vertically and the microfacies are identified horizontally. Furthermore, a complex system is recognized according to their hierarchical levels from large to small, meander belt, single channel sandbody, meander scroll, point bar, and lateral accretion bodies of point bar. The achieved results improved the description of areal distribution of point bar sandbodies, provide an accurate and detailed framework model for establishing high resolution predicting model. By using geostatistic technique, it also plays an important role in searching for enriched zone of residual oil distribution.

  7. The influence of geological data on the reservoir modelling and history matching process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jager, G.


    For efficient production of hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs it is important to understand the spatial properties of the reservoir. As there is almost always too little information on the reservoir to build a representative model directly, other techniques have been developed for generating

  8. Extension in the Aegean nappe-stacks: Numerical Model and their Geological Validation (United States)

    Lecomte, E.; Huet, B.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Labrousse, L.; Jolivet, L.


    After mountain building, the crust exhibits complex structure. Especially, thickening achieved by nappe-stacking induces rheological heterogenities at all scales: from the fault scale up to the crustal scale. This process is likely to influence post-orogenic evolution. However, it is generally not considered in numerical models. In this study, we consider the impact of pre-existing thrusts and nappes structures on the mode of post-orogenic extension. We focus on thermomechanical modeling of reactivation of convergent structures inherited from compression. The Aegean domain that experienced extension after the formation of the Hellenides is considered as a natural laboratory. Natural data are used to constrain a priori the geometry and rheology of the models and to validate them a posteriori. Three problems at different scales are considered. Firstly, we model the reactivation of a thrust as a low angle normal fault. Recent studies show that Aegean detachments were active in the brittle field with very shallow dips. These observations are in contradiction with the classical fault mechanics theory. In order to reconcile both point of view, we propose a new model by introducing an elasto-plastic frictional fault gouge that is able to compact. Our models show that plastic strain on badly oriented faults is favored by compaction of the fault gouge. Secondly, we model the formation of the Corinth rift. The Phyllite-Quartizte nappe is introduced in the upper crust as a weak shallow-dipping layer between the Pindos and Tripolitza massive carbonate nappes. The competence contrast between this nappe and its surrounding controls the dynamics of rifting. High competence contrast leads to the formation of crustal-scale planar faults rooting on the brittle ductile transition of the crust and thin-skinned listric faults rooting on the nappe itself. This model is consistent with the observed microseismicity patterns, the asymmetry of the Corinth Gulf, and the kinematics of fault

  9. Mass Appraisal Modelling in Minsk: Testing different Models Location sensitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio D’Amato


    Full Text Available Mass Appraisal is the valuation of large quantity of properties. This automatic valuation procedure gave the opportunity to reach a single point estimate (The Appraisal of Real Estate, 13th Edition. The work test different location sensitive methodologies on a sample of 600 residential properties in the city of Minsk in Belarus. This is the first application of mass appraisal modelling in Belarus. Empirical application compares a location blind model with two Location Value Response Surface models (O Connor, 1982, the former based on the detection of value influence centers the latter based on error surface modelling.

  10. Use of the Biotic Ligand Model to predict metal toxicity to aquatic biota in areas of differing geology (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.


    This work evaluates the use of the biotic ligand model (BLM), an aquatic toxicity model, to predict toxic effects of metals on aquatic biota in areas underlain by different rock types. The chemical composition of water, soil, and sediment is largely derived from the composition of the underlying rock. Geologic source materials control key attributes of water chemistry that affect metal toxicity to aquatic biota, including: 1) potentially toxic elements, 2) alkalinity, 3) total dissolved solids, and 4) soluble major elements, such as Ca and Mg, which contribute to water hardness. Miller (2002) compiled chemical data for water samples collected in watersheds underlain by ten different rock types, and in a mineralized area in western Colorado. He found that each rock type has a unique range of water chemistry. In this study, the ten rock types were grouped into two general categories, igneous and sedimentary. Water collected in watersheds underlain by sedimentary rock has higher mean pH, alkalinity, and calcium concentrations than water collected in watersheds underlain by igneous rock. Water collected in the mineralized area had elevated concentrations of calcium and sulfate in addition to other chemical constituents. Miller's water-chemistry data were used in the BLM (computer program) to determine copper and zinc toxicity to Daphnia magna. Modeling results show that waters from watersheds underlain by different rock types have characteristic ranges of predicted LC 50 values (a measurement of aquatic toxicity) for copper and zinc, with watersheds underlain by igneous rock having lower predicted LC 50 values than watersheds underlain by sedimentary rock. Lower predicted LC 50 values suggest that aquatic biota in watersheds underlain by igneous rock may be more vulnerable to copper and zinc inputs than aquatic biota in watersheds underlain by sedimentary rock. For both copper and zinc, there is a trend of increasing predicted LC 50 values with increasing dissolved

  11. Applying 3D Full Waveform Inversion in resolving fracture damage zones around a modelled geological disposal facility in granite (United States)

    Bentham, H. L. M.; Morgan, J. V.; Angus, D. A.


    The UK has a large volume of high level and intermediate level radioactive waste and government policy is to dispose of this waste in a Geological Disposal Facility (GDF). This will be a highly-engineered facility capable of isolating radioactive waste within multiple protective barriers, deep underground, to ensure that no harmful quantities of radioactivity ever reach the surface environment. Although no specific GDF site in the UK has been chosen, granite is one of the candidate host rocks due to its strength, in engineering terms, and because of its low permeability in consideration of groundwater movement. We design time-lapse seismic surveys to characterise geological models of naturally fractured granite with GDF-related tunnel damage zones at a potential disposal depth of 1000 m (the UK GDF might be shallower). Additionally, we use effective medium models to calculate the velocity change when the fracture density is increased in the damage zones, and find a reduction of 60 m/s in P-wave velocity when the fracture density is doubled. Next, we simulate seismic surveys and apply 3D Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) to see how well we can recover the low-velocity damage zones. Furthermore we evaluate the effectiveness of using a survey design consisting of surface and tunnel receivers (a combined array) to resolve the target. After applying FWI we find the velocity anomaly within the damage zone can be resolved to within 2 m/s (3%) and the shape of the damage zone is resolved to 12.5 m (within a single grid cell). Using the combined array we are able to resolve the anomaly strength and shape more completely. When we add further complexity to the model by including tunnel infrastructure, we conclude the combined array is essential in recovering the tunnel damage zone. Our findings show that it is beneficial to use 3D FWI and novel survey designs for characterising subtle variations as may be present in granite, information that could assist in the GDF site selection

  12. Designing healthy communities: Testing the walkability model


    Zuniga-Teran, Adriana; Orr, Barron; Gimblett, Randy; Chalfoun, Nader; Marsh, Stuart; Guertin, David; Going, Scott


    Research from multiple domains has provided insights into how neighborhood design can be improved to have a more favorable effect on physical activity, a concept known as walkability. The relevant research findings/hypotheses have been integrated into a Walkability Framework, which organizes the design elements into nine walkability categories. The purpose of this study was to test whether this conceptual framework can be used as a model to measure the interactions between the built environme...

  13. Thurstonian models for sensory discrimination tests as generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per B.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen


    Sensory discrimination tests such as the triangle, duo-trio, 2-AFC and 3-AFC tests produce binary data and the Thurstonian decision rule links the underlying sensory difference 6 to the observed number of correct responses. In this paper it is shown how each of these four situations can be viewed...... as a so-called generalized linear model. The underlying sensory difference 6 becomes directly a parameter of the statistical model and the estimate d' and it's standard error becomes the "usual" output of the statistical analysis. The d' for the monadic A-NOT A method is shown to appear as a standard...... linear contrast in a generalized linear model using the probit link function. All methods developed in the paper are implemented in our free R-package sensR ( This includes the basic power and sample size calculations for these four discrimination tests...

  14. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.


    Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

  15. A data driven model for the impact of IFT and density variations on CO2 storage capacity in geologic formations (United States)

    Nomeli, Mohammad A.; Riaz, Amir


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising solutions for decreasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. One of the important issues for CO2 storage in subsurface environments is the sealing efficiency of low-permeable cap-rocks overlying potential CO2 storage reservoirs. Though we focus on the effect of IFT in this study as a factor influencing sealing efficiency or storage capacity, other factors such as interfacial interactions, wettability, pore radius and interfacial mass transfer also affect the mobility and storage capacity of CO2 phase in the pore space. The study of the variation of IFT is however important because the pressure needed to penetrate a pore depends on both the pore size and the interfacial tension. Hence small variations in IFT can affect flow across a large population of pores. A novel model is proposed to find the IFT of the ternary systems (CO2/brine-salt) in a range of temperatures (300-373 K), pressures (50-250 bar), and up to 6 molal salinity applicable to CO2 storage in geological formations through a multi-variant non-linear regression of experimental data. The method uses a general empirical model for the quaternary system CO2/brine-salts that can be made to coincide with experimental data for a variety of solutions. We introduce correction parameters into the model, which compensates for uncertainties, and enforce agreement with experimental data. The results for IFT show a strong dependence on temperature, pressure, and salinity. The model has been found to describe the experimental data in the appropriate parameter space with reasonable precision. Finally, we use the new model to evaluate the effects of formation depth on the actual efficiency of CO2 storage. The results indicate that, in the case of CO2 storage in deep subsurface environments as a global-warming mitigation strategy, CO2 storage capacity increases with reservoir depth.

  16. Modelling biogeochemical-stratigraphic dynamics of clinoform successions over geological timescales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Jakob Fosselius; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    . Recently we have attempted a quantification of the first order influence that eustatic sea-level change exert on the oceanic nutrient inventory, marine productivity and burial of organic carbon under greenhouse conditions (Bjerrum et al., 2006). In additions the process relations governing the clinoforms...... are investigated with our novel dynamic biogeochemical-stratigraphic model which explicitly calculates sediment and biogeochemical tracer erosion and deposition over multi-kilo-years. In the model organic and uranium enrichment in the distal clinoform develops as a transgressive nature. As a result part...... of the sedimentary characteristics, traditionally interpreted as a maximum flooding surface, forms during eustatic low stand near the clinoform toe and during sea-level high stand near the clinoform rollover. Such a response may be further modified when considering global carbon and nutrient cycles. Thus coupling...

  17. Dynamic and impact contact mechanics of geologic materials: Grain-scale experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, David M.; Hopkins, Mark A.; Ketcham, Stephen A. [Engineer Research and Development Center - Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Rd., Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)


    High fidelity treatments of the generation and propagation of seismic waves in naturally occurring granular materials is becoming more practical given recent advancements in our ability to model complex particle shapes and their mechanical interaction. Of particular interest are the grain-scale processes that are activated by impact events and the characteristics of force transmission through grain contacts. To address this issue, we have developed a physics based approach that involves laboratory experiments to quantify the dynamic contact and impact behavior of granular materials and incorporation of the observed behavior indiscrete element models. The dynamic experiments do not involve particle damage and emphasis is placed on measured values of contact stiffness and frictional loss. The normal stiffness observed in dynamic contact experiments at low frequencies (e.g., 10 Hz) are shown to be in good agreement with quasistatic experiments on quartz sand. The results of impact experiments - which involve moderate to extensive levels of particle damage - are presented for several types of naturally occurring granular materials (several quartz sands, magnesite and calcium carbonate ooids). Implementation of the experimental findings in discrete element models is discussed and the results of impact simulations involving up to 5 Multiplication-Sign 105 grains are presented.

  18. Probabilistic modeling and global sensitivity analysis for CO 2 storage in geological formations: a spectral approach

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Bilal Mohammed


    This work focuses on the simulation of CO2 storage in deep underground formations under uncertainty and seeks to understand the impact of uncertainties in reservoir properties on CO2 leakage. To simulate the process, a non-isothermal two-phase two-component flow system with equilibrium phase exchange is used. Since model evaluations are computationally intensive, instead of traditional Monte Carlo methods, we rely on polynomial chaos (PC) expansions for representation of the stochastic model response. A non-intrusive approach is used to determine the PC coefficients. We establish the accuracy of the PC representations within a reasonable error threshold through systematic convergence studies. In addition to characterizing the distributions of model observables, we compute probabilities of excess CO2 leakage. Moreover, we consider the injection rate as a design parameter and compute an optimum injection rate that ensures that the risk of excess pressure buildup at the leaky well remains below acceptable levels. We also provide a comprehensive analysis of sensitivities of CO2 leakage, where we compute the contributions of the random parameters, and their interactions, to the variance by computing first, second, and total order Sobol’ indices.

  19. Modelling of processes occurring in deep geological repository - Development of new modules in the GoldSim environment (United States)

    Vopálka, D.; Lukin, D.; Vokál, A.


    Three new modules modelling the processes that occur in a deep geological repository have been prepared in the GoldSim computer code environment (using its Transport Module). These modules help to understand the role of selected parameters in the near-field region of the final repository and to prepare an own complex model of the repository behaviour. The source term module includes radioactive decay and ingrowth in the canister, first order degradation of fuel matrix, solubility limitation of the concentration of the studied nuclides, and diffusive migration through the surrounding bentonite layer controlled by the output boundary condition formulated with respect to the rate of water flow in the rock. The corrosion module describes corrosion of canisters made of carbon steel and transport of corrosion products in the near-field region. This module computes balance equations between dissolving species and species transported by diffusion and/or advection from the surface of a solid material. The diffusion module that includes also non-linear form of the interaction isotherm can be used for an evaluation of small-scale diffusion experiments.

  20. Geologic Model for Oil and Gas Assessment of the Kemik-Thomson Play, Central North Slope, Alaska (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Houseknecht, David W.


    A geologic model was developed to assess undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Kemik-Thomson Play of the Central North Slope, Alaska. In this model, regional erosion during the Early Cretaceous produced an incised valley system on the flanks and crest of the Mikkelsen High and formed the Lower Cretaceous unconformity. Locally derived, coarse-grained siliciclastic and carbonate detritus from eroded Franklinian-age basement rocks, Carboniferous Kekiktuk Conglomerate (of the Endicott Group), Lisburne Group, and Permian-Triassic Sadlerochit Group may have accumulated in the incised valleys during lowstand and transgression, forming potential reservoirs in the Lower Cretaceous Kemik Sandstone and Thomson sandstone (informal term). Continued transgression resulted in the deposition of the mudstones of the over-lying Cretaceous pebble shale unit and Hue Shale, which form top seals to the potential reservoirs. Petroleum from thermally mature facies of the Triassic Shublik Formation, Jurassic Kingak Shale, Hue Shale (and pebble shale unit), and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Canning Formation might have charged Thomson and Kemik sandstone reservoirs in this play during the Tertiary. The success of this play depends largely upon the presence of reservoir-quality units in the Kemik Sandstone and Thomson sandstone.

  1. Coupling geothermal energy capture with carbon dioxide sequestration in permeable, porous geologic formations II: Numerical modeling and preliminary results (United States)

    Randolph, J. B.; Saar, M. O.


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers and exhausted oil fields has been widely considered as a means for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as a counter-measure to global warming. However, rather than treating CO2 as a waste fluid in need of permanent disposal, it could additionally be used as a working fluid in geothermal energy capture as its thermodynamic properties suggest it transfers heat more efficiently than water. Therefore, utilizing CO2 may permit more widespread implementation of geothermal power systems. Here, we present numerical modeling results of coupled CO2 injection into a brine and heat transfer in geothermal reservoirs under conditions relevant for both CO2 sequestration and geothermal electricity generation. In particular, we examine subsurface flow and heating of the sequestered CO2, cooling of the geothermal reservoir, and changes in pore-fluid pressures under a variety of generalized CO2 injection and production scenarios and reservoir characteristics. While additional research is required, modeling results at present suggest that geologic reservoirs with CO2 as the heat mining fluid would be viable geothermal energy sources for electric power production for decades, potentially even in regions with relatively low geothermal temperatures and heat flow rates.

  2. Movable scour protection. Model test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, R.


    This report presents the results of a series of model tests with scour protection of marine structures. The objective of the model tests is to investigate the integrity of the scour protection during a general lowering of the surrounding seabed, for instance in connection with movement of a sand bank or with general subsidence. The scour protection in the tests is made out of stone material. Two different fractions have been used: 4 mm and 40 mm. Tests with current, with waves and with combined current and waves were carried out. The scour protection material was placed after an initial scour hole has evolved in the seabed around the structure. This design philosophy has been selected because the situation often is that the scour hole starts to generate immediately after the structure has been placed. It is therefore difficult to establish a scour protection at the undisturbed seabed if the scour material is placed after the main structure. Further, placing the scour material in the scour hole increases the stability of the material. Two types of structure have been used for the test, a Monopile and a Tripod foundation. Test with protection mats around the Monopile model was also carried out. The following main conclusions have emerged form the model tests with flat bed (i.e. no general seabed lowering): 1. The maximum scour depth found in steady current on sand bed was 1.6 times the cylinder diameter, 2. The minimum horizontal extension of the scour hole (upstream direction) was 2.8 times the cylinder diameter, corresponding to a slope of 30 degrees, 3. Concrete protection mats do not meet the criteria for a strongly erodible seabed. In the present test virtually no reduction in the scour depth was obtained. The main problem is the interface to the cylinder. If there is a void between the mats and the cylinder, scour will develop. Even with the protection mats that are tightly connected to the cylinder, scour is expected to develop as long as the mats allow for

  3. Explaining the current geodetic field with geological models: A case study of the Haiyuan fault system (United States)

    Daout, S.; Jolivet, R.; Lasserre, C.; Doin, M. P.; Barbot, S.; Peltzer, G.; Tapponnier, P.


    Oblique convergence across Tibet leads to slip partitioning with the co-existence of strike-slip, normal and thrust motion in major fault systems. While such complexity has been shown at the surface, the question is to understand how faults interact and accumulate strain at depth. Here, we process InSAR data across the central Haiyuan restraining bend, at the north-eastern boundary of the Tibetan plateau and show that the surface complexity can be explained by partitioning of a uniform deep-seated convergence rate. We construct a time series of ground deformation, from Envisat radar data spanning from 2001-2011 period, across a challenging area because of the high jump in topography between the desert environment and the plateau. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, we used the latest Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry methodology, such as Global Atmospheric Models (ERA Interim) and Digital Elevation Model errors corrections before unwrapping. We then developed a new Bayesian approach, jointly inverting our InSAR time series together with published GPS displacements. We explore fault system geometry at depth and associated slip rates and determine a uniform N86±7E° convergence rate of 8.45±1.4 mm/yr across the whole fault system with a variable partitioning west and east of a major extensional fault-jog. Our 2D model gives a quantitative understanding of how crustal deformation is accumulated by the various branches of this thrust/strike-slip fault system and demonstrate the importance of the geometry of the Haiyuan Fault, controlling the partitioning or the extrusion of the block motion. The approach we have developed would allow constraining the low strain accumulation along deep faults, like for example for the blind thrust faults or possible detachment in the San Andreas "big bend", which are often associated to a poorly understood seismic hazard.

  4. Modeling fine-scale geological heterogeneity-examples of sand lenses in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Comunian, Alessandro; Oriani, Fabio


    block. The identification of flow paths through a network of elongated sand lenses and the impact on the equivalent permeability in tills are essential to perform solute transport modeling in the low-permeability sediments. © 2012, The Author(s) © 2012, National GroundWater Association.......Sand lenses at various spatial scales are recognized to add heterogeneity to glacial sediments. They have high hydraulic conductivities relative to the surrounding till matrix and may affect the advective transport of water and contaminants in clayey till settings. Sand lenses were investigated...

  5. Model data for pore network modeling of the electrical signature of solute transport in dual-domain media, U.S. Geological Survey data release: U.S. Geological Survey data release (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Pore network simulations were performed to investigate the electrical geophysical signature of solute-transport in dual-domain media. This data release includes...

  6. Modelling of the reactive transport for rock salt-brine in geological repository systems based on improved thermodynamic database (Invited) (United States)

    Müller, W.; Alkan, H.; Xie, M.; Moog, H.; Sonnenthal, E. L.


    The release and migration of toxic contaminants from the disposed wastes is one of the main issues in long-term safety assessment of geological repositories. In the engineered and geological barriers around the nuclear waste emplacements chemical interactions between the components of the system may affect the isolation properties considerably. As the chemical issues change the transport properties in the near and far field of a nuclear repository, modelling of the transport should also take the chemistry into account. The reactive transport modelling consists of two main components: a code that combines the possible chemical reactions with thermo-hydrogeological processes interactively and a thermodynamic databank supporting the required parameters for the calculation of the chemical reactions. In the last decade many thermo-hydrogeological codes were upgraded to include the modelling of the chemical processes. TOUGHREACT is one of these codes. This is an extension of the well known simulator TOUGH2 for modelling geoprocesses. The code is developed by LBNL (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Univ. of California) for the simulation of the multi-phase transport of gas and liquid in porous media including heat transfer. After the release of its first version in 1998, this code has been applied and improved many times in conjunction with considerations for nuclear waste emplacement. A recent version has been extended to calculate ion activities in concentrated salt solutions applying the Pitzer model. In TOUGHREACT, the incorporated equation of state module ECO2N is applied as the EOS module for non-isothermal multiphase flow in a fluid system of H2O-NaCl-CO2. The partitioning of H2O and CO2 between liquid and gas phases is modelled as a function of temperature, pressure, and salinity. This module is applicable for waste repositories being expected to generate or having originally CO2 in the fluid system. The enhanced TOUGHREACT uses an EQ3/6-formatted database

  7. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan


    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  8. Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon


    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Seepage Calibration Model (SCM). The SCM is developed (1) to establish the conceptual basis for the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (SMPA), and (2) to derive seepage-relevant, model-related parameters and their distributions for use in the SMPA and seepage abstraction in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SCM is intended to be used only within this Model Report for the estimation of seepage-relevant parameters through calibration of the model against seepage-rate data from liquid-release tests performed in several niches along the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Drift and in the Cross Drift. The SCM does not predict seepage into waste emplacement drifts under thermal or ambient conditions. Seepage predictions for waste emplacement drifts under ambient conditions will be performed with the SMPA (see upcoming REV 02 of CRWMS M&O 2000 [153314]), which inherits the conceptual basis and model-related parameters from the SCM. Seepage during the thermal period is examined separately in the Thermal Hydrologic (TH) Seepage Model (see BSC 2003 [161530]). The scope of this work is (1) to evaluate seepage rates measured during liquid-release experiments performed in several niches in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and in the Cross Drift, which was excavated for enhanced characterization of the repository block (ECRB); (2) to evaluate air-permeability data measured in boreholes above the niches and the Cross Drift to obtain the permeability structure for the seepage model; (3) to use inverse modeling to calibrate the SCM and to estimate seepage-relevant, model-related parameters on the drift scale; (4) to estimate the epistemic uncertainty of the derived parameters, based on the goodness-of-fit to the observed data and the sensitivity of calculated seepage with respect to the parameters of interest; (5) to characterize the aleatory uncertainty of

  9. Literature Survey of Copper Corrosion Modelling under Deep Geological Disposal Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Kook, Dong-Hak; Lee, Min-Soo; Choi, Heui-Joo


    As a one of the solution for the spent nuclear fuel problem, deep repository research have been under way in KAERI. To raise the resistance against repository cask corrosion, copper canister was adopted for the outer material of the cask. Duration of the repository with million year order makes the copper corrosion research under the repository environment very important and the corrosion modelling which could trace the real world precisely and predict the corrosion behavior very well is subsequently necessary. With in progress of plan to manufacture unique copper cask corresponding to our country repository system, survey for the preceding research papers in recent research direction and kernel points is expected to significant. This paper arranged the representative literatures for the important corrosion mechanism which are recently published.

  10. Modeling of concrete carbonation in deep geological disposal of intermediate level waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poyet S.


    Full Text Available Simulations of atmospheric carbonation of Intermediate-Level Long-lived radioactive Waste (ILLW concrete packages were conducted to evaluate their possible chemical degradations. Two-phase liquid water-air flow is combined with gas component diffusion processes leading to a progressive drying of the concrete.Complete drying of the 11 cm thick waste disposal package wall occurs over a period ranging from 2 years for the low-performance concrete to 10 years for the high-performance concrete. The drying process slows down when transport characteristics of concretes are enhanced. Carbonation depths in the order of 2 to 3 cm in 100 years are predicted for this cementitious component. However, these values are slightly overestimated compared to experimental data. Also the kinetic model of mineral reactivity requires improvements with respect to the protective effect of secondary carbonates and to thermodynamic data.

  11. Comparison of Pore-Network and Lattice Boltzmann Models for Pore-Scale Modeling of Geological Storage of CO2 in Natural Reservoir Rocks (United States)

    Kohanpur, A. H.; Chen, Y.; Valocchi, A. J.; Tudek, J.; Crandall, D.


    CO2-brine flow in deep natural rocks is the focus of attention in geological storage of CO2. Understanding rock/flow properties at pore-scale is a vital component in field-scale modeling and prediction of fate of injected CO2. There are many challenges in working at the pore scale, such as size and selection of representative elementary volume (REV), particularly for material with complex geometry and heterogeneity, and the high computational costs. These issues factor into trade-offs that need to be made in choosing and applying pore-scale models. On one hand, pore-network modeling (PNM) simplifies the geometry and flow equations but can provide characteristic curves on fairly large samples. On the other hand, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) solves Navier-Stokes equations on the real geometry but is limited to small samples due to its high computational costs. Thus, both methods have some advantages but also face some challenges, which warrants a more detailed comparison and evaluation. In this study, we used industrial and micro-CT scans of actual reservoir rock samples to characterize pore structure at different resolutions. We ran LBM models directly on the characterized geometry and PNM on the equivalent 3D extracted network to determine single/two-phase flow properties during drainage and imbibition processes. Specifically, connectivity, absolute permeability, relative permeability curve, capillary pressure curve, and interface location are compared between models. We also did simulations on several subsamples from different locations including different domain sizes and orientations to encompass analysis of heterogeneity and isotropy. This work is primarily supported as part of the Center for Geologic Storage of CO2, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science and partially supported by the International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER) based at Kyushu University, Japan.

  12. Muon Tomography for Geological Repositories. (United States)

    Woodward, D.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Gluyas, J.; Clark, S. J.; Thompson, L. F.; Klinger, J.; Spooner, N. J.; Blackwell, T. B.; Pal, S.; Lincoln, D. L.; Paling, S. M.; Mitchell, C. N.; Benton, C.; Coleman, M. L.; Telfer, S.; Cole, A.; Nolan, S.; Chadwick, P.


    Cosmic-ray muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere in collisions of primary cosmic rays with atoms in air. Due to their high penetrating power these muons can be used to image the content (primarily density) of matter they pass through. They have already been used to image the structure of pyramids, volcanoes and other objects. Their applications can be extended to investigating the structure of, and monitoring changes in geological formations and repositories, in particular deep subsurface sites with stored CO2. Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO2, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to operate. Our simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon tomography could be used to continuously monitor CO2 injection and migration and complement existing technologies. Here we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO2 plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon tomography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of the reservoir is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO2 plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m2 is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO2 injection leads to changes in the column density of about 1%, and that the CO2 plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days. The attached figure show a map of CO2 plume in angular coordinates as reconstructed from observed muons. In parallel with simulation efforts, a small prototype muon detector has been designed, built and tested in a deep subsurface laboratory. Initial calibrations of the detector have shown that it can reach the required angular resolution for muon detection. Stable operation in a small borehole within a few months has been demonstrated.

  13. 2-D Model Test of Dolosse Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou


    ). To extend the design diagram to cover Dolos breakwaters with superstructure, 2-D model tests of Dolos breakwater with wave wall is included in the project Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under Contract MAS-CT92...... of the method of placing and packing the blocks on the hydraulic stability. The Dolosse were more carefully put on the slope and the hydraulic stability of such slope was compared with that of the more randomly packed slope. The whole experiment was carried out in the period of August - November 1993...

  14. Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Finsterle


    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Seepage Calibration Model (SCM). The SCM was developed (1) to establish the conceptual basis for the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (SMPA), and (2) to derive seepage-relevant, model-related parameters and their distributions for use in the SMPA and seepage abstraction in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). This Model Report has been revised in response to a comprehensive, regulatory-focused evaluation performed by the Regulatory Integration Team [''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Evaluation of Analysis and Model Reports Supporting the TSPA-LA'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169653])]. The SCM is intended to be used only within this Model Report for the estimation of seepage-relevant parameters through calibration of the model against seepage-rate data from liquid-release tests performed in several niches along the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Drift and in the Cross-Drift. The SCM does not predict seepage into waste emplacement drifts under thermal or ambient conditions. Seepage predictions for waste emplacement drifts under ambient conditions will be performed with the SMPA [''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167652])], which inherits the conceptual basis and model-related parameters from the SCM. Seepage during the thermal period is examined separately in the Thermal Hydrologic (TH) Seepage Model [see ''Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170338])]. The scope of this work is (1) to evaluate seepage rates measured during liquid-release experiments performed in several niches in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and in the Cross-Drift, which was excavated for enhanced characterization of the repository block (ECRB); (2) to evaluate air-permeability data measured in boreholes above the niches and the Cross

  15. Model-independent tests of cosmic gravity. (United States)

    Linder, Eric V


    Gravitation governs the expansion and fate of the universe, and the growth of large-scale structure within it, but has not been tested in detail on these cosmic scales. The observed acceleration of the expansion may provide signs of gravitational laws beyond general relativity (GR). Since the form of any such extension is not clear, from either theory or data, we adopt a model-independent approach to parametrizing deviations to the Einstein framework. We explore the phase space dynamics of two key post-GR functions and derive a classification scheme, and an absolute criterion on accuracy necessary for distinguishing classes of gravity models. Future surveys will be able to constrain the post-GR functions' amplitudes and forms to the required precision, and hence reveal new aspects of gravitation.

  16. A conceptual model of geological risk in the Ischia Island (Italy): highlights on volcanic history, seismicity and flooding (United States)

    Carlino, Stefano; Cubellis, Elena; Iannuzzi, Raffaello; Luongo, Giuseppe


    interpretations on the earthquakes refer to the events from the end of XVIII century. There is an exhaustive literature related to the 1881 and 1883 earthquakes occurrence, pointing out to the relationship between seismicity and the volcanic history of the island (i.e. "earthquakes as aborted eruptions"). These two seismic events occurred during an intense period of production of geological charts and maps, representing the physical characteristics of the territory. The effects of the earthquakes were classified using the former scale of intensity and different locations and mechanisms of the seismic source were suggested. The information about hydrogeological disasters in the island arise from the sixteenth century, when a major flooding hits the island, in correlation to extreme weather conditions. An archetype phenomenon is the 1910 flood event which caused serious damages and morphology changes to involved areas. In recent times (2006, 2009) floods hit again the island producing debris flow which devastated its northern sector producing injuries, fatalities and heavy damages. To obtain a conceptual model of geological risk we have done an integrated analysis of catastrophic events occurred in the island and its tectonic and morphological features. Our analysis shows that the Casamicciola municipality, was the area affected by the heaviest damages due to earthquakes and floods.

  17. Building topography in Cyprus and south Turkey: geological constraints and geodynamic models (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; Bertotti, Giovanni; Cassola, Teodoro; Willett, Sean


    We present a regional synthesis of the geometries and Neogene vertical motions and horizontal deformations of the central sector of the Cyprus arc-trench system, which are used to constrain 2D thermo-mechanical numerical models. We used depth-converted seismic reflection lines, basin analysis techniques and fieldwork observations, combined with available literature. From the Cyprus arc trench to the Central Anatolia Plateau, three independent vertical motion domains are identified: the Cyprus structural high; the Cilicia Basin and the Tauride Range. Early Miocene regional subsidence that still continues in the Cilicia Basin was disrupted by surface uplift in the north and south domains during Late Miocene or younger times. Coevally, N-S shortening developed regional contractional structures along the margin. The large-wavelength Miocene monocline fold that formed in S Turkey reveals relative vertical displacement rates of 0.5 mm/y and horizontal shortening values of forced the surface uplift of the landward side of the forearc basin and created a forearc-high, the modern Taurides. We also analyzed the influence of factors such as viscous properties of the crust and sedimentary accumulation rates. These parameters have a strong impact in the overall evolution of the margin as well as in when and whether surface uplift in the forearc-high occurs. Higher values in the viscous parameters drive older, more pronounced uplift, than lower viscosity values. Decreasing values change the shape and time-evolution of uplift, from older rounded-shaped uplift to mid-aged box-shaped uplift to absence of uplift. Large accumulation rates develop thicker basins that stabilize the margin and shift deformation towards their margins. This also induces surface uplift to take place at younger times and can lead to avoid its happening, i.e, if sediment accumulation rates are large, the subduction system needs longer times to develop the forearc-high. We conclude that the Cyprian subduction

  18. Modeling and testing of ethernet transformers (United States)

    Bowen, David


    Twisted-pair Ethernet is now the standard home and office last-mile network technology. For decades, the IEEE standard that defines Ethernet has required electrical isolation between the twisted pair cable and the Ethernet device. So, for decades, every Ethernet interface has used magnetic core Ethernet transformers to isolate Ethernet devices and keep users safe in the event of a potentially dangerous fault on the network media. The current state-of-the-art Ethernet transformers are miniature (explored which are capable of exceptional miniaturization or on-chip fabrication. This dissertation thoroughly explores the performance of the current commercial Ethernet transformers to both increase understanding of the device's behavior and outline performance parameters for replacement devices. Lumped element and distributed circuit models are derived; testing schemes are developed and used to extract model parameters from commercial Ethernet devices. Transfer relation measurements of the commercial Ethernet transformers are compared against the model's behavior and it is found that the tuned, distributed models produce the best transfer relation match to the measured data. Process descriptions and testing results on fabricated thin-film dielectric-core toroid transformers are presented. The best results were found for a 32-turn transformer loaded with 100Ω, the impedance of twisted pair cable. This transformer gave a flat response from about 10MHz to 40MHz with a height of approximately 0.45. For the fabricated transformer structures, theoretical methods to determine resistance, capacitance and inductance are presented. A special analytical and numerical analysis of the fabricated transformer inductance is presented. Planar cuts of magnetic slope fields around the dielectric-core toroid are shown that describe the effect of core height and winding density on flux uniformity without a magnetic core.

  19. Using Pseudo 3-D P-wave Seismic Reflection Data for Developing a Robust Geologic Conceptual Model in Site Characterization (United States)

    Addison, A. D.; Knapp, C. C.; Waddell, M. G.; Brantley, D. T.; Shafer, J. M.


    P-area at the Savannah River Site is located in the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The site consists of approximately 350 m of interspersed, unconsolidated sand, clay, and gravel deposits. At P-area there is evidence for a contaminant plume of dissolved phase trichloroethylene (TCE) located in the Eocene age sand. The geometry of the plume, based on initial site characterization, appears to be confined to a narrow corridor within the sand overlying a clay unit approximately 25 meters below land surface. As part of a multi-scale hydrogeophysical and modeling study, a pseudo 3-D seismic reflection survey was conducted over the plume area to enhance the existing geologic model by resolving uncertainty in the litho-stratigraphic sequence. The survey area was 34 by 170 m, and the data were processed as a 3-D data volume instead of a series of closely spaced 2-D lines, allowing for better interpretation of the target horizons. The results show that there are two unexpected sand channel complexes that were interpreted on the seismic volume. These sand channels were not present in the initial conceptual model, and the middle and lower clays were found not to be continuous as previously thought. The geometry of the primary sand channel has been transposed over the plume to investigate any potential correlation between the shape of the plume and the presence of the channel complex. Based on this analysis, it is clear that the sand channel controls the plume shape. We also calculated the seismic attributes to correlate with the other hydrogeophysical data to be used in the modeling portion of the project .The outcome was the production of realistic horizon surfaces maps. Calibrating the seismic data with existing borehole geophysical logs, core data, as well as vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data at the site, allowed the seismic data to be inverted from two-way travel time to depth, thereby facilitating full integration of the seismic data into a solid

  20. The C. elegans model in toxicity testing. (United States)

    Hunt, Piper Reid


    Caenorhabditis elegans is a small nematode that can be maintained at low cost and handled using standard in vitro techniques. Unlike toxicity testing using cell cultures, C. elegans toxicity assays provide data from a whole animal with intact and metabolically active digestive, reproductive, endocrine, sensory and neuromuscular systems. Toxicity ranking screens in C. elegans have repeatedly been shown to be as predictive of rat LD50 ranking as mouse LD50 ranking. Additionally, many instances of conservation of mode of toxic action have been noted between C. elegans and mammals. These consistent correlations make the case for inclusion of C. elegans assays in early safety testing and as one component in tiered or integrated toxicity testing strategies, but do not indicate that nematodes alone can replace data from mammals for hazard evaluation. As with cell cultures, good C. elegans culture practice (GCeCP) is essential for reliable results. This article reviews C. elegans use in various toxicity assays, the C. elegans model's strengths and limitations for use in predictive toxicology, and GCeCP. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Experimentally testing the standard cosmological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))


    The standard model of cosmology, the big bang, is now being tested and confirmed to remarkable accuracy. Recent high precision measurements relate to the microwave background; and big bang nucleosynthesis. This paper focuses on the latter since that relates more directly to high energy experiments. In particular, the recent LEP (and SLC) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard cosmology scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved light element observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. alternate nucleosynthesis scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, {Omega}{sub b}, remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the standard model conclusion that {Omega}{sub b} {approximately} 0.06. This latter point is the deriving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming {Omega}{sub total} = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since {Omega}{sub visible} < {Omega}{sub b}. Recent accelerator constraints on non-baryonic matter are discussed, showing that any massive cold dark matter candidate must now have a mass M{sub x} {approx gt} 20 GeV and an interaction weaker than the Z{sup 0} coupling to a neutrino. It is also noted that recent hints regarding the solar neutrino experiments coupled with the see-saw model for {nu}-masses may imply that the {nu}{sub {tau}} is a good hot dark matter candidate. 73 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Simulation of cylindrical flow to a well using the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Harbaugh, Arlen W.


    Cylindrical (axisymmetric) flow to a well is an important specialized topic of ground-water hydraulics and has been applied by many investigators to determine aquifer properties and determine heads and flows in the vicinity of the well. A recent modification to the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Three-Dimensional Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model provides the opportunity to simulate axisymmetric flow to a well. The theory involves the conceptualization of a system of concentric shells that are capable of reproducing the large variations in gradient in the vicinity of the well by decreasing their area in the direction of the well. The computer program presented serves as a preprocessor to the U.S. Geological Survey model by creating the input data file needed to implement the axisymmetric conceptualization. Data input requirements to this preprocessor are described, and a comparison with a known analytical solution indicates that the model functions appropriately.

  3. Ablative Rocket Deflector Testing and Computational Modeling (United States)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Lott, Jeffrey W.; Raines, Nickey


    A deflector risk mitigation program was recently conducted at the NASA Stennis Space Center. The primary objective was to develop a database that characterizes the behavior of industry-grade refractory materials subjected to rocket plume impingement conditions commonly experienced on static test stands. The program consisted of short and long duration engine tests where the supersonic exhaust flow from the engine impinged on an ablative panel. Quasi time-dependent erosion depths and patterns generated by the plume impingement were recorded for a variety of different ablative materials. The erosion behavior was found to be highly dependent on the material s composition and corresponding thermal properties. For example, in the case of the HP CAST 93Z ablative material, the erosion rate actually decreased under continued thermal heating conditions due to the formation of a low thermal conductivity "crystallization" layer. The "crystallization" layer produced near the surface of the material provided an effective insulation from the hot rocket exhaust plume. To gain further insight into the complex interaction of the plume with the ablative deflector, computational fluid dynamic modeling was performed in parallel to the ablative panel testing. The results from the current study demonstrated that locally high heating occurred due to shock reflections. These localized regions of shock-induced heat flux resulted in non-uniform erosion of the ablative panels. In turn, it was observed that the non-uniform erosion exacerbated the localized shock heating causing eventual plume separation and reversed flow for long duration tests under certain conditions. Overall, the flow simulations compared very well with the available experimental data obtained during this project.

  4. Exposure to multiple metals from groundwater-a global crisis: geology, climate change, health effects, testing, and mitigation. (United States)

    Mitchell, Erika; Frisbie, Seth; Sarkar, Bibudhendra


    This paper presents an overview of the global extent of naturally occurring toxic metals in groundwater. Adverse health effects attributed to the toxic metals most commonly found in groundwater are reviewed, as well as chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions between these metals. Synergistic and antagonistic effects that have been reported between the toxic metals found in groundwater and the dietary trace elements are highlighted, and common behavioural, cultural, and dietary practices that are likely to significantly modify health risks due to use of metal-contaminated groundwater are reviewed. Methods for analytical testing of samples containing multiple metals are discussed, with special attention to analytical interferences between metals and reagents. An overview is presented of approaches to providing safe water when groundwater contains multiple metallic toxins.

  5. Nuclear-waste disposal in geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.


    Deep geologic repositories are being widely studied as the most favored method of disposal of nuclear waste. Scientists search for repository sites in salt, basalt, tuff and granite that are geologically and hydrologically suitable. The systematic evaluation of the safety and reliability of deep geologic disposal centers around the concept of interacting multiple barriers. The simplest element to describe of the geologic barrier is the physical isolation of the waste in a remote region at some depth within the rock unit. Of greater complexity is the hydrologic barrier which is determined by the waste dilution factors and groundwater flow rates. The least understood is the geochemical barrier, identified as a series of waste/water/rock interactions involving sorption, membrane filtration, precipitation and complexing. In addition to the natural barriers are the engineered barriers, which include the waste form and waste package. The relative effectiveness of these barriers to provide long-term isolation of nuclear waste from the human environment is being assessed through the use of analytical and numerical models. The data used in the models is generally adequate for parameter sensitivity studies which bound the uncertainties in the release and transport predictions; however, much of the data comes from laboratory testing, and the problem of correlating laboratory and field measurements has not been resolved. Although safety assessments based on generic sites have been useful in the past for developing site selection criteria, site-specific studies are needed to judge the suitability of a particular host rock and its environment.

  6. Old Geology and New Geology (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Analysis of geologic terrain models for determination of optimum SAR sensor configuration and optimum information extraction for exploration of global non-renewable resources. Pilot study: Arkansas Remote Sensing Laboratory, part 1, part 2, and part 3 (United States)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.; Stiles, J. A.; Frost, F. S.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Smith, S. A.; Narayanan, V.; Holtzman, J. C. (Principal Investigator)


    Computer-generated radar simulations and mathematical geologic terrain models were used to establish the optimum radar sensor operating parameters for geologic research. An initial set of mathematical geologic terrain models was created for three basic landforms and families of simulated radar images were prepared from these models for numerous interacting sensor, platform, and terrain variables. The tradeoffs between the various sensor parameters and the quantity and quality of the extractable geologic data were investigated as well as the development of automated techniques of digital SAR image analysis. Initial work on a texture analysis of SEASAT SAR imagery is reported. Computer-generated radar simulations are shown for combinations of two geologic models and three SAR angles of incidence.

  8. Laboratory Testing of a MEMS Sensor System for In-Situ Monitoring of the Engineered Barrier in a Geological Disposal Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Yang


    Full Text Available Geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste pose significant challenges for robust monitoring of environmental conditions within the engineered barriers that surround the waste canister. Temperatures are elevated, due to the presence of heat generating waste, relative humidity varies from 20% to 100%, and swelling pressures within the bentonite barrier can typically be 2–10 MPa. Here, we test the robustness of a bespoke design MEMS sensor-based monitoring system, which we encapsulate in polyurethane resin. We place the sensor within an oedometer cell and show that despite a rise in swelling pressure to 2 MPa, our relative humidity (RH measurements are unaffected. We then test the sensing system against a traditional RH sensor, using saturated bentonite with a range of RH values between 50% and 100%. Measurements differ, on average, by 2.87% RH, and are particularly far apart for values of RH greater than 98%. However, bespoke calibration of the MEMS sensing system using saturated solutions of known RH, reduces the measurement difference to an average of 1.97% RH, greatly increasing the accuracy for RH values close to 100%.

  9. The Effects of Game-Based Learning and Anticipation of a Test on the Learning Outcomes of 10th Grade Geology Students (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Li Debra; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Chang, Chun-Yen


    This study examines whether a Role Play Game (RPG) with embedded geological contents and students' anticipation of an upcoming posttest significantly affect high school students' achievements of and attitudes toward geology. The participants of the study were comprised of 202 high school students, 103 males and 99 females. The students were…

  10. Testing the methodology for site descriptive modelling. Application for the Laxemar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Berglund, Johan [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF Geologic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hakami, Eva [Itasca Geomekanik AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Halvarson, Jan [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Laaksoharju, Marcus [Geopoint (Sweden); Rhen, Ingvar [Sweco VBB/VIAK, Stockholm (Sweden); Wahlgren, C.H. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Uppsala (Sweden)


    A special project has been conducted where the currently available data from the Laxemar area, which is part of the Simpevarp site, have been evaluated and interpreted into a Site Descriptive Model covering: geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics. Description of the surface ecosystem has been omitted, since it was re-characterised in another, parallel, project. Furthermore, there has been no evaluation of transport properties. The project is primarily a methodology test. The lessons learnt will be implemented in the Site Descriptive Modelling during the coming site investigation. The intent of the project has been to explore whether available methodology for Site Descriptive Modelling based on surface and borehole data is adequate and to identify potential needs for development and improvement in the methodology. The project has developed, with limitations in scope, a Site Descriptive Model in local scale, corresponding to the situation after completion of the Initial Site Investigations for the Laxemar area (i.e. 'version 1.2' using the vocabulary of the general execution program for the site investigations). The Site Descriptive Model should be reasonable, but should not be regarded as a 'real' model. There are limitations both in input data and in the scope of the analysis. The measured (primary) data constitute a wide range of different measurement results including data from two deep core drilled boreholes. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modelling. Examples of such evaluations are estimation of surface geology, lineament interpretation, geological single hole interpretation, hydrogeological single hole interpretation and assessment of hydrogeochemical data. Furthermore, while cross discipline interpretation is encouraged there is also a need for transparency. This means that the evaluations first are made within each discipline

  11. A wet-geology and cold-climate Mars model: Punctuation of a slow dynamic approach to equilibrium (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.


    It was suggested that Mars may have possessed a relatively warm humid climate and a vigorous hydrological cycle involving meteoric precipitation, oceans, and continental ice sheets. Baker hypothesized that these geologically active conditions may have been repeated several times; each of these dynamic epochs was followed by a collapse of the climate and hydrologic cycle of Mars into essentially current conditions, completing what is termed a 'Baker cycle'. The purpose is to present an endmember possibility that Martian glacial landscapes, including some that were previously considered to have formed under warm climatic conditions, might be explained by processes compatible with an extremely cold surface. Two aspects of hypothesized Martian glacial terrains were cited as favoring a warm climate during Baker cycles: (1) the formation of some landscapes, including possible eskers, tunnel channels, drumlins, and outwash plains, appears to have required liquid water, and (2) a liquid-surfaced ocean was probably necessary to feed the glaciers. The requirement for liquid water, if these features were correctly interpreted, is difficult to avoid; it is entirely possible that a comparatively warm climate was involved, but it is not clear that formation of landforms by wet-based glaciers actually requires a warm climate. Even less certain is the supposed requirement for liquid oceans. Formation of glaciers only requires a source of water or ice to supply an amount of precipitation that exceeds losses due to melting and sublimation. At Martian temperatures precipitation is very low, but so are melting and sublimation, so a large body of ice that is unstable with respect to sublimation may take the role of Earth's oceans in feeding the glaciers. Recent models suggest that even current Martian polar caps, long thought to be static bodies of ice and dust, might actually be slow-moving, cryogenic continental glaciers. Is it possible that subglacial processes beneath cryogenic

  12. Trace-Based Code Generation for Model-Based Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanstrén, T.; Piel, E.; Gross, H.G.


    Paper Submitted for review at the Eighth International Conference on Generative Programming and Component Engineering. Model-based testing can be a powerful means to generate test cases for the system under test. However, creating a useful model for model-based testing requires expertise in the

  13. Testing computational toxicology models with phytochemicals. (United States)

    Valerio, Luis G; Arvidson, Kirk B; Busta, Emily; Minnier, Barbara L; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Benz, R Daniel


    Computational toxicology employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling is an evidence-based predictive method being evaluated by regulatory agencies for risk assessment and scientific decision support for toxicological endpoints of interest such as rodent carcinogenicity. Computational toxicology is being tested for its usefulness to support the safety assessment of drug-related substances (e.g. active pharmaceutical ingredients, metabolites, impurities), indirect food additives, and other applied uses of value for protecting public health including safety assessment of environmental chemicals. The specific use of QSAR as a chemoinformatic tool for estimating the rodent carcinogenic potential of phytochemicals present in botanicals, herbs, and natural dietary sources is investigated here by an external validation study, which is the most stringent scientific method of measuring predictive performance. The external validation statistics for predicting rodent carcinogenicity of 43 phytochemicals, using two computational software programs evaluated at the FDA, are discussed. One software program showed very good performance for predicting non-carcinogens (high specificity), but both exhibited poor performance in predicting carcinogens (sensitivity), which is consistent with the design of the models. When predictions were considered in combination with each other rather than based on any one software, the performance for sensitivity was enhanced, However, Chi-square values indicated that the overall predictive performance decreases when using the two computational programs with this particular data set. This study suggests that complementary multiple computational toxicology software need to be carefully selected to improve global QSAR predictions for this complex toxicological endpoint.

  14. Designing healthy communities: Testing the walkability model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Zuniga-Teran


    Full Text Available Research from multiple domains has provided insights into how neighborhood design can be improved to have a more favorable effect on physical activity, a concept known as walkability. The relevant research findings/hypotheses have been integrated into a Walkability Framework, which organizes the design elements into nine walkability categories. The purpose of this study was to test whether this conceptual framework can be used as a model to measure the interactions between the built environment and physical activity. We explored correlations between the walkability categories and physical activity reported through a survey of residents of Tucson, Arizona (n=486. The results include significant correlations between the walkability categories and physical activity as well as between the walkability categories and the two motivations for walking (recreation and transportation. To our knowledge, this is the first study that reports links between walkability and walking for recreation. Additionally, the use of the Walkability Framework allowed us to identify the walkability categories most strongly correlated with the two motivations for walking. The results of this study support the use of the Walkability Framework as a model to measure the built environment in relation to its ability to promote physical activity.

  15. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index (United States)

    California Department of Resources — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  16. Geologic Map of Alaska: geologic units (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a polygon coverage and associated attribute data derived from the 1980 Geologic Map of Alaska compiled by H.M. Beikman and published by the...

  17. The GPlates Portal: Cloud-based interactive 3D and 4D visualization of global geological and geophysical data and models in a browser (United States)

    Müller, Dietmar; Qin, Xiaodong; Sandwell, David; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Williams, Simon; Flament, Nicolas; Maus, Stefan; Seton, Maria


    The pace of scientific discovery is being transformed by the availability of 'big data' and open access, open source software tools. These innovations open up new avenues for how scientists communicate and share data and ideas with each other, and with the general public. Here, we describe our efforts to bring to life our studies of the Earth system, both at present day and through deep geological time. The GPlates Portal ( is a gateway to a series of virtual globes based on the Cesium Javascript library. The portal allows fast interactive visualization of global geophysical and geological data sets, draped over digital terrain models. The globes use WebGL for hardware-accelerated graphics and are cross-platform and cross-browser compatible with complete camera control. The globes include a visualization of a high-resolution global digital elevation model and the vertical gradient of the global gravity field, highlighting small-scale seafloor fabric such as abyssal hills, fracture zones and seamounts in unprecedented detail. The portal also features globes portraying seafloor geology and a global data set of marine magnetic anomaly identifications. The portal is specifically designed to visualize models of the Earth through geological time. These space-time globes include tectonic reconstructions of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields, and several models of long-wavelength surface dynamic topography through time, including the interactive plotting of vertical motion histories at selected locations. The portal has been visited over half a million times since its inception in October 2015, as tracked by google analytics, and the globes have been featured in numerous media articles around the world. This demonstrates the high demand for fast visualization of global spatial big data, both for the present-day as well as through geological time. The globes put the on-the-fly visualization of massive data sets at the fingertips of end-users to

  18. Coupling level set methods with the ensemble kalman filter conditioning geological facies models to well and production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, David Leonardo


    In the present work a coupling methodology between level set methods and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for modeling and conditioning geological facies with respect to production and, well data is presented. The modeling of the facies is based on the concept of implicit interfaces where level set methods are used to add dynamics to the implicit interfaces. The conditioning of the facies models is done through the application of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), a sequential Bayesian inversion technique completely automatic that does not require the calculation of gradients or uses the information of previous states. The EnKF has been presented as an evolution of the extended Kalman filter (EKF) that solves the problem of the unbounded error growth of the covariance of a non-linear dynamical system by extending the traditional Kalman filter(KF) to a Monte Carlo ensemble type filter where the covariance representation is centered on the first moment of an ensemble distribution instead of the unknown true model, however, for the problem to be well defined, the parameters to be estimated should still be Gaussian or approximately Gaussian. For updating facies models defined as highly non-Gaussian systems the EnKF fails at first, since if facies types with different petrophysical properties are mixed, the generated petrophysical model will have some average properties that do not behave like any of the original facies types. The methodology presented in this work is designed to avoid the problem of the non-Gaussianity provided by facies models by applying a transformation of the facies into implicit interfaces and uses a more Gaussian variable to perturb and move the implicit representations of the facies. The result is a methodology that conditions Gaussian random fields (GRFs) to production and well data with the EnKF, later used as velocity fields in the level set equations for moving boundaries between facies systems with the purpose of obtaining good topological

  19. Geology, hydrology, and results of tracer testing in the Galena-Platteville aquifer at a waste-disposal site near Byron, Illinois (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Yeskis, Douglas J.; Prinos, Scott T.; Morrow, William S.; Vendl, Mark


    A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of the geohydrology of the dolomite bedrock at a waste-disposal site near Byron, Illinois. The study was designed to identify and characterize the flow pathways through the bedrock aquifer beneath the site. The geologic units of concern at the site are the Glenwood Formation of the Ancell Group, and the Platteville and Galena Groups. These deposits compose the Galena-Platteville aquifer and the underlying Harmony Hill Shale semiconfining unit. The Galena-Platteville aquifer is an unconfined aquifer. Geophysical logging, water levels, and aquifer-test data indicate the presence of interconnected, hydraulically active fractures in the middle of the Galena-Platteville aquifer (the upper flow pathway), and a second set of hydraulically active fractures (the lower flow pathway). The lower flow pathway may be present through much of the site. Few hydraulically active fractures are present in the upper part of the aquifer near the center of the site, but appear to be more numerous in the upper part of the aquifer in the western and northeastern parts of the site. Water-level data obtained during the tracer test indicate that pumping effects were present near the pumped wells. Pumping effects may have been present at several wells located along directions of identified fracture orientation from the pumped well. The upper part of the aquifer did not appear to be hydraulically well connected to the flow pathways supplying water to the pumped well. Large background changes in water levels obscured the effects of pumping and prevented calculation of aquifer properties. The velocity of the bromide tracer through the lower flow pathway under the hydraulic gradient resulting from the pumping was about 152 feet per day. Solution of the Darcy velocity equation results in a calculated effective porosity for this interval of 3.5 percent, indicating hydraulic interconnection between the

  20. A person fit test for IRT models for polytomous items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Dagohoy, A.V.


    A person fit test based on the Lagrange multiplier test is presented for three item response theory models for polytomous items: the generalized partial credit model, the sequential model, and the graded response model. The test can also be used in the framework of multidimensional ability

  1. Arctic Geology (geoarcst) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  2. Successful intelligence: A model for testing intelligence beyond IQ tests


    Sternberg, Robert J.


    Standard conventional tests only assess a narrow sampling of the abilities required for success in school and in life. In contrast, the augmented theory of successful intelligence asserts that intelligence involves creative skills in producing new ideas, analytical skills in evaluating whether the ideas are good ones, practical skills in putting the ideas into practice and in convincing other people of the value of the ideas, and wisdom-based skills in confirming that one is using one's knowl...

  3. Using 3D geological modelling and geochemical mixing models to characterise alluvial aquifer recharge sources in the upper Condamine River catchment, Queensland, Australia. (United States)

    Martinez, Jorge L; Raiber, Matthias; Cendón, Dioni I


    The influence of mountain front recharge on the water balance of alluvial valley aquifers located in upland catchments of the Condamine River basin in Queensland, Australia, is investigated through the development of an integrated hydrogeological framework. A combination of three-dimensional (3D) geological modelling, hydraulic gradient maps, multivariate statistical analyses and hydrochemical mixing calculations is proposed for the identification of hydrochemical end-members and quantification of the relative contributions of each end-member to alluvial aquifer recharge. The recognised end-members correspond to diffuse recharge and lateral groundwater inflows from three hydrostratigraphic units directly connected to the alluvial aquifer. This approach allows mapping zones of potential inter-aquifer connectivity and areas of groundwater mixing between underlying units and the alluvium. Mixing calculations using samples collected under baseflow conditions reveal that lateral contribution from a regional volcanic aquifer system represents the majority (41%) of inflows to the alluvial aquifer. Diffuse recharge contribution (35%) and inflow from two sedimentary bedrock hydrostratigraphic units (collectively 24%) comprise the remainder of major recharge sources. A detailed geochemical assessment of alluvial groundwater evolution along a selected flowpath of a representative subcatchment of the Condamine River basin confirms mixing as a key process responsible for observed spatial variations in hydrochemistry. Dissolution of basalt-related minerals and dolomite, CO2 uptake, ion-exchange, precipitation of clay minerals, and evapotranspiration further contribute to the hydrochemical evolution of groundwater in the upland alluvial aquifer. This study highlights the benefits of undertaking an integrated approach that combines multiple independent lines of evidence. The proposed methods can be applied to investigate processes associated with inter-aquifer mixing, including

  4. Proceedings of second geopressured geothermal energy conference, Austin, Texas, February 23--25, 1976. Volume II. Resource assessment. [Geologic procedures for test- or industrial-site selection along Texas Gulf coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebout, D.G.


    This report describes techniques being used in the assessment of geopressured geothermal resources along the Texas Gulf Coast and defines geologic procedures for test- or industrial-site selection. These approaches have been proven in petroleum exploration and are applicable in geothermal exploration here in the Gulf basin and in other sedimentary basins.

  5. Accelerated testing statistical models, test plans, and data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Wayne B


    The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. "". . . a goldmine of knowledge on accelerated life testing principles and practices . . . one of the very few capable of advancing the science of reliability. It definitely belongs in every bookshelf on engineering.""-Dev G.

  6. Methods and models for the construction of weakly parallel tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, J.J.; Adema, Jos J.


    Methods are proposed for the construction of weakly parallel tests, that is, tests with the same test information function. A mathematical programing model for constructing tests with a prespecified test information function and a heuristic for assigning items to tests such that their information

  7. Successful intelligence: A model for testing intelligence beyond IQ tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Sternberg


    Full Text Available Standard conventional tests only assess a narrow sampling of the abilities required for success in school and in life. In contrast, the augmented theory of successful intelligence asserts that intelligence involves creative skills in producing new ideas, analytical skills in evaluating whether the ideas are good ones, practical skills in putting the ideas into practice and in convincing other people of the value of the ideas, and wisdom-based skills in confirming that one is using one's knowledge and skills to serve a common good. Three projects were created to evaluate the theory with regard to college admissions: First, the Rainbow Project demonstrated that prediction of first-year college academic performance could be increased while simultaneously decreasing differences between ethnic groups on a predictive assessment, in comparison with the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT. Second, the Kaleidoscope Project improved prediction of academic and extracurricular performance over SAT scores alone; but the ethnic-group differences usually obtained vanished. Third, the Panorama Project showed the success of similar techniques in a less selective population. The projects demonstrate the application of the augmented theory of successful intelligence in enhancing college and university admissions procedures

  8. Successful intelligence: A model for testing intelligence beyond IQ tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Sternberg


    Full Text Available Standard conventional tests only assess a narrow sampling of the abilities required for success in school and in life. In contrast, the augmented theory of successful intelligence asserts that intelligence involves creative skills in producing new ideas, analytical skills in evaluating whether the ideas are good ones, practical skills in putting the ideas into practice and in convincing other people of the value of the ideas, and wisdom-based skills in confirming that one is using one's knowledge and skills to serve a common good. Three projects were created to evaluate the theory with regard to college admissions: First, the Rainbow Project demonstrated that prediction of first-year college academic performance could be increased while simultaneously decreasing differences between ethnic groups on a predictive assessment, in comparison with the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT. Second, the Kaleidoscope Project improved prediction of academic and extracurricular performance over SAT scores alone; but the ethnic-group differences usually obtained vanished. Third, the Panorama Project showed the success of similar techniques in a less selective population. The projects demonstrate the application of the augmented theory of successful intelligence in enhancing college and university admissions procedures.

  9. Engineering Abstractions in Model Checking and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Michael; Ostermann, Klaus


    Abstractions are used in model checking to tackle problems like state space explosion or modeling of IO. The application of these abstractions in real software development processes, however, lacks engineering support. This is one reason why model checking is not widely used in practice yet...... and implementing abstractions will improve the applicability of model checking in practice....

  10. Putting hydrological modelling practice to the test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melsen, Lieke Anna


    Six steps can be distinguished in the process of hydrological modelling: the perceptual model (deciding on the processes), the conceptual model (deciding on the equations), the procedural model (get the code to run on a computer), calibration (identify the parameters), evaluation (confronting output

  11. A test for the parameters of multiple linear regression models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A test for the parameters of multiple linear regression models is developed for conducting tests simultaneously on all the parameters of multiple linear regression models. The test is robust relative to the assumptions of homogeneity of variances and absence of serial correlation of the classical F-test. Under certain null and ...

  12. Geologic Surface Effects of Underground Nuclear Testing, Buckboard Mesa, Climax Stock, Dome Mountain, Frenchman Flat, Rainier/Aqueduct Mesa, and Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (United States)

    Grasso, Dennis N.


    Surface effects maps were produced for 72 of 89 underground detonations conducted at the Frenchman Flat, Rainier Mesa and Aqueduct Mesa, Climax Stock, Shoshone Mountain, Buckboard Mesa, and Dome Mountain testing areas of the Nevada Test Site between August 10, 1957 (Saturn detonation, Area 12) and September 18, 1992 (Hunters Trophy detonation, Area 12). The ?Other Areas? Surface Effects Map Database, which was used to construct the maps shown in this report, contains digital reproductions of these original maps. The database is provided in both ArcGIS (v. 8.2) geodatabase format and ArcView (v. 3.2) shapefile format. This database contains sinks, cracks, faults, and other surface effects having a combined (cumulative) length of 136.38 km (84.74 mi). In GIS digital format, the user can view all surface effects maps simultaneously, select and view the surface effects of one or more sites of interest, or view specific surface effects by area or site. Three map layers comprise the database. They are: (1) the surface effects maps layer (oase_n27f), (2) the bar symbols layer (oase_bar_n27f), and (3) the ball symbols layer (oase_ball_n27f). Additionally, an annotation layer, named 'Ball_and_Bar_Labels,' and a polygon features layer, named 'Area12_features_poly_n27f,' are contained in the geodatabase version of the database. The annotation layer automatically labels all 295 ball-and-bar symbols shown on these maps. The polygon features layer displays areas of ground disturbances, such as rock spall and disturbed ground caused by the detonations. Shapefile versions of the polygon features layer in Nevada State Plane and Universal Transverse Mercator projections, named 'area12_features_poly_n27f.shp' and 'area12_features_poly_u83m.shp,' are also provided in the archive.

  13. Thermomechanical modeling of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkovich, T.R.; Patrick, W.C.


    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of retrievable deep geologic storage of commercially generated spent nuclear-reactor fuel assemblies. One of the primary aspects of the test was to measure the thermomechanical response of the rock mass to the extensive heating of a large volume of rock. Instrumentation was emplaced to measure stress changes, relative motion of the rock mass, and tunnel closures during three years of heating from thermally decaying heat sources, followed by a six-month cooldown period. The calculations reported here were performed using the best available input parameters, thermal and mechanical properties, and power levels which were directly measured or inferred from measurements made during the test. This report documents the results of these calculations and compares the results with selected measurements made during heating and cooling of the SFT-C.

  14. Three-dimensional geologic modeling and groundwater flow modeling of the Töllinperä aquifer in the Hitura nickel mine area, Finland – providing the framework for restoration and protection of the aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Saraperä


    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of sulphate, chloride, and nickel were discovered in water samples taken from the Töllinperä aquifer in western Finland. The area is located adjacent to the tailings area of the Hitura nickel mine. Earlier studies revealed that the groundwater contamination resulted from tailings-derived mine waters leaking from a tailings impoundment area. The tailings area directly overlies the Weichselian esker system, part of which is the Töllinperä classified groundwater area. The observed groundwater and surface water contamination resulted in a need to characterize the subsurface geology in the whole area of the contaminated esker aquifer. The primary sedimentary units were introduced into a three-dimensional (3-D geologic model of the aquifer made with EarthVision geologic modeling software. The information obtained from the 3-D geological model was then introduced into a numerical groundwater flow model made with MODFLOW code, which was calibrated with MODFLOWP code.The results of this study were used to guide the sealing of the tailings impoundment in order to prevent the further contamination of the Töllinperä aquifer. The groundwater flow model was used to interpret and simulate the flow system, and to provide a plan to safely continue water supply to local inhabitants from the unpolluted parts of the aquifer.

  15. Reliable sequential testing for statistical model checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijsbergen, D.P.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.


    We introduce a framework for comparing statistical model checking (SMC) techniques and propose a new, more reliable, SMC technique. Statistical model checking has recently been implemented in tools like UPPAAL and PRISM to be able to handle models which are too complex for numerical analysis.

  16. Water and rock geochemistry, geologic cross sections, geochemical modeling, and groundwater flow modeling for identifying the source of groundwater to Montezuma Well, a natural spring in central Arizona (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; DeWitt, Ed; Wirt, Laurie; Arnold, L. Rick; Horton, John D.


    The National Park Service (NPS) seeks additional information to better understand the source(s) of groundwater and associated groundwater flow paths to Montezuma Well in Montezuma Castle National Monument, central Arizona. The source of water to Montezuma Well, a flowing sinkhole in a desert setting, is poorly understood. Water emerges from the middle limestone facies of the lacustrine Verde Formation, but the precise origin of the water and its travel path are largely unknown. Some have proposed artesian flow to Montezuma Well through the Supai Formation, which is exposed along the eastern margin of the Verde Valley and underlies the Verde Formation. The groundwater recharge zone likely lies above the floor of the Verde Valley somewhere to the north or east of Montezuma Well, where precipitation is more abundant. Additional data from groundwater, surface water, and bedrock geology are required for Montezuma Well and the surrounding region to test the current conceptual ideas, to provide new details on the groundwater flow in the area, and to assist in future management decisions. The results of this research will provide information for long-term water resource management and the protection of water rights.

  17. SEAWAT model used to evaluate the potential effects of alterations to the hydrologic system on the distribution of salinity in the Biscayne aquifer in Broward County, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Data Release (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A three-dimensional, variable-density solute-transport model (SEAWAT) was developed to examine causes of saltwater intrusion and predict the effects of future...

  18. MODFLOW-NWT model used to evaluate effects of complexity on head and flow calibration in the Fox-Wolf-Peshtigo watersheds, Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey data release. (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release contains three groundwater-flow models of northeastern Wisconsin, USA, that were developed with differing levels of complexity to provide a...

  19. MODFLOW-2000 model used in the simulation of reclaimed-water injection and pumping scenarios and particle-tracking analysis near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina: U.S. Geological Survey data release (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An existing three-dimensional model (MODFLOW-2000) by Petkewich and Campbell (2007) was updated to simulate potential changes in groundwater flow and...

  20. MODFLOW-NWT, MODPATH, and MT3DMS models used to study of hypothetical horizontal water-supply well design for New Hampshire and surrounding regions: U.S. Geological Survey data release (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A series of three-dimensional, hypothetical, groundwater models (MODFLOW-NWT) were developed to investigate the effects of a variety of factors on the flow of...

  1. MODFLOW-NWT groundwater flow model used to evaluate conditions in the Northern High Plains Aquifer in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey data release (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A three-dimensional groundwater flow model was developed to characterize groundwater resources and the interaction of groundwater with streams and other hydrologic...

  2. Simulation of Anisotropic Rock Damage for Geologic Fracturing (United States)

    Busetti, S.; Xu, H.; Arson, C. F.


    A continuum damage model for differential stress-induced anisotropic crack formation and stiffness degradation is used to study geologic fracturing in rocks. The finite element-based model solves for deformation in the quasi-linear elastic domain and determines the six component damage tensor at each deformation increment. The model permits an isotropic or anisotropic intact or pre-damaged reference state, and the elasticity tensor evolves depending on the stress path. The damage variable, similar to Oda's fabric tensor, grows when the surface energy dissipated by three-dimensional opened cracks exceeds a threshold defined at the appropriate scale of the representative elementary volume (REV). At the laboratory or wellbore scale (1000m) scales the damaged REV reflects early natural fracturing (background or tectonic fracturing) or shear strain localization (fault process zone, fault-tip damage, etc.). The numerical model was recently benchmarked against triaxial stress-strain data from laboratory rock mechanics tests. However, the utility of the model to predict geologic fabric such as natural fracturing in hydrocarbon reservoirs was not fully explored. To test the ability of the model to predict geological fracturing, finite element simulations (Abaqus) of common geologic scenarios with known fracture patterns (borehole pressurization, folding, faulting) are simulated and the modeled damage tensor is compared against physical fracture observations. Simulated damage anisotropy is similar to that derived using fractured rock-mass upscaling techniques for pre-determined fracture patterns. This suggests that if model parameters are constrained with local data (e.g., lab, wellbore, or reservoir domain), forward modeling could be used to predict mechanical fabric at the relevant REV scale. This reference fabric also can be used as the starting material property to pre-condition subsequent deformation or fluid flow. Continuing efforts are to expand the present damage

  3. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models (United States)

    Clune, Thomas L.


    Test-Driven Development (TDD), a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and software reliability, has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices.After a brief overview of the TDD process and my experience in applying the methodology for development activities at Goddard, I will delve more deeply into some of the challenges that are posed by numerical and scientific software as well as tools and implementation approaches that should address those challenges.

  4. State of the art hydraulic turbine model test (United States)

    Fabre, Violaine; Duparchy, Alexandre; Andre, Francois; Larroze, Pierre-Yves


    Model tests are essential in hydraulic turbine development and related fields. The methods and technologies used to perform these tests show constant progress and provide access to further information. In addition, due to its contractual nature, the test demand evolves continuously in terms of quantity and accuracy. Keeping in mind that the principal aim of model testing is the transposition of the model measurements to the real machine, the measurements should be performed accurately, and a critical analysis of the model test results is required to distinguish the transposable hydraulic phenomena from the test rig interactions. Although the resonances’ effects are known and described in the IEC standard, their identification is difficult. Leaning on a strong experience of model testing, we will illustrate with a few examples of how to identify the potential problems induced by the test rig. This paper contains some of our best practices to obtain the most accurate, relevant, and independent test-rig measurements.

  5. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology (United States)

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.


    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  6. Analysis and modelling of geological and economical parameters influencing mining of slovak magnesite deposits and its impact on the environment on the example of the Košice-Bankov deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blišan Peter


    Full Text Available Magnesite deposits in Slovakia are mined economically using underground methods. Their reserves and output represent an important part of the world onst. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the analysis and modelling of geological-economical and environmental parameters influencing the mining of slovak magnesite deposits.Quality of raw material or deposit is among crucial factors influencing the industrial output of magnesites. This parameter significantly influences the mining and processing technologies. New methods of prospecting, exploration and reserve calculations need the re-evaluation of existing criteria for the determination of economical importance. Modern technologies are capable to utilise also previous noneconomical parts of the deposit what causes a need for the re-evaluation of existing methods of ore reserves determination and for the introduction and testing of modern methods of the ore reserves determination.Impact on the environment is also an important aspect of the mining activity. It is necessary to monitor and evaluate this problem consequently. Many new environmental studies confirm a negative impact of the magnesite mining on the nature and human society. Therefore, beside the problems of analysis and modelling of geological- economical parameters, the analysis of environmental aspects of mining is also unevitable to be included into the solution of the project. Modern monitoring systems based on the geographic information systems (GIS are intensively used for such analysis at the present time. Their assistance during collecting, elaborating and evaluating the research results is recently to hardly be replaceable.

  7. Design and Test of a Cognitive Model (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael A.; Gary, Harry J.


    A presentation of arguments demonstrating piaget's sensorimotor stages in Hebb's terms, and the suggestion for performing a computer test. This paper is an early progress report of an attempt to translate some plausible arguments into a rigorous demonstration. (Author)

  8. The Siberian Traps and the end-Permian event: Geology, geochemistry and atmospheric modeling of gas release (United States)

    Svensen, Henrik; Stordal, Frode; Roscher, Marco; Sokalska, Ewa; Planke, Sverre


    , under current conditions, about 25 times larger than from a similar mass of CO2, i.e. the Global Warming Potential (GWP) is ~25, the climate impact of a mixture containing 60% CH4 is strongly dominated by this compound. This effect increases with the amount of available H2S as it strongly influences the lifetime of CH4 in the atmosphere by reducing the oxidation potential. The method and geological model can be applied to other boundary events with LIPs, such as the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (~3.1°C), the Toarcian event (~2.9°C), and the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (~3.5°C).

  9. From Airborne EM to Geology, some examples (United States)

    Gunnink, Jan


    -dimensional distribution of clay and sand were calculated giving an appreciation of the variability of the 3-dimensional distribution of clay and sand. Each realization was input into a groundwatermodel to assess the protection the of the clay against pollution from the surface. Artificial Neural Networks AEM resistivity models in an area in Northern part of the Netherlands were interpreted by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to obtain a 3-dimensional model of a glacial till deposit that is important in geohydrological modeling. The groundwater in the study area was brackish to saline, causing the AEM resistivity model to be dominated by the low resistivity of the groundwater. After conducting Electrical Cone Penetration Tests (ECPTs) it became clear that the glacial till showed a distinct, non-linear, pattern of resistivity, that was discriminating it from the surrounding sediments. The patterns, found in the ECPTs were used to train an ANN and was consequently applied to the resistivity model that was derived from the AEM. The result was a 3-dimensional model of the probability of having the glacial till, which was checked against boreholes and proved to be quite reasonable. Conclusion Resistivity derived from AEM can be linked to geological features in a number of ways. Besides manual interpretation, statistical techniques are used, either in the form of regression or by means of Neural Networks, to extract geological and geohydrological meaningful interpretations from the resistivity model.

  10. 2-D Model Test Study of the Suape Breakwater, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.; Sopavicius, A.

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the extension of the breakwater in Suape, Brazil. One cross-section was tested for stability and overtopping in various sea conditions. The length scale used for the model tests was 1:35. Unless otherwise specified all values given...

  11. A Lagrange Multiplier Test for Testing the Adequacy of the Constant Conditional Correlation GARCH Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catani, Paul; Teräsvirta, Timo; Yin, Meiqun

    A Lagrange multiplier test for testing the parametric structure of a constant conditional correlation generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (CCC-GARCH) model is proposed. The test is based on decomposing the CCC-GARCH model multiplicatively into two components, one of which...... represents the null model, whereas the other one describes the misspeci…cation. A simulation study shows that the test has good …nite sample properties. We compare the test with other tests for misspeci…cation of multivariate GARCH models. The test has high power against alternatives where the misspeci......…cation is in the GARCH parameters and is superior to other tests. The test is not greatly affected by misspeci…cation in the conditional correlations and is therefore well suited for considering misspeci…cation of GARCH equations....

  12. Testing gradual and speciational models of evolution in extant taxa: the example of ratites. (United States)

    Laurin, M; Gussekloo, S W S; Marjanović, D; Legendre, L; Cubo, J


    Ever since Eldredge and Gould proposed their model of punctuated equilibria, evolutionary biologists have debated how often this model is the best description of nature and how important it is compared to the more gradual models of evolution expected from natural selection and the neo-Darwinian paradigm. Recently, Cubo proposed a method to test whether morphological data in extant ratites are more compatible with a gradual or with a speciational model (close to the punctuated equilibrium model). As shown by our simulations, a new method to test the mode of evolution of characters (involving regression of standardized contrasts on their expected standard deviation) is easier to implement and more powerful than the previously proposed method, but the Mesquite module comet (aimed at investigating evolutionary models using comparative data) performs better still. Uncertainties in branch length estimates are probably the largest source of potential error. Cubo hypothesized that heterochronic mechanisms may underlie morphological changes in bone shape during the evolution of ratites. He predicted that the outcome of these changes may be consistent with a speciational model of character evolution because heterochronic changes can be instantaneous in terms of geological time. Analysis of a more extensive data set confirms his prediction despite branch length uncertainties: evolution in ratites has been mostly speciational for shape-related characters. However, it has been mostly gradual for size-related ones. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. "A regression error specification test (RESET) for generalized linear models".


    Sunil Sapra


    Generalized linear models (GLMs) are generalizations of linear regression models, which allow fitting regression models to response data that follow a general exponential family. GLMs are used widely in social sciences for fitting regression models to count data, qualitative response data and duration data. While a variety of specification tests have been developed for the linear regression model and are routinely applied for testing for misspecification of functional form, omitted variables,...

  14. GO2OGS 1.0: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fischer


    open-source VTU (Visualization Toolkit unstructured grid format for usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed as a way of communication between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform-independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of environmental studies. With two application examples in the Thuringian Syncline, we show how a heterogeneous geological GOCAD model including multiple layers and faults can be used for numerical groundwater flow modeling, in our case employing the OpenGeoSys open-source numerical toolbox for groundwater flow simulations. The presented workflow offers the chance to incorporate increasingly detailed data, utilizing the growing availability of computational power to simulate numerical models.

  15. Inverse modeling of hydraulic tests in fractured crystalline rock based on a transition probability geostatistical approach (United States)

    Blessent, Daniela; Therrien, René; Lemieux, Jean-Michel


    This paper presents numerical simulations of a series of hydraulic interference tests conducted in crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto (Finland), a potential site for the disposal of the Finnish high-level nuclear waste. The tests are in a block of crystalline bedrock of about 0.03 km3 that contains low-transmissivity fractures. Fracture density, orientation, and fracture transmissivity are estimated from Posiva Flow Log (PFL) measurements in boreholes drilled in the rock block. On the basis of those data, a geostatistical approach relying on a transitional probability and Markov chain models is used to define a conceptual model based on stochastic fractured rock facies. Four facies are defined, from sparsely fractured bedrock to highly fractured bedrock. Using this conceptual model, three-dimensional groundwater flow is then simulated to reproduce interference pumping tests in either open or packed-off boreholes. Hydraulic conductivities of the fracture facies are estimated through automatic calibration using either hydraulic heads or both hydraulic heads and PFL flow rates as targets for calibration. The latter option produces a narrower confidence interval for the calibrated hydraulic conductivities, therefore reducing the associated uncertainty and demonstrating the usefulness of the measured PFL flow rates. Furthermore, the stochastic facies conceptual model is a suitable alternative to discrete fracture network models to simulate fluid flow in fractured geological media.

  16. Inverse Problem for 3D coupled Flow-Geomechanics Models and Induced Seismicity: Application to Subsurface Characterization and Seismicity Forecasting in Geologic CO2 Storage (United States)

    Castineira, D.; Jha, B.; Juanes, R.


    Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is regarded as a promising technology to mitigate rising CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere from industrial emissions. However, as a result of the inherent uncertainty that is present in geological structures, assessing the stability of geological faults and quantifying the potential for induced seismicity is a fundamental challenge for practical implementation of CCS. Here we present a formal framework for the solution of the inverse problem associated with coupled flow and geomechanics models of CO2 injection and subsurface storage. Our approach builds from the application of Gaussian Processes, MCMC and posterior predictive analysis to evaluate relevant earthquake attributes (earthquake time, location and magnitude) in 3D synthetic models of CO2 storage under geologic, observational and operational uncertainty. In our approach, we first conduct hundreds of simulations of a high-fidelity 3D computational model for CO2 injection into a deep saline aquifer, dominated by an anticline structure and a fault. This ensemble of realizations accounts for uncertainty in the model parameters (including fault geomechanical and rock properties) and observations (earthquake time, location and magnitude). We apply Gaussian processes (GP) to generate a valid surrogate that closely approximates the behavior of the high fidelity (and computationally intensive) model, and apply hyperparameter optimization and cross-validation techniques in the solution of this multidimensional data-fit problem. The net result of this process is the generation of a fast model that can be effectively used for Bayesian analysis. We then implement Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to determine the posterior distribution of the model uncertain parameters (given some prior distributions for those parameters and given the likelihood defined in this case by the GP model). Our results show that the resulting posterior distributions correctly converge towards the "true

  17. Simulation of a Model Tank Gunnery Test (United States)


    the first and second rounds. Time data might also be measured from the sound track of gun camera tapes. This soundtrack can be used to record...j. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN CRITERION-REFERENCED TESTING Traditional methods of assessing reliability and validity have a long history and much

  18. Mountain Bike Wheel Endurance Testing and Modeling (United States)


    Published by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: Mountain biking; wheels; failure testing 1. Introduction Mountain bike ( MTB ) wheels are subject to a wide range of...accumulates over the life of the wheel and leads to part failure. MTB wheels must be designed to withstand many miles of this loading before failure

  19. Testing constancy of unconditional variance in volatility models by misspecification and specification tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Terasvirta, Timo

    The topic of this paper is testing the hypothesis of constant unconditional variance in GARCH models against the alternative that the unconditional variance changes deterministically over time. Tests of this hypothesis have previously been performed as misspecification tests after fitting a GARCH...... fitting a GARCH model to the data is discussed. The power of the ensuing test is vastly superior to that of the misspecification test and the size distortion minimal. The test has reasonable power already in very short time series. It would thus serve as a test of constant variance in conditional mean...

  20. LOCACE / BALISS : un test de la cohérence géologique d'une interprétation sismique Locace / Baliss: Test of the Geologic Coherence of Seismic Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti I.


    Full Text Available Durant quatre années l'Azienda Generale Italiana Petroli (AGIP, la Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine, l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et Total Compagnie Française des Pétroles ont joint leurs efforts pour développer un outil de géologie structurale et un programme de rétro-déformation. Le but était d'améliorer le pointé des sections sismiques en validant l'interprétation faite par des tests de cohérence géométrique. Une section qui peut être rétro-déformée en suivant le principe de conservation de la matière est dite équilibrée. Ce projet de recherche a abouti à la réalisation de deux logiciels LOCACE et BALISS. LOCACE (LOgiciel de Construction Assistée de Coupes Equilibrées travaille à partir d'une section géologique. BALISS (BALanced Interpretation of Seismic Sections permet d'appliquer à l'image sismique profondeur les principes de l'équilibrage. Cet article rappelle les fondements de cette méthode, les différents types de déformation - rigide, couche à couche, cisaillement simple - leur mise en oeuvre dans LOCACE/BALISS et la philosophie de l'utilisation de ces logiciels. The need to use concepts of structural geology for seismic interpretation is something that is often difficult to apply because of the complexity of the zones investigated and especially because of the lack of interaction among specialists in the different areas of exploration. Likewise, quantitative geology is fairly recent, and computerized tools for structural geology are still rare although there is a multitude of them in geophysics. The existence of graphic workstations and computerized tools favoring the effective interactivity of software packages now makes it possible to integrate this implementation. The two French oil companies, Total Compagnie Française des Pétroles and Elf Aquitaine, together with Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP have joined their efforts since 1987 to develop a tool for testing the geologic and

  1. Testing Pearl Model In Three European Sites (United States)

    Bouraoui, F.; Bidoglio, G.

    The Plant Protection Product Directive (91/414/EEC) stresses the need of validated models to calculate predicted environmental concentrations. The use of models has become an unavoidable step before pesticide registration. In this context, European Commission, and in particular DGVI, set up a FOrum for the Co-ordination of pes- ticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS). In a complementary effort, DG research supported the APECOP project, with one of its objective being the validation and im- provement of existing pesticide fate models. The main topic of research presented here is the validation of the PEARL model for different sites in Europe. The PEARL model, actually used in the Dutch pesticide registration procedure, was validated in three well- instrumented sites: Vredepeel (the Netherlands), Brimstone (UK), and Lanna (Swe- den). A step-wise procedure was used for the validation of the PEARL model. First the water transport module was calibrated, and then the solute transport module, using tracer measurements keeping unchanged the water transport parameters. The Vrede- peel site is characterised by a sandy soil. Fourteen months of measurements were used for the calibration. Two pesticides were applied on the site: bentazone and etho- prophos. PEARL predictions were very satisfactory for both soil moisture content, and pesticide concentration in the soil profile. The Brimstone site is characterised by a cracking clay soil. The calibration was conducted on a time series measurement of 7 years. The validation consisted in comparing predictions and measurement of soil moisture at different soil depths, and in comparing the predicted and measured con- centration of isoproturon in the drainage water. The results, even if in good agreement with the measuremens, highlighted the limitation of the model when the preferential flow becomes a dominant process. PEARL did not reproduce well soil moisture pro- file during summer months, and also under-predicted the arrival of

  2. Lithofacies and sequence stratigraphic description of the upper part of the Avon Park Formation and the Arcadia Formation in U.S. Geological Survey G–2984 test corehole, Broward County, Florida (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Robinson, Edward


    Rock core and sediment from U.S. Geological Survey test corehole G–2984 completed in 2011 in Broward County, Florida, provide an opportunity to improve the understanding of the lithostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and hydrogeologic framework of the intermediate confining unit and Floridan aquifer system in southeastern Florida. A multidisciplinary approach including characterization of sequence stratigraphy, lithofacies, ichnology, foraminiferal paleontology, depositional environments, porosity, and permeability was used to describe the geologic samples from this test corehole. This information has produced a detailed characterization of the lithofacies and sequence stratigraphy of the upper part of the middle Eocene Avon Park Formation and Oligocene to middle Miocene Arcadia Formation. This enhancement of the knowledge of the sequence stratigraphic framework is especially important, because subaerial karst unconformities at the upper boundary of depositional cycles at various hierarchical scales are commonly associated with secondary porosity and enhanced permeability in the Floridan aquifer system.

  3. Testing Software Development Project Productivity Model (United States)

    Lipkin, Ilya

    Software development is an increasingly influential factor in today's business environment, and a major issue affecting software development is how an organization estimates projects. If the organization underestimates cost, schedule, and quality requirements, the end results will not meet customer needs. On the other hand, if the organization overestimates these criteria, resources that could have been used more profitably will be wasted. There is no accurate model or measure available that can guide an organization in a quest for software development, with existing estimation models often underestimating software development efforts as much as 500 to 600 percent. To address this issue, existing models usually are calibrated using local data with a small sample size, with resulting estimates not offering improved cost analysis. This study presents a conceptual model for accurately estimating software development, based on an extensive literature review and theoretical analysis based on Sociotechnical Systems (STS) theory. The conceptual model serves as a solution to bridge organizational and technological factors and is validated using an empirical dataset provided by the DoD. Practical implications of this study allow for practitioners to concentrate on specific constructs of interest that provide the best value for the least amount of time. This study outlines key contributing constructs that are unique for Software Size E-SLOC, Man-hours Spent, and Quality of the Product, those constructs having the largest contribution to project productivity. This study discusses customer characteristics and provides a framework for a simplified project analysis for source selection evaluation and audit task reviews for the customers and suppliers. Theoretical contributions of this study provide an initial theory-based hypothesized project productivity model that can be used as a generic overall model across several application domains such as IT, Command and Control

  4. Precision tests of the standard electroweak model

    CERN Document Server


    High precision measurements of weak neutral current and charged current processes and of the properties of the Z and W bosons have established the standard electroweak model as correct down to a distance scale of 10-16 cm, and are a sensitive probe of possible underlying physics. In this book, all aspects of the program are considered in detail, including the structure of the standard model, radiative corrections, high precision experiments, and their implications. The major classes of experiments are surveyed, covering the experiments themselves, the data analysis, results, and prospects. Thi

  5. Port Adriano, 2D-Model tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Meinert, Palle; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    the crown wall have been measured. The model has been subjected to irregular waves corresponding to typical conditions offshore from the intended prototype location. Characteristic situations have been video recorded. The stability of the toe has been investigated. The wave-generated forces on the caisson...

  6. Modal testing for model validation of structures with discrete nonlinearities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ewins, D J; Weekes, B; delli Carri, A


    Model validation using data from modal tests is now widely practiced in many industries for advanced structural dynamic design analysis, especially where structural integrity is a primary requirement...

  7. Active control rotor model testing at Princeton's Rotorcraft Dynamics Laboratory (United States)

    Mckillip, Robert M., Jr.


    A description of the model helicopter rotor tests currently in progress at Princeton's Rotorcraft Dynamics Laboratory is presented. The tests are designed to provide data for rotor dynamic modeling for use with active control system design. The model rotor to be used incoporates the capability for Individual Blade Control (IBC) or Higher Harmonic Control through the use of a standard swashplate on a three bladed hub. Sample results from the first series of tests are presented, along with the methodology used for state and parameter identification. Finally, pending experiments and possible research directions using this model and test facility are outlined.

  8. Geological Services Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  9. 3D modeling of the Buhi debris avalanche deposit of Iriga Volcano, Philippines by integrating shallow-seismic reflection and geological data (United States)

    Minimo, Likha G.; Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco A.


    Numerical models for simulating volcanic debris avalanches commonly lack a critical initiation parameter, the source volume, which is difficult to estimate without data on the deposit thickness. This, in turn, limits how rheology can be characterized for simulating flow. Leapfrog Geo, a 3D geological modeling software, was used to integrate shallow-seismic reflection profiles with field and borehole data to determine the volume of the Buhi debris avalanche and the pre-collapse structure of Iriga Volcano. Volumes of the deposit calculated in this way are 34-71% larger than previous estimates. This technique may improve models of debris avalanches elsewhere in the world, and more precisely depict landslide runout and lateral extent, thus improving disaster prevention and mitigation for the many cities located near volcanoes.

  10. Investigation of the behavior of VOCs in ground water across fine- and coarse-grained geological contacts using a medium-scale physical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.; Chiarappa, M.L.


    One of the serious impediments to the remediation of ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is that the VOCs are retarded with respect to the movement of the ground water. Although the processes that result in VOC retardation are poorly understood, we have developed a conceptual model that includes several retarding mechanisms. These include adsorption to inorganic surfaces, absorption to organic carbon, and diffusion into areas of immobile waters. This project was designed to evaluate the relative contributions of these mechanisms; by improving our understanding, we hope to inspire new remediation technologies or approaches. Our project consisted of a series of column experiments designed to measure the retardation, in different geological media, of four common ground water VOCs (chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) which have differing physical and chemical characteristics. It also included a series of diffusion parameters that constrain the model, we compared the data from these experiments to the output of a computational model.

  11. Modeling of irradiated graphite {sup 14}C transfer through engineered barriers of a generic geological repository in crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poskas, Povilas; Grigaliuniene, Dalia, E-mail:; Narkuniene, Asta; Kilda, Raimondas; Justinavicius, Darius


    There are two RBMK-1500 type graphite moderated reactors at the Ignalina nuclear power plant in Lithuania, and they are under decommissioning now. The graphite cannot be disposed of in a near surface repository, because of large amounts of {sup 14}C. Therefore, disposal of the graphite in a geological repository is a reasonable solution. This study presents evaluation of the {sup 14}C transfer by the groundwater pathway into the geosphere from the irradiated graphite in a generic geological repository in crystalline rocks and demonstration of the role of the different components of the engineered barrier system by performing local sensitivity analysis. The speciation of the released {sup 14}C into organic and inorganic compounds as well as the most recent information on {sup 14}C source term was taken into account. Two alternatives were considered in the analysis: disposal of graphite in containers with encapsulant and without it. It was evaluated that the maximal fractional flux of inorganic {sup 14}C into the geosphere can vary from 10{sup −} {sup 11} y{sup −} {sup 1} (for non-encapsulated graphite) to 10{sup −} {sup 12} y{sup −} {sup 1} (for encapsulated graphite) while of organic {sup 14}C it was about 10{sup −} {sup 3} y{sup −} {sup 1} of its inventory. Such difference demonstrates that investigations on the {sup 14}C inventory and chemical form in which it is released are especially important. The parameter with the highest influence on the maximal flux into the geosphere for inorganic {sup 14}C transfer was the sorption coefficient in the backfill and for organic {sup 14}C transfer – the backfill hydraulic conductivity. - Highlights: • Graphite moderated nuclear reactors are being decommissioned. • We studied interaction of disposed material with surrounding environment. • Specifically {sup 14}C transfer through engineered barriers of a geological repository. • Organic {sup 14}C flux to geosphere is considerably higher than inorganic

  12. Evaluation of Shelter Ventilation by Model Tests (United States)


    ventilation is created by mechanical devices such as pedal venti- lators and Kearny pumps. If natural ventilation in a shelter. can be predicted with...past have centered around the design, performance analysis and deployment of mechanical ventilating units (Ref. 11-14). Other studies include one on...calculated as the sum of the air volume flow rates through all the windward openings. The variation of model ventilation througnput versus wind speed

  13. A test-tube model for rainfall (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael


    If the temperature of a cell containing two partially miscible liquids is changed very slowly, so that the miscibility is decreased, microscopic droplets nucleate, grow and migrate to the interface due to their buoyancy. The system may show an approximately periodic variation of the turbidity of the mixture, as the mean droplet size fluctuates. These precipitation events are analogous to rainfall. This paper considers a theoretical model for these experiments. After nucleation the initial growth is by Ostwald ripening, followed by a finite-time runaway growth of droplet sizes due to larger droplets sweeping up smaller ones. The model predicts that the period \\Delta t and the temperature sweep rate ξ are related by \\Delta t\\sim C \\xi^{-3/7} , and is in good agreement with experiments. The coefficient C has a power-law divergence approaching the critical point of the miscibility transition: C\\sim (T-T_{\\text{c}})^{-\\eta} , and the critical exponent η is determined. It is argued that while the mechanism does not provide a quantitative description of terrestrial rainfall, it may be a faithful model for precipitation on other planets.

  14. Mixed Portmanteau Test for Diagnostic Checking of Time Series Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand


    Full Text Available Model criticism is an important stage of model building and thus goodness of fit tests provides a set of tools for diagnostic checking of the fitted model. Several tests are suggested in literature for diagnostic checking. These tests use autocorrelation or partial autocorrelation in the residuals to criticize the adequacy of fitted model. The main idea underlying these portmanteau tests is to identify if there is any dependence structure which is yet unexplained by the fitted model. In this paper, we suggest mixed portmanteau tests based on autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions of the residuals. We derived the asymptotic distribution of the mixture test and studied its size and power using Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Traces of geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections used to develop the hydrogeologic framework model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the traces of geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections that were used in the construction of a digital three-dimensional (3D)...

  16. Inhibition in speed and concentration tests: The Poisson inhibition model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.C.; Ven, A.H.G.S. van der


    A new model is presented to account for the reaction time fluctuations in concentration tests. The model is a natural generalization of an earlier model, the so-called Poisson-Erlang model, published by Pieters & van der Ven (1982). First, a description is given of the type of tasks for which the

  17. General score tests for regression models incorporating 'robust' variance estimates


    David Clayton; Joanna Howson


    Stata incorporates commands for carrying out two of the three general approaches to asymptotic significance testing in regression models, namely likelihood ratio (lrtest) and Wald tests (testparms). However, the third approach, using "score" tests, has no such general implementation. This omission is particularly serious when dealing with "clustered" data using the Huber-White approach. Here the likelihood ratio test is lost, leaving only the Wald test. This has relatively poor asymptotic pro...

  18. Improving Geologic and Engineering Models of Midcontinent Fracture and Karst-Modified Reservoirs Using New 3-D Seismic Attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Nissen; Saibal Bhattacharya; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton


    Our project goal was to develop innovative seismic-based workflows for the incremental recovery of oil from karst-modified reservoirs within the onshore continental United States. Specific project objectives were: (1) to calibrate new multi-trace seismic attributes (volumetric curvature, in particular) for improved imaging of karst-modified reservoirs, (2) to develop attribute-based, cost-effective workflows to better characterize karst-modified carbonate reservoirs and fracture systems, and (3) to improve accuracy and predictiveness of resulting geomodels and reservoir simulations. In order to develop our workflows and validate our techniques, we conducted integrated studies of five karst-modified reservoirs in west Texas, Colorado, and Kansas. Our studies show that 3-D seismic volumetric curvature attributes have the ability to re-veal previously unknown features or provide enhanced visibility of karst and fracture features compared with other seismic analysis methods. Using these attributes, we recognize collapse features, solution-enlarged fractures, and geomorphologies that appear to be related to mature, cockpit landscapes. In four of our reservoir studies, volumetric curvature attributes appear to delineate reservoir compartment boundaries that impact production. The presence of these compartment boundaries was corroborated by reservoir simulations in two of the study areas. Based on our study results, we conclude that volumetric curvature attributes are valuable tools for mapping compartment boundaries in fracture- and karst-modified reservoirs, and we propose a best practices workflow for incorporating these attributes into reservoir characterization. When properly calibrated with geological and production data, these attributes can be used to predict the locations and sizes of undrained reservoir compartments. Technology transfer of our project work has been accomplished through presentations at professional society meetings, peer-reviewed publications

  19. Pore-scale Modeling on the Characterization of Kyeongsang Basin, South Korea for the Geological CO2 Sequestration (United States)

    Han, J.; Keehm, Y.


    Carbon dioxide is a green-house gas and is believed to be responsible for global warming and climate change. Many countries are looking for various techniques for effective storage of CO2 and the geological sequestration is regarded as the most economical and efficient option. For successful geological sequestration, accurate evaluation of physical properties of the target formation and their changes when CO2 is injected, is essential. Since physical property changes during CO2 injection are strongly dependent on the pore-scale details of the target formation, we used a series of pore-scale simulation techniques including CO2 injection simulation to estimate physical properties of CO2 bearing formations. The study area, Kyeongsang basin is located in southeastern part of Korea, which has many industrial complexes including power plants. We first obtained high-resolution 3D microstructures from core samples of the prospective formation. We performed a set of pore-scale simulation and estimated physical properties, such as porosity, permeability, electrical conductivity and velocity. Then we used lattice-Boltzmann two-phase flow simulation to mimic CO2 injection into the formation. During this simulation, a variety of microstructures with different CO2 saturation were obtained and we again performed pore-scale simulation to estimate the changes of physical properties as CO2 saturation increases. These quantitative interrelations between physical properties and CO2 saturation would be a valuable piece of information to evaluate the performance of the target formation. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy Resources R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2010201020001A)

  20. Upgraded Analytical Model of the Cylinder Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P. Clark; Lauderbach, Lisa; Garza, Raul; Ferranti, Louis; Vitello, Peter


    A Gurney-type equation was previously corrected for wall thinning and angle of tilt, and now we have added shock wave attenuation in the copper wall and air gap energy loss. Extensive calculations were undertaken to calibrate the two new energy loss mechanisms across all explosives. The corrected Gurney equation is recommended for cylinder use over the original 1943 form. The effect of these corrections is to add more energy to the adiabat values from a relative volume of 2 to 7, with low energy explosives having the largest correction. The data was pushed up to a relative volume of about 15 and the JWL parameter ω was obtained directly. The total detonation energy density was locked to the v=7 adiabat energy density, so that the Cylinder test gives all necessary values needed to make a JWL.

  1. Upgraded Analytical Model of the Cylinder Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P. Clark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center; Lauderbach, Lisa [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center; Garza, Raul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center; Ferranti, Louis [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center; Vitello, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Ma