WorldWideScience

Sample records for testing eucast broth

  1. Comparison of the EUCAST and CLSI Broth Microdilution Methods for Testing Isavuconazole, Posaconazole, and Amphotericin B against Molecularly Identified Mucorales Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Anuradha; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Kathuria, Shallu; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F

    2015-12-01

    We compared EUCAST and CLSI antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) methods for triazoles and amphotericin B against 124 clinical Mucorales isolates. The EUCAST method yielded MIC values 1- to 3-fold dilutions higher than those of the CLSI method for amphotericin B. The essential agreements between the two methods for triazoles were high, i.e., 99.1% (voriconazole), 98.3% (isavuconazole), and 87% (posaconazole), whereas it was significantly lower for amphotericin B (66.1%). Strategies for harmonization of the two methods for Mucorales AFST are warranted. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. International and multicenter comparison of EUCAST and CLSI M27-A2 broth microdilution methods for testing susceptibilities of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Barchiesi, F.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Pfaller, M.A.; Rinaldi, M.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L.; Verweij, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare MICs of fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole obtained by the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and CLSI (formerly NCCLS) methods in each of six centers for 15 Candida albicans (5 fluconazole-resistant and 4

  3. Change of antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST: influence on cumulative hospital antibiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensberger, Aline; Sax, Hugo; Weber, Rainer; Zbinden, Reinhard; Kuster, Stefan P; Hombach, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We studied whether the change in antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST influenced cumulative antibiograms in a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. Antibiotic susceptibilities of non-duplicate isolates collected within a one-year period before (period A) and after (period B) changing AST interpretation from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 1.3 (2011) guidelines were analysed. In addition, period B isolates were reinterpreted according to the CLSI 2009, CLSI 2013 and EUCAST 3.1 (2013) guidelines. The majority of species/drug combinations showed no differences in susceptibility rates comparing periods A and B. However, in some gram-negative bacilli, decreased susceptibility rates were observed when comparing CLSI 2009 with EUCAST 1.3 within period B: Escherichia coli / cefepime, 95.8% (CLSI 2009) vs. 93.1% (EUCAST 1.3), P=0.005; Enterobacter cloacae / cefepime, 97.0 (CLSI 2009) vs. 90.5% (EUCAST 1.3), P=0.012; Pseudomonas aeruginosa / meropenem, 88.1% (CLSI 2009) vs. 78.3% (EUCAST 1.3), P=0.002. These differences were still evident when comparing susceptibility rates according to the CLSI 2013 guideline with EUCAST 3.1 guideline. For P. aeruginosa and imipenem, a trend towards a lower antibiotic susceptibility rate in ICUs compared to general wards turned into a significant difference after the change to EUCAST: 87.9% vs. 79.8%, P=0.08 (CLSI 2009) and 86.3% vs. 76.8%, P=0.048 (EUCAST 1.3). The change of AST guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST led to a clinically relevant decrease of susceptibility rates in cumulative antibiograms for defined species/drug combinations, particularly in those with considerable differences in clinical susceptibility breakpoints between the two guidelines.

  4. Change of antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST: influence on cumulative hospital antibiograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Wolfensberger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We studied whether the change in antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST influenced cumulative antibiograms in a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. METHODS: Antibiotic susceptibilities of non-duplicate isolates collected within a one-year period before (period A and after (period B changing AST interpretation from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 1.3 (2011 guidelines were analysed. In addition, period B isolates were reinterpreted according to the CLSI 2009, CLSI 2013 and EUCAST 3.1 (2013 guidelines. RESULTS: The majority of species/drug combinations showed no differences in susceptibility rates comparing periods A and B. However, in some gram-negative bacilli, decreased susceptibility rates were observed when comparing CLSI 2009 with EUCAST 1.3 within period B: Escherichia coli / cefepime, 95.8% (CLSI 2009 vs. 93.1% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.005; Enterobacter cloacae / cefepime, 97.0 (CLSI 2009 vs. 90.5% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.012; Pseudomonas aeruginosa / meropenem, 88.1% (CLSI 2009 vs. 78.3% (EUCAST 1.3, P=0.002. These differences were still evident when comparing susceptibility rates according to the CLSI 2013 guideline with EUCAST 3.1 guideline. For P. aeruginosa and imipenem, a trend towards a lower antibiotic susceptibility rate in ICUs compared to general wards turned into a significant difference after the change to EUCAST: 87.9% vs. 79.8%, P=0.08 (CLSI 2009 and 86.3% vs. 76.8%, P=0.048 (EUCAST 1.3. CONCLUSIONS: The change of AST guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST led to a clinically relevant decrease of susceptibility rates in cumulative antibiograms for defined species/drug combinations, particularly in those with considerable differences in clinical susceptibility breakpoints between the two guidelines.

  5. Comparison of Rosco Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks in EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U S; Acar, Ziyap; Olsson, K

    2013-01-01

    This study compared Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test on Mueller-Hinton agar. The EUCAST-recommended quality control strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas...... paper disks for EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar....

  6. Effects of clinical breakpoint changes in CLSI guidelines 2010/2011 and EUCAST guidelines 2011 on antibiotic susceptibility test reporting of Gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Michael; Bloemberg, Guido V; Böttger, Erik C

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of clinical breakpoint changes in CLSI 2010 and 2011 guidelines and EUCAST 2011 guidelines on antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) reports. In total, 3713 non-duplicate clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Acinetobacter baumannii were analysed. Inhibition zone diameters were determined for β-lactams, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. CLSI 2009-11 and EUCAST 2011 clinical breakpoints were applied. Changes in resistance as defined per the guidelines affected individual species and drug classes differently. The cefepime resistance rate in Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae increased from 2.1% and 1.3% to 8.2% and 6.9%, respectively, applying CLSI 2009-11 versus EUCAST 2011 guidelines. Ertapenem resistance rates in E. cloacae increased from 2.6% with CLSI 2009 to 7.2% for CLSI 2010 and 2011, and to 10.1% when applying EUCAST 2011. Cefepime and meropenem resistance rates in P. aeruginosa increased from 12.2% and 20.6% to 19.8% and 27.7%, respectively, comparing CLSI 2009-11 with EUCAST 2011. Tobramycin and gentamicin resistance rates in A. baumannii increased from 15.9% and 25.4% to 34.9% and 44.4% applying CLSI 2009-11 versus EUCAST 2011. Higher resistance rates reported due to breakpoint changes in CLSI and EUCAST guidelines will result in increasing numbers of Gram-negative bacilli reported as multidrug resistant. AST reports classifying amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefepime or carbapenem resistance will lead clinicians to use alternative agents. Upon implementation of the EUCAST guidelines, laboratories should be aware of the implications of modified drug susceptibility testing reports on antibiotic prescription policies.

  7. Etest Cannot Be Recommended for In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Mucorales

    OpenAIRE

    Caramalho, Rita; Maurer, Elisabeth; Binder, Ulrike; Araújo, Ricardo; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Lackner, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Amphotericin B and posaconazole susceptibility patterns were determined for the most prevalent Mucorales, following EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) broth microdilution guidelines. In parallel, Etest was performed and evaluated against EUCAST. The overall agreement of MICs gained with Etest and EUCAST was 75.1%; therefore, Etest cannot be recommended for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales. Amphotericin B was the most active drug against Mucorales...

  8. Vaspar broth-disk procedure for antibiotic susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    West, S E; Wilkins, T D

    1980-01-01

    A modification of the Wilkins-Thiel broth-disk procedure for antibiotic susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria is described. This method utilizes an aerobically prepared medium overlaid with molten vaspar. Specialized anaerobic techniques or prereduced media are not required.

  9. Flow cytometry susceptibility testing for conventional antifungal drugs and Comparison with the NCCLS Broth Macrodilution Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Najafzadeh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the last decade, the incidence of fungal infection has been increased in many countries. Because of the advent of resistant to antifungal agents, determination of an efficient strategic plan for treatment of fungal disease is an important issue in clinical mycology. Many methods have been introduced and developed for determination of invitro susceptibility tests. During the recent years, flow cytometry has developed to solving the problem and many papers have documented the usefulness of this technique. Materials and methods: As the first step, the invitro susceptibility of standard PTCC (Persian Type of Culture Collection strain and some clinical isolates of Candida consisting of Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. kefyer and C. parapsilosis were evaluated by macrodilution broth method according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines and flow cytometry susceptibility test. Results:  The data indicated that macro dilution broth methods and flow cytometry have the same results in determination of MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for amphotericin B, clotrimazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole in C. albicans PTCC 5027 as well as clinical Candida isolates, such as C.albicans, C.dubliniensis, C.glabrata C.kefyr, and C.parapsilosis. Discussion: Comparing the results obtained by macrodilution broth and flow cytometry methods revealed that flow cytometry was faster. It is suggested that flow cytometry susceptibility test can be used as a powerful tool for determination of MIC and administration of the best antifungal drug in treatment of patients with Candida infections.

  10. Salmonella testing of pooled pre-enrichment broth cultures for screening multiple food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, W R; Olsen, R A; Hunter, J E

    1972-04-01

    A method has been described for testing multiple food samples for Salmonella without loss in sensitivity. The method pools multiple pre-enrichment broth cultures into single enrichment broths. The subsequent stages of the Salmonella analysis are not altered. The method was found applicable to several dry food materials including nonfat dry milk, dried egg albumin, cocoa, cottonseed flour, wheat flour, and shredded coconut. As many as 25 pre-enrichment broth cultures were pooled without apparent loss in the sensitivity of Salmonella detection as compared to individual sample analysis. The procedure offers a simple, yet effective, way to increase sample capacity in the Salmonella testing of foods, particularly where a large proportion of samples ordinarily is negative. It also permits small portions of pre-enrichment broth cultures to be retained for subsequent individual analysis if positive tests are found. Salmonella testing of pooled pre-enrichment broths provides increased consumer protection for a given amount of analytical effort as compared to individual sample analysis.

  11. Etest cannot be recommended for in vitro susceptibility testing of mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramalho, Rita; Maurer, Elisabeth; Binder, Ulrike; Araújo, Ricardo; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Lackner, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Amphotericin B and posaconazole susceptibility patterns were determined for the most prevalent Mucorales, following EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) broth microdilution guidelines. In parallel, Etest was performed and evaluated against EUCAST. The overall agreement of MICs gained with Etest and EUCAST was 75.1%; therefore, Etest cannot be recommended for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales. Amphotericin B was the most active drug against Mucorales species in vitro, while the activities of posaconazole were more restricted. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilium to nine antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-laboratory broth microdilution method trial was performed to standardize the specialized test conditions required for fish pathogens Flavobacterium columnare and F. pyschrophilum. Nine laboratories tested the quality control (QC) strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicid...

  13. Multisite reproducibility of the broth microdilution method for susceptibility testing of Nocardia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conville, Patricia S; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J; Witebsky, Frank G; Koziol, Deloris; Hall, Geraldine S; Killian, Scott B; Knapp, Cindy C; Warshauer, David; Van, Tam; Wengenack, Nancy L; Deml, Sharon; Woods, Gail L

    2012-04-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of clinical isolates of Nocardia is recommended to detect resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents; such testing is complicated by difficulties in inoculum preparation and test interpretation. In this study, six laboratories performed repetitive broth microdilution testing on single strains of Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia nova, and Nocardia wallacei. For each isolate, a total of 30 microdilution panels from three different lots were tested at most sites. The goal of the study was to determine the inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility of susceptibility testing of this group of isolates. Acceptable agreement (>90% agreement at ±1 dilution of the MIC mode) was found for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, and moxifloxacin. After eliminating MIC values from single laboratories whose results showed the greatest deviation from those of the remaining laboratories, acceptable agreement was also found for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, minocycline, and tobramycin. Results showed unsatisfactory reproducibility of broth microdilution testing of ceftriaxone with N. cyriacigeorgica and N. wallacei, tigecycline with N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica, and sulfonamides with N. farcinica and N. wallacei. N. nova ATCC BAA-2227 is proposed as a quality control organism for AST of Nocardia sp., and the use of a disk diffusion test for sulfisoxazole is proposed as a check of the adequacy of the inoculum and to confirm sulfonamide MIC results.

  14. In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Burkholderia mallei (Causative Agent of Glanders) Determined by Broth Microdilution and E-Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Henry S.; England, Marilyn J.; Waag, David M.; Byrne, W. Russell

    2001-01-01

    In vitro susceptibilities to 28 antibiotics were determined for 11 strains of Burkholderia mallei by the broth microdilution method. The B. mallei strains demonstrated susceptibility to aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones, doxycycline, piperacillin, ceftazidime, and imipenem. For comparison and evaluation, 17 antibiotic susceptibilities were also determined by the E-test. E-test values were always lower than the broth dilution values. Establishing and comparing antibiotic susceptibilities of specific B. mallei strains will provide reference information for assessing new antibiotic agents. PMID:11408233

  15. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vaginal candida isolates: the broth microdilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi Rad M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection among immunocompetent, healthy women, and is caused by opportunistic yeasts that belong to genus Candida. In this study, we isolated and identified the Candida species in the vagina of patients who admitted in Gynecology Department of Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran to evaluate the in vitro activities of fluconazole, miconazole, itraconazole and flucytosine against 191 clinical Candida isolates by the NCCLS microdilution method."n"nMethods: 191 Candida were isolated from vaginal secretions and identified with conventional mycological methods in the diagnosis of Candida species. The identity of all strains was confirmed genotypically by multiplex PCR. In vitro susceptibility testing of vaginal Candida isolates was performed by the NCCLS broth microdilution method. The results were read at 48 h."n"nResults: Most C. albicans isolates (>90% were sensitive in vitro to the antifungal agents tested. Most C. glabrata isolates showed sensitivity to miconazole and then flucytosine while they were more resistant to Itraconazole and fluconazole. Many isolates of C. tropicalis were susceptible to miconazole and then fluconazole. They showed a little resistance to

  16. Quality-control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth dilution of the Brachyspira hyodysenteriae type strain (ATCC 27164(T))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bergsjø, B.

    2006-01-01

    There are no approved standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the fastidious spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. An interlaboratory study was performed to establish MIC quality control ranges for six antimicrobial agents for the type strain of B. hyodysenteriae using broth diluti....... The results showed that B. hyodysenteriae B78(T) ATCC 27164(T) is a suitable quality control strain. This is a first step toward standardization of methods regarding this anaerobe....

  17. Comparison of agar dilution and antibiotic gradient strip test with broth microdilution for susceptibility testing of swine Brachyspira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirajkar, Nandita S; Gebhart, Connie J

    2016-03-01

    Production-limiting diseases in swine caused by Brachyspira are characterized by mucohemorrhagic diarrhea (B. hyodysenteriae and "B. hampsonii") or mild colitis (B. pilosicoli), while B. murdochii is often isolated from healthy pigs. Emergence of novel pathogenic Brachyspira species and strains with reduced susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials has reinforced the need for standardized susceptibility testing. Two methods are currently used for Brachyspira susceptibility testing: agar dilution (AD) and broth microdilution (BMD). However, these tests have primarily been used for B. hyodysenteriae and rarely for B. pilosicoli. Information on the use of commercial susceptibility testing products such as antibiotic gradient strips is lacking. Our main objective was to validate and compare the susceptibility results, measured as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), of 6 antimicrobials for 4 Brachyspira species (B. hyodysenteriae, "B. hampsonii", B. pilosicoli, and B. murdochii) by BMD and AD (tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, tylosin, and carbadox) or antibiotic gradient strip (doxycycline) methods. In general, the results of a high percentage of all 4 Brachyspira species differed by ±1 log2 dilution or less by BMD and AD for tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylosin, and by BMD and antibiotic gradient strip for doxycycline. The carbadox MICs obtained by BMD were 1-5 doubling dilutions different than those obtained by AD. BMD for Brachyspira was quicker to perform with less ambiguous interpretation of results when compared with AD and antibiotic gradient strip methods, and the results confirm the utility of BMD in routine diagnostics. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Performance of the EUCAST disk diffusion method, the CLSI agar screen method, and the Vitek 2 automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing system for detection of clinical isolates of Enterococci with low- and medium-level VanB-type vancomycin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegstad, Kristin; Giske, Christian G; Haldorsen, Bjørg

    2014-01-01

    faecium (n=18) strains with and without nonsusceptibility to vancomycin was examined blindly in Danish (n=5), Norwegian (n=13), and Swedish (n=10) laboratories using the EUCAST disk diffusion method (n=28) and the CLSI agar screen (n=18) or the Vitek 2 system (bioMérieux) (n=5). The EUCAST disk diffusion...... method (very major error [VME] rate, 7.0%; sensitivity, 0.93; major error [ME] rate, 2.4%; specificity, 0.98) and CLSI agar screen (VME rate, 6.6%; sensitivity, 0.93; ME rate, 5.6%; specificity, 0.94) performed significantly better (P=0.02) than the Vitek 2 system (VME rate, 13%; sensitivity, 0.87; ME...... rate, 0%; specificity, 1). The performance of the EUCAST disk diffusion method was challenged by differences in vancomycin inhibition zone sizes as well as the experience of the personnel in interpreting fuzzy zone edges as an indication of vancomycin resistance. Laboratories using Oxoid agar (P

  19. [The comparison of antibiotic susceptibilities of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates in transition from CLSI to EUCAST].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süzük, Serap; Kaşkatepe, Banu; Avcıküçük, Havva; Aksaray, Sebahat; Başustaoğlu, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    Determination of treatment protocols for infections according to antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) results is are important for controlling the problem of antibiotic resistance. Two standards are widely used in the world. One of them is Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards used in Turkey for many years and the other is the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) standards which is used in European Union member countries and came into use in 2015 in Turkey. Since the EUCAST standards had higher clinical sensitivity limits particularly for gram-negative bacilli compared to CLSI (2009) standards, there will be some changes in antibiotic resistance profiles of Turkey with the use of EUCAST. CLSI has changed zone diameters after 2009 versions and the differences between the two standards were brought to a minimum level. Knowledge of local epidemiological data is important to determine empirical therapy which will be used in urinary tract infections (UTI). The aim of this study was to determine the differences of antibiotic susceptibility zone diameters based on our local epidemiological data among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates according to EUCAST 2014 and CLSI 2014 standards. A total of 298 E.coli strains isolated from urine samples as the cause of uncomplicated acute UTI agents, were included in the study. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and with BBL Crystal E/NF ID System (Becton Dickinson, USA). AST was performed with Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and results were evaluated and interpreted according to the CLSI 2014 and EUCAST 2014 standards. According to the results, susceptibility rates of isolates against amikacin (100%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (63.09%) were identical in both standards. However, statistically significant differences were observed between CLSI and EUCAST standards in terms of susceptibilities against gentamicin (91.95% and 84.56%, respectively; p= 0

  20. Quality Control Guidelines for Disk Diffusion and Broth Microdilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests with Seven Drugs for Veterinary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, Brant A.; Erwin, Meredith E.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2000-01-01

    This multicenter study proposes antimicrobial susceptibility (MIC and disk diffusion methods) quality control (QC) parameters for seven compounds utilized in veterinary health. Alexomycin, apramycin, tiamulin, tilmicosin, and tylosin were tested by broth microdilution against various National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS)-recommended QC organisms (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). In addition, disk diffusion zone diameter QC limits were determined for apramycin, enrofloxacin, and premafloxacin by using E. coli ATCC 25922, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and S. aureus ATCC 25923. The results from five or six participating laboratories produced ≥99.0% of MICs and ≥95.0% of the zone diameters within suggested guidelines. The NCCLS Subcommittee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing has recently approved these ranges for publication in the next M31 document. PMID:10618141

  1. Accuracy of the Thermo Fisher Scientific (Sensititre™) dry-form broth microdilution MIC product when testing ceftaroline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Holliday, Nicole M; Critchley, Ian A

    2015-04-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the ceftaroline fosamil pro-drug, was the first advanced-spectrum cephalosporin with potent activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. After 4 years of clinical use, few ceftaroline commercial susceptibility testing devices other than agar diffusion methods (disks and stable gradient) are available. Here, we validate a broth microdilution product (Sensititre™; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Cleveland, OH, USA) that achieved 99.2% essential agreement (manual and automated reading) and 95.3-100.0% categorical agreement, with high reproducibility (98.0-100.0%). Sensititre™ MIC values for ceftaroline, however, were slightly skewed toward an elevated value (0.5 × log2 dilution step), greatest when testing for streptococci and Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum to nine antimicrobials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gieseker, Charles M.; Mayer, Tamara D.; Crosby, Tina C.

    2012-01-01

    salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658 against 10 antimicrobials (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, ormetoprim/sulfadimethoxine, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) in diluted (4 g l−1) cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth incubated...

  3. In vitro susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens to a combination of penicillin and framycetin: development of interpretive criteria for testing by broth microdilution and disk diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, C M; Stoneburner, A; Shinabarger, D L; Abbeloos, E; Goby, L; Bradley, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    Dry cow therapy is an important part of mastitis control. This therapy typically consists of an antibiotic or antibiotics administered at a single dose by intramammary infusion at dry off to treat or prevent infection by prevalent mastitis pathogens. A combination dry cow therapy consisting of the active components penicillin and framycetin is currently used in several countries. Despite its use, standardized methods for the susceptibility testing of this combination against mastitis pathogens have not been established. In this study, which used Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology, preliminary interpretive criteria for the broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing of mastitis pathogens to penicillin combined with framycetin (2:1 wt/wt) were established based on the amount of drug achieved and maintained postadministration in the udder. Based on resulting MIC distributions of recent veterinary field isolates and a subset of isolates preselected for resistance to β-lactams or aminoglycosides and concentrations achieved postadministration, criteria for broth microdilution testing of the combination (susceptible, intermediate, resistant in micrograms per milliliter) were set as follows: Escherichia coli ≤8/4, 16/8, ≥32/16; Staphylococcus spp. ≤2/1, 4/2-8/4, >16/8; Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae 4/2. A disk diffusion test using disks containing 100 μg of framycetin and 10 IU of penicillin was also developed, and preliminary interpretive criteria (susceptible, intermediate, resistant in millimeters) were set based on correlation to broth MIC values and the minimization of interpretive errors between isolates tested concurrently by broth microdilution and disk diffusion as follows: E. coli ≥18, 16-17, ≤15; Staphylococcus spp. ≥21, 18-20, ≤17; Strep. uberis and Strep. dysgalactiae ≥21, 19-20, ≤18. In addition, ranges for the quality control of the testing of this combination by both broth

  4. Validation of a commercial dry-form broth microdilution device (Sensititre) for testing tedizolid, a new oxazolidinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Holliday, Nicole M; Rhomberg, Paul R

    2015-02-01

    Tedizolid, a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial with potent activity against a wide range of Gram-positive pathogens, was recently approved by regulatory authorities for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. A commercial broth microdilution device (Sensititre; Thermo Fisher Scientific) was validated using 285 selected Gram-positive isolates, and the device was documented to have 100.0% essential and categorical agreement with reference MIC results and excellent MIC endpoint reproducibility. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Tuberculosis diagnosis and multidrug resistance testing by direct sputum culture in selective broth without decontamination or centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Louis; Martin, Laura; Gilman, Robert H; Valencia, Teresa; Herrera, Beatriz; Quino, Willi; Ramos, Eric; Rivero, Maribel; Montoya, Rosario; Escombe, A Roderick; Coleman, David; Mitchison, Denis; Evans, Carlton A

    2008-07-01

    Tuberculosis culture usually requires sputum decontamination and centrifugation to prevent cultures from being overgrown by contaminating bacteria and fungi. However, decontamination destroys many tuberculous bacilli, and centrifugation often is not possible in resource-poor settings. We therefore assessed the performance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture with unprocessed samples plated directly by using tuberculosis-selective media and compared this procedure to conventional culture using centrifuge decontamination. Quadruplicate aliquots of strain H37RV were cultured in 7H9 broth with and without selective antimicrobials and after centrifuge decontamination. The subsequent comparison was made with 715 sputum samples. Split paired sputum samples were cultured conventionally with centrifuge decontamination and by direct culture in tuberculosis-selective media containing antibiotics. Centrifuge decontamination reduced tuberculosis H37RV colonies by 78% (P laboratories this deficit may be outweighed by the ease of use.

  6. Evaluation of Etest and macrodilution broth method for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida sp strains isolated from oral cavities of AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Maria do Rosário R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the Etest and the reference broth macrodilution susceptibility test for fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B was performed with 59 of Candida species isolated from the oral cavities of AIDS patients. The Etest method was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions, and the reference method was performed according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards document M27-A guidelines. Our data showed that there was a good correlation between the MICs obtained by the Etest and broth dilution methods. When only the MIC results at ± 2 dilutions for both methods were considered, the agreement rates were 90.4% for itraconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B and 84.6% for fluconazole of the C. albicans tested. In contrast, to the reference method, the Etest method classified as susceptible three fluconazole-resistant isolates and one itraconazole-resistant isolate, representing four very major errors. These results indicate that Etest could be considered useful for antifungal sensitivity evaluation of yeasts in clinical laboratories.

  7. Etest and Sensititre YeastOne Susceptibility Testing of Echinocandins against Candida Species from a Single Center in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Maria; Erbeznik, Thomas; Gschwentner, Martin; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2017-08-01

    Candida species were tested for susceptibility to caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin in order to evaluate the roles of Etest and Sensititre YeastOne in antifungal susceptibility testing for daily routines and to survey resistance. A total of 104 Candida species isolates detected from blood cultures were investigated. With EUCAST broth microdilution as the reference method, essential agreement (EA), categorical agreement (CA), very major errors (VME), major errors (ME), and minor (MIN) errors were assessed by reading MICs at 18, 24, and 48 h. By use of EUCAST broth microdilution and species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs), echinocandin resistance was not detected during the study period. Using EUCAST CBPs, MIC readings at 24 h for the Etest and Sensititre YeastOne resulted in CA levels of 99% and 93% for anidulafungin and 99% and 97% for micafungin. Using revised CLSI CBPs for caspofungin, CA levels were 92% and 99% for Etest and Sensititre YeastOne. The Etest proved an excellent, easy-to-handle alternative method for testing susceptibility to anidulafungin and micafungin. Due to misclassifications, the Etest is less suitable for testing susceptibility to caspofungin (8% of isolates falsely tested resistant). The CA levels of Sensititre YeastOne were 93% and 97% for anidulafungin and micafungin (24 h) by use of EUCAST CBPs and increased to 100% for both antifungals if CLSI CBPs were applied and to 100% and 99% if Sensititre YeastOne epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFFs) were applied. No one echinocandin could be demonstrated to be superior to another in vitro Since resistance was lacking among our Candida isolates, we cannot derive any recommendation from accurate resistance detection by the Etest and Sensititre YeastOne. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Direct blood culturing on solid medium outperforms an automated continuously monitored broth-based blood culture system in terms of time to identification and susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Idelevich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST should be available as soon as possible for patients with bloodstream infections. We investigated whether a lysis-centrifugation (LC blood culture (BC method, combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS identification and Vitek 2 AST, provides a time advantage in comparison with the currently used automated broth-based BC system. Seven bacterial reference strains were added each to 10 mL human blood in final concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 CFU/mL. Inoculated blood was added to the Isolator 10 tube and centrifuged at 3000 g for 30 min, then 1.5 mL sediment was distributed onto five 150-mm agar plates. Growth was observed hourly and microcolonies were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek 2 as soon as possible. For comparison, seeded blood was introduced into an aerobic BC bottle and incubated in the BACTEC 9240 automated BC system. For all species/concentration combinations except one, successful identification and Vitek 2 inoculation were achieved even before growth detection by BACTEC. The fastest identification and inoculation for AST were achieved with Escherichia coli in concentrations of 100 CFU/mL and 10 CFU/mL (after 7 h each, while BACTEC flagged respective samples positive after 9.5 h and 10 h. Use of the LC-BC method allows skipping of incubation in automated BC systems and, used in combination with rapid diagnostics from microcolonies, provides a considerable advantage in time to result. This suggests that the usefulness of direct BC on solid medium should be re-evaluated in the era of rapid microbiology.

  9. Direct detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in blood culture broth by use of a penicillin binding protein 2a latex agglutination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qinfang; Venkataraman, Lata; Kirby, James E; Gold, Howard S; Yamazumi, Toshiaki

    2010-04-01

    We studied the utility of performing a penicillin binding protein 2a latex agglutination (PBP-LA) assay directly on Bactec blood culture broth samples containing Staphylococcus aureus to rapidly detect methicillin resistance. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of this method were 94.1%, 97.5%, 98%, and 92.9%, respectively.

  10. Detection of Pseudomonas fluorescens from broth, water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sonal

    2015-04-08

    Apr 8, 2015 ... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms of ... grown in nutrient broth overnight, pond water, mucus and kidney ... a rapid test for detection of Pseudomonas strains in milk is required.

  11. Reverse Osmosis Processing of Organic Model Compounds and Fermentation Broths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diltz, Robert; Henley, Michael V; Marolla, Theodore V; Li, Lixiong

    2006-01-01

    .... The actual fermentation broth obtained from a continuous-flow biohydrogen process was treated by the RO system under the operating conditions similar to those used in the baseline tests, resulting in greater...

  12. Fermented Broth in Tyrosinase- and Melanogenesis Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Feng Chan; Ching-Cheng Huang; Ming-Yuan Lee; Yung-Sheng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed.

  13. Fermented Broth in Tyrosinase- and Melanogenesis Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Feng Chan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed.

  14. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus spp. by Using a Composite Correlation Index (CCI)-Based Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method Appears To Not Offer Benefit over Traditional Broth Microdilution Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitman, Melissa R; McTaggart, Lisa; Spinato, Joanna; Poopalarajah, Rahgavi; Lister, Erin; Husain, Shahid; Kus, Julianne V

    2017-07-01

    Aspergillus spp. cause serious invasive lung infections, and Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered clinically significant species. Voriconazole is considered to be the drug of choice for treating A. fumigatus infections; however, rising resistance rates have been reported. We evaluated a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method for the differentiation between wild-type and non-wild-type isolates of 20 Aspergillus spp. (including 2 isolates of Aspergillus ustus and 1 of Aspergillus calidoustus that were used as controls due their intrinsic low azole susceptibility with respect to the in vitro response to voriconazole). At 30 and 48 h of incubation, there was complete agreement between Cyp51A sequence analysis, broth microdilution, and MALDI-TOF MS classification of isolates as wild type or non-wild type. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to accurately detect A. fumigatus strains with reduced voriconazole susceptibility. However, rather than proving to be a rapid and simple method for antifungal susceptibility testing, this particular MS-based method showed no benefit over conventional testing methods. © Crown copyright 2017.

  15. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Aspergillus spp. by Using a Composite Correlation Index (CCI)-Based Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method Appears To Not Offer Benefit over Traditional Broth Microdilution Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitman, Melissa R.; McTaggart, Lisa; Spinato, Joanna; Poopalarajah, Rahgavi; Lister, Erin; Husain, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus spp. cause serious invasive lung infections, and Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered clinically significant species. Voriconazole is considered to be the drug of choice for treating A. fumigatus infections; however, rising resistance rates have been reported. We evaluated a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method for the differentiation between wild-type and non-wild-type isolates of 20 Aspergillus spp. (including 2 isolates of Aspergillus ustus and 1 of Aspergillus calidoustus that were used as controls due their intrinsic low azole susceptibility with respect to the in vitro response to voriconazole). At 30 and 48 h of incubation, there was complete agreement between Cyp51A sequence analysis, broth microdilution, and MALDI-TOF MS classification of isolates as wild type or non-wild type. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to accurately detect A. fumigatus strains with reduced voriconazole susceptibility. However, rather than proving to be a rapid and simple method for antifungal susceptibility testing, this particular MS-based method showed no benefit over conventional testing methods. PMID:28404678

  16. Ultrafiltration of hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Desiriani, Ria; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Hemicelulosic material is often used as the main substrate to obtain high-value products such as xylose. The five carbon sugar, xylose, could be further processed by fermentation to produce xylitol. However, not only the hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth contains xylitol, but also metabolite products, residual substances, biomass and mineral salts. Therefore, in order to obtain the end products, various separation processes are required to separate and purify the desired product from the fermentation broth. One of the most promising downstream processing methods of fermentation broth clarification is ultrafiltration due to its potential for energy saving and higher purity. In addition, ultrafiltration membrane has a high performance in separating inhibitory components in the fermentation broth. This paper assesses the influence of operating conditions; including trans-membrane pressure, velocity, pH of the fermentation broth solutions, and also to the xylitol concentration in the product. The challenges of the ultrafiltration process will be pointed out.

  17. Comparison of EUCAST and CLSI Reference Microdilution MICs of Eight Antifungal Compounds for Candida auris and Associated Tentative Epidemiological Cutoff Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M. C.; Prakash, Anupam; Meletiadis, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    ) and lowest for isavuconazole and anidulafungin (58%/76% to 75% within ±1/±2 dilutions). We found that 90.2%/100% of the isolates were amphotericin B susceptible based on CLSI/EUCAST methods, respectively (i.e., with MICs of ≤1 mg/liter), and 100%/97.6% were fluconazole nonsusceptible by CLSI/EUCAST (MICs > 2......, the estimated ECOFFs were dependent on the method applied for voriconazole (1 to 32) and isavuconazole (0.125 to 4). CLSI and EUCAST MICs were remarkably similar and confirmed uniform fluconazole resistance and variable acquired resistance to the other agents....

  18. Activities of Tedizolid and Linezolid Determined by the Reference Broth Microdilution Method against 3,032 Gram-Positive Bacterial Isolates Collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern Europe, and Latin American Countries in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N; Farrell, David J; Mendes, Rodrigo E

    2016-09-01

    Tedizolid and linezolid in vitro activities against 3,032 Gram-positive pathogens collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern European, and Latin American medical centers during 2014 were assessed. The isolates were tested for susceptibility by the current reference broth microdilution methods. Due to concern over the effect of MIC endpoint criteria on the results of testing the oxazolidinones tedizolid and linezolid, MIC endpoint values were read by two methods: (i) reading the MIC at the first well where the trailing began without regard for pinpoint trailing, according to CLSI M07-A10 and M100-S26 document instructions for reading linezolid (i.e., 80% inhibition of growth; these reads were designated tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80), and (ii) at 100% inhibition of growth (designated tedizolid 100 and linezolid 100). All Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus group, and Enterococcus faecalis isolates were inhibited at tedizolid 80 and 100 MIC values of 0.25 and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.25, 0.25 and 0.5, 0.12 and 0.25, and 0.5 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Generally, MIC50 and MIC90 results for tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80 were one doubling dilution lower than those read at 100% inhibition. Tedizolid was 4- to 8-fold more potent than linezolid against all the isolates tested regardless of the MIC endpoint criterion used. Despite the differences in potency, >99.9% of isolates tested in this survey were susceptible to both linezolid and tedizolid using CLSI and EUCAST interpretive criteria. In conclusion, tedizolid demonstrated greater in vitro potency than linezolid against Gram-positive pathogens isolated from patients in medical centers across the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe, and Latin America. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Mutagenicity potential of commercial broth cubes at varying concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Torres, Nelson Velasquez; Talain, Augusto Nicolas.

    1997-01-01

    Today, there has been a growing concern on the mutagenicity potential of environmental chemical systems. These environmental chemicals such as pesticides, food additives, synthetic drugs, water and atmospheric pollutants are possible causes of mutagenic activity. Meat products and some meat flavorings, were also reported to exhibit mutagenic activity. And since these products are normal part of the daily human diet, there is a need for extensive studies regarding the possible mutagenic activity associated with these products. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenicity potential of commercial broth cubes at varying concentration. The researchers sought to answer the following questions: 1. Do beef, pork and chicken broth cubes exhibit mutagenic activity? 2. Are there significant differences in the mutagenic activity among the three samples? 3. Are these significant differences in the mutagenic activity exhibited by each of the samples compared to that of Mitomycin-C (positive control)? 4. Which of the sample of each specific concentration exhibit the greatest mutagenic activity? Three specific concentrations of beef, pork and chicken broth cubes were prepared and their mutagenicity potential was evaluated by using the Micronucleus test. The formation of micro nucleated polychromatic and micro nucleated normo chromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice treated with these samples were detected using a Carl-Zeiss photo microscope. The statistical tool used to test the validity of the null hypothesis was analysis of variance using randomized complete block design and independent T- test. (author)

  20. Mutagenicity potential of commercial broth cubes at varying concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Torres, Nelson Velasquez; Talain, Augusto Nicolas

    1998-12-31

    Today, there has been a growing concern on the mutagenicity potential of environmental chemical systems. These environmental chemicals such as pesticides, food additives, synthetic drugs, water and atmospheric pollutants are possible causes of mutagenic activity. Meat products and some meat flavorings, were also reported to exhibit mutagenic activity. And since these products are normal part of the daily human diet, there is a need for extensive studies regarding the possible mutagenic activity associated with these products. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenicity potential of commercial broth cubes at varying concentration. The researchers sought to answer the following questions: 1. Do beef, pork and chicken broth cubes exhibit mutagenic activity? 2. Are there significant differences in the mutagenic activity among the three samples? 3. Are these significant differences in the mutagenic activity exhibited by each of the samples compared to that of Mitomycin-C (positive control)? 4. Which of the sample of each specific concentration exhibit the greatest mutagenic activity? Three specific concentrations of beef, pork and chicken broth cubes were prepared and their mutagenicity potential was evaluated by using the Micronucleus test. The formation of micro nucleated polychromatic and micro nucleated normo chromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow cells of mice treated with these samples were detected using a Carl-Zeiss photo microscope. The statistical tool used to test the validity of the null hypothesis was analysis of variance using randomized complete block design and independent T- test. (author). 28 refs., 9 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. [Influence of Mueller-Hinton broth on the in vitro activities of cefuzoname, flomoxef, imipenem, and minocycline against Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, S; Tonohata, A

    1990-05-01

    The influence of Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth (from BBL Microbiology Systems, and Difco Laboratories) of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of cefuzoname (CZON), flomoxef (FMOX), imipenem (IPM), and minocycline (MINO) for 100 strains of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Antibacterial activity of MINO was stronger than any other antibiotics. MICs of CZON for 16 strains (14 of 50 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 2 of 50 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus) were greater than or equal to 4-fold greater when tested in BBL MH broth than when tested in Difco MH broth, thus, different media altered categories of some strains (8 of 50 MRSA) from susceptible to resistant. MICs of FMOX in the BBL MH broth for 12 of 50 MRSA strains rose greater than or equal to 4-fold compared to the Difco MH broth. On the other hand, MICs of IPM and MINO were affected very little by the different brand of MH broth used.

  2. Effect of fermented broth from lactic acid bacteria on pathogenic bacteria proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, S; Martínez-Blanco, H; Rodríguez-Aparicio, L B; Ferrero, M A

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect that 5 fermented broths of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have on the viability or proliferation and adhesion of 7 potentially pathogenic microorganisms was tested. The fermented broth from Lactococcus lactis C660 had a growth inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli K92 that reached of 31%, 19% to Pseudomonas fluorescens, and 76% to Staphylococcus epidermidis. The growth of Staph. epidermidis was negatively affected to 90% by Lc. lactis 11454 broth, whereas the growth of P. fluorescens (25%) and both species of Staphylococcus (35% to Staphylococcus aureus and 76% to Staph. epidermidis) were inhibited when they were incubated in the presence of Lactobacillus casei 393 broth. Finally, the fermented broth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus showed an inhibitory effect on growth of E. coli K92, Listeria innocua, and Staph. epidermidis reached values of 12, 28, and 76%, respectively. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most affected strain because the effect was detected from the early stages of growth and it was completely abolished. The results of bacterial adhesion revealed that broths from Lc. lactis strains, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lb. rhamnosus caused a loss of E. coli K92 adhesion. Bacillus cereus showed a decreased of adhesion in the presence of the broths of Lc. lactis strains and Lb. paracasei. Listeria innocua adhesion inhibition was observed in the presence of Lb. paracasei broth, and the greatest inhibitory effect was registered when this pathogenic bacterium was incubated in presence of Lc. lactis 11454 broth. With respect to the 2 Pseudomonas, we observed a slight adhesion inhibition showed by Lactobacillus rhamnosus broth against Pseudomonas putida. These results confirm that the effect caused by the different LAB assayed is also broth- and species-specific and reveal that the broth from LAB tested can be used as functional bioactive compounds to regulate the adhesion and biofilm synthesis and ultimately lead to preventing food and

  3. Spectrophotometric reading of EUCAST antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus fumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meletiadis, J.; Leth Mortensen, K.; Verweij, P. E.

    2017-01-01

    with spectrophotometrically determined MICs and essential (±1 twofold dilution) and categorical (susceptible/intermediate/resistant or wild-type/non-wild-type) agreement was calculated. Spectrophotometric data were analysed with regression analysis using the Emax model, and the effective concentration corresponding to 5% (EC......5) was estimated. Results Using the 5% cut-off, high essential (92%–97%) and categorical (93%–99%) agreement (

  4. Comparison of clinical categories for Escherichia coli harboring specific qnr and chromosomal-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance determinants according to CLSI and EUCAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, Jesús; Briales, Alejandra; Díaz-de-Alba, Paula; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Rodríguez-Martínez, José-Manuel; Pascual, Álvaro

    2016-03-01

    EUCAST breakpoints are more restrictive than those defined by CLSI. This study highlights the discrepancies between CLSI and EUCAST in a well characterized isogenic Escherichia coli collection and their correlations with specific quinolone resistance mechanisms. The greatest number of discrepancies was observed in strains containing 2-4 resistance mechanisms (MIC values on the borderline of clinical resistance). Bearing in mind that quinolones are concentration dependent antimicrobial agents, small changes in MIC may have relevant consequences for treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro antagonistic growth effects of Lactobacillus fermentum and lactobacillus salivarius and their fermentative broth on periodontal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Ju; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hsieh, Chu-Yang; Wang, Pi-Chieh; Chen, Chung-Shih; Wang, Lina; Yang, Chi-Chiang

    2012-10-01

    As lactobacilli possess an antagonistic growth property, these bacteria may be beneficial as bioprotective agents for infection control. However, whether the antagonistic growth effects are attributed to the lactobacilli themselves or their fermentative broth remains unclear. The antagonistic growth effects of Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum as well as their fermentative broth were thus tested using both disc agar diffusion test and broth dilution method, and their effects on periodontal pathogens, including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro at different concentrations and for different time periods were also compared. Both Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum and their concentrated fermentative broth were shown to inhibit significantly the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, although different inhibitory effects were observed for different pathogens. The higher the counts of lactobacilli and the higher the folds of concentrated fermentative broth, the stronger the inhibitory effects are observed. The inhibitory effect is demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Moreover, for the lactobacilli themselves, Lactobacillus fermentum showed stronger inhibitory effects than Lactobacillus salivarius. However, the fermentative broth of Lactobacillus fermentum showed weaker inhibitory effects than that of Lactobacillus salivarius. These data suggested that lactobacilli and their fermentative broth exhibit antagonistic growth activity, and consumption of probiotics or their broth containing lactobacilli may benefit oral health.

  6. In vitro antagonistic growth effects of Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius and their fermentative broth on periodontal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ju Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As lactobacilli possess an antagonistic growth property, these bacteria may be beneficial as bioprotective agents for infection control. However, whether the antagonistic growth effects are attributed to the lactobacilli themselves or their fermentative broth remains unclear. The antagonistic growth effects of Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum as well as their fermentative broth were thus tested using both disc agar diffusion test and broth dilution method, and their effects on periodontal pathogens, including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Porphyromonas gingivalisin vitro at different concentrations and for different time periods were also compared. Both Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus fermentum and their concentrated fermentative broth were shown to inhibit significantly the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, althoughdifferent inhibitory effects were observed for different pathogens. The higher the counts of lactobacilli and the higher the folds of concentrated fermentative broth, the stronger the inhibitory effects are observed. The inhibitory effect is demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Moreover, for the lactobacilli themselves, Lactobacillus fermentum showed stronger inhibitory effects than Lactobacillus salivarius. However, the fermentative broth of Lactobacillus fermentum showed weaker inhibitory effects than that of Lactobacillus salivarius. These data suggested that lactobacilli and their fermentative broth exhibit antagonistic growth activity, and consumption of probiotics or their broth containing lactobacilli may benefit oral health.

  7. In vitro susceptibility testing of dermatophytes isolated in Goiania, Brazil, against five antifungal agents by broth microdilution method Teste de suscetibilidade in vitro de dermatófitos isolados em Goiânia, Brasil, contra cinco agentes antifúngicos pelo método de microdiluição em caldo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystiane Rodrigues Araújo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine and griseofulvin were tested by broth microdilution technique, against 60 dermatophytes isolated from nail or skin specimens from Goiania city patients, Brazil. In this study, the microtiter plates were incubated at 28 ºC allowing a reading of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC after four days of incubation for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and five days for T. rubrum and Microsporum canis. Most of the dermatophytes had uniform patterns of susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. Low MIC values as 0.03 µg/mL were found for 33.3%, 31.6% and 15% of isolates for itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively.Atividades antifúngicas de fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol, terbinafina e griseofulvina foram testadas pelo método de microdiluição em caldo contra 60 isolados de dermatófitos. Os resultados mostraram que todos os isolados produziram crescimento claramente detectável a 28 ºC e a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada após quatro dias de incubação para Trichophyton mentagrophytes e cinco dias para T. rubrum e Microsporum canis. A maioria dos isolados teve um padrão uniforme de suscetibilidade para os agentes antifúngicos testados. Baixos valores de CIM como 0,03 µg/mL foram encontrados para 33,3%, 31,6% e 15% dos isolados para itraconazol, cetoconazol e terbinafina, respectivamente.

  8. Steady-state shear characteristics of Aspergillus niger broths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svihla, C.K.; Dronawat, S.N.; Hanley, T.R. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    It can be difficult to obtain reliable rheological data for filamentous fermentation broths using conventional instruments. One common approach is to measure the torque drawn by an impeller rotating in the suspension. Many previous workers have assumed that the applicable shear rate in such a device is related to the impeller speed by a fluid-independent constant determined by calibration with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The rheology of Aspergillus niger broths have been characterized using the impeller viscometer approach. The changes in the broth rheology were measured, and used to interpret the growth of biomass and the evolution of the microorganism morphology.

  9. Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Fermentation Broths Containing SO21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, T. E.; Sonoff, Elisabeth P.; Splittstoesser, D. F.

    1971-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in fermentation broths containing up to 100 μg of SO2 per ml is described. The method involves the sparging of H2S from the broth into a cadmium hydroxide absorption solution, the formation of methylene blue from the absorbed sulfide, and the measuring of this color spectrophotometrically. The use of cadmium hydroxide instead of zinc acetate, the common absorbent, substantially reduced the interference of SO2 with the analysis. PMID:5111300

  10. Estudo comparativo entre as técnicas de diluição em caldo e diluição em ágar, nos antibiogramas para Candida: a comparative study Broth dilution and agar dilution methods applied to Candida sensitivity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney Hartz Alves

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores compararam o desempenho das técnicas de diluição em caldo e diluição em ágar, mediante a determinação da CIM (concentração inibitória mínima e da CFM (concentração fungicida mínima de antifúngicos poliênicos e imidazólicos, frente a diversas espécies de Candida. A concordância entre as técnicas foi variável em função do antifúngico utilizado. Os melhores percentuais de concordância ocorreram quando se realizou o teste com poliênicos. Os autores discutem aspectos que envolvem a problemática dos testes de sensibilidade de leveduras a antifúngicosThe performance of broth dilution method and agar dilution method were compared by MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration and MFC (minimal fungicidal concentration from Candida strains to polyene and imizadole anti-fungal agents. The concordance between these methods was drug dependent. The best percent of concordance were showed when the polyenes were tested. The problems of sensitivity test for yeasts to antifungal drugs are discussed

  11. Use of L-Glutamic Acid in a New Enrichment Broth (R-TATP Broth) for Detecting the Presence or Absence of Molds in Raw Ingredients/Personal Care Product Formulations by Using an ATP Bioluminescence Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Youjun; English, Donald J

    The present study reports the effects of adding L-glutamic acid to a new enrichment broth designated as R-TATP broth, to promote the growth of slow-growing mold microorganisms such as Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus oryzae , without interfering in the growth of other types of microorganisms. This L-glutamic acid containing enrichment broth would be particularly valuable in a rapid microbial detection assay such as an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assay. By using this new enrichment broth, the amount of ATP (represented as relative light unit ratio after normalized with the negative test control) from mold growth was significantly increased by reducing the time of detection of microbial contamination in a raw ingredient or personal care product formulation from an incubation period of 48-18 h. By using L-glutamic acid in this enrichment broth, the lag phase of the mold growth cycle was shortened. In response to various concentrations of L-glutamic acid in R-TATP broth, there was an increased amount of ATP that had been produced by mold metabolism in an ATP bioluminescence assay. By using L-glutamic acid in R-TATP broth in an ATP bioluminescence assay, the presence of mold could be detected in 18 h as well as other types of microorganisms that may or may not be present in a test sample. By detecting the presence or absence of microbial contamination in 18 h, it is superior in comparison to a 48-96 h incubation period by using either a standard or rapid detection method.

  12. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes from selective enrichment broth using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Snehal; Sevior, Danielle; Bhave, Mrinal; Palombo, Enzo A

    2014-01-31

    Conventional methods used for primary detection of Listeria monocytogenes from foods and subsequent confirmation of presumptive positive samples involve prolonged incubation and biochemical testing which generally require four to five days to obtain a result. In the current study, a simple and rapid proteomics-based MALDI-TOF MS approach was developed to detect L. monocytogenes directly from selective enrichment broths. Milk samples spiked with single species and multiple species cultures were incubated in a selective enrichment broth for 24h, followed by an additional 6h secondary enrichment. As few as 1 colony-forming unit (cfu) of L. monocytogenes per mL of initial selective broth culture could be detected within 30h. On applying the same approach to solid foods previously implicated in listeriosis, namely chicken pâté, cantaloupe and Camembert cheese, detection was achieved within the same time interval at inoculation levels of 10cfu/mL. Unlike the routine application of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of bacteria from solid media, this study proposes a cost-effective and time-saving detection scheme for direct identification of L. monocytogenes from broth cultures.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics. Globally, foodborne diseases are major causes of illness and fatalities in humans. Hence, there is a continual need for reliable and rapid means for pathogen detection from food samples. Recent applications of MALDI-TOF MS for diagnostic microbiology focused on detection of microbes from clinical specimens. However, the current study has emphasized its use as a tool for detecting the major foodborne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, directly from selective enrichment broths. This proof-of-concept study proposes a detection scheme that is more rapid and simple compared to conventional methods of Listeria detection. Very low levels of the pathogen could be identified from different food samples post-enrichment in

  13. Comparação da eficiência dos caldos de enriquecimento seletivo no isolamento de Salmonella Dublin Comparison of the efficiency of selective enrichment broths for Salmonella Dublin isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare three different selective enrichment broths: Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV, selenite cystine (SC and Muller-Kauffmann tetrathionate (MKT for Salmonella Dublin isolation from faecal samples of calf experimentally infected. The bacteriological procedure involved pre-enrichment stages in Hajna-GN broth (only for the samples inoculated in RV broth, selective enrichment, culture in modified brilliant green agar (BGA, presumptive biochemistry tests (using triple-sugar-iron agar and lysine-agar and slide agglutination test with poli-O and poli-H Salmonella antiserum. The effects of enrichment temperatures using RV broth were also evaluated (37ºC and 42ºC. SC broth was significantly more efficient in the isolation of Salmonella Dublin (P<0,05, whereas RV broth incubated at 42ºC had a lower efficiency in the microbiological isolation.

  14. The role of whole genome sequencing in antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria: report from the EUCAST Subcommittee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellington, M J; Ekelund, O; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    clinical decision making. Internationally agreed principles and quality control (QC) metrics will facilitate early harmonization of analytical approaches and interpretive criteria for WGS-based predictive AST. Only data sets that pass agreed QC metrics should be used in AST predictions. Minimum performance...... of resistance loci. For most bacterial species the major limitations to widespread adoption for WGS-based AST in clinical laboratories remain the current high-cost and limited speed of inferring antimicrobial susceptibility from WGS data as well as the dependency on previous culture because analysis directly...... should be changed to epidemiological cut-off values in order to improve differentiation of wild-type from non-wild-type isolates (harbouring an acquired resistance). Clinical breakpoints should be a secondary comparator. This assessment will reveal whether genetic predictions could also be used to guide...

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile using EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values and disk diffusion correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, L T; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Kahlmeter, G

    2012-01-01

    towards metronidazole, vancomycin and moxifloxacin on Brucella Blood Agar supplemented with hemin and vitamin K. We found an excellent agreement between inhibition zone diameter and MICs. For each MIC value, the inhibition zones varied from 0 to 8 mm, with 93% of values within 6 mm for metronidazole, 95...

  16. Development of EUCAST disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Eitel, Zsuzsa

    2015-01-01

    -clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline by agar dilution method previously. The inhibition zones of the same antibiotics including meropenem disc were determined by the disc diffusion on Brucella blood agar supplemented with haemin...

  17. Imaging for monitoring downstream processing of fermentation broths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa; Baum, Andreas; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    In relation to downstream processing of a fermentation broth coagulation/flocculation is a typical pretreatment method for separating undesirable particles/impurities from the wanted product. In the coagulation process the negatively charged impurities are destabilized by adding of a clarifying...

  18. Filamentation of Campylobacter in broth cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacheervan M Ghaffar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition from rod to filamentous cell morphology has been identified as a response to stressful conditions in many bacterial species and has been ascribed to confer certain survival advantages. Filamentation of Campylobacter jejuni was demonstrated to occur spontaneously on entry in to stationary phase distinguishing it from many other bacteria where a reduction in size is more common. The aim of this study was to investigate the cues that give rise to filamentation of C. jejuni and C. coli and gain insights into the process. Using minimal medium, augmentation of filamentation occurred and it was observed that this morphological change was wide spread amongst C. jejuni strains tested but was not universal in C. coli strains. Filamentation did not appear to be due to release of diffusible molecules, toxic metabolites, or be in response to oxidative stress in the medium. Separated filaments exhibited greater intracellular ATP contents (2.66 to 17.4 fg than spiral forms (0.99 to 1.7 fg and showed enhanced survival in water at 4oC and 37oC compared to spiral cells. These observations support the conclusion that the filaments are adapted to survive extra-intestinal environments. Differences in cell morphology and physiology need to be considered in the context of the design of experimental studies and the methods adopted for the isolation of campylobacters from food, clinical and environmental sources.

  19. Evaluation of TECRA broth, Bolton broth, and direct plating for recovery of Campylobacter spp, from broiler carcass rinsates from commercial processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, L J; Cox, N A; Bailey, J S; Berrang, M E; Cox, J M; Buhr, R J; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Harrison, M A

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a conventional culture broth method (Bolton enrichment), a newly developed proprietary broth method (TECRA Campylobacter enrichment), and direct plating for recovery of Campylobacter spp. from chicken carcass rinsates. Whole carcass rinses were taken from 140 carcasses at rehang (immediately after defeathering but before evisceration) and from 140 carcasses at postchill from eight different processing plants in the United States. The rinsate samples were packed in ice and shipped overnight to the laboratory. Aliquots of the rinsate were transferred into Bolton and TECRA enrichment broths and were direct plated. Standard laboratory procedures with Campy-cefex plates were followed for recovery of Campylobacter spp. For rehang carcasses, 94% were positive for Campylobacter spp. with the TECRA enrichment broth and 74% were positive with the Bolton enrichment broth. For postchill carcasses, 74% were positive for Campylobacter spp. with the TECRA enrichment broth and 71% were positive with the Bolton enrichment broth. Compared with the Bolton enrichment broth, TECRA enrichment broth significantly suppressed non-Campylobacter microflora (P < 0.05). Overall, TECRA enrichment broth yielded an 11% higher total number of Campylobacter-positive samples compared with the Bolton enrichment broth. Campylobacter spp. detection in postchill samples was significantly greater (P < 0.05) by enrichment (84%) than by direct plating (19%). The high number of Campylobacter-positive samples obtained with all procedures indicated that 99% of the carcass rinsates obtained at rehang and 84% obtained at postchill contained Campylobacter spp.

  20. Comparison between E-test and CLSI broth microdilution method for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans oral isolates Comparação entre E-test e o método da microdiluição do CLSI para teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de isolados orais de Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Candida albicans isolated from oral candidosis patients and 30 C. albicans isolated from control individuals were studied. In vitro susceptibility tests were performed for amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and itraconazole through the Clinical and Laboratorial Standards Institute (CLSI reference method and E test system. The results obtained were analyzed and compared. MIC values were similar for the strains isolated from oral candidosis patients and control individuals. The agreement rate for the two methods was 66.67% for amphotericin B, 53.33% for fluconazole, 65% for flucytosine and 45% for itraconazole. According to our data, E test method could be an alternative to trial routine susceptibility testing due to its simplicity. However, it can not be considered a substitute for the CLSI reference method.Trinta Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes portadores de candidose oral e 30 Candida albicans isoladas de indivíduos controle foram estudadas. Testes de susceptibilidade in vitro foram realizados com anfotericina B, fluconazol, 5-flucitosina e itraconazol pelo método do Clinical and Laboratorial Standars Institute (CLSI e por E-test. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados e comparados. Os valores de CIM foram semelhantes para amostras isoladas de pacientes portadores de candidose oral e indivíduos controle. A concordância entre os dois métodos foi de 66,7% para a anfotericina B, 53,33% para o fluconazol, 65% para a flucitosina e 45% para o itraconazol. De acordo com estes resultados, o método do E-test poderia ser uma alternativa para a triagem de casos de rotina pela sua simplicidade. Entretanto, este método não pode ser considerado como um substituto para o método de referência do CLSI.

  1. Dermatophyte susceptibilities to antifungal azole agents tested in vitro by broth macro and microdilution methods Suscetibilidade in vitro de dermatófitos a azóis pelos métodos macro e microdiluição em caldo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Roberto Siqueira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro susceptibility of dermatophytes to the azole antifungals itraconazole, fluconazole and ketoconazole was evaluated by broth macro and microdilution methods, according to recommendations of the CLSI, with some adaptations. Twenty nail and skin clinical isolates, four of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and 16 of T. rubrum were selected for the tests. Itraconazole minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC varied from Foi avaliada a suscetibilidade in vitro de dermatófitos aos antifúngicos itraconazol, fluconazol e cetoconazol, pelos métodos macro e microdiluição em caldo, de acordo com as recomendações do CLSI, com algumas modificações. Foram estudados 20 isolados clínicos de lesões de unha e pele, sendo quatro Trichophyton mentagrophytes e 16 T. rubrum. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM para itraconazol variou de < 0,03 a 0,25 µg/mL pelo método da macrodiluição, e de < 0,03 a 0,5 µg/mL pela microdiluição em caldo; de 0,5 a 64 µg/mL e de 0,125 a 16 µg/mL para fluconazol, respectivamente, pela macro e microdiluição; e de < 0,03 a 0,5 µg/mL por ambos os métodos para cetoconazol. A concordância entre os dois métodos (considerando ± uma diluição foi de 70% para itraconazol, 45% para fluconazol e 85% para cetoconazol. Conclui-se que os isolados estudados foram inibidos por concentrações relativamente baixas dos antifúngicos testados, e os dois métodos apresentam boa concordância, especialmente para itraconazol e cetoconazol.

  2. Evaluation of MIC Strip Isavuconazole test for susceptibility testing of wild-type and non-wild-type Aspergillus fumigatus isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Verweij, Paul; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the MIC Strip Isavuconazole test against EUCAST E.Def 9.3 by using 40 wild-type and 39 CYP51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus strains. The strip full inhibition endpoint (FIE) and 80% growth inhibition endpoint were determined by two independent readers, reader 1 (R1) and R2. The essent......We evaluated the MIC Strip Isavuconazole test against EUCAST E.Def 9.3 by using 40 wild-type and 39 CYP51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus strains. The strip full inhibition endpoint (FIE) and 80% growth inhibition endpoint were determined by two independent readers, reader 1 (R1) and R2...

  3. Removing Bacillus subtilis from fermentation broth using alumina nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dashuai; Mu, Xin; Xu, Zhenxing; Du, Zongjun; Chen, Guanjun

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an efficient separation technology using Al2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) was developed for removing Bacillus subtilis from fermentation broth. The dosage of alumina nanoparticles used for separating B. subtilis increased during the culture process and remained stable in the stationary phase of the culture process. The pH of the culture-broth was also investigated for its effects on flocculation efficiency, and showed an acidic pH could enhance the flocculation efficiency. The attachment mechanisms of Al2O3 NPs to the B. subtilis surface were investigated, and the zeta potential analysis showed that Al2O3 NPs could attach to B. subtilis via electrostatic attachment. Finally, the metabolite content and the antibacterial effect of the fermentation supernatants were detected and did not significantly differ between alumina nanoparticle separation and centrifugation separation. Together, these results indicate a great potential for a highly efficient and economical method for removing B. subtilis from fermentation broth using alumina nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Production of Viscous Dextran-Containing Whey-Sucrose Broths by Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 14935

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Robert D.; Bodie, Elizabeth A.

    1984-01-01

    Viscous broths were produced by growing Leuconostoc mesenteroides on a medium containing whey supplemented with sucrose. When combined with similarly produced xanthan-containing broths, a synergistic increase in viscosity was observed.

  5. New antioxidants from the culture broth of Hericium coralloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Yul; Woo, E-Eum; Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2018-05-17

    In our effort to find antioxidants from the higher fungi, we isolated three new compounds (1-3) with a known compound, spirobenzofuran (4), from the culture broth of Hericium coralloides. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of these compounds, and we determined the chemical structures through spectroscopic methods. These compounds exhibited antioxidant activity in the range of IC 50 values of 29-66 μM in the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging assay.

  6. Determination of Ideal Broth Formulations Needed to Prepare Hydrous Cerium Oxide Microspheres via the Internal Gelation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Jack Lee [ORNL; Chi, Anthony [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    A simple test tube methodology was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing hydrous cerium oxide microspheres via the internal gelation process.1 Broth formulations of cerium ammonium nitrate [(NH4)2Ce(NO3)6], hexamethylenetetramine, and urea were found that can be used to prepare hydrous cerium oxide gel spheres in the temperature range of 60 to 90 C. A few gel-forming runs were made in which microspheres were prepared with some of these formulations to be able to equate the test-tube gelation times to actual gelation times. These preparations confirmed that the test-tube methodology is reliable for determining the ideal broth formulations.

  7. Species of Genus Ganoderma (Agaricomycetes) Fermentation Broth: A Novel Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilerdzic, Jasmina; Kosanic, Marijana; Stajić, Mirjana; Vukojevic, Jelena; Ranković, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    The bioactivity of Ganoderma lucidum basidiocarps has been well documented, but there are no data on the medicinal properties of its submerged cultivation broth nor on the other species of the genus Ganoderma. Thus the aim of this study was to test the potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fermentation broth obtained after submerged cultivation of G. applanatum, G. carnosum, and G. lucidum. DPPH· scavenging ability, total phenols, and flavonoid contents were measured to determine the antioxidative potential of Ganoderma spp. fermentation filtrates, whereas their antimicrobial potential was studied using the microdilution method. DPPH· scavenging activity of G. lucidum fermentation filtrates was significantly higher than that of G. applanatum and G. carnosum, with the maximum (39.67%) obtained from strain BEOFB 432. This filtrate also contained the highest concentrations of phenols (134.89 μg gallic acid equivalents/mL) and flavonoids (42.20 μg quercetin equivalent/mL). High correlations between the activity and phenol content in the extracts showed that these compounds were active components of the antioxidative activity. G. lucidum strain BEOFB 432 was the most effective antibacterial agent, whereas strain BEOFB 434 has proven to be the most effective antifungal agent. The study showed that Ganoderma spp. fermentation filtrates are novel potent antioxidative and antimicrobial agents that could be obtained more quickly and cheaper than basidiocarps.

  8. En Route towards European Clinical breakpoints for veterinary antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A.; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T.; Lees, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve

  9. An integrated platform for gas-diffusion separation and electrochemical determination of ethanol on fermentation broths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, Gabriela Furlan [Microfabrication Laboratory, Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Vieira, Luis Carlos Silveira; Gobbi, Angelo Luiz [Microfabrication Laboratory, Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Lima, Renato Sousa [Microfabrication Laboratory, Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo, E-mail: kubota@iqm.unicamp.br [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil)

    2015-05-22

    Highlights: • Integrated platform was developed to determine ethanol in fermentation broths. • The designed system integrates gas diffusion separation with voltammetric detection. • Detector relied on Ni(OH){sub 2}-modified electrode stabilized by Co{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} insertion. • Separation was made by PTFE membrane separating sample from electrolyte (receptor). • Despite the sample complexity, accurate tests were achieved by direct interpolation. - Abstract: An integrated platform was developed for point-of-use determination of ethanol in sugar cane fermentation broths. Such analysis is important because ethanol reduces its fuel production efficiency by altering the alcoholic fermentation step when in excess. The custom-designed platform integrates gas diffusion separation with voltammetric detection in a single analysis module. The detector relied on a Ni(OH){sub 2}-modified electrode. It was stabilized by uniformly depositing cobalt and cadmium hydroxides as shown by XPS measurements. Such tests were in accordance with the hypothesis related to stabilization of the Ni(OH){sub 2} structure by insertion of Co{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions in this structure. The separation step, in turn, was based on a hydrophobic PTFE membrane, which separates the sample from receptor solution (electrolyte) where the electrodes were placed. Parameters of limit of detection and analytical sensitivity were estimated to be 0.2% v/v and 2.90 μA % (v/v){sup −1}, respectively. Samples of fermentation broth were analyzed by both standard addition method and direct interpolation in saline medium based-analytical curve. In this case, the saline solution exhibited ionic strength similar to those of the samples intended to surpass the tonometry colligative effect of the samples over analyte concentration data by attributing the reduction in quantity of diffused ethanol vapor majorly to the electrolyte. The approach of analytical curve provided rapid, simple and accurate

  10. Rheology and hydrodynamic properties of Tolypocladium inflatum fermentation broth and its simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchapattarapong, N; Anderson, W A; Bai, F; Moo-Young, M

    2005-07-01

    A physico-chemical, two phase simulated pseudoplastic fermentation (SPF) broth was investigated in which Solka Floc cellulose fibre was used to simulate the filamentous biomass, and a mixture of 0.1% (w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.15 M aqueous sodium chloride was used to simulate the liquid fraction of the fermentation broth. An investigation of the rheological behaviour and hydrodynamic properties of the SPF broth was carried out, and compared to both a fungal Tolypocladium inflatum fermentation broth and a CMC solution in a 50 L stirred tank bioreactor equipped with conventional Rushton turbines. The experimental data confirmed the ability of the two phase SPF broth to mimic both the T. inflatum broth bulk rheology as well as the mixing and mass transfer behaviour. In contrast, using a homogeneous CMC solution with a similar bulk rheology to simulate the fermentation resulted in a significant underestimation of the mass transfer and mixing times. The presence of the solid phase and its microstructure in the SPF broth appear to play a significant role in gas holdup and bubble size, thus leading to the different behaviours. The SPF broth seems to be a more accurate simulation fluid that can be used to predict the bioreactor mixing and mass transfer performance in filamentous fermentations, in comparison with CMC solutions used in some previous studies.

  11. Lethal paralytic shellfish poisoning from consumption of green mussel broth, Western Samar, Philippines, August 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Katrina Ching

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In July 2013, the Philippines’ Event-Based Surveillance & Response Unit received a paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP report from Tarangnan, Western Samar. A team from the Department of Health conducted an outbreak investigation to identify the implicated source and risk factors in coastal villages known for green mussel production and exportation. Methods: A case was defined as a previously well individual from Tarangan, Western Samar who developed gastrointestinal symptoms and any motor and/or sensory symptoms after consumption of shellfish from 29 June to 4 July 2013 in the absence of any known cause. The team reviewed medical records, conducted active case finding and a case-control study. Relatives of cases who died were interviewed. Sera and urine specimens, green mussel and seawater samples were tested for saxitoxin levels using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Thirty-one cases and two deaths were identified. Consumption of >1 cup of green mussel broth was associated with being a case. Seawater sample was positive for Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and green mussel samples were positive for saxitoxin. Inspection revealed villagers practice open defecation and improper garbage disposal. Conclusion: This PSP outbreak was caused by the consumption of the green mussel broth contaminated by saxitoxin. As a result of this outbreak, dinoflagellate and saxitoxin surveillance was established, and since the outbreak, there have been no harmful algal blooms event or PSP case reported since. A “Save Cambatutay Bay” movement, focusing on proper waste disposal practice and clean-up drives has been mobilized.

  12. Separation technologies for the recovery and dehydration of alcohols from fermentation broths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-column distillation followed by molecular sieve adsorption is currently the standard method for producing fuel grade ethanol from dilute fermentation broths in modern corn-to-ethnol facilities. As the liquid biofuels industry transitions to lignocellulosic feedstocks, expan...

  13. [Kinetic simulation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal with fermentation broth as carbon source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Yin-Guang

    2013-07-01

    As a high-quality carbon source, fermentation broth could promote the phosphorus removal efficiency in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The transformation of substrates in EBPR fed with fermentation broth was well simulated using the modified activated sludge model No. 2 (ASM2) based on the carbon source metabolism. When fermentation broth was used as the sole carbon source, it was found that heterotrophic bacteria acted as a promoter rather than a competitor to the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAO). When fermentation broth was used as a supplementary carbon source of real municipal wastewater, the wastewater composition was optimized for PAO growth; and the PAO concentration, which was increased by 3.3 times compared to that in EBPR fed with solely real municipal wastewater, accounting for about 40% of the total biomass in the reactor.

  14. Energy efficient recovery and dehydration of ethanol from fermentation broths by Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower ...

  15. Membrane-based recovery and dehydration of alcohols from fermentation broths - of materials and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. As the liquid biofuels industry transitions to lignocellulosic feedstocks, expands the end product portfolio to include other alcoho...

  16. Investigation of susceptibility of Staphylococcus species to some antibacterial drugs by disk diffusion and broth microdilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ašanin Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify isolated Staphylococcus species and to investigate their sensitivity to some antibacterial drugs. The material used for these investigations were Staphylococcus isolates originating from milk samples. A total of 25 strains of Staphylococcus isolates were examined, including 24 from milk samples from cows with mastitis, and one strain was isolated from a milk sample from a cow following treatment for mastitis. For primary identification, catalase and oxidase tests were used, as well as the free coagulase test. Following the preliminary tests, the isolated strains were identified using commercial systems ID32 STAPH (bioMérieux, France and the BBL Crystal Gram-Positive ID Kit (Becton Dickinson, USA according to the enclosed instructions. The Staphylococcus isolates were examined for sensitivity to the following: oxacillin, penicillin, cefoxitin, gentamicin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim, and vacomycin using the disk diffusion method and the broth microdilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Strandards Institute - CLSI(2003, and the results were interpreted according to CLSI recommendations from 2008 and 2010. Antibiogram disks manufactured by Becton Dickinson (USA were used, and the broth microdilution method was applied using pure antibiotic substances from different manufacturers: erythromycin, chloramphenicol, cefoxitin, gentamicin, oxacillin, tetracycline (Sigma Aldrich, USA, sulfametoxazol (Fluka, USA, penicillin (Calbiochem, Germany, vancomycin (Abbott laboratories, USA, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim (Zdravlje A.D., Serbia. All 25 strains were catalase positive and oxidase negative. Of the 25 strains, 19 were coagulase positive and 6 were coagulase negative.With the implementation of the disk diffusion method on 19 strains of S. aureus, 17 were established to be resistant to penicillin (89.5%, and 2 strains to gentamicin

  17. The influences of fish infusion broth on the biogenic amines formation by lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeray Küley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of fish infusion decarboxylase broth (IDB on biogenic amines (BA formation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB were investigated. BA productions by single LAB strains were tested in five different fish (anchovy, mackerel, white shark, sardine and gilthead seabream IDB. The result of the study showed that significant differences in ammonia (AMN and BA production were observed among the LAB strains in fish IDB (p < 0.05. The highest AMN and TMA production by LAB strains were observed for white shark IDB. The all tested bacteria had decarboxylation activity in fish IDB. The uppermost accumulated amines by LAB strains were tyramine (TYM, dopamine, serotonin and spermidine. The maximum histamine production was observed in sardine (101.69 mg/L and mackerel (100.84 mg/L IDB by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Pediococcus acidophilus, respectively. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Pediococcus acidophilus had a high TYM producing capability (2943 mg/L and 1157 mg/L in sardine IDB.

  18. Aerococcus urinae and Aerococcus sanguinicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carkaci, Derya; Nielsen, Xiaohui C.; Fuursted, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    , cefotaxime, meropenem, vancomycin, linezolid, and rifampicin. Methods: Three susceptibility testing methods were used; disk diffusion according to The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) standardized disk diffusion methodology and MIC determination with Etest and broth...... were found susceptible to all six antimicrobial agents: penicillin, cefotaxime, meropenem, vancomycin, linezolid, and rifampicin....

  19. Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibilities of Corynebacterium species by broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, K; Laverdière, M; Rivest, R

    1996-01-01

    Corynebacterium species are increasingly being implicated in foreign-body infections and in immunocompromised-host infections. However, there are no specific recommendations on the method or the criteria to use in order to determine the in vitro activities of the antibiotics commonly used to treat Corynebacterium infections. The first aim of our study was to compare the susceptibilities of various species of Corynebacterium to vancomycin, erythromycin, and penicillin by using a broth microdilution method and a disk diffusion method. Second, the activity of penicillin against our isolates was assessed by using the interpretative criteria recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards for the determination of the susceptibility of streptococci and Listeria monocytogenes to penicillin. Overall, 100% of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, while considerable variations in the activities of erythromycin and penicillin were noted for the different species tested, including the non-Corynebacterium jeikeium species. A good correlation in the susceptibilities of vancomycin and erythromycin between the disk diffusion and the microdilution methods was observed. However, a 5% rate of major or very major errors was detected with the Listeria criteria, while a high rate of minor errors (18%) was noted when the streptococcus criteria were used. Our findings indicate considerable variations in the activities of erythromycin and penicillin against the various species of Corynebacterium. Because of the absence of definite recommendations, important discrepancies were observed between the methods and the interpretations of the penicillin activity. PMID:8849254

  20. Antibiotic Fermentation Broth Treatment by a pilot upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, T; Kabuk, H A; Varinca, K B; Debik, E; Durak, I; Kavurt, C

    2012-10-01

    In this study, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) mesophilic reactor was used to remove antibiotic fermentation broth wastewater. The hydraulic retention time was held constant at 13.3 days. The volumetric organic loading value increased from 0.33 to 7.43 kg(COD)m(-3)d(-1) using antibiotic fermentation broth wastewater gradually diluted with various ratios of domestic wastewater. A COD removal efficiency of 95.7% was obtained with a maximum yield of 3,700 L d(-1) methane gas production. The results of the study were interpreted using the modified Stover-Kincannon, first-order, substrate mass balance and Van der Meer and Heertjes kinetic models. The obtained kinetic coefficients showed that antibiotic fermentation broth wastewater can be successfully treated using a UASB reactor while taking COD removal and methane production into account. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetics and adsorption isotherm of lactic acid from fermentation broth onto activated charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seankham Soraya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated charcoal was applied for the recovery of lactic acid in undissociated form from fermentation broth. Lactic acid was obtained from the fermentation of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1340 using acid hydrolyzed Jerusalem artichoke as a carbon source. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm and kinetics for the lactic acid separation were investigated. The experimental data for lactic acid adsorption from fermentation broth were best described by the Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetics with R2 values of 0.99. The initial adsorption rate was 41.32 mg/g⋅min at the initial lactic acid concentration of 40 g/L.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Exopolysaccharide with Immunomodulatory Activity from Fermentation Broth of Morchella Conica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-an Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of this study: Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Morchella conica (M. conica is a species of rare edible mushroom whose multiple medicinal functions have been proven. Thus, the objective of this study is to isolate and characterize of exopolysaccharide from submerged mycelial culture of M. conica, and to evaluate its immunomodulatory activity.MethodsA water-soluble Morchella conica Polysaccharides (MCP were extracted and isolated from the fermentation broth of M. conica through a combination of DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300 HR chromatograph. NMR and IR spectroscopy has played a developing role in identification of polysaccharide with different structure and composition from fungal and plant sources, as well as complex glycosaminoglycans of animal origin. Thus, NMR and IR spectroscopy were used to analyze the chemical structure and composition of the isolated polysaccharide. Moreover, the polysaccharide was tested for its immunomodulatory activity at different concentrations using in vitro model.ResultsThe results showed that MCP may significantly modulate nitric oxide production in macrophages, and promote splenocytes proliferation. Analysis from HPLC, infrared spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that MCP was a homogeneous mannan with an average molecular weight of approximately 81.2 kDa. The glycosidic bond links is [rightwards arrow]6-alpha-D-Man p-(1[rightwards arrow].ConclusionThe results suggested that the extracted MCP may modulate nitric oxide production in macrophages and promote splenocytes proliferation, and it may act as a potent immunomodulatory agent.

  3. Multivariate models for prediction of rheological characteristics of filamentous fermentation broth from the size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Nanna; Stocks, Stuart; Gernaey, Krist V

    2008-05-01

    The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) can be used to extract information from particle size distribution data and predict rheological properties. Samples from commercially relevant Aspergillus oryzae fermentations conducted in 550 L pilot scale tanks were characterized with respect to particle size distribution, biomass concentration, and rheological properties. The rheological properties were described using the Herschel-Bulkley model. Estimation of all three parameters in the Herschel-Bulkley model (yield stress (tau(y)), consistency index (K), and flow behavior index (n)) resulted in a large standard deviation of the parameter estimates. The flow behavior index was not found to be correlated with any of the other measured variables and previous studies have suggested a constant value of the flow behavior index in filamentous fermentations. It was therefore chosen to fix this parameter to the average value thereby decreasing the standard deviation of the estimates of the remaining rheological parameters significantly. Using a PLSR model, a reasonable prediction of apparent viscosity (micro(app)), yield stress (tau(y)), and consistency index (K), could be made from the size distributions, biomass concentration, and process information. This provides a predictive method with a high predictive power for the rheology of fermentation broth, and with the advantages over previous models that tau(y) and K can be predicted as well as micro(app). Validation on an independent test set yielded a root mean square error of 1.21 Pa for tau(y), 0.209 Pa s(n) for K, and 0.0288 Pa s for micro(app), corresponding to R(2) = 0.95, R(2) = 0.94, and R(2) = 0.95 respectively. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Analysis of lard in meatball broth using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, Endah; Rohman, Abdul; Triyana, Kuwat

    2014-01-01

    Meatball is one of the favorite foods in Indonesia. For the economic reason (due to the price difference), the substitution of beef meat with pork can occur. In this study, FTIR spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics of partial least square (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA) was used for analysis of pork fat (lard) in meatball broth. Lard in meatball broth was quantitatively determined at wavenumber region of 1018-1284 cm(-1). The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) values obtained were 0.9975 and 1.34% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, the classification of lard and beef fat in meatball broth as well as in commercial samples was performed at wavenumber region of 1200-1000 cm(-1). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics can be used for quantitative analysis and classification of lard in meatball broth for Halal verification studies. The developed method is simple in operation, rapid and not involving extensive sample preparation. © 2013.

  5. The effect of enrichment broth and temperature on the recovery of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statement of the Problem: No single enrichment broth or temperature is used consistently throughout the research, regulatory or industry laboratories for the detection of Salmonella. This lack of a single methodology leads to confusion and possible bias both for and against Salmonella serotypes. The...

  6. Regression analysis and categorical agreement of fluconazole disk zone diameters and minimum inhibitory concentration by broth microdilution of clinical isolates of Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P; Kashyap, B

    2017-06-01

    Rampant use of fluconazole in Candida infections has led to predominance of less susceptible non-albicans Candida over Candida albicans. The aim of the study was to determine if zone diameters around fluconazole disk can be used to estimate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for clinical isolates of Candida species and vice versa. Categorical agreement between the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommended disk diffusion and CLSI broth microdilution method was sought for. Antifungal susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and Broth microdilution was done as per CLSI document M44-S3 and CLSI document M27-S4 for Candida isolates respectively. Regression analysis correlating zone diameters to MIC value was done. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to determine correlation between disk zone diameters and MICs. Candida albicans (33.3%) was clearly outnumbered by other non-albicans species predominantly Candida tropicalis (42.5%) and Candida glabrata (18.4%). Ten percent of the strains were resistant to fluconazole by disk diffusion and 13% by broth microdilution. MIC range for Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis ranged from≤0.25-64μg/ml while that of Candida glabrata ranged from≤0.25-128μg/ml. Categorical agreement between disk diffusion and broth microdilution was 86.8%. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was -0.5975 indicating moderate negative correlation between the two variables. Zone sizes can be used to estimate the MIC values, although with limited accuracy. There should be a constant effort to upgrade the guidelines in view of new clinical data, and laboratories should make an active effort to incorporate them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. AKTIVITAS EKSTRAK ETANOL DAN FRAKSI AKAR SINGAWALANG (Petiveria alliacea L. TERHADAP JAMUR PENYEBAB KETOMBE DENGAN METODE BROTH MICRODILUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Indriyanti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dandruff was an anomaly of scalp caused by abnormal growth of Pityrosporum ovale. Ketoconazole and sulfuric compounds known as antifungal, include antifungal against Pityrosporum ovale. One of medicinal plant that has polysulfide compounds was Singawalang (Petiveria alliacea L.. Activity of ethanol extract and fraction of singawalang roots tested using microdilution broth method appropriate to Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI standard, then growth profiles determined by colony count. Microdilution test results showed that Singawalang roots extract has antifungal activity against Pityrosporum ovale with Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC 16 μg/mL and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC 64 μg/mL. Fraction that has highest activity against Pityrosporum ovale was n-hexane fraction of Singawalang roots with MIC 16 µg/ml dan MFC 128 μg/mL. The higher activity of the extract predicted that there were some polysulfide compounds have synergic activity.  Key words : singalawang roots, polysulfide, Pityrosporum ovale   ABSTRAK Ketombe adalah suatu keadaan anomali pada kulit kepala disebabkan jamur Pityrosporum ovale dalam jumlah diatas normal. Selama ini antijamur yang digunakan adalah ketokonazol. Selain itu, senyawa sulfur juga diketahui aktif terhadap jamur. Salah satu tanaman yang telah diteliti mengandung senyawa polisulfida adalah tanaman singawalang (Petiveria alliacea L.. Penelitian aktivitasnya terhadap Pityrosporum ovale dilakukan dengan Broth Microdilution sesuai standar Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI. Konsentrasi Hambat Minumum (KHM terkecil ada pada ekstrak dan fraksi n-heksan, yaitu 16 μg/mL, seperempat dari aktivitas ketokonazol. Konsentrasi Fungisidal Minimum (KFM terkecil ekstrak adalah 64 μg/mL, dan pada fraksi n-heksan ekstrak etanol akar singawalang dengan konsentrasi 128 μg/mL. Diduga aktivitas antijamur lebih kuat pada ekstrak karena adanya kombinasi aktivitas beberapa senyawa

  8. Impact of boiling conditions on the molecular and sensory profile of a vegetable broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Alice; Mauroux, Olivier; Matthey-Doret, Walter; Barcos, Eugenia Maria; Beaud, Fernand; Bousbaine, Ahmed; Viton, Florian; Smarrito-Menozzi, Candice

    2015-02-11

    Low-pressure cooking has recently been identified as an alternative to ambient and high-pressure cooking to provide food with enhanced organoleptic properties. This work investigates the impact of the cooking process at different pressures on the molecular and sensory profile of a vegetable broth. Experimental results showed similar sensory and chemical profiles of vegetable broths when boiling at 0.93 and 1.5 bar, while an enhancement of sulfur volatile compounds correlated with a greater leek content and savory aroma was observed when boiling at low pressure (80 °C/0.48 bar). Thus, low-pressure cooking would allow preserving the most labile volatiles likely due to the lower water boiling temperature and the reduced level of oxygen. This study evidenced chemical and sensory impact of pressure during cooking and demonstrated that the flavor profile of culinary preparations can be enhanced by applying low-pressure conditions.

  9. Incidence of Propionibacterium acnes in initially culture-negative thioglycollate broths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvich, L.; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Justesen, U. S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the incidence of Propionibacterium acnes in thioglycollate broths reported as culture-negative at the Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, to evaluate whether 5 days of incubation was enough to find all relevant cases. Five....... After exclusion criteria were met, P. acnes was cultured from ten out of 151 patients (6.6%) in the infected group and from one out of 138 participants (0.7%) in the control group. This resulted in more findings of P. acnes in the infected group on day 14 than on day 5 (p 0.002). Furthermore, P. acnes...... was cultured more often from bone tissue and tissue surrounding foreign materials on day 14 than on day 5 (p 0.04). Clinical microbiology laboratories should consider incubating thioglycollate broths for at least 14 days to find all relevant cases of P. acnes, especially when it comes to bone tissue and tissue...

  10. New phenyl-ethanediols from the culture broth of Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan-Qiu; Qin, Xiang-Dong; Shao, Hong-Jun; Fang, Li-Zhen; Wang, Fei; Ding, Zhi-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2007-04-01

    A new phenyl-ethanediol, (1S)-(4-acetylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (1), and a new natural product, (1S)-(3-ethenylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (2), were isolated from the culture broth of the basidiomycete Boletus edulis together with three related known compounds, 1-(4-ethylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (3), 1-(3-ethylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (4) and 1-(3-formylphenyl)-ethanone (5). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 2D-NMR techniques.

  11. Sugaring-out extraction of acetoin from fermentation broth by coupling with fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jian-Ying; Ma, Lin-Hui; Wang, Zhuang-Fei; Guan, Wen-Tian; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2017-03-01

    Acetoin is a natural flavor and an important bio-based chemical which could be separated from fermentation broth by solvent extraction, salting-out extraction or recovered in the form of derivatives. In this work, a novel method named as sugaring-out extraction coupled with fermentation was tried in the acetoin production by Bacillus subtilis DL01. The effects of six solvents on bacterial growth and the distribution of acetoin and glucose in different solvent-glucose systems were explored. The operation parameters such as standing time, glucose concentration, and volume ratio of ethyl acetate to fermentation broth were determined. In a system composed of fermentation broth, glucose (100%, m/v) and two-fold volume of ethyl acetate, nearly 100% glucose was distributed into bottom phase, and 61.2% acetoin into top phase without coloring matters and organic acids. The top phase was treated by vacuum distillation to remove solvent and purify acetoin, while the bottom phase was used as carbon source to produce acetoin in the next batch of fermentation.

  12. Separation and purification of γ-aminobutyric acid from fermentation broth by flocculation and chromatographic methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Duan, Qiang; Wang, Depei; Zhang, Yunze; Zheng, Chunyang

    2013-02-27

    To date, the multifunctional γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is mainly produced by microbial fermentation in industry. The purpose of this study was to find an effective method for separation and purification of 31.2 g/L initial GABA from the fermentation broth of Enterococcus raffinosus TCCC11660. To remove the impurities from fermentation broth, flocculation pretreatment using chitosan and sodium alginate was first implemented to facilitate subsequent filtration. Ultrafiltration followed two discontinuous diafiltration steps to effectively remove proteins and macromolecular pigments, and the resulting permeate was further decolored by DA201-CII resin at a high decoloration ratio and GABA recovery. Subsequently, ion exchange chromatography (IEC) with Amberlite 200C resin and gradient elution were applied for GABA separation from glutamate and arginine. Finally, GABA crystals of 99.1% purity were prepared via warm ethanol precipitation twice. Overall, our results reveal that the successive process including flocculation, filtration, ultrafiltration, decoloration, IEC, and crystallization is promising for scale-up GABA extraction from fermentation broth.

  13. UV-Heat Treatments for the Control of Foodborne Microbial Pathogens in Chicken Broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gouma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation established the process criteria for using UV-C light and mild heat (UV-H treatment to inactivate 5-Log10 cycles (performance criterion of common foodborne pathogen populations, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, when inoculated in chicken broth. To define the target microorganism and the proper UV-H treatment conditions (including UV dose, treatment time, and temperature that would achieve the stated performance criterion, mathematical equations based on Geeraerd’s model were developed for each microorganism. For the sake of comparison, inactivation equations for heat treatments were also performed on the same chicken broth and for the same microorganisms. L. monocytogenes was the most UV-H resistant microorganism at all temperatures, requiring a UV dose between 6.10 J/mL (5.6 min and 2.26 J/mL (2.09 min to achieve 5-Log10 reductions. In comparison with UV treatments at room temperatures, the combination of UV and mild heat allowed both the UV dose and treatment time to be reduced by 30% and 63% at 55°C and 60°C, respectively. Compared to heat treatments, the UV-H process reduced the heating time for 5-Log10 reductions of all the investigated microorganisms in chicken broth from 20-fold to 2-fold when the operating temperature varied from 53 to 60°C.

  14. Modeling of mixing in stirred bioreactors 4. mixing time for aerated bacteria, yeasts and fungus broths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixing time for bioreactors depends mainly on the rheoiogicai properties of the broths, the biomass concentration and morphology, mixing system characteristics and fermentation conditions. For quantifying the influence of these factors on the mixing efficiency for stirred bioreactors, aerated broths of bacteria (P. shermanii, yeasts (S. cerevisiae and fungi (P. chrysogenum, free mycelia and mycelial aggregates of different concentrations have been investigated using a laboratory bioreactor with a double turbine impeller. The experimental data indicated that the influence of the rotation speed, aeration rate and stirrer positions on the mixing intensity strongly differ from one system to another and must be correlated with the microorganism characteristics, namely: the biomass concentration and morphology. Moreover, compared with non-aerated broths, variations of the mixing time with the considered parameters are very different, due to the complex flow mechanism of gas-liquid dispersions. By means of the experimental data and using a multiregression analysis method some mathematical correlations for the mixing time of the general form: tm = a1*Cx2+a2*Cx+a3*IgVa+a4-N2+a5-N+a6/a7*L2+a8*L+a9 were established. The proposed equations offer good agreement with the experiments, the average deviation being ±6.7% - ±9.4 and are adequate for the flow regime Re < 25,000.

  15. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) beads for nattokinase purification from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengli; Xing, Jianmin; Guan, Yueping; Liu, Huizhou

    2006-09-01

    An effective method for purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth using magnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads immobilized with p-aminobenzamidine was proposed in this study. Firstly, magnetic PMMA beads with a narrow size distribution were prepared by spraying suspension polymerization. Then, they were highly functionalized via transesterification reaction with polyethylene glycol. The surface hydroxyl-modified magnetic beads obtained were further modified with chloroethylamine to transfer the surface amino-modified magnetic functional beads. The morphology and surface functionality of the magnetic beads were examined by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. An affinity ligand, p-aminobenzamidine was covalently immobilized to the amino-modified magnetic beads by the glutaraldehyde method for nattokinase purification directly from the fermentation broth. The purification factor and the recovery of the enzyme activity were found to be 8.7 and 85%, respectively. The purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth by magnetic beads only took 40 min, which shows a very fast purification of nattokinase compared to traditional purification methods.

  16. Standardization of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations of aquatic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, R.A.; Walker, R.D.; Carson, J.

    2005-01-01

    (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, ormetoprim/sulfadimethoxine, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) QC ranges were determined using dry- and frozen-form 96-well plates and cation-adjusted Mueller...

  17. In Vitro Comparison of Ertapenem, Meropenem, and Imipenem against Isolates of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria and Nocardia by Use of Broth Microdilution and Etest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Killingley, Jessica; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Bridge, Linda; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    We compared the activities of the carbapenems ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem against 180 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and 170 isolates of Nocardia using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A subset of isolates was tested using the Etest. The rate of susceptibility to ertapenem and meropenem was limited and less than that to imipenem for the RGM. Analysis of major and minor discrepancies revealed that >90% of the isolates of Nocardia had higher MICs by the broth microdilution method than by Etest, in contrast to the lower broth microdilution MICs seen for >80% of the RGM. Imipenem remains the most active carbapenem against RGM, including Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus For Nocardia, imipenem was significantly more active only against Nocardia farcinica Although there may be utility in testing the activities of the newer carbapenems against Nocardia, their activities against the RGM should not be routinely tested. Testing by Etest is not recommended by the CLSI. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Método de difusión con discos para la determinación de sensibilidad a fluconazol en aislamientos de Candida spp Disk diffusion method for fluconazole susceptibility testing of Candida spp. isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rodero

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 1193 aislamientos clínicos para estandarizar y evaluar un método de difusión con discos de fluconazol de lectura visual, que permita detectar levaduras sensibles al antifúngico. Las especies analizadas fueron: Candida albicans (n=584, Candida parapsilosis (n=196, Candida tropicalis (n=200, Candida glabrata (n=113, Candida krusei (n=50, Candida spp. y otras levaduras oportunistas (n=50. Los discos fueron manufacturados en el INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se midieron los halos de inhibición del crecimiento producidos por fluconazol y la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM por el método de referencia M27-A2 modificado por EUCAST. Se establecieron los valores de corte del método de difusión en: ≥16 mm para levaduras sensibles a fluconazol (CIM ≤ 8 µg/ml, entre 9 y 15 mm para sensibles dependientes de la dosis (CIM = 16-32 mg/ml y ≤ 8 mm para resistentes (CIM ≥ 64 µg/ml. El método de difusión tuvo 94,7% de concordancia con el de referencia, con 0,2% de errores very major y 0,3% de errores major. La reproducibilidad inter e intralaboratorio fue muy buena. Para detectar aislamientos sensibles a fluconazol, este método resulta confiable y de bajo costo; sin embargo, es conveniente que los aislamientos con halos ≤ 15 mm sean reevaluados por el método de referencia.In order to standardize and evaluate a disk diffusion method with visual reading to detect in vitro fluconazole susceptibility of yeast, 1193 clinical isolates were tested. These included 584 Candida albicans, 196 Candida parapsilosis, 200 Candida tropicalis, 113 Candida glabrata, 50 Candida krusei and 50 Candida spp. and other opportunistic yeasts. The disks were manufactured in the INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". The disk diffusion method results were compared to MIC results obtained by the reference CLSI M27-A2 broth microdilution method modified by EUCAST. The interpretative breakpoints for in vitro susceptibility testing of fluconazole

  19. Separating 2,3-butanediol from fermentation broth using n-butylaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a complete separation process for 2,3-butanediol fermentation broth has been developed using reactive-extraction and reactive-distillation. n-Butylaldehyde can be used as both reactant and extractant in the process. Equilibrium and kinetics were studied on the reaction between 2,3-butanediol and n-butylaldehyde using different catalysts. Pseudo-Homogeneous model was used to describe the reaction behavior. The kinetic parameters were determined by analyzing experimental data. The results revealed that the reaction enthalpy ΔrH0 = −21.58 ± 1.63 kJ mol−1. The reaction rate was found to increase with increasing reaction temperature and had a linear correlation with catalyst amount. The activity energy for H2SO4 system and HCl system was 57.52 ± 5.35 and 58.14 ± 5.06 kJ mol−1, respectively. Feasible operation conditions have been obtained as follows: volume ratio of n-butylaldehyde to fermentation broth is 0.2; feed molar ratio of water and 2-propyl-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane (n-butylaldehyde 2,3-butanediol acetal for hydrolysis is 3.0; theoretical plate number for reactive-distillation column is 10 with concentration of HCl solution of 0.5 mol/L. With the above conditions, more than 90% of 2,3-butanediol can be recovered from fermentation broth by reactive-extraction process and the purity of final product can be over 99%.

  20. Carbon black selection from simulated broth solution for ADU gel spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jeong Kyung; Ho, Eom Sung; Kim, Yeon Ku; Cho, Moon Seoung

    2012-01-01

    The VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor) is one of the reactor concepts in the Gen IV International Collaboration. The nuclear fuel of a VHTR in the US is based on microspheres containing a mixture of UO 2 and UC 2 coated with multi carbon layers and a SiC layer. This mixture is called a 'UCO (uranium oxi carbide)' kernel. The fabrication process of this kernel was based on the sol-gel method between an ADUN and HMTA and urea, a process referred to as internal gelation. UCO kernel microspheres were first prepared at ORNL in the late 1970s. CB(Carbon Black) as a carbon source in the final UCO kernel is added during the broth solution preparation, in the processing of UCO kernel fabrication. The preparation of a good quality UCO kernel is very difficult due to the homogeneous distribution of carbon in a UCO kernel. The key requirement to obtain a good quality kernel is a uniform distribution of carbon in the ADU gel sphere forming process before the thermal treatment, i.e., during the gel formation step. The internal gelation concept was adapted in ADU gel sphere fabrication in the ORNL process of the US. Generally, UO 2 kernel microspheres are prepared by an internal gelation method (USA, India) or external gelation method (Germany, China, Japan). The UCO kernel microspheres prepared only in the US, use an internal gelation method. A material flow chart on the preparation of the microsphere kernel is simply shown in Fig. 1. The broth solution preparation, the raw material, additives, and thermal steps such as calcining and sintering processes were different to compared with the external gelation and internal gelation methods. In this study, we first carried out the matching CB selection experiments among the various kinds of CBs in a broth solution, for UCO kernel preparation using an external gelation method.

  1. Effects of the Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. on Survival of Pathogenic Bacteria and Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria in Semihard Cheese Broth and Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Geany Targino; de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Schaffner, Donald; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the inhibitory effects of the essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and a mesophilic starter coculture composed of lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris) in Brazilian coalho cheese systems. The MIC of OVEO was 2.5 μl/ml against both S. aureus and L. monocytogenes and 0.6 μl/ml against the tested starter coculture. In cheese broth containing OVEO at 0.6 μl/ml, no decrease in viable cell counts (VCC) of both pathogenic bacteria was observed, whereas the initial VCC of the starter coculture decreased approximately 1.0 log CFU/ml after 24 h of exposure at 10°C. OVEO at 1.25 and 2.5 μl/ml caused reductions of up to 2.0 and 2.5 log CFU/ml in S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, respectively, after 24 h of exposure in cheese broth. At these same concentrations, OVEO caused a greater decrease of initial VCC of the starter coculture following 4 h of exposure. Higher concentrations of OVEO were required to decrease the VCC of all target bacteria in semisolid coalho cheese slurry compared with cheese broth. The VCC of Lactococcus spp. in coalho cheese slurry containing OVEO were always lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the concentrations of OVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in semihard cheese should be carefully evaluated because of its inhibitory effects on the growth of starter lactic acid cultures used during the production of the product.

  2. Growth and inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in broth and validation in ground pork meat during simulated home storage abusive temperature and home pan-frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground pork meat with natural microbiota and inoculated with low initial densities (1-10 or 10-100 CFU/g of Salmonella enterica or Listeria monocytogenes was stored under abusive temperature at 10°C and thermally treated by a simulated home pan-frying procedure. The growth and inactivation characteristics were also evaluated in broth. In ground pork meat, the population of S. enterica increased by less than one log after 12-days of storage at 10°C, whereas L. monocytogenes increased by 2.3 to 2.8 log units. No unusual intrinsic heat resistance of the pathogens was noted when tested in broth at 60°C although shoulders were observed on the inactivation curves of L. monocytogenes. After growth of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes at 10°C for 5 days to levels of 1.95 log CFU/g and 3.10 log CFU/g, respectively, in ground pork meat, their inactivation in the burger subjected to a simulated home pan-frying was studied. After thermal treatment S. enterica was undetectable but L. monocytogenes was recovered in three out of six of the 25 g burger samples. Overall, the present study shows that data on growth and inactivation of broths are indicative but may underestimate as well as overestimate behavior of pathogens and thus need confirmation in food matrix conditions to assess food safety in reasonably foreseen abusive conditions of storage and usual home pan-frying of of meat burgers in Belgium.

  3. Rapid identification of bacteria in positive blood culture broths by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Lindsay G; Drake, Steven K; Murray, Patrick R

    2010-02-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is a rapid, accurate method for identifying bacteria and fungi recovered on agar culture media. We report herein a method for the direct identification of bacteria in positive blood culture broths by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 212 positive cultures were examined, representing 32 genera and 60 species or groups. The identification of bacterial isolates by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was compared with biochemical testing, and discrepancies were resolved by gene sequencing. No identification (spectral score of blood culture broth. Of the bacteria with a spectral score of > or = 1.7, 162 (95.3%) of 170 isolates were correctly identified. All 8 isolates of Streptococcus mitis were misidentified as being Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. This method provides a rapid, accurate, definitive identification of bacteria within 1 h of detection in positive blood cultures with the caveat that the identification of S. pneumoniae would have to be confirmed by an alternative test.

  4. Selenium intoxication with selenite broth resulting in acute renal failure and severe gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element in human and animal nutrition. It is also widely utilized in industrial processes. Reports of acute selenium toxicity in humans are rare. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who consumed about 100 mL of liquid selenite broth and presented with severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hematemesis and acute renal failure (ARF. The serum selenium level was significantly increased. Gastro-duodenoscopy revealed severe corrosive gastritis. Renal biopsy showed features of acute tubular necrosis (ATN, affecting primarily the proximal tubules. The patient was managed with gastric lavage, blood transfusions, infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP and platelet concentrates and hemo-dialysis. The patient was discharged five weeks after admission and her renal functions reco-vered completely by eight weeks after admission. She continues to be on regular follow-up for any possible sequelae of mucosal corrosive damage. This case highlights a case of selenium intoxication from selenite broth resulting in ARF and corrosive gastritis. The recovery was complete.

  5. High pressure inactivation of Pseudomonas in black truffle - comparison with Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestra, Patricia; Verret, Catherine; Cruz, Christian; Largeteau, Alain; Demazeau, Gerard; El Moueffak, Abdelhamid

    2010-03-01

    Pseudomonas is one of the most common genera in black Perigord truffle. Its inactivation by high pressure (100-500 MPa/10 min) applied on truffles at sub-zero or low temperatures was studied and compared with those of Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth. Pressurization of truffles at 300 MPa/4 °C reduced the bacterial count of Pseudomonas by 5.3 log cycles. Higher pressures of 400 or 500 MPa, at 4 °C or 20 °C, allowed us to slightly increase the level of destruction to the value of ca. 6.5 log cycles but did not permit us to completely inactivate Pseudomonas. The results showed a residual charge of about 10 CFU/g. Pressure-shift freezing of truffles, which consists in applying a pressure of 200 MPa/-18 °C for 10 min and then quickly releasing this pressure to induce freezing, reduced the population of Pseudomonas by 3.3 log cycles. The level of inactivation was higher than those obtained with conventional freezing. Endogenous Pseudomonas in truffle was shown to be more resistant to high pressure treatments than P. fluorescens used for inoculation of broths.

  6. Crude oil biodegradation aided by biosurfactants from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 or its culture broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the biosurfactants produced by the yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 for enhancing the degradation of crude oil by a model hydrocarbon degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Pseudozyma biosurfactants were supplemented at various concentrations to the P. putida culture medium containing crude oil as sole carbon source. Supplementation of the biosurfactants enhanced the degradation of crude oil by P. putida; the maximum degradation of hydrocarbons was observed with a 2.5 mg L(-1) supplementation of biosurfactants. Growth inhibition constant of the Pseudozyma biosurfactants was 11.07 mg L(-1). It was interesting to note that Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 alone could also degrade diesel and kerosene. Culture broth of Pseudozyma containing biosurfactants resulted up to ∼46% improvement in degradation of C10-C24 alkanes by P. putida. The enhancement in degradation efficiency of the bacterium with the culture broth supplementation was even more pronounced than that with relatively purer biosurfactants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Silveira-Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. METHODS: Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. RESULTS: Our results showed that 17 (21.5% isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4% of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  8. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Gomes, Fabíola; Sarmento, Dayse Nogueira; Espírito-Santo, Elaine Patrícia Tavares do; Souza, Nádia de Oliveira; Pinto, Thifany Mendes; Marques-da-Silva, Silvia Helena

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. Our results showed that 17 (21.5%) isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4%) of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores). The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  9. 2,3-Butanediol recovery from fermentation broth by alcohol precipitation and vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangjun; Kim, Duk-Ki; Song, Hyohak; Lee, Hee Jong; Park, Sunghoon; Seung, Doyoung; Chang, Yong Keun

    2014-04-01

    This study presents a new and effective downstream process to recover 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from fermentation broth which is produced by a recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. The ldhA-deficient K. pneumoniae strain yielded about 90 g/L of 2,3-BD, along with a number of by-products, such as organic acids and alcohols, in a 65 h fed-batch fermentation. The pH-adjusted cell-free fermentation broth was firstly concentrated until 2,3-BD reached around 500 g/L by vacuum evaporation at 50°C and 50 mbar vacuum pressure. The concentrated solution was further treated using light alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol, for the precipitation of organic acids and inorganic salts. Isopropanol showed the highest removal efficiency, in which 92.5% and 99.8% of organic acids and inorganic salts were precipitated, respectively. At a final step, a vacuum distillation process enabled the recovery of 76.2% of the treated 2,3-BD, with 96.1% purity, indicating that fermentatively produced 2,3-BD is effectively recovered by a simple alcohol precipitation and vacuum distillation. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies of polypropylene membrane fouling during microfiltration of broth with Citrobacter freundii bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryta Marek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work a fouling study of polypropylene membranes used for microfiltration of glycerol solutions fermented by Citrobacter freundii bacteria was presented. The permeate free of C. freundii bacteria and having a turbidity in the range of 0.72–1.46 NTU was obtained. However, the initial permeate flux (100–110 L/m2h at 30 kPa of transmembrane pressure was decreased 3–5 fold during 2–3 h of process duration. The performed scanning electron microscope observations confirmed that the filtered bacteria and suspensions present in the broth formed a cake layer on the membrane surface. A method of periodical module rinsing was used for restriction of the fouling influence on a flux decline. Rinsing with water removed most of the bacteria from the membrane surface, but did not permit to restore the initial permeate flux. It was confirmed that the irreversible fouling was dominated during broth filtration. The formed deposit was removed using a 1 wt% solution of sodium hydroxide as a rinsing solution.

  12. Effective oxygen-consumption rates in fermentation broths with filamentous organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss, M; Bajpai, R K; Berke, W

    1982-01-01

    The concept of coupling molecular diffusion and reaction has been applied in the past to various biological systems with clearly defined geometrical properties like pellets and immobilised enzymes/microorganisms. This paper investigates the use of the same principle to characterise the diffusional limitation in suspensions of filamentous microorganisms. Experimental results of oxygen-uptake measurements from Aspergillus niger fermentations in a 50 cu.dm turbine-agitated fermentor are presented with theoretical predictions of coupled diffusion and oxygen kinetics. Results are discussed on the basis of turbulence theory so that the mycelial broth can be structured in hypothetical spherical elements. Consideration of local energy-dissipation rates in the impeller region provides reasonable explanation of the strong influence of the impeller/tank diameter ratio on the effective oxygen-uptake rate at a given power input. (Refs. 18).

  13. Multivariate models for prediction of rheological characteristics of filamentous fermentation broth from the size distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nanna; Stocks, S.; Gernaey, Krist

    2008-01-01

    fermentations conducted in 550 L pilot scale tanks were characterized with respect to particle size distribution, biomass concentration, and rheological properties. The rheological properties were described using the Herschel-Bulkley model. Estimation of all three parameters in the Herschel-Bulkley model (yield...... in filamentous fermentations. It was therefore chosen to fix this parameter to the average value thereby decreasing the standard deviation of the estimates of the remaining theological parameters significantly. Using a PLSR model, a reasonable prediction of apparent viscosity (mu(app)), yield stress (tau......(y)), and consistency index (K), could be made from the size distributions, biomass concentration, and process information. This provides a predictive method with a high predictive power for the rheology of fermentation broth, and with the advantages over previous models that tau(y) and K can be predicted as well as mu...

  14. Comparison of direct-plating and broth-enrichment culture methods for detection of potential bacterial pathogens in respiratory secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravinder; Wischmeyer, Jareth; Morris, Matthew; Pichichero, Michael E

    2017-11-01

    We compared the recovery of potential respiratory bacterial pathogens and normal flora from nasopharyngeal specimens collected from children during health and at the onset of acute otitis media (AOM) by selective direct-plating and overnight broth-enrichment. Overall, 3442 nasal wash (NW) samples collected from young children were analysed from a 10-year prospective study. NWs were cultured by (1) direct-plating to TSAII/5 % sheep blood agar and chocolate agar plates and (2) overnight broth-enrichment in BacT/ALERT SA-broth followed by plating. Standard microbiology techniques were applied to identify three dominant respiratory bacterial pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) as well as two common nasal flora, Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and alpha-haemolytic Streptococci (AHS).Results/Key findings. Direct-plating of NW resulted in isolation of Spn from 37.8 %, Hflu from 13.6 % and Mcat from 33.2 % of samples. In comparison, overnight broth-enrichment isolated fewer Spn (30.1 %), Hflu (6.2 %) and Mcat (16.2 %) (Penrichment resulted in significant increased isolation of SA (6.0 %) and AHS (30.1 %) (Penrichment when samples were collected from healthy children but not during AOM. In middle ear fluids (MEF) at the onset of AOM, broth-enrichment resulted in higher recovery of Spn (+10.4 %, Penrichment significantly reduces the accurate detection of bacterial respiratory pathogens and increases identification of SA and AHS in NW. Broth-enrichment improves detection of bacterial respiratory pathogens in MEF samples.

  15. Commercial broth microdilution panel validation and reproducibility trials for NVP PDF-713 (LBM 415), a novel inhibitor of bacterial peptide deformylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, T R; Moet, G J; Jones, R N

    2004-09-01

    NVP PDF-713 (LBM 415) is a peptide deformylase inhibitor being progressed into clinical trials. Dry-form broth microdilution panels of NVP PDF-713 were compared to reference MIC panels of 552 recent clinical isolates. Most (99.2%) dry-form MIC results were within +/- 1 log(2) dilution of the reference panel MICs. Of the bacteria tested, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae showed a bias towards higher and lower MICs, respectively. Same-day and between-day reproducibility tests showed that 98.9% and 96.7% of MIC values, respectively, were within +/- 1 log(2) dilution step, thereby demonstrating a high degree of reliability of the dry-form MIC product for clinical studies.

  16. Removal of heavy metals from polluted soil using the citric acid fermentation broth: a promising washing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjiao; Gao, Yuntao; Xiong, Huabin

    2017-04-01

    The citric acid fermentation broth was prepared and it was employed to washing remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil. A well-defined washing effect was obtained, the removal percentages using citric acid fermentation broth are that 48.2% for Pb, 30.6% for Cu, 43.7% for Cr, and 58.4% for Cd and higher than that using citric acid solution. The kinetics of heavy metals desorption can be described by the double constant equation and Elovich equation and is a heterogeneous diffusion process. The speciation analysis shows that the citric acid fermentation broth can effectively reduce bioavailability and environmental risk of heavy metals. Spectroscopy characteristics analysis suggests that the washing method has only a small effect on the mineral composition and does not destroy the framework of soil system. Therefore, the citric acid fermentation broth is a promising washing agent and possesses a potential practical application value in the field of remediation of soils with a good washing performance.

  17. Pre-treatment step with Leuconostoc mesenteroides or L. pseudomesenteroides strains removes furfural from Zymomonas mobilis ethanolic fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William J; Manter, Daniel K

    2014-10-01

    Furfural is an inhibitor of growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis. This study used a naturally occurring (not GMO) biological pre-treatment to reduce that amount of furfural in a model fermentation broth. Pre-treatment involved inoculating and incubating the fermentation broth with strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides or Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The Leuconostoc strains converted furfural to furfuryl alcohol without consuming large amounts of dextrose in the process. Coupling this pre-treatment to ethanolic fermentation reduced furfural in the broth and improved growth, dextrose uptake and ethanol formation. Pre-treatment permitted ethanol formation in the presence of 5.2 g L(-1) furfural, which was otherwise inhibitive. The pre-treatment and presence of the Leuconostoc strains in the fermentation broth did not interfere with Z. mobilis ethanolic fermentation or the amounts of ethanol produced. The method suggests a possible technique for reducing the effect that furfural has on the production of ethanol for use as a biofuel. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Pre-treatment step with Leuconostoc mesenteroides or L. pseudomesenteroides strains removes furfural from Zymomonas mobilis ethanolic fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfural (furan-2-carboxaldehyde), formed during dilute acid hydrolysis of biomass, is an inhibitor of growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis. The present study used a biological pre-treatment to reduce that amount of furfural in a model biofuel fermentation broth. The pre-treatment in...

  19. Effective prevention of sorafenib-induced hand–foot syndrome by dried-bonito broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamimura K

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kenya Kamimura,1 Yoko Shinagawa-Kobayashi,1 Ryo Goto,1 Kohei Ogawa,1 Takeshi Yokoo,1 Akira Sakamaki,1 Satoshi Abe,1 Hiroteru Kamimura,1 Takeshi Suda,2 Hiroshi Baba,3 Takayuki Tanaka,4 Yoshizu Nozawa,5 Naoto Koyama,6 Masaaki Takamura,1 Hirokazu Kawai,1 Satoshi Yamagiwa,1 Yutaka Aoyagi,1 Shuji Terai1 1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata, Niigata, Japan; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Uonuma Institute of Community Medicine, Niigata Medical and Dental Hospital, Minami-Uonuma, Niigata, Japan; 3Division of Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata, Niigata, Japan; 4Uonuma Eye Clinic, Uonuma, Niigata, Japan; 5Institute of Food Sciences and Technologies, Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan; 6Institute for Innovation, Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan Background: Sorafenib (SOR is a molecular medicine that prolongs the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Therefore, the management of side effects is essential for the longer period of continuous medication. Among the various side effects, hand–foot syndrome (HFS is the most common, occurring in 30%–50% of patients, and often results in discontinuation of the SOR medication. However, its mechanism has not been clarified, and no effective prevention method has been reported for the symptoms. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze its mechanism and to develop an effective prevention regimen for the symptoms. Materials and methods: To assess the mechanism of SOR-induced HFS, the peripheral blood flow in the hand and foot was carefully monitored by Doppler ultrasound, thermography, and laser speckle flowgraphy in the cases treated with SOR and its contribution was assessed. Then, the effect of dried-bonito broth (DBB, which was reported to improve peripheral blood flow, on the prevention of the symptom was

  20. Mathematical modeling of the whole expanded bed adsorption process to recover and purify chitosanases from the unclarified fermentation broth of Paenibacillus ehimensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Padilha, Carlos Eduardo; Fortunato Dantas, Paulo Victor; de Sousa, Francisco Canindé; de Santana Souza, Domingos Fabiano; de Oliveira, Jackson Araújo; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Everaldo Silvino

    2016-12-15

    In this study, a general rate model was applied to the entire process of expanded bed adsorption chromatography (EBAC) for the chitosanases purification protocol from unclarified fermentation broth produced by Paenibacillus ehimensis using the anionic adsorbent Streamline ® DEAE. For the experiments performed using the expanded bed, a homemade column (2.6cm×30.0cm) was specially designed. The proposed model predicted the entire EBA process adequately, giving R 2 values higher than 0.85 and χ 2 as low as 0.351 for the elution step. Using the validated model, a 3 3 factorial design was used to investigate other non-tested conditions as input. It was observed that the superficial velocity during loading and washing steps, as well as the settled bed height, has a strong positive effect on the F objective function used to evaluate the production of the purified chitosanases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiology of Salmonella sp. in California cull dairy cattle: prevalence of fecal shedding and diagnostic accuracy of pooled enriched broth culture of fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omran A. Abu Aboud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the crude, seasonal and cull-reason stratified prevalence of Salmonella fecal shedding in cull dairy cattle on seven California dairies. A secondary objective was to estimate and compare the relative sensitivity (Se and specificity (Sp for pools of 5 and 10 enriched broth cultures of fecal samples for Salmonella sp. detection. Methods Seven dairy farms located in the San Joaquin Valley of California were identified and enrolled in the study as a convenience sample. Cull cows were identified for fecal sampling once during each season between 2014 and 2015, specifically during spring, summer, fall, and winter, and 10 cows were randomly selected for fecal sampling at the day of their sale. In addition, study personnel completed a survey based on responses of the herd manager to questions related to the previous four month’s herd management. Fecal samples were frozen until testing for Salmonella. After overnight enrichment in liquid broth, pools of enrichment broth (EBP were created for 5 and 10 samples. All individual and pooled broths were cultured on selective media with putative Salmonella colonies confirmed by biochemical testing before being serogrouped and serotyped. Results A total of 249 cull cows were enrolled into the study and their fecal samples tested for Salmonella. The survey-weighted period prevalence of fecal shedding of all Salmonella sp. in the cull cow samples across all study herds and the entire study period was 3.42% (N = 249; SE 1.07. The within herd prevalence of Salmonella shed in feces did not differ over the four study seasons (P = 0.074. The Se of culture of EBP of five samples was 62.5% (SE = 17.12, which was not statistically different from the Se of culture of EBP of 10 (37.5%, SE = 17.12, P = 0.48. The Sp of culture of EBP of five samples was 95.24% (SE = 3.29 and for pools of 10 samples was 100.00% (SE = 0. There was no statistical

  2. Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota Broth as an Alternative Media for Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chui Ying

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether sapodilla can be used to grow Candida albicans. Among all the high galactose and arabinose content fruits, the sapodilla was chosen because it is available year round and can get easily in market. Other than that, it also contains vitamins, calcium and phosphorus which are very useful for fungi growth. Methods: This study used an experimental study as a method of research. The researcher culture Candida albicans on the experimental sapodilla media and identifies the morphology of the fungi by using Gram staining method. The experiment will be replicated two times to get accurate result. The procedure of this experiment constitute of sapodilla media preparation, sapodilla media observation, organism preparation, planting and incubation, observation of fungal colonies and identification of the fungi. Results: In 0%, there was no fungal growth at all. In 5%, there was mild density of fungal colonies. In 10%, there was moderate density of fungal colonies and in 15% the fungal grew with very dense colonies. Conclusions: Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota broth can be used as an alternative media for Candida albicans.

  3. New method for exopolysaccharide determination in culture broth using stirred ultrafiltration cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmaier, D; Lacroix, C; Guadalupe Macedo, M; Champagne, C P

    2001-10-01

    A new method to remove simple carbohydrates from culture broth prior to the quantification of exopolysaccharides (EPS) was developed and validated for the EPS-producing strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595M. This method uses ultrafiltration (UF) in stirred cells followed by polysaccharide detection in the retentate by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The UF method was compared with a conventional method based on ethanol extraction, dialysis, protein removal by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and freeze-drying. EPS production during pH-controlled batch fermentations in basal minimum medium, whey permeate (WP). and whey permeate supplemented with yeast extract, minerals and Tween-80 (SWP) was determined by the new UF and conventional methods. EPS recovery by the new method ranged from 83% to 104% for EPS added in the concentration range 40-1,500 mg/l in 0.1 M NaCl solution or culture medium. The UF method was rapid (8 h), accurate and simple, and required only a small sample volume (1-5 ml). A very high maximum EPS production was measured in SWP by both the UF and conventional methods (1,718 and 1,755 mg/l).

  4. Commercial Lysogeny Broth culture media and oxidative stress: a cautious tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezraty, Benjamin; Henry, Camille; Hérisse, Marion; Denamur, Erick; Barras, Frédéric

    2014-09-01

    Lysogeny Broth (LB), most often misnamed Luria-Bertani medium, ranks among the most commonly used growth media in microbiology. Surprisingly, we observed that oxidative levels vary with the commercial origin of the LB ready to use powder. Indeed, growth on solid media of Escherichia coli and Salmonella derivatives lacking antioxidative stress defenses, such as oxyR mutant devoid of the H2O2-sensing transcriptional activator or Hpx(-) strains lacking catalases and peroxidases, exhibit different phenotypes on LB-Sigma or LB-Difco. Using gene fusion and exogenously added catalase, we found that LB-Sigma contains higher levels of H2O2 than LB-Difco. Also we observed differences in population counts of 82 clinical and environmental isolates of E. coli, depending on the LB used. Further investigations revealed a significant influence of the commercial origin of agar as well. Besides being a warning to the wide population of LB users, our observations provide researchers in the oxidative stress field with a tool to appreciate the severity of mutations in antioxidative stress defenses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Listeria monocytogenes efficiently invades caco-2 cells after low-temperature storage in broth and on deli meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Koch, Anette Granly; Ingmer, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how various growth conditions influence the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes monitored by its ability to invade the epithelial cell lines Caco-2 and INT-407. The growth conditions examined were modified atmosphere-packaged deli meat and brain heart...... infusion broth (BHI) with and without salt. Five strains of L. monocytogenes were selected to investigate their invasiveness and all strains invaded Caco-2 cells at higher levels than INT-407 cells. Further, the clinical strains (3443 and 3734) were more invasive (p ... to invade Caco-2 cells was compared after growth on a fermented sausage and on cured cooked ham to that of bacteria grown in BHI broth supplemented with salt. Samples were stored under chilling conditions for up to 4 weeks. The results showed no difference (p > 0.05) in invasiveness after 7 days at 10...

  6. Synthesis and simulation of efficient divided wall column sequences for bioethanol recovery and purification from an actual lignocellulosic fermentation broth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Ortega, Carlo Edgar; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Actual lignocellulosic fermentation broth has intrinsic multiphase and multicomponent nature and calls for complex separation systems in both bioethanol recovery and purification [Torres-Ortega, C. E.; Rong, B.-G. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2016, 55, 210]. In this work, we present the synthesis...... of column sections as novel synthesis approaches to formulate hybrid units and divided wall columns. Rigorous simulation in Aspen Plus V8.0 was used to simulate the intensified separation systems. The new intensified alternatives achieved relevant savings, ranging from 17 to 23% in TAC (total annual costs......), and ranging from 18 to 28% in TEC (total energy consumption). Moreover, reduction of the number of separation units varied from the original eight units down to three units. Finally, we performed a sensitivity analysis varying the bioethanol concentration in the fermentation broth between the reference case...

  7. Filtration behaviors of rod-shaped bacterial broths in unsteady-state phase of cross-flow filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Usui, K.; Koda, K.; Nakanishi, K. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-20

    Filtration behaviors in the unsteady-state phase of crossflow filtration of broths of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii, which are rod-shaped, were studied from the viewpoint of the changes in the specific resistance and in the structure of the microbial cake formed on the membrane surface. The permeation flux followed the cake filtration law at the initial stage of the crossflow filtration of the broths of B. subtilis and E. coli, where the cells deposited randomly on the membrane. In the case of the crossflow filtration of a L. delbrueckii broth, the period of random deposition was shorter. The specific resistance for the cake formed at the initial stage agreed with that measured in dead-end filtration. Then, the specific resistance started to increase in comparison with that measured in dead-end filtration due to shear-induced arrangement of the cells. The extent of the increase in specific resistance became higher and the time taken to start the cell arrangement became shorter with increasing circulation flow rate. The increase in specific resistance due to the shear-induced arrangement was more appreciable in the crossflow filtration of the broth of L. delbrueckii than that of B. subtilis and E. coli. The average permeation flux was increased considerably by applying periodical backwashing with appropriate time intervals. The permeation flux was well predicted by the cake filtration law, since the cells deposited in a way similar to that for dead-end filtration during a sufficiently short period of crossflow filtration in a backwashing mode. 21 refs., 11 figs.

  8. The Use of Titrimetric, Nelson Somogyi and Hplc Methods for the Analysis of Cashew Apple Juice Fermentation Broths

    OpenAIRE

    Kantasubrata, Julia; T. Karossi, A; S. Pramudi, A

    1993-01-01

    In cashew apple juice fermentation to produce wine and vinegar, analysis of organic acids and sugars in fermentation broths is very important, due to the fact that optimum conditions of fermentation could only be established from results obtained on monitoring the concentrations of those components during the fermentation process. Analysis of organic acids by tiirimetric method and analysis of sugars by Nelson-Somogyi method only give a total amount of acids and sugars. HPLC is one of the pro...

  9. Effect of Sucrose Stearate on the Sensory-Related Quality of the Broth and Porridge of Ready-To-Eat Ginseng Chicken Soup Samgyetang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyannanto, Endy; Lee, Keun Taik

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sensory-related characteristics of the broth and porridge of ready-to-eat (RTE) ginseng chicken soup ( Samgyetang ) with sucrose stearate added at various concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%) during storage at 25°C for 12 mon. Scores indicating the lightness and size of fat droplets in the broth increased during storage as the sucrose stearate concentration increased, while the clarity scores decreased until 9 mon and the taste scores decreased throughout the storage period ( p 0.05). The taste scores were lower for treated porridge samples than for the control group ( p 0.05). The addition of sucrose stearate to the RTE Samgyetang broth improved the lightness (CIE L *) value of the broth and various sensory palatability parameters, including the color and fat droplet size of the broth and the softness and vividness of the porridge, despite reductions in broth clarity and taste scores for the broth and porridge during storage.

  10. Combination of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and lactic acid to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus in meat broth and meat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson C. de Barros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and lactic acid against Staphylococcus aureus by the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC index and cell viability in meat broth and meat model. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of the oil was 0.6 and 1.25 µL.mL-1, respectively. Lactic acid showed MIC and MBC of 2.5 and 5µL.mL-1, respectively. FIC indices of the combined application of the oil and lactic acid were 0.5 showing a synergic interaction. The essential oil and lactic acid showed similar (p>0.05 anti-S. aureus effect in meat broth over 96 h of exposure. Treatment with essential oil or lactic acid presented a smaller anti-staphylococcal effect in meat in comparison to meat broth. No significant difference (p>0.05 was found for the microbial counts in meat treated with each antimicrobial alone or in mixture. These results could arise as an interesting approach for the improvement of food preservation using more natural procedures, considering the current demand of consumer and sensory quality of foods.

  11. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Pil-Mun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Seok [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Min [Atomic Energy Policy Division, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Gwacheon 427-715 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Jin [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D{sub 10} value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  12. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Pil-Mun; Park, Jae Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Chung, Young-Jin; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster (Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D 10 value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  13. Radiation sensitivity of poliovirus, a model for norovirus, inoculated in oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and culture broth under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Pil-Mun; Park, Jae Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Chung, Young-Jin; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Poliovirus is a recognized surrogate for norovirus, pathogen in water and food, due to the structural and genetic similarity. Although radiation sensitivity of poliovirus in water or media had been reported, there has been no research in food model such as shellfish. In this study, oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) was incubated in artificial seawater contaminated with poliovirus, and thus radiation sensitivity of poliovirus was determined in inoculated oyster. The effects of ionizing radiation on the sensitivity of poliovirus were also evaluated under different conditions such as pH (4-7) and salt concentration (1-15%) in culture broth, and temperature during irradiation. The D10 value of poliovirus in PBS buffer, virus culture broth and oyster was determined to 0.46, 2.84 and 2.94 kGy, respectively. The initial plaque forming unit (PFU) of poliovirus in culture broth was slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration, but radiation sensitivity was not affected by pH and salt contents. However, radiation resistance of poliovirus was increased at frozen state. These results provide the basic information for the inactivation of pathogenic virus in foods by using irradiation.

  14. Listeria monocytogenes efficiently invades Caco-2 cells after low-temperature storage in broth and on deli meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Koch, Anette Granly; Ingmer, Hanne

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how various growth conditions influence the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes monitored by its ability to invade the epithelial cell lines Caco-2 and INT-407. The growth conditions examined were modified atmosphere-packaged deli meat and brain heart infusion broth (BHI) with and without salt. Five strains of L. monocytogenes were selected to investigate their invasiveness and all strains invaded Caco-2 cells at higher levels than INT-407 cells. Further, the clinical strains (3443 and 3734) were more invasive (p 0.05) in invasiveness after 7 days at 10 degrees C in BHI broth or on sausage, whereas a slight increase (p < 0.05) was observed after incubation on ham for 2 and 4 weeks compared to that in BHI broth. Most importantly, our results show that L. monocytogenes efficiently invade Caco-2 cells even after 4 weeks of storage at chilled temperature. This is highly relevant for safety assessment of this organism in food as these conditions reflect storage of ready-to-eat food products in domestic refrigerators.

  15. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations of itraconazole, terbinafine and ketoconazole against dermatophyte species by broth microdilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, V K; Sharma, P C

    2015-01-01

    Various antifungal agents both topical and systemic have been introduced into clinical practice for effectively treating dermatophytic conditions. Dermatophytosis is the infection of keratinised tissues caused by fungal species of genera Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum, commonly known as dermatophytes affecting 20-25% of the world's population. The present study aims at determining the susceptibility patterns of dermatophyte species recovered from superficial mycoses of human patients in Himachal Pradesh to antifungal agents; itraconazole, terbinafine and ketoconazole. The study also aims at determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these agents following the recommended protocol of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (M38-A2). A total of 53 isolates of dermatophytes (T. mentagrophyte-34 in no., T. rubrum-18 and M. gypseum-1) recovered from the superficial mycoses were examined. Broth microdilution method M38-A2 approved protocol of CLSI (2008) for filamentous fungi was followed for determining the susceptibility of dermatophyte species. T. mentagrophyte isolates were found more susceptible to both itraconazole and ketoconazole as compared to terbinafine (MIC50: 0.125 µg/ml for itraconazole, 0.0625 µg/ml for ketoconazole and 0.5 µg/ml for terbinafine). Three isolates of T. mentagrophytes (VBS-5, VBSo-3 and VBSo-73) and one isolate of T. rubrum (VBPo-9) had higher MIC values of itraconazole (1 µg/ml). Similarly, the higher MIC values of ketoconazole were observed in case of only three isolates of T. mentagrophyte (VBSo-30 = 2 µg/ml; VBSo-44, VBM-2 = 1 µg/ml). The comparative analysis of the three antifungal drugs based on t-test revealed that 'itraconazole and terbinafine' and 'terbinafine and ketoconazole' were found independent based on the P terbinafine and ketoconazole'. The MIC values observed in the present study based on standard protocol M38-A2 of CLSI 2008 might serve as reference for further studies

  16. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations of itraconazole, terbinafine and ketoconazole against dermatophyte species by broth microdilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Various antifungal agents both topical and systemic have been introduced into clinical practice for effectively treating dermatophytic conditions. Dermatophytosis is the infection of keratinised tissues caused by fungal species of genera Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum, commonly known as dermatophytes affecting 20–25% of the world's population. The present study aims at determining the susceptibility patterns of dermatophyte species recovered from superficial mycoses of human patients in Himachal Pradesh to antifungal agents; itraconazole, terbinafine and ketoconazole. The study also aims at determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of these agents following the recommended protocol of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI (M38-A2. Methodology: A total of 53 isolates of dermatophytes (T. mentagrophyte-34 in no., T. rubrum-18 and M. gypseum-1 recovered from the superficial mycoses were examined. Broth microdilution method M38-A2 approved protocol of CLSI (2008 for filamentous fungi was followed for determining the susceptibility of dermatophyte species. Results: T. mentagrophyte isolates were found more susceptible to both itraconazole and ketoconazole as compared to terbinafine (MIC50: 0.125 µg/ml for itraconazole, 0.0625 µg/ml for ketoconazole and 0.5 µg/ml for terbinafine. Three isolates of T. mentagrophytes (VBS-5, VBSo-3 and VBSo-73 and one isolate of T. rubrum (VBPo-9 had higher MIC values of itraconazole (1 µg/ml. Similarly, the higher MIC values of ketoconazole were observed in case of only three isolates of T. mentagrophyte (VBSo-30 = 2 µg/ml; VBSo-44, VBM-2 = 1 µg/ml. The comparative analysis of the three antifungal drugs based on t-test revealed that 'itraconazole and terbinafine' and 'terbinafine and ketoconazole' were found independent based on the P < 0.005 in case of T. mentagrophyte isolates. In case of T. rubrum, the similarity existed between MIC values of 'itraconazole and

  17. Recovery of Acetic Acid from An Ethanol Fermentation Broth by Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE) Using Various Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Thi Thu Huong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Um, Byung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using various solvents was studied for recovery of acetic acid from a synthetic ethanol fermentation broth. The microbial fermentation of sugars presented in hydrolyzate gives rise to acetic acid as a byproduct. In order to obtain pure ethanol for use as a biofuel, fermentation broth should be subjected to acetic acid removal step and the recovered acetic acid can be put to industrial use. Herein, batch LLE experiments were carried out at 25°C using a synthetic fermentation broth comprising 20.0 g l -1 acetic acid and 5.0 g l -1 ethanol. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc), tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and tri-n-alkylphosphine oxide (TAPO) were utilized as solvents, and the extraction potential of each solvent was evaluated by varying the organic phase-to-aqueous phase ratios as 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0. The highest acetic acid extraction yield was achieved with TAPO; however, the lowest ethanol-to-acetic acid extraction ratio was obtained using TOPO. In a single-stage batch extraction, 97.0 % and 92.4 % of acetic acid could be extracted using TAPO and TOPO when the ratio of organic-to-aqueous phases is 4:1 respectively. A higher solvent-to-feed ratio resulted in an increase in the ethanol-to-acetic acid ratio, which decreased both acetic acid purity and acetic acid extraction yield.

  18. Model-based design of a pilot-scale simulated moving bed for purification of citric acid from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglan; Peng, Qijun; Arlt, Wolfgang; Minceva, Mirjana

    2009-12-11

    One of the conventional processes used for the recovery of citric acid from its fermentation broth is environmentally harmful and cost intensive. In this work an innovative benign process, which comprises simulated moving bed (SMB) technology and use of a tailor-made tertiary poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) resin as a stationary phase is proposed. This paper focuses on a model-based design of the operation conditions for an existing pilot-scale SMB plant. The SMB unit is modeled on the basis of experimentally determined hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and mass transfer characteristics in a single chromatographic column. Three mathematical models are applied and validated for the prediction of the experimentally attained breakthrough and elution profiles of citric acid and the main impurity component (glucose). The transport dispersive model was selected for the SMB simulation and design studies, since it gives a satisfactory prediction of the elution profiles within acceptable computational time. The equivalent true moving bed (TMB) and SMB models give a good prediction of the experimentally attained SMB separation performances, obtained with a real clarified and concentrated fermentation broth as a feed mixture. The SMB separation requirements are set to at least 99.8% citric acid purity and 90% citric acid recovery in the extract stream. The complete regeneration in sections 1 and 4 is unnecessary. Therefore the net flow rates in all four SMB sections have been considered in the unit design. The influences of the operating conditions (the flow rate in each section, switching time and unit configuration) on the SMB performances were investigated systematically. The resulting SMB design provides 99.8% citric acid purity and 97.2% citric acid recovery in the extract. In addition the citric acid concentration in the extract is a half of its concentration in the pretreated fermentation broth (feed).

  19. Impact of preheating on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a broth that mimics Camembert cheese composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helloin, E; Bouttefroy, A; Gay, M; Phan Thanh, L

    2003-02-01

    The effect of preheating on the survival of L. monocytogenes in Richard's broth, which mimics the composition of Camembert cheese composition, was examined. Experiments were carried out to reproduce contamination of cheese with environmental heat-stressed cells of L. monocytogenes surviving hot-cleaning procedures. Cells in mid-log phase were heated for 30 min at 56 degrees C before being inoculated into Richard's broth. The pHs and temperatures of Richard's broth were chosen to recreate the conditions of curd dripping (pH 5, 25 degrees C), of the beginning of cheese ripening (pH 5, 12 degrees C), and of the beginning (pH 5, 4 degrees C) and the end (pH 7, 4 degrees C) of cheese storage. Immediately after heat treatment, the viability loss was especially high for strain 306715, which exhibited only 0.6% +/- 0.2% survival, compared with 22% +/- 8.7% for strain EGD. The percentages of the surviving heated cells that were injured were 93% +/- 8% for strain 306715 and 98% +/- 3% for strain EGD. The destruction of the surviving L. monocytogenes cells was accelerated when they encountered the pH and temperature conditions of Camembert cheese during manufacturing, ripening, and cold storage (pH 5 at 25, 12, and 4 degrees C, respectively). The multiplication of the surviving heated cells was retarded under favorable growth conditions similar to those of storage by the distributor and the consumer (pH 7 at 4 and 12 degrees C, respectively).

  20. Inactivation of Escherichia coli in broth and sausage by combined high pressure and Lactobacillus casei cell extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined high pressure and Lactobacillus casei cell extract (CE) on Escherichia coli O157 strains with variation in pressure resistance in broth and sausage. Pressure-resistant (O157:H7 and O157:H12) and -sensitive (O157-M1 and O157-M2) E. coli strains were used. Pressure treatment at 350 MPa for 20 min in broth caused 1.1-1.2 logs reduction in O157:H12 and O157:H7 and 4.1-5.5 logs reduction in the O157-M1 and O157-M2. When high pressure was treated in the presence of CE (32 CEAU/mL), the combination treatment caused a significant inactivation in the pressure-resistant O157:H7 strains resulting in the viability loss of 4.3-4.6 logs and the synergistic effect increased with increase in treatment time (p casei CE may cause considerable damage to cellular components of E. coli during the high pressure treatment. The synergy between high pressure processing and Lb. casei OSY-LB6A CE against pressure-resistant E. coli O157 strains suggests the feasibility of using this combination to minimize the risk of transmission of E. coli O157 by food.

  1. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown’s Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4w7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somary Nhem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis infection, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown’s medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8% were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4% was positive using standard methods. These findings demonstrate that B. pseudomallei is rarely detected in sputum at this hospital. The low frequency of B. pseudomallei in sputum specimens precludes drawing any conclusions about the relative benefits of an enhanced sputum testing protocol at this site. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis.

  2. Comparison of adsorption equilibrium and kinetic models for a case study of pharmaceutical active ingredient adsorption from fermentation broths: parameter determination, simulation, sensitivity analysis and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Likozar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models for a batch process were developed to predict concentration distributions for an active ingredient (vancomycin adsorption on a representative hydrophobic-molecule adsorbent, using differently diluted crude fermentation broth with cells as the feedstock. The kinetic parameters were estimated using the maximization of the coefficient of determination by a heuristic algorithm. The parameters were estimated for each fermentation broth concentration using four concentration distributions at initial vancomycin concentrations of 4.96, 1.17, 2.78, and 5.54 g l−¹. In sequence, the models and their parameters were validated for fermentation broth concentrations of 0, 20, 50, and 100% (v/v by calculating the coefficient of determination for each concentration distribution at the corresponding initial concentration. The applicability of the validated models for process optimization was investigated by using the models as process simulators to optimize the two process efficiencies.

  3. Oxidative production of xylonic acid using xylose in distillation stillage of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsen; Han, Xushen; Wei, Chengxiang; Bao, Jie

    2017-01-01

    An oxidative production process of xylonic acid using xylose in distillation stillage of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth was designed, experimentally investigated, and evaluated. Dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover was simultaneously saccharified and fermented into 59.80g/L of ethanol (no xylose utilization). 65.39g/L of xylose was obtained in the distillation stillage without any concentrating step after ethanol was distillated. Then the xylose was completely converted into 66.42g/L of xylonic acid by Gluconobacter oxydans. The rigorous Aspen Plus modeling shows that the wastewater generation and energy consumption was significantly reduced comparing to the previous xylonic acid production process using xylose in pretreatment liquid. This study provided a practical process option for xylonic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock with significant reduction of wastewater and energy consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Untargeted GC-MS Metabolomics Reveals Changes in the Metabolite Dynamics of Industrial Scale Batch Fermentations of Streptoccoccus thermophilus Broth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Christiansen, Lene D.; Heins, Anna-Lena

    2017-01-01

    An industrial scale biomass production using batch or fed-batch fermentations usually optimized by selection of bacterial strains, tuning fermentation media, feeding strategy, and temperature. However, in-depth investigation of the biomass metabolome during the production may reveal new knowledge...... shows that in-depth metabolic analysis of fermentation broth provides a new tool for advanced optimization of high-volume-low-cost biomass production by lowering the cost, increase the yield, and augment the product quality....... for better optimization. In this study, for the first time, the authors investigated seven fermentation batches performed on five Streptoccoccus thermophilus strains during the biomass production at Chr. Hansen (Denmark) in a real life large scale fermentation process. The study is designed to investigate...

  5. Impact of changes in broth composition on Chlorella vulgaris cultivation in a membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) with permeate recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discart, V; Bilad, M R; Marbelia, L; Vankelecom, I F J

    2014-01-01

    A membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) is a proven and very useful concept in which microalgae can be simultaneously cultivated and pre-harvested. However, the behavior with respect to accumulation of algogenic organic matter, including transparent exopolymeric particles (TEPs), counter ions and unassimilated nutrients due to the recycling of the medium is still unclear, even though the understanding of this behavior is essential for the optimization of microalgae processing. Therefore, the dynamics of these compounds, especially TEPs, during coupled cultivation and harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris in an MPBR with permeate recycle are addressed in this study. Results show that TEPs are secreted during algae cell growth, and that their presence is thus inevitable. In the system with permeate recycle, substances such as counter ions and unassimilated nutrients get accumulated in the system. This was proven to limit the algae growth, together with the occurrence of bioflocculation due to an increasing broth pH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of different options for harvest of a therapeutic protein product from high cell density yeast fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alice; Lewus, Rachael; Rathore, Anurag S

    2006-05-05

    Recovery of therapeutic protein from high cell density yeast fermentations at commercial scale is a challenging task. In this study, we investigate and compare three different harvest approaches, namely centrifugation followed by depth filtration, centrifugation followed by filter-aid enhanced depth filtration, and microfiltration. This is achieved by presenting a case study involving recovery of a therapeutic protein from Pichia pastoris fermentation broth. The focus of this study is on performance of the depth filtration and the microfiltration steps. The experimental data has been fitted to the conventional models for cake filtration to evaluate specific cake resistance and cake compressibility. In the case of microfiltration, the experimental data agrees well with flux predicted by shear induced diffusion model. It is shown that, under optimal conditions, all three options can deliver the desired product recovery ( >80%), harvest time ( making a final decision on a harvesting approach.

  7. Purification of nattokinase by reverse micelles extraction from fermentation broth: effect of temperature and phase volume ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Guo; Xing, Jian-Min; Chang, Tian-Shi; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2006-03-01

    Nattokinase is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme that is considered to be a promising agent for thrombosis therapy. In this study, reverse micelles extraction was applied to purify and concentrate nattokinase from fermentation broth. The effects of temperature and phase volume ratio used for the forward and backward extraction on the extraction process were examined. The optimal temperature for forward and backward extraction were 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C respectively. Nattokinase became more thermosensitive during reverse micelles extraction. And it could be enriched in the stripping phase eight times during backward extraction. It was found that nattokinase could be purified by AOT reverse micelles with up to 80% activity recovery and with a purification factor of 3.9.

  8. Promotion of chlamydoconidium formation in Candida albicans by corn meal broth incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, S

    1998-04-01

    Chlamydoconidium formation can be used as a tool for the identification of Candida albicans. While chlamydoconidia are known to be inducible on corn meal agar, this report demonstrates that testing in liquid media supplemented with milk or serum enhances chlamydoconidium formation and the formation of complex mycelial clusters.

  9. Comparison of methods for in vitro testing of susceptibility of porcine Mycoplasma species to antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Laak, E A; Pijpers, A; Noordergraaf, J H; Schoevers, E C; Verheijden, J H

    1991-01-01

    The MICs of 18 antimicrobial agents used against strains of three porcine Mycoplasma species were determined by a serial broth dilution method. Twenty field strains of M. hyorhinis, ten field strains of M. hyopneumoniae, six field strains of M. flocculare, and the type strains of these species were tested. Twelve field strains and the type strain of M. hyorhinis were also tested by an agar dilution method. Tests were read at various time points. When the broth dilution method was used, the fi...

  10. Escherichia coli K-12 survives anaerobic exposure at pH 2 without RpoS, Gad, or hydrogenases, but shows sensitivity to autoclaved broth products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Riggins

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria survive exposure to extreme acid (pH 2 or lower in gastric fluid. Aerated cultures survive via regulons expressing glutamate decarboxylase (Gad, activated by RpoS, cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (Cfa and others. But extreme-acid survival is rarely tested under low oxygen, a condition found in the stomach and the intestinal tract. We observed survival of E. coli K-12 W3110 at pH 1.2-pH 2.0, conducting all manipulations (overnight culture at pH 5.5, extreme-acid exposure, dilution and plating in a glove box excluding oxygen (10% H2, 5% CO2, balance N2. With dissolved O2 concentrations maintained below 6 µM, survival at pH 2 required Cfa but did not require GadC, RpoS, or hydrogenases. Extreme-acid survival in broth (containing tryptone and yeast extract was diminished in media that had been autoclaved compared to media that had been filtered. The effect of autoclaved media on extreme-acid survival was most pronounced when oxygen was excluded. Exposure to H2O2 during extreme-acid treatment increased the death rate slightly for W3110 and to a greater extent for the rpoS deletion strain. Survival at pH 2 was increased in strains lacking the anaerobic regulator fnr. During anaerobic growth at pH 5.5, strains deleted for fnr showed enhanced transcription of acid-survival genes gadB, cfa, and hdeA, as well as catalase (katE. We show that E. coli cultured under oxygen exclusion (<6 µM O2 requires mechanisms different from those of aerated cultures. Extreme acid survival is more sensitive to autoclave products under oxygen exclusion.

  11. Direct Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in Blood Culture Broth by Use of a Penicillin Binding Protein 2a Latex Agglutination Test▿

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Qinfang; Venkataraman, Lata; Kirby, James E.; Gold, Howard S.; Yamazumi, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    We studied the utility of performing a penicillin binding protein 2a latex agglutination (PBP-LA) assay directly on Bactec blood culture broth samples containing Staphylococcus aureus to rapidly detect methicillin resistance. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of this method were 94.1%, 97.5%, 98%, and 92.9%, respectively.

  12. A multi-pathogen selective enrichment broth for simultaneous growth of Salmonella enteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella flexneri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 contaminate similar types of food and all three can cause foodborne disease. Traditional microbiological enrichment broths to detect these pathogens are different in terms of their composition, which limits the application of multi-pathogen detectio...

  13. Evaluation of the PREVI® Isola automated seeder system compared to reference manual inoculation for antibiotic susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, S; van Belkum, A; Fulchiron, C; Huguet, R; Raoult, D; Rolain, J-M

    2015-09-01

    The disk diffusion (DD) method remains the most popular manual technique for antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) in clinical microbiology laboratories. This is because of its simplicity, reproducibility, and limited cost compared to (automated) microdilution systems, which are usually less sensitive at detecting certain important mechanisms of resistance. Here, we evaluate the PREVI® Isola automated seeder system using a new protocol for spreading bacterial suspensions (eight deposits of calibrated inocula of bacteria, followed by two rounds of rotation) in comparison with manual DD reference testing on a large series of clinical and reference strains. The average time required for seeding one agar plate for DD with this new protocol was 51 s per plate, i.e., 70 agar plates/h. Reproducibility and repeatability was assessed on three reference and three randomly chosen clinical strains, as usually requested by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), and was excellent compared to the manual method. The standard deviations of zones of growth inhibition showed no statistical discrimination. The correlation between the two methods, assessed using 294 clinical isolates and a panel of six antibiotics (n = 3,528 zones of growth inhibition measured), was excellent, with a correlation coefficient of 0.977. The new PREVI® Isola protocol adapted for DD had a sensitivity of 99 % and a specificity of 100 % compared to the manual technique for interpreting DD as recommended by the EUCAST.

  14. Identification of bacteria in blood culture broths using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization Sepsityper™ and time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jen; Thomas, Lee C; Olma, Thomas; Chen, Sharon C A; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a novel method for the direct identification of bacteria from blood culture broths. We evaluate for the first time, the performance of the MALDI Sepsityper™ Kit and MS for the identification of bacteria compared to standard phenotypic methods using the manufacturer's specified bacterial identification criteria (spectral scores ≥1.700-1.999 and ≥2.000 indicated identification to genus and species level, respectively). Five hundred and seven positive blood culture broths were prospectively examined, of which 379 (74.8%; 358 monomicrobial, 21 polymicrobial) were identified by MALDI-TOF MS; 195 (100%) and 132 (67.7%) of 195 gram-positive; and 163 (100%) and 149 (91.4%) of 163 gram-negative organisms from monomicrobial blood cultures were correctly identified to genus and species level, respectively. Spectral scores blood culture broths, including 31.6% and 32.3% of gram-positive and polymicrobial blood cultures, respectively. Significantly more gram-negative organisms were identified compared to gram-positive organisms at species level (pblood cultures were misidentified, but at species level only; including four monomicrobial blood cultures with Streptococcus oralis/mitis that were misidentified as Streptococcus pneumoniae. Positive predictive values for the direct identification of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria from monomicrobial blood culture broths to genus level were 100%. A diagnostic algorithm for positive blood culture broths that incorporates gram staining and MALDI-TOF MS should identify the majority of pathogens, particularly to genus level.

  15. Identification of bacteria in blood culture broths using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization Sepsityper™ and time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Kok

    Full Text Available Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS is a novel method for the direct identification of bacteria from blood culture broths. We evaluate for the first time, the performance of the MALDI Sepsityper™ Kit and MS for the identification of bacteria compared to standard phenotypic methods using the manufacturer's specified bacterial identification criteria (spectral scores ≥1.700-1.999 and ≥2.000 indicated identification to genus and species level, respectively. Five hundred and seven positive blood culture broths were prospectively examined, of which 379 (74.8%; 358 monomicrobial, 21 polymicrobial were identified by MALDI-TOF MS; 195 (100% and 132 (67.7% of 195 gram-positive; and 163 (100% and 149 (91.4% of 163 gram-negative organisms from monomicrobial blood cultures were correctly identified to genus and species level, respectively. Spectral scores <1.700 (no identification were obtained in 128/507 (25.2% positive blood culture broths, including 31.6% and 32.3% of gram-positive and polymicrobial blood cultures, respectively. Significantly more gram-negative organisms were identified compared to gram-positive organisms at species level (p<0.0001. Five blood cultures were misidentified, but at species level only; including four monomicrobial blood cultures with Streptococcus oralis/mitis that were misidentified as Streptococcus pneumoniae. Positive predictive values for the direct identification of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria from monomicrobial blood culture broths to genus level were 100%. A diagnostic algorithm for positive blood culture broths that incorporates gram staining and MALDI-TOF MS should identify the majority of pathogens, particularly to genus level.

  16. Two-stage pervaporation process for effective in situ removal acetone-butanol-ethanol from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Hu, Song; Miao, Qi; Chen, Changjing; Chen, Huidong; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-01-01

    Two-stage pervaporation for ABE recovery from fermentation broth was studied to reduce the energy cost. The permeate after the first stage in situ pervaporation system was further used as the feedstock in the second stage of pervaporation unit using the same PDMS/PVDF membrane. A total 782.5g/L of ABE (304.56g/L of acetone, 451.98g/L of butanol and 25.97g/L of ethanol) was achieved in the second stage permeate, while the overall acetone, butanol and ethanol separation factors were: 70.7-89.73, 70.48-84.74 and 9.05-13.58, respectively. Furthermore, the theoretical evaporation energy requirement for ABE separation in the consolidate fermentation, which containing two-stage pervaporation and the following distillation process, was estimated less than ∼13.2MJ/kg-butanol. The required evaporation energy was only 36.7% of the energy content of butanol. The novel two-stage pervaporation process was effective in increasing ABE production and reducing energy consumption of the solvents separation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface Activity of Sulfactin Recovered and Purified from Fermentation Broth Using a Two-Step Ultrafiltration (UF) Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafez Mohd Isa; Frazier, A.R.; Jauregi, P.

    2011-01-01

    B. subtilis under certain types of media and fermentation conditions can produce surfactant, a bio surfactant which belongs to the lipo peptide class. Surfactant has exceptional surfactant activity, and exhibits some interesting biological characteristics such as antibacterial activity, anti tumoral activity against ascites carcinoma cells, and a hypercholesterolaemia activity that inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase, as well as having anti-HIV properties. A cost effective recovery and purification of surfactant from fermentation broth using a two-step ultrafiltration (UF) process has been developed in order to reduce the cost of surfactant production. In this study, competitive adsorption of surfactant and proteins at the air-water interface was studied using surface pressure measurements. Small volumes of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and β-casein solutions were added to the air-water interface on a Langmuir trough and allowed to stabilise before the addition of surfactant to the sub phase. Contrasting interfacial behaviour of proteins was observed with β-casein showing faster initial adsorption compared to BSA. On introduction of surfactant both proteins were displaced but a longer time were taken to displace β-casein. Overall the results showed surfactant were highly surface-active by forming a β-sheet structure at the air-water interface after reaching its critical micelle concentration (CMC) and were effective in removing both protein films, which can be explained following the orogenic mechanism. Results showed that the two-step UF process was effective to achieve high purity and fully functional surfactant. (author)

  18. Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus from food contact surfaces in a meat-based broth and sensitivity to sanitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the capacity of adhesion, the detachment kinetic and the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food services on stainless steel and polypropylene surfaces (2 x 2 cm when cultivated in a meat-based broth at 28 and 7 ºC. It was also to study the efficacy of the sanitizers sodium hypochlorite (250 mg/L and peracetic acid (30 mg/L in inactivating the bacterial cells in the preformed biofilm. S. aureus strains adhered in high numbers regardless the assayed surface kind and incubation temperature over 72 h. Cells detachment of surfaces revealed high persistence over the incubation period. Number of cells needed for biofilm formation was noted at all experimental systems already after 3 days. Peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite were not efficient in completely removing the cells of S. aureus adhered on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces. From these results, the assayed strains revealed high capacity to adhere and form biofilm on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces under different growth conditions. Moreover, the cells in biofilm matrix were resistant for total removal when submitted to the exposure to sanitizers.

  19. Compound washing remediation and response surface analysis of lead-contaminated soil in mining area by fermentation broth and saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjiao; Wang, Zhengwei; Gao, Yuntao

    2018-03-01

    The development of eluent is the key to soil washing remediation, and a compound eluent was constructed using the prepared citric acid fermentation broth and saponin in this study. It displayed a good washing performance for Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd in red soil, and the removal rates, especially Pb, gained an improvement compared with a single eluent. Based on this, the compound eluent was applied to remediation of Pb-contaminated soil in mining area; the desorption of Pb is a heterogeneous diffusion process, and Pb in large particle size soil is relatively easy to remove. An available response surface analysis model was established; its P  washing time > saponin concentration, and liquid-to-solid ratio and washing time show interaction. Moreover, the Pb removal rate can reach 56.20% under the optimized conditions: 0.25% saponin concentration, 20 mL/g liquid-to-solid ratio, and 320-min washing time, which is close to the predicted value of 56.20% with a difference of 1.41%. In addition, most of the active Pb was removed and environmental risks were lowered after washing.

  20. Broth and agar hop-gradient plates used to evaluate the beer-spoilage potential of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakensen, M; Schubert, A; Ziola, B

    2009-03-15

    Identification of the beer-spoilage Lactobacillus and Pediococcus bacteria has largely taken two approaches; identification of spoilage-associated genes or identification of specific species of bacteria regardless of ability to grow in beer. The problem with these two approaches is that they are either overly inclusive (i.e., detect all bacteria of a given species regardless of spoilage potential) or overly selective (i.e., rely upon individual, putative spoilage-associated genes). Our goal was to design a method to assess the ability of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus to spoil beer that is independent of speciation or genetic background. In searching for a method by which to differentiate between beer-spoilage bacteria and bacteria that cannot grow in beer, we explored the ability of lactobacilli and pediococci isolates to grow in the presence of varying concentrations of hop-compounds and ethanol in broth medium versus on agar medium. The best method for differentiating between bacteria that can grow in beer and bacteria that do not pose a threat as beer-spoilage organisms was found to be a hop-gradient agar plate containing ethanol. This hop-gradient agar plate technique provides a rapid and simple solution to the dilemma of assessing the ability of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus isolates to grow in beer, and provides new insights into the different strategies used by these bacteria to survive under the stringent conditions of beer.

  1. Removing the by-products acetic acid and NH4+ from the l-tryptophan broth by vacuum thin film evaporation during l-tryptophan production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Xu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During l-tryptophan production by Escherichia coli, the by-products, acetic acid and NH4+, accumulate in the fermentation broth, resulting in inhibited cell growth and activity and decreased l-tryptophan production. To improve the l-tryptophan yield and glucose conversion rate, acetic acid and NH4+ were removed under low-temperature vacuum conditions by vacuum scraper concentrator evaporation; the fermentation broth after evaporation was pressed into another fermenter to continue fermentation. To increase the volatilisation rate of acetic acid and NH4+ and reduce damage to bacteria during evaporation, different vacuum evaporation conditions were studied. Results: The optimum operating conditions were as follows: vacuum degree, 720 mm Hg; concentration ratio, 10%; temperature, 60°C; and feeding rate, 300 mL/min. The biomass yield of the control fermentation (CF and fermentation by vacuum evaporation (VEF broths was 55.1 g/L and 58.3 g/L at 38 h, respectively, (an increase of 5.8%; the living biomass yield increased from 8.9 (CF to 10.2 pF (VEF; an increase of 14.6%. l-tryptophan production increased from 50.2 g/L (CF to 60.2 g/L (VEF (an increase of 19.9%, and glucose conversion increased from 18.2% (CF to 19.5% (VEF; an increase of 7.1%. The acetic acid concentrations were 2.74 g/L and 6.70 g/L, and the NH4+ concentrations were 85.3 mmol/L and 130.9 mmol/L in VEF and CF broths, respectively. Conclusions: The acetic acid and NH4+ in the fermentation broth were quickly removed using the vacuum scraper concentrator, which reduced bacterial inhibition, enhanced bacterial activity, and improved the production of l-tryptophan and glucose conversion rate.How to cite: Xu Q, Bai F, Chen N, et al. Removing the by-products acetic acid and NH4+ from the l-tryptophan broth by vacuum thin film evaporation during l-tryptophan production. Electron J Biotechnol 2018; 33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejbt.2018.04.003. Keywords: Acetic acid

  2. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  3. Optimal Concentration of Organic Solvents to be Used in the Broth Microdilution Method to Determine the Antimicrobial Activity of Natural Products Against Paenibacillus Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Cugnata Noelia Melina; Guaspari Elisa; Pellegrini Maria Celeste; Fuselli Sandra Rosa; Alonso-Salces Rosa Maria

    2017-01-01

    American Foulbrood (AFB) is a bacterial disease, caused by Paenibacillus larvae, that affects honeybees (Apis mellifera). Alternative strategies to control AFB are based on the treatment of the beehives with antimicrobial natural substances such as extracts, essential oils and/or pure compounds from plants, honey by-products, bacteria and moulds. The broth microdilution method is currently one of the most widely used methods to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of a substan...

  4. Evaluation of the Content of Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, Arsenic, Tin, Copper and Zinc during the Production Process Flow of Tomato Broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Andrei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are among the largest contaminants of food products. Once metals are present in vegetables, their concentrations are rarely modified by industrial processing techniques, although in some cases washing may decrease the metal content. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of industrial processing on the content of lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, tin, copper and zinc in tomatoes and products resulting on flow technology of tomato broth. For the determination of essential elements and/or potentially toxic was use atomic absorption spectrometry. The analytical results for quantitative evaluation the concentrations of the investigated elements on the samples of tomatoes taken from the technological process of the production of tomato broth indicated the presence of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn but with a level of concentration that significantly decreased in the finished product and the absence of metals Hg and As in all investigated samples. Effect of industrial processing on the content of tin in tomato samples analyzed was characterized by fluctuations in the residual content that led to a significant increase in concentration of 0.100 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomatoes - unprocessed to 0.200 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomato broth.

  5. Diferentes condimentos vegetais: avaliação sensorial e de atividade antibacteriana em preparação alimentar com frango cozido Different spice plants: sensorial evaluation and antibacterial activity in chicken broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    , individualmente, atividade antibacteriana significativa, mesmo que sem significância quando comparados entre si. Contudo, em relação ao tempo de início da atividade antibacteriana, destacou-se a pimenta dedo-de-moça, enquanto que, em relação ao prolongamento dessa ação no tempo, destacou-se o alho nirá. As 12 plantas condimentares em estudo tiveram atestada a sensorialidade, sendo que as quatro plantas com destaque tiveram a atividade anti-coliforme termo-resistente comprovada in loco. Diferentes condimentos vegetais foram capazes de fornecer qualificação sensorial e sanitária em caldo com frango cozido, em condições domésticas de manuseio.Based on the in vitro antibacterial activity predetermined for 12 spice plants with ethnographic indicator, this feature was tested in loco in the model cooked chicken broth. First, ten evaluators were trained, according to the current legislation for Free and Informed Consent, providing previous knowledge about the plants parsley (Petroselinum sativum, marjoram (Origanum X aplii and Origanum majorana, basil (Ocimum basilicum, common sage (Salvia officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, anis-like spice (Ocimum selloi, african basilicum (Ocimum gratissimum, nirá garlic (Allium tuberosum, leek (Allium porrum, turmeric (Curcuma longa and "dedo-de-moça" chili (Capsicum baccatum. Those spices were individually added to the chicken broth to perform a Hedonic Scale-like Acceptance Test, selecting four of the twelve spices that had higher sensory acceptance, "dedo-de-moça" chili, nirá garlic, leek and thyme. A new Acceptance Test was then performed using low, medium and high concentrations of those four spices to establish the most acceptable sensory intensities. The elected quantities (0.5 g "dedo-de-moça" chili, 15 g nirá garlic, 15 g leek and 5 g thyme were added to the chicken broth, then challenged with Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229 at a final 10 concentration of CFU/mL, the tolerated limit according to legislation. The control

  6. Dosing strategy based on prevailing aminoglycoside minimum inhibitory concentration in India: Evidence and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Veeraraghavan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoglycosides are important agents used for treating drug-resistant infections. The current dosing regimen of aminoglycosides does not achieve sufficient serum level concentration for the infected bacterial pathogen interpreted as susceptible based on laboratory testing. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for nearly 2000 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by broth microdilution method. Results were interpreted based on CLSI and EUCAST interpretative criteria and the inconsistencies in the susceptibility profile were noted. This study provides insights into the inconsistencies existing in the laboratory interpretation and the corresponding clinical success rates. This urges the need for revising clinical breakpoints for amikacin, to resolve under dosing leading to clinical failure.

  7. Comparison of E-test with other conventional susceptibility testing methods for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin against gram negative enteric bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbolu, D O; Terry-Alli, O A; Daini, O A; Olabiyi, F A; Igharo, E A

    2012-06-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance in Gram negative bacteria has led to the need for a faster and reliable method for determining antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In a resource poor setting like ours, it's also important to look for methods that will be clinically and economically beneficial to the patient. This study was aimed at evaluating the Epsilometer test (E-test) and conventional methods for determining antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of Gram-negative enteric bacteria to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Disc diffusion, E-test, broth dilution and agar dilution methods were performed on 54 bacterial isolates. Using the E-test, 88.9% of bacterial isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 92.6% were resistant using broth microdilution, 96.3% were resistant using agar dilution and 72.2% were resistant using disc diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of isolates for gentamicin showed significant difference for all the techniques (p 0.05). Both E-test and broth dilution methods showed high levels of agreement (p > 0.05), there were low levels of agreement between E-test and agar dilution method (p < 0.05), especially at MIC50. The E-test can therefore be considered a reliable method to determine antimicrobial susceptibility testing and it gives results which are at least as accurate as those obtained by the broth dilution method.

  8. Detection of Group B Streptococci in Lim Broth by Use of Group B Streptococcus Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Selective and Nonselective Agars▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Naomi S.; Cleary, Timothy J.; Martinez, Octavio V.; Procop, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the detection of group B streptococci from Lim enrichment broth with sheep blood agar (SBA), with selective Streptococcus agar (SSA), and by a peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) assay were as follows: for culture on SBA, 68.4%, 100%, 100%, and 87.9%, respectively; for culture on SSA, 85.5%, 100%, 100%, and 94.1%, respectively; and for the PNA FISH assay, 97.4%, 98.3%, 96.1%, and 98.9%, respectively. PMID:18667597

  9. Detection of group B streptococci in Lim broth by use of group B streptococcus peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization and selective and nonselective agars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Naomi S; Cleary, Timothy J; Martinez, Octavio V; Procop, Gary W

    2008-10-01

    The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the detection of group B streptococci from Lim enrichment broth with sheep blood agar (SBA), with selective Streptococcus agar (SSA), and by a peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) assay were as follows: for culture on SBA, 68.4%, 100%, 100%, and 87.9%, respectively; for culture on SSA, 85.5%, 100%, 100%, and 94.1%, respectively; and for the PNA FISH assay, 97.4%, 98.3%, 96.1%, and 98.9%, respectively.

  10. Optimizing Tuberculosis Testing for Basic Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eric; Schumacher, Samuel G.; Siedner, Mark; Herrera, Beatriz; Quino, Willi; Alvarado, Jessica; Montoya, Rosario; Grandjean, Louis; Martin, Laura; Sherman, Jonathan M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2010-01-01

    Optimal tuberculosis testing usually involves sputum centrifugation followed by broth culture. However, centrifuges are biohazardous and scarce in the resource-limited settings where most tuberculosis occurs. To optimize tuberculosis testing for these settings, centrifugation of 111 decontaminated sputum samples was compared with syringe-aspiration through polycarbonate membrane-filters that were then cultured in broth. To reduce the workload of repeated microscopic screening of broth cultures for tuberculosis growth, the colorimetric redox indicator 2,3-diphenyl-5-(2-thienyl) tetrazolium chloride was added to the broth, which enabled naked-eye detection of culture positivity. This combination of filtration and colorimetric growth-detection gave similar results to sputum centrifugation followed by culture microscopy regarding mean colony counts (43 versus 48; P = 0.6), contamination rates (0.9% versus 1.8%; P = 0.3), and sensitivity (94% versus 95%; P = 0.7), suggesting equivalency of the two methods. By obviating centrifugation and repeated microscopic screening of cultures, this approach may constitute a more appropriate technology for rapid and sensitive tuberculosis diagnosis in basic laboratories. PMID:20889887

  11. En Route towards European Clinical Breakpoints for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: A Position Paper Explaining the VetCAST Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A.; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T.; Lees, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation. The principal challenges anticipated by VetCAST are those associated with the differing modalities of AMD administration, including mass medication, specific long-acting product formulations or local administration. Specific challenges comprise mastitis treatment in dairy cattle, the range of species and within species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i) an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) – the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii) a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index (fAUC/MIC or fT > MIC)] and (iii) when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. VetCAST will ensure freely available dissemination of information, concerning standards, guidelines, ECOFF, PK/PD breakpoints, CBPs and other relevant information for AST

  12. En Route towards European Clinical Breakpoints for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: A Position Paper Explaining the VetCAST Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T; Lees, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation. The principal challenges anticipated by VetCAST are those associated with the differing modalities of AMD administration, including mass medication, specific long-acting product formulations or local administration. Specific challenges comprise mastitis treatment in dairy cattle, the range of species and within species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i) an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) - the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii) a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index ( f AUC/MIC or f T > MIC)] and (iii) when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. VetCAST will ensure freely available dissemination of information, concerning standards, guidelines, ECOFF, PK/PD breakpoints, CBPs and other relevant information for AST

  13. En Route towards European Clinical Breakpoints for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: A Position Paper Explaining the VetCAST Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Toutain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation. The principal challenges anticipated by VetCAST are those associated with the differing modalities of AMD administration, including mass medication, specific long-acting product formulations or local administration. Specific challenges comprise mastitis treatment in dairy cattle, the range of species and within species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF – the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index (fAUC/MIC or fT > MIC] and (iii when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. VetCAST will ensure freely available dissemination of information, concerning standards, guidelines, ECOFF, PK/PD breakpoints, CBPs and other relevant information

  14. Optimal Concentration of Organic Solvents to be Used in the Broth Microdilution Method to Determine the Antimicrobial Activity of Natural Products Against Paenibacillus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cugnata Noelia Melina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available American Foulbrood (AFB is a bacterial disease, caused by Paenibacillus larvae, that affects honeybees (Apis mellifera. Alternative strategies to control AFB are based on the treatment of the beehives with antimicrobial natural substances such as extracts, essential oils and/or pure compounds from plants, honey by-products, bacteria and moulds. The broth microdilution method is currently one of the most widely used methods to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of a substance. In this regard, the fact that most natural products, due to their lipophilic nature, must be dissolved in organic solvents or their aqueous mixtures is an issue of major concern because the organic solvent becomes part of the dilution in the incubation medium, and therefore, can interfere with bacterial viability depending on its nature and concentration. A systematic study was carried out to determine by the broth microdilution method the MIC and the maximum non inhibitory concentration (MNIC against P. larvae of the most common organic solvents used to extract or dissolve natural products, i.e. ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, n-butanol, dimethylsulfoxide, and acidified hydromethanolic solutions. From the MIC and MNIC for each organic solvent, recommended maximum concentrations in contact with P. larvae were established: DMSO 5% (v/v, acetonitrile 7.5% (v/v, ethanol 7.5% (v/v, methanol 12% (v/v, n-butanol 1% (v/v, and methanol-water-acetic acid (1.25:98.71:0.04, v/v/v.

  15. The role of epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs/ECOFFs) in antifungal susceptibility testing and interpretation for uncommon yeasts and moulds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Turnidge, John

    2016-01-01

    The role of antimicrobial susceptibility testing is to aid in selecting the best agent for the treatment of bacterial and fungal diseases. This has been best achieved by the setting of breakpoints by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) for prevalent Candida spp. versus anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole. The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) also has set breakpoints for prevalent and common Candida and Aspergillus species versus amphotericin B, itraconazole, and posaconazole. Recently, another interpretive category, the epidemiological cut off value, could aid in the early identification of strains with acquired resistance mechanisms. CLSI has postulated that epidemiological cut off values may, with due caution, aid physicians in managing mycosis by species where breakpoints are not available. This review provides (1) the criteria and statistical approach to establishing and estimating epidemiological cut off values (ECVs), (2) the role of the epidemiological cut off value in establishing breakpoints, (3) the potential role of epidemiological cut off values in clinical practice, (4) and the wide range of CLSI-based epidemiological cut off values reported in the literature as well as EUCAST and Sensititre Yeast One-ECVs. Additionally, we provide MIC/MEC (minimal inhibitory concentrations/minimum effective concentrations) ranges/modes of each pooled distribution used for epidemiological cut off value calculation. We focus on the epidemiological cut off value, the new interpretive endpoint that will identify the non-wild type strains (defined as potentially harboring resistance mechanisms). However, we emphasize that epidemiological cut off values will not categorize a fungal isolate as susceptible or resistant as breakpoints do, because the former do not account for the pharmacology of the antifungal agent or the findings from clinical outcome studies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Espa

  16. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-11-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and broth microdilution procedures. Repeat testing of isolates by macro- and microdilution synergy methods yielded MICs that were within one twofold dilution of each other for both intra- and intertest comparisons. Synergy was always detected by time-kill studies when the MIC of ampicillin in the combination synergy screen was 16 micrograms/ml in the combination microdilution synergy screen. The determination of the synergy by the broth microdilution procedure appears to be simple, convenient, and accurate.

  17. In Vitro Activity of Posaconazole against Talaromyces marneffei by Broth Microdilution and Etest Methods and Comparison to Itraconazole, Voriconazole, and Anidulafungin

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Lo, George C. S.; Lam, Clare S. K.; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Wu, Alan K. L.; Tsang, Dominic N. C.; Tse, Cindy W. S.; Que, Tak-Lun; Tang, Bone S. F.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2017-01-01

    We determined the susceptibilities of 57 Talaromyces marneffei strains to anidulafungin, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole with MICs of 2 to 8, 0.002 to 0.004, 0.016 to 0.063, and 0.001 to 0.002 μg/ml by broth microdilution and >32, ≤0.002 to 0.008, ≤0.002 to 0.008, and ≤0.002 μg/ml by Etest, respectively, at yeast phase; MICs at mycelial phase for anidulafungin and posaconazole were 1 to 2 and 0.004 to 0.063 μg/ml, respectively. The results suggest promising activities of posacona...

  18. Recovery of lactic acid from the pretreated fermentation broth based on a novel hyper-cross-linked meso-micropore resin: Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingkai; Jiao, Pengfei; Qin, Taotao; Jiang, Kangkang; Zhou, Jingwei; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Yong; Liu, Dong; Zhu, Chenjie; Chen, Xiaochun; Ying, Hanjie; Wu, Jinglan

    2017-10-01

    An innovative benign process for recovery lactic acid from its fermentation broth is proposed using a novel hyper-cross-linked meso-micropore resin and water as eluent. This work focuses on modeling the competitive adsorption behaviors of glucose, lactic acid and acetic acid ternary mixture and explosion of the adsorption mechanism. The characterization results showed the resin had a large BET surface area and specific pore structure with hydrophobic properties. By analysis of the physicochemical properties of the solutes and the resin, the mechanism of the separation is proposed as hydrophobic effect and size-exclusion. Subsequently three chromatographic models were applied to predict the competitive breakthrough curves of the ternary mixture under different operating conditions. The pore diffusion was the major limiting factor for the adsorption process, which was consistent with the BET results. The novel HD-06 resin can be a good potential adsorbent for the future SMB continuous separation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes F2365 cells to synthetic gastric fluid is greater following growth on ready-to-eat deli turkey meat than in brain heart infusion broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Luke D; Faith, Nancy G; Czuprynski, Charles J

    2007-11-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meats have been categorized as high-risk foods for contraction of foodborne listeriosis. Several recent listeriosis outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of RTE deli turkey meat. In this study, we examined whether the growth of Listeria monocytogenes F2365 on commercially prepared RTE deli turkey meat causes listerial cells to become more resistant to inactivation by synthetic gastric fluid (SGF). Listerial cells grown on turkey meat to late logarithmic-early stationary phase were significantly more resistant to SGF at pH 7.0, 5.0, or 3.5 than listerial cells grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth. The pH was lower in the fluid in packages of turkey meat than in BHI broth (6.5 versus 7.5). However, listerial cells grown in BHI broth adjusted to a lower pH (6.0) did not exhibit enhanced resistance to SGF. The lesser resistance to SGF of listerial cells grown in BHI broth may be due, in part, to the presence of glucose (0.2%). This study indicates the environment presented by the growth of L. monocytogenes on deli turkey meat affects its ability to survive conditions it encounters in the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Self-assembling systems based on quaternized derivatives of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane in nutrient broth as antimicrobial agents and carriers for hydrophobic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashirova, Tatiana N; Lukashenko, Svetlana S; Zakharov, Sergey V; Voloshina, Alexandra D; Zhiltsova, Elena P; Zobov, Vladimir V; Souto, Eliana B; Zakharova, Lucia Ya

    2015-03-01

    Aggregation properties of mono (mono-CS) and dicationic (di-CS) surfactants, namely quaternised derivatives of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO), have been evaluated in water and in nutrient broths of different pH, i.e. in Hottinger broth (рН=7.2) and Sabouraud dextrose broth (рН=5.6). Aggregation capacity of surfactants was shown to be responsible for the solubilization properties of a complex composed of a hydrophobic probe (Sudan I) and a selected drug (quercetin), contributing to the antimicrobial activity of this surfactant system. The effect of N-methyl-d-glucamine (NmDg) additive on the antimicrobial activity of mono-CS, and its aggregation and solubilization parameters, has also been evaluated. A substantial decrease in critical micelle concentration (CMC) of cationic surfactants in nutrient broths (up to 60 times) has been reported. Twofold dilution of monocationic surfactant by NmDg slightly changed the CMC of surfactant; however, it provided a remarkable increase in solubilization capacity (∼by 4 times) and decrease in its toxicity. The data anticipate the potential use of DABCO quaternized derivatives as innovative non-toxic delivery systems for hydrophobic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Listeria seeligeri or Listeria welshimeri on Listeria monocytogenes detection in and recovery from buffered Listeria enrichment broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Rachel C; Welch, Lacinda J; Hitchins, Anthony D; Smiley, R Derike

    2015-04-01

    The presence of multiple species of Listeria in regulated food products is not uncommon and can complicate the recovery of Listeria monocytogenes particularly on a non-differentiating medium. The potential complications of Listeria seeligeri and Listeria welshimeri on the recovery of L. monocytogenes from inoculated food test samples using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) selective enrichment procedure was investigated. Post-enrichment enumeration, in the absence of food product, indicates that some L. seeligeri and L. monocytogenes pairings may have population differentials as great as 2.7 ± 0.1 logs with L. seeligeri being the predominant species. A similar observation was noted for L. welshimeri and L. monocytogenes pairings which resulted in population differentials as large as 3.7 ± 0.2 logs with L. welshimeri being the predominant species. Select strain pairings were used to inoculate guacamole, crab meat, broccoli, and cheese with subsequent recovery by the FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) method with 10 colonies per sample selected for confirmation. The presence of L. seeligeri had little effect on the recovery of L. monocytogenes. The presence of L. welshimeri resulted in the failure to recover L. monocytogenes in three out of the four food matrices. This work extends the observation that non-pathogenic species of Listeria can complicate the recovery of L. monocytogenes and that competition during selective enrichment is not limited to the presence of just Listeria innocua. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Momordica charantia leaf broth: Evaluation of their innate antimicrobial and catalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajitha, B; Reddy, Y Ashok Kumar; Reddy, P Sreedhara

    2015-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared through green route with the aid of Momordica charantia leaf extract as both reductant and stabilizer. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) fringes revealed the structure of AgNPs as face centered cubic (fcc). Morphological studies elucidate the nearly spherical AgNPs formation with particle size in nanoscale. Biosynthesized AgNPs were found to be photoluminescent and UV-Vis absorption spectra showed one surface plasmon resonance peak (SPR) at 424nm attesting the spherical nanoparticles formation. XPS study provides the surface chemical nature and oxidation state of the synthesized nanoparticles. FTIR spectra ascertain the reduction and capping nature of phytoconstituents of leaf extract in AgNPs synthesis. Further, these AgNPs showed effective antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens and thus applicable as potent antimicrobial agent. In addition, the synthesized AgNPs were observed to have an excellent catalytic activity on the reduction of methylene blue by M. charantia which was confirmed by the decrement in maximum absorbance values of methylene blue with respect to time and is ascribed to electron relay effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth. Part II: Gas, Oil, Water and the Oil/Water-Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Sabrina; Wollrab, Eva; Codutti, Luca; Carlomagno, Teresa; da Costa, Stefan Gomes; Volkmer, Andreas; Bronja, Amela; Schmitz, Oliver J.; Ott, Albrecht

    2017-12-01

    We have analyzed the chemical variety obtained by Miller-Urey-type experiments using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy, gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and two-dimensional gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GCxGC/MS). In the course of a running Miller-Urey-type experiment, a hydrophobic organic layer emerged besides the hydrophilic aqueous phase and the gaseous phase that were initially present. The gas phase mainly consisted of aromatic compounds and molecules containing C≡ C or C≡ N triple bonds. The hydrophilic phase contained at least a few thousands of different molecules, primarily distributed in a range of 50 and 500 Da. The hydrophobic phase is characterized by carbon-rich, oil-like compounds and their amphiphilic derivatives containing oxygen with tensioactive properties. The presence of a wide range of oxidized molecules hints to the availability of oxygen radicals. We suggest that they intervene in the formation of alkylated polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the oil/water interface. CARS spectroscopy revealed distinct vibrational molecular signatures. In particular, characteristic spectral bands for cyanide compounds were observed if the broth was prepared with electric discharges in the gaseous phase. The characteristic spectral bands were absent if discharges were released onto the water surface. NMR spectroscopy on the same set of samples independently confirmed the observation. In addition, NMR spectroscopy revealed overall high chemical variability that suggests strong non-linearities due to interdependent, sequential reaction steps.

  4. Study of the rheological properties of a fermentation broth of the fungus Beauveria bassiana in a bioreactor under different hydrodynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Ramírez, Diola Marina; Medina-Torres, Luis; Valencia-López, José Javier; Calderas, Fausto; López Miranda, Javier; Medrano-Roldán, Hiram; Solís-Soto, Aquiles

    2012-11-01

    Fermentation with filamentous fungi in a bioreactor is a complex dynamic process that is affected by flow conditions and the evolution of the rheological properties of the medium. These properties are mainly affected by the biomass concentration and the morphology of the fungus. In this work, the rheological properties of a fermentation with the fungus Beauveria bassiana under different hydrodynamic conditions were studied and the rheological behavior of this broth was simulated through a mixture of carboxymethyl cellulose sodium and cellulose fibers (CMCNa-SF). The bioreactor was a 10 L CSTR tank operated at different stir velocities. Rheological results were similar at 100 and 300 rpm for both systems. However, there was a significant increase in the viscosity accompanied by a change in the consistence index, calculated according to the power law model, for both systems at 800 rpm. The systems exhibited shear-thinning behavior at all stir velocities, which was determined with the power law model. The mixing time was observed to increase as the cellulose content in the system increased and, consequently, the efficiency of mixing diminished. These results are thought to be due to the rheological and morphological similarities of the two fungal systems. These results will help in the optimization of scale-up production of these fungi.

  5. A Comparison of Simple Rheological Parameters and Simulation Data for Zymomonas mobilis Fermentation Broths with High Substrate Loading in a 3-L Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Byung-Hwan; Hanley, Thomas R.

    Traditionally, as much as 80% or more of an ethanol fermentation broth is water that must be removed. This mixture is not only costly to separate but also produces a large aqueous stream that must then be disposed of or recycled. Integrative approaches to water reduction include increasing the biomass concentration during fermentation. In this paper, experimental results are presented for the rheological behavior of high-solids enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation for biomass conversion using Solka Floc as the model feedstock. The experimental determination of the viscosity, shear stress, and shear rate relationships of the 10 to 20% slurry concentrations with constant enzyme concentrations are performed with a variable speed rotational viscometer (2.0 to 200 rpm) at 40 °C. The viscosities of enzymatic suspension observed were in range of 0.0418 to 0.0144, 0.233 to 0.0348, and 0.292 to 0.0447 Pa s for shear rates up to 100 reciprocal seconds at 10, 15, and 20% initial solids (w/v), respectively. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of bioreactor mixing demonstrates the change in bioreactor mixing with increasing biomass concentration. The portion-loading method is shown to be effective for processing highsolids slurries.

  6. Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus sensu lato and Staphylococcus aureus Isolates and Associated Enterotoxin Production Dynamics in Milk or Meat-Based Broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-York-Moore, Laura; Moore, Sean C; Fox, Edward M

    2017-07-15

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato species, as well as Staphylococcus aureus , are important pathogenic bacteria which can cause foodborne illness through the production of enterotoxins. This study characterised enterotoxin genes of these species and examined growth and enterotoxin production dynamics of isolates when grown in milk or meat-based broth. All B. cereus s. l. isolates harboured nheA , hblA and entFM toxin genes, with lower prevalence of bceT and hlyII . When grown at 16 °C, toxin production by individual B. cereus s. l. isolates varied depending on the food matrix; toxin was detected at cell densities below 5 log 10 (CFU/mL). At 16 °C no staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) production was detected by S. aureus isolates, although low levels of SED production was noted. At 30 °C all S. aureus isolates produced detectable enterotoxin in the simulated meat matrix, whereas SEC production was significantly reduced in milk. Relative to B. cereus s. l. toxin production, S. aureus typically required reaching higher cell numbers to produce detectable levels of enterotoxin. Phylogenetic analysis of the sec and sel genes suggested population evolution which correlated with animal host adaptation, with subgroups of bovine isolates or caprine/ovine isolates noted, which were distinct from human isolates. Taken together, this study highlights the marked differences in the production of enterotoxins both associated with different growth matrices themselves, but also in the behaviour of individual strains when exposed to different food matrices.

  7. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth : Part II: Gas, Oil, Water and the Oil/Water-Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Sabrina; Wollrab, Eva; Codutti, Luca; Carlomagno, Teresa; da Costa, Stefan Gomes; Volkmer, Andreas; Bronja, Amela; Schmitz, Oliver J; Ott, Albrecht

    2017-12-01

    We have analyzed the chemical variety obtained by Miller-Urey-type experiments using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy, gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and two-dimensional gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GCxGC/MS). In the course of a running Miller-Urey-type experiment, a hydrophobic organic layer emerged besides the hydrophilic aqueous phase and the gaseous phase that were initially present. The gas phase mainly consisted of aromatic compounds and molecules containing C≡C or C≡N triple bonds. The hydrophilic phase contained at least a few thousands of different molecules, primarily distributed in a range of 50 and 500 Da. The hydrophobic phase is characterized by carbon-rich, oil-like compounds and their amphiphilic derivatives containing oxygen with tensioactive properties. The presence of a wide range of oxidized molecules hints to the availability of oxygen radicals. We suggest that they intervene in the formation of alkylated polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the oil/water interface. CARS spectroscopy revealed distinct vibrational molecular signatures. In particular, characteristic spectral bands for cyanide compounds were observed if the broth was prepared with electric discharges in the gaseous phase. The characteristic spectral bands were absent if discharges were released onto the water surface. NMR spectroscopy on the same set of samples independently confirmed the observation. In addition, NMR spectroscopy revealed overall high chemical variability that suggests strong non-linearities due to interdependent, sequential reaction steps.

  8. Fermentative utilization of coffee mucilage using Bacillus coagulans and investigation of down-stream processing of fermentation broth for optically pure l(+)-lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Anna-Katrin; Pleissner, Daniel; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    In this study, mucilage, a residue from coffee production, was investigated as substrate in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production. Mucilage was provided as liquid suspension consisting glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose and sucrose as free sugars (up to 60gL(-1)), and used directly as medium in Bacillus coagulans batch fermentations carried out at 2 and 50L scales. Using mucilage and 5gL(-1) yeast extract as additional nitrogen source, more than 40gL(-1) lactic acid was obtained. Productivity and yield were 4-5gL(-1)h(-1) and 0.70-0.77g lactic acid per g of free sugars, respectively, irrespective the scale. Similar yield was found when no yeast extract was supplied, the productivity, however, was 1.5gL(-1)h(-1). Down-stream processing of culture broth, including filtration, electrodialysis, ion exchange chromatography and distillation, resulted in a pure lactic acid formulation containing 930gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid. Optical purity was 99.8%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes at a Very Low Level Using Simultaneous Enrichment Broth and Multichannel SPR Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Tsuji, Sachiko; Kitaoka, Hayato; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Tamai, Mitsuru; Honjoh, Ken-Ichi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2017-10-01

    Detection of foodborne pathogens at very low levels is still a challenge. A custom-built multichannel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor and simultaneous enrichment broth (SEB) were used to develop a simultaneous detection method for 3 important foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157:H7), Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes, at a very low level. These 3 foodborne pathogens at a very low level (14, 6, and 28 CFU/25 g (mL) for O157:H7, S. enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes, respectively) were inoculated in SEB and incubated at 37 ˚C for 24 h. Sample prepared from the simultaneous enrichment culture was analyzed using the multichannel SPR biosensor and sensor chip immobilized with polyclonal antibodies specific to each of the target pathogens. O157:H7, S. enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes in chicken were detected simultaneously at an inoculum dose of 14, 6, and 28 CFU/25 g, respectively. Our method using a custom-built multichannel SPR biosensor and enrichment in SEB is expected as a rapid and simultaneous detection method for low levels of O157:H7, S. enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes in food. Our method is expected as a rapid and simultaneous detection method for pathogens at very low levels. It has great potential for safety control of food and microbiological detection applications. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  11. Pre-Use Susceptibility to Ceftaroline in Clinical Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Germany: Is There a Non-Susceptible Pool to be Selected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Strommenger

    Full Text Available Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin active against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Based on a representative collection of clinical S. aureus isolates from Germany, supplemented with isolates of clonal lineages ST228 and ST239, we demonstrate the in-vitro susceptibility towards ceftaroline prior to its introduction into clinical use for a total of 219 isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution, disc diffusion and Etest, respectively. Results were interpreted according to EUCAST guidelines and showed considerable variance in dependence on clonal affiliation of the isolates tested. Among isolates of widespread hospital-associated lineages we found a high proportion of clinical isolates with MICs close to the EUCAST breakpoint (MIC50/90 1.0/1.5 mg/L; currently, interpretation of these "borderline" MICs is complicated by a lack of concordant susceptibility testing methods and reasonable breakpoint determination. Isolates of clonal lineages ST228 and ST239 demonstrated increased MIC50/90 values of 2.5/3.33 mg/L. Sequencing of mecA revealed no association of resistance to a specific mecA polymorphism, but rather reveals two regions in the non-penicillin-binding domain of PbP2a which displayed different combinations of mutations putatively involved in resistance development. This study provides national baseline data to (i adjust susceptibility testing methods and current breakpoints to clinical and epidemiological requirements, (ii evaluate current breakpoints with respect to therapeutic outcome and (iii monitor further resistance evolution.

  12. Simple test of synergy between ampicillin and vancomycin for resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M; Barbadora, K; Wadowsky, R M

    1994-01-01

    The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin kills some but not all strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We compared a simple test for synergy utilizing a commercially available microdilution susceptibility system with time-kill studies and determined acceptable breakpoints for this test for 20 strains of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium. The combination of ampicillin and vancomycin was tested for synergy by time-kill, broth macrodilution, and b...

  13. 9 CFR 147.30 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for Mycoplasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laboratory procedure recommended for... Examination Procedures § 147.30 Laboratory procedure recommended for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test... tracheal swabs in PBS or 1 mL of broth culture by a non-phenolic procedure. Centrifuge samples at 14,000 x...

  14. Ceftolozane/tazobactam activity against drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing urinary tract and intraabdominal infections in Europe: report from an antimicrobial surveillance programme (2012-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Bassetti, Matteo; Duncan, Leonard R; Castanheira, Mariana

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the in vitro activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam and comparators tested against European isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hospitalized patients with urinary tract infection or intraabdominal infections. A total of 6553 Gram-negative organisms (603 P. aeruginosa and 5950 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected from 41 hospitals located in 17 European countries plus Israel and Turkey. The organisms were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods and the results interpreted according to EUCAST and CLSI breakpoint criteria. Ceftolozane/tazobactam [MIC 50/90 0.25/1 mg/L; 93.5%/91.3% susceptible (S) (CLSI/EUCAST criteria)] and meropenem [MIC 50/90  ≤0.06/≤0.06 mg/L; 98.1%/98.3% S (CLSI/EUCAST)] were the most active compounds tested against Enterobacteriaceae. Among the Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 1.9% were carbapenem resistant (CRE), 15.2% exhibited an ESBL non-CRE phenotype, 14.6% were MDR, 2.2% were XDR and 32/>32 mg/L; 3.6% S) or PDR (MIC 50  >32 mg/L; 0.0% S) phenotype. Ceftolozane/tazobactam was the most potent (MIC 50/90 0.5/4 mg/L) β-lactam agent tested against P. aeruginosa isolates, inhibiting 91.7% at an MIC of ≤4 mg/L. P. aeruginosa exhibited high rates of resistance to cefepime (20.6%), ceftazidime (23.1%), meropenem (9.0%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (26.9%) (EUCAST criteria). Among these four P. aeruginosa resistant phenotypes, 61.3%-70.4% were susceptible to ceftolozane/tazobactam. Ceftolozane/tazobactam was the most active β-lactam agent tested against P. aeruginosa and demonstrated higher in vitro activity than currently available cephalosporins and piperacillin/tazobactam when tested against Enterobacteriaceae. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Modeling the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes during enrichment in half Fraser broth; impact of pooling and the duration of enrichment on the detection of L. monocytogenes in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Kalmokoff, Martin; Ells, Timothy; Favret, Sandra; Desreumaux, Jennifer; Decourseulles Brasseur, Emilie; Gnanou Besse, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    A stochastic model describing the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during enrichment in half Fraser was developed for the purpose of estimating the effects of modifications to the first enrichment step of the EN ISO 11290-1 detection method. Information pertaining to the variability of growth rates, physiological state of the cell, and the behavior of individual cells contaminating the food were obtained from previously published studies. We used this model to investigate the impact of pooling enrichment broths (wet pooling) on the performance of the standard method. For validation of the model, the numbers of L. monocytogenes occurring in 88 naturally contaminated foods following pre-enrichment were compared to model-simulated microbial counts. The model was then used to perform simulations representative of the natural contamination observed for smoked salmon in the European baseline survey of 2010-2011. The model-estimated L. monocytogenes levels following individual enrichment or following the pooling of five broths where only one would be contaminated were compared. The model indicated a 10% loss of method sensitivity resulting from wet pooling. The model also predicted a 5% decrease in the sensitivity of the method when the duration of the enrichment was reduced from 24 to 22 h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2011-13 in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshchenko, Y; Dzyublik, A; Pertseva, T; Bratus, E; Dzyublik, Y; Gladka, G; Morrissey, I; Torumkuney, D

    2016-05-01

    To determine the antibiotic susceptibility of respiratory isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae collected in 2011-13 from Ukraine. MICs were determined by CLSI broth microdilution and susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. A total of 134 isolates of S. pneumoniae and 67 of H. influenzae were collected from eight sites in Ukraine. Overall, 87.3% of S. pneumoniae were penicillin susceptible by CLSI oral breakpoints and 99.3% by CLSI iv breakpoints. Susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxicillin), ceftriaxone and levofloxacin was 100% by CLSI and PK/PD breakpoints. Cephalosporin and macrolide susceptibility was ≥95.5% and 88.1%, respectively using CLSI breakpoints. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was essentially inactive against pneumococci. Of the 67 H. influenzae tested, 4.5% were β-lactamase positive and all H. influenzae were fully susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, cefixime and levofloxacin (all breakpoints). Cefuroxime susceptibility was 100% by CLSI but 73.1% by EUCAST and PK/PD breakpoints. A discrepancy was found in macrolide susceptibility between CLSI (∼100% susceptible), EUCAST (22%-43% susceptible) and PK/PD (0%-22% susceptible) breakpoints. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was poorly active (59.7% susceptible). Generally, antibiotic resistance was low in respiratory pathogens from Ukraine. However, only amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxicillin), ceftriaxone and levofloxacin were fully active against both species. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was the least active, particularly against S. pneumoniae. Some susceptibility differences were apparent between CLSI, EUCAST and PK/PD breakpoints, especially with macrolides against H. influenzae. These data suggest that further efforts are required to harmonize these international breakpoints. Future studies are warranted to monitor continued low resistance levels in Ukraine

  17. Ultra Scale-Down Characterization of the Impact of Conditioning Methods for Harvested Cell Broths on Clarification by Continuous Centrifugation—Recovery of Domain Antibodies from rec E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatel, Alex; Kumpalume, Peter; Hoare, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The processing of harvested E. coli cell broths is examined where the expressed protein product has been released into the extracellular space. Pre-treatment methods such as freeze–thaw, flocculation, and homogenization are studied. The resultant suspensions are characterized in terms of the particle size distribution, sensitivity to shear stress, rheology and solids volume fraction, and, using ultra scale-down methods, the predicted ability to clarify the material using industrial scale continuous flow centrifugation. A key finding was the potential of flocculation methods both to aid the recovery of the particles and to cause the selective precipitation of soluble contaminants. While the flocculated material is severely affected by process shear stress, the impact on the very fine end of the size distribution is relatively minor and hence the predicted performance was only diminished to a small extent, for example, from 99.9% to 99.7% clarification compared with 95% for autolysate and 65% for homogenate at equivalent centrifugation conditions. The lumped properties as represented by ultra scale-down centrifugation results were correlated with the basic properties affecting sedimentation including particle size distribution, suspension viscosity, and solids volume fraction. Grade efficiency relationships were used to allow for the particle and flow dynamics affecting capture in the centrifuge. The size distribution below a critical diameter dependant on the broth pre-treatment type was shown to be the main determining factor affecting the clarification achieved. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 913–924. © 2013 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24284936

  18. Estudo da produção de biossurfactante em caldo de fermentação Study on the production of biosurfactant fermentation broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Messias Bueno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium isolated from soil contaminated by hydrocarbon was studied and, by biochemical tests and analysis of PCR, the presence of Bacillus pumilus was identified. The production of biosurfactant was optimized, test of oil degradation and antimicrobial activity determination. The results showed that pH 5.0 and 7.0, 72 h of fermentation, sucrose and sugar cane juice (2% had best yields. The bacterium is able to degrade crude oil and displays bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity. From the analysis of proximate composition of biosurfactant found the presence of biopolymer formed by a lipopolysaccharide-protein complex.

  19. Rapid susceptibility testing and microcolony analysis of Candida spp. cultured and imaged on porous aluminum oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Ingham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance to antifungal agents now supports the introduction of susceptibility testing for species-drug combinations for which this was previously thought unnecessary. For pathogenic yeasts, conventional phenotypic testing needs at least 24 h. Culture on a porous aluminum oxide (PAO support combined with microscopy offers a route to more rapid results. METHODS: Microcolonies of Candida species grown on PAO were stained with the fluorogenic dyes Fun-1 and Calcofluor White and then imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Images were captured by a charge-coupled device camera and processed by publicly available software. By this method, the growth of yeasts could be detected and quantified within 2 h. Microcolony imaging was then used to assess the susceptibility of the yeasts to amphotericin B, anidulafungin and caspofungin (3.5 h culture, and voriconazole and itraconazole (7 h culture. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results showed good agreement with EUCAST (86.5% agreement; n = 170 and E-test (85.9% agreement; n = 170. The closest agreement to standard tests was found when testing susceptibility to amphotericin B and echinocandins (88.2 to 91.2% and the least good for the triazoles (79.4 to 82.4%. Furthermore, large datasets on population variation could be rapidly obtained. An analysis of microcolonies revealed subtle effects of antimycotics on resistant strains and below the MIC of sensitive strains, particularly an increase in population heterogeneity and cell density-dependent effects of triazoles. Additionally, the method could be adapted to strain identification via germ tube extension. We suggest PAO culture is a rapid and versatile method that may be usefully adapted to clinical mycology and has research applications.

  20. Interpretive criteria for mupirocin susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus spp. using CLSI guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creagh, S

    2012-02-03

    Mupirocin is an antimicrobial agent commonly used to treat staphylococcal infection or to eliminate persistent carriage. To date, interpretive criteria have not been established to define susceptibility or resistance when performing mupirocin susceptibility testing. In this evaluation, using CLSI guidelines, a total of 502 staphylococci comprising 219 methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, 222 methicillin-resistant S. aureus and 61 coagulase-negative staphylococci are tested by broth microdilution, disc diffusion and E-test. Disc diffusion using 5 microg mupirocin discs was found to be a reliable method to distinguish susceptible and resistant strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination was required to differentiate low-level and high-level resistance to mupirocin. E-test was found to be an accurate alternative to broth microdilution for the routine determination of MIC values of staphylococci to mupirocin. Broth microdilution and disc-diffusion results were plotted on a scattergram, and error rates were calculated. No errors were found using susceptibility criteria of < 4 microg\\/mL (MIC) and > 19 mm (zone diameter).

  1. Evaluation of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute phenotypic confirmatory test to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases from 4005 Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Ian; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hackel, Meredith; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Hawser, Stephen; Hoban, Daryl; Badal, Robert E

    2014-04-01

    A subset of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected for the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends that were positive for the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypic confirmatory test (n = 3245) or had an ertapenem MIC of ≥0.5 µg ml(-1) (n = 293), or both (n = 467), were analysed for ESBL genes. Most ESBL phenotype E. coli or K. pneumoniae possessed an ESBL gene (95.8 and 88.4 %, respectively), and this was 93.1 % if carbapenem-non-susceptible K. pneumoniae were removed. This rate was lower for P. mirabilis (73.4 %) and K. oxytoca (62.5 %). Virtually all ESBL-positive isolates (99.5 %) were cefotaxime non-susceptible [CLSI or European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints)]. Fewer isolates (82 %) were ceftazidime non-susceptible (CLSI breakpoints). In addition, 21.1 % of E. coli, 25 % of K. oxytoca and 78.7 % of P. mirabilis isolates were ceftazidime susceptible but ESBL positive. This suggests that CLSI breakpoints for ceftazidime are too high to detect ESBLs. The lower EUCAST breakpoints detected ESBLs in E. coli and K. oxytoca better, but 59.6 % of ESBL-positive isolates of P. mirabilis were ceftazidime susceptible. For isolates with ertapenem MICs ≥0.5 µg ml(-1), more accurate ESBL phenotype analysis was observed for E. coli and K. pneumoniae (sensitivity >95 % for both, specificity 94.4 and 54.1 %, respectively). If carbapenemase-positive K. pneumoniae were excluded, the specificity increased to 78 %. The positive predictive values for the ESBL phenotypic test with E. coli and K. pneumoniae were 97.6 and 81.8 %, respectively, and negative predictive values were 75.9 and 95.2 %, respectively. We therefore suggest that it would be prudent to confirm phenotypic ESBL-positive P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca with molecular analysis.

  2. Evaluation of the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing results of clinically significant anaerobic bacteria in a Slovenian tertiary-care hospital in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeverica, Samo; Kolenc, Urša; Mueller-Premru, Manica; Papst, Lea

    2017-10-01

    The aim of our study was to determined antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 2673 clinically significant anaerobic bacteria belonging to the major genera, isolated in 2015 in a large tertiary-care hospital in Slovenia. The species identification was performed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined immediately at the isolation of the strains against: penicillin, co-amoxiclav, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole, using gradient diffusion methodology and EUCAST breakpoints. The most frequent anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis group with 31% (n = 817), Gram positive anaerobic cocci (GPACs) with 22% (n = 589), Prevotella with 14% (n = 313) and Propionibacterium with 8% (n = 225). Metronidazole has retained full activity (100%) against all groups of anaerobic bacteria intrinsically susceptible to it. Co-amoxiclav and imipenem were active against most tested anaerobes with zero or low resistance rates. However, observed resistance to co-amoxiclav (8%) and imipenem (1%) is worrying especially among B. fragilis group isolates. High overall resistance (23%) to clindamycin was detected in our study and was highest among the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, GPACs and Clostridium. Routine testing of antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria is feasible and provides good surveillance data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct identification from positive blood broth culture by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberino, Maria Goreth; Silva, Marcio de Oliveira; Arraes, Ana Carolina Palmeiras; Correia, Luís Cláudio; Mendes, Ana Verena

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are among the most concerning bacterial infections. They are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, and occur in 30-70% of critical care patients. The prompt identification of the causative microorganism can help choosing the appropriate antimicrobial therapy that will lead to better clinical outcomes. Blood culture is one of the most relevant tests for microbiological diagnosis of bacterial infections. The introduction of the MALDI-TOF microbiological diagnosis significantly decreased the time of identifying microorganisms. However, it depends on the growth on solid culture medium. In this study, 538 bottles of positive blood cultures were evaluated to test the accuracy of an in house modified protocol. The study sample consisted of 198 Gram-negative and 350 Gram-positive bacteria. In all, 460 (83.94%) species were identified based on the direct plate findings. The protocol allowed the identification of 185/198 (93.43%) of the Gram-negative bacteria, including aerobes, anaerobes, and non-fermenters, and 275/350 (78.85%) of the Gram-positive bacteria. The proposed method has the potential to provide accurate results in comparison to the traditional method with the potential to reduce the turnaround time for the results and optimize antimicrobial therapy in BSI. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct identification from positive blood broth culture by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goreth Barberino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections (BSIs are among the most concerning bacterial infections. They are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, and occur in 30–70% of critical care patients. The prompt identification of the causative microorganism can help choosing the appropriate antimicrobial therapy that will lead to better clinical outcomes. Blood culture is one of the most relevant tests for microbiological diagnosis of bacterial infections. The introduction of the MALDI-TOF microbiological diagnosis significantly decreased the time of identifying microorganisms. However, it depends on the growth on solid culture medium. In this study, 538 bottles of positive blood cultures were evaluated to test the accuracy of an in house modified protocol. The study sample consisted of 198 Gram-negative and 350 Gram-positive bacteria. In all, 460 (83.94% species were identified based on the direct plate findings. The protocol allowed the identification of 185/198 (93.43% of the Gram-negative bacteria, including aerobes, anaerobes, and non-fermenters, and 275/350 (78.85% of the Gram-positive bacteria. The proposed method has the potential to provide accurate results in comparison to the traditional method with the potential to reduce the turnaround time for the results and optimize antimicrobial therapy in BSI.

  5. Comparison of in vitro activity of five antifungal agents against dermatophytes, using the agar dilution and broth microdilution methods Comparação da atividade in vitro de cinco agentes antifúngicos para dermatófitos, usando os métodos de diluição em ágar e microdiluição em caldo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystiane Rodrigues Araújo Mota

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the agar dilution and broth microdilution methods for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, griseofulvin and terbinafine for 60 dermatophyte samples belonging to the species Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. The percentage agreement between the two methods, for all the isolates with O propósito do presente trabalho foi comparar os métodos de diluição em ágar e diluição em caldo para a determinação de concentração inibitória mínima de fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol, griseofulvina e terbinafina para 60 amostras de dermatófitos pertencentes às espécies, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton. mentagrophytes e Microsporum canis. A porcentagem de acordo entre os dois métodos para todos os isolados testados considerando-se valores < 2 diluições, foram de 91,6% para cetoconazol e para griseofulvina, de 88,3% para itraconazol, de 81,6% para terbinafina e de 73,3% para fluconazol. Uma concordância de 100% foi obtido para isolados de Trichophyton mentagrophytes avaliados com cetoconazol e griseofulvina. Desta forma, até que um método de referência seja padronizado para testar a suscetibilidade in vitro para os dermatófitos, os resultados semelhantes encontrados para os dois métodos fazem com que o método de diluição em ágar possa ser útil no teste de suscetibilidade para estes fungos filamentosos.

  6. Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: susceptibility testing, resistance rates and outcome of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrand Aldman, Malin; Skovby, Annette; I Påhlman, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is an important human pathogen that causes both superficial and invasive infections. Penicillin is now rarely used in the treatment of SA infections due to widespread resistance and a concern about the accuracy of existing methods for penicillin susceptibility testing. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of penicillin-susceptible SA isolates from blood and wound cultures in Lund, Sweden, and to evaluate methods for penicillin testing in SA. We also wanted to investigate if penicillin-susceptible isolates are associated with higher mortality. Hundred blood culture isolates collected 2008/2009, 140 blood culture isolates from 2014/2015, and 141 superficial wound culture strains from 2015 were examined. Penicillin susceptibility was tested with disk diffusion according to EUCAST guidelines, and results were confirmed with a cloverleaf assay and PCR amplification of the BlaZ gene. Patient data for all bacteraemia cases were extracted from medical records. The disk diffusion method with assessment of both zone size and zone edge appearance had high accuracy in our study. About 57% of bacteraemia isolates from 2008/2009 were sensitive to penicillin compared to 29% in 2014/2015 (p penicillin susceptible. There was no difference in co-morbidity or mortality rates between patients with penicillin resistant and penicillin sensitive SA bacteraemia. Disk-diffusion is a simple and reliable method to detect penicillin resistance in SA, and susceptibility rates are significant. Penicillin has many theoretical advantages and should be considered in the treatment of SA bacteraemia when susceptible.

  7. Evaluation of an Automated System for Reading and Interpreting Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Fastidious Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Becker, Karsten; Schmitz, Janne; Knaack, Dennis; Peters, Georg; Köck, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Results of disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing depend on individual visual reading of inhibition zone diameters. Therefore, automated reading using camera systems might represent a useful tool for standardization. In this study, the ADAGIO automated system (Bio-Rad) was evaluated for reading disk diffusion tests of fastidious bacteria. 144 clinical isolates (68 β-haemolytic streptococci, 28 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 18 viridans group streptococci, 13 Haemophilus influenzae, 7 Moraxella catarrhalis, and 10 Campylobacter jejuni) were tested on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood and 20 mg/L β-NAD (MH-F, Oxoid) according to EUCAST. Plates were read manually with a ruler and automatically using the ADAGIO system. Inhibition zone diameters, indicated by the automated system, were visually controlled and adjusted, if necessary. Among 1548 isolate-antibiotic combinations, comparison of automated vs. manual reading yielded categorical agreement (CA) without visual adjustment of the automatically determined zone diameters in 81.4%. In 20% (309 of 1548) of tests it was deemed necessary to adjust the automatically determined zone diameter after visual control. After adjustment, CA was 94.8%; very major errors (false susceptible interpretation), major errors (false resistant interpretation) and minor errors (false categorization involving intermediate result), calculated according to the ISO 20776-2 guideline, accounted to 13.7% (13 of 95 resistant results), 3.3% (47 of 1424 susceptible results) and 1.4% (21 of 1548 total results), respectively, compared to manual reading. The ADAGIO system allowed for automated reading of disk diffusion testing in fastidious bacteria and, after visual validation of the automated results, yielded good categorical agreement with manual reading.

  8. The potential of mycelium and culture broth of Lignosus rhinocerotis as substitutes for the naturally occurring sclerotium with regard to antioxidant capacity, cytotoxic effect, and low-molecular-weight chemical constituents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beng Fye Lau

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of Lignosus rhinocerotis focused mainly on the sclerotium; however, the supply of wild sclerotium is limited. In this investigation, the antioxidant capacity and cytotoxic effect of L. rhinocerotis cultured under different conditions of liquid fermentation (shaken and static were compared to the sclerotium produced by solid-substrate fermentation. Aqueous methanol extracts of the mycelium (LR-MH, LR-MT and culture broth (LR-BH, LR-BT demonstrated either higher or comparable antioxidant capacities to the sclerotium extract (LR-SC based on their radical scavenging abilities, reducing properties, metal chelating activities, and inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. All extracts exerted low cytotoxicity (IC50>200 µg/ml, 72 h against selected mammalian cell lines. Several low-molecular-weight compounds, including sugars, fatty acids, methyl esters, sterols, amides, amino acids, phenolics, and triterpenoids, were identified using GC-MS and UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The presence of proteins (<40 kDa in the extracts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF-MS. Principal component analysis revealed that the chemical profiles of the mycelial extracts under shaken and static conditions were distinct from those of the sclerotium. Results from bioactivity evaluation and chemical profiling showed that L. rhinocerotis from liquid fermentation merits consideration as an alternative source of functional ingredients and potential substitute for the sclerotium.

  9. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  10. Too many cooks spoil the broth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbæk, Anne

    To collaborate across organisational contexts is not an easy task, but to do so and to succeed can be vital for reaching creative and innovative results. This paper is an empirical exploration of contextual challenges for collaborative museum design, focusing on the interplay between museums and ...... and ICT design companies. Based on empirical findings, two kinds of challenges are presented as particularly interesting in relation to this context: Structure related challenges, and value and practice related challenges....

  11. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in synthetic gastric fluid after cold and acid habituation in apple juice or trypticase soy broth acidified with hydrochloric acid or organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljas, H E; Ingham, S C

    1998-08-01

    Extreme acid tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 has raised doubts about the safety of acidic foods. This study examined whether prior storage in acidic and/or cold conditions enhanced survival of E. coli O157:H7 in synthetic gastric fluid (SGF). Three E. coli O157:H7 strains were stored in trypticase soy broth (TSB; acidified with HCl, malic acid, citric acid, or lactic acid) or pH 3.5 and 6.5 (nonacidic control) apple juice at 4 and 21 degrees C for acids, suggesting that juice constituents other than organic acids protect E. coli O157:H7. Refrigeration combined with low pH best protected cells in apple juice and acidified TSB, but, compared to the nonacidic control, only acidified TSB enhanced subsequent survival in pH 2.5 SGF. Equal survival in SGF occurred after storage in pH 3.5 or 6.5 apple juice at 4 degrees C, suggesting that low temperature alone in apple juice enhanced acid tolerance. Two strains stored at 4 degrees C in TSB containing malic or citric acid subsequently survived better in SGF than cells stored in nonacidified TSB but poorer than cells stored in the presence of HCl. These differences reflect the higher pKa of these organic acids. However, subsequent survival of these strains in SGF was poorer after refrigerated storage in apple juice than in TSB containing citric or malic acids. Cells stored in lactic acid were most likely to be completely eliminated upon transfer to SGF. Differences in survival in storage media or SGF related to strain, storage conditions, or acidifier were consistent and often statistically significant (P acidic beverages may not be affected by the type of acidifier used, the subsequent survival in SGF of this pathogen may be critically dependent on this factor.

  12. Pharmacodynamic evaluation of the activity of antibiotics against hemin- and menadione-dependent small-colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus in models of extracellular (broth) and intracellular (THP-1 monocytes) infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L G; Lemaire, S; Kahl, B C; Becker, K; Proctor, R A; Denis, O; Tulkens, P M; Van Bambeke, F

    2012-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants (SCVs) persist intracellularly, which may contribute to persistence/recurrence of infections and antibiotic failure. We have studied the intracellular fate of menD and hemB mutants (corresponding to menadione- and hemin-dependent SCVs, respectively) of the COL methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain and the antibiotic pharmacodynamic profile against extracellular (broth) and intracellular (human THP-1 monocytes) bacteria. Compared to the parental strain, SCVs showed slower extracellular growth (restored upon medium supplementation with menadione or hemin), reduced phagocytosis, and, for the menD SCV, lower intracellular counts at 24 h postinfection. Against extracellular bacteria, daptomycin, gentamicin, rifampin, moxifloxacin, and oritavancin showed similar profiles of activity against all strains, with a static effect obtained at concentrations close to their MICs and complete eradication as maximal effect. In contrast, vancomycin was not bactericidal against SCVs. Against intracellular bacteria, concentration-effect curves fitted sigmoidal regressions for vancomycin, daptomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin (with maximal effects lower than a 2-log decrease in CFU) but biphasic regressions (with a maximal effect greater than a 3-log decrease in CFU) for moxifloxacin and oritavancin, suggesting a dual mode of action against intracellular bacteria. For all antibiotics, these curves were indistinguishable between the strains investigated, except for the menD mutant, which systematically showed a lower amplitude of the concentration-effect response, with markedly reduced minimal efficacy (due to slower growth) but no change in maximal efficacy. The data therefore show that the maximal efficacies of antibiotics are similar against normal-phenotype and menadione- and hemin-dependent strains despite their different intracellular fates, with oritavancin, and to some extent moxifloxacin, being the most effective.

  13. In vitro antibacterial activity of doripenem against clinical isolates from French teaching hospitals: proposition of zone diameter breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascols, C; Legrand, P; Mérens, A; Leclercq, R; Armand-Lefevre, L; Drugeon, H B; Kitzis, M D; Muller-Serieys, C; Reverdy, M E; Roussel-Delvallez, M; Moubareck, C; Lemire, A; Miara, A; Gjoklaj, M; Soussy, C-J

    2011-04-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the in vitro activity of doripenem, a new carbapenem, against a large number of bacterial pathogens and to propose zone diameter breakpoints for clinical categorization in France according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints. The MICs of doripenem were determined by the broth microdilution method against 1,547 clinical isolates from eight French hospitals. The disk diffusion test was performed (10-μg discs) according to the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie (CASFM) method. The MIC(50/90) (mg/L) values were as follows: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (0.03/0.25), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (1/2), methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (MSCoNS) (0.03/0.12), methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) (2/8), Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.016/0.25), viridans group streptococci (0.016/2), β-hemolytic streptococci (≤0.008/≤0.008), Enterococcus faecalis (2/4), Enterococcus faecium (128/>128), Enterobacteriaceae (0.06/0.25), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.5/8), Acinetobacter baumannii (0.25/2), Haemophilus influenzae (0.12/0.25), and Moraxella catarrhalis (0.03/0.06). According to the regression curve, the zone diameter breakpoints were 24 and 19 mm for MICs of 1 and 4 mg/L, respectively. This study confirms the potent in vitro activity of doripenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, MSSA, MSCoNS, and respiratory pathogens. According to the EUCAST MIC breakpoints (mg/L) ≤1/>4 for Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter, and ≤1/>1 for streptococci, pneumococci, and Haemophilus, the zone diameter breakpoints could be (mm) ≥24/<19 and ≥24/<24, respectively.

  14. Kajian pendahuluan uji toksisitas ekstrak air miselia dan tubuh buah jamur shitake (Lentinus edodes) dengan metode brine shrimp lethality test (BTS)

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Erma NS; Tri Sundari; Arie Ika Susanty; Dwi Riani Octavia Palupi; Isnaeni Isnaeni; Sukardiman Sukardiman

    2012-01-01

    Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) is one of the wood mushroom types that can be consumed as a food as well as for a medicalpurpose. Lentinan, a polysaccharide contained in shiitake, is well known for its use on cancer medication. Mycelium of Shiitake mushroomcontains lentinan the same as other part of the mushroom like fruity body. Toxicity of the lentinan in mycelium compare to the fruitybody has been first conducted by using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST). Using Potato Dextrose Broth m...

  15. Urease testing of mycobacteria with BACTEC radiometric instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damato, J.J.; Collins, M.T.; McClatchy, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 140 mycobacterial isolates from patients treated at Fitzsimons Army Medical Center or the National Jewish Hospital and Research Center and from animal specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory were tested by using a urease procedure modified for use with a BACTEC model 301. Mycobacterial suspensions were prepared by using Middlebrook 7H10 Tween broth. Of the 98 mycobacteria isolates which were urease positive utilizing standard methodology, all were positive using the radiometric procedures. Similarly, all 42 urease-negative isolates were also negative employing the new methodology. Although maximum radiometric readings were observed at 48 h, all positive strains were readily identified 24 h after inoculation without sacrificing either test sensitivity or specificity. Thus, urease testing of mycobacteria, using the modified BACTEC radiometric methodology, was as sensitive, as specific, and more rapid than conventional methods

  16. Evaluation of semisolid agar method for antifungal susceptibility test of T. rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Razia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With increasing fungal disease many newer antifungal drugs are available with different spectrum of activ­ity. Antifungal susceptibility test will help clinicians for selection of effective drug and thereby treatment of patient. Objective: The study was undertaken to perform a simple screening drug susceptibility test of T. rnbrum by Semi Solid Agar Antifungal Susceptibility (SAAS Method: Perfonnance of susceptibility method was assessed by comparing the MICs of three commonly prescribed antifungal agents namely- tluconazole (FCZ, itraconazole (ITZ and terbinafine (TER to the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute recommended M-38, a broth microdilution method. Results: In SAAS method, among twenty nine T. rubrum, twenty five (86.2% were susceptible (MIC range 0.5-64 µg/ml to Fluconazole (FCZ and four (13.7% were resistant (MIC value >64 µg/ml. In broth microdilution method, among twenty nine T. rubrum, twenty six (89.6% were susceptible (MIC range 0.3-64 µg/ml to FCZ and three (10.3% were resistant (MIC value >64 µg/ml. In case of both ITZ and TER, all were susceptible (MIC range 0.3-64 µg/ml to both methods. The SAAS method demonstrated the susceptibility pattern of T. rubrum against FCZ, ITZ and TER usually within 72 to 96 hours after organism isolation and results were concordance with the results of CLSI broth microdilution method. Conclusion: Though it is a newer method with proper standardization of the test method, SAAS method is simple and easily applicable screening method for susceptibility testing of antifungal agents against dermatophytes in any microbiology laboratories.

  17. Antianaerobic Antimicrobials: Spectrum and Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Hannah M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria recovered from selected cases can influence the choice of antimicrobial therapy. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has standardized many laboratory procedures, including anaerobic susceptibility testing (AST), and has published documents for AST. The standardization of testing methods by the CLSI allows comparisons of resistance trends among various laboratories. Susceptibility testing should be performed on organisms recovered from sterile body sites, those that are isolated in pure culture, or those that are clinically important and have variable or unique susceptibility patterns. Organisms that should be considered for individual isolate testing include highly virulent pathogens for which susceptibility cannot be predicted, such as Bacteroides, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium spp.; Bilophila wadsworthia; and Sutterella wadsworthensis. This review describes the current methods for AST in research and reference laboratories. These methods include the use of agar dilution, broth microdilution, Etest, and the spiral gradient endpoint system. The antimicrobials potentially effective against anaerobic bacteria include beta-lactams, combinations of beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones. The spectrum of efficacy, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and resistance patterns against these agents are described. PMID:23824372

  18. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  19. Comparison of methods for in vitro testing of susceptibility of porcine Mycoplasma species to antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Laak, E A; Pijpers, A; Noordergraaf, J H; Schoevers, E C; Verheijden, J H

    1991-02-01

    The MICs of 18 antimicrobial agents used against strains of three porcine Mycoplasma species were determined by a serial broth dilution method. Twenty field strains of M. hyorhinis, ten field strains of M. hyopneumoniae, six field strains of M. flocculare, and the type strains of these species were tested. Twelve field strains and the type strain of M. hyorhinis were also tested by an agar dilution method. Tests were read at various time points. When the broth dilution method was used, the final MIC had to be read 2 days after color changes had stopped. MICs of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline were low for the three Mycoplasma species tested. MICs of chlortetracycline were 8 to 16 times higher than MICs of the other tetracyclines. Spiramycin, tylosin, kitasamycin, spectinomycin, tiamulin, lincomycin, and clindamycin were effective against all strains of M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae. The quinolones were highly effective against M. hyopneumoniae but less effective against M. hyorhinis. The susceptibility patterns for M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare were similar.

  20. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  1. Análise sensorial de caldos e canjas elaborados com farinha de carcaças de peixe defumadas: aplicação na merenda escolar Sensorial analysis of soups and broths made by smoked fish carcasses meal: its utilization to supplement school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cesar de Godoy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou a aceitação de caldos e canjas elaborados com farinhas aromatizadas desenvolvidas a partir de carcaças de peixes defumadas. As carcaças de tilápia do Nilo, carpa e pacu foram lavadas, identificadas, pesadas, imersas em salmoura com ervas aromáticas e defumadas. O produto defumado foi submetido à moagem para obtenção das farinhas, a partir das quais foram elaborados o caldo e a canja. Porções das farinhas, dos caldos e das canjas foram avaliadas por um painel de 40 provadores utilizando-se um método de estímulo simples, sendo avaliados os atributos: aroma, sabor, cor, textura, aparência e aceitação geral. Não houve diferença significativa (P > 0,05 na aceitação geral dos produtos. Os caldos elaborados com estas farinhas tiveram uma excelente aceitação, não diferindo significativamente entre si no que se refere aos atributos avaliados. A canja elaborada a partir da farinha de carcaça de pacu apresentou as menores notas quando comparada às demais canjas. Portanto, as farinhas aromatizadas podem ser empregadas no enriquecimento de produtos para o consumo humano. Esses produtos podem ser aplicados na merenda escolar, melhorando a qualidade nutricional das refeições. Além disso, tal uso daria um destino nobre aos resíduos que podem causar sérios impactos se descartados no meio ambiente.This work evaluated the acceptance of soups and broths prepared with aromatized meals made from smoked fish carcasses. The species of fish used for smoking were Nile Tilapia , carp, and pacu. The carcasses were washed, labeled, weighted, immersed in a solution of brine with aromatic herbs, and smoked. The smoked product was crushed to obtain the meal, which was used to cook the soups and the broths . Portions of meals, broths and soups were sampled by 40 tasters based on a simple stimulus method, which evaluated characteristics such as aroma, flavor, color, texture, aspect, and general acceptance. Considering the three

  2. Laboratory Diagnosis and Susceptibility Testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procop, Gary W

    2016-12-01

    The laboratory, which utilizes some of the most sophisticated and rapidly changing technologies, plays a critical role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Some of these tools are being employed in resource-challenged countries for the rapid detection and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Foremost, the laboratory defines appropriate specimen criteria for optimal test performance. The direct detection of mycobacteria in the clinical specimen, predominantly done by acid-fast staining, may eventually be replaced by rapid-cycle PCR. The widespread use of the Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid) assay, which detects both M. tuberculosis and key genetic determinants of rifampin resistance, is important for the early detection of multidrug-resistant strains. Culture, using both broth and solid media, remains the standard for establishing the laboratory-based diagnosis of tuberculosis. Cultured isolates are identified far less commonly by traditional biochemical profiling and more commonly by molecular methods, such as DNA probes and broad-range PCR with DNA sequencing. Non-nucleic acid-based methods of identification, such as high-performance liquid chromatography and, more recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, may also be used for identification. Cultured isolates of M. tuberculosis should be submitted for susceptibility testing according to standard guidelines. The use of broth-based susceptibility testing is recommended to significantly decrease the time to result. Cultured isolates may also be submitted for strain typing for epidemiologic purposes. The use of massive parallel sequencing, also known as next-generation sequencing, promises to continue to this molecular revolution in mycobacteriology, as whole-genome sequencing provides identification, susceptibility, and typing information simultaneously.

  3. Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollogoub, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    This lecture deals with: qualification methods for seismic testing; objectives of seismic testing; seismic testing standards including examples; main content of standard; testing means; and some important elements of seismic testing

  4. Schirmer test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear test; Tearing test; Dry eye test; Basal secretion test; Sjögren - Schirmer; Schirmer's test ... used when the eye doctor suspects you have dry eye. Symptoms include dryness of the eyes or excessive ...

  5. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  6. Ultrasonic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Jun; Kuk, Jeong Han

    2002-02-15

    This book introduces ultrasonic testing, which tells of outline of ultrasonic testing, principle of ultrasonic testing, prosperities of ultrasonic waves, radiographic test and ultrasonic test, basic theory on ultrasonic testing, mode conversion, transmission and diffraction, ultrasonic flaw detection and probe, standard test piece and reference test piece, like KS(JIS) ASME and ASTM, classification and properties of ultrasonic testing, straight beam method, angle beam method, ASME SEC.V.Art.5 ASTMA 388 and KS B 0817 Korean industrial standard.

  7. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... With some NAATs, samples collected for testing of gonorrhea and chlamydial infections can also be used to ...

  8. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  9. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  10. Magnesium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  11. Lipase Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  12. Rubella Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  13. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  14. AMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  15. Neuropathy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL Particle Testing (LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase ... tests, such as computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging ... suspected, additional testing may be performed to evaluate heart rate, blood ...

  16. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family Plan for the future Insurance and financial planning Transition for children Emergency preparedness Testing & Services Testing ... Support Genetic Disease Information Find a Support Group Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation ...

  17. Predictive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family Plan for the future Insurance and financial planning Transition for children Emergency preparedness Testing & Services Testing ... Support Genetic Disease Information Find a Support Group Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation ...

  18. Syphilis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... treated for another sexually transmitted disease , such as gonorrhea Is pregnant, during the first prenatal visit and ...

  19. Rapid Aminoglycoside NP Test for Rapid Detection of Multiple Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Patrice; Jayol, Aurélie; Dobias, Jan; Poirel, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The rapid aminoglycoside NP (Nordmann/Poirel) test was developed to rapidly identify multiple aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae It is based on the detection of the glucose metabolism related to enterobacterial growth in the presence of a defined concentration of amikacin plus gentamicin. Formation of acid metabolites was evidenced by a color change (orange to yellow) of the red phenol pH indicator. The rapid aminoglycoside NP test was evaluated by using bacterial colonies of 18 AG-resistant isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases, 20 AG-resistant isolates expressing AG-modifying enzymes (acetyl-, adenyl-, and phosphotransferases), and 10 isolates susceptible to AG. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 97%, respectively, compared to the broth dilution method, which was taken as the gold standard for determining aminoglycoside resistance. The test is inexpensive, rapid (<2 h), and implementable worldwide. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  1. A survey of methods used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargatz, David A; Erdman, Matthew M; Harris, Beth

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared. Of the 132 surveys administered, 52 (39%) were returned. Overall, responding laboratories conducted susceptibility tests on 98,788 bacterial isolates in 2014, with Escherichia coli being the most common pathogen tested across all animal species. The 2 most common AST methods employed were the disk diffusion method (71%) and the Sensititre platform broth microdilution system (59%). Laboratories primarily used the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) VET-01 standard (69%) and the automatically calculated interpretations provided by the commercial AST systems (61%) for interpreting their AST data. Only 22% of laboratories published AST data on a periodic basis, usually via annual reports published on the laboratory's website or through peer-reviewed journals for specific pathogens. Our results confirm that disk diffusion and broth microdilution remain the standard AST methods employed by U.S. veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and that CLSI standards are commonly used for interpreting AST results. This information will help determine the most efficient standardized methodology for future surveillance. Furthermore, the current infrastructure within laboratories, once harmonized, will help provide a mechanism for conducting national surveillance programs.

  2. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  3. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  4. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Keller, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section 11 of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves, respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  5. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Keller, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  6. Randomization tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edgington, Eugene S

    1980-01-01

    .... This book provides all the necessary theory and practical guidelines, such as instructions for writing computer programs, to permit experimenters to transform any statistical test into a distribution-free test...

  7. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical devices that are intended for use on samples of blood, urine, or other tissues ...

  8. Triglycerides Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Triglycerides; 491–2 p. Lab Tests ...

  9. Lactate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... ency/article/000391.htm . (2002 January, Updated). Lactate (Liquid) Reagent Set. Pointe Scientific, Inc. [On-line Reagent ...

  10. Electrolytes Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... of potassium is found in the plasma , the liquid portion of the blood. Monitoring potassium is important ...

  11. Ferritin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if ... along with other iron tests , when a routine complete blood count (CBC) shows that a person's hemoglobin and hematocrit ...

  12. Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artery disease. Other names for a cholesterol test: Lipid profile, Lipid panel What is it used for? If you ... Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017.Cholesterol Test: Overview; 2016 Jan 12 [ ...

  13. Gonorrhea Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Gonorrhea Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Sources Ask Us Also Known As GC Test Gonorrhea NAAT or NAT Neisseria gonorrhoeae Nucleic Acid Amplification ...

  14. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea ... hours depending on the method used. There are commercial tests available that offer rapid susceptibility testing and ...

  15. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test.......Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test....

  16. Nationale Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv......Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv...

  17. VDRL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confirmed with another blood test to make the diagnosis of syphilis. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different ... broken) Alternative Names Venereal disease research ... laboratory test (VDRL) – serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  18. Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing, substance abuse testing, toxicology screen, tox screen, sports doping tests What is it used for? Drug screening is used to find out whether or not a person has taken a certain drug or drugs. It ... Sports organizations. Professional and collegiate athletes usually need to ...

  19. HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  20. Nondestructive Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Harold [Argonne National Laboratory

    1969-01-01

    A nondestructive test is an examination of an object in any manner which will not impair the future usefulness of the object. This booklet discusses a few basic methods of nondestructive testing, and some of their characteristics. In addition, it discusses possible future methods for nondestructive testing by taking a quick look at some of the methods now under study.

  1. Molecular Identification and Echinocandin Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis Complex Bloodstream Isolates in Italy, 2007-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Lovero

    Full Text Available The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Here, we describe the incidence and echinocandin susceptibility profile of bloodstream isolates of these three species collected from patients admitted to an Italian university hospital from 2007 to 2014. Molecular identification of cryptic species of the C. parapsilosis complex was performed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the broth microdilution method according to European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST EDef 7.2 and Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3 guidelines, and the results were compared with those obtained using the E-test and Sensititre methods. Of the 163 C. parapsilosis complex isolates, 136 (83.4% were identified as C. parapsilosis, and 27 (16.6% as C. orthopsilosis. The species-specific incidences were 2.9/10,000 admissions for C. parapsilosis and 0.6/10,000 admissions for C. orthopsilosis. No resistance to echinocandins was detected with any of the methods. The percent essential agreement (EA between the EUCAST and E-test/Sensititre methods for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin susceptibility was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 95.6/97.8, 98.5/88.2, and 93.4/96.3; C. orthopsilosis, 92.6/92.6, 96.3/77.8, and 63.0/66.7. The EA between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 99.3/100, 98.5/89.0, and 96.3/98.5; C. orthopsilosis, 96.3/92.6, 100/81.5, and 92.6/88.9. Only minor discrepancies, ranging from 16.9% (C. parapsilosis to 11.1% (C. orthopsilosis, were observed between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods. In conclusion, this epidemiologic study shows a typical C. parapsilosis complex species distribution, no echinocandin

  2. EFFICIENCY OF THE ENRICHMENT BROTHES (LEB1 AND LEB2 AND SELECTIVE AGARS (LPM AND LSAB-CAN TO ISOLATE BACTERIA OF THE GENUS Listeria IN MEAT AND RESIDUAL WATER OF WASHING CARCASS EFICIÊNCIA DOS CALDOS DE ENRIQUECIMENTO (LEB1 E LEB2 E DOS ÁGARES SELETIVOS (LPM E LSAB-CAN NO ISOLAMENTO DE BACTÉRIAS DO GÊNERO Listeria EM CARNE BOVINA E ÁGUA RESIDUÁRIA DE LAVAGEM DE CARCAÇA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In this paper it was observed the efficiency of enrichment brothes for Listeria (LEB1 and LEB2, associated to the passage of the culture through a 0.25% potassium hidroxide solution, verifying that the secondary enrichment broth (LEB2 and LEB2KOH was better than the primary enrichment broth (LEB1KOH for this purpose. On the other hand, lithium chloride-phenylethanol-moxalactam agar and the selective Listeria agar base, supplemented with cicloheximide, acriflavine and nalidixic acid (LSAIB-CAN showed equivalency, at the statistic point of view (p=0.l442, in relation to the number of positive samples for Listeria spp., although the LSAB-CAN agar had given the greatest number of bacteria isolated from this genus.

    KEY-WORDS: Listeria; enrichment broth; selective agar.

    No presente trabalho verificou-se a eficiência dos caldos de enriquecimento para Listeria (LEB1 e LEB 2 associados à passagem da cultura por uma solução de hidróxido de potássio a 0,25%, constatando-se que o caldo de enriquecimento secundário (LEB2 e LEB2KOH foi superior ao caldo de enriquecimento primário (LEB1KOH. Por outro lado, o ágar cloreto de lítio-feniletanol-moxalactam (LPM e o ágar base seletivo para Listeria, suplementado com cicloheximida, acriflavina e ácido nalidíxico (LSAB-CAN equivaleram-se estatisticamente (p= 0,l442 em relação ao número de amostras positivas para Listeria, embora o ágar LSAB-CAN tenha proporcionado um maior número de isolamentos da bactéria.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Caldo de enriquecimento; ágar seletivo; Listeria.

  3. Modification of the BAX System PCR assay for detecting Salmonella in beef, produce, and soy protein isolate. Performance Tested Method 100201.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Linda X; Wallace, Morgan; Andaloro, Bridget; Fallon, Dawn; Fleck, Lois; Delduco, Dan; Tice, George

    2011-01-01

    The BAX System PCR assay for Salmonella detection in foods was previously validated as AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Method (PTM) 100201. New studies were conducted on beef and produce using the same media and protocol currently approved for the BAX System PCR assay for E. coli O157:H7 multiplex (MP). Additionally, soy protein isolate was tested for matrix extension using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) enrichment protocols. The studies compared the BAX System method to the U.S. Department of Agriculture culture method for detecting Salmonella in beef and the FDA-BAM culture method for detecting Salmonella in produce and soy protein isolate. Method comparison studies on low-level inoculates showed that the BAX System assay for Salmonella performed as well as or better than the reference method for detecting Salmonella in beef and produce in 8-24 h enrichment when the BAX System E. coli O157:H7 MP media was used, and soy protein isolate in 20 h enrichment with lactose broth followed by 3 h regrowth in brain heart infusion broth. An inclusivity panel of 104 Salmonella strains with diverse serotypes was tested by the BAX System using the proprietary BAX System media and returned all positive results. Ruggedness factors involved in the enrichment phase were also evaluated by testing outside the specified parameters, and none of the factors examined affected the performance of the assay.

  4. Comparing in vitro activity of tigecycline by using the disk diffusion test, the manual microdilution method, and the VITEK 2 automated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Castro, A L; Buitrago Gutierrez, G; Ovalle, V; Cortes, J A; Alvarez, C A

    2010-01-01

    Tigecycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic having activity against multiresistant isolates. In vitro susceptibility testing is difficult to perform with the use of traditional microbiological techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the disk diffusion test with three different Mueller-Hinton agar brands, and the Vitek 2 automated system in comparison with the standard broth microdilution method against 200 gram-negative isolates (Escherichia coil, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Acinetobacter baumannii). Among Enterobacteriaceae, the Becton Dickinson agar had the lowest rate of minor (32.5%) and major errors (3.8%). No very major errors were found. For A. baumanni, the rate of minor and major errors was lower. A high rate of agreement (94%) was found between the broth microdilution method and the Vitek 2 system. Our results show that there are important differences between agars used for the disk diffusion test, and that Vitek 2 is a valid tool for susceptibility testing in clinical laboratories.

  5. Ultrasonic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin [Sungkwunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    For the proper performance of ultrasonic testing of steel welded joints, and anisotropic material it is necessary to have sound understanding on the underlying physics. To provide such an understanding, it is beneficial to have simulation tools for ultrasonic testing. In order to address such a need, we develop effective approaches to simulate angle beam ultrasonic testing with a personal computer. The simulation is performed using ultrasonic measurement models based on the computationally efficient multi-Gaussian beams. This reach will describe the developed ultrasonic testing models together with the experimental verification of their accuracy.

  6. Application of Enrofloxacin and Orbifloxacin Disks Approved in Japan for Susceptibility Testing of Representative Veterinary Respiratory Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARADA, Kazuki; USUI, Masaru; ASAI, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, susceptibilities of Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin were tested using an agar diffusion method with the commercial disks and a broth microdilution method. Good correlation between the 2 methods for enrofloxacin and orbifloxacin was observed for P. multocida (r = −0.743 and −0.818, respectively), M. haemolytica (r = −0.739 and −0.800, respectively) and A. pleuropneumoniae (r = −0.785 and −0.809, respectively). Based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute interpretive criteria for enrofloxacin, high-level categorical agreement between the 2 methods was found for P. multocida (97.9%), M. haemolytica (93.8%) and A. pleuropneumoniae (92.0%). Our findings indicate that the tested commercial disks can be applied for susceptibility testing of veterinary respiratory pathogens. PMID:25008965

  7. Antifungal susceptibility testing method for resource constrained laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In resource-constrained laboratories of developing countries determination of antifungal susceptibility testing by NCCLS/CLSI method is not always feasible. We describe herein a simple yet comparable method for antifungal susceptibility testing. Methods: Reference MICs of 72 fungal isolates including two quality control strains were determined by NCCLS/CLSI methods against fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and cancidas. Dermatophytes were also tested against terbinafine. Subsequently, on selection of optimum conditions, MIC was determined for all the fungal isolates by semisolid antifungal agar susceptibility method in Brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 0.5% agar (BHIA without oil overlay and results were compared with those obtained by reference NCCLS/CLSI methods. Results: Comparable results were obtained by NCCLS/CLSI and semisolid agar susceptibility (SAAS methods against quality control strains. MICs for 72 isolates did not differ by more than one dilution for all drugs by SAAS. Conclusions: SAAS using BHIA without oil overlay provides a simple and reproducible method for obtaining MICs against yeast, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes in resource-constrained laboratories.

  8. Troponins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lab's website in order to provide you with background information about the test(s) you had performed. You will need to return ... C, Banfi G, Guidi GC. Influence of a half-marathon run on NT-proBNP and troponin ... MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online ...

  9. Insulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hours before blood is collected, but occasionally a health practitioner may do testing when fasting is not possible, such as when a glucose tolerance test (see Glucose ) is done. In some cases, the health practitioner may request that a person fast longer ...

  10. Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is often the only way to determine if symptoms could possibly be related to celiac disease. For a person who faces this situation, a negative gene test would indicate that symptoms are not the result of celiac disease. A positive gene test, however, does not diagnose ...

  11. Potassium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperkalemia ) may be due to: Addison disease (rare) Blood transfusion Certain medicines Crushed tissue injury Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis ... released. This may cause a falsely high result. Alternative Names Hypokalemia test; K+ Images Blood test References Mount DB. Disorders of potassium balance. ...

  12. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Puck, Morten Rasmus

    Nationale test skubber undervisning i en forkert retning. Det er lærerne og skolelederne enige om. Men særligt skolelederne ser også muligheder for at bruge testen til at få viden om elevernes faglige kompetencer og om undervisningen. Det kommer til udtryk i rapporten Nationale test: Danske lærere...

  13. Oedometer Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the results of oedometer tests carried out with samples from Eemian fresh-water deposits and the methods used to determine the preconsolidation pressure from the test results. The influence of creep in the material on the apparent preconsolidation pressure is estimated from...

  14. TORCH Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parietal Cell Antibody Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT, aPTT) Parvovirus B19 Pericardial Fluid Analysis Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Pertussis Tests ... enterovirus, Epstein-Barr virus , varicella-zoster virus , and parvovirus B19 . How is the sample collected for testing? A ...

  15. Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Loke Mun Sei

    2015-01-01

    Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, ...

  16. Trypsinogen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider about the meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results ... vary in size, so it may be harder to get a blood sample from one person than another. Other risks associated with having ...

  17. Just testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.

    1985-01-01

    In the 1950s, most of the men who witnessed Britain's nuclear tests at Christmas Island in the Pacific were national servicemen, aged 19 or 20. Some revelled in sun and swimming, some were bored, some were too busy to be bored. How many of the twenty thousand servicemen involved in the tests suspected that they might be exposed to radiation that would reveal itself a generation later in blood and bone cancers, sterility, cataracts, or deformities in their children. The Ministry of Defence insists nobody was in danger. This book tells a different story, in the words of the servicemen, and of their medical reports, about secrets which are no longer Official. It is important not only to the victims of a government's extraordinary reluctance to face up to the tragic consequences of a programme of nuclear tests on Christmas Island and in Australia, but to anyone concerned with the damage that nuclear testing is still doing in the world today. (author)

  18. Test Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  19. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  20. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 1569, 1570, 1532, 1616. Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, Twelfth Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, Missouri. ...

  1. PTH Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gregory C. Sephel PhD FACB MT(ASCP). Lab Tests Online adjunct board member. Director Clinical Pathology, VA TN Valley Healthcare System; Associate Professor Pathology, Microbiology, Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. Sources Used ...

  2. Phosphorus Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be seen with increased intake of the mineral, hypocalcemia , and with kidney dysfunction. Someone with a mild ... usually detected because of the relationship with and effect on calcium levels . Calcium is routinely tested as ...

  3. Procalcitonin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if ... g., blood culture , urine culture ), lactate , blood gases , complete blood count (CBC) , and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis . When is ...

  4. RSV Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... University Medical Center, LAB Letter [On-line newsletter]. PDF available for download at http://www.stanfordhospital.com/ ...

  5. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests are considered routine — that is, almost all pregnant women receiving prenatal care get them. They include things like checking urine (pee) levels for protein, sugar, or signs of infection. Other non-routine ...

  6. Progesterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement therapy, or help diagnose the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding When To Get Tested? At specific times during ... receiving progesterone replacement therapy; when a woman has abnormal uterine bleeding Sample Required? A blood sample drawn from a ...

  7. Testosterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine Albumin and Albumin/Creatinine Ratio Urine Culture ... 2010) 2536–259. Centers for Disease Control Hormone Standardization website(HoST). Available online at http://www.cdc. ...

  8. Pertussis Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Conditions Not Listed? Not Listed? Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer ... tested? Pertussis, commonly called whooping cough, is a respiratory infection caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis . These ...

  9. Tests computarizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fernando Prialé Z.

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available En primer lugar, se considera el impacto de las microcomputadoras en la actualidad, viéndolo como un hecho social destinado a traer profundos cambios: nos orientamos hacia una cultura informática cuyo signo es la posibilidad de tratar grandes cantidades de información. En segundo lugar; se analiza brevemente la importancia de los tests en el desarrollo de la psicología. Finalmente, se discute la posibilidad de aplicar la informática a la psicometría con el ejemplo del test de BARSIT.   The impact of microcomputers is discussed as a cultural fact that will bring profound changes in the near future: a society with an ubiquous capacity for treating big amounts of information. The importance of tests for the development of psychology is then analysed. Finaly, the possibility of applying microcomputers to psychometry is discussed trough a concrete example: The BARSIT test.

  10. VMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spasms and rapid eye movements referred to as "dancing eyes, dancing feet." The VMA test may also be ordered ... a pheochromocytoma or neuroblastoma? People with a family history of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN2), a genetic condition ...

  11. Neuropsychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchella, Chiara; Federico, Angela; Martini, Alice; Tinazzi, Michele; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Tamburin, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    Neuropsychological testing is a key diagnostic tool for assessing people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment, but can also help in other neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. While cognitive screening tests offer gross information, detailed neuropsychological evaluation can provide data on different cognitive domains (visuospatial function, memory, attention, executive function, language and praxis) as well as neuropsychiatric and behavioural features. We should regard neuropsychological testing as an extension of the neurological examination applied to higher order cortical function, since each cognitive domain has an anatomical substrate. Ideally, neurologists should discuss the indications and results of neuropsychological assessment with a clinical neuropsychologist. This paper summarises the rationale, indications, main features, most common tests and pitfalls in neuropsychological evaluation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. EVALUASI MEDIUM PENGAYAAN Vibrio cholerae UNTUK DIAGNOSIS KOLERA MENGGUNAKAN IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHIC STRIP TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambang Sariadji

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Vibrio cholerae strains are capable of causing  outbreak cholera in developing country with poor sanitation and hygiene .Conventional culture methods currently available for detection of V. cholerae 01 takes 3 – 5 days. Other diagnostic tools are by using rapid immunochromatographic strip test for controlling and preventing the spreading of cholera outbreak. This method has limitation in detection of V.cholerae O1, especially under 105 cfu/mL. Furthermore rapid method can be improved by  enrichment media and incubation in 37° C for 6 – 8 hours. The aims of research are to analyse enrichments media in increasingl V.cholerae O1, and it’s to improve the finding of the laboratory diagnosis of cholera cases. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Bacteriology, Center of Biomedical and Basic Technology of Health National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD from January - July 2011. Medium evaluation was done by making serial dilutions of Vibrio cholerae O1 from 107-101 cfu / ml  inoculated into three mediums: alkaline peptone water, bismuth sulfite, and gelatin phosphate salt broth medium. Then were incubated 37°C for 8 hours and every two hours was tested by immunochromatographic strip test. The data analysis to determine treatment and individual differences  each group was done by one way ANOVA test. The results showed that alkali peptone water are better than gelatine phosphate salt broth and bismuth sulfite in increasing V.cholerae O1, p.value 0.000 means significant different. Meanwhile from 24 samples dilutions which were inoculated in three enrichment media, and detected by rapid immunochromatographic in every 2 hours for 8 hours showed positive result in enrichments media are 17 samples for alkali peptone water, 13 samples for gelatine phosphate salt broth  and 8 samples for bismuth sulfite. Key Words : V.Cholerae, Enrichment Media, Immunochromatographic strip test   Abstrak. Vibrio cholerae O1

  13. Testing theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R F

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses some simple issues that arise in testing models, with a focus on models for low energy nuclear structure. By way of simplified examples, we illustrate some dangers in blind statistical assessments, pointing out especially the need to include theoretical uncertainties, the danger of over-weighting precise or physically redundant experimental results, the need to assess competing theories with independent and physically sensitive observables, and the value of statistical tests properly evaluated. (paper)

  14. glutamic acid from high-viscosity fermentation broth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of IR spectrum was performed using an IR spectrophotometer with KBr pellet. . Results: The ... presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl and amide groups. Conclusion: An ... charges near neutral pH because of the ionization of ...

  15. Detection of Pseudomonas fluorescens from broth, water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loop mediated isothermal amplification is rapid, highly sensitive and specifically developed method for detection of bacterial infections. AprX gene for alkaline metalloprotease of Pseudomonas fluorescens was used to design four primers and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) conditions were standardized for ...

  16. effective extraction of cephalosporin c from whole fermentation broth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amina

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... The effects of pH, neutral salts, temperature and centrifugal force on .... Fermentation was carried out in a defined media developed with slight modifications ... were pH 6.5, 200 rpm and incubation of culture for 72 h, as determined in our ... that CPC is rapidly inactivated at pH 12, while it is stable at pH 3.5.

  17. glutamic acid from high-viscosity fermentation broth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of IR spectrum was performed using an IR spectrophotometer with ... Results: The results showed that the γ-PGA yield was 35 g/L. The viscosity of ... of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), ...

  18. Are the Best Broths Really Made in the Oldest Pots?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravier, Magali

    offers the first contemporary context of use of this notion in a mainly normatively neutral way. Empire is ‘simply’ used to describe and analyze recent trends in the integration process, which nonetheless raises questions. Has this political concept been dug out of Europe’s history because...... the integration process is taking a different path? Is it because the explanatory potential of standard theories of integration has been exhausted while the so-called ‘new theories of integration’ are disappointing because they aren’t really theories of integration? But can the concept of empire provide better...... explanations than the two theories which have dominated the scholarly debate since the creation of the EC/EU and than the new theories, which don't really succeed in challenging the old ones? What exactly is the added value of this concept? Should we bother using it at all? This paper presents a critical...

  19. Too many cooks don't spoil the broth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochevar, P.

    1990-01-01

    A new computer graphics algorithm for simulating the propagation of light and its interaction with matter on a massively parallel computer is presented. The algorithm, called the Tagged Shooting Method, is designed for a virtual machine containing a great number of simple, communicating processors arrayed into a cubical, three-dimensional lattice. Only the nearest-neighbor communication amongst processors is assumed and there is no reliance on global shared memory. The algorithm is similar in spirit to the classical Progressive Refinement Radiosity Method designed for more conventional computers but is not an adaption of that technique to massive parallelism. Instead, the new algorithm uses a discretization of the wave equation as a local rule for shuttling radiant energy values between processors which correspond to regions of space. A number of example images that were created with am implementation of the algorithm on a Connection Machine are depicted and critiqued

  20. Molecular detection of Brucella spp. from broth culture of clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Southern hybridization analysis was used as a confirmatory tech- nique for the PCR. Briefly, nylon membrane (Sigma ®), 3 mm filter paper (Whatman : England) and paper towels (sigma®) were cut to size (4 x 6 inches) and the edges and that of the gel were cut at the top-left corner for easy, identification.

  1. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  2. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  3. Tests computarizados

    OpenAIRE

    Prialé Z., R. Fernando

    1983-01-01

    En primer lugar, se considera el impacto de las microcomputadoras en la actualidad, viéndolo como un hecho social destinado a traer profundos cambios: nos orientamos hacia una cultura informática cuyo signo es la posibilidad de tratar grandes cantidades de información. En segundo lugar; se analiza brevemente la importancia de los tests en el desarrollo de la psicología. Finalmente, se discute la posibilidad de aplicar la informática a la psicometría con el ejemplo del test de BARSIT.   The im...

  4. Testing Hubbert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Adam R.

    2007-01-01

    The Hubbert theory of oil depletion, which states that oil production in large regions follows a bell-shaped curve over time, has been cited as a method to predict the future of global oil production. However, the assumptions of the Hubbert method have never been rigorously tested with a large, publicly available data set. In this paper, three assumptions of the modern Hubbert theory are tested using data from 139 oil producing regions. These regions are sub-national (United States state-level, United States regional-level), national, and multi-national (subcontinental and continental) in scale. We test the assumption that oil production follows a bell-shaped curve by generating best-fitting curves for each region using six models and comparing the quality of fit across models. We also test the assumptions that production over time in a region tends to be symmetric, and that production is more bell-shaped in larger regions than in smaller regions

  5. Prealbumin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 755-756. Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 197. Banh, L. ( ...

  6. Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this database. Top of Page Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP™) In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the EGAPP initiative to establish and test a ... and other applications of genomic technology that are in transition from ...

  7. Fibrinogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thrombotic episode ) As a follow-up to an abnormal bleeding disorder test ( prothrombin time, PT or partial thromboplastin time, ... to help diagnose disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) or abnormal ... status of a progressive disease (such as liver disease ) over time or, rarely, ...

  8. (stress) testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, maximal HR was significantly higher in all groups during their sporting activities than during stress testing in the laboratory (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Maximal HR in veteran athletes during specific sporting activities was significantly higher than that attained during a routine sECG. This finding was not sport-specific, ...

  9. Trypsinogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exocrine.html. UPCMD (1998 – 2002). Cystic Fibrosis. University Pathology Consortium, LLC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.upcmd.com/dot/examples/00218/description.html. Sainato, D., (2002, March). Genetic Testing for CF Going Mainstream? Clinical Laboratory ...

  10. Chymotrypsin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exocrine.html. UPCMD (1998 – 2002). Cystic Fibrosis. University Pathology Consortium, LLC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.upcmd.com/dot/examples/00218/description.html. Sainato, D., (2002, March). Genetic Testing for CF Going Mainstream? Clinical Laboratory ...

  11. Radiographic Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J; Yang, S.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report contains theory, procedure technique and interpretation of radiographic examination and written for whom preparing radiographic test Level II. To determine this baseline of technical competence in the examination, the individual must demonstrate a knowledge of radiography physics, radiation safety, technique development, radiation detection and measurement, facility design, and the characteristics of radiation-producing devices and their principles of operation. (author) 98 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  13. Credibility test; Vertrauens-Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhs, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Solar wafer producers must prove their quality standards. Q-Cells has started a marketing office and opened their test center to journalists. They are aware that adherence to standards is going only half the way of quality assurance. The other half consists in gaining the customers' trust. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of in-vitro susceptibility of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from clinical specimens to tigecycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Tekin; Kocoglu, Esra; Mengeloglu, Zafer; Bucak, Ozlem; Karabörk, Seyda

    2013-11-01

    The management of infections due to A. baumannii is difficult because of rapidly developing resistance, however, tigecycline, a glycylcycline antimicrobial, is in use for several years. In the present study, it was aimed to determine the susceptibility rates of A. baumannii to tigecycline. A total of 90 A. baumanni isolates were tested using three methods such as disk diffusion, broth microdilution, and E-test. The MIC50 and MIC90 values and the MIC range were found as 2 µg/ml, 4 µg/ml, and 0.1-8 µg/ml by microdilution; and 2 µg/ml, 6 µg/ml, and 0.1-12 µg/ml by E-test, respectively. There were a few major errors as well as the minor rates were all high as between 35.7%-46.7%. The accuracy rates between the methods were low as 53.3% (48/90) between disk diffusion and E-test, 51.1% (46/90) between disk diffusion and microdilution, and 60.0% (54/90) between E-test and microdilution. In the ROC curve analysis, an inhibition zone diameter of susceptibility breakpoint of 21.5 mm had sensitivity between 68.8%-88.9%; specificity between 81.9%-87.9%; and accuracy between 80.0%-83.33%. An analysis based on EUCAST's non-species breakpoints, the MIC tests showed higher accuracy with a rate of 96.7%, however, performance of disk diffusion got worse as lower than 25%. In conclusion, we showed that the reliability of the methods even did not remain as high as the past. Our study presented that none of three methods revealed reliable results in determination of susceptibility of A. baumanni to tigecycline, so the clinical response should be followed up carefully in such cases.

  15. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...... and differences in the disparate theories are discussed through a critical perspective on metaphor, time, space, agency and technology. It is asserted that the process of globalization is leading to a new production of space-time perceptions and practices where localization and globalization is becoming...... increasingly important. National space is being contested and nation states need to perform differently....

  16. Testing SUSY

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, S; Ross, G G

    2010-01-01

    If SUSY provides a solution to the hierarchy problem then supersymmetric states should not be too heavy. This requirement is quantified by the Barbieri-Giudice fine tuning measure that provides a quantitative test of SUSY as a solution to the hierarchy problem. The measure is useful in correlating the impact of the various experimental measurements relevant to the search for supersymmetry and also in identifying the most sensitive measurements for testing SUSY. In this paper we apply the measure to the CMSSM, computing it to two-loop order and taking account of current experimental limits and the constraint on dark matter abundance. Using this we determine the present limits on the CMSSM parameter space and identify the measurements at the LHC that are most significant in covering the remaining parameter space. Without imposing the LEP Higgs mass bound we show that the smallest fine tuning (1:14.5) consistent with a saturation of the relic density within the 1$\\sigma$ WMAP bounds corresponds to a Higgs mass o...

  17. Performance of two resin-containing blood culture media in detection of bloodstream infections and in direct matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) broth assays for isolate identification: clinical comparison of the BacT/Alert Plus and Bactec Plus systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Barbara; D'Inzeo, Tiziana; Di Florio, Viviana; De Maio, Flavio; De Angelis, Giulia; Giaquinto, Alessia; Campana, Lara; Tanzarella, Eloisa; Tumbarello, Mario; Antonelli, Massimo; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Spanu, Teresa

    2014-10-01

    We compared the clinical performances of the BacT/Alert Plus (bioMérieux) and Bactec Plus (Becton Dickinson) aerobic and anaerobic blood culture (BC) media with adsorbent polymeric beads. Patients ≥ 16 years old with suspected bloodstream infections (BSIs) were enrolled in intensive care units and infectious disease wards. A single 40-ml blood sample was collected from each and used to inoculate (10 ml/bottle) one set of BacT/Alert Plus cultures and one set of Bactec Plus cultures, each set consisting of one aerobic and one anaerobic bottle. Cultures were incubated ≤ 5 days in the BacT/Alert 3D and Bactec FX instruments, respectively. A total of 128 unique BSI episodes were identified based on the recovery of clinically significant growth in 212 aerobic cultures (106 BacT/Alert and 106 Bactec) and 151 anaerobic cultures (82 BacT/Alert and 69 Bactec). The BacT/Alert aerobic medium had higher recovery rates for Gram-positive cocci (P = 0.024), whereas the Bactec aerobic medium was superior for recovery of Gram-negative bacilli (P = 0.006). BacT/Alert anaerobic medium recovery rates exceeded those of the Bactec anaerobic medium for total organisms (P = 0.003), Gram-positive cocci (P = 0.013), and Escherichia coli (P = 0.030). In terms of capacity for diagnosing the 128 septic episodes, the BacT/Alert and Bactec sets were comparable, although the former sets diagnosed more BSIs caused by Gram-positive cocci (P = 0.008). They also allowed earlier identification of coagulase-negative staphylococcal growth (mean, 2.8 h; P = 0.003) and growth in samples from patients not on antimicrobial therapy that yielded positive results (mean, 1.3 h; P direct matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry assay of BC broths. The BacT/Alert Plus media line appears to be a reliable, timesaving tool for routine detection of BSIs in the population we studied, although further studies are needed to evaluate their performance in other settings. Copyright

  18. Differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus from freshly slaughtered poultry and strains 'endemic' to processing plants by biochemical and physiological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, G C; Norris, A P; Bratchell, N

    1989-02-01

    A comparison was made of 27 'endemic' strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 35 strains from freshly slaughtered birds, isolated at five commercial slaughterhouses processing chickens or turkeys. Of 112 biochemical and physiological tests used, 74 gave results which differed among the strains. Cluster analysis revealed several distinct groupings which were influenced by strain type, processing plant and bird origin; these included a single group at the 72% level of similarity containing most of the 'endemic' strains. In comparison with strains from freshly slaughtered birds, a higher proportion of 'endemic' strains produced fibrinolysin, alpha-glucosidase and urease and were beta-haemolytic on sheep-blood agar. The 'endemic' type also showed a greater tendency to coagulate human but not bovine plasma, and to produce mucoid growth and clumping. The last two properties, relevant to colonization of processing equipment, were less evident in heart infusion broth than in richer media or process water collected during defeathering of the birds.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria by microdilution - Experience of a tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Set R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.

  20. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria: Rubik's Cube of Clinical Microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdács, Márió; Spengler, Gabriella; Urbán, Edit

    2017-11-07

    Anaerobic bacteria have pivotal roles in the microbiota of humans and they are significant infectious agents involved in many pathological processes, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Their isolation, cultivation and correct identification differs significantly from the workup of aerobic species, although the use of new technologies (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whole genome sequencing) changed anaerobic diagnostics dramatically. In the past, antimicrobial susceptibility of these microorganisms showed predictable patterns and empirical therapy could be safely administered but recently a steady and clear increase in the resistance for several important drugs (β-lactams, clindamycin) has been observed worldwide. For this reason, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates for surveillance purposes or otherwise is of paramount importance but the availability of these testing methods is usually limited. In this present review, our aim was to give an overview of the methods currently available for the identification (using phenotypic characteristics, biochemical testing, gas-liquid chromatography, MALDI-TOF MS and WGS) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (agar dilution, broth microdilution, disk diffusion, gradient tests, automated systems, phenotypic and molecular resistance detection techniques) of anaerobes, when should these methods be used and what are the recent developments in resistance patterns of anaerobic bacteria.

  1. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria: Rubik’s Cube of Clinical Microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdács, Márió; Spengler, Gabriella; Urbán, Edit

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria have pivotal roles in the microbiota of humans and they are significant infectious agents involved in many pathological processes, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Their isolation, cultivation and correct identification differs significantly from the workup of aerobic species, although the use of new technologies (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whole genome sequencing) changed anaerobic diagnostics dramatically. In the past, antimicrobial susceptibility of these microorganisms showed predictable patterns and empirical therapy could be safely administered but recently a steady and clear increase in the resistance for several important drugs (β-lactams, clindamycin) has been observed worldwide. For this reason, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates for surveillance purposes or otherwise is of paramount importance but the availability of these testing methods is usually limited. In this present review, our aim was to give an overview of the methods currently available for the identification (using phenotypic characteristics, biochemical testing, gas-liquid chromatography, MALDI-TOF MS and WGS) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (agar dilution, broth microdilution, disk diffusion, gradient tests, automated systems, phenotypic and molecular resistance detection techniques) of anaerobes, when should these methods be used and what are the recent developments in resistance patterns of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:29112122

  2. Heart failure - tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...

  3. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  4. Determination of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae by Using the E Test with Mueller-Hinton Agar Supplemented with Sheep or Horse Blood May Be Unreliable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovgren, M.; Dell’Acqua, L.; Palacio, R.; Echániz-Aviles, G.; Soto-Noguerón, A.; Castañeda, E.; Agudelo, C. I.; Heitmann, I.; Brandileone, M. C.; Zanella, R. C.; Rossi, A.; Pace, J.; Talbot, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    An international, multicenter study compared trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole MICs for 743 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (107 to 244 isolates per country) by E test, using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood or 5% defibrinated sheep blood, with MICs determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards broth microdilution reference method. Agreement within 1 log2 dilution and minor error rates were 69.3 and 15.5%, respectively, on sheep blood-supplemented agar and 76.9 and 13.6%, respectively, with horse blood as the supplement. Significant interlaboratory variability was observed. E test may not be a reliable method for determining the resistance of pneumococci to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:9854095

  5. Computer-Based Testing: Test Site Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gerald A.

    Computer-based testing places great burdens on all involved parties to ensure test security. A task analysis of test site security might identify the areas of protecting the test, protecting the data, and protecting the environment as essential issues in test security. Protecting the test involves transmission of the examinations, identifying the…

  6. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  7. Evaluation of chromogenic medium and direct latex agglutination test for detection of group B streptococcus in vaginal specimens from pregnant women in Lebanon and Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Nahed; Alfouzan, Wadha; Anastasiadis, Elie; Al Jiser, Tamima; Itani, Saad Eddine; Dernaika, Racha; Eid, Toufic; Ghaddar, Ali; Charafeddine, Adib; Dhar, Rita; El Hajj, Hiba

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate chromogenic medium and a direct latex agglutination test (DLA) for detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the vaginal specimens of pregnant women, and to ascertain the prevalence of GBS in this population in Kuwait and Lebanon. Vaginal swabs, collected from women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, were cultured on 5 % sheep blood agar (SBA), colistin nalidixic acid agar (CNA), Strept B Select chromogenic agar (SBS) as well as Lim enrichment broth in 168 cases in Lebanon while only SBA was used for 1391 samples in Kuwait. In addition, vaginal samples from 102 GBS-positive and 20 GBS-negative women near the time of delivery were collected in Kuwait for evaluation of the DLA test. During the study period, the prevalence of GBS colonization was determined to be 20.7 % (288/1391) in Kuwait while 18.4 % (31) of 168 pregnant women in Lebanon had vaginal cultures positive for GBS. By direct plating of vaginal swabs on the three media used, the isolation rates of GBS were 51.6, 64.5 and 77.4 % on SBA, CNA and SBS, respectively, which increased to 90.35, 93.1 and 96.8 %, respectively, following subculture in Lim broth after 18 h of incubation. The sensitivity of the DLA test was found to be dependent on the density of GBS colonization, resulting in 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for heavy (>10(2) c.f.u. per swab) and moderately heavy (50-100 c.f.u. per swab) growth of GBS. However, for vaginal specimens yielding women. The DLA test, in particular, could prove to be a useful tool for immediate detection of GBS in women near delivery so that intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis can be initiated. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  9. Coccidioides precipitin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidioidomycosis antibody test; Coccidioides blood test; Valley fever blood test ... There is no special preparation for the test. ... The precipitin test is one of several tests that can be done to determine if you are infected with coccidioides, which ...

  10. Myoglobin urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characterization of Escherichia coli recovered from frozen game meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus-Vargas, Rafael H; Atanassova, Viktoria; Reich, Felix; Klein, Günter

    2017-05-01

    The increasing number of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae both in veterinary and human medicine, the dissemination of these bacteria in several environments and their possible repercussions on human health is causing concern. Game meat is usually seen as free of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current antimicrobial susceptibility status in generic Escherichia coli isolated from packed frozen game meat from a game handling establishment in Germany. A total of 229 E. coli isolates were obtained from cuts of red deer, roe deer and wild boar. The susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents was evaluated by a broth microdilution method according to ISO 20776-1:2006. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values were compared to breakpoints and cut-off values published by the EUCAST. Isolates showing MICs above the reference values were further studied for associated resistance determinants and phylogrouping by PCR. Overall, 16 E. coli isolates (7.0%) showed resistance (microbiological or clinical) to at least one antimicrobial agent tested. Clinical resistance was recorded to ampicillin (5/229) and chloramphenicol (4/229), whereas the MIC of 9 isolates exceeded the epidemiological cut-off value for doxycycline. One of the ampicillin-resistant isolates showed resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic derivatives tested, cephalosporines and aztreonam. Three of 9 non-wild-type isolates for doxycycline were positive for tet (B) genes. The ß-lactam-resistant isolate was found to harbour bla CTX-M-1 gene. These data show a low prevalence of resistant E. coli in packed game meat compared to studies on conventional meat. Although isolates obtained in this study may also be originating from the processing environment and not necessarily from animals, based on our results, it is important to monitor the development of antimicrobial resistance in game animals and products in order to identify future threats for the

  12. Tiamulin activity against fastidious and nonfastidious veterinary and human bacterial isolates: initial development of in vitro susceptibility test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Pfaller, Michael A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Walter, Donald H

    2002-02-01

    Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin derivative used in veterinary practice for the control and specific therapy of infections in swine. This report summarizes studies to establish standardized susceptibility testing methods, interpretive criteria, and reagent details for use in veterinary methods recently developed by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) (standards M31-A and M37-A, NCCLS, Wayne, Pa., 1999). A total of 636 fastidious and nonfastidious animal and human pathogens were processed by using media and procedures described by the NCCLS. Tiamulin disk diffusion tests used a 30-microg disk concentration, and the proposed MIC breakpoints corresponding to levels achievable in animal target tissues (lung) were or =32 microg/ml for resistance. Correlate zone diameters for specific nonfastidious species were as follows: for Pasteurella multocida and staphylococci tested on Mueller-Hinton agar, susceptibility at > or =19 mm and resistance at or =16 mm and resistance at or =9 mm) was suggested for veterinary fastidious medium broth and enriched chocolate Mueller-Hinton agar. Absolute categorical agreement between NCCLS dilution and disk diffusion test results with these criteria ranged from 90.5 to 96.2%. Tiamulin susceptibility testing methods appear to be accurate in their categorical classification for indicated species, and their availability will allow immediate testing of animal isolates to guide therapy via appropriate levels of dosing and to monitor the development of resistance for agents in this unique class.

  13. Underground Nuclear Testing Program, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) continues to conduct an underground nuclear testing program which includes tests for nuclear weapons development and other tests for development of nuclear explosives and methods for their application for peaceful uses. ERDA also continues to provide nuclear explosive and test site support for nuclear effects tests sponsored by the Department of Defense. This Supplement extends the Environmental Statement (WASH-1526) to cover all underground nuclear tests and preparations for tests of one megaton (1 MT) or less at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during Fiscal Year 1976. The test activities covered include numerous continuing programs, both nuclear and non-nuclear, which can best be conducted in a remote area. However, if nuclear excavation tests or tests of yields above 1 MT or tests away from NTS should be planned, these will be covered by separate environmental statements

  14. Test Review: TestDaF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John; Drackert, Anastasia

    2018-01-01

    The Test of German as a Foreign Language (TestDaF) plays a critical role as a standardized test of German language proficiency. Developed and administered by the Society for Academic Study Preparation and Test Development (g.a.s.t.), TestDaF was launched in 2001 and has experienced persistent annual growth, with more than 44,000 test takers in…

  15. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  16. [Statistical approach to evaluate the occurrence of out-of acceptable ranges and accuracy for antimicrobial susceptibility tests in inter-laboratory quality control program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Tamio; Matuda, Junichi; Yamane, Nobuhisa

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of out-of acceptable ranges and accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility tests, we applied a new statistical tool to the Inter-Laboratory Quality Control Program established by the Kyushu Quality Control Research Group. First, we defined acceptable ranges of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for broth microdilution tests and inhibitory zone diameter for disk diffusion tests on the basis of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100-S21. In the analysis, more than two out-of acceptable range results in the 20 tests were considered as not allowable according to the CLSI document. Of the 90 participating laboratories, 46 (51%) experienced one or more occurrences of out-of acceptable range results. Then, a binomial test was applied to each participating laboratory. The results indicated that the occurrences of out-of acceptable range results in the 11 laboratories were significantly higher when compared to the CLSI recommendation (allowable rate laboratory was statistically compared with zero using a Student's t-test. The results revealed that 5 of the 11 above laboratories reported erroneous test results that systematically drifted to the side of resistance. In conclusion, our statistical approach has enabled us to detect significantly higher occurrences and source of interpretive errors in antimicrobial susceptibility tests; therefore, this approach can provide us with additional information that can improve the accuracy of the test results in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  17. Reduced susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. isolates from Cairo University Hospital to tigecycline: Highlight on the influence of proton pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Reem Mostafa; Ghaith, Doaa Mohammad; Ismail, Dalia Kadry; Zafer, Mai Mahmoud

    2018-03-01

    The incidence of reduced susceptibility to tigecycline (TIG) is increasing. This study aimed to analyse the in vitro activity of TIG against Enterococcus spp. isolates recovered from hospitalised patients and to evaluate the effect of omeprazole on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TIG against several enterococcal species. A total of 67 Enterococcus clinical isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS and multiplex PCR. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TIG alone and in combination with omeprazole (10, 30 and 60mg/L) were determined by broth microdilution. Antibiotic susceptibility to other antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion. The presence of van, tet(X) and tet(X1) genes was tested by multiplex PCR. Of the 67 Enterococcus isolates, 2 (3.0%) were resistant to TIG and 13 (19.4%) were intermediate-resistant according to EUCAST. The frequencies of resistance to norfloxacin (80.6%), doxycycline (80.6%), levofloxacin (74.6%) and ciprofloxacin (71.6%) were highest, whilst that of vancomycin (25.4%) was lowest. The vanA gene was detected in 11 Enterococcus isolates (8 Enterococcus faecalis, 3 Enterococcus faecium), vanB in 3 Enterococcus isolates (2 E. faecium, 1 E. faecalis) and vanC-2/3 in 3 Enterococcus casseliflavus. Nine isolates (13.4%) were positive for tet(X1). TIG resistance occurred both in patients receiving or not TIG and/or omeprazole. Omeprazole increased TIG MICs by 4-128-fold. The possibility of selection of TIG-non-susceptible Enterococcus in the gut may occur with long-term use of omeprazole. Omeprazole influenced TIG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. To our knowledge; this is the first report of TIG-non-susceptible Enterococcus spp. in Egypt. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design Driven Testing Test Smarter, Not Harder

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, M

    2010-01-01

    The groundbreaking book Design Driven Testing brings sanity back to the software development process by flipping around the concept of Test Driven Development (TDD) - restoring the concept of using testing to verify a design instead of pretending that unit tests are a replacement for design. Anyone who feels that TDD is "Too Damn Difficult" will appreciate this book. Design Driven Testing shows that, by combining a forward-thinking development process with cutting-edge automation, testing can be a finely targeted, business-driven, rewarding effort. In other words, you'll learn how to test

  19. Learning software testing with Test Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Madi, Rawane

    2013-01-01

    Learning Software Testing with Test Studio is a practical, hands-on guide that will help you get started with Test Studio to design your automated solution and tests. All through the book, there are best practices and tips and tricks inside Test Studio which can be employed to improve your solution just like an experienced QA.If you are a beginner or a professional QA who is seeking a fast, clear, and direct to the point start in automated software testing inside Test Studio, this book is for you. You should be familiar with the .NET framework, mainly Visual Studio, C#, and SQL, as the book's

  20. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species complex in the Clinical Laboratory: how to do it, when to do it, and how to interpret it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Manso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistance in fungal pathogens has a profound impact on human health given limited number of antifungal drugs. Antifungal resistance in Aspergillus spp. infection can be encountered in the antifungal drug-exposed patient due to selection of intrinsically resistant species or isolates with acquired resistance belonging to species that are normally susceptible. Resistance to triazoles is not common in Aspergillus spp., however, triazole resistance in A. fumigatus appears to be increasing in several European countries in recent years and can be clinically relevant. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing have developed breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values that are now established for Aspergillus spp. Clinical microbiology laboratories will be employed commercial susceptibility assays, rather than reference broth microdilution methods and comparative studies are particularly important.

  1. Kajian pendahuluan uji toksisitas ekstrak air miselia dan tubuh buah jamur shitake (Lentinus edodes dengan metode brine shrimp lethality test (BTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Erma NS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes is one of the wood mushroom types that can be consumed as a food as well as for a medicalpurpose. Lentinan, a polysaccharide contained in shiitake, is well known for its use on cancer medication. Mycelium of Shiitake mushroomcontains lentinan the same as other part of the mushroom like fruity body. Toxicity of the lentinan in mycelium compare to the fruitybody has been first conducted by using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST. Using Potato Dextrose Broth media with the growth rate of3.88% did mycelium multiplications. Probit analysis showed that the toxicity of the mushroom’s cap, stem, and mycelium of Shiitakemushrooms is LC50 = 648.76507 mg/ml LC50 = 489.39444 mg/ml, and LC50 = 481.16941 mg/ml respectively.

  2. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  3. In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Tedizolid against Isolates of Nocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J

    2017-12-01

    There is a paucity of efficacious antimicrobials (especially oral) against clinically relevant species of Nocardia To date, all species of Nocardia have been susceptible to linezolid, the first commercially available oxazolidinone. Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone with previously reported improved in vitro and in vivo (intracellular) potency against multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium sp. and Nocardia brasiliensis Using the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-recommended broth microdilution method, 101 isolates of Nocardia spp., including 29 Nocardia cyriacigeorgica , 17 Nocardia farcinica , 13 Nocardia nova complex, 21 Nocardia brasiliensis , 5 Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis , and 5 Nocardia wallacei isolates and 11 isolates of less common species, were tested for susceptibility to tedizolid and linezolid. For the most common clinically significant species of Nocardia , tedizolid MIC 50 values were 0.25 μg/ml for N. nova complex, N. brasiliensis , N. pseudobrasiliensis , and N. wallacei , compared to linezolid MIC 50 values of 1, 2, 0.5, and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Tedizolid and linezolid MIC 90 values were 2 μg/ml for N. nova complex and N. brasiliensis Tedizolid MIC 50 and MIC 90 values for both N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica were 0.5 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, respectively, compared to linezolid MIC 50 and MIC 90 values of 2 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Based on MIC 90 values, this study showed that tedizolid was 2- to 3-fold more active than linezolid in vitro against most common species of Nocardia , with the exception of the N. nova complex and N. brasiliensis , for which values were the same. These results may warrant evaluation of tedizolid as a potential treatment option for Nocardia infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Rapid identification of vibrio-cholerae O1 by coaglutination test using mono-specifis antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazargan SA

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In our investigation, rabbit hyper-immune serum to V.cholerae ogawa was absorbed with V.cholerae inaba whole-cells and vice versa. Applying ammonium sulphate precipitation method, mono-specific g globulins were purified and concentrated from the absorbed whole serum. These antibodies were fixed on staphylococcus cowan 1 NCTC-8325 whole-cells, using different chemical fixatives. It was observed that maximum fixation of g globulin to protein-A was achieved by 1-propanol 50% at 3 hours, which revealed through single radial immuno-diffusion techniqe. The rectal swab samples were cultured in an enrichment bile-peptons broth. After 5 hours 37°C while agitations, one drop of each sample was mixed with one drop of vibrio-cholerae bivalent mono-specific coagglutination reagent (VBCR. The results were read after 2 to 3 minutes. Finally though statistical analysis sensitivity and specificity of coagglutination test were calculated to be 95.1% and 99.2% respectively, when compared to positive & negative controls and conventional culture methods. Using VBCR, coagglutination test can be therefore considered as a simple, reliable and rapid method to detect V.cholerae O1 in the stool of patients in endemic area and less equipped laboratories

  5. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Thyroid Function Tests Leer en Español Thyroid Function Tests FUNCTION HOW DOES THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTION? ... Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Function Tests Resources Thyroid Function Tests Brochure PDF En ...

  6. CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) DHEAS ... Glance Why Get Tested? Primarily to monitor cancer treatment, including response to therapy and recurrence; as an ...

  7. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Bilirubin What's in ... liver or kidneys) is working. What Is a Bilirubin Test? A bilirubin test measures how much bilirubin ...

  8. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003561.htm Catecholamine blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measured with a urine test than with a blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  9. Anthrax blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthrax serology test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B. anthracis ... This test may be performed when the health care provider suspects you have anthrax infection. The bacteria that cause ...

  10. Myoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  11. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  12. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  13. Lactose tolerance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen ...

  14. Rapid urease test (RUT) for evaluation of urease activity in oral bacteria in vitro and in supragingival dental plaque ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Hassan, Haidar; Blomqvist, Susanne; Carlén, Anette

    2018-05-18

    Urease is an enzyme produced by plaque bacteria hydrolysing urea from saliva and gingival exudate into ammonia in order to regulate the pH in the dental biofilm. The aim of this study was to assess the urease activity among oral bacterial species by using the rapid urease test (RUT) in a micro-plate format and to examine whether this test could be used for measuring the urease activity in site-specific supragingival dental plaque samples ex vivo. The RUT test is based on 2% urea in peptone broth solution and with phenol red at pH 6.0. Oral bacterial species were tested for their urease activity using 100 μl of RUT test solution in the well of a micro-plate to which a 1 μl amount of cells collected after growth on blood agar plates or in broth, were added. The color change was determined after 15, 30 min, and 1 and 2 h. The reaction was graded in a 4-graded scale (none, weak, medium, strong). Ex vivo evaluation of dental plaque urease activity was tested in supragingival 1 μl plaque samples collected from 4 interproximal sites of front teeth and molars in 18 adult volunteers. The color reaction was read after 1 h in room temperature and scored as in the in vitro test. The strongest activity was registered for Staphylococcus epidermidis, Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter ureolyticus and some strains of Haemophilus parainfluenzae, while known ureolytic species such as Streptococcus salivarius and Actinomyces naeslundii showed a weaker, variable and strain-dependent activity. Temperature had minor influence on the RUT reaction. The interproximal supragingival dental plaque between the lower central incisors (site 31/41) showed significantly higher scores compared to between the upper central incisors (site 11/21), between the upper left first molar and second premolar (site 26/25) and between the lower right second premolar and molar (site 45/46). The rapid urease test (RUT) in a micro-plate format can be used as a simple and rapid method to test urease

  15. Test techniques for fracture mechanics testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    Test methods for fracture mechanics tests are described. Two groups of techniques are distinguished: Those for measurement of stable crack growth and those for determination of the loading parameters. (orig.) [de

  16. To test or not to test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochon, Justine; Gondan, Matthias; Kieser, Meinhard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Student's two-sample t test is generally used for comparing the means of two independent samples, for example, two treatment arms. Under the null hypothesis, the t test assumes that the two samples arise from the same normally distributed population with unknown variance. Adequate...... control of the Type I error requires that the normality assumption holds, which is often examined by means of a preliminary Shapiro-Wilk test. The following two-stage procedure is widely accepted: If the preliminary test for normality is not significant, the t test is used; if the preliminary test rejects...... the null hypothesis of normality, a nonparametric test is applied in the main analysis. Methods: Equally sized samples were drawn from exponential, uniform, and normal distributions. The two-sample t test was conducted if either both samples (Strategy I) or the collapsed set of residuals from both samples...

  17. Materials testing 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The following subjects were dealt with at the meeting: Testing with vibration loads; Hardness testing; Calibration of test devices and equipment; Test technique for compound materials; Vibration strength testing and expense of experiments; Solving problems in introducing forces into samples and components and process of ambulant materials testing. There are 17 separate abstracts from among 43 lectures. (orig./PW) [de

  18. 5-HIAA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  19. Uric Acid Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  20. Direct Antiglobulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  1. CK-MB Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  2. Understanding Your Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  3. Myasthenia Gravis Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  4. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  5. Parallel susceptibility testing of bacteria through culture-quantitative PCR in 96-well plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The methods combining culture and quantitative PCR(qPCR offer new solutions for rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing(AST. However, the multiple steps of DNA extraction and cold storage of PCR reagents needed make them unsuitable for rapid high throughput AST. In this study, a parallel culture-qPCR method was developed to overcome above problems. Method: In this method, bacteria culture and DNA extraction automatically and simultaneously completed through using a common PCR instrument as a controllable heating device. A lyophilized 16S rDNA targeted qPCR reagent was also developed, which was stable and could be kept at 4 °C for long time and at 37 °C for about two months. Result: Testing of 36 P. aeruginosa isolates and 28 S. aureus isolates showed that the method had good agreements with the standard broth microdilution method, with an overall agreement of 97.22% (95% CI, 85.83–99.51 for P. aeruginosa and 96.43% (95% CI, 79.76–99.81 for S. aureus. This method could test 12 samples against a panel of up to 7 antibiotics simultaneously in two 96-well PCR plates within 4 h, which greatly improves the testing efficiency of the culture-qPCR method. Conclusion: With rapidness to obtain results and the capabilities for automation and multiple-sample testing, the parallel culture-qPCR method would have great potentials in clinical labs. Keywords: Antibiotic susceptibility testing, Thermo-cold lysis, Lyophilized qPCR reagent, Quantitative PCR, Bacteria

  6. From Test Takers to Test Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kari

    2009-01-01

    As a classroom teacher, Kari Smith realized that traditional objective tests don't always assess what students actually know. But tests are so deeply embedded in the education system that it would be difficult to do away with them entirely. Smith decided to make tests into learning tools. In this article, Smith describes three strategies for…

  7. CANFLEX fuel bundle strength tests (test report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, C. H.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-08-01

    This document outlines the test results for the strength tests of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Strength tests are performed to determine and verify the amount of the bundle shape distortion which is against the side-stops when the bundles are refuelling. There are two cases of strength test; one is the double side-stop test which simulates the normal bundle refuelling and the other is the single side-stop test which simulates the abnormal refuelling. the strength test specification requires that the fuel bundle against the side-stop(s) simulators for this test were fabricated and the flow rates were controlled to provide the required conservative hydraulic forces. The test rig conditions of 120 deg C, 11.2 MPa were retained for 15 minutes after the flow rate was controlled during the test in two cases, respectively. The bundle loading angles of number 13- number 15 among the 15 bundles were 67.5 deg CCW and others were loaded randomly. After the tests, the bundle shapes against the side-stops were measured and inspected carefully. The important test procedures and measurements were discussed as follows. (author). 5 refs., 22 tabs., 5 figs

  8. Evaluation of Caspofungin Susceptibility Testing by the New Vitek 2 AST-YS06 Yeast Card Using a Unique Collection of FKS Wild-Type and Hot Spot Mutant Isolates, Including the Five Most Common Candida Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astvad, Karen M; Perlin, David S; Johansen, Helle K

    2013-01-01

    FKS mutant isolates associated with breakthrough or failure cases are emerging in clinical settings. Discrimination of these from wild-type (wt) isolates in a routine laboratory setting is complicated. We evaluated the ability of caspofungin MIC determination using the new Vitek 2 AST-Y06 yeast...... susceptibility card to correctly identify the fks mutants from wt isolates and compared the performance to those of the CLSI and EUCAST reference methods. A collection of 98 Candida isolates, including 31 fks hot spot mutants, were included. Performance was evaluated using the FKS genotype as the "gold standard...

  9. Test design requirements: Thermal conductivity probe testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This document establishes the test design requirements for development of a thermal conductivity probe test. The thermal conductivity probe determines in situ thermal conductivity using a line source transient heat conduction analysis. This document presents the rationale for thermal conductivity measurement using a thermal conductivity probe. A general test description is included. Support requirements along with design constraints are detailed to allow simple design of the thermal conductivity probe and test. The schedule and delivery requirements of the responsible test designer are also included. 7 refs., 1 fig

  10. Immunochromatographic Strip Test for Rapid Detection of Diphtheria Toxin: Description and Multicenter Evaluation in Areas of Low and High Prevalence of Diphtheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, K. H.; Efstratiou, A.; Norn, D.; Kozlov, R. S.; Selga, I.; Glushkevich, T. G.; Tam, M.; Melnikov, V. G.; Mazurova, I. K.; Kim, V. E.; Tseneva, G. Y.; Titov, L. P.; George, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    An immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test was developed for the detection of diphtheria toxin by using an equine polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and colloidal gold-labeled monoclonal antibodies specific for fragment A of the diphtheria toxin molecule as the detection antibody. The ICS test has been fully optimized for the detection of toxin from bacterial cultures; the limit of detection was approximately 0.5 ng of diphtheria toxin per ml within 10 min. In a comparative study with 915 pure clinical isolates of Corynebacterium spp., the results of the ICS test were in complete agreement with those of the conventional Elek test. The ICS test was also evaluated for its ability to detect toxigenicity from clinical specimens (throat swabs) in two field studies conducted within areas of the former USSR where diphtheria is epidemic. Eight hundred fifty throat swabs were examined by conventional culture and by use of directly inoculated broth cultures for the ICS test. The results showed 99% concordance (848 of 850 specimens), and the sensitivity and specificity of the ICS test were 98% (95% confidence interval, 91 to 99%) and 99% (95% confidence interval, 99 to 100%), respectively. PMID:11773096

  11. Irradiation effects test series test IE-1 test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Allison, C.M.; Farrar, L.C.; Mehner, A.S.

    1977-03-01

    The report describes the results of the first programmatic test in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Irradiation Effects Test Series. This test (IE-1) used four 0.97m long PWR-type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated Saxton fuel. The objectives of this test were to evaluate the effect of fuel pellet density on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and to evaluate the influence of the irradiated state of the fuel and cladding on rod behavior during film boiling operation. Data are presented on the behavior of irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, a power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of as-fabricated gap size, as-fabricated fuel density, rod power, and power ramp rate on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T2 computer model predictions, and comments on the consequences of sustained film boiling operation on irradiated fuel rod behavior are provided

  12. The Stimulus test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofek, L.; Rapidis, P.; Reinhard, A.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Stimulus Test Stand was originally constructed and assembled for testing the SVX2 ASIC readout and then upgraded for SVX3 ASIC prototyping and testing. We have modified this system for SVX4 ASIC [1] prototype testing. We described the individual components below. Additional details for other hardware for SVX4 testing can be found in reference [2]. We provide a description of the Stimulus Test Stand used for prototype testing of the SVX4 chip

  13. CSF-VDRL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test - CSF; Neurosyphilis - VDRL Images CSF test for syphilis References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL), test, cerebrospinal fluid – specimen. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  14. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  15. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  16. Rail Impact Testing. Test Operations Procedure (TOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-15

    impact test. The rail impact test is used to verify structural integrity of the test item and the adequacy of the tie-down system and tie-down...strength of provisions, connection and supporting structural frame, paragraph 5.2.3 ** Superscript...parts, to include outriggers and booms) without advanced approval by SDDCTEA. Torque nuts on wire rope clips to their correct value. Torque cable

  17. Tractor accelerated test on test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mattetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The experimental tests performed to validate a tractor prototype before its production, need a substantial financial and time commitment. The tests could be reduced using accelerated tests able to reproduce on the structural part of the tractor, the same damage produced on the tractor during real life in a reduced time. These tests were usually performed reproducing a particular harsh condition a defined number of times, as for example using a bumpy road on track to carry out the test in any weather condition. Using these procedures the loads applied on the tractor structure are different with respect to those obtained during the real use, with the risk to apply loads hard to find in reality. Recently it has been demonstrated how, using the methodologies designed for cars, it is possible to also expedite the structural tests for tractors. In particular, automotive proving grounds were recently successfully used with tractors to perform accelerated structural tests able to reproduce the real use of the machine with an acceleration factor higher than that obtained with the traditional methods. However, the acceleration factor obtained with a tractor on proving grounds is in any case reduced due to the reduced speed of the tractors with respect to cars. In this context, the goal of the paper is to show the development of a methodology to perform an accelerated structural test on a medium power tractor using a 4 post test rig. In particular, several proving ground testing conditions have been performed to measure the loads on the tractor. The loads obtained were then edited to remove the not damaging portion of signals, and finally the loads obtained were reproduced in a 4 post test rig. The methodology proposed could be a valid alternative to the use of a proving ground to reproduce accelerated structural tests on tractors.

  18. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  19. Kidney function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes ... and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  20. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see ... as hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or ...

  1. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  2. Teratology testing under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Steve

    2013-01-01

    REACH guidelines may require teratology testing for new and existing chemicals. This chapter discusses procedures to assess the need for teratology testing and the conduct and interpretation of teratology tests where required.

  3. Celiac Disease Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet When To Get Tested? When you have symptoms suggesting celiac disease, such as chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, anemia , and ... Celiac tests are usually ordered for people with symptoms suggesting celiac disease, including anemia and abdominal pain. Sometimes celiac testing ...

  4. Aviation Flight Test

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Test Center provides an expert workforce and technologically advanced test equipment to conduct the rigorous testing necessary for U.S. Army acquisition and...

  5. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  6. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acromegaly - blood test; Gigantism - blood test Images Blood test References Kaiser U, Ho KKY. Pituitary physiology and diagnostic evaluation. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  7. Lactose Tolerance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... of these, the person tested is given a liquid to drink that contains a standard amount of ...

  8. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) DHEAS ... newborn blood screening programs since early detection and treatment can minimize long-term damage. Hashimoto thyroiditis : the ...

  9. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family Plan for the future Insurance and financial planning Transition for children Emergency preparedness Testing & Services Testing ... Support Genetic Disease Information Find a Support Group Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation ...

  10. Tests for H. pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ulcers and many cases of stomach inflammation (chronic gastritis). How the Test is Performed There are several ... treating bleeding, or making sure there is no cancer. Why the Test is Performed Testing is most ...

  11. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003474.htm BUN - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... for the Test Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  12. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003372.htm Porphyrins blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood or the urine . This article discusses the blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  13. Renin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003698.htm Renin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... renin test measures the level of renin in blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  14. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003718.htm Prolactin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  15. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  16. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...

  17. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  18. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  19. Assessment and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    Explores the term "applied linguistics" and discusses the role of language testing within this discipline, the relationship between testing and teaching, and the relationship between testing and assessment (Author/VWL)

  20. Tips on Blood Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test Pain, Discomfort and Anxiety Tips to Help Children through Their Medical Tests Tips to Help the Elderly through Their Medical Tests Find Us On Social Media: Facebook Twitter Google Plus Footer Menu Home About ...

  1. Blood Test: Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test: Estradiol Precocious Puberty Understanding Puberty Endocrine System Male Reproductive System Getting a Blood Test (Video) All About Puberty Blood Test (Video) Male Reproductive System View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial ...

  2. Structural Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides a wide variety of testing equipment, fixtures and facilities to perform both unique aviation component testing as well as common types of materials testing...

  3. SPECT quality control tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilotta, C.C.; Rebelo, M.F.S.; Oliveira, M.A.; Abe, R.

    1987-01-01

    Quality control tests of tomographic system composed by a rotatory chamber (CGR Gammatomome T-9000) and a microcomputer are presented. Traditional quality control tests for scintilation chambers and specific tests for tomographic systems are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Irradiation effects test Series Scoping Test 1: test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Allison, C.M.; Farrar, L.C.

    1977-09-01

    The report describes the results of the first scoping test in the Irradiation Effects Test Series conducted by the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program, which is part of the Water Reactor Research Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. The research is sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This test used an unirradiated, three-foot-long, PWR-type fuel rod. The objective of this test was to thoroughly evaluate the remote fabrication procedures to be used for irradiated rods in future tests, handling plans, and reactor operations. Additionally, selected fuel behavior data were obtained. The fuel rod was subjected to a series of preconditioning power cycles followed by a power increase which brought the fuel rod power to about 20.4 kW/ft peak linear heat rating at a coolant mass flux of 1.83 x 10 6 lb/hr-ft 2 . Film boiling occurred for a period of 4.8 minutes following flow reductions to 9.6 x 10 5 and 7.5 x 10 5 lb/hr-ft 2 . The test fuel rod failed following reactor shutdown as a result of heavy internal and external cladding oxidation and embrittlement which occurred during the film boiling operation

  5. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  6. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Li, Guilian; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Haican; Wan, Kanglin; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Clinical isolates (73) were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. M. abscessus (75.34%) and M. fortuitum (15.07%), the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  7. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Methods. Clinical isolates (73 were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. Results. M. abscessus (75.34% and M. fortuitum (15.07%, the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Conclusions. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  8. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Meis, Jacques F; Trampuz, Andrej

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute M38-A2 guidelines. Heat production of molds was measured at 37 °C in Sabouraud dextrose broth inoculated with 2.5 × 10(4) spores/mL in the presence of amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin. As determined by microcalorimetry, amphotericin B was the most active agent against Mucorales (MHIC 0.06-0.125 μg/mL) and Fusarium spp. (MHIC 1-4 μg/mL), whereas voriconazole was the most active agent against Scedosporium spp. (MHIC 0.25 to 8 μg/mL). The percentage of agreement (within one 2-fold dilution) between the MHIC and MIC (or MEC) was 67%, 92%, 75%, and 83% for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin, respectively. Microcalorimetry provides additional information on timing of antifungal activity, enabling further investigation of drug-mold and drug-drug interaction, and optimization of antifungal treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Combination Therapy of Sophoraflavanone B against MRSA: In Vitro Synergy Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Hyun Mun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sophoraflavanone B (SPF-B, a known prenylated flavonoid, was isolated from the roots of Desmodium caudatum. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial synergism of SPF-B combined with antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. MRSA, a multidrug-resistant pathogen, causes both hospital- and community-acquired infections worldwide. The antimicrobial activity of SPF-B was assessed by the broth microdilution method, checkerboard dilution test, and time-kill curve assay. The MIC of SPF-B for 7 strains of S. aureus ranges from 15.6 to 31.25 μg/mL determined. In the checkerboard method, the combinations of SPF-B with antibiotics had a synergistic effect; SPF-B markedly reduced the MICs of the β-lactam antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP and oxacillin (OXI; aminoglycosides gentamicin (GET; quinolones ciprofloxacin (CIP and norfloxacin (NOR against MRSA. The time-kill curves assay showed that a combined SPF-B and selected antibiotics treatment reduced the bacterial counts below the lowest detectable limit after 24 h. These data suggest that the antibacterial activity of SPF-B against MRSA can be effectively increased through its combination with three groups of antibiotics (β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and quinolones. Our research can be a valuable and significant source for the development of a new antibacterial drug with low MRSA resistance.

  10. Textiles Performance Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...

  11. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  12. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  13. Thyroxine (T4) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Thryoxine, Serum 485 p. Lab Tests ...

  14. Laboratory for filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, W.

    1987-07-01

    Filters used for mine draining in brown coal surface mines are tested by the Mine Draining Department of Poltegor. Laboratory tests of new types of filters developed by Poltegor are analyzed. Two types of tests are used: tests of scale filter models and tests of experimental units of new filters. Design and operation of the test stands used for testing mechanical properties and hydraulic properties of filters for coal mines are described: dimensions, pressure fluctuations, hydraulic equipment. Examples of testing large-diameter filters for brown coal mines are discussed.

  15. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  16. GPS Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Global Positioning System (GPS) Test Facility Instrumentation Suite (GPSIS) provides great flexibility in testing receivers by providing operational control of...

  17. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  18. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  19. Moisture related test protocols for HVS testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available outcomes of HVS tests where the moisture condition of the pavement or specific layers in the pavement is under investigation for a specific test. Practical guidance is then provided on the potential systems (how to manage the moisture – hardware) as well...

  20. Integrated Test and Evaluation Flight Test 3 Flight Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  1. Test report for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Testing was carried out with the cooperation of Westinghouse Hanford Company and the United States Bureau of Mines at the Pittsburgh Research Center in Pennsylvania under the Memorandum of Agreement 14- 09-0050-3666. Several core drilling equipment items, specifically those which can come in contact with flammable gasses while drilling into some waste tanks, were tested under conditions similar to actual field sampling conditions. Rotary drilling against steel and rock as well as drop testing of several different pieces of equipment in a flammable gas environment were the specific items addressed. The test items completed either caused no ignition of the gas mixture, or, after having hardware changes or drilling parameters modified, produced no ignition in repeat testing

  2. Digface characterization test plan (remote testing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, K.; Hyde, R.; Allen, S.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of the Digface Characterization (DFC) Remote Testing project is to remotely deploy a sensor head (Mini-Lab) across a digface to determine if it can characterize the contents below the surface. The purpose of this project is to provide a robotics technology that allows removal of workers from hazards, increases speed of operations, and reduces life cycle costs compared to alternate methods and technologies. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is funding the demonstration, testing, and evaluation of DFC. This document describes the test plan for the DFC remote deployment demonstration for the BWID. The purposes of the test plan are to establish test parameters so that the demonstration results are deemed useful and usable and perform the demonstration in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements

  3. Irradiation effects test series, test IE-5. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croucher, D.W.; Yackle, T.R.; Allison, C.M.; Ploger, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Test IE-5, conducted in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, employed three 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods, fabricated from previously irradiated zircaloy-4 cladding and one similar rod fabricated from unirradiated cladding. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the influence of simulated fission products, cladding irradiation damage, and fuel rod internal pressure on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and on fuel rod behavior during film boiling operation. The four rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, a power ramp to an average fuel rod peak power of 65 kW/m, and steady state operation for one hour at a coolant mass flux of 4880 kg/s-m 2 for each rod. After a flow reduction to 1800 kg/s-m 2 , film boiling occurred on one rod. Additional flow reductions to 970 kg/s-m 2 produced film boiling on the three remaining fuel rods. Maximum time in film boiling was 80s. The rod having the highest initial internal pressure (8.3 MPa) failed 10s after the onset of film boiling. A second rod failed about 90s after reactor shutdown. The report contains a description of the experiment, the test conduct, test results, and results from the preliminary postirradiation examination. Calculations using a transient fuel rod behavior code are compared with the test results

  4. Detection and antifungal susceptibility testing of oral Candida dubliniensis from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunchanur Sneha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Candida dubliniensis, an opportunistic yeast that has been implicated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV may be under-reported due to its similarity with Candida albicans. Resistance to Fluconazole is often seen in C. dubliniensis isolates from clinical specimens. Aims: To know the prevalence of C. dubliniensis in OPC in patients infected with HIV and their antifungal susceptibility pattern. Settings and Design: One hundred and thirty-two HIV seropositive individuals and 50 healthy controls were included in the study. Materials and Methods: Two oral swabs were collected from the site of the lesion from 132 HIV-infected patients. Oral rinse was obtained from 50 healthy controls. Samples were inoculated on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar (SDA medium and on HiCrome Candida Differential Agar (CHROM agar medium. Isolates were speciated by standard tests. Dark green-colored, germ tube positive isolates, which failed to grow at 420C and negative for xylose assimilation were identified as C. dubliniensis. Antifungal susceptibility test was performed by Macro broth dilution technique (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. Results and Conclusions: From 132 patients, 22 (16.3% C. dubliniensis were isolated; samples from healthy controls did not reveal their presence. Antifungal susceptibility test showed higher resistance among C. dubliniensis isolates to azoles compared to C. albicans. Five (22.7% isolates of C. dubliniensis were resistant to Fluconazole followed by four (18.2% to Ketoconazole. This study emphasizes the importance of identification and antifungal susceptibility testing of C. dubliniensis in HIV-infected patients.

  5. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-3. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, L.C.; Allison, C.M.; Croucher, D.W.; Ploger, S.A.

    1977-10-01

    The objectives of the test reported were to: (a) determine the behavior of irradiated fuel rods subjected to a rapid power increase during which the possibility of a pellet-cladding mechanical interaction failure is enhanced and (b) determine the behavior of these fuel rods during film boiling following this rapid power increase. Test IE-3 used four 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated fuel. The fuel rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, followed by a power ramp to 69 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4920 kg/s-m 2 . After a flow reduction to 2120 kg/s-m 2 , film boiling occurred on the fuel rods. One rod failed approximately 45 seconds after the reactor was shut down as a result of cladding embrittlement due to extensive cladding oxidation. Data are presented on the behavior of these irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, the power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of a power ramp and power ramp rates on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations and data from a previous Irradiation Effects test in which four irradiated fuel rods of a similar design were tested. Test IE-3 results indicate that the irradiated state of the fuel rods did not significantly affect fuel rod behavior during normal, abnormal (power ramp of 20 kW/m per minute), and accident (film boiling) conditions

  6. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  7. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  8. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  9. SAP crm integration testing

    OpenAIRE

    Černiavskaitė, Marija

    2017-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis presents SAP CRM and integration systems testing analysis: investigation in SAP CRM and SAP PO systems, presentation of relationship between systems, introduction to third-party system (non-SAP) – Network Informational System (NIS) which has integration with SAP, presentation of best CRM testing practises, analysis and recommendation of integration testing. Practical integration testing is done in accordance to recommendations.

  10. 1968 Prototype Diagnostic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Administration Hospital, Bedford, MA.

    This true-false diagnostic test was used for pretesting of employees at a Veterans Administration Hospital. The test is comprised of 20 items. An alternate test--Classification Questionnaire--was used for testing after remedial training. (For related document, see TM 002 334.) (DB)

  11. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  12. Nationale test i naturfag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Jensen, Lars Bang

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet rummer en analyse og diskussion af test inden for naturfagsområdet og de fagforståelser de afspejler med fokus på de nationale test.......Kapitlet rummer en analyse og diskussion af test inden for naturfagsområdet og de fagforståelser de afspejler med fokus på de nationale test....

  13. Numeracy Tests For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Beveridge, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The easy way to get practice and excel at numeracy tests Whether you're looking for a new job, applying to certain university courses, or attempting to join the military, you're increasingly likely to face a numeracy test as part of the screening process. And the only way to prepare for a numeracy test is practise. Numeracy Tests For Dummies is an accessible one-stop guide to pass these test. Featuring expert advice, instruction, review, and plenty of practise, Numeracy Tests For Dummies will help you succeed. Numeracy Tests For Dummies contains instruction and revision on:Basic mathematical k

  14. Dtest Testing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Myint, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This software runs a suite of arbitrary software tests spanning various software languages and types of tests (unit level, system level, or file comparison tests). The dtest utility can be set to automate periodic testing of large suites of software, as well as running individual tests. It supports distributing multiple tests over multiple CPU cores, if available. The dtest tool is a utility program (written in Python) that scans through a directory (and its subdirectories) and finds all directories that match a certain pattern and then executes any tests in that directory as described in simple configuration files.

  15. ITER test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Casini, G.

    1991-01-01

    ITER has been designed to operate in two phases. The first phase which lasts for 6 years, is devoted to machine checkout and physics testing. The second phase lasts for 8 years and is devoted primarily to technology testing. This report describes the technology test program development for ITER, the ancillary equipment outside the torus necessary to support the test modules, the international collaboration aspects of conducting the test program on ITER, the requirements on the machine major parameters and the R and D program required to develop the test modules for testing in ITER. 15 refs, figs and tabs

  16. Pancreatic exocrine function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each

  17. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  18. Functional Testing Airborne Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-27

    recorded, and presented in accordance with this TOP? Yes No Comment : 2. Were the facilities, test equipment, instrumentation, and support accommo- dations...adequate to accomplish the test objectives? Yes No Comment : 3. Have all data collected been reviewed for correctness and completeness? Yes No ... Comment : 4. Were the test results compromised in any way due to insufficient test planning? Yes No . Comment : 5. Were the test results compromised in any

  19. Testing Aircraft Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-11

    1. Have test data been collected, recorded, and presented in accordance with this TOP? Yes No Comment : 2. Were the facilities, test equipment...instrumentation, and support accommodations adequate to accomplish the test objectives? Yes No Comment : 3. Have all data collected been reviewed for...correctness and completeness? Yes No Comment : 4. Were the test results compromised in any way due to insufficient test planning? Yes No Comment : 5. Were the

  20. Pancreatic Exocrine Function Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, J. Edward

    1982-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and par...

  1. Testing experience with fast flux test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordhoff, B.H.; McGough, C.B.; Nolan, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Early FFTF project planning emphasized partial and full-scale testing of major reactor and plant prototype components under expected environmental conditions, excluding radiation fields. Confirmation of component performance during FFTF service was considered essential before actual FFTF startup, to provide increased assurance against FFTF startup delays or operational difficulties and downtime. Several new sodium facilities were constructed, and confirmation tests on the prototype components are now in progress. Test conditions and results to date are reported for the primary pump, intermediate heat exchanger, sodium-to-air dump heat exchanger, large and small sodium valves, purification cold trap, in-vessel handling machine, instrument tree, core restraint, control rod system, low-level flux monitor, closed loop ex-vessel machine, refueling equipment, and selected maintenance equipment. The significance and contribution of these tests to the FFTF and Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program are summarized. (U.S.)

  2. Antimicrobials Products Tested or Pending Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agency has completed testing of the majority of registered hospital disinfectants and tuberculocide products. The list of products can assist users in making informed choices regarding infection control in their facilities.

  3. The hardness test: a real mechanical test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezakhanlou, R.

    1993-02-01

    During the service life, the mechanical properties of the PWR components change. It is necessary to determine precisely this evolution, but it is not always possible to draw a sample with the adequate size for the characterization. For this latter case we intend to calculate the stress-strain curve of a material from a hardness test results, because it is appropriate for testing on site and do not need any particular sample shape. This paper is the first bibliographical part of a larger study on the relation between the values measured during a hardness test (applied load, indentation diameter) and the mechanical properties of a solid obtained by a traction test. We have treated the problem within the general setting of two solids in contact. Thus, we expose general elastic, elasto-plastic and plastic models describing the indentation of a solid by a rigid indenter

  4. Test plan for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this testing is to determine if ignition occurs while core drilling in a flammable gas environment. Drilling parameters are chosen so as to provide bounding conditions for the core sampling environment. If ignition does not occur under the conditions set forth in this test, then a satisfactory level of confidence will be obtained which would allow field operations under the normal drilling conditions

  5. TESTING TESTS ON ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI MICROVARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Diego, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature on optical and infrared microvariability in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reflects a diversity of statistical tests and strategies to detect tiny variations in the light curves of these sources. Comparison between the results obtained using different methodologies is difficult, and the pros and cons of each statistical method are often badly understood or even ignored. Even worse, improperly tested methodologies are becoming more and more common, and biased results may be misleading with regard to the origin of the AGN microvariability. This paper intends to point future research on AGN microvariability toward the use of powerful and well-tested statistical methodologies, providing a reference for choosing the best strategy to obtain unbiased results. Light curves monitoring has been simulated for quasars and for reference and comparison stars. Changes for the quasar light curves include both Gaussian fluctuations and linear variations. Simulated light curves have been analyzed using χ 2 tests, F tests for variances, one-way analyses of variance and C-statistics. Statistical Type I and Type II errors, which indicate the robustness and the power of the tests, have been obtained in each case. One-way analyses of variance and χ 2 prove to be powerful and robust estimators for microvariations, while the C-statistic is not a reliable methodology and its use should be avoided.

  6. Trends in software testing

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, J; Balakrishnan, Arunkumar

    2017-01-01

    This book is focused on the advancements in the field of software testing and the innovative practices that the industry is adopting. Considering the widely varied nature of software testing, the book addresses contemporary aspects that are important for both academia and industry. There are dedicated chapters on seamless high-efficiency frameworks, automation on regression testing, software by search, and system evolution management. There are a host of mathematical models that are promising for software quality improvement by model-based testing. There are three chapters addressing this concern. Students and researchers in particular will find these chapters useful for their mathematical strength and rigor. Other topics covered include uncertainty in testing, software security testing, testing as a service, test technical debt (or test debt), disruption caused by digital advancement (social media, cloud computing, mobile application and data analytics), and challenges and benefits of outsourcing. The book w...

  7. Pragmatics of Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Fırat ALTAY

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching of a language is a very complicated issue and testing is anindispensable part of this matter. Thanks to testing teachers can assess efficiency ofteaching and learning atmosphere, and can get feedback about their learners. In order torealize this, a test should have some qualifications. One of these qualifications is aboutpragmatics. This paper aims at explaining what makes a test pragmatic and howpragmatic tests can be formed. So, examples of pragmatic tests of different types arepresented with explanations. Their pragmatic components and nature are focused on bygiving example test items on the problematic area of test questions prepared. Finally,the writer states his last words by making further comments and explanations onpragmatics of testing in the conclusion part.

  8. Relay test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Kunkel, C.; Shteyngart, S.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of a relay test program conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The program is a continuation of an earlier test program the results of which were published in NUREG/CR-4867. The current program was carried out in two phases: electrical testing and vibration testing. The objective was primarily to focus on the electrical discontinuity or continuity of relays and circuit breaker tripping mechanisms subjected to electrical pulses and vibration loads. The electrical testing was conducted by KEMA-Powertest Company and the vibration testing was performed at Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville, Alabama. This report discusses the test procedures, presents the test data, includes an analysis of the data and provides recommendations regarding reliable relay testing

  9. Nondestructive testing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUKEM has transferred know-how from reactor technology to materials testing. The high and to a large extent new quality standards in the nuclear industry necessitate reliable measuring and testing equipment of the highest precision. Many of the tasks presented to us could not be solved with the equipment available on the market, for which reason we have developed our own measuring, testing and control systems. We have therefore acquired considerable experience in dealing with specific measuring, testing and control tasks and can handle even out-of-the-way problems that are submitted to us from a wide variety of fields. Our mechanical systems for the checking of close-tolerance gaps, the automatic determination of pellet dimensions and the measurement of absolute lengths and absolute velocities are in use in many different industrial fields. We have succeeded in solving unusual testing and sorting problems with the aid of automated surface testing equipment working on optical principles. Our main activities in the field of non-destructive testing have been concentrated on ultrasonic and eddy current testing and, of late, acoustic emission analysis. NUKEM ultrasonic systems are notable for their high defect detection rate and testing accuracy, combined with high testing speed. The equipment we supply includes ultrasonic rotary systems for the production testing of quality tubes, ultrasonic immersion systems for the final testing of reactor cladding tubes, weld testing equipment, and test equipment for the bonds in multi-layer plates. (orig./RW) [de

  10. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-01-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3

  11. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  12. Media Fill Test for validation of autologous leukocytes separation and labelling by (99m)Tc-HmPAO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Nicoletta; Modoni, Sergio; Schillaci, Orazio

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturing of sterile products must be carried out in order to minimize risks of microbiological contamination. White blood cells (WBC) labelled with (99m)Tc-exametazime ((99m)Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime; (99m)Tc-HMPAO) are being successfully applied in the field of infection/inflammation scintigraphy for many years. In our radiopharmacy lab, separation and labelling of autologous leukocytes with (99m)Tc-HMPAO were performed in a laminar flow cabinet not classified and placed in a controlled area, whereas (99m)Tc-HMPAO radiolabelling procedure was carried out in a hot cell with manipulator gloves. This study was conducted to validate this process using a Media Fill simulation test. The study was performed using sterile Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) in place of active product, reproducing as closely as possible the routine aseptic production process with all the critical steps, as described in the our internal standard operative procedures (SOP). The final vials containing the media of each processed step were then incubated for 14 days and examined for the evidence of microbial growth. No evidence of turbidity was observed in all the steps assayed by the Media Fill. In the separation and labelling of autologous leukocytes with (99m)Tc-HmPAO, Media-Fill test represents a reliable tool to validate the aseptic process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhi Quan

    2016-06-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity.

  14. Theory of nonparametric tests

    CERN Document Server

    Dickhaus, Thorsten

    2018-01-01

    This textbook provides a self-contained presentation of the main concepts and methods of nonparametric statistical testing, with a particular focus on the theoretical foundations of goodness-of-fit tests, rank tests, resampling tests, and projection tests. The substitution principle is employed as a unified approach to the nonparametric test problems discussed. In addition to mathematical theory, it also includes numerous examples and computer implementations. The book is intended for advanced undergraduate, graduate, and postdoc students as well as young researchers. Readers should be familiar with the basic concepts of mathematical statistics typically covered in introductory statistics courses.

  15. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity. PMID:27559196

  16. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  17. Proficiency Testing in Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abbas; Suhairy Sani; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Abd Nassir Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Department of Standard Malaysia (DSM) launched myPTP programme on 31 December 2013 in accordance to ISO/IC 17043. The standard states the requirements for Proficiency Testing. The provider of these services is called Proficiency Testing Provider (PTP). The role of PTP is to compare the proficiency level between inspection bodies or laboratories. With the assistance of expert panel, the PTP will determine the assigned value as reference to be compared to the values obtained from the inspection bodies or laboratories. Quality wise, this services is important as participation will improve wuality of the inspection quality continuously and increase confidence level of client and improve safety level. Requirement of PT in NDT is mentioned in SC1.5- Specific Criteria for Accreditation of Mechanical Testing and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) for MS ISO/IEC17025 and MTR2- MIBAS Technical Requirements for Accreditation of NDT. This paper explains and discusses the result of this proficiency test done on a number of NDT companies that participated. (author)

  18. Use of a molecular diagnostic test in AFB smear positive tuberculosis suspects greatly reduces time to detection of multidrug resistant tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestani Tukvadze

    Full Text Available The WHO has recommended the implementation of rapid diagnostic tests to detect and help combat M/XDR tuberculosis (TB. There are limited data on the performance and impact of these tests in field settings.The performance of the commercially available Genotype MTBDRplus molecular assay was compared to conventional methods including AFB smear, culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST using both an absolute concentration method on Löwenstein-Jensen media and broth-based method using the MGIT 960 system. Sputum specimens were obtained from TB suspects in the country of Georgia who received care through the National TB Program.Among 500 AFB smear-positive sputum specimens, 458 (91.6% had both a positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a valid MTBDRplus assay result. The MTBDRplus assay detected isoniazid (INH resistance directly from the sputum specimen in 159 (89.8% of 177 specimens and MDR-TB in 109 (95.6% of 114 specimens compared to conventional methods. There was high agreement between the MTBDRplus assay and conventional DST results in detecting MDR-TB (kappa = 0.95, p<0.01. The most prevalent INH resistance mutation was S315T (78% in the katG codon and the most common rifampicin resistance mutation was S531L (68% in the rpoB codon. Among 13 specimens from TB suspects with negative sputum cultures, 7 had a positive MTBDRplus assay (3 with MDR-TB. The time to detection of MDR-TB was significantly less using the MTBDRplus assay (4.2 days compared to the use of standard phenotypic tests (67.3 days with solid media and 21.6 days with broth-based media.Compared to conventional methods, the MTBDRplus assay had high accuracy and significantly reduced time to detection of MDR-TB in an area with high MDR-TB prevalence. The use of rapid molecular diagnostic tests for TB and drug resistance should increase the proportion of patients promptly placed on appropriate therapy.

  19. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-2. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, C.M.; Croucher, D.W.; Ploger, S.A.; Mehner, A.S.

    1977-08-01

    The report describes the results of a test using four 0.97-m long PWR-type fuel rods with differences in diametral gap and cladding irradiation. The objective of this test was to provide information about the effects of these differences on fuel rod behavior during quasi-equilibrium and film boiling operation. The fuel rods were subjected to a series of preconditioning power cycles of less than 30 kW/m. Rod powers were then increased to 68 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4900 kg/s-m 2 . After one hour at 68 kW/m, a power-cooling-mismatch sequence was initiated by a flow reduction at constant power. At a flow of 2550 kg/s-m 2 , the onset of film boiling occurred on one rod, Rod IE-011. An additional flow reduction to 2245 kg/s-m 2 caused the onset of film boiling on the remaining three rods. Data are presented on the behavior of fuel rods during quasiequilibrium and during film boiling operation. The effects of initial gap size, cladding irradiation, rod power cycling, a rapid power increase, and sustained film boiling are discussed. These discussions are based on measured test data, preliminary postirradiation examination results, and comparisons of results with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations

  20. A Microfluidic Channel Method for Rapid Drug-Susceptibility Testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The recent global increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and lack of development of new therapeutic agents emphasize the importance of selecting appropriate antimicrobials for the treatment of infections. However, to date, the development of completely accelerated drug susceptibility testing methods has not been achieved despite the availability of a rapid identification method. We proposed an innovative rapid method for drug susceptibility testing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa that provides results within 3 h. The drug susceptibility testing microfluidic (DSTM device was prepared using soft lithography. It consisted of five sets of four microfluidic channels sharing one inlet slot, and the four channels are gathered in a small area, permitting simultaneous microscopic observation. Antimicrobials were pre-introduced into each channel and dried before use. Bacterial suspensions in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth were introduced from the inlet slot and incubated for 3 h. Susceptibilities were microscopically evaluated on the basis of differences in cell numbers and shapes between drug-treated and control cells, using dedicated software. The results of 101 clinically isolated strains of P. aeruginosa obtained using the DSTM method strongly correlated with results obtained using the ordinary microbroth dilution method. Ciprofloxacin, meropenem, ceftazidime, and piperacillin caused elongation in susceptible cells, while meropenem also induced spheroplast and bulge formation. Morphological observation could alternatively be used to determine the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to these drugs, although amikacin had little effect on cell shape. The rapid determination of bacterial drug susceptibility using the DSTM method could also be applicable to other pathogenic species, and it could easily be introduced into clinical laboratories without the need for expensive instrumentation.

  1. Tigecycline activity tested against 26,474 bloodstream infection isolates: a collection from 6 continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N; Stilwell, Matthew G; Dowzicky, Michael J; Fritsche, Thomas R

    2005-07-01

    The activity of tigecycline (formerly GAR936), a novel glycylcycline, was tested against recent bloodstream infection (BSI) pathogen isolates from 6 continents. Frequency of clinical occurrence of these pathogens was determined and their antibiograms assessed using reference broth microdilution methods. A total of 26474 strains were tested for tigecycline susceptibility according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) by the M7-A6 guidelines with interpretations from M100-S15 and the package insert. The rank order of pathogens was Staphylococcus aureus (33.1%), Escherichia coli (14.0%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (13.5%), Enterococcus spp. (12.3%), Klebsiella spp. (5.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.2%), Enterobacter spp. (3.0%), beta-hemolytic streptococci (2.9%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (2.3%), and viridans group streptococci (1.4%). Tigecycline exhibited a broader spectrum of activity against BSI isolates when compared to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, aminoglycosides, and many beta-lactams (imipenem). Tigecycline was highly active against most pathogens tested, including staphylococci (MIC(90), 0.5 microg/mL), enterococci (MIC90, 0.25 microg/mL), streptococci (MIC(90), < or =0.12 microg/mL), Escherichia coli (MIC90, 0.25 microg/mL), Klebsiella spp. (MIC90, 1 mmicrog/mL), and Enterobacter spp. (MIC(90), 2 mmicrog/mL), but showed limited inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90, 16 microg/mL) and indole-positive or indole-negative Proteae (MIC90, 4-8 microg/mL). In summary, tigecycline exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial potency versus BSI isolates collected worldwide. Serious infections in nosocomial environments should benefit from tigecycline use among the investigational phase 3 agents focused toward resistant strains.

  2. Visual acuity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003396.htm Visual acuity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest ...

  3. Learning Python testing

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuckle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This book is ideal if you want to learn about the testing disciplines and automated testing tools from a hands-on, conversational guide. You should already know Python and be comfortable with Python 3.

  4. EMI Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) testing of flight hardware. It is also used to support custom RF testing up to...

  5. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  6. Ballistic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Test Facility is comprised of two outdoor and one indoor test ranges, which are all instrumented for data acquisition and analysis. Full-size aircraft...

  7. Ultrasonic testing X gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Campos, A.M. de

    1989-01-01

    The experience of 10 years for substituting gammagraphy tests by ultrasonic tests is related. A comparative evaluation of data obtained from both techniques applied to welded butt joints is presented. (author)

  8. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  9. Platelet Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Platelet Function Tests Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Also Known As Platelet Aggregation Studies PFT Platelet Function Assay PFA Formal Name Platelet Function Tests This ...

  10. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  11. Insensitive Munitions Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Insensitive Munitions Testing at RTC is conducted (IAW MILSTD-2105) at Test Area 4. Our engineers and technicians obtain data for hazards classification and safety...

  12. Lab and Imaging Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to help detect (diagnose) a blood cancer (leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, myelodysplastic syndromes or myeloproliferative disease). You may need to undergo additional tests to confirm your diagnosis. Once your diagnosis is confirmed, your doctor may ...

  13. Learning Android application testing

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer looking to test your applications or optimize your application development process, then this book is for you. No previous experience in application testing is required.

  14. Genetic Testing for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic counselor can help you work through the pros and cons of genetic testing based on your ... showing symptoms or what their progression will be. Technology is changing rapidly and costs of testing are ...

  15. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  16. The Danish National Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Nandrup, Anne Brink

    In 2010, the Danish National Tests were implemented in the public compulsory schools as a mean of evaluating the performance of the public school system. The extensive test program consists of ten mandatory tests in six subjects in grades 2 through 8. In this paper, we share our insights from wor...... characteristics as well as pupils' 9th grade examination marks. We document a stable test score gap across grade levels and socio economic background and discuss the prospects of the national test data for future research....... within each test and argue that this is often a more feasible measure for data analyses compared to the transformed test score presented to pupils and teachers. We provide the reader with preliminary analyses of the relation between pupils' national test results and a wide range of pupil background...

  17. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  18. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a ...

  19. hs-CRP Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sample? No test preparation is needed; however, fasting for 9-12 hours before the blood sample ... such as colon cancer , complications of diabetes , and obesity. I have had cholesterol tests but never an ...

  20. Understanding Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy ...

  1. Corrosion Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corrosion Testing Facility is part of the Army Corrosion Office (ACO). It is a fully functional atmospheric exposure site, called the Corrosion Instrumented Test...

  2. Rocketball Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test facility offers the capability to emulate and measure guided missile radar cross-section without requiring flight tests of tactical missiles. This facility...

  3. PT and INR Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... and vitamin K (either in a multivitamin or liquid nutrition supplement) may decrease PT. Certain foods, such ...

  4. Helicobacter pylori Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... collected and then the person is given a liquid to drink. Another breath sample is collected at ...

  5. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  6. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  7. Gastrin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic ulcer - gastrin blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... in the stomach, gastrin is released into the blood. As the acid ... provider may order this test if you have signs or symptoms of a ...

  8. HCG blood test - qualitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003509.htm HCG blood test - qualitative To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human ...

  9. ACE blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003567.htm ACE blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme; SACE Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  10. LDH isoenzyme blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003499.htm LDH isoenzyme blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Names LD; LDH; Lactic (lactate) dehydrogenase isoenzymes Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  11. Phosphorus blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  12. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... doing so for a short time before the test. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.

  13. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  14. TBG - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003374.htm TBG - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The TBG blood test measures the level of a protein that moves ...

  15. Calcitonin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003699.htm Calcitonin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcitonin blood test measures the level of the hormone calcitonin in ...

  16. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  17. Aldolase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003566.htm Aldolase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Berridge BR, Van Vleet JF, Herman E. ...

  18. Glucagon blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003716.htm Glucagon blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A glucagon blood test measures the amount of a hormone called glucagon ...

  19. Leucine aminopeptidase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003559.htm Leucine aminopeptidase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum leucine aminopeptidase; LAP - serum Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) - ...

  20. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...