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Sample records for testicular diseases

  1. Testicular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sports 5 Ideas for Eco-Friendly Celebrations Testicular Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Testicular Injuries Print A A ... addressed as soon as possible. continue Serious Testicular Injuries Examples of serious testicular injury are testicular torsion ...

  2. Testicular lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; d'Amore, F; Christensen, Bjarne Egelund

    1994-01-01

    In a Danish population-based non-Hodgkin's lymphoma registry, 2687 newly diagnosed patients were registered from 1983 to 1992. 39 had testicular involvement (TL) (incidence 0.26/10(5)/year). Median age was 71 years. 24 cases had localised and 15 had disseminated disease. Histologically, all cases...

  3. Inguinal metastases from testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Karas, Vladimir; Sommer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of inguinal metastases in patients with testicular cancer and relapse after initial stage I disease.......To evaluate the incidence of inguinal metastases in patients with testicular cancer and relapse after initial stage I disease....

  4. Congenital tricuspid valve disease and testicular agenesis: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a case of congenital tricuspid valve disease presenting with heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. Cardinal clinical features include breathlessness, easy fatigability since childhood, stunted growth, cyanosis, finger clubbing, a pansystolic murmur loudest at the left sternal edge in the fourth intercostal ...

  5. Guidelines on testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Peter; Albrecht, Walter; Algaba, Ferran; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Cohn-Cedermark, Gabriella; Horwich, Alan; Klepp, Olbjoern; Laguna, M. Pilar; Pizzocaro, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    To up-date the 2001 version of the EAU testicular cancer guidelines. A non-structured literature review until January 2005 using the MEDLINE database has been performed. Literature has been classified according to evidence-based medicine levels. Testicular cancer is a highly curable disease.

  6. Testicular calculus: A rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Volkan; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demır, Omer; Tuna, Burcin; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Esen, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Testicular calculus is an extremely rare case with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. To our knowledge, here we report the third case of testicular calculus. A 31-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with painful solid mass in left testis. After diagnostic work-up for a possible testicular tumour, he underwent inguinal orchiectomy and histopathologic examination showed a testicular calculus. Case hypothesis: Solid testicular lesions in young adults generally correspond to testicular cancer. Differential diagnosis should be done carefully. Future implications: In young adults with painful and solid testicular mass with hyperechogenic appearance on scrotal ultrasonography, testicular calculus must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. Further reports on this topic may let us do more clear recommendations about the etiology and treatment of this rare disease.

  7. Clinical and pathological features of testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma : a heterogeneous disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper-Hommel, Marion J. J.; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L. G.; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; Krol, Augustinus D. G.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Coebergh, Jan-Willem W.; van Krieken, J. Han J. M.

    Most testicular lymphomas are of diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) type with an outcome inferior to nodal DLBCL. Within an apparently homogeneous group of testicular DLBCLs, small cell components, plasmacytoid differentiation and lymphoepithelial lesions (LELs), features of extranodal marginal zone

  8. Clinical and pathological features of testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a heterogeneous disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper-Hommel, M.J.; Janssen-Heijnen, M.L.; Vreugdenhil, G.; Krol, A.D.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Most testicular lymphomas are of diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) type with an outcome inferior to nodal DLBCL. Within an apparently homogeneous group of testicular DLBCLs, small cell components, plasmacytoid differentiation and lymphoepithelial lesions (LELs), features of extranodal marginal zone

  9. Testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Møller, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To perform a systematic literature review to assess whether the occurrence of testicular microlithiasis (TML) in conjunction with other risk factors is associated with testicular cancer. Methods A systematic literature search was performed of original articles in English published 1998...... In total, 282 abstracts in were identified. Based on title and abstract the eligibility was assessed and 31 studies were included. Five conditions in relation to TML and testicular cancer emerged: Down syndrome, McCune–Albright syndrome, cryptorchidism, infertility and familial disposition of testicular...... cancer. Conclusion Data support the conclusion that TML is not an independent risk factor for testicular cancer but associated with testicular cancer through other conditions. In male infertility, TML appears to be related to an increased risk of testicular cancer possibly as part of a testicular...

  10. Testicular Torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 13, 2015. Somani BK, et al. Testicular torsion. BMJ. 2010;341:c3213. Cubillos J, et al. Familial testicular torsion. Journal of Urology. 2011;185:2469. Hittelman AB. Neonatal ...

  11. TESTICULAR TORSION:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TESTICULAR TORSION: EXPERIENCE IN THE MIDDLE BELT OF NIGERIA. S.A. KURANGA AND G.A. RAHMAN. Department of Surgery, University of l/orin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Objective To determine the fate of the testis affected by testicular torsion (TT) in relation to the duration of the symptoms and to.

  12. Testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Møller, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In total, 282 abstracts in were identified. Based on title and abstract the eligibility was assessed and 31 studies were included. Five conditions in relation to TML and testicular cancer emerged: Down syndrome, McCune–Albright syndrome, cryptorchidism, infertility and familial disposition of testicular...... dysgenesis syndrome....

  13. Testicular function in young men in long-term remission after treatment for the early stages of Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Geisler, C; Hansen, M M

    1984-01-01

    . Patients should be informed about the risk of infertility before treatment. If in a given case several treatment options with equal prospective antineoplastic effect are weighed against one another, the patient's possible desire to retain fertility should favour the use of radiotherapy as opposed......16 young men in long-term remission after standard treatment for the early stages of Hodgkin's disease were examined for testicular function 48 to 125 months after termination of therapy. The patients had received mantle field irradiation, plus either irradiation of infradiaphragmatic lymph nodes...

  14. Testicular Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Testicular Cancer Treatment Testicular Cancer Screening Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... testicles, and need to be followed closely. Testicular Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  15. Varicocele and testicular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Pastuszak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular varicocele, a dilation of the veins of the pampiniform plexus thought to increase testicular temperature via venous congestion, is commonly associated with male infertility. Significant study has clarified the negative impact of varicocele on semen parameters and more recent work has shed light on its detrimental effects on the molecular and ultrastructural features of sperm and the testicular microenvironment, as well as more clearly defined the positive impacts of treatment on couples′ fertility. The relationship between varicocele and testicular endocrine function, while known for some time based on histologic evaluation, has become more apparent in the clinical setting with a growing link between varicocele and hypogonadism. Finally, in the pediatric setting, while future study will clarify the impact of varicocele on fertility and testicular function, recent work supports a parallel effect of varicocele in adolescents and adults, suggesting a re-evaluation of current treatment approaches in light of the progressive nature of the condition and potential increased risk of future disease.

  16. Testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, N; Kortsaris, A

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most frequent solid tumor in young male adults and a disease with elusive pathogenesis. Germ cell tumors represent 95% of all testicular cancers. There was an increasing incidence of testicular germ cell tumors during the second half of the 20th century. Despite their increased incidence, mortality is lower than 10% and the cure rate has reached 95%. Epidemiology of the disease shows remarkable geographic and racial variation. Known risk factors and the increased incidence during the last 50 years have led to the development of the two prevalent theories for the pathogenesis of the disease, Henderson theory and Rajpertde Meyts and Skakkebaek theory. Appropriate diagnosis and staging of the disease are crucial for successful management. Testicular ultrasound, CT scans, histological examination and serum tumor markers should be utilized in order to stratify the patient correctly. Treatment strategy is chosen according to the patient stage and prognostic group stratification. "Fine tuning" is needed in order to find the balance between treatment, cure and toxicity. Despite progress in therapeutic management, cure rates for poor risk patients do not exceed 50%. These patients should be encouraged to participate in clinical trials. Long-term toxicity of testicular germ cell tumors' treatment is also another issue that should be kept in mind during follow-up of these patients. This disease became the model of "curable" cancer and gave hope for cure of metastatic malignant diseases in general, as only 400 patients die from this disease in USA annually. More progress will be made only through well-designed clinical trials.

  17. Testicular torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Andersen, L; Kay, L

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-five patients were examined 6-11 years after operation for torsion of the testis. Loss of testicular tissue was significantly associated with long preoperative duration of symptoms and with low postoperative sperm counts. The sex hormones were normal in the majority of patients but there w......Thirty-five patients were examined 6-11 years after operation for torsion of the testis. Loss of testicular tissue was significantly associated with long preoperative duration of symptoms and with low postoperative sperm counts. The sex hormones were normal in the majority of patients...

  18. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  19. Primary Testicular Lymphoma In Nigerian Males: Case Report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of primary testicular lymphoma in this environment is similar to the prevalence elsewhere but the age at presentation differs. There is a need to be on the lookout for the disease not only in the elderly but also in young patients presenting with testicular masses. Key Words: testicular, lymphoma, Non- Hodgkin

  20. Testicular Microlithiasis: Report of Two Cases and Overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testicular microlithiasis is a rare asymptomatic disease of the testis. It is associated with testicular tumors and a wide variety of other pathologies. The sonographic image which is the main tool for diagnosis is characteristic. Because of its high association with malignant testicular tumors incidentally discovered cases of ...

  1. Spermatogenesis and testicular tumours in ageing dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M. A.; de rooij, D. G.; Teerds, K. J.; van de Gaag, I.; van Sluijs, F. J.

    2001-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were to quantify the changes in canine spermatogenesis that occur during ageing and to study the prevalence of testicular tumours and their effects on spermatogenesis in dogs. Testes from 74 dogs of various breeds without clinically detected testicular disease and from

  2. [Segmental testicular infarction in sickle cell anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, F E

    2014-05-01

    Vascular occlusions are the clinical indicators of sickle cell disease and in urology they can lead to papillary necrosis, renal infarction or priapism. Segmental testicular infarction in patients with sickle cell disease is a rare event and only a few cases have been reported. We present a 25-year-old man with right testicular pain increasing over 3 days and sickle cell disease. Ultrasound of the right scrotum presented an inhomogeneous, mainly hypoechegenic mass with a hyperechogenic margin and no sign of blood flow. A partial orchiectomy was performed with total enucleation of the lesion, which was histologically diagnosed as benign hemorrhagic necrotic testicular tissue.

  3. Long-term follow-up of testicular function following radiation therapy for early-stage Hodgkin's disease

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    Kinsella, T.J.; Trivette, G.; Rowland, J.; Sorace, R.; Miller, R.; Fraass, B.; Steinberg, S.M.; Glatstein, E.; Sherins, R.J.

    1989-06-01

    Seventeen male patients with pathological staged I-IIIA1 Hodgkin's disease were followed prospectively for radiation damage to the testes from low-dose scattered irradiation. During conventionally fractionated radiation therapy, the testicular dose ranged from 6 to 70 cGy. Testicular function was measured in a prospective fashion by repeated analyses (every 6 to 12 months) of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone. Patients were also followed by serial semen analyses and by a questionnaire on fertility. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 7 years after completion of radiation therapy. In patients receiving greater than or equal to 20 cGy, there was a dose-dependent increase in serum FSH values following irradiation, with the maximum difference at 6 months compared with pretreatment levels. All patients showed a return to normal FSH values within 12 to 24 months following irradiation. No significant changes in LH and testosterone were observed in this patient group. Eight patients with a normal pretreatment semen analysis provided serial semen samples and two patients showed transient oligospermia with complete recovery by 18 months following treatment. Four patients have fathered normal offspring following radiation therapy. We conclude that low doses (greater than 20 cGy) of scatter irradiation during treatment for Hodgkin's disease can result in transient injury to the seminiferous tubule as manifested by elevations of FSH for 6 to 24 months following treatment. Below 20 cGy, FSH values remained in the normal range. No evidence of Leydig cell injury (using LH and testosterone) was seen in this dose range (up to 70 cGy). Thus, patients with early-stage Hodgkin's disease can be treated with radiation therapy with little to no risk of irreversible testicular injury. Radiation treatment techniques to shield the testes are discussed.

  4. Intermittent Testicular Torsion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Objective: The aim of this study is to highlight the clinical characteristics of patients with intermittent testicular torsion and draw attention to this underreported condition. Methods: Clinical and demographic data of all patients treated for intermittent testicular torsion from January 2007 to June 2015 were ...

  5. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Main, K M

    2001-01-01

    summarizes existing evidence supporting a new concept that poor semen quality, testis cancer, undescended testis and hypospadias are symptoms of one underlying entity, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), which may be increasingly common due to adverse environmental influences. Experimental...

  6. Testicular torsion repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... male growth, sex life, and fertility. Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Images Male reproductive anatomy Testicular torsion repair - series References ... of the testes and scrotum and their surgical management. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . ...

  7. Epigenetic: a molecular link between testicular cancer and environmental exposures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie eVega

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, studies in rodents have highlighted links between in utero and/or neonatal exposures to molecules that alter endocrine functions and the development of genital tract abnormalities, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and impaired spermatogenesis. Most of these molecules, called endocrine disrupters (EDs exert estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities. These data led to the hypothesis of the Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome which postulates that these disorders are one clinical entity and are linked by epidemiological and pathophysiological relations. Futhermore, infertility has been stated as a risk factor for testicular cancer. The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past decades. Most of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS from fetal germ cells (primordial germ cell or gonocyte. During their development, fetal germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, several lines of evidence have shown that gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA and histone modifications plays an important role in normal development as well as in various diseases, including testicular cancer.Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of testicular cancer; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures.

  8. Effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training on cardiovascular disease risk in testicular cancer survivors: A phase 2 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott C; DeLorey, Darren S; Davenport, Margie H; Stickland, Michael K; Fairey, Adrian S; North, Scott; Szczotka, Alexander; Courneya, Kerry S

    2017-10-15

    Testicular cancer survivors (TCS) have an increased risk of treatment-related cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may limit their overall survival. We evaluated the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) on traditional and novel CVD risk factors and surrogate markers of mortality in a population-based sample of TCS. This phase 2 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02459132) randomly assigned 63 TCS to usual care (UC) or 12 weeks of supervised HIIT (ie, alternating periods of vigorous-intensity and light-intensity aerobic exercise). The primary outcome was peak aerobic fitness (VO2peak ) assessed via a treadmill-based maximal cardiorespiratory exercise test. Secondary endpoints included CVD risk (eg, Framingham Risk Score), arterial health, parasympathetic nervous system function, and blood-based biomarkers. Postintervention VO2peak data were obtained for 61 participants (97%). HIIT participants attended 99% of the exercise sessions and achieved 98% of the target exercise intensity. Analysis of covariance demonstrated that HIIT was superior to UC for improving VO2peak (adjusted between-group mean difference, 3.7 mL O2 /kg/min; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-5.1 [P<.001]) and multiple secondary outcomes including CVD risk (P = .011), arterial thickness (P<.001), arterial stiffness (P<.001), postexercise parasympathetic reactivation (P = .001), inflammation (P = .045), and low-density lipoprotein (P = .014). Overall, HIIT reduced the prevalence of modifiable CVD risk factors by 20% compared with UC. This randomized trial provides the first evidence that HIIT improves cardiorespiratory fitness, multiple pathways of CVD risk, and surrogate markers of mortality in TCS. These findings have important implications for the management of TCS. Further research concerning the long-term effects of HIIT on CVD morbidity and mortality in TCS is warranted. Cancer 2017;123:4057-65. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer

  9. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Jørgensen, N

    2007-01-01

    Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic...... in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive health...... problems may also be rising....

  10. Testicular Damage following Testicular Sperm Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Marcussen, Niels; Fedder, Maja D.K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible development of histological abnormalities such as fibrosis and microcalcifications after sperm retrieval in a ram model. Fourteen testicles in nine rams were exposed to open biopsy, multiple TESAs, or TESE, and the remaining four testicles were...... left unoperated on as controls. Three months after sperm retrieval, the testicles were removed, fixed, and cut into 1/2 cm thick slices and systematically put onto a glass plate exposing macroscopic abnormalities. Tissue from abnormal areas was cut into 3 μm sections and stained for histological...... evaluation. Pathological abnormalities were observed in testicles exposed to sperm retrieval (≥11 of 14) compared to 0 of 4 control testicles. Testicular damage was found independently of the kind of intervention used. Therefore, cryopreservation of excess sperm should be considered while retrieving sperm....

  11. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  12. Testis sparing surgery for sequential bilateral testicular tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Ozdemir, Ahmet Tunc; Akbulut, Ziya; Balbay, M Derya

    2009-06-01

    We present our experience in performing testis sparing surgery (TSS) to treat sequential bilateral testicular tumors. We performed TSS on two patients with bilateral sequential testicular tumors. A 43-year-old patient (Case 1) and a 33-year-old patient (Case 2) had previous inguinal orchiectomy for seminoma. The patients were diagnosed with secondary testicular tumors in the contralateral testes on follow up. They were treated with TSS after frozen section analysis of the peritumoral testicular tissue. Pathologic evaluation of the removed tumors revealed immature teratoma and Leydig cell tumor. Both patients are disease free without local recurrence and do not have erectile dysfunction, and thus do not need androgen replacement therapy after a follow up of 6 months and 44 months, respectively. TSS after frozen section analysis appears to be a safe and feasible procedure that, in carefully selected cases, offers adequate cancer control, preserves sexual function, and provides psychological benefits.

  13. Polymorphic variation in the androgen receptor gene: association with risk of testicular germ cell cancer and metastatic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Västermark, Åke; Giwercman, Yvonne Lundberg; Hagströmer, Oskar

    2011-01-01

    ) gene polymorphisms in relation to the risk, histological type and progression of TGCC was undertaken. In 367 TGCC cases and 214 controls, AR CAG and GGN repeat lengths were determined and 11 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. By binary logistic regression, odds...... ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for the risk of TGCC, non-seminoma versus seminoma and metastatic versus localised (stage I) disease. For the non-coding SNP, rs12014709, the minor genotype (G) was found in 10% of the cases and in 5.1% of the controls, conferring...

  14. The Danish Testicular Cancer database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel; Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Toft, Birgitte Groenkaer; Engvad, Birte; Agerbæk, Mads; Holm, Niels Vilstrup; Lauritsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions. Collection of questionnaires is still ongoing. A biobank including blood/sputum samples for future genetic analyses has been established. Both samples related to DaTeCa and DMCG DaTeCa database are included. The prospective DMCG DaTeCa database includes variables regarding histology, stage, prognostic group, and treatment. The DMCG DaTeCa database has existed since 2013 and is a young clinical database. It is necessary to extend the data collection in the prospective database in order to answer quality-related questions. Data from the retrospective database will be added to the prospective data. This will result in a large and very comprehensive database for future studies on TC patients.

  15. Ageing, testicular tumours and the pituitary-testis axis in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M. A.; de Jong, F. H.; Teerds, K. J.; de rooij, D. G.; Dieleman, S. J.; van Sluijs, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    Dogs of different ages without testicular diseases were evaluated to study possible age-related changes in hormone concentrations in serum. Dogs with testicular tumours were also investigated to study the relation between tumour type and hormone concentrations; in this study, dogs with Sertoli cell

  16. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N

    2007-01-01

    countries, which shows strong associations between testicular cancer, undescended testis, hypospadias, poor testicular development and function, and male infertility. These studies have led us to suggest the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), of which TGCC, undescended testis, hypospadias...

  17. Comet assay on mice testicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kumar Sharma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heritable mutations may result in a variety of adverse outcomes including genetic disease in the offspring. In recent years the focus on germ cell mutagenicity has increased and the “Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS” has published classification criteria for germ cell mutagens (Speit et al., 2009. The in vivo Comet assay is considered a useful tool for investigating germ cell genotoxicity. In the present study DNA strand breaks in testicular cells of mice were investigated. Different classes of chemicals were tested in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the comet assay in testicular cells. The chemicals included environmentally relevant substances such as Bisphenol A, PFOS and Tetrabrombisphenol A. Statistical power calculations will be presented to aid in the design of future Comet assay studies on testicular cells. Power curves were provided with different fold changes in % tail DNA, different number of cells scored and different number of gels (Hansen et al., 2014. An example is shown in Figure 1. A high throughput version of the Comet assay was used. Samples were scored with a fully automatic comet assay scoring system that provided faster scoring of randomly selected cells.

  18. Perinatal testicular torsion and medicolegal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S

    2014-06-01

    Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion.

  19. From gonocytes to testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-de Meyts, Ewa; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E

    2007-01-01

    Testicular germ-cell tumors occur primarily in young individuals, and the tumors in this age group (seminomas or nonseminomas) are derived from a preinvasive precursor cell called carcinoma in situ (CIS) or intratubular germ-cell neoplasia. These tumors have been a growing problem, especially in ...... by genomic variation (polymorphisms), thus explaining the individual susceptibility and population-level differences in the incidence of testicular cancer.......Testicular germ-cell tumors occur primarily in young individuals, and the tumors in this age group (seminomas or nonseminomas) are derived from a preinvasive precursor cell called carcinoma in situ (CIS) or intratubular germ-cell neoplasia. These tumors have been a growing problem, especially...... after puberty. In most cases the arrest/delay of germ-cell differentiation is caused by testicular dysgenesis, a multifactorial and complex syndrome that has a broad spectrum of phenotypes ranging from moderate impairment of spermatogenesis to severe disorders of sexual development and differentiation...

  20. Crossed testicular ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Esteves

    Full Text Available Crossed testicular ectopia (CTE is a rare anomaly, characterized by migration of one testis towards the opposite inguinal canal. Presented here is a case of crossed ectopia of the right testis, treated by extraperitoneal transposition of the gonad and right orchiopexy. Embriology and surgical findings suggest that CTE is a common consequence of many unclear ethiologic factors, specially mechanical ones, and can be associated with Muller duct persistence. Review of literature suggests a classification of CTE into 3 types: I - associated with inguinal hernia alone; II - associated with persistent mullerian remnants; III - associated with other anomalies without mullerian remnants. Treatment includes transeptal orchiopexy or extraperitoneal transposition of the testis, research for mullerian remnants and other anomalies, and long term postoperative follow-up, due to the risk of becoming malignant.

  1. [Testicular mass in a teenager: a case report of embryonic carcinoma discovered late].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, P; Vic, P; Le Guilchet, T; Modruz, N

    2015-04-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease in adolescents but is the leading cause of solid cancer in 15- to 30-year-old men. We report a clinical case of a 16-year-old who presented to the pediatric emergency unit with a testicular mass that had been enlarging for several months and the diagnosis turned out to be multimetastatic testicular cancer. However, early diagnosis largely determines the prognosis of this disease. A literature review enabled us to update the prognostic factors, the reasons for diagnostic delay, and current screening practices for this disease. There are currently no formal guidelines in France. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The Danish Testicular Cancer database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daugaard G

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gedske Daugaard,1 Maria Gry Gundgaard Kier,1 Mikkel Bandak,1 Mette Saksø Mortensen,1 Heidi Larsson,2 Mette Søgaard,2 Birgitte Groenkaer Toft,3 Birte Engvad,4 Mads Agerbæk,5 Niels Vilstrup Holm,6 Jakob Lauritsen1 1Department of Oncology 5073, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 3Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 4Department of Pathology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 5Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 6Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Aim: The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database. The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. Study population: All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. Main variables and descriptive data: The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions

  3. A Hard Ball for a Tennis Player: A Rare Case of Large Calcifying Sertoli Cell Testicular Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Albisinni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 46 year old tennis player was addressed to our clinic after incidental finding of right testicular calcification on plain x-ray of the spine. Urologic consultation revealed a hard non-tender testicular mass which required inguinal orchiectomy. Final histology revealed large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor: we herein present the case and review current physiopathology of such rare testicular disease.

  4. Hypogonadism and fertility issues following primary treatment for testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Jan

    2015-09-01

    The majority of testicular cancer (TC) patients are cured and expected to live for decades after treatment, such that knowledge about hypogonadism and fertility issues is particularly important for the group of testicular cancer survivors (TCSs). Hypogonadism and fertility issues are related to treatment intensity. In order to give an overview about hypogonadism in testicular cancer survivors (TCSs) the literature was reviewed. Testicular dysfunction was defined as inadequate spermatogenesis, as reflected by increased levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and reduced fertility and/with or without insufficient testosterone (T) production with or without compensatory increased Luteinizing Hormone (LH) levels. Hypogonadism may lead to reduced sexual functioning and well-being, fertility problems, muscle weakness, loss of energy, and depression. Furthermore, hypogonadism also increases the risk of osteoporosis and is associated with the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The hypothesized "Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome" comprising low sperm counts, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and finally TC, probably contributes to hypogonadism independent of applied TC treatment. Recently, an increased risk of accelerated hormonal ageing has been reported in TCSs in the very long term, i.e. 20 years after TC treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Polypropylene mesh for testicular prothesis implantation: A report of 57 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jie; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Zong-min; Yu, Chun-xiao; Xia, Yong-qiang; Wang, Peng-fei

    2015-09-01

    To search for an optimum method for testicular prothesis implantation in the treatment of testis loss. We retrospectively analyzed the surgical methods and outcomes of 53 cases of terminal prostate cancer and 4 cases of unilateral testicular torsion treated by implantation of testicular prothesis with the polypropylene mesh. The 57 male patients all received testicular prothesis with the polypropylene mesh. All the patients were satisfied with the appearance and size of the scrotum after surgery. No scrotal hematoma, prosthesis infection, or autoimmune disease occurred postoperatively. Testis loss is not a rare condition clinically, for the treatment of which surgical implantation of testicular prothesis with the polypropylene mesh can achieve both a fine tissue compatibility and a desirable scrotal appearance.

  6. Testicular cancer among African American college men: knowledge, perceived risk, and perceptions of cancer fatalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, Barbara D; Ross, Louie; Wilkerson, Donoria; Brooks, Patrice; Cooper, Dexter

    2007-03-01

    African American men present at later stages of testicular cancer and have higher mortality rates than Caucasian men. Lack of awareness, beliefs, and access to care may influence this disparity. Guided by the Powe fatalism model, this comparative study assessed knowledge of testicular cancer, perceived risk, and cancer fatalism among African American and Caucasian men who attended selected colleges and universities. Data were collected using the Powe Fatalism Inventory, the Testicular Cancer Knowledge Survey, and the Perceived Cancer Risk Survey. The majority (n = 190) of men were African American (70%), and the remainder were Caucasian. African American men were significantly younger than Caucasian men. African American men also had lower testicular cancer knowledge scores, higher perceptions of cancer fatalism, and lower perceived risk for the disease. Rates of testicular cancer screening were low for all the men. Research should focus on further understanding the relationship between cancer fatalism and health-promoting behaviors among African American men.

  7. Testicular Cancer: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary L; Werntz, Ryan P; Eggener, Scott E

    2018-03-01

    There were an estimated 8720 new cases of testicular cancer (TC) in the United States in 2016. The cause of the disease is complex, with several environmental and genetic risk factors. Although rare, the incidence has been steadily increasing. Fortunately, substantial advances in treatment have occurred over the last few decades, making TC one of the most curable malignancies. However, because TC typically occurs in younger men, considerations of the treatment impact on fertility, quality of life, and long-term toxicity are paramount; an individualized approach must be taken with patients based on their clinical and pathologic findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between testicular microlithiasis, testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and history of ascending testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatiou Konstantinos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To prospectively determine the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in symptomatic patients who were referred for scrotal ultrasound examination and to evaluate the possible association of testicular microlithiasis with testicular cancer and other conditions such as cryptorchidism or history of ascending testis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 391 men who were referred to our institutions between July 2002 and May 2005 for any type of symptoms from the testicles, underwent physical and scrotal ultrasound examination. The presence of testicular microlithiasis, the number of lesions and the involvement of both testicles in relation to the symptoms as well as the coexistence of other lesions were studied. RESULTS: Eighteen (4.6% of 391 men enrolled into the study had testicular microlithiasis. Two out of the eighteen patients (11% had concomitant testicular cancer, which was confirmed by pathological evaluation of the orchidectomy specimen. One of the patients with testicular microlithiasis presented a rising in biochemical tumor markers (LDH, and HCG and underwent orchidectomy one year later. Five of the remaining 373 (1.3% patients without microlithiasis were diagnosed with testicular cancer. Thirty six men reported having a history of ascending testis, but none of them was found with testicular cancer. Two cases of testicular torsion in a cryptorchid position had testicular microlithiasis, but the orchidectomy specimen (after surgery was negative for testicular cancer. The correlation between testicular cancer and testicular microlithiasis found in our study was statistically significant (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: There seems to be an association between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer.

  9. Unusually Located Stroke After Chemotherapy in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Alexander Martinez MD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer is a type of malignancy that affects young adults and has high rates of cure; however, as any malignancy, it is associated with an increased risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease, given the systemic tumor effects or side effects of chemotherapy, which in turn increases morbidity, functional impairment, and additional risk of early death.

  10. The Monitoring of Preoperative External Detorsion with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in a Patient with Acute Testicular Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Beyazal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular torsion is one of the main causes of acute scrotum and may result in permanent damage of the testicular tissue. Color Doppler imaging has been frequently used in the diagnosis of testicular torsion and posttreatment follow-up period of the disease. There are some studies reporting the value and usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging in the diagnosis of testicular torsion. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report regarding the monitoring of preoperative external detorsion in testicular torsion with diffusion-weighted imaging examination. In this article, diffusion-weighted imaging findings in the management of preoperative external detorsion in a case with testicular torsion were presented.

  11. Cryptorchidism as part of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome: the environmental connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Skakkebaek, N E; Toppari, J

    2009-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is part of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), which includes other male reproductive disorders such as hypospadias, testis cancer and reduced semen quality. These diseases appear to be linked by common pathogenic mechanisms, interfering with normal fetal testis development...

  12. Cytogenetic abnormalities and clinical stage in testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, W E; van Echten-Arends, J; Oosterhuis, J W; de Jong, B; te Meerman, G J; Wiersema-Buist, J; Sleijfer, D T; Schraffordt Koops, H

    1993-01-01

    To study the impact of chromosomal abnormalities on the clinical behavior of testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (TNSGCTs), we compared the chromosomal constitution of primary tumors of patients who initially presented and remained without metastases to those with metastatic disease.

  13. [Testicular torsion: A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Gustavo; Bravo-Hernández, Alberto; Bautista-Cruz, Raúl

    The acute scrotum is an emergency. Testicular torsion represents approximately 25% of the causes. The annual incidence of testicular torsion is approximately 1/4,000 persons under 25 years, with highest prevalence between 12 and 18 years old. It usually occurs without apparent cause, but it has been associated with anatomical, traumatic, and environmental factors, among others. A male 15 year-old male, with no history of importance, was seen in the Emergency Department, presenting with a sudden and continuous pain in the left testicle. It was accompanied by a pain that radiated to the abdomen and left inguinal area, with nausea and vomiting of more than 12h onset. Doppler ultrasound showed changes suggestive of testicular torsion. Surgery was performed that showed findings of a necrotic left testicle with rotation of the spermatic cord of 360°. A left orchiectomy was performed. Testicular torsion should always be considered one of the leading causes of acute scrotal pain. Delays in diagnosis should be avoided as this is directly related to the percentage of testicular salvage or loss. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, J.M.; Overdorf, B.S. (Surgical Residency Program at Yale University, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1991-09-01

    Testicular torsion is caused by twisting of the spermatic cord, which results in compromised testicular blood flow. The degree of ischemic injury is determined by the severity of arterial compression and the interval between the onset of symptoms and surgical intervention. Torsion usually occurs at puberty, and an anatomic defect known as bell-clapper deformity is usually present. Typical symptoms include acute scrotal pain with associated nausea and vomiting. Up to one-half of patients report previous similar episodes. On examination, the testis is high-riding, tender, swollen and firm. Testicular scan or Doppler ultrasound examination can be helpful in distinguishing torsion from acute epididymitis. Prompt surgical treatment is indicated to reduce the torsion, and bilateral orchiopexy is performed to prevent recurrence. Exocrine function, as determined by semen analysis, is often abnormal after unilateral torsion. 25 references.

  15. Histopathological analysis of testicular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Karki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testicular cancers are rare in most countries. However, in many western countries its incidence has been increasing since the middle of the twentieth century. A definite geographic and racial distribution is seen in testicular tumors. The purpose of the study was to analyze the pattern and distribution of testicular cancers in one of the hospital in Nepal.Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study, in which cases were retrieved from the computer database between September 2006 and August 2011 in the department of Pathology. Pertinent data like age and histopathology of tumor were collected from the surgical pathology reports.Results: Testicular tumors were uncommon, comprising only 11.4% (8/70 cases of all testicular lesions. Most of these tumors (50% were seen between 4th and 5th decades. Germ cell tumors were the commonest tumors (62.5%, among which seminomas and mixed germ cell tumors were most frequently encountered, two cases each. Thirty percent of the biopsies consisted of undescended testis and none of them showed malignancy. Other tumors diagnosed were Non Hodgkin Lymphoma, leukemic infiltration and metastasis.Conclusion: Testicular tumors are uncommon in our population. As evident in other parts of the world, germ cell tumor was common in this study as well. However, unlike in Western population, no tumor was seen in undescended testis.Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2012 Vol. 2, 301-304DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i4.6883

  16. Kisspeptin-54 at high doses acutely induces testicular degeneration in adult male rats via central mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E L; Amber, V; Stamp, G W H; Patterson, M; Curtis, A E; Cooke, J H; Appleby, G F; Dhillo, W S; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Murphy, K G

    2009-02-01

    The kisspeptins are critical regulators of reproduction and a therapeutic target for reproductive disease. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or peripheral injection of kisspeptin potently stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis via gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). However, little is known regarding the effects of kisspeptin administration on testicular function. We investigated the mechanism(s) of kisspeptin-induced testicular degeneration in the rat. Kisspeptin-54 (50 nmol.day(-1)) was continuously administered subcutaneously (6 h to 3 days) to male Wistar rats and reproductive hormones and testicular histology analysed. We also investigated the effects of a single subcutaneous injection of 0.5, 5 or 50 nmol kisspeptin-54. In order to determine whether the testicular degeneration observed is peripherally or centrally mediated, we investigated effects of i.c.v. injections of 5 nmol kisspeptin-54 and pre-administered a GnRH-receptor antagonist (cetrorelix) to rats peripherally treated with kisspeptin-54. Continuous subcutaneous administration of kisspeptin-54 caused testicular degeneration after only 12 h, when gonadotrophins were still markedly raised, suggesting that the degeneration is independent of the desensitization of the HPG axis to kisspeptin-54. Furthermore, a single subcutaneous injection of kisspeptin-54 caused dose-dependent testicular degeneration. Continuous kisspeptin-54 administration is thus not required to cause testicular degeneration. Pretreatment with cetrorelix blocked kisspeptin-induced testicular degeneration, and a single i.c.v. injection of kisspeptin-54 caused testicular degeneration, suggesting it is GnRH-mediated. Kisspeptin-induced testicular degeneration appears to be centrally mediated, and result from acute hyper-stimulation of the HPG axis. Doses must be carefully considered if kisspeptin is to be used therapeutically.

  17. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Beard, Clair J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  18. Testicular teratoma with nephroblastoma component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasupa, Bill P; Aaberg, Randal A; Sutherland, Ronald S

    2007-07-01

    We report the development of Wilms' tumor in an atrophic testis and review the potential molecular pathogenesis. An 18-year-old man presented with 2 days of right testicular pain and growth in his atrophic testis. Ultrasonography revealed a heterogeneous mass. The chest radiographic findings and testicular tumor marker levels were normal. He underwent radical orchiectomy, with the pathologic examination showing teratoma with a nephroblastoma component, focal embryonal carcinoma, and minute yolk sac tumor. The development of Wilms' tumor in the testis is rare and can be explained by the activation of the WT1 gene during embryogenesis.

  19. Testicular torsion: Needless testicular loss can be prevented | Njeze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The risk of losing the testis is an ever present threat in patients with testicular torsion, who delay before presenting to the surgeon. A retrospective study was carried out to audit patients with acute scrotal pain who came to the Trans Ekulu Hospital Enugu, the promptness of offering them surgical treatment and ...

  20. A genome-wide association study of men with symptoms of testicular dysgenesis syndrome and its network biology interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Marlene D; Weinhold, Nils; Edsgard, Stefan Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background Testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) is a common disease that links testicular germ cell cancer, cryptorchidism and some cases of hypospadias and male infertility with impaired development of the testis. The incidence of these disorders has increased over the last few decades, and test...

  1. Polygenic susceptibility to testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litchfield, Kevin; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Shipley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) combined with its strong heritable basis suggests that stratified screening for the early detection of TGCT may be clinically useful. We modelled the efficiency of such a personalised screening approach, based on genetic r...

  2. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E

    2007-01-01

    alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have...

  4. Syndromic aspects of testicular carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutke-Holzik, MF; Sijmons, RH; Sleijfer, DT; Sonneveld, DJA; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM; van Echten-Arends, J; Hoekstra, HJ

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. In patients with hereditary or constitutional chromosomal anomalies, testicular carcinoma can develop sporadically or on the basis of an underlying hereditary genetic defect. Greater knowledge of these genetic defects would provide more insight into the molecular pathways that lead to

  5. Acute and intermittent testicular torsion: Analysis of presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Testicular torsion compromises the blood supply to the testes and may result in testicular loss or damage if not dealt with promptly. It can occur either as acute testicular torsion (ATT) or intermittent testicular torsion (ITT). This study examines the presentation, management, and outcome of adult testicular torsion.

  6. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF METACHRONOUS TESTICULAR CANCER: A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalpinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bilateral testicular cancer is 5% in the total cohort of patients. Synchronous and metachronous testicular cancers are detected in 1-2 and 3% of cases, respectively. The standard treatment for testicular cancer is orchifuniculectomy and that for synchronous or metachronous cancer is organ-saving treatment, testectomy.The paper describes a clinical case of multiple primary metachronous testicular cancer. A 24-year-old patient underwent surgery (orchifuniculectomy and received 4 courses of BEP polychemotherapy for embryonal carcinoma of the left testicle at the P.A. Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute. After 55 months, a dynamic control examination diagnosed a 9-mm tumor in his single right testis that was thereafter resected. Its histological examination revealed embryonal carcinoma with solitary structures in the immature teratoma. Following 22 months, a control examination showed a recurrence of the disease, for which orchifuniculectomy of the single right testis, followed by hormone replacement therapy, was performed. The follow-up period was 80 months; no recurrence is now observed.

  7. Impalpable Testicular Seminoma Identified on Sonoelastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Ghiraldi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of sonoelastography in diagnosing cancerous masses has increased since the advent of elastography as an ultrasound modality. Its ability to display differences in the mechanical properties of cancerous masses compared to normal surrounding tissue has shown benefit in increasing the accuracy of diagnosing malignant breast and thyroid masses and has shown early potential in accomplishing better targeted prostate biopsies. To date, the literature is limited in the number of studies describing the use of sonoelastography for testicular masses. We describe a 34-year-old man who presented with an incidental finding of an impalpable hypoechoic testicular mass on grayscale ultrasound during an infertility work-up. Sonoelastography was performed displaying intermediate testicular elastic properties. Upon frozen section of the mass during surgical exploration, classic testicular seminoma was diagnosed and subsequent radical orchiectomy was performed. We would like to use this atypical presentation of testicular seminoma to review the potential role of elastography for diagnosing testicular cancer.

  8. Case report: Traumatic unilateral testicular rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Natasha J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Testicular trauma is classified aetiologically as blunt, penetrating or degloving. Blunt testicular trauma, caused by interpersonal violence, sporting injuries and RTAs account for the majority of cases, typically affecting males aged 15–40 [1]. Approximately 98.5% of blunt trauma resulted in unilateral testicular injury; about 12–15% involving cyclists or motorcyclists (Cass and Luxenberg, 1988) [2]. Presentation of case: A 48-year-old male motorcyclist presented to the acci...

  9. Testicular Pain Associated With Minocycline Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kucherov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two males ages 16 and 23 years presented with new testicular pain while taking minocycline. Both patients experienced resolution of their symptoms only after minocycline discontinuation. Testicular pain with minocycline use has been previously described, however only in the setting of systemic autoimmune reactions (which were absent here. These cases represent probable rare adverse reactions to minocycline. For patients taking minocycline who experience otherwise unexplained testicular pain, a trial discontinuation of this medication should be considered.

  10. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue before long-term testicular cell culture does not alter in vitro cell dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, Yoni; Braye, Aude; Struijk, Robin B.; van Pelt, Ans M. M.; Goossens, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether testicular cell dynamics are altered during long-term culture after testicular tissue cryopreservation. Experimental basic science study. Reproductive biology laboratory. Testicular tissue with normal spermatogenesis was obtained from six donors. None. Detection and comparison of

  11. The Danish Testicular Cancer database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC......) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data...... collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. MAIN VARIABLES AND DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function...

  12. Usefulness of gallium-67 citrate scanning in testicular seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willan, B.D.; Penney, H.; Castor, W.R.; McGowan, D.G.

    1987-10-01

    An analysis of 77 consecutive patients with a histologic diagnosis of seminoma testis, assessed and treated at the Cross Cancer Institute between 1977 and 1982, is presented. Ga-67 citrate was first used in the assessment of patients with malignant testicular tumors in 1973. Following three years of study that supported the observation of the gallium-avid nature of seminoma, gallium scans became routine in the initial staging assessment and were used also when recurrence was suspected. From 1977 through 1982, 72 patients with biopsy-proven seminoma testis were assessed initially for extent of disease by Ga-67 scanning. Comparison with intravenous pyelography and bipedal lymphography was possible for accuracy of tumor assessment. The scan sensitivity was 83%, and the specificity was 95%. During the same period, gallium was studied in nonseminomatous testicular tumors but the results were disappointing and its use was discontinued. The gallium-avid nature of seminoma testis may be useful in determining the extent of disease.

  13. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue or testicular cell suspensions: a pivotal step in fertility preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofre, J; Baert, Y; Faes, K; Goossens, E

    2016-11-01

    Germ cell depletion caused by chemical or physical toxicity, disease or genetic predisposition can occur at any age. Although semen cryopreservation is the first reflex for preserving male fertility, this cannot help out prepubertal boys. Yet, these boys do have spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that able to produce sperm at the start of puberty, which allows them to safeguard their fertility through testicular tissue (TT) cryopreservation. SSC transplantation (SSCT), TT grafting and recent advances in in vitro spermatogenesis have opened new possibilities to restore fertility in humans. However, these techniques are still at a research stage and their efficiency depends on the amount of SSCs available for fertility restoration. Therefore, maintaining the number of SSCs is a critical step in human fertility preservation. Standardizing a successful cryopreservation method for TT and testicular cell suspensions (TCSs) is most important before any clinical application of fertility restoration could be successful. This review gives an overview of existing cryopreservation protocols used in different animal models and humans. Cell recovery, cell viability, tissue integrity and functional assays are taken into account. Additionally, biosafety and current perspectives in male fertility preservation are discussed. An extensive PubMED and MEDline database search was conducted. Relevant studies linked to the topic were identified by the search terms: cryopreservation, male fertility preservation, (immature)testicular tissue, testicular cell suspension, spermatogonial stem cell, gonadotoxicity, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The feasibility of fertility restoration techniques using frozen-thawed TT and TCS has been proven in animal models. Efficient protocols for cryopreserving human TT exist and are currently applied in the clinic. For TCSs, the highest post-thaw viability reported after vitrification is 55.6 ± 23.8%. Yet, functional proof of fertility restoration in the

  14. TESTICULAR CANCER AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-02-02

    Feb 2, 2000 ... differentiated tumours(13). Up to 90% of patients with testicular germ cell cancer will have elevated alpha fetoprotein (AFP) or beta human chorionic gonadotrophin. (B-hCG)(14). ... that patients with cryptochirdism have 3-46 fold increased incidence of testicular cancer(18). Furthermore 5-10% of patients ...

  15. EAU guidelines on testicular cancer: 2011 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Peter; Albrecht, Walter; Algaba, Ferran; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Cohn-Cedermark, Gabriella; Fizazi, Karim; Horwich, Alan; Laguna, Maria Pilar

    2011-01-01

    On behalf of the European Association of Urology (EAU), guidelines for the diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up of testicular cancer were established. This article is a short version of the EAU testicular cancer guidelines and summarises the main conclusions from the guidelines on the management of

  16. Early Life Events Predict Adult Testicular Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Roger J; Doherty, Dorota A; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    ). Consistent height above the 50th percentile for age through childhood was associated with larger adult mean testicular volume (P ... = .003) in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to maternal smoking and higher cord blood estrogens at delivery were associated with a reduced sperm output in adulthood. Optimal adult testicular function depends on being born at or above average weight, and maintaining optimal growth and adiposity...

  17. Histopathologic pattern of neoplastic testicular and paratesticular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present study is undertaken to describe the spectrum of histopathological features and age distribution of neoplastic testicular and paratesticular lesions in the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective descriptive study of 14 testicular and paratesticular neoplastic ...

  18. Surviving testicular cancer: : sexuality & other existential issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Grietje

    2003-01-01

    The thesis deals with the psychological aspects of ‘sexuality after testicular cancer’, where my collegue, the physician dr. Van Basten formerly predominantly described the physical-biological aspects of this subject. Testicular cancer is a type of male genital cancer, usually diagnosed between

  19. Bilateral Variations of the Testicular Vessels: Embryological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The testicular veins originate from the pampiniform plexus that is formed by the union of small veins from the testis and epididymis. The pampiniform plexus surrounds the testicular artery to proceed cranially and unites to form two or three venous trunks at the level of the deep inguinal ring. At the lumbar region, the venous ...

  20. Teenage testicular torsion. | Onuigbo | International Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To study testicular torsion in teenagers in the Igbo community. Method: A retrospective study was carried out as regards requests for pathological examination of specimens received at a Regional Reference Laboratory based in Enugu. Results: Over a period of 30 years, 28 surgical specimens of testicular torsion in ...

  1. Right paratesticular abscess mimicking neonatal testicular torsion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    U.O. Ezomike

    Abstract. The clinical presentation of neonatal paratesticular abscess may closely resemble that of, neonatal testicular torsion and the use of scrotal ultrasonography to differentiate the two has low, sensitivity. We propose early operative treatment of suspected neonatal testicular torsion to salvage, the testicle in cases of ...

  2. Testicular microlithiasis: Case report and literature review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [1] Dogra SV, Gottlieb RH, Rubens DJ, Liao L. Benign intratesticular cystic lesions: US features. Radiographics 2001;21:S273–81. [2] Gooding GA, Leonhardt W, Stein R. Testicular cysts: US findings. Radi- ology 1987;163:537–8. [3] Hamm B, Fobbe F, Loy V. Testicular cysts: differentiation with US and clinical findings.

  3. Phthalate excretion pattern and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2012-01-01

    In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function.......In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function....

  4. Little effects of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I on testicular atrophy induced by hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casares Amelia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I supplementation restores testicular atrophy associated with advanced liver cirrhosis that is a condition of IGF-I deficiency. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of IGF-I in rats with ischemia-induced testicular atrophy (AT without liver disease and consequently with normal serum level of IGF-I. Methods Testicular atrophy was induced by epinephrine (1, 2 mg/Kg intra-scrotal injection five times per week during 11 weeks. Then, rats with testicular atrophy (AT were divided into two groups (n = 10 each: untreated rats (AT receiving saline sc, and AT+IGF, which were treated with IGF-I (2 μg.100 g b.w.-1.day-1, sc. for 28d. Healthy controls (CO, n = 10 were studied in parallel. Animals were sacrificed on day 29th. Hypophyso-gonadal axis, IGF-I and IGFBPs levels, testicular morphometry and histopathology, immuno-histochemical studies and antioxidant enzyme activity phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx were assessed. Results Compared to controls, AT rats displayed a reduction in testicular size and weight, with histological testicular atrophy, decreased cellular proliferation and transferrin expression, and all of these alterations were slightly improved by IGF-I at low doses. IGF-I therapy increased signifincantly steroidogenesis and PHGPx activity (p Conclusion In testicular atrophy by hypoxia, condition without IGF-I deficiency, IGF-treatment induces only partial effects. These findings suggest that IGF-I therapy appears as an appropriate treatment in hypogonadism only when this is associated to conditions of IGF-I deficiency (such as Laron Syndrom or liver cirrhosis.

  5. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI elastography of testicular disorders in dogs: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the use of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI elastography in the evaluation of testicular disorders in dogs. Eighteen dogs with testicular disorders (thirty-six testicles were assessed. Echotexture, size, contours and margins of testes were analysed by ultrasonography. Deformities and tissue stiffness (greyscale and homogenous or heterogeneous were evaluated by qualitative elastography and shear velocity was determined quantitatively. Subsequent to orchiectomy, testicular samples were collected for histopathology analysis and thirty-six disorders were identified. Qualitative elastography revealed that normal healthy testicular tissues were homogenous and not pliable while the affected testicles had alterations in tissue stiffness and homogeneity. The values obtained for quantitative elastography of the testicular tissues were: normal/healthy - 1.30±0.12 m/s; degenerated - 0.97±0.08 m/s; atrophied - 2.00±0.35 m/s; hypoplastic - 0.82±0.2 m/s; cystic - 1.32±0.18 m/s; orchitis - 2.68±0.42 m/s; interstitial cell tumours - 3.32±0.65 m/s; sertolioma - 2.99±0.07 m/s and leydigoma - 2.73±0.37. ARFI elastography of abnormal testes proved to be an applicable and complementary technique in the diagnosis of testicular disease in dogs.

  6. Case Report - Bilateral synchronous testicular germ cell tumours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral testicular tumours are rare, and 80% of bilateral tumours are metachronous. The incidence of testicular tumours is high in cryptorchidism. Synchronous bilateral testicular tumours are rare, and bilateral synchronous testicular tumours in bilateral cryptorchidism extremely rare, probably not reported previously.

  7. Primary Testicular Lymphoma In Nigerian Males: Case Report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma In Nigerian Males: Case Report and Clinicopathological Review. ... A review of cases of primary testicular lymphoma seen within a period of twelve years at the OAUTHC Nigeria was carried out. Three cases of primary testicular ... Key Words: testicular, lymphoma, Non- Hodgkin Nigerian ...

  8. Accuracy of Prader orchidometer in measuring testicular volume

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-21

    Oct 21, 2012 ... Background: Seminiferous tubules comprise 80-90% of testicular mass. Thus, the testicular volume is believed to be an index of spermatogenesis. Therefore, accurate testicular volume is one way to assess testicular function. Objective: To determine the accuracy of Prader orchidometer for measuring the ...

  9. Acute and intermittent testicular torsion: Analysis of presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-18

    Nov 18, 2015 ... Background: Testicular torsion compromises the blood supply to the testes and may result in testicular loss or damage if not dealt with promptly. It can occur either as acute testicular torsion (ATT) or intermittent testicular torsion (ITT). This study examines the presentation, management, and outcome of adult ...

  10. Unusual termination of the right testicular vein | Woldeyes | Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The testicular veins are formed by the veins emerging from the testis and epididymis forming the pampiniform venous plexus. The right testicular vein drains into inferior vena cava and the left testicular vein to the left renal vein. Testicular veins display a great variability with regard to their number, course and sites of ...

  11. Testicular sparing surgery in small testis masses: A multinstitutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Galosi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of benign testicular tumors is increasing in particular in small lesion incidentally found at scrotal ultrasonography. Primary aim of this study was to perform radical surgery in malignant tumor. Secondary aim was to verify the efficacy of the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway recently adopted in management of small masses with testis sparing surgery in benign lesions. Materials and methods: In this multicenter study, we reviewed all patients with single testis lesion less than 15 mm at ultrasound as main diameter. We applied the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway described by Sbrollini et al. (Arch Ital Urol Androl 2014; 86:397 which comprises: 1 testicular tumor markers, 2 repeated scrotal ultrasound at the tertiary center, 3 surgical exploration with inguinal approach, intraoperative ultrasound, and intraoperative pathological examination. Definitive histology was reviewed by a dedicated uro-pathologist. Results: Twenty-eight patients completed this clinical flowchart. The mean lesion size was 9.3 mm (range 2.5-15. Testicular tumor markers were normal except in a case. Intraoperative ultrasound was necessary in 8/28 cases. We treated 11/28 (39.3% with immediate radical orchiectomy and 17/28 (60.7% with testis-sparing surgery. Definitive pathological results were: malignant tumor in 6 cases (seminoma, benign tumor in 10 cases (5 Leydig tumors, 2 Sertoli tumors, 1 epidermoid cyst, 1 adenomatoid tumor, 1 angiofibroma, benign disease in 11 (8 inflammation with haemorragic infiltration, 2 tubular atrophy, 1 fibrosis, and normal parenchyma in 1 case. We observed a good concordance between frozen section examination and definitive histology. Any malignant tumor was treated conservatively. Any delayed orchiectomy was necessary based on definitive histology. Conclusions: The incidence of benign lesions in 60% of small testis lesions with normal tumor markers makes orchiectomy an overtreatment. Testicular sparing surgery of single

  12. Testicular microlithiasis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Brough, Stephen J S; de Ryke, Rex J

    2003-05-01

    Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a rare condition in which men have innumerable testicular calcifications. It is increasingly being reported on ultrasound. The published literature has reported an association between confirmed testicular malignancy and testicular microlithiasis. The relationship between TM and the risk of developing malignancy is unclear. The present paper reports a patient with a previously normal scrotal ultrasound except for bilateral sonographically detected TM who developed a testicular tumour. It also discusses the appropriate management of TM after reviewing the published literature.

  13. Stage 1 testicular seminoma; Seminomes testiculaire de stade 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, E.; Champetier, C.; Zaccariotto, A.; Duberge, T. [Departement de radiotherapie, hopital de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France); Pointreau, Y. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hpital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Chauvet, B. [Institut Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France)

    2010-07-01

    Testicular cancer is rare, representing only 1 % of malignant tumors, but the most common cancer in young men, 15 to 35 years. Adjuvant radiotherapy after orchidectomy in testicular seminoma stage I, reduces risk of relapse. It aims to eradicate micro-metastatic disease in lymph drainage territories. In the case of adjuvant radiotherapy, the relapse-free survival of 96 % with an overall survival of 98 % at 5 years. The irradiation volume is made up of lymph nodes paraaortic which it is possible to add the ipsilateral renal hilum to the testicular lesion. The current recommended dose is 20 Gy in 10 fractions and 2 weeks, usually delivered by two antero-posterior beams. The acute toxicities, mainly represented by nausea and diarrhea are usually quickly resolved to the end of irradiation. Regarding toxicities long-term, preservation of semen should be considered after surgery because of fear of infertility post-treatment. The risk of second cancer associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, albeit small, is especially important to consider these patients to significant life expectancy. Nevertheless, developments in radiotherapy techniques and lower doses and irradiated volumes can probably reduce this risk further. (authors)

  14. Testicular cancer: addressing the psychosexual issues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Annamarie

    2012-01-31

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men aged 15-35 years and predominantly occurs at a time in a man\\'s life when important decisions about marriage, starting a family and a professional career are being made. While treatments for testicular cancer are very successful, they can have a major impact on the person\\'s sexuality and sense of self. The focus of this article is on exploring the impact of cancer treatments for testicular cancer on men\\'s sexuality and how nurses can respond to their concerns in a sensitive and informed manner.

  15. Testicular ultrasensitive Doppler preliminary experience: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher, Laurence; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Ferlicot, Sophie; Criton, Aline; Albiges, Laurence; Izard, Vincent; Bellin, Marie France; Correas, Jean-Michel

    2018-03-01

    Background Ultrasensitive Doppler is a novel non-invasive ultrasound (US) Doppler technique that improves sensitivity and resolution for the detection of slow flow. Purpose To investigate the feasibility of ultrasensitive Doppler (USD) for testicular disease diagnosis, using both qualitative and quantitative results. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted in 160 successive men referred for scrotal US including B-mode and conventional Color-Doppler. A new USD sequence and algorithm dedicated to academic research were implemented into the US system. The quality criterion for a successful examination was the detection of well delineated intratesticular vessels. Qualitative USD results were described in terms of tumor vascular architecture and flow intensity for different pathologies for 41 patients. The testicular vascularization (TV), defined as a vessel's surface ratio, was quantified using customized MATLAB® software and compared in azoospermic and normal patients. Results USD was acquired successfully in 153/160 patients (95.6%). The tumor vascular architecture differed depending on the nature of the tumors. Leydig cell tumors exhibited mostly circumferential vascularization, while germ cell tumors exhibited straight vessels through the tumors, or anarchic vascular maps. USD improved the diagnostic performance of testicular Doppler US in a case of incomplete spermatic cord torsion and acute epididymitis. The reproducibility of TV measurements established an interclass correlation of 0.801. Non-Klinefelter syndrome non-obstructive azoospermia patients exhibited a lower TV compared to normal patients, to Klinefelter syndrome, and to obstructive azoospermia patients ( P < 0.002, P < 0.005, and P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion Testicular USD can become a promising technique for improving US diagnosis of tumors, acute scrotum, and for determining infertility status.

  16. Testicular Damage following Testicular Sperm Retrieval: A Ram Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Fedder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible development of histological abnormalities such as fibrosis and microcalcifications after sperm retrieval in a ram model. Fourteen testicles in nine rams were exposed to open biopsy, multiple TESAs, or TESE, and the remaining four testicles were left unoperated on as controls. Three months after sperm retrieval, the testicles were removed, fixed, and cut into 1/2 cm thick slices and systematically put onto a glass plate exposing macroscopic abnormalities. Tissue from abnormal areas was cut into 3 μm sections and stained for histological evaluation. Pathological abnormalities were observed in testicles exposed to sperm retrieval (≥11 of 14 compared to 0 of 4 control testicles. Testicular damage was found independently of the kind of intervention used. Therefore, cryopreservation of excess sperm should be considered while retrieving sperm.

  17. Testicular myeloid sarcoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Beatriz Ribeiro Zago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary solid tumors composed of immature granulocytic precursor cells. In association with acute myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders, they may arise concurrently with compromised bone marrow related to acute myeloid leukemia, as a relapsed presentation, or occur as the first manifestation. The testicles are considered to be an uncommon site for myeloid sarcomas. No therapeutic strategy has been defined as best but may include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study reports the evolution of a patient with testicular myeloid sarcoma as the first manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. The patient initially refused medical treatment and died five months after the clinical condition started.

  18. Cadmium-induced testicular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Erica R; Mruk, Dolores D; Porto, Catarina S; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn(2+) and/or Ca(2+) mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.

  19. Surviving testicular cancer: the Lebanese lived experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohammad; Noureddine, Samar; Abu-Saad Huijer, Huda; Dejong, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer is thought to have a great impact on its survivors, yet there has been limited literature on the topic globally and no literature on the topic in Lebanon and the Arab region. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of Lebanese testicular cancer survivors and gain an in-depth understanding of the psychosexual aspect of their experience. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach with semistructured digitally recorded interviews and observational field notes was utilized. A purposive sample of Lebanese testicular cancer survivors, aged between 18 and 50 years, in remission for at least 3 years, and willing to share personal information was recruited. Interviews were transcribed verbatim in Arabic. Data saturation was achieved at the seventh interview; a total of eight informants were recruited. The opening question was, "Tell me about your life since you got treated for testicular cancer," and was followed by probing questions. Two to three weeks after the initial interview, informants were called to validate the investigators' primary analysis. Six core themes emerged: cancer perception in the Lebanese culture; "do not show, do not tell"; cancer experience is a turning point; fertility, manhood, and relationships; coping with cancer; and preserved aspects of life. The findings provide an in-depth understanding of the experience of Lebanese testicular cancer survivors with a focus on the psychosexual aspect of this experience. The results suggest the need to educate patients about testicular cancer and its effect on their fertility.

  20. Testicular organoids: a new model to study the testicular microenvironment in vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Lopes, João Pedro; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd

    2017-12-21

    In recent decades, a broad range of strategies have been applied to model the testicular microenvironment in vitro. These models have been utilized to study testicular physiology and development. However, a system that allows investigations into testicular organogenesis and its impact in the spermatogonial stem-cell (SSC) niche in vitro has not been developed yet. Recently, the creation of tissue-specific organ-like structures called organoids has resurged, helping researchers to answer scientific questions that previous in vitro models could not help to elucidate. So far, a small number of publications have concerned the generation of testicular organoids and their application in the field of reproductive medicine and biology. Here, we aim to elucidate whether testicular organoids might be useful in answering current scientific questions about the regulation and function of the SSC niche as well as germ cell proliferation and differentiation, and whether or not the existing in vitro models are already sufficient to address them. Moreover, we would like to discuss how an organoid system can be a better solution to address these prominent scientific problems in our field, by the creation of a rationale parallel to those in other areas where organoid systems have been successfully utilized. We comprehensively reviewed publications regarding testicular organoids and the methods that most closely led to the formation of these organ-like structures in vitro by searching for the following terms in both PubMed and the Web of Science database: testicular organoid, seminiferous tubule 3D culture, Sertoli cell 3D culture, testicular cord formation in vitro, testicular morphogenesis in vitro, germ cell 3D culture, in vitro spermatogenesis, testicular de novo morphogenesis, seminiferous tubule de novo morphogenesis, seminiferous tubule-like structures, testicular in vitro model and male germ cell niche in vitro, with no restrictions to any publishing year. The inclusion

  1. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, Lamya; Blettner, Maria; Hammer, Gael P; Zeeb, Hajo, E-mail: yousif@imbei.uni-mainz.d [Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 69, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated. (review)

  2. Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Lamya; Blettner, Maria; Hammer, Gaël P; Zeeb, Hajo

    2010-09-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated.

  3. Histological evidence of testicular dysgenesis in contralateral biopsies from 218 patients with testicular germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    dysgenesis, microscopic dysgenetic features were quantified in contralateral testicular biopsies in patients with a testicular germ cell tumour. Two hundred and eighty consecutive contralateral testicular biopsies from Danish patients with testicular cancer diagnosed in 1998-2001 were evaluated...... retrospectively. Two hundred and eighteen specimens were subsequently included in this study, after 63 patients who did not meet inclusion criteria had to be excluded. The presence of carcinoma in situ (which is believed to originate from transformed gonocytes) was detected in 8.7% of biopsies. The incidence...... patients, areas with immature and morphologically distorted tubules were also noted. Spermatogenesis was qualitatively normal in 51.4%, whereas 11.5% had very poor or absent spermatogenesis. It is concluded that microscopic testicular dysgenesis is a frequent feature in contralateral biopsies from patients...

  4. Public awareness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination in academic environments: a lost opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry A. A. Ugboma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although testicular cancer is the most common cancer among 18- to 50-year-old males, healthcare providers seldom teach testicular self-examination techniques to clients, thus potentially missing opportunities for early detection. This form of cancer is easily diagnosable by testicular self-examination and is 96% curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Knowledge deficits and sociocultural norms contribute to low levels of health-related knowledge in most patients, resulting in undue delays before seeking medical advice. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to assess the level of awareness of testicular cancer and the prevalence of the practice of testicular self-examination in academic environments to enable appropriate interventions. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 750 consecutive males aged 18-50 years in three tertiary institutions in Port Harcourt from October 2008 to April 2009. RESULT: Knowledge or awareness of testicular cancer was poor. Almost all of the respondents were unaware that testicular lumps may be signs of cancer. A lump was typically construed as a benign carbuncle or something that could resolve spontaneously. The main factor contributing to respondents' lack of knowledge of testicular cancer was that few reported that they were "ever taught about testicular self-examination." CONCLUSION: Young adult men are unaware of their risk for testicular cancer, which is the most common neoplasm in this age group. Healthcare providers are not informing them of this risk, nor are they teaching them the simple early detection technique of self-examination of the testes.

  5. Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors in a Patient with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olpin, Jeffrey Dee; Witt, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia refers to a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by a deficiency of an enzyme involved in the synthesis of glucocorticoids. The enzyme deficiency generally leads to a deficiency of cortisol and/or aldosterone production within the adrenal cortex. The lack of glucocorticoids generally leads to elevated levels of plasma corticotropin (ACTH), which often results in adrenal hyperplasia. Testicular adrenal rest tumors may develop in males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to overstimulation of aberrant adrenal cells within the testes. Recognition of this disease entity is essential when evaluating young males with testicular masses. PMID:24967019

  6. A rare case report of bilateral testicular masses as an initial manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic, systemic disease that rarely involves the genitourinary tract. Here, we present a case of a 40-year-old male presented with bilateral scrotal swelling. The scrotal ultrasound showed multiple echogenic masses bilaterally ranging between 3 mm and 15 mm involving both testicles. Enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes were detected on the abdominal computed tomography (CT. Surgical exploration of the testes with a frozen section analysis of the left testicular mass was carried out, and it revealed noncaseating granulomas. CT scan of the chest revealed the classic bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy with reticulonodular infiltrates. The final pathological diagnosis was systemic sarcoidosis with bilateral testicular involvement. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids resulted in complete resolution of the testicular mass and a significant decrease in the size of the hilar, mediastinal, and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy.

  7. Metastatic Testicular Cancer to Left Atrium via the Left Inferior Pulmonary Vein: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital Vachhani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in young men. Frequent sites of metastasis include the retroperitoneum, lungs, liver, brain, and bone. Intracardiac metastasis has also been described. An 18-year-old boy with a history of mixed testicular germ cell tumor presented to our institution for surgical resection of his metastatic disease. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography during his surgery confirmed a tumor thrombus into the left atrium coming from the left pulmonary vein. We report a case of metastatic testicular cancer with rare tumor extension from the left inferior pulmonary vein into the left atrium. Perioperative transesophageal echocardiography was necessary to aid intraoperative diagnosis and confirmation of the intracardiac tumor, providing data to guide surgical strategy.

  8. Low success rate of salvage surgery for testicular torsion in newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rie Overgaard; Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Rasmussen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Testicular torsion within the first 30 days of life is rare. The treatment is controversial, and the prognosis for testis viability varies from 0 to 40% in the literature. The aim of this study was to review our institutional results for surgery for testicular torsion in the neonatal...... period with a special focus on salvage surgery. METHODS: Patient records were reviewed for all children in the age up to 30 days who were operated for testicular torsion at our hospital during the past 20 years. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients were included, two with bilateral affection. Emergency...... was only salvaged in cases with urgent surgery at symptom recognition. Cases that presented within the first day of life resulted in a non-salvageable testis despite emergency surgery. The reason may be prenatal torsion. Doctor's delay was common for this rare disease. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL...

  9. L-[1-carbon-11]tyrosine imaging of metastatic testicular nonseminoma germ-cell tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, AC; Hoekstra, HJ; Sleijfer, DT; Nieweg, OE; Vaalburg, W; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether PET with L-[1-C-11]tyrosine (TYR) can be used to visualize metastatic disease of nonseminoma testicular germ-cell tumors and to monitor the effect of systemic cisplatinum-based polychemotherapy in a noninvasive fashion to reduce the number of

  10. Testicular Sperm Sampling by Subcapsular Orchiectomy in Klinefelter Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Gravholt, Claus H.; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate subcapsular orchiectomy as a method to retrieve spermatozoa from minute testicular foci in men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). METHODS: Fourteen men with KS were consecutively recruited to unilateral subcapsular orchiectomy. Testicular tissue was dissected mechanically...

  11. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    For testicular cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test. Review the limited evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for testicular cancer using ultrasound, physical examination, and self-examination in this expert-reviewed summary.

  12. Testicular seminoma metastasis to duodenum. Misdiagnosed as primary duodenal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hashim Al Ani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: High index of suspicion for testicular seminoma must be raised when treating young males with GIT complications like hemorrhage. Testicular seminoma is the most common solid tumor at this age. Sometimes it is the cause behind this complication.

  13. Perinatal testicular torsion: literature review and local experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IUTT) and postnatal testicular torsion (PTT). IUTT includes cases of vanished testis and testicular mass presenting at birth. Controversies exist regarding the need for urgent exploration and contralateral orchiopexy. The aim of this study is to ...

  14. Perinatal testicular torsion: literature review and local experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IUTT) and postnatal testicular torsion (PTT). IUTT includes cases of vanished testis and testicular mass presenting at birth. Controversies exist regarding the need for urgent exploration and contralateral orchiopexy. The aim of this study is to ...

  15. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: possible role of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Asklund, Camilla; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2006-01-01

    The testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis proposes that the four conditions cryptorchidism, hypospadias, impaired spermatogenesis and testis cancer may all be manifestations of disturbed prenatal testicular development. The TDS hypothesis is based on epidemiological, clinical and molecu......The testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis proposes that the four conditions cryptorchidism, hypospadias, impaired spermatogenesis and testis cancer may all be manifestations of disturbed prenatal testicular development. The TDS hypothesis is based on epidemiological, clinical...

  16. Microgravity effect on testicular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Esposito, R; Galdieri, M

    2004-07-01

    In mammals spaceflight influences spermatogenesis since spermatogonial germ cell proliferation, compared to synchronous controls, is lightly decreased in irradiated or flown rats. Moreover, changes of the plasmatic testosterone production was described either in flight rats, or in rats maintained in simulated microgravity conditions. The hormonal levels of the astronauts change as it has been previously described, including hormones involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis such as testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH). In microgravity conditions, human testosterone levels decreased whereas circulating LH levels increased. To study the effect of simulated microgravity on mammalian spermatogenesis we have utilized the Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS) and we have cultured testicular fragments isolated from prepuberal rats in a chemically defined medium for three days under microgravity conditions. As control we have cultured the same amount of fragments at unit gravity. The morphology of the samples has been studied and the number of proliferating cells has been counted in control samples and in samples maintained in RCCS. The results indicate that the number of duplicating cells in the tubules was significantly increased in the microgravity-cultured fragments. The amount of testosterone secreted in the culture medium has been also evaluated and in RCCS samples the amount of the hormone was higher respect to the control samples.

  17. A Testicular Leydig Cell Tumor with Azoospermia; Re-visited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    Leydig tumor is relatively a rare testicular tumor but the most common non-germ cell gonadal tumor. It constitutes about. 1-3% of all testicular tumors. Clinically, it is usually presented as a testicular mass or with endocrine symptoms, which include gynecomastia, increased sex hormone levels, and other correlated symptoms ...

  18. TESTICULAR TUMORS IN PORT HARCOURT (A ten-year review)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    testicular tumors.12 '. RESULTS. A'total of twelve testicular tumours were reviewed. The yOungest patient was 3 years old while the oldest was. 48 years old. I. Table 1 ... 66.7% preschool age group and drivers had 16.7% each. Table I : Age distribution of; patients with testicular tumours. Age group Number Percent in years.

  19. β-Tocopherol (vitamin E) attenuates the testicular toxicity associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    days after cryptorchidism induction, bilateral testicular weight, bilateral testicular volume, bilateral caudal epididymal sperm characteristics, bilateral testicular histology and serum hormone levels were all tested. Most of the above parameters were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in Groups B and C compared to Group A. The ...

  20. Case Report: A Testicular Leydig Cell Tumor with Azoospermia; Re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leydig tumor is relatively a rare testicular tumor but the most common non-germ cell gonadal tumor. It constitutes about 1-3% of all testicular tumors. Clinically, it is usually presented as a testicular mass or with endocrine symptoms, which include gynecomastia, increased sex hormone levels, and other correlated symptoms.

  1. Case series on testicular torsion: an educational emergency for sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    305 records ... Testicular torsion remains a common surgical emergency of adolescent males presenting with sudden onset of intense scrotal pain in Africa. While the magnitude of testicular torsion is not known it has been identified as a cause of male infertility. Testicular loss in Africa is directly related to delay in surgery and ...

  2. Factors Influencing Rate of Testicular Salvage in Acute Testicular Torsion at a Tertiary Pediatric Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra, Puneeta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have demonstrated that variables other than duration of symptoms can affect outcomes in children with acute testicular torsion. We examined demographic and logistical factors, including inter-hospital transfer, which may affect outcomes at a tertiary pediatric referral center. Methods: We reviewed charts of all pediatric patients with acute testicular torsion during a five-year period. Data were collected regarding age, insurance type, socioeconomic status, duration of symptoms prior to presentation, transfer status, time of day, time to surgical exploration, and testicular salvage. Results: Our study included 114 patients. Testicular salvage was possible in 55.3% of patients. Thirty-one percent of patients included in the study were transferred from another facility. Inter-hospital transfer did not affect testicular salvage rate. Time to surgery and duration of pain were higher among patients who underwent orchiectomy versus orchidopexy. Patients older than eight years of age were more likely to undergo orchidopexy than those younger than eight (61.5% vs. 30.4%, p=0.01. Ethnicity, insurance type, or time of day did not affect the testicular salvage rates. On multivariate analysis, only duration of symptoms less than six hours predicted testicular salvage (OR 22.5, p<0.001. Conclusion: Even though inter-hospital transfer delays definitive surgical management, it may not affect testicular salvage rates. Time to presentation is the most important factor in predicting outcomes in children with acute testicular torsion. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:190–194.

  3. The natural history of Leydig cell testicular tumours: an analysis of the National Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, G J; Redmond, E J; Considine, S W; Omer, S I; Power, D; Sweeney, P

    2017-07-19

    Leydig cell tumour (LCT) of the testis is a rare histological subtype of stromal tumours, accounting for 1 to 3% of testicular neoplasms. The natural history of LCT is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and natural history of Leydig cell tumours (LCT) of the testes. A search of the National Cancer Registry of Ireland database was performed regarding Leydig cell testicular tumours. Recurrence free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were analysed. Between 1994 and 2013, 2755 new cases of testicular cancer were diagnosed in Ireland. Of these, 22 (0.79%) were Leydig cell tumours. Nineteen were invasive (stage T1) and three were in situ (stage Tis). One patient developed a local recurrence following an organ preserving procedure and underwent a completion orchidectomy 107 days after initial diagnosis. No further treatment was required. There have been no disease-specific deaths. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 95.5, 88.2 and 73.3%, respectively. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 100% and the 5-year recurrence free survival (RFS) was 93.3%. From the National Cancer Registry, LCT has been shown to be a rare subtype of testicular tumour. Due to the relatively favourable natural history, it may be possible to tailor less aggressive surveillance regimens in these patients.

  4. Comet assay on mice testicular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar

    2015-01-01

    for germ cell mutagens (Speit et al., 2009). The in vivo Comet assay is considered a useful tool for investigating germ cell genotoxicity. In the present study DNA strand breaks in testicular cells of mice were investigated. Different classes of chemicals were tested in order to evaluate the sensitivity...... of the comet assay in testicular cells. The chemicals included environmentally relevant substances such as Bisphenol A, PFOS and Tetrabrombisphenol A. Statistical power calculations will be presented to aid in the design of future Comet assay studies on testicular cells. Power curves were provided...... with different fold changes in % tail DNA, different number of cells scored and different number of gels (Hansen et al., 2014). An example is shown in Figure 1. A high throughput version of the Comet assay was used. Samples were scored with a fully automatic comet assay scoring system that provided faster...

  5. A Diagnostic Dilemma: Metastatic Testicular Cancer and Systemic Sarcoidosis – A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gupta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease that most commonly involves the lungs and the lymph nodes, but with genitourinary tract involvement, can easily mimic testicular cancer with metastasis to the lungs. We describe the case of a 30-year-old African-American male who presented with complaints of a headache, skin lesions, and a scrotal mass. A computed tomography scan of the head showed lesions in the frontotemporal and pons region, causing obstructive hydrocephalus. An ultrasound of the scrotum showed an enlarged epididymis bilaterally as well as a solid hypoechoic ill-defined mass on the right side, separate from the intact testis. Given the high suspicion for testicular malignancy with brain metastasis, a right orchiectomy was completed. The pathology revealed non-caseating necrotizing granulomas that stained negative for tubercular and fungal organisms, which was consistent with sarcoidosis. Additionally, the patient’s skin and central nervous system (CNS lesions improved on steroids that had been started for cerebral edema. Given the predilection of testicular cancer for CNS metastasis, neurosarcoidosis can also be mistaken for testicular cancer metastasis to the CNS, as seen in our case. Differentiating testicular cancer from genitourinary sarcoidosis is difficult but can be clarified using a combination of clinical presentation, epidemiology, serum markers (ACE, AFP, B-HCG, biopsies from skin/lymph nodes, and sometimes imaging. It is critical to differentiate genitourinary sarcoidosis from malignancy, as a misdiagnosis can lead to unnecessary surgical interventions, which have important implications for future fertility. There can also be a coexistence of as well as an association between testicular cancer and sarcoidosis, which should be recognized by health care providers. Both authors contributed equally to the manuscript.

  6. Long-term results of adjuvant irradiation or surveillance in stage I testicular seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Tsuneharu; Nonomura, Norio [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Saiki, Shigeru; Kotake, Toshihiko

    1998-07-01

    Excellent treatment results are obtained for stage I testicular seminoma treated with orchiectomy and prophylactic radiotherapy. In patients with stage I nonseminomatous testicular tumors, surveillance alone is successful, however, this treatment option for stage I testicular seminomas is controversial. There have been few reports of long-term follow-up of surveillance alone for patients with stage I testicular seminoma. To assess the appropriateness of this treatment option, a retrospective survey of stage I testicular seminoma was undertaken. Twenty-seven patients who underwent prophylactic radiation therapy (RT group) and 41 patients followed only by surveillance (S group) after high orchiectomy were evaluated. Their follow-up consisted of frequent clinical examinations, abdominal CT scans, chest x-rays and serum tumor markers. In the RT group, with a median follow-up period of 15 years, 1 patient (3.6%) had a recurrence in the lung at 4 months after orchiectomy and died, but the remaining 26 are alive with no evidence of disease (NED). In the S group, with a median follow-up period of 7.3 years, 5 (12.2%) relapsed in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, but all are alive with NED following chemotherapy. The remaining 36 are all alive without recurrence (follow-up period, 38 to 132 months). Although the relapse rate in the S group was relatively higher than in the RT group, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. If a frequent follow-up protocol is administered and followed by the patient, surveillance alone may be a recommended management for stage I testicular seminoma. (author)

  7. Bilateral variations of renal and testicular arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurses IA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The variations of the arteries that develop from the mesonephric arteries – including renal, gonadal and suprarenal arteries – are common. Understanding the anatomy of the vascular variations of this region is essential for the clinicians to perform procedures such as renal transplantation, interventional radiologic procedures and renal vascular operations more safely and efficiently. In order to facilitate the clinical approaches, we present a male cadaver with bilateral double renal arteries accompanied with doubled right testicular arteries and a left testicular artery of high origin, and we discuss the surgical, radiologic and possible embryologic aspects.

  8. Association of Torsion With Testicular Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguz, Sami; Yilmaz, Sercan; Guragac, Ali; Topuz, Bahadır; Aydur, Emin

    2016-02-01

    Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that usually requires surgical exploration. However, testicular malignancy has been anecdotally reported with the association of torsion in surgical specimens, and the published data remain scant on the association of torsion with testicular tumors. By retrospective medical record review, we identified 32 patients who had been diagnosed with testicular torsion, 20 of whom had undergone orchiectomy. Of these 20 patients, 2 were diagnosed with a malignancy. Our study, the largest case series to date, has shown an association between testicular torsion and testicular cancer of 6.4%. Testicular torsion is a medical emergency that usually requires surgical exploration. However, testicular malignancy has been anecdotally reported in association with torsion in surgical specimens. However, the published data remain scant on the association between torsion and the presence of testicular tumors. The present retrospective study explored the association between torsion and testicular cancer in patients with testicular torsion undergoing orchiectomy during scrotal exploration. A medical record review was performed of patients who had had a diagnosis of testicular torsion from January 2003 to February 2015. The clinicopathologic characteristics of the patients were recorded. A total of 32 patients were identified. Their mean age was 21.1 years (range, 7-39 years). All the patients had unilateral testicular torsion, which affected the left side in 17 and the right side in 15. Manual detorsion was successful in 6 patients, and 26 patients underwent emergency surgery with testicular detorsion (6 fixation surgery and 20 orchiectomy). The type of incision was scrotal in 6, inguinal in 10, and unspecified in 4. Pathologic examination of the orchiectomy specimens showed malignancy in 2 cases (seminoma and malign mixed germ cell tumor). To the best of our knowledge, the present single-center case series is the largest case series to date of

  9. Tuberculous orchitis mimicking a testicular tumor: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Dayal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year old man presented with 5 months history of left scrotal mass and had underwent left orchidectomy following a presumptive diagnosis of testicular tumour. Histopathological diagnosis of testicular tuberculosis was subsequently made, which revealed a case of isolated TB orchitis. It signifies that the careful evaluation of patients with testicular mass is extremely significant for diagnostic accuracy, optimal treatment and avoiding unnecessary surgery in case of testicular tuberculosis. Simultaneously it will also help in early detection of testicular malignancies and vital for the clinicians to avoid negligence charges.

  10. Testicular microlithiasis in paediatric age; Microlitiasis testiculares en la edad pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanguesa, C.; Muro, D.; Dominguez, C. [Hospital Infantil La Fe. Valencia (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the eco graphic patters of testicular microlithiasis (TM) in paediatric age, its associations, clinical implications and how to manage them. We study four children between 11 and 13 years old with testicular microlithiasis. The echographic study is realized with a 7.5 Mhz linear probe. Two of the cases present bilateral microlithiasis. In five of the testicles, the presentation fits the pattern of classic testicular microlithiasis (CTM) ({>=} 5 echogenic foci per transducer field) and one testicle presents limited testicular microlithiasis (< 5 echogenic foci per transducer field). Distribution in the case of CTM is diffuse in two testes, peripheral in another two testicles and central in one of them. In one of the bilateral presentations, a biopsy of both testes is performed, observing intra tubular calcification in both. None of them has developed a tumor during the follow-up period, which ranges from nine months to four years. (Author) 21 refs.

  11. Fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with cryopreserved testicular spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J; Remohí, J; Mínguez, Y; Rubio, C; Pellicer, A; Gil-Salom, M

    1996-04-01

    To assess the possibility of cryopreserving testicular tissue extracted sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A report of two cases. Our study was approved by the Ethical Committee at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Two azoospermic patients with severe spermatogenic failure but with focal spermatogenesis on testicular biopsies. In both cases, a first ICSI attempt with fresh testicular biopsy extracted sperm was unsuccessful. Cryopreservation of testicular spermatozoa in 100-micro L "pills." Intracytoplasmic sperm injection with thawed testicular spermatozoa. Fertilization rate, cleavage rate, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy. Fertilization rates were 36 percent and 100 percent after ICSI with fresh testicular spermatozoa, and 63 percent and 57 percent after ICSI with cryopreserved testicular sperm. In both cases, cleavage rates and embryo quality were similar when using fresh and cryopreserved testicular spermatozoa. No clinical pregnancies were achieved. High fertilization rates can be obtained after ICSI with frozen-thawed testicular tissue extracted spermatozoa. Cryopreservation of testicular sperm may avoid repetition of testicular biopsies in azoospermic patients in whom the only source of spermatozoa is the testicle.

  12. Bilateral extracorporeal testicular ectopia: An extremely rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B.M. Abubakar

    2015 Pan African Urological Surgeons' Association. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Introduction. Extracorporeal testicular ectopia is very rare. It is also referred to as scrotoschisis [1]. The few cases described in the literature mostly refertounilateralscrotoschisis.Theactualetiologyoftheanomalyis.

  13. Abrogation by human menopausal gonadotropin on testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer cells including testicular cancer. Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (HMG) is a natural hormone necessary for human reproduction. This hormone is a leading modality of treatment for infertility as it contains equal amount of ...

  14. Simultaneous acute appendicitis with right testicular torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a child with both acute appendicitis and torsion of the right testis presenting at the same time. Testicular torsion possibly occurring due to vomiting in acute appendicitis so far has not been reported in the literature.

  15. Testicular Cancer Survivorship : Research Strategies and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, Lois B.; Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of

  16. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  17. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Transverse Testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inguinal side. The opposite scrotum is empty. PMDS with. TTE is rare. We report a case of PMDS with TTE discovered during surgery for a right inguinal hernia in a 25-year-old male. Key words: Mullerian inhibiting factor, persistent. Mullerian duct syndrome, transverse testicular ectopia. Address for correspondence: Dr. P.

  18. Primary testicular failure in Klinefelter's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of androgen deficiency is based on clinical features and confirmatory low serum testosterone levels. In early primary testicular failure, a rise in serum LH levels suggests inadequate androgen action for the individual's physiological requirements despite a serum testosterone level ...

  19. Case report: Traumatic unilateral testicular rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha J.G. Bauer

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Emergency assessment and diagnosis as well as scrotal exploration are important components of the management of acute testicular rupture. Analysis of the literature proves that timely surgical intervention is crucial; early intervention results in higher rates of preservation and avoids the need for an orchidectomy.

  20. Testicular Vasculitis: A Sonographic and Pathologic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Dixit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little has been published about single-organ vasculitis of the testicle in the radiological literature. Consequently, it is a diagnosis that is unfamiliar to most radiologists. This case report describes the sonographic, pathologic, and laboratory findings of testicular vasculitis and reviews the available literature with regard to this subject.

  1. Bilateral Variations of the Testicular Vessels: Embryological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral Variations of the Testicular Vessels: Embryological Background and Clinical Implications. Yogesh Diwan, Rikki Singal1, Deepa Diwan, Subhash Goyal1, Samita Singal2, Mausam Kapil1. Department of Anatomy, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, 1Surgery and 2Radiology, Maharishi Markandeshwer Institute ...

  2. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and Leydig cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Jørgensen, Niels; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    originating in early foetal life. TDS comprises various aspects of impaired gonadal development and function, including testicular cancer. A growing body of evidence, including animal models and research in human beings, points to lifestyle factors and endocrine disrupters as risk factors for TDS. We present...

  3. Review: Environmental endocrine disruptors of testicular function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last 50 years the incidence of infertility, testicular and prostate cancers and associated maladies has increased significantly. Infertility now affects 15-20% of couples as opposed to 7-8% fifty years ago. Average sperm counts among adult men have decreased by 50% since 1938, with a decline of 2% every year from ...

  4. Misdiagnosed Adult Testicular Torsion: Case Report | Ndaguatha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult testicular torsion is thought to be rare if not relatively unusual. The rarity could be an underestimation since there are many episodes of missed torsions and misdiagnosis with other conditions of acute scrotum despite the now widespread ultra sound availability that are being reported in the literature. Such a ...

  5. Study of intra testicular regulations of spermatogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of intra testicular regulations of spermatogenesis differentiation by ex-vivo approach. A Adaika, B Barenton, P Durand. Abstract. The aim of this work is to study the regulation of intratesticular during spermatogenesis ex vivo. To highlight the progress of spermatogenesis ex vivo, we developed two cell culture systems ...

  6. TESTICULAR TORSION: CASE REPORT R. T. KUREMU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-05-05

    May 5, 2004 ... Possible precipitating factors in testicular torsion include cold, exercise, sexual fore play, abnormal position during sleep or sitting, sudden closing of thighs, trauma, tight pants, coughing and defection(2). Early diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. Even though the clinical features of torsion are typical, the.

  7. The Correlation between Ultrasound Testicular Volume and Conventional Semen Parameters in Albanian Subfertile Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Kristo

    2014-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Testicular volume has a direct correlation with semen parameters and the critical total testicular volume indicating normal testicular function is approximately 26.6 ml (the mean testicular volume 13.3 ml. The measurement of testicular volume can be helpful for assessing fertility at the initial physical examination.

  8. EAU guidelines on testicular cancer: 2011 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Peter; Albrecht, Walter; Algaba, Ferran; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Cohn-Cedermark, Gabriella; Fizazi, Karim; Horwich, Alan; Laguna, Maria Pilar

    2011-08-01

    On behalf of the European Association of Urology (EAU), guidelines for the diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up of testicular cancer were established. This article is a short version of the EAU testicular cancer guidelines and summarises the main conclusions from the guidelines on the management of testicular cancer. Guidelines were compiled by a multidisciplinary guidelines working group. A systematic review was carried out using Medline and Embase, also taking Cochrane evidence and data from the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group into consideration. A panel of experts weighted the references, and a level of evidence and grade of recommendation were assigned. There is a paucity of literature especially regarding longer term follow-up, and results from a number of ongoing trials are awaited. The choice of treatment centre is of the utmost importance, and treatment in reference centres within clinical trials, especially for poor-prognosis nonseminomatous germ cell tumours, provides better outcomes. For patients with clinical stage I seminoma, based on recently published data on long-term toxicity, adjuvant radiotherapy is no longer recommended as first-line adjuvant treatment. The TNM classification 2009 is recommended. These guidelines contain information for the standardised management of patients with testicular cancer based on the latest scientific insights. Cure rates are generally excellent, but because testicular cancer mainly affects men in their third or fourth decade of life, treatment effects on fertility require careful counselling of patients, and treatment must be tailored taking individual circumstances and patient preferences into account. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Testicular cancer and HPV semen infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGarolla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer represents the more frequent solid tumour affecting males aged 15-35 years.In the last decades, its incidence showed a progressive increased probably due to genetic and environmental factors. Despite exposure to some viruses such as HIV, HCV, EBV and HPV is frequently related to cancer development, there are no studies aimed to evaluate the possible implication of viral infections in the pathogenesis of testicular cancer. In this study we analyzed sperm parameters and prevalence of HPV on sperm in 155 testicular cancer patients at diagnosis (T-1, after orchiectomy (T0 and after 12 months from surgery or from the end of adjuvant treatments (T12. All patients showed a significantly higher prevalence of semen infection than controls (9.5% and 2.4% respectively and altered sperm parameters both at T-1 and T0. Considering sperm parameters, at T-1 we observed a reduction of progressive motility, and after orchiectomy patients showed a reduction of sperm concentration and count and a further worsening of motility. Thereafter, patients were assigned to three groups on the basis of medical option after surgery: S = surveillance, R = radiotherapy and C = chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy. At T12, untreated patients had an improvement of sperm parameters while R group and even more C group had a strong decrease of sperm number (p<0.01 both vs T0 and S group. Moreover, patients who received radio and/or chemotherapy had a very high prevalence of HPV semen infection (S: 7.7%, R: 30.8% and C: 61.5%. In conclusion, patients with testicular cancer had frequently altered sperm parameters and higher prevalence of HPV semen infection that were worsened after radio and chemotherapy. Because HPV infection is a risk factor for cancer development and it may further reduce fertility, we suggest screening for HPV in testicular cancer patients at diagnosis and particularly after adjuvant treatments.

  10. Testicular cancer and HPV semen infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garolla, Andrea; Pizzol, Damiano; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Ghezzi, Marco; Carraro, Umberto; Ferlin, Alberto; Foresta, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the more frequent solid tumor affecting males aged 15-35 years. In the last decades, its incidence showed a progressive increased probably due to genetic and environmental factors. Despite exposure to some viruses such as HIV, HCV, EBV, and HPV is frequently related to cancer development, there are no studies aimed to evaluate the possible implication of viral infections in the pathogenesis of testicular cancer. In this study, we analyzed sperm parameters and prevalence of HPV on sperm in 155 testicular cancer patients at diagnosis (T-1), after orchiectomy (T0) and after 12 months from surgery or from the end of adjuvant treatments (T12). All patients showed a significantly higher prevalence of semen infection than controls (9.5% and 2.4% respectively,) and altered sperm parameters both at T-1 and T0. Considering sperm parameters, at T-1 we observed a reduction of progressive motility, and after orchiectomy patients showed a reduction of sperm concentration and count and a further worsening of motility. Thereafter, patients were assigned to three groups on the basis of medical option after surgery: S = surveillance, R = radiotherapy, and C = chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy. At T12, untreated patients had an improvement of sperm parameters while R group and even more C group had a strong decrease of sperm number (p HPV semen infection (S = 7.7%, R = 30.8%, and C = 61.5%). In conclusion, patients with testicular cancer had frequently altered sperm parameters and higher prevalence of HPV semen infection that were worsened after radio and chemotherapy. Because HPV infection is a risk factor for cancer development and it may further reduce fertility, we suggest screening for HPV in testicular cancer patients at diagnosis and particularly after adjuvant treatments.

  11. Characteristics of symptomatic men with testicular microlithiasis - A Danish cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, M R; Møller, H; Rafaelsen, S R; Jørgensen, M M B; Osther, P J; Vedsted, P

    2017-05-01

    Testicular microlithiasis (TML) is an incidental finding at ultrasonography of the scrotum. A link between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer has been suggested. However, the majority of studies are retrospective using ultrasonography with minor data on health status and life style characteristics. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle and health are associated with TML. In 2014, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey including 1538 men, who all due to testicular/scrotal symptoms had an ultrasound investigation of the scrotum during 2004-2013. The men were divided into men with TML and men without. The 23-items questionnaire included items on age, height, weight, lifestyle (alcohol consumptions, smoking habits, workload, exercise and food), previous diseases in the testicles, pain and consumption of analgesics. The prevalence of TML was 12.8%. Overall, lifestyle factors did not vary between men with or without TML. However, men with TML did consume more crisp than men without. Development of TML was not associated to classic life style factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking habits, or mothers smoking during pregnancy. Also, age and height could not be linked to presence of TML. We did find, however, that men with TML experienced less physical activity and consumed more crisp than men without TML. Since ingestion of crisps has potential carcinogenic effect (acrylamide), this finding needs confirmation in a separate study. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  12. [A retrospective study on Icelandic men diagnosed with non-seminomatous testicular cancer 1971-1995.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, R; Gudbjartsson, T; Magnusson, K; Gudlaugsson, E; Bjornsson, S; Einarsson, G V

    1997-07-01

    Survival of patients with testicular cancer has changed dramatically over the last two decades. This is mainly related to more successful chemotherapy, using combinations of drugs including cisplatinum. Therapy with cisplatinum was started in 1978 in Iceland. The survival of Icelandic men with non-seminoma testicular cancer, before and after this change in therapy, is not known. Therefore a retrospective population-based study was carried out on all Icelandic males diagnosed with non-seminoma testicular cancer between 1971 and 1995. Fifty-seven males with an average age of 29.1 years (range 17-52) were included in the study. Clinical information was obtained from the Icelandic Cancer Registry and hospital records. All specimens were reexamined by a pathologist and the modified staging system of Boden and Gibb was used for staging the disease. Crude survival was evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Age standardized incidence for non-seminoma testicular cancer was 1.8 / 100,000 males per year for the whole period. Among the 57 patients, testicular swelling (93%) and pain (56%) were the most common symptoms at diagnosis. All 57 patients underwent orchiectomy, and 37 received chemotherapy as well. The most common histological type was embryonal carcinoma (44%) and average tumor diameter was 4.3 cm with a range of 1-12 cm. Tventy-six (51%) patients had stage I disease at diagnosis but 10 (17%) had stage IV. Crude five and 10 year survival for the whole group was 85% and 83%. From 1971 to 1977 the crude five year survival was 36% but 98% for the period 1978-1995. In December 1995 seven (64%) of 11 patients diagnosed between 1971-1977 have died of the disease. On the other hand only two patients (4%) diagnosed after 1977 have died as of december 1995. One because of acute myelogenic leukemia, nearly seven years after diagnosis of testis cancer. The other died of teratocarcinoma 12 months after diagnosis despite intensive chemotherapy including cisplatinum. Survival of

  13. Beneficial value of testicular sperm extraction-AgarCyto in addition to the standard testicular biopsy for diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumors in nonobstructive azoospermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, M.L.; Ramos, L.; D'Hauwers, K.W.M.; Braat, D.D.M.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether immunohistochemical detection of germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) in AgarCytos, made of the remnants of the testicular sperm extraction (TESE) specimen, is equally accurate as in a standard testicular biopsy. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study performed between January

  14. Association of testicular echogenicity, scrotal circumference, testicular volume and testosterone concentration in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry D.M. Ayala

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ayala H.D.M., Ribeiro H.F.L., Rolim Filho S.T., Silva E.V.C. & Vale W.G. Association of testicular echogenicity, scrotal circumference, testicular volume and testosterone concentration in buffaloes. [Associação entre a ecogenicidade, circunferência escrotal, volume testicular e concentração de testosterona em búfalos.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:334-340, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciencia Animal, Universidade Federal do Pará, Rua Augusto Corrêa 1, Campus Universitário do Guamá, Belém, PA 66075-110, Brazil. E-mail wm.vale@hotmail.com This article aimed to discuss the changes in the testicular parenchyma, analyzed by the use of ultrasonography, and correlates them with the testicular biometric parameters and testosterone concentration in crossed Murrah x Mediterranean buffaloes. Nineteen buffaloes, with initial ages between 11 and 59 months,were submitted to fortnightly collections of semen for a period of six months. At each collection the testicular biometry and testicular echogenicity were evaluated as well as blood samples were also collected to measure the plasma testosterone levels. The data were submitted to analysis of variance by the GLM procedure, considering the age group fixed effect. The average data obtained were compared by the Duncan test, at 5% significance. There was a significant growth (P<0.05 of the scrotal circumference, which varied from 12.88±0.51 cmto 31.18±0.75 cm among animals aged 12 to 60 months, as well as testicular volume, which ranged from 30.28±17.37 to 611.96±38.69 cm³ among the animals. The echogenic intensity of the testicular parenchyma varied in pixels from 78.67±6.36 to 109.24±3.13 in animals aged 12 to 60 months respectively. In the animals with ages between 12 and 19 months was observed levels of testosterone considered being low, whereas in the animals from 20 to 21 months there was a progressive increase in the testosterone levels, which

  15. A Rare Complication of Brucellosis: Testicular Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Gul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella species. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This case was a male patient who developed Brucella epidiymo-orchitis and testicular abscess. He had fever, arthralgia and his right epididymis and right testicle were enlarged and tender. Ultrasound evaluation showed hypertrophy of the right epididymis and testis and moreover hypoechoic area within the testis. Brucella serology was positive and the patient did not respond completely to treatment with streptomycin, doxycycline, and rifampicina. Unilateral orchidectomy was decided. In areas where brucella infection is endemic brucella epididymo-orchitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Effective and rapid treatment is important. It should be noted that these patients may develop testicular abscess.

  16. Paradoxical sleep deprivation changes testicular malondialdehyde and caspase-3 expression in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitranto Arjadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sleep deprivation is a significant problem among adult men and is considered as a risk factor for several diseases. Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD induces Leydig cell apoptosis through elevation of corticosterone, with testicular malondialdehyde (MDA and Leydig cell caspase-3 expression as parameters. The aim of this study was to observe testicular MDA level and caspase-3 expression treated with paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, immobilization, and footshock stress and to determine the stress model with a significant effect in white male rats (Rattus norvegicus . METHODS This experimental randomized study of posttest only with control group design was conducted on 24 white male Wistar strain rats, randomly allocated into four treatment groups, i.e. control (K1 without any stress treatment, PSD (KII, immobilization (KIII, and footshock stress (KIV. Treatments were given for 25 days to produce chronic stress. Testicular MDA concentration was examined by the ELISA method while caspase-3 was examined by the TUNEL method. RESULTS Mean testicular MDA concentration with one-way ANOVA test showed differences in means between the groups (p=0.000 and post hoc Tukey-HSD test showed significant results between PSD stress group versus control, immobilization and footshock stress groups. One-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference in caspase-3 expression in at least two treatment groups (p=0.008 and post-hoc Tuckey-LSD test showed significant differences between controls and all stress groups. CONCLUSION Sleep deprivation is a type of stress inducing changes in testicular MDA concentration and caspase-3 expression in male rat testes.

  17. Value of Supraregional Multidisciplinary Review for the Contemporary Management of Testicular Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purshouse, Karin; Watson, Robert A; Church, David N; Richardson, Charlotte; Crane, Gemma; Traill, Zoe; Sullivan, Mark; Roberts, Ian; Browning, Lisa; Turner, Gareth; Parameshwaran, Vishnu; Johnson, Joseph; Chitnis, Meenali; Protheroe, Andrew; Verrill, Clare

    2017-02-01

    Testicular cancers are an uncommon and highly curable group of tumors that are typically managed by specialist multidisciplinary teams (MDTs). Although recent guidelines have emphasized the importance of tumor prognostic factors in predicting recurrence and personalizing therapy in early-stage disease, the role of central pathology review in determining these factors is unclear. We compared the referral histopathology reports with those obtained after expert central review for all cases reviewed by the UK Thames Valley Cancer Network testicular tumor MDT from August 2004 to September 2012. For cases in which the findings differed, we recorded the effect of the alteration on the estimates of patient prognosis and predicted clinical management using international (European Society of Medical Oncology [ESMO]) and local guidelines. The histopathology reports were altered after central review in 129 of 465 cases (27.7%) referred to the testicular tumor MDT during the study period. These resulted in changes in the estimation of prognosis for 42 patients (9.0% total), with a predicted affect on management according to the ESMO guidelines in 30 cases (6.5%). These proportions were broadly similar for both seminoma and nonseminoma, although the reasons for the discrepancies differed between the 2 (principally errors in categorization of rete testis invasion in seminoma and of lymphovascular invasion in nonseminoma). Changes to the tumor type were uncommon (2 cases). Central MDT review results in frequent, clinically relevant alterations to testicular tumor histopathology reports for testicular tumors. The results of our study demonstrate the importance of specialist MDTs to inform patient-centered care and ensure best practice in the management of these uncommon cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Rare Cause of Testicular Metastasis: Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Nesip Manav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic testicular cancers are rare. Primary tumor sources are prostate, lung, and gastrointestinal tract for metastatic testicular cancers. Metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC to the testis is extremely rare. Two-thirds of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC is of invasive stage at diagnosis and metastatic sites are the pelvic lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone. We report a rare case of metastatic UTUC to the testis which has not been reported before, except one case in the literature. Testicular metastasis of UC should be considered in patients with hematuria and testicular swelling.

  19. Perspectives on testicular germ cell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Lyu, Bingjian; Roth, Lawrence M

    2017-01-01

    Our knowledge of testicular germ cell neoplasms has progressed in the last few decades due to the description of germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) and a variety of specific forms of intratubular germ cell neoplasia, the discovery of isochromosome 12p and its importance in the development of invasiveness in germ cell tumors (GCTs), the identification of specific transcription factors for GCTs, and the recognition that a teratomatous component in mixed GCT represents terminal differentiation. Isochromosome 12p and 12p overrepresentation, collectively referred to as 12p amplification, are fundamental abnormalities that account for many types of malignant GCTs of the testis. Embryonal carcinoma is common in the testis but rare in the ovary, whereas the converse is true for mature cystic teratoma. Spermatocytic tumor occurs only in the testis; it has not been described in the ovary or extragonadal sites. The origin of ovarian mature cystic teratoma is similar to that of prepubertal-type testicular teratoma and dermoid cyst at any age in that it arises from a nontransformed germ cell, whereas postpubertal-type testicular teratoma arises from a malignant germ cell, most commonly through the intermediary of GCNIS. Somatic neoplasms, often referred to as monodermal teratomas, arise not infrequently from mature cystic teratoma of the ovary, whereas such neoplasms are rare in testicular teratoma with the exception of carcinoid. Integration of classical morphologic observations and emerging novel molecular studies will result in better understanding of the pathogenesis of GCTs and will optimize patient therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Danish Testicular Cancer database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    , lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC...

  1. Cryopreservation of canine ovarian and testicular fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Il-Jeoung; Leibo, S P; Songsasen, Nucharin; Dresser, Betsy L; Kim, In-Shik

    2009-01-01

    To derive a practical procedure to store canine somatic cells, fibroblasts isolated from testicular or ovarian tissues were cryopreserved in 1.2 M ethylene glycol or in 1.2 M dimethylsulfoxide prepared in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium as cryoprotectants, and were frozen either in plastic straws or vials. Thawed cells were cultured for 24 hr at 38.5 degree C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 percent CO2 95 percent air, and then their membrane integrity was assayed with a double fluorescent stain, Fertilight. In addition, frozen-thawed fibroblasts were cultured for 4 days, and then their functional survival was measured after staining small colonies with trypan blue. After freezing and thawing, membrane integrity of testicular fibroblasts was 55-70 percent and functional survival ranged from 20-40 percent. With frozen-thawed ovarian cells, the average membrane integrity was 55-75 percent and the average functional survival was 35-40 percent. When frozen in ethylene glycol, functional survival of ovarian fibroblasts was significantly higher than that of testicular cells (P less than 0.05). These methods should prove useful to preserve cells collected from canids in the wild.

  2. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  3. Testicular Cancer Presenting as Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Salazar-Mejía

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer is the most common solid malignancy affecting males between the ages of 15 and 35. The symptomatology caused by this tumor varies according to the site of metastasis. We present the case of a 26-year-old male who arrived to the emergency department with hematemesis. He had no previous medical history. On arrival, we noted enlargement of the left scrotal sac. There was also a mass in the left scrotum which provoked displacement of the penis and right testis. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 17,090 ng/mL, lactate dehydrogenase was 1480 U/L, and human chorionic gonadotropin was 287.4 IU/mL. Upper endoscopy revealed a type 1 isolated gastric varix, treated with cyanoacrylate. A CT scan showed extrinsic compression of the portal vein by lymphadenopathy along with splenic vein partial thrombosis, which caused left-sided portal hypertension. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was started with etoposide and cisplatin, and seven days later the patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. A postoperative biopsy revealed a pure testicular teratoma. Noncirrhotic left portal hypertension with bleeding from an isolated gastric varix secondary to metastasic testicular cancer has not been described before. Clinicians must consider the possibility of malignancy in the differential diagnosis of a young man presenting with unexplained gastrointestinal bleeding.

  4. Doppler sonographic findings in testicular microlithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Serter

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to compare the resistive index (RI values, which is a parameter of testicular parenchymal perfusion, in testicular microlithiasis (TM cases and normal cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 2179 volunteers, all healthy men (17-42 years of age from the Annual Army Reserve Officer Training Corps training camp were included in the study. A screening scrotal ultrasound was performed and all men diagnosed with TM underwent a scrotal Doppler ultrasonography scan (US. US examinations were performed for subjects with TM and without TM as a control group and RI was determined. RESULTS: 53 men with TM were identified in the 2179 US. Spectral Doppler examination was applied to 50 randomly selected cases (100 testicles without TM and 92 testicles with TM, 39 cases (78 testicles with bilateral and 14 cases with unilateral involvement. However, 48 normal testicles (17 bilateral and 14 unilateral and 47 testicles with TM (15 bilateral and 17 unilateral, 10 of which were cases with bilateral TM where flow from the centripetal artery could be obtained and analyzed were included in the statistical analysis for resistive indices. There was no significant difference regarding the RI and spectral examinations between subjects with and without TM. An interesting finding was the twinkling artifact observed in three cases. CONCLUSION: Microliths did not alter the RI values and thus had no influence on testicular perfusion on Doppler US examination.

  5. Work ability of survivors of breast, prostate, and testicular cancer in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindbohm, M-L; Taskila, T; Kuosma, E

    2012-01-01

    Cancer can cause adverse effects on survivors' work ability. We compared the self-assessed work ability of breast, testicular, and prostate cancer survivors to that of people without cancer. We also investigated the association of disease-related and socio-demographic factors and job-related reso......-related resources (organizational climate, social support, and avoidance behavior) with work ability and looked at whether these associations were different for the survivors and reference subjects....

  6. The metabolic syndrome and disturbances in hormone levels in long-term survivors of disseminated testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuver, J; Smit, AJ; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Sluiter, WJ; Hoekstra, HJ; Sleifer, DT; Gietema, JA

    2005-01-01

    Purpose The metabolic syndrome may be an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in long-term survivors of testicular cancer (TC). We investigated the associations between hormone levels and the metabolic syndrome in these men. Patients and Methods We included TC patients cured by

  7. Morphological Pattern of Testicular Biopsies in Zaria, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infertility is an established social problem in Nigeria where women have always been blamed for by the society. This serious issue necessitated this review of morphologic patterns of testicular biopsies. Method: This study was a five-year retrospective histopathological analysis of testicular biopsies sent for ...

  8. Testicular tuberculosis in an HIV positive patient mimicking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B.A. Ojo

    Abstract. With the upsurge of tuberculosis infection compounded by the pandemic Human Immune Deficiency Virus. (HIV), isolated testicular tuberculosis though a rarity, should be a differential diagnosis especially in the atypical age group of patients presenting with testicular swelling and in areas with high prevalence rate ...

  9. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: mechanistic insights and potential new downstream effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharpe, R.M.; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive disorders of newborn (cryptorchidism, hypospadias) and young adult males (low sperm counts, testicular germ cell cancer) are common and/or increasing in incidence. It has been hypothesized that these disorders may comprise a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) with a common origin...

  10. The practice of testicular self examination: a comparative study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of testicular cancer and of self examination was found to be low in both groups. Both groups, though, showed high general health awareness and a perception that the benefits of self examination would be great. It is recommended that knowledge of testicular cancer and the value of self examination should ...

  11. Cytogenetics of testicular germ cell tumors of adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Echten, J; de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    In this article, not intended to be a review of the literature, we present our view about the oncogenesis, pathogenesis and tumor progression of testicular germ cell tumors of adults. This view is based on our cytogenetic analyses df primary testicular germ cell tumors (seminomas and non-seminomas),

  12. testicular artery arising from an aberrant right renal artery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2017-08-17

    Aug 17, 2017 ... Correspondence to Dr. Emmanuel Henry Suluba, Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine,. Muhimbili University of Health and ... vein, left colic artery and the descending colon. Both right and left testicular arteries as ... anatomy of the vessels such as testicular arteries, ovarian arteries, renal arteries and.

  13. Undetectable inhibin B serum levels in men after testicular irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Andersson, A M; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    A group of men treated with testicular irradiation for carcinoma in situ in the remaining testis after orchidectomy for unilateral testicular germ cell cancer was used as a model to study of the effect of selective eradication of germ cells on the levels of serum inhibin B in the human male. Thir...

  14. Transverse Testicular Ectopia with Bilateral Pyocoele: Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    its embryology and management in brief, and review the previously reported cases. Key words: Crossed testicular ectopia, transverse testicular ectopia, tunica vaginalis sac. Department of General Surgery, Vardhman Mahavir Medical. College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India with right inguinal hernia with clinical ...

  15. The effect of unilateral vasectomy on testosterone and testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Discipline of Clinical Anatomy, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal,. Private Bag X54001, Durban, South Africa. ... on testicular histology, testosterone and seminal parameters in the AGR. Methods .... Flickinger et al.24 since there is an association between testicular changes and serum ...

  16. Testicular and related size evaluations in Nigerian Sahel goats with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A stratified quota sample population of 125 male goats inclusive of all testicular sizes was taken at a slaughterhouse in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The bucks were aged 18-30 months and weighed 17.04 ± 2.99 (12-25) kg. Body, testicular and epididymal weights of each goat with other related size measurements were estimated.

  17. Testicular Biopsies of Azoospermic Men at The Lagos State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... histological findings from testicular biopsies in azoospermic men seen at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja - Lagos, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of testicular biopsies of azoospermic men who presented to our institution from 2005 to 2006 was performed. The patient's age, type of ...

  18. Effect of Pinealectomy and Blindness on Alcohol Induced Testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Bilateral but not unilateral blindness reduces sperm count, sperm motility and testicular lipid peroxidation following ethanol exposure. Whereas pinealectomy increases testicular lipid peroxidation, and decreases sperm count and motility following ethanol exposure in rats. Keywords: Pineal gland, Pinealectomy, ...

  19. Relationship of testicular development with age, body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to measure the development of several testicular characteristics and to investigate the relationship between testicular parameters with body growth, semen characteristics and serum testosterone levels in growing ram lambs. Seventeen single born Kivircik ram lambs from three to four year old ewes ...

  20. Reversal of experimental varicocele-induced testicular toxicity by L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    testicular volumes, caudal epididymal sperm characteristics, testicular histology and serum hormone levels were evaluated. Results showed that the testes of the rats that were given vitamin C post experimental varicocele had better physiological, biochemical and histological profiles than those of the untreated animals.

  1. Ghrelin modulates testicular damage in a cryptorchid mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekelheide, Kim; Sigman, Mark; Hall, Susan J.; Hwang, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Cryptorchidism or undescended testis (UDT) is a common congenital abnormality associated with increased risk for developing male infertility and testicular cancer. This study elucidated the effects of endogenous ghrelin or growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) deletion on mouse reproductive performance and evaluated the ability of ghrelin to prevent testicular damage in a surgical cryptorchid mouse model. Reciprocal matings with heterozygous/homozygous ghrelin and GHSR knockout mice were performed. Litter size and germ cell apoptosis were recorded and testicular histological evaluations were performed. Wild type and GHSR knockout adult mice were subjected to creation of unilateral surgical cryptorchidism that is a model of heat-induced germ cell death. All mice were randomly separated into two groups: treatment with ghrelin or with saline. To assess testicular damage, the following endpoints were evaluated: testis weight, seminiferous tubule diameter, percentage of seminiferous tubules with spermatids and with multinucleated giant cells. Our findings indicated that endogenous ghrelin deletion altered male fertility. Moreover, ghrelin treatment ameliorated the testicular weight changes caused by surgically induced cryptorchidism. Testicular histopathology revealed a significant preservation of spermatogenesis and seminiferous tubule diameter in the ghrelin-treated cryptorchid testes of GHSR KO mice, suggesting that this protective effect of ghrelin was mediated by an unknown mechanism. In conclusion, ghrelin therapy could be useful to suppress testicular damage induced by hyperthermia, and future investigations will focus on the underlying mechanisms by which ghrelin mitigates testicular damage. PMID:28542403

  2. Dismal salvage of testicular torsion: A call to action! | Maranya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Testicular ischaemia and infarction in cases of torsion depend on the duration and degree of twisting. Early evaluation and treatment are associated with high salvage reports. Objective: To determine the salvage rates of testicular torsion in selected hospitals at the Coast Province of Kenya Design: A ...

  3. Testicular torsion: case report | Kuremu | East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of bilateral testicular torsion. The objective of the report is to highlight the serious implications of misdiagnosis of testicular torsion. Other than loss of the testis due to necrosis in unilateral torsion, immunological damage of the opposite testis occurs. Early, accurate diagnosis, and institution of the appropriate ...

  4. Intermittent Testicular Torsion | Obi | Nigerian Journal of Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study is to highlight the clinical characteristics of patients with intermittent testicular torsion and draw attention to this underreported condition. Methods: Clinical and demographic data of all patients treated for intermittent testicular torsion from January 2007 to June 2015 were prospectively collected ...

  5. Manual Detorsion of Testicular Torsion - A Primary Care Intervention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testicular torsion is one of the known acute urological emergencies that require prompt intervention. Salvage of the testis is only possible if derotation is performed within 6 hours of onset of symptoms. The objective of this paper is to report successful manual detorsion of the testes of patients with testicular torsion.

  6. An isolated tuberculousorchitis mimicking testicular tumour as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: A 32-year old man presented with a three-months history of left sided painless progressive testicular swelling. Further clinico-radiological findings revealed traits of a left testicular tumour. He was found to be HIV positive only at the index presentation whilst the histopathology of the left sided orchidectomy ...

  7. Feasibility of sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy in stage I testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Pieter J.; Horenblas, Simon; Valdés Olmos, Renato A.; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A.; Nieweg, Omgo E.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in testicular cancer. Five patients with clinical stage I testicular cancer were prospectively included. A single dose of technetium-99m nanocolloid (mean dose 99 MBq, volume 0.2 ml) was

  8. How to Perform a Testicular Self-Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... autoexploración testicular? (Presentación de diapositivas) Testicular self-exams (TSE) can help you check for things like cancer. ... 35. It's important to try to do a TSE every month so you can become familiar with ...

  9. Histological evidence of testicular dysgenesis in contralateral biopsies from 218 patients with testicular germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    patients, areas with immature and morphologically distorted tubules were also noted. Spermatogenesis was qualitatively normal in 51.4%, whereas 11.5% had very poor or absent spermatogenesis. It is concluded that microscopic testicular dysgenesis is a frequent feature in contralateral biopsies from patients...

  10. LINE-1 methylation is inherited in familial testicular cancer kindreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadalla Shahinaz M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT are the most frequent cancers among young men. There is a clear familial component to TGCT etiology, but no high-penetrance susceptibility gene has been identified. Epigenetic aberrations of the genome represent an alternative mechanism for cancer susceptibility; and, studies suggest that epigenetic changes that influence cancer risk can be inherited through the germline. Global DNA hypomethylation has been associated with the risk of cancers of the bladder and head/neck. Methods We performed a pilot study of global methylation at long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1 in peripheral blood DNA isolated from 466 family members of 101 multiple-case testicular cancer families. Results Investigating the correlation of LINE-1 methylation levels among parent-child pairs independent of affection status (n = 355 revealed a strong positive association only between mother-daughter (r = 0.48, P = r = 0.31, P = 0.02, suggesting gender-specific inheritance of methylation. Incorporating cancer status, we observed a strong correlation in LINE-1 methylation levels only among affected father-affected son pairs (r = 0.49, P = 0.03. There was a marginally significant inverse association between lower LINE-1 methylation levels and increased TGCT risk, compared with healthy male relatives (P = 0.049. Conclusions Our data suggest that heritability of LINE-1 methylation may be gender-specific. Further, the strong correlation between LINE-1 methylation levels among affected father-affected son pairs suggests that transgenerational inheritance of an epigenetic event may be associated with disease risk. Larger studies are needed to clarify these preliminary observations.

  11. Testicular Cancer on the Web-an Appropriate Source of Patient Information in Concordance with the European Association of Urology Guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffenholz, Pia; Salem, Johannes; Borgmann, Hendrik; Nestler, Tim; Pfister, David; Ruf, Christian; Tsaur, Igor; Haferkamp, Axel; Heidenreich, Axel

    2017-08-04

    Despite the continuous growth of the internet, little is known about the quality of online information on testicular cancer, the most common solid malignancy in young men. In our study, we analysed the quality, readability and popularity of the most popular websites on testicular cancer. Therefore, we performed a web search for the term "testicular cancer" using www.google.com . Fifty-one websites were evaluated for HONcode quality certification, Alexa Popularity Rank and readability levels. Furthermore, the websites' content on eight major topics of the current European Association of Urology Guidelines on testicular cancer was assessed. Fourteen (28%) had a HONcode quality certificate and the mean Alexa Popularity Rank of all 51 websites was 54,040 (interquartile range 6648-282,797). Websites were difficult to read requiring 9 years of US school education to properly understand the information. The websites mentioned 80% of the guideline topics on average, revealing "prognosis" (59%) and "follow-up" (57%) as underrepresented subtopics. Furthermore, 12% of all topics were displayed incorrectly, particularly due to wrong information concerning "aetiology" (42%). Sixty percent of the topics were mentioned in an incomplete fashion, with less than half of the websites displaying complete information on "staging" (47%), "diagnostic evaluation" (49%) or "disease management" (45%). In general, online health information concerning testicular cancer is mentioned correctly on most websites. However, improvement regarding readability and completeness of the given information is needed. Nevertheless, highly selected websites on testicular cancer can serve as an appropriate source of patient information.

  12. Testicular descent: INSL3, testosterone, genes and the intrauterine milieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Main, Katharina M; Toppari, Jorma

    2011-01-01

    Complete testicular descent is a sign of, and a prerequisite for, normal testicular function in adult life. The process of testis descent is dependent on gubernacular growth and reorganization, which is regulated by the Leydig cell hormones insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and testosterone. Investi......Complete testicular descent is a sign of, and a prerequisite for, normal testicular function in adult life. The process of testis descent is dependent on gubernacular growth and reorganization, which is regulated by the Leydig cell hormones insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and testosterone....... Investigation of the role of INSL3 and its receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2), has contributed substantially to our understanding of the hormonal control of testicular descent. Cryptorchidism is a common congenital malformation, which is seen in 2-9% of newborn boys, and confers an increased...

  13. Primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Mário Maciel; de Lima, Mário Maciel; Granja, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    Testicular mucinous cystadenomas are rare in urological practice, and their histogenesis, course and management are debated. We report a primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma in a 54-year old male who presented with left testicular swelling and pain. He denied having a history of cryptorchidism, testicular trauma, infections, urinary complaints, or febrile illnesses. He did not have diabetes, but was on treatment for hypertension. The patient underwent a left inguinal radical orchiectomy, and histological examination of the resected tumour confirmed a primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma. The patient had an uneventful recovery, and is being followed up. Conclusively, urologists need to maintain a high index of suspicion of these tumours and their differentiation from metastatic tumours to ensure optimal therapeutic outcomes.

  14. Diagnosis and management of testicular cancer the European point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Krege, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the views of leading European experts on the diagnosis and management of testicular cancer, with coverage of current hot topics in the field. It opens by providing an overview of the recommendations in the most recent consensus paper from the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group, which is based on interdisciplinary cooperation among urologists, medical oncologists, radio-oncologists, pathologists, and basic scientists. The remainder of the book focuses on areas of controversy in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of testicular cancer. In each case the evidence base is discussed and results from the most recent studies are reviewed, drawing attention to new findings that might alter treatment recommendations. The treatment-related chapters cover a broad range of issues, including the best approach in patients with poor-prognosis and recurrent disease and those with long-term toxicities. Relevant aspects of survivorship care are also addressed. The book will help clinicians and prac...

  15. Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urology Association combined clinical management guidelines for testicular germ cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alotaibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation, medical, and surgical management of patients diagnosed with testicular germ cell tumors. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor-node-metastasis staging system 7th edition. The guidelines are presented with supporting evidence level, they are based on comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors who were selected by the Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urological Association. Considerations to the local availability of drugs, technology and expertise have been regarded. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health care policy makers in the management of patients diagnosed with testicular germ cell tumors.

  16. Absence of microsatellite instability and BRAF (V600E) mutation in testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcano, F M; Lengert, A H; Vidal, D O; Scapulatempo Neto, C; Queiroz, L; Marques, H; Baltazar, F; Berardinelli, G N; Martinelli, C M S; da Silva, E C A; Reis, R M; Lopes, L F

    2016-09-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common malignant neoplasm in young men. DNA mismatch repair deficiency can lead to microsatellite instability (MSI), an important mechanism of genetic instability. A mutation of the BRAF gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several solid tumors and has recently become an important therapeutic target. The role of MSI and BRAF gene mutation in TGCT, particularly in refractory disease, is poorly understood and reported findings are controversial. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency and clinical impact of MSI status and BRAF mutations in TGCT. DNA was isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue from 150 TGCT cases. The MSI phenotype was evaluated using multiplex PCR for five quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeat markers. Exon 15 of the BRAF oncogene (V600E) was analyzed by PCR, followed by direct sequencing. Sixteen percent of cases were considered to have refractory disease. In a small subset of cases (17 for MSI and 18 for BRAF), the quantity and quality of DNA recovery were poor and therefore, were unable to be analyzed. The remaining 133 TGCT cases showed a complete absence of MSI. Of the 132 cases successfully evaluated for BRAF mutations, all were V600E wild-type. In conclusion, despite a distinct response of testicular germ cell tumors to therapy, microsatellite instability, and the BRAF V600E mutation were absent in all testicular germ cell tumors tested in this study. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  17. Barriers Identified by Swedish School Nurses in Giving Information about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination to Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudberg, Lennart; Nilsson, Sten; Wikblad, Karin; Carlsson, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent school nurses in Sweden inform adolescent men about testicular cancer (TC) and testicular self-examination (TSE). A questionnaire was completed by 129 school nurses from 29 randomly selected municipalities. All respondents were women, with a mean age of 42 years. The results showed that…

  18. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination Training for Patient Care Personnel: Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebis, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a…

  19. Ultrasonographic Findings of Prepubertal Testicular Teratoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jang Han; Cho, Jae Ho [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of testicular teratoma arising in pre-pubertal children. We studied 6 cases in 5 patients with pathologically proven testicular teratoma. Ultrasonography was performed in all cases and MRI in 5 cases. The location, size, shape, margin and internal echo pattern of the lesion were evaluated on ultrasonography and the shape, signal intensity and presence or absence of contrast enhancement were evaluated on MRI. The shape of all cases was round or oval and the lesion size ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 cm (average, 1.7 cm). Four of 6 cases were seen as cystic lesions, Three of which were multilocular and one was unilocular. The cystic lesions were filled with echo-free fluid without any solid component. The inner wall and septa were minutely granulated. One of 6 cases was seen as a predominantly cystic lesion containing heterogeneous, high echoic portions. One case was seen as a heterogeneous mixed echoic lesion with dirty posterior sonic shadowing. Three of the 4 cases seen as a cyst on ultrasonography were also seen as a cyst on MRI. In one case seen as a predominantly cystic lesion on ultrasonography, the periphery of the lesion was hypointense and the center was hyperintense on T2-weighted image. The remaining case seen as a heterogeneous mixed echoic mass was markedly heterogeneous in signal intensity both on T2- and T1-weighted images and hyperintense fat components were noted. Contrast enhancement was not seen in any of the 4 cases. On ultrasonography, pre-pubertal testicular teratoma is commonly seen as a multilocular or unilocular cyst and a minutely granulated appearance is noted in the inner wall or septa of the cystic lesion

  20. Effectiveness of lycopene on experimental testicular torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Mahmut; Sönmez, Mehmet Fatih; Baştuğ, Osman; Aras, Necip Fazıl; Öztürk, Ayşe Betül; Küçükaydın, Mustafa; Turan, Cüneyt

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to demonstrate the long term effectiveness of lycopene, a precursor of vitamin A, on the testes for ischemia-reperfusion injury. Seventy male Wistar albino rats were used for this experiment. The rats were divided into seven groups. Group 1 served as the control group; group 2 was sham-operated; group 3 received 20mg/kg/day lycopene (intraperitoneally); in group 4, the right testes of rats were kept torted for 2hours and then were detorted and the animals lived for three days; in group 5, the right testes of rats were kept torted for 2hours and then were detorted and the animals lived for ten days; in group 6, the right testes of the rats were kept torted for 2hours and then detorted and the animals received 20mg/kg/day lycopene (intraperitoneally) for three days; in group 7, the right testes of the rats were kept torted for 2hours and then were detorted and the animals received 20mg/kg/day lycopene (intraperitoneally) for ten days. Lycopene was used intraperitoneally. Some of the testes tissues were used for biochemical analyses and the other tissues were used for histological procedures. The Johnsen's score was used for seminiferous tubule deterioration. The TUNEL method was utilized to show apoptosis of testicular tissue. Testosterone levels were measured from blood samples and SOD, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 measurements were recorded from tissue samples. The results were analyzed statistically. In groups 1, 2 and 3 there was normal testicular structure. Rats in groups 4 and 5 had damaged testicular tissues. In groups 6 and 7, in which we used lycopene, the testes were not better than those in groups 4 and 5. The MSTD and JTBS values were better in group 6, but not in group 7 among the torsion groups. As a result, MDA, SOD, TNF-α and IL-1β were increased and serum testosterone and IL-6 levels were decreased in groups 4 and 5 compared to group 1. There was no improvement in the groups treated with lycopene for therapeutic purposes. It was shown that

  1. Is Sedentary Lifestyle Associated With Testicular Function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bang, Anne Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    , when they attended a compulsory medical examination to determine their fitness for military service. Information on sedentary behavior (television watching and computer time) and physical activity was obtained by questionnaire. The men had a physical examination, delivered a semen sample, and had......Based on cross-sectional data on 1,210 healthy young Danish men, we investigated whether sedentary lifestyle was associated with testicular function (semen quality and reproductive hormones) independent of physical activity. The men were invited to participate in the study between 2008 and 2012...

  2. Testicular Receptor-4: Novel Regulator of Glucocorticoid Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongyun; Du, Li; Heaney, Anthony P

    2016-08-01

    Glucocorticoids are powerful steroid hormones that regulate development, metabolism, and immune response. However, glucocorticoid unresponsiveness or resistance is observed in the treatment of inflammatory, autoimmune, and lymphoproliferative diseases and significantly limits their efficacy. In Cushing's disease, although some glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of pituitary-derived ACTH is seen, corticotroph tumors exhibit relative resistance to glucocorticoid action. We previously demonstrated that testicular orphan receptor 4 (TR4) binds to the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) promoter to induce corticotroph tumor POMC expression and ACTH secretion, and we hypothesized that TR4 may interact with glucocorticoid signaling to modulate POMC expression and action. Here we demonstrate that TR4 abrogates glucocorticoid receptor (GR)- or dexamethasone-mediated POMC and activator protein-1 transrepression in both murine and human pituitary corticotroph tumor cells. Co-immunoprecipitation studies indicate that TR4 and GR interact directly with each other, resulting in TR4-mediated disruption of GR binding to the POMC promoter. These results demonstrate that TR4 binds GR to play an important role in glucocorticoid-directed corticotroph tumor POMC regulation in addition to modulating glucocorticoid actions on other GR targets. Characterization of this pathway may offer important insights into glucocorticoid resistance and may identify a novel approach for the treatment of Cushing's disease and the glucocorticoid-resistant states.

  3. Baldness, acne and testicular germ cell tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, Britton; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Amato, Robert J.; Strom, Sara S.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Androgen levels during critical periods of testicular development may be involved in the etiology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). We evaluated the roles of adolescent and early adult life correlates of androgen exposure and TGCT in a hospital-based case control study. TGCT cases (n=187) and controls (n=148), matched on age, race and state of residence, participated in the study. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations between TGCT and male pattern baldness, severe acne, markers of puberty onset and body size. Cases were significantly less likely to report hair loss than controls (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4, 1.0). Amount of hair loss, increasing age at onset and increasing rate of loss were all inversely associated with TGCT (rate of hair loss: p-trend=0.03; age at onset: p-trend=0.03; amount of hair loss: p-trend=0.01). History of severe acne was inversely associated with TGCT (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3, 0.9) and height was positively associated with TGCT (p-trend=0.02). Increased endogenous androgen levels during puberty and early adulthood may be associated with decreased risk of TGCT. Additional studies of endogenous hormone levels during puberty and early adult life are warranted, especially studies evaluating the role of androgen synthesis, metabolism and uptake. PMID:21128977

  4. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Candidate Genes for Testicular Cancer Evaluated by In Situ Protein Expression Analyses on Tissue Microarrays1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Rolf I; Abeler, Vera M; Nesland, Jahn M; Fosså, Sophie D; Holm, Ruth; Wagner, Urs; Flørenes, Vivi Ann; Aass, Nina; Kallioniemi, Olli P; Lothe, Ragnhild A

    2003-01-01

    Abstract By the use of high-throughput molecular technologies, the number of genes and proteins potentially relevant to testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) and other diseases will increase rapidly. In a recent transcriptional profiling, we demonstrated the overexpression of GRB7 and JUP in TGCTs, and confirmed the reported overexpression of CCND2. We also have recent evidences for frequent genetic alterations of FHIT and epigenetic alterations of MGMT. To evaluate whether the expression of these genes is related to any clinicopathological variables, we constructed a tissue microarray with 510 testicular tissue cores from 279 patients diagnosed with TGCT, covering various histological subgroups and clinical stages. By immunohistochemistry, we found that JUP, GRB7, and CCND2 proteins were rarely present in normal testis, but frequently expressed at high levels in TGCT. Additionally, all premalignant intratubular germ cell neoplasias were JUP-immunopositive. MGMT and FHIT were expressed by normal testicular tissues, but at significantly lower frequencies in TGCT. Except for CCND2, the expressions of all markers were significantly associated with various TGCT subtypes. In summary, we have developed a high-throughput tool for the evaluation of TGCT markers, and utilized this to validate five candidate genes whose protein expressions were indeed deregulated in TGCT. PMID:14670177

  6. Bilateral Testicular Infarction from IgA Vasculitis of the Spermatic Cords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Toushan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented to the emergency room with increasing bilateral leg pain, rash, and scrotal swelling with pain. Skin biopsy from his thigh revealed IgA-associated vasculitis. Due to hematuria, a renal biopsy was performed and showed an IgA glomerulonephritis with focal fibrinoid necrosis and neutrophil accumulation. Bilateral orchiectomies were performed in two separate procedures ten and thirteen days after the renal biopsy, as a result of uncontrolled abscess formation in testicles. Microscopically, both testicles revealed large abscess formation destroying almost the entire testicular parenchyma without tumor cells. Spermatic cord margins were further scrutinized microscopically to show bilateral vasculitis in many small size vessels, confirmed by positive endothelial staining for IgA. Some of the affected arteries revealed central organizing thrombi with recanalization features, highly suggestive of vasculitis-associated thrombi formation, resulting in testicular ischemic infarction and abscess formation. We conclude that this adult patient developed a severe form of Henoch-Schönlein purpura, with vasculitis affecting multiple organs, including the most serious and unusual complication of bilateral testicular infarction.

  7. Primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sadiq

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary testicular diffuse large-B cell lymphoma (DLBCL is an uncommon and aggressive disease with predominant manifestation in the older age. Herein, we report a case of 47-year-old male patient who presented with three months history of left testis swelling. The patient underwent unilateral (left radical orchiectomy. Histopathological examination revealed extensive involvement and replacement of testicular parenchyma by a tumor composed of large discohesive sheets of cells with pleomorphic, hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli. Immunohistochemical (IHC staining showed reactivity for LCA & Pan B (CD20 and negativity for OCT 3/4, SALL4 and Inhibin. Moreover, Pan T (CD3 highlighted reactive T-cells. These features rendered the diagnosis of DLBCL of testis. The hybrid 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT demonstrated two para-aortic FDG avid lymph nodes on the left side at the level of L2 vertebra. Presently, the patient has been planned for doxorubicin-based chemotherapy (i.e., cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone; CHOP along with intrathecal Methroxate (MTX, which would presumably improve the prognosis. Our study would expand the pool of this uncommon tumor towards its better understanding. Keywords: Primary testicular lymphoma, Diffuse large-B cell lymphoma, Orchiectomy, Doxorubicin-based chemotherapy

  8. Candidate Genes for Testicular Cancer Evaluated by In Situ Protein Expression Analyses on Tissue Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf I. Skotheim

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available By the use of high-throughput molecular technologies, the number of genes and proteins potentially relevant to testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT and other diseases will increase rapidly. In a recent transcriptional profiling, we demonstrated the overexpression of GRB7 and JUP in TGCTs, confirmed the reported overexpression of CCND2. We also have recent evidences for frequent genetic alterations of FHIT and epigenetic alterations of MGMT. To evaluate whether the expression of these genes is related to any clinicopathological variables, we constructed a tissue microarray with 510 testicular tissue cores from 279 patients diagnosed with TGCT, covering various histological subgroups and clinical stages. By immunohistochemistry, we found that JUP, GRB7, CCND2 proteins were rarely present in normal testis, but frequently expressed at high levels in TGCT. Additionally, all premalignant intratubular germ cell neoplasias were JUP-immunopositive. MGMT and FHIT were expressed by normal testicular tissues, but at significantly lower frequencies in TGCT. Except for CCND2, the expressions of all markers were significantly associated with various TGCT subtypes. In summary, we have developed a high-throughput tool for the evaluation of TGCT markers, utilized this to validate five candidate genes whose protein expressions were indeed deregulated in TGCT.

  9. The testis: structure, function and most frequent testicular pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo Gambarte, Laura

    2017-01-01

    El trabajo consta de dos partes claramente diferenciadas. En una primera parte, se ha realizado una revisión bibliográfica de los hallazgos anatómicos testiculares más importantes. Han sido descritas también la histofisiología testicular y la regulación hormonal del aparato reproductor masculino así como las principales funciones testiculares, no solo en el aparato reproductor masculino sino también en el sistema endocrino. En una segunda parte y de una manera más ampliada, se han revisado la...

  10. Burned-Out Testicular Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Balalaa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors constitute the majority of all testicular tumors, which are relatively rare overall and are mainly encountered in young adults and teenagers. The term ‘burned-out’ germ cell tumor refers to the presence of a metastatic germ cell tumor with histological regression of the primary testicular lesion. Clinical examination of the testes and scrotal sonography is pivotal in the initial diagnosis of such neoplasms. We present a case of a 31-year-old male with a retroperitoneal mass and no palpable lesion on testicular examination.

  11. Pilot study of the association between the HLA region and testicular carcinoma among Croatian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Kristina; Grubic, Zorana; Kastelan, Zeljko; Stingl, Katarina; Kulis, Tomislav; Krhen, Ivan; Hudolin, Tvrtko; Kastelan, Maja; Zunec, Renata

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the distribution of HLA alleles and HLA microsatellite alleles in Croatian patients with testicular carcinoma, compare it with that of healthy controls and investigate whether the polymorphism within the HLA region could be associated with the development of testicular cancer. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood of 24 patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). Patients and controls were typed for HLA class I and class II polymorphism by the PCR-SSO method. Nine HLA microsatellites were analyzed by PCR and electrophoresis in an automated sequencer. No significant deviation in the distribution of frequencies at HLA class I alleles was observed between patients and controls. Among HLA class II alleles, a statistically significant increase in the frequency of the HLA-DPB1*1701 allele was found among patients. The frequency of the HLA-DRB1*07-DQA1*0201-DQB1*0202 haplotype was increased in patients in comparison to the controls. Analysis of HLA microsatellites showed an increased frequency of D6S291-3 allele (p(corr) = 0.0455, OR = 3.05) among patients. The observed association of the disease and the DPB1*1701 allele as well as with the D6S291-3 allele suggests that this part of the HLA region might be involved in the pathogenesis of TGCT. Our data provide a basis for further studies about the correlation between the HLA region and testicular cancer. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A comparison of breast, testicular and prostate cancer in mass print media (1996-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne Nancarrow

    2004-08-01

    This paper compares the portrayal of breast, testicular and prostate cancer in mass print English language magazines in the United States and Canada from 1996 to 2001. It is a follow-up of three papers that examined each of these three diseases separately in high circulating magazines up to 1995. It includes both quantitative and qualitative analyses of magazine stories and notes the continuing dominance of a medical perspective regarding disease as well as the association of each type of cancer examined with stereotypically individualized yet feminine and masculine characteristics and pursuits. It notes the conflation of breast cancer, since the discovery of BRCA1 and BRCA2, with the family. To be a 'feminine' woman is to be vulnerable to breast cancer and to be a 'masculine' man is to be vulnerable to testicular cancer when young and prostate cancer when older. The association of disease not just with personhood but also with the specifics of stereotyped masculinity and femininity may construct a more intimate, more personal link between disease and identity. This close attachment of gender and disease may shore up and exacerbate a fear reaction. It may also serve to diminish the awareness of other, more prevalent, causes of death for men and women. The social control consequences of potentially exacerbated disease-specific fear are discussed. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Testicular tumors: correlation between radiological findings and pathology results; Neoplasias testiculares: aspectos ultra-sonograficos com correlacao anatomopatologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marques Ferreira de; Szejnfeld, Denis; Abud, Thiago G.; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: luisronan@gmail.com; Takano, Daniela Mayumi [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia Patologica; Goldman, Suzan Menasce [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Setor de Geniturinario

    2005-10-15

    The aim of this study is to review the main imaging findings and the pathological and clinical features seen on patients with testicular tumors in order to define characteristics that may help in the differential diagnosis of the most frequent lesions. We performed a retrospective study of 51 patients with diagnosis of testicular tumors submitted to ultrasound and computed tomography between July 2003 to March 2004 that were referred to the Diagnostic Department of Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo Hospital, Brazil. We concluded that a basic knowledge of the key imaging findings and pathological and clinical features of testicular tumor sis very helpful for an accurate diagnosis of this condition.(author)

  14. Transverse testicular ectopia, a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslemi, Mohammad Kazem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossed testicular ectopia (CTE/transverse testicular ectopia (TTE is a rare but well known congenital anomaly, in which both gonads migrate toward the same hemiscrotum. It is usually associated with other abnormalities such as persistent Mullerian duct syndrome, true hermaphroditism, inguinal hernia, hypospadias, pseudohermaphroditism, and scrotal anomalies. About 100 cases of transverse testicular ectopia have been reported in published studies. We report a case of transverse testicular ectopia in an 8-month-old boy who presented with right inguinal hernia and nonpalpable left testis. On exploration, both testes were present in the right inguinal region. Bilateral orchiopexy was performed by crossing the left testis in the extra-peritoneal space and ipsilateral scrotal orchiopexy. The diagnosis could not be made preoperatively in most of reported cases.

  15. Testicular development in Dorper, DOhne Merino and crossbred rams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Dohne Merino (DM) and crossbred (Meatmaster; MM) rams. Testicular measurements included testis volume (TV), diameter (TD), length (TL) and scrotal circumference (SC). Soth TD and SC were highly repeatable and positively correlated ...

  16. Testicular microlithiasis in two boys with a chromosomal abnormality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Hack, W.W.M.; Pierik, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    A nine and 13-year-old boy, previously diagnosed with 18q syndrome and an 11q deletion, respectively were diagnosed with testicular microlithiasis (TM). Both cases demonstrate that TM occurs in patients with various chromosomal abnormalities.

  17. Effects of sublethal doses of chlorfluazuron on the testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    mg at the ... reduced the amounts of testicular, seminal vesicular and aedeagular DNA compared with the controls. Similar reduction was ..... a) and Coopex, against grasshoppers in the field and laboratory. Proc. 12th Cong.

  18. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies.

  19. Ontogenesis of testicular function in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GaĂŤlle Angenard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two major functions of the testis, steroidogenesis and gametogenesis, take place during fetal life. These two functions have been extensively studied in rodents and adult humans. However, their onset during fetal life is poorly documented in humans. In the first part of this work we presented both our experimental data and some data of literature concerning the development of the human fetal testis. In the second part of this article, using the organ culture system we previously developed, we have investigated the regulations or perturbations of fetal testis development both in rodent and human models. Our findings provide important insight into the potential role of exposure to environmental pollutants (physical factors, in particular ionizing radiation, cadmium and endocrine disruptors such as phthalates during fetal testicular development and their potential deleterious effects on male fertility in adulthood. Our results highlight the specificity of the human model compared with rodent models.

  20. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breikaa, Randa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Mosli, Hisham A. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Nagy, Ayman A. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim.pharma@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  1. Fear of recurrence and causal attributions in long-term survivors of testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Rossen, Philip; Olesen, Frede; von der Maase, Hans; Vedsted, Peter

    2012-11-01

    The purpose was to examine the prevalence of fear of recurrence (FoR) in long-term testicular cancer survivors (TCSs) and the association between FoR and causal attributions of cancer. Testicular cancer survivors were sampled from a clinical register and were sent a questionnaire assessing FoR, depression using Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), physical symptoms (ototoxicity, neuropathy, and Raynaud-like phenomena), and causal attributions of testicular cancer. There were 316 TCSs who completed the questionnaires (response rate, 65%). The mean age was 47.6 years (standard deviation (SD) = 10.9), and the mean time since diagnosis was 12.0 years (SD = 3.0). Among the TCSs, 27.9% reported FoR. Univariate analyses revealed that FoR was associated with a BDI-II sum score of ≥19 (odds ratio (OR) = 7.07, p cancer disease to psychological stress (OR = 2.57, p = 0.002). A multivariate analysis revealed associations between FoR and attributing the cancer disease to psychological stress (OR = 2.35, p = 0.010) and a BDI-II sum score ≥19 (OR = 5.82, p = 0.002). Fear of recurrence is prevalent in long-term TCSs. The observed relationship between FoR and a psychological causal attribution is probably complex and the direction of causality may be twofold: attributing the disease to a factor that is perceived as uncontrollable in nature could induce loss of control, and high levels of FoR may increase the need to gain control over the situation by pointing out factors that could be responsible for the disease such as psychological stress. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Testicular Metastasis of Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumu Kusaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of secondary neoplasms of the testis during autopsies is approximately 2.5%. Although most secondary testicular metastases are due to prostate cancer, only a few patients with prostate cancer have clinically manifested testicular metastasis. We report the case of a prostate cancer patient with testicular metastasis who was diagnosed after the presence of a palpable mass in the right testis. A 56-year-old Japanese male presented to our hospital with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level of 137 ng/ml. He was diagnosed with stage IV (T3N1M1b prostate cancer and received androgen deprivation therapy, followed by various hormonal manipulations. His serum PSA level was undetectable for 1 year. No distant metastases were detected during imaging examinations. He received radiation therapy; however, his serum PSA level increased gradually. Four months later, he presented with right testicular swelling. Computed tomography revealed a heterogenous mass in the right testis and a right high inguinal orchiectomy was performed. Histopathological analysis showed that the right testis was infiltrated with metastatic adenocarcinoma with a Gleason score of 8. This is a rare case of right testicular metastasis in a patient with prostate cancer. Testicular metastasis of prostate cancer can be aggressive and metastasize.

  3. Reassembly of somatic cells and testicular organogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Karin; Ehmcke, Jens; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Simoni, Manuela; Damm, Oliver S; Redmann, Klaus; Schlatt, Stefan; Wistuba, Joachim

    2014-02-01

    Testicular organogenesis in vitro requires an environment allowing a reassembly of testicular cell types. Previous in vitro studies using male murine germ cells cultured in a defined three-dimensional environment demonstrated tubulogenesis and differentiation into spermatozoa. Combining scaffolds as artificial culture substrates with testicular cell culture, we analysed the colonization of collagen sponges by rat testicular cells focusing on cell survival and reassembly of tubule-like-structures in vitro. Isolated testicular cells obtained from juvenile Sprague Dawley and eGFP transgenic rats were cultured on collagen sponges (DMEM high glucose+Glutamax, 35°C, 5% CO2 with or without gonadotropins). Live cell imaging revealed the colonization of cells across the entire scaffold for up to 35 days. After two days, histology showed cell clusters attached to the collagen fibres and displaying signs of tubulogenesis. Clusters consisted mainly of Sertoli and peritubular cells which surrounded some undifferentiated spermatogonia. Flow cytometry confirmed lack of differentiation as no haploid cells were detected. Leydig cell activity was detected by a rise of testosterone after gonadotropin stimulation. Our approach provides a novel method which is in particular suitable to follow the somatic testicular cells in vitro an issue of growing importance for the analysis of germ line independent failure of spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aetiology of testicular cancer: association with congenital abnormalities, age at puberty, infertility, and exercise. United Kingdom Testicular Cancer Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the risk of testicular cancer associated with undescended testis, inguinal hernia, age at puberty, marital status, infertility, vasectomy, and amount of exercise. DESIGN--A population based case-control study with a questionnaire administered by an interviewer and with relevant supplementary data extracted from general practitioners' notes. SETTING--Nine health regions within England and Wales. SUBJECTS--794 men, aged 15-49 years, with a testicular germ cell tumour dia...

  5. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98% on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg−1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility.

  6. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg-1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility.

  7. CT restaging of testicular germ cell tumors: The incidence of isolated pelvic metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadow, Cheryl A; Maurer, Amma N; Prevedello, Luciano M; Sweeney, Christopher J; Silverman, Stuart G

    2016-08-01

    We determined the incidence of isolated pelvic metastases at restaging computed tomography (CT) in patients with testicular germ cell tumors to consider if imaging the pelvis could be omitted. After receiving IRB approval for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, medical records of 560 men (mean age 32.8) with 583 testicular germ cell tumors who underwent 3683 restaging CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis were reviewed to determine the proportion of patients with metastatic disease in the pelvis alone, as verified by histology or by resolution after therapy. Chi-square statistical analysis tested the association between factors currently thought to predispose patients to pelvic metastases. Patients were also categorized by clinical stage, tumor histology, and initial treatment. Isolated pelvic metastases were detected in nine (1.6%) of 560 men. Neither bulky abdominal disease (p=0.85) nor extratesticular invasion by the primary tumor (p=0.37) were statistically significant in predicting which patients were more likely to have isolated pelvic metastases. Among the nine patients with isolated pelvic recurrence, only three (0.7%) of 408 men with no known pelvic disease at initial staging and no tumor marker elevation at restaging had isolated pelvic metastases. Isolated pelvic recurrence was not statistically different when analyzed by initial stage and treatment. The incidence of isolated pelvic metastases in testicular germ cell tumors at restaging CT is low, but no group of patients was found to be without risk. Therefore, given the small, if any, risk of radiation-induced harm, the decision about whether to include routine pelvic CT in surveillance protocols should be individualized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Circulating tumor cells in patients with testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastały, Paulina; Ruf, Christian; Becker, Pascal; Bednarz-Knoll, Natalia; Stoupiec, Małgorzata; Kavsur, Refik; Isbarn, Hendrik; Matthies, Cord; Wagner, Walter; Höppner, Dirk; Fisch, Margit; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Ahyai, Sascha; Honecker, Friedemann; Riethdorf, Sabine; Pantel, Klaus

    2014-07-15

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent the most frequent malignancies among young men, but little is known about circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in these tumors. Considering their heterogeneity, CTCs were investigated using two independent assays targeting germ cell tumor and epithelial cell-specific markers, and results were correlated with disease stage, histology, and serum tumor markers. CTCs were enriched from peripheral blood (n = 143 patients) and testicular vein blood (TVB, n = 19 patients) using Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. For CTC detection, a combination of germ cell tumor (anti-SALL4, anti-OCT3/4) and epithelial cell-specific (anti-keratin, anti-EpCAM) antibodies was used. In parallel, 122 corresponding peripheral blood samples were analyzed using the CellSearch system. In total, CTCs were detected in 25 of 143 (17.5%) peripheral blood samples, whereas only 11.5% of patients were CTC-positive when considering exclusively the CellSearch assay. The presence of CTCs in peripheral blood correlated with clinical stage (P < 0.001) with 41% of CTC positivity in patients with metastasized tumors and 100% in patients with relapsed and chemotherapy-refractory disease. Histologically, CTC-positive patients suffered more frequently from nonseminomatous primary tumors (P < 0.001), with higher percentage of yolk sac (P < 0.001) and teratoma (P = 0.004) components. Furthermore, CTC detection was associated with elevated serum levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP; P = 0.025), β-human chorionic gonadotropin (βHCG; P = 0.002), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; P = 0.002). Incidence and numbers of CTCs in TVB were much higher than in peripheral blood. The inclusion of germ cell tumor-specific markers improves CTC detection in GCTs. CTCs occur frequently in patients with more aggressive disease, and there is a gradient of CTCs with decreasing numbers from the tumor-draining vein to the periphery. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Mortality in testicular cancer: 10 years' experience at a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germa, J R; Mercedes, A; Tabernero, J M; Palou, J; Algaba, F; Villavicencio, H; Sole, F J

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the causes of death in patients with germ cell testicular tumours (GCTTs), especially those due to persistent or recurrent tumours, and to determine potentially avoidable deaths. Among 299 patients with GCTTs there were 27 (9%) deaths: 21 (78%) had non-seminomatous GCTTs and 6 (22%) had seminomatous GCTTs. Sixteen deaths (59%) were due to progressive disease, 6 (22%) were treatment-related, 4 (15%) were due to incidental causes, and 1 was a sudden, unexplained death. The analysis of the data led us to the conclusion that some deaths are still potentially avoidable.

  10. Heterophile Antibody Interference led to Unneeded Chemotherapy in a Testicular Cancer Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele G. Soares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human heterophile antibodies may develop after infection or contact with animal tissues or animal serum products. These antibodies have the capacity to bind to the animal immunoglobulins used in immunoassays leading to erroneous results. We here report a case of a testicular germ cell tumor patient who developed heterophile antibodies during the surveillance period of his disease. Following false-positive results of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG he received unneeded chemotherapy. This article also stresses the problem of using serum tumor markers without no major imaging abnormalities to diagnose a patients' relapse.

  11. Testicular myeloid sarcoma: a rare manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Christine N; Collie, Angela M B; Flagg, Aron; Rhee, Audrey

    2014-10-01

    Myeloid sarcoma manifesting in the testis is rare and may occur concomitantly with bone marrow disease or as a separate entity. We describe our experience with a 6-month-old boy who presented with painless scrotal swelling and was found to have bilateral testicular masses on ultrasonography. The patient underwent unilateral radical inguinal orchiectomy. Surgical pathology revealed myeloid sarcoma of the testicle. He developed peripheral blood involvement 1 week postoperatively. Bone marrow biopsy showed acute myeloid leukemia. He is in remission after 2 cycles of induction chemotherapy, local radiation therapy, and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Seminoma Presenting as Renal Mass, Inferior Vena Caval Thrombus, and Regressed Testicular Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valary T. Raup

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy of men aged 15–40. Metastatic spread classically begins with involvement of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, with metastases to the liver, lung, bone, and brain representing advancing disease. Treatment is based on pathologic analysis of the excised testicle and presence of elevated tumor markers. We report a case of a 34-year-old male presenting with back pain who was found to have a right renal mass with tumor extension into the inferior vena cava. Subsequent biopsy was consistent with seminoma. We review this rare case and discuss the literature regarding its diagnosis and management.

  13. Prospectively Identified Incident Testicular Cancer Risk in a Familial Testicular Cancer Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Anand; Adams, Charleen D; Loud, Jennifer T; Nichols, Kathryn; Stewart, Douglas R; Greene, Mark H

    2015-10-01

    Human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have a strong genetic component and a high familial relative risk. However, linkage analyses have not identified a rare, highly penetrant familial TGCT (FTGCT) susceptibility locus. Currently, multiple low-penetrance genes are hypothesized to underlie the familial multiple-case phenotype. The observation that two is the most common number of affected individuals per family presents an impediment to FTGCT gene discovery. Clinically, the prospective TGCT risk in the multiple-case family context is unknown. We performed a prospective analysis of TGCT incidence in a cohort of multiple-affected-person families and sporadic-bilateral-case families; 1,260 men from 140 families (10,207 person-years of follow-up) met our inclusion criteria. Age-, gender-, and calendar time-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for TGCT relative to the general population were calculated using SEER*Stat. Eight incident TGCTs occurred during prospective FTGCT cohort follow-up (versus 0.67 expected; SIR = 11.9; 95% CI, 5.1-23.4; excess absolute risk = 7.2/10,000). We demonstrate that the incidence rate of TGCT is greater among bloodline male relatives from multiple-case testicular cancer families than that expected in the general population, a pattern characteristic of adult-onset Mendelian cancer susceptibility disorders. Two of these incident TGCTs occurred in relatives of sporadic-bilateral cases (0.15 expected; SIR = 13.4; 95% CI, 1.6-48.6). Our data are the first to indicate that despite relatively low numbers of affected individuals per family, members of both multiple-affected-person FTGCT families and sporadic-bilateral TGCT families comprise high-risk groups for incident testicular cancer. Men at high TGCT risk might benefit from tailored risk stratification and surveillance strategies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Testicular microlithiasis in boys and young men with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Hack, W.W.M.; Voort-Doedens, L.M. van der; Pierik, F.H.; Looijenga, L.H.J.; Sijstermans, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis by ultrasound in boys and young men with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis. Materials and Methods: During followup for testicular growth patients with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis were also

  15. Eliminating acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from human testicular cell cultures: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; Homburg, Christa H.; van Capel, Toni M. M.; van den Berg, Henk; van der Veen, Fulco; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; van Pelt, Ans M. M.; Repping, Sjoerd

    2014-01-01

    To study whether acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells survive in a human testicular cell culture system. Experimental laboratory study. Reproductive biology laboratory, academic medical center. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from three patients and testicular cells from three other patients.

  16. Discovery – Cisplatin and The Treatment of Testicular and Other Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the discovery of cisplatin in 1965, men with testicular cancer had few medical options. Now, thanks to NCI research, cisplatin and similar chemotherapy drugs are known for curing testicular and other forms of cancer.

  17. Validity of predictions of residual retroperitoneal mass histology in nonseminomatous testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyerberg, EW; Gerl, A; Fossa, SD; Sleijfer, DT; de Wit, R; Kirkels, WJ; Schmeller, N; Clemm, C; Habbema, JDF; Keizer, HJ

    Purpose: To validate predictions of the histology (necrosis, mature teratoma, or cancer) of residual retroperitoneal masses in patients treated with chemotherapy for metastatic nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumor. Patients and Methods: We studied 172 testicular cancer patients who underwent

  18. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue before long-term testicular cell culture does not alter in vitro cell dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Yoni; Braye, Aude; Struijk, Robin B; van Pelt, Ans M M; Goossens, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    To assess whether testicular cell dynamics are altered during long-term culture after testicular tissue cryopreservation. Experimental basic science study. Reproductive biology laboratory. Testicular tissue with normal spermatogenesis was obtained from six donors. None. Detection and comparison of testicular cells from fresh and frozen tissues during long-term culture. Human testicular cells derived from fresh (n = 3) and cryopreserved (n = 3) tissues were cultured for 2 months and analyzed with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence. Spermatogonia including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) were reliably detected by combining VASA, a germ cell marker, with UCHL1, a marker expressed by spermatogonia. The established markers STAR, ACTA2, and SOX9 were used to analyze the presence of Leydig cells, peritubular myoid cells, and Sertoli cells, respectively. No obvious differences were found between the cultures initiated from fresh or cryopreserved tissues. Single or small groups of SSCs (VASA(+)/UCHL1(+)) were detected in considerable amounts up to 1 month of culture, but infrequently after 2 months. SSCs were found attached to the feeder monolayer, which expressed markers for Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and peritubular myoid cells. In addition, VASA(-)/UCHL1(+) cells, most likely originating from the interstitium, also contributed to this monolayer. Apart from Sertoli cells, all somatic cell types could be detected throughout the culture period. Testicular tissue can be cryopreserved before long-term culture without modifying its outcome, which encourages implementation of testicular tissue banking for fertility preservation. However, because of the limited numbers of SSCs available after 2 months, further exploration and optimization of the culture system is needed. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring men's preferred strategies for learning about testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohamad M; Landers, Margaret; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-02-01

    Men's awareness of testicular disorders is lacking and their intention to seek help for testicular symptoms is sub-optimal. Studies conducted to explore and raise men's awareness of testicular disorders did not address their preferred learning strategies and failed to include men who are at risk for health inequities. The aim of this study was to explore, in-depth, the preferred strategies for learning about testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer among men who self-identify as heterosexual, gay, or bisexual. Maximum variation and snowball sampling were used to recruit 29 men aged 18-47 years. Participation was sought from community and youth organizations and a university in the Republic of Ireland. Semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive analysis of manifest content was used. Seventeen informants self-identified as heterosexual, 11 as gay, and one as bisexual. Four main categories emerged, namely: strategies to enhance awareness (television, internet, campaigns, print media), educational dos and don'ts (tailoring effective messages, drawbacks of national initiatives, ineffective learning strategies), implications of raising awareness (risks and benefits of increasing awareness), and learning among gay and bisexual men (learning needs and strategies). Future studies promoting awareness of testicular disorders should take into account men's preferred learning strategies. National campaigns should be delivered frequently and altered occasionally in order to achieve a top-up effect. Clinicians are encouraged to educate young men about the seriousness of testicular symptoms and the importance of seeking timely medical attention for any abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential testicular toxicity of sodium nitrate in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Hamdy A A; Mansour, Ahmed M; Abo-Salem, Osama M; Abd-Ellah, Hala F; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2010-02-01

    Nitrate is a common contaminant in groundwater aquifers. Current study aimed at evaluating the potential testicular toxicity of sodium nitrate in rats. Sodium nitrate was given orally to rats at doses of 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 60 consecutive days. Sperm count and motility, daily sperm production and testis weight were significantly decreased specially at high doses. Testicular activity of lactate dehydrogenase-X, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and acid phosphatase were inhibited in a dose-related manner. Lipid peroxides and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly increased in all treated animals. This was accompanied by inhibition of testicular activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Fifty mg/kg of sodium nitrate did not significantly alter catalase or glutathione reductase activity. Glutathione was significantly decreased by sodium nitrate in a dose-related manner. The decrease in sperm count and motility and daily sperm production was confirmed by histopathological studies which indicated chromatolysis, pyknosis and necrosis in spermatocytes. In conclusion, subchronic exposure of rats to sodium nitrate results in testicular toxicity as evidenced by decreased sperm count and motility, daily sperm production and testis weight, inhibited activity of enzyme markers of spermatogenesis and induction of histopathological changes. These effects are attributed, at least partly, to testicular oxidative stress. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Pattern of Testicular Biopies as Seen in a Tertiary Institution in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Testicular biopsy is an acknowledged method of examination of the testes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We describe the pattern of testicular histologies in our environment. Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of testicular histology results from the Pathology Department of ...

  2. File list: DNS.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  3. File list: DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 DNase-seq Gonad Testicular germ cells ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  4. Study on the incidence of testicular and epididymal appendages in patients with cryptorchidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favorito Luciano A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence of testicular and epididymal appendages in patients with cryptorchidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 65 patients with cryptorchidism, totalizing 83 testes and 40 patients who had prostate adenocarcinoma and hydrocele (control group, totalizing 55 testes. The following situations were analyzed: I absence of testicular and epididymal appendages, II presence of testicular appendage only, III presence of epididymal appendage, IV presence of testicular and epididymal appendage, V presence of 2 epididymal appendages and 1 testicular appendage and VI presence of paradidymis or vas aberrans of Haller. RESULTS: In patients with cryptorchidism we found testicular appendages in 23 cases (41.8%, epididymal appendages in 9 (16.3%, testicular and epididymal appendage in 8 (14.5%, 2 epididymal appendages and 1 testicular in 1 (1.8% and absence of appendages in 14 (25.4%. In the control group, we found testicular appendages in 29 (34.9%, epididymal appendages in 19 (22.8%, testicular and epididymal appendage in 7 (8.4%, and absence of appendages in 28 (33.7%, we did not find 2 epididymal appendages in this group, and none of the patients in the 2 groups presented paradidymis or vas aberrans of Haller. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of testicular and epididymal appendages is quite variable. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence and distribution of the testicular and epididymal appendages between patients with cryptorchidism and those from the control group.

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  7. File list: Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. A study on testicular characteristics of ram lambs of Arsi breed fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on testicular characteristics of ram lambs of Arsi breed fed on two maize varieties (QPM and BH540) ... The results suggest that the plane of nutrition influences testicular size. Whole plant silage feeding provided improved testicular size. Therefore, maize whole plant silage feeding might be helpful to improve the ...

  2. Assessment of testicular volume: A comparison of fertile and sub-fertile West African men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Tijani

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Testicular volume on scrotal ultrasound correlates well with severity of oligospermia in men with sub-fertility. While the critical mean testicular volume necessary for adequate spermatogenesis has not been determined, it appears there is an optimal testicular volume of 18–20 ml at which spermatogenesis is at its peak in sub-fertile Nigerian men.

  3. File list: DNS.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Unc.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular germ cel...ls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_germ_cells.bed ...

  2. Studies on the influence of radiation and chemotherapy on pituitary-testicular axis in patients with testicular tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Katsuaki (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-02-01

    Radiation and chemotherapy have been known as the highly effective treatment of patients with testicular tumor. To evaluate the influences of the therapies on pituitary-testicular axis, plasma FSH, LH and testosterone were determined by radioimmunoassay in 60 patients with testicular tumor before and after 1 to 102 months in the completion of radiation and chemotherapy. The results were summarized as follows: 1) In 10 out of 24 patients, plasma FSH and LH levels significantly increased within 20 months after 2,100 - 4,500 rad/3 - 6 weeks of radiation therapy. 2) In combination chromotherapy popularly used for testicular tumor, plasma FSH and LH in 8 of 22 patients markedly elevated within 20 months after the treatment. 3) The elevated gonadotropins returned to normal levels in approximately 50 months in patients received radiation or chemotherapy. 4) Plasma testosterone revealed normal levels in any therapeutic programs employed in the present study. 5) From the results of Gn-RH test, the pituitary gland seemed to have normal function. 6) Plasma testosterone showed incomplete response to hCG stimulation after 1 to 35 months of radiation or chemotherapy. Therefore, it was suggested that radiation and chemotherapy for the treatment of testicular tumor may impair not only seminiferous tubules but also Leydig cell for a couple of years.

  3. Using a vortex mixer for testicular sperm collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, Osamu; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Koji; Kawashima, Kazumi; Fujino, Yuji; Ishiko, Osamu

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate 2 methods of processing testicular tissue for the retrieval of viable sperm from men with nonobstructive azoospermia. Fresh testicular tissue was obtained from nonobstructive azoospermia patients using a biopsy needle. The specimens were divided into 2 fractions. All specimens were minced and immersed in human tubal fluid (HTF). The first fraction was filtered through a nylon filter and incubated for 3 hours. The supernatant was centrifuged, resuspended in HTF and analyzed. The second fraction was immediately vortexed for 5 minutes and filtered through a nylon filter. The supernatant was centrifuged, resuspended in HTF and analyzed. Spermatozoa were obtained in 13 of 24 cases (54.2%) using the vortex method and in 5 of 24 cases (20.8%) with the nylon filter method. The vortex mixing method may be a better option than the conventional method for processing testicular tissue for sperm collection.

  4. Testicular cancer patterns in Asian-American males: an opportunity for public health education to impact outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Mike M; Ellison, Lars M

    2005-09-01

    To examine the racial differences in testicular cancer incidence, pathologic grade, stage, and survival with specific reference to Asian and white Americans and to evaluate the impact of disparities in stage at presentation, if present, on survival. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we extracted all testicular cancer cases among white and Asian-American males for the years 1973 to 2000. Baseline demographic data included age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, and histologic features. Survival was examined using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards modeling. The incidence of testicular cancer is lower among Asian Americans than among whites. However, Asian-American males presented with higher stage disease at diagnosis. Significant differences were noted in the histologic features between the two groups, with Asian Americans presenting with greater rates of seminoma. Asians also demonstrated survival differences, with poorer unadjusted survival compared with whites. However, when the variables of stage at diagnosis and histologic features were included in the analysis, the survival curves became similar. Asians appeared to present with higher stage disease than do whites. Observed differences in survival for the Asian group relative to whites appeared to be primarily a result of delayed presentation. Cultural perceptions of malignancy and the understanding of cancer screening may be important determinants of later presentation. Healthcare access and education issues, rather than inherent biologic differences, are more likely the primary underlying factors for the observed survival differences in Asian males.

  5. A conservative approach to testicular rupture in adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Jimena; Reda, Edward F; Gitlin, Jordan; Zelkovic, Paul; Palmer, Lane S

    2010-10-01

    Management for blunt trauma with breach of the renal capsule or bladder (extraperitoneal) has largely become nonsurgical since a conservative approach proved to be effective and safe. Currently the recommendation for managing testicular rupture is surgical exploration and débridement or orchiectomy. We report outcomes in boys diagnosed with testicular rupture and treated without surgical intervention. In the last year we conservatively treated 7 consecutive boys with delayed presentation of testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma. Patients were treated with scrotal support, antibiotics to prevent abscess, rest, analgesics and serial ultrasound. We report clinical information and outcomes. The 7 boys were 11 to 14 years old and presented 1 to 5 days after injury. Trauma was to the left testis in 3 cases and to the right testis in 4. Patients presented with mild to moderate pain and similar scrotal swelling. Ultrasound findings consistently revealed hematocele and increased echogenicity. Blood flow was present in the injured portion of the testes in 3 cases and to the remainder of the affected testicle in 6 of the 7 boys. In the remaining boy an adequate waveform was not seen in either testicle, which the radiologist thought was secondary to prepubertal status. Other findings included scrotal edema, irregular contour and seminiferous tubule extrusion. Followup was greater than 6 months in all cases. Five boys were seen at the office and the 2 remaining had telephone followup. In all cases hematocele resolved, testicular size stabilized without atrophy and echogenicity normalized in the 5 patients with followup ultrasound. One patient required surgical repair of hydrocele 4 months after trauma but no other patient needed surgical exploration. No abscess or infection developed. A conservative approach in a select group of adolescent boys with testicular rupture can result in resolution of the fracture and maintenance of testicular architectural integrity

  6. Global trends in testicular cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Alexandre; Jayram, Gautam; Drazer, Michael; Eggener, Scott E

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies on testicular cancer have focused primarily on European countries. Global incidence and mortality have been less thoroughly evaluated. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the most recent global age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for testicular cancer and to use these values to estimate a region's health care quality. Age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in 172 countries by using the GLOBOCAN 2008 database, reflecting the annual rate of cancer incidence and mortality per 100,000 men. These data were evaluated on a regional level to compare incidence and mortality rates. Global plots of these values were constructed to better visualize geographic distributions. Finally, the ratio of ASIR to ASMR was calculated as a method to assess each region's proficiency in diagnosing and effectively treating testicular cancer. ASIR and ASMR were analyzed by region, and each region's ratio of ASIR to ASMR was calculated. Testicular cancer ASIR is highest in Western Europe (7.8%), Northern Europe (6.7%), and Australia (6.5%). Asia and Africa had the lowest incidence (ASMR was highest in Central America (0.7%), western Asia (0.6%), and Central and Eastern Europe (0.6%). Mortality was lowest in North America, Northern Europe, and Australia (0.1-0.2%). The ASIR-ASMR ratio was highest in Australia (65.0%) and lowest in western Africa (1.0%). National reporting systems varied by country, and data quality may have fluctuated between regions. Testicular cancer incidence remains highest in developed nations with primarily Caucasian populations. Variable ASIR-ASMR ratios suggest markedly different geographic-specific reporting mechanisms, access to care, and treatment capabilities. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethnic patterns of hypospadias in New Zealand do not resemble those observed for cryptorchidism and testicular cancer: evidence of differential aetiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, J K; Stanley, J; Shaw, C; Sarfati, D

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that hypospadias, cryptorchidism, poor semen quality and testicular cancer might share common prenatal causes. We have previously demonstrated similar ethnic patterns for the incidence of testicular cancer and cryptorchidism - a known risk factor for testicular cancer. If the underlying exposure(s) that cause hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are shared, then we would expect the incidence relationship between ethnic groups to follow the same pattern across all three conditions. We followed a birth cohort of 318 345 eligible male neonates born in New Zealand between 2000-2010, and linked routinely collected maternity records with inpatient hospitalization and mortality records through to 2011. We searched hospitalization records for diagnoses of hypospadias, and used mortality records for censoring. We used Poisson regression methods to compare the relative risk of hypospadias between ethnic groups, adjusting for perinatal risk factors and total person time. We observed that European/Other children had the highest risk of hypospadias, with Māori, Pacific and Asian boys having around 40% lower risk of disease compared with this group (adjusted relative risk [RR]: Māori 0.62, 95% CI 0.55-0.70; Pacific 0.62, 95% CI 0.53-0.72; Asian 0.57, 95% CI 0.47-0.69). This contrasts substantially with our previous observations for cryptorchidism and testicular cancer, where Māori males have the greatest risk. Our observations suggest that - at least in New Zealand - the exposures that drive the development of hypospadias may differ to those that that drive the development of cryptorchidism and/or testicular cancer. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. "Off-Label" Usage of Testicular Self-Examination (TSE): Benefits Beyond Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovito, Michael J; Leone, James E; Cavayero, Chase T

    2015-05-19

    Testicular cancer (TCa) is the most common cancer among 15- to 34-year-old males. Treatments are highly effective, which help foster approximately 98% 5-year survival rate. There are very few known causal factors of the disease (e.g., cryptorchidism and family history), thus possibly limiting primary prevention methods. Secondary preventative measures, on the other hand, most notably testicular self-examination (TSE), are well-known and are promoted to help prevent late-stage diagnosis of TCa. However, debate ensues as to whether or not TSE provides any benefit. In light of a recent systematic review conducted by these authors assessing the effectiveness of TSE promotion interventions, we propose that the behavior can serve as a tool not just for detection of TCa, but other male-specific urogenital health concerns, including varicoceles, hydroceles, among others. Furthermore, we suggest that TSE can also help foster informed decision-making skills among males with regard to health concerns and treatment options. However, our advocacy is in direct conflict with U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's influential "D" rating of TSE and others who recommend against performing TSE. This article offers an overview of the dispute over TSE's purpose and net benefit. We conclude that TSE is a behavior that is beneficial beyond detecting cancer. These proposed "off-label" uses of the procedure make for an effectual means to promote testicular health, self-awareness, and wellness among males. Recommendations for future research and advocacy are presented to the academy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Pleiotropic activities of HGF/c-Met system in testicular physiology: paracrine and endocrine implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eRicci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades a growing body of evidences has been reported concerning the expression and functional role of Hepathocyte Growth Factor (HGF on different aspects of testicular physiology. This review has the aim to summarize what is currently known regarding this topic. From early embryonic development to adult age, HGF and its receptor c-Met appeared to be clearly detectable in the testis. These molecules acquire different distribution patterns and roles depending on the developmental stage or the post-natal age considered. HGF acts as a paracrine modulator of testicular functions promoting the ephitelium-mesenchyme cross-talk as described even in other organs. Interestingly, it has been reported that testicular HGF acts even as an autocrine factor and that its receptor might be modulated by endocrine signals that change at puberty: HGF receptor expressed by Sertoli cells, in fact, is up-regulated by FSH administration. HGF is in turn able to modify endocrine state of the organism being able to increase testosterone secretion of both fetal and adult Leydig cells. Moreover c-Met is expressed in mitotic and meiotic male germ cells as well as in spermatozoa. The distribution pattern of c-Met on sperm cell membrane changes in the caput and cauda epididymal sperms and HGF is able to maintain epididymal sperm motility in vitro suggesting a physiological role of this growth factor in the acquisition of sperm motility. Noteworthy changes in HGF concentration in seminal plasma have been reported in different andrological diseases. All together these data indicate that HGF has a role in the control of spermatogenesis and sperm quality either directly, acting on male germ cells, or indirectly acting on tubular and interstitial somatic cells of the testis.

  10. Clinical, genetic, biochemical, and testicular biopsy findings among 1,213 men evaluated for infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Aksglaede, Lise; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik; Rajpert-de Meyts, Ewa; Joergensen, Niels; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    To study the pathologic findings among men evaluated for infertility. A retrospective, single-center, cross-sectional study. University hospital-based research center. We included data from 1,213 medical records from infertile men referred for diagnostic work-up from 2005 to 2009. None. Health history, clinical findings, chromosome/genetic aberrations, semen quality, reproductive hormones. In total, 64.4% of the infertile men had one or more reproductive disorders or factors influencing fertility, leaving 35.6% diagnosed as idiopathic infertile. In 244 patients (20%), including seven cases of testicular cancer and/or germ cell neoplasia in situ, a pathologic finding was first detected during diagnostic work-up. Two hundred four patients (16.8%) had a history of cryptorchidism and 154 (12.7%) of varicocele (grade 2 and 3). Thirty-three patients had chromosomal abnormalities, including 16 with sex chromosome abnormalities (11 with 47,XXY). Y-chromosome microdeletions were detected in 65 patients (5.4%). One hundred thirty-three had azoospermia, of which 58 had testicular biopsy findings (Sertoli cell-only syndrome: n = 23; spermatogenic arrest: n = 7; impaired spermatogenesis and atrophy: n = 28). Additionally, in idiopathic infertile men and infertile men with additional symptoms of testicular dysgenesis syndrome, 22.5% presented with a degree of Leydig cell insufficiency, with the highest frequency (33.1%) among patients with sperm concentration men referred to our center. Thus, male infertility may be a sign of an underlying disease that warrants attention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Sexual dysfunctions in men treated for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Susanne; Kristensen, Ellids; Giraldi, Annamaria G E

    2008-01-01

    Patients treated for testicular cancer have increased risk of ejaculatory, orgasmic and erectile dysfunction compared with healthy men. The underlying relations are unclear. This review describes sexual dysfunctions that are associated with various treatment modalities. One meta-analysis and 11...... original works were examined. About one third of the patients experience one or more sexual problems in relation to the treatment. Only retroperitoneal surgery can cause a specific sexual dysfunction, namely loss of ejaculation ability or ejaculatory functioning. Psychosexual causes are important...... for understanding sexual dysfunctions in patients with testicular cancer....

  12. Testicular cancer in Down syndrome with spinal cord metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turky Almouhissen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old male patient with Down syndrome was referred to our hospital with a vast left testicular mass. He underwent a left radical inguinal orchiectomy, and a histopathological examination of the mass showed a yolk sac tumor invading the epididymis. The patient was discharged in a satisfactory condition. Sixteen days later, the patient presented again complaining of lower limb weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine showed metastatic lesions compressing the dorsal spine, and he underwent emergency surgical decompression. The histopathology of the metastatic lesions revealed a yolk sac subtype which was identical to his primary testicular tumor.

  13. Testicular cancer in Down syndrome with spinal cord metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almouhissen, Turky; Badr, Hattan; AlMatrafi, Bassam; Alessa, Noor; Nassir, Anmar

    2016-01-01

    A 22-year-old male patient with Down syndrome was referred to our hospital with a vast left testicular mass. He underwent a left radical inguinal orchiectomy, and a histopathological examination of the mass showed a yolk sac tumor invading the epididymis. The patient was discharged in a satisfactory condition. Sixteen days later, the patient presented again complaining of lower limb weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine showed metastatic lesions compressing the dorsal spine, and he underwent emergency surgical decompression. The histopathology of the metastatic lesions revealed a yolk sac subtype which was identical to his primary testicular tumor. PMID:28058004

  14. Transverse testicular ectopia with a blind ending vas deferens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Kumar Dhua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE is an uncommon anomaly of testicular descent. Herein, we describe a case of TTE with blindly ending vas and persistent Mόllerian duct syndrome in a 2-year-old child. Orchidopexy could be done through the normal orthotopic route after separating it from the Mόllerian structure and dividing the peritoneal fold just distal to the blindly ending vas. The report highlights that laparoscopy is useful for identifying subtle anomalies in addition to its therapeutic role.

  15. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of torsion of testicular appendages; Diagnostico por ecografia de la torsion de los apendices testiculares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Cordero, J. L. [Hospital Virgen del Camino. Pamplona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To determine the efficacy of ultrasound in boys presenting torsion of a testicular appendage. A series of 30 boys with acute scrotal pain due to torsion of a testicular appendage was studied. Nine patients underwent surgery. The clinical findings and course in the remaining 21 suggested the presence of this abnormality. All of them underwent conventional and color Doppler ultrasound using a 7.5 MHz transducer. In 15 boys, ultrasound images depicted the affected appendage as a mass between the epididymal head and the testicle. In 13 cases, only signs of a inflammatory reaction, with enlargement of the epididymal head and tunicas presenting hyperflow and hydrocele, mimicking acute epididymities. In two cases, the images were normal. There is no definitive, distinguishing ultrasound image corresponding to testicular appendage torsion. Therefore, this diagnostic technique should be accompanied by clinical assessment. (Author) 14 refs.

  16. Recent results in the treatment of early and late testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeber, S.; Schuette, J.; Niederle, N.; Schmidt, C.G.

    1983-04-01

    This report summarizes our long-term experience with sequential combination chemotherapy in early and late testicular cancer and presents data from a total of 390 patients treated at the West German Tumor Center Essen between 1973 and 1981. In stage II A (positive retroperitoneal nodes, radically resected) the projected 5-year survival rate is 97%, in stage II B (residual disease after lymphadenectomy), and in stage II C (massive abdominal involvement) the long-term survival was 70% and 30%, respectively. In disseminated disease survival was closely related to the initial tumour burden (> 80% after 5 years for minimal pulmonal disease and < 30% in patients with pulmonal plus massive retroperitoneal involvement). Adriamycin/cisplatinum and belban/bleomycin were equally effective in the total analysis; however, the first combination appeared to be superior in choriocarcinoma, the latter in embryonal carcinoma. An analysis of primary therapeutic failures revealed a low incidence of cross-resistance for the two sequential combinations.

  17. Robot - assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in testicular tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. M. Torricelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objective Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND is indicated for patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT with residual disease after chemotherapy. Although the gold standard approach is still the open surgery, few cases of robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND have been described. Herein, we aim to present the surgical technique for robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND. Patient and method A 30 year-old asymptomatic man presented with left testicular swelling for 2 months. Physical examination revealed an enlarged and hard left testis. Alpha-fetoprotein (>1000ng/mL and beta-HCG (>24.000U/L were increased. Beta-HCG increased to >112.000U/L in less than one month. The patient underwent a left orchiectomy. Pathological examination showed a mixed NSGCT (50% embryonal carcinoma; 30% teratoma; 10% yolk sac; 10% choriocarcinoma. Computed tomography scan revealed a large tumor mass close to the left renal hilum (10x4x4cm and others enlarged paracaval and paraortic lymph nodes (T2N3M1S3-stage III. Patient was submitted to 4 cycles of BEP with satisfactory response. Residual mass was suggestive of teratoma. Based on these findings, he was submitted to a robot-assisted RPLND. Results RPLND was uneventfully performed. Operative time was 3.5 hours. Blood loss was minimal, and there were no intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from hospital in the 1st postoperative day. Pathological examination showed a pure teratoma. After 6 months of follow-up, patient is asymptomatic with an alpha-fetoprotein of 2.9ng/mL and an undetectable beta-HCG. Conclusion Robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND is a feasible procedure with acceptable morbidity even for post chemotherapy patients when performed by an experienced surgeon.

  18. Diagnosis and management of testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Yang, Jin-Rui; Huang, Yu-Meng; Wang, Long; Liu, Long-Fei; Wei, Yong-Bao; Huang, Liang; Zhu, Quan; Zeng, Ming-Qiang; Tang, Zheng-Yan

    2016-12-01

    Testicular rupture, one of the most common complications in blunt scrotal trauma, is the rupture of tunica albuginea and extrusion of seminiferous tubules. Testicular rupture is more inclined to young men, and injury mechanisms are associated with sports and motor accidents. After history taking and essential physical examination, scrotal ultrasound is the first-line auxiliary examination. MRI is also one of the vital complementary examinations to evaluate testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma. Surgical exploration and repair may be necessary when the diagnosis of testicular rupture is definite or suspicious. Postoperative follow-up is to monitor the relief of local symptoms and changes of testicular functions. This review sums up the literatures about testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma in recent 16 years and also refers some new advantages and perspectives on diagnosis and management of testicular rupture.

  19. Testicular neoplasia in undescended testes of cryptorchid boys-does surgical strategy have an impact on the risk of invasive testicular neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Petersen, Bodil Laub

    2004-01-01

    testes, or if the patient has abnormal external genitalia or a known abnormal karyotype. These clinical characteristics occur most often in cases of bilateral cryptorchidism. 2) Surgery for cryptorchidism before 10 years of age 3) Clinical control, after surgery for cryptorchidism. In cases of testicular...... in special categories of patients, and also of the incidence of testicular neoplasia after orchiopexy with a simultaneous testicular biopsy in childhood. At surgery for cryptorchidism the risk of testicular neoplasia was 7/182 (4%) in cases with intra-abdominal testis, abnormal external genitalia other than...... cryptorchidism, or diagnosed abnormal karyotype, versus no case in the 1281 patients without these characteristics (Fisher's exact test, p test...

  20. Ectopia testicular perineal: presentación de un caso Perineal testicular ectopia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Vialat Soto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La ectopia testicular perineal es una anomalía congénita infrecuente y se incluye dentro del síndrome de escroto vacío. Se reporta el caso de un paciente con escroto derecho vacío y masa perineal ipsolateral palpable, asociada a hernia inguinal derecha. El paciente fue operado en el Hospital Pediátrico Universitario de Centro Habana. Durante la exploración quirúrgica el testículo derecho y su gubernaculum testis se encontraban fijados en el perineo derecho. Las características del testículo y sus elementos eran normales. El testículo se fijó en el escroto derecho sin dificultad. La detección precoz de esta patología y su corrección quirúrgica en el tiempo establecido favoreció la funcionalidad del órgano.Perineal testicular ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly and it is included in the empty scrotum syndrome. The case of a patient with empty right scrotum and a palpable ipsilateral perineal mass associated with a right inguinal hernia is reported. The patient was operated on in "Centro Habana" University Children Hospital. During the surgical exploration, the right testicle and its gubernaculum testis were fixed to the right perineum. The characteristics of the testicle and its elements were normal. The testicle was fixed to the right scrotum without difficulty. The early detection of this pathology and its surgical repair on time, favored the functionality of the organ.

  1. Ultrasound measurements of testicular volume: Comparing the three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T.U. Mbaeri

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of various ultrasound formulas for measuring the testicular volume in humans by comparing the resultant ... of the components of a minimum full evaluation of male infertility is palpation of the testes and ... opted for orchidectomy after counseling in our center. Subjects and methods.

  2. Original article Testicular Biopsies of Azoospermic Men at The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    The patients with normal spermatogenesis were further evaluated and managed for obstructive azoospermia while those with testicular hypofunction or failure were offered medical therapy and/or referred for assisted reproductive techniques. DISCUSSION. Male factor infertility remains a major challenge in clinical practice.

  3. Prevalence of testicular adrenal rest tissue in neonates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, A.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infertility is a serious complication among male congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients which is often caused by testicular adrenal rest tumors (TART). TART are already present in childhood and early infancy in CAH patients. The incidence of TART in neonates without CAH has not

  4. a-Tocopherol (vitamin E) attenuates the testicular toxicity associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... The results indicated that vitamin E moderated the deleterious effects of experimental cryptorchidism. Key words: ... testicular damage is in part, a consequence of increased generation of free radicals and oxidants ... the symptoms of aging (Eneslo and Verdone, 1980). The in vivo function of vitamin E as an ...

  5. Anomalous origin of left testicular artery from an additional renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gonadal arteries arising from additional renal arteries present an important variation that should be noted in order to avoid inadvertent injury to these vessels in renal hilar dissection and retroperitoneal surgery. During routine dissection, we observed the unusual origin of the left testicular artery from an additional renal ...

  6. Accuracy of Prader orchidometer in measuring testicular volume

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-21

    Oct 21, 2012 ... hypogonadism and Klinefelter's syndrome.[14‑17]. Over the years, many instruments have been used in an attempt to accurately, reliably, and conveniently measure the testicular volume in vivo. These include rulers, tapes, vernier callipers, orchidometer, graphic models, and ultrasound scan.[8‑22] Results.

  7. The influence of dietary supplementation on testicular growth rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    good nutritional regime were relatively larger. Oldham,. Adams, Gherardi, Lindsay & Mac Kintosh (1978) and. Masters & Fels (1984) concluded that the testes seem to be particularly sensitive to changes in nutrition and that rams may gain or loose testicular volume at a greater rate than live mass. In Merino rams Oldham, ...

  8. Testicular microlithiasis is associated with ethnicity and socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland Vils; Bartlett, Emily C; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are limited studies about testicular microlithiasis (TML) and background information such as health, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of TML in relation to socioeconomic status and ethnicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From a database of scrotal...

  9. Testicular tuberculosis in an HIV positive patient mimicking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B.A. Ojo

    We present a 22 years old male with a year history of progressively increasing painless left testicular swelling with no constitutional symptoms. ... increased in size with associated pain in the contra lateral testis. The general examination ... circumstances, colour Doppler ultrasound is useful, as blood flow within subjects with ...

  10. Impact of organic hydroperoxides on rat testicular tissue and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Organic hydroperoxides such as t-butyl hydroperoxide and cumene hydroperoxide have been implicated to cause oxidative stress leading to damage in membrane lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and DNA. This study was aimed to develop an in vivo animal model. The effects of hydroperoxides on testicular ...

  11. The effect of sperm morphology and testicular spermatozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the correlation between sperm morphology groups (strict criteria) and testicular spermatozoa, and day 2 and 3 embryo quality in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cases. Methods. A retrospective study was done of 2 402 IVF and ICSI-fertilised embryos classified as ...

  12. Testicular adrenal rest tumours in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    In adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) is an important complication leading to gonadal dysfunction and infertility. These tumours can be already found in childhood and puberty. In this paper, we review the embryological,

  13. Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumours in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H. L.; Hermus, A. R. M. M.; Otten, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    In adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) is an important complication leading to gonadal dysfunction and infertility. These tumours can be already found in childhood and puberty. In this paper, we review the embryological, histological, biochemical, and clinical features of TART and discuss treatment options. PMID:19956703

  14. Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumours in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otten BJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART is an important complication leading to gonadal dysfunction and infertility. These tumours can be already found in childhood and puberty. In this paper, we review the embryological, histological, biochemical, and clinical features of TART and discuss treatment options.

  15. Fertility in men with testicular germ cell tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spermon, J.R.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; Ramos, L.; Wetzels, A.M.M.; Witjes, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of fertility or infertility in men before and after treatment for unilateral testicular cancer. The results were compared with the lifetime prevalence of infertility in the general population (20%-28%). DESIGN: Survey. SETTINGS: University referral center for

  16. The effect of unilateral vasectomy on testosterone and testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The effects of vasectomy on spermatogenesis and reproductive parameters are recognized to be speciedependent with marked differences in levels of perturbations observed. Objectives: To assess the impact of unilateral vasectomy on testosterone level and other testicular parameters in the male African giant ...

  17. Transverse testicular ectopia with persistent Mullerian duct syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anomaly and understanding of the embryological process of testicular descent and its associated aberration are prerequisites for the proper management of this rare anomaly. These findings highlight the importance of diagnostic laparoscopy in all patients presented with nonpalpable testes. Ann Pediatr Surg 8:62–63.

  18. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and ...... etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer.......Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops...... and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate...

  19. Neonatal testicular tumour presenting as an acute scrotum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Pediatr Surg 8:19–21 c. 2012 Annals of Pediatric Surgery. Annals of Pediatric Surgery 2012, 8:19–21. Keywords: acute scrotum, granulosa cell tumour, neonatal, testicular tumour .... that trisomy 12 may be widespread (75%) in paediatric granulosa stromal cell tumours and can be identified by fluorescence in-situ ...

  20. Testicular cancer: Management challenges in an African developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in oncology have greatly improved the prognosis of testicular cancer. In developing countries, however, the outcome is still ... Treatment consisted of radical orchidectomy in all patients and cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy in some patients. One patient with a tumour in an intra-abdominal testis ...

  1. Aluminium-induced Liver and Testicular Damage: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Aluminium is believed to be non toxic and easily eliminated from the body, a belief which encourages its use in daily life. However, several studies have reported its hepatotoxicity and testicular derangement in animals and humans. Objective: The protective potential of Piliostigma thonningii (250mg/kg of body ...

  2. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: foetal origin of adult reproductive problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina M; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik

    2009-01-01

    is that maternal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may contribute to the pathogenesis of TDS. Animal experiments have shown that all TDS symptoms, except testicular cancer, can be induced by foetal exposure to anti-androgenic chemicals. However, the cause of TDS in humans remains to be determined....

  3. Testicular torsion on the Jos Plateau | Ugwu | West African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testicular pain, retraction and scrotal swelling were the most common presenting complaints. The highest incidence 65%) occurred between November and February when the weather on the Jos plateau is coldest. At surgery, 34 (60%) patients were found to have associated congenital anomalies; in 22 (39%) patients, the ...

  4. Testicular microlithiasis in two boys with a chromosomal abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joery Goede

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A nine and 13-year-old boy, previously diagnosed with 18q syndrome and an 11q deletion, respectively were diagnosed with testicular microlithiasis (TM. Both cases demonstrate that TM occurs in patients with various chromosomal abnormalities

  5. (Dis)embodying gender and sexuality in testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Maria; Bishop, Scott; Bower, Jo; Malka, Monika; Nyhof-Young, Joyce

    2004-05-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men aged 15-34. Although post-treatment prognosis is generally very good, the impact on sexuality, gender identity and fertility is amplified in this age group. A Canadian study of men with testicular cancer explores how men (re)consider questions of sexuality and gender post diagnosis and treatment. Semi-structured interviews with 40 men were analyzed using thematic decomposition, an analytic technique that combines discursive approaches with thematic analysis. The theoretical framework that guides this work relies on material discursive approaches. From an analytic stance, this perspective is concerned with a focus on the ways in which both subjectivity and the body are experienced and constituted in language. In particular, we are concerned with how these men interpret the (altered) male body as a locus of gender signification and gender disruption. Men in this study construct testicular cancer as alternately inhibiting and enhancing masculinity and sexuality. Disruption interpolates with potentiality. A discourse of precarious masculinity predominates these accounts, wherein the link between anatomy and masculinity is simultaneously asserted and disavowed. Constructions of anatomical essentialism (i.e., testicular integrity is equated with masculinity) are juxtaposed against construals of anatomical superfluousness (i.e., other sites of sexuality and male identity are emphasized as being more central).

  6. Relationship of testicular development with age, body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umut Cirit

    study has been conducted on the relation between testicular dimensions, spermatological characteristics and reproductive hormones of Kivircik rams. Recognition of the reproductive characteristics of a sheep breed is an essential starting point towards improving its productivity. Characterization of puberty and early sexual ...

  7. Honey Attenuates the Detrimental Effects of Nicotine on Testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epididymis sperm motility, viability, morphology and counts were estimated, serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Leutinizing Hormone (LH) and Testosterone were assayed using ELISA method and testicular histology were also assessed. Significant reduction in percentage sperm motility, viability, morphology and ...

  8. Testicular volume of healthy term neonates: Determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Testicular volume (TV) in neonates has some predictive values of clinical importance. Establishing the normal values of TV among term newborn males of every population is important as differences exist among different populations. Much is not known on TV among Igbo newborns. Aim: The aim of this study ...

  9. Skeletal and metabolic complications of testicular germ cell tumours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Peter-Paul Michiel

    2014-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis were performed to investigate the short and long-term effects of chemotherapy on bone metabolism, fat metabolism and cardiovascular risk in testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) patients. We report a twofold increased prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in GCT

  10. Assessment of the effects of parenteral quinine on testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the effects of parenteral quinine on testicular histology and sperm parameters in wistar rats. JE Ataman, D Baxter-Grillo, AAA Osinubi. Abstract. Twenty-four week duration experiment was conducted with twenty-one male Wistar rats (200 - 250 g) to investigate the effects of quinine on the testis. The rats were ...

  11. Impact of organic hydroperoxides on rat testicular tissue and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... lower epididymal sperm concentrations and motility. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione activities were also higher with an accompanying increase in lipid peroxidation in both testicular tissue and epididymal sperm. It can be concluded that in vivo intraperitoneal administration of organic hydroperoxides ...

  12. Impact of organic hydroperoxides on rat testicular tissue and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of hydroperoxides on testicular tissue and epididymal sperm were investigated. Male Wistar rats aged 10 - 12 weeks were randomly placed in groups and received standard rat chow and water ad libitum. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with saline (0.5 ml), t-butyl hydroperoxide (5, 10, 20 and 40 ìM; 0.5 ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area? Other Names for This Condition 46,XX sex reversal XX male syndrome XX sex reversal Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes ... 1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) 46,XX SEX REVERSAL 1 MedGen (1 link) 46,XX testicular disorder ...

  14. Semen characteristics and testicular biometry of Swiss albino mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Semen characteristics and testicular biometry of Swiss albino mice treated with water soluble fractions of spent engine oil. ... Abstract. Contamination of soil and underlying groundwater with spent engine oil from automobile workshops and garages has serious ecological problems affecting plants and animals.

  15. The effect of the melatonin on cryopreserved mouse testicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Saki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: After improvements in various cancer treatments, life expectancy has been raised, but success in treatment causes loss of fertility in many of the survived young men. Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissues or cells introduced as the only way to preserve fertility. However, freezing has some harmful effects. Melatonin, a pineal gland hormone, has receptors in reproductive systems of different species. It is assumed that melatonin has free radical scavenger properties. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin on the cryopreserved testicular cells in mouse. Materials and Methods: Cells from 7- 10 days old NMRI mice testes were isolated using two step enzymatic digestion. The testicular cells were divided into two groups randomly and cryopreserved in two different freezing media with and without the addition of 100 μm melatonin. Finally, apoptosis of the cells was assayed by flow cytometry. Also, lactate dehydrogenase activity test was performed to assess the cytotoxicity. Results: The results of lactate dehydrogenase showed the nearly cytotoxic effect of melatonin. The results of flow cytometry showed increase in apoptosis in the cryopreserved cells in the media containing melatonin compared to the control group. Conclusion: The present study shows that melatonin has an apoptotic effect on cryopreserved mouse testicular cells.

  16. Testicular Morphometry and Sperm Quality of Rabbit Bucks Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In developing nations, Moringa oleifera leaves are used for their nutritional and medicinal values and are rich in minerals and vitamins. Twenty rabbit bucks of mixed breeds, aged four to five weeks which weighed between 627.4g to 631.5g were used to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on testicular ...

  17. Testicular damage and farming environments - An integrative ecotoxicological link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parelho, Carolina; Bernardo, Filipe; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo Santos; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-07-01

    The exposure to agrochemicals during farming activities affects the function of the reproductive system, as revealed by the increasing worldwide evidence of male infertility amongst farmers. The main objective of this study was to untangle the link between agricultural practices and male reproductive impairment due to chronic exposure to xenobiotics (such as agrochemicals) in conventional and organic farming environments. For this purpose, male wild mice (Mus musculus) populations from sites representing two distinct farming practices (conventional and organic farming systems) were used as bioindicators for observable effects of testicular damage, namely on a set of histological and cellular parameters: (i) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (ii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iii) apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results showed that mice from the conventional farming site bioaccumulated higher Pb hepatic loads, while mice from the organic farming site tend to bioaccumulate higher Cd hepatic loads. In general, for the analyzed testicular damage related parameters, mice from the organic farming site showed a similar performance than mice from the reference site. Mice from the conventional farming site stood out not only by underperforming in most studied parameters, while displaying an association between Pb hepatic loads and the observed testicular structural and functional disruption, but also by the increased stress index (Integrated Biomarker Response value). This study highlights the potential damaging effects of conventional farming practices on testicular structure and function, under natural conditions, raising concern about ensuing fertility risks for farmers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Breed Differences in Body Weight, Body and Testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S) kids at weaning were used to compare body weight (BWT), body measurements (BM) and testicular measurements ™ of the two breeds. Efforts were also made to relate BWT with BM and TM in order to identify those that best predict BWT.

  19. Neonatal testicular tumour presenting as an acute scrotum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydrocele or testicular torsion. Abnormal karyotype has also been described. We describe an unusual case of a neonatal juvenile granulosa cell tumour presenting as an acutely swollen, tender testis, originally diagnosed as an acute hydrocele. We describe the management and review the literature pertaining to this rare ...

  20. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Testicular Teratoma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khan and Bagchi: Testicular squamous cell carcinoma with umbilical nodule tumors is usually localized in retroperitoneal lymph nodes including aortic, common iliac and caval nodes.[8]. In metastatic sites, the somatic-type malignancies have a poor prognosis. They do not respond to germ cell tumor chemotherapy; surgical ...

  1. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with testicular involvement: outcome and risk of CNS relapse in the rituximab era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridel, Robert; Telio, David; Villa, Diego; Sehn, Laurie H; Gerrie, Alina S; Shenkier, Tamara; Klasa, Richard; Slack, Graham W; Tan, King; Gascoyne, Randy D; Connors, Joseph M; Savage, Kerry J

    2017-01-01

    The addition of rituximab has improved outcomes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), however, there remains limited information on the impact of rituximab in those with testicular involvement. All patients with diffuse large cell lymphoma and testicular involvement treated with curative intent were identified in the British Columbia Cancer Agency Lymphoid Cancer Database. In total, 134 patients diagnosed between 1982 and 2015 with diffuse large cell lymphoma involving the testis were identified: 61 received CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone)-like chemotherapy and 73 received CHOP plus rituximab (R-CHOP). A greater proportion of R-CHOP treated patients had higher International Prognostic Index (IPI, P = 0·005). In multivariate analysis, the protective effect of rituximab on progression-free survival (hazard ratio (HR) 0·42, P survival (HR 0·39, P < 0·001) and cumulative incidence of progression (HR 0·46, P = 0·014) were independent of the IPI. However, in a competing risk multivariate analysis including central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis and the CNS-IPI, rituximab was not associated with a decreased risk of CNS relapse. The addition of rituximab has reduced the risk of lymphoma recurrence in testicular DLBCL, presumably through improved eradication of systemic disease. However, CNS relapse risk remains high and further studies evaluating effective prophylactic strategies are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Seasonal preponderance in testicular torsion: is it a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakan, Tolga; Bagcioglu, Murat; Özcan, Serkan; Telli, Onur; Turgut, Hasan; Özkan, Mehmet; Germiyanoglu, Cancon

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the relation of testicular torsion and weather conditions, and to report results from Turkey, a country located between temperate and sub-tropical climate zones. A total of 56 patients that had surgery with the diagnosis of testicular torsion in Ankara Education and Research Hospital Urology Clinic between 2005 and 2014 were included in the study. Age of the patient, side of torsion, date and time at onset of pain, scrotal exploration time, ischemia duration, degree of cord torsion, the surgical procedure performed, and scrotal Doppler ultrasound (USG) findings at the time of diagnosis and 1 month after surgery were retrospectively analyzed. The web archives of Turkish Republic Meteorology General Directorate was used to determine the seasonal and mean temperatures at the time of diagnosis. The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 16 statistical package program using Chi-square, Mann- Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests. The mean age of 56 males included in the study was 18.88 ± 0.73 years. Right testicular torsion was seen in 23, and left testicular torsion was seen in 33 patients. Testicular arterial flow was absent in 37, arterial flow was moderately decreased in 12, and significantly decreased in 7 patients on Doppler USG. Detorsion procedure was performed in 46 patients while 10 patients had orchiectomy. Nine patients were admitted in summer, 14 in fall, 15 in winter, and 18 in spring. The mean air temperature at the time of admittance was 9.31 ± 1.05 °C. The prevalence of testicular torsion was not found different among the seasons (p=0.39). The analysis of air temperature at the time of admittance of the patients revealed that it was below 15 °C in 40 patients while it was above 15 °C in 16 patients, with a significant difference in between (p=0.002). The prevalence of testicular torsion did not change in relation with the seasons. However, it was determined that its prevalence was directly proportional to the air temperature

  3. [Fertility preservation in boys: spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and testicular grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, E; Tournaye, H

    2013-09-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) are the founder cells of spermatogenesis and are responsible for the lifelong production of spermatozoa. The cryopreservation and transplantation of these cells has been proposed as a fertility preservation strategy for young boys at risk for stem cell loss, i.e. patients undergoing chemotherapy for cancer or as a conditioning treatment for bone marrow transplantation. To prevent lifelong sterility in boys, two fertility restoration strategies are being developed: the injection of SSC and the grafting of testicular tissue containing SSC. Depending on the disease of the patient one of these two approaches will be applicable. Grafting has the advantage that SSC can reside within their natural niche, preserving the interactions between germ cells and their supporting cells and may therefore be regarded as the first choice strategy. However, in cases where the risk for malignant contamination of the testicular tissue is real, e.g. leukemia, transplantation of SSC by injection is preferable over grafting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Refractory testicular germ cell tumors are highly sensitive to the second generation DNA methylation inhibitor guadecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albany, Costantine; Hever-Jardine, Mary P; von Herrmann, Katherine M; Yim, Christina Y; Tam, Janice; Warzecha, Joshua M; Shin, Leah; Bock, Sarah E; Curran, Brian S; Chaudhry, Aneeq S; Kim, Fred; Sandusky, George E; Taverna, Pietro; Freemantle, Sarah J; Christensen, Brock C; Einhorn, Lawrence H; Spinella, Michael J

    2017-01-10

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common cancers of young males. A substantial portion of TGCT patients are refractory to cisplatin. There are no effective therapies for these patients, many of whom die from progressive disease. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) are the stem cells of TGCTs. In prior in vitro studies we found that EC cells were highly sensitive to the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza deoxycytidine (5-aza). Here, as an initial step in bringing demethylation therapy to the clinic for TGCT patients, we evaluated the effects of the clinically optimized, second generation demethylating agent guadecitabine (SGI-110) on EC cells in an animal model of cisplatin refractory testicular cancer. EC cells were exquisitely sensitive to guadecitabine and the hypersensitivity was dependent on high levels of DNA methyltransferase 3B. Guadecitabine mediated transcriptional reprogramming of EC cells included induction of p53 targets and repression of pluripotency genes. As a single agent, guadecitabine completely abolished progression and induced complete regression of cisplatin resistant EC xenografts even at doses well below those required to impact somatic solid tumors. Low dose guadecitabine also sensitized refractory EC cells to cisplatin in vivo. Genome-wide analysis indicated that in vivo antitumor activity was associated with activation of p53 and immune-related pathways and the antitumor effects of guadecitabine were dependent on p53, a gene rarely mutated in TGCTs. These preclinical findings suggest that guadecitabine alone or in combination with cisplatin is a promising strategy to treat refractory TGCT patients.

  5. Effects of antineoplastic treatment of HIV-positive patients with testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damstrup, L; Daugaard, G; Gerstoft, J; Rørth, M

    1989-06-01

    Among 101 patients with testicular cancer referred to the Department of Oncology ONB, Finsen Institute, four were proven HIV-positive before admission. Three of these patients were treated with cisplatin, 4-epi-podophyllotoxin (VP-16, Etoposide) and bleomycin. One patient with stage I of the testicular cancer was observed, after orchiectomy, without medical antineoplastic treatment. In the HIV-positive patients treated with cytotoxic drugs, leucopenia was seen after one (8%), fever after three (23%) and thrombocytopenia after two (15%) courses. Amongst patients not proven HIV-positive leucopenia, fever and thrombocytopenia were seen after 11 (9%), 21 (18%) and 27 (29%) courses. Two patients had stage II and two patients stage III of the HIV infection prior to treatment. The clinical stage of the disease did not change during the course of chemotherapy. We suggest that HIV-positive patients (stage II and III) with germ cell tumours should be treated with the same aggressive chemotherapy as given to other patients, not proven HIV-positive.

  6. Space-time analysis of testicular cancer clusters using residential histories: a case-control study in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel D Sloan

    Full Text Available Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297 were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs. Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish

  7. Testicular Descend, How and Why: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Narayan Agrawal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The testis develops in the dorsal abdominal wall, and then descends to scrotum. The development begins as early as 6th week of intrauterine life and is completed by fifth month of intrauterine life. The testis may get arrested during its descent from dorsal abdominal wall to scrotum. The anomalies of descent includes cryptorchism (and its variant like anarchism, monarchism or partially descended testis, ectopic testis, persistent processus vaginalis and encysted hydrocoel of spermatic cord etc. Cryptorchism is usually diagnosed during the new born examination. The recognition of this condition, identification of associated syndromes, proper diagnostic evaluation and timely treatment by surgical urologist is important to prevent adverse consequences like sterility, congenital hernia & hydrocoel, testicular carcinoma etc. Objectives: the objective of this review is to study the role of gubernaculum in the testicular migration process. Material & Method: We performed a descriptive review of the literature about the role of the gubernaculum in testicular migration during the human fetal life. This article provides an overview of role of gubernaculum and other factors responsible for gonadal migration. Results: In the first phase of testicular migration the gubernaculum enlarges to hold the testis near groin and in the second phase the gubernaculum migrates across the pubic region to reach the scrotum. The proximal end of gubernaculum is attached to the testis and epididymis. The lower end reaches to bottom of scrotum. A failure in the proper functioning of gubernaculum causes cryptorchism. Rarely male gonads may deviate from main pathway due to presence of many tails of distal gubernaculum, and it may give rise to ectopic testis. The processus vaginalis usually closes by birth. If it remains patent, it leads to congenital hernia, hydrocoel, encysted hydrocoel etc. Conclusion: the gubernaculum presents a significant structure during

  8. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breikaa, Randa M; Mosli, Hisham A; Nagy, Ayman A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment-related cardiovascular late effects and exercise training countermeasures in testicular germ cell cancer survivorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna

    2015-01-01

    -induced cardiovascular dysfunction to prevent premature onset of clinical cardiovascular disease in germ cell cancer survivors, with a view towards highlighting future directions of exercise-based survivorship research in the germ cell cancer setting. CONCLUSION: As exercise training may have the potential to ameliorate...... and/or reverse long-term cardiovascular disease sequelae in germ cell cancer survivors, a strong rationale exists for the promotion of exercise oncology research in this setting, in order to provide exercise recommendations for optimal germ cell cancer survivorship.......BACKGROUND: Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy...

  10. Effects of ozone therapy and taurine on ischemia/reperfusion-induced testicular injury in a rat testicular torsion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydos, Tolga Reşat; Başar, Mehmet Murad; Kul, Oğuz; Atmaca, Hasan Tarık; Uzunalıoğlu, Tuba; Kisa, Üçler; Efe, Oğuzhan Ekin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ozone and/or taurine treatment comparatively on testicular damage due to ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) injury in an experimental torsion model in rats. Adult Wistar rats with and without torsion/detorsion were used. In order to monitor the effect of ozone and/or taurine treatment on testicular damage due to I/R injury, following histopathological investigation apoptotic indexes were scored by TUNEL method. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), caspase 3, caspase 8, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and cytochrome C immunostainings were performed and the levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, total sulfhydryl, and nitric oxide were determined in the testicular tissue. Intraperitoneal ozone and/or taurine treatment prevented both histopathological damage and increase in the apoptotic index. Torsion did not exert an effect on the levels of TNFα and cytochrome C. Ozone and/or taurine treatment prevented increases in TNFR1, caspase 3, and caspase 8. The level of oxidative stress markers was unchanged. The increases in NO level and eNOS expression were prevented by ozone and/or taurine treatment in I/R groups. Using ozone therapy and/or taurine before reperfusion may be a solution for germ cell degeneration resulting from testicular torsion and related infertility.

  11. Testicular resistive index determined by Doppler ultrasonography in men with spinal cord injury - a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, J; Göcking, K; Pannek, J

    2015-09-01

    In this case series, the testicular resistive index was determined in men with spinal cord injury. In ten men participating in our fertility programme, the peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity of centripetal testicular arteries was measured in triplicates by Doppler ultrasonography to calculate the testicular resistive index. Furthermore, the right and left testicular volume was determined by ultrasonography, blood samples were obtained for hormonal evaluation, and sperm analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines. The median testicular resistive index measured 0.69 and was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than the reported cut-off value of 0.6. The spermiograms were characterised by normal sperm count but decreased sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity. The median right and left testicular volume was significantly (P < 0.01) smaller compared to the volumes measured in able-bodied adult males without scrotal pathology and measured 8.4 ml and 7.2 ml respectively. There was a significant (P = 0.005) correlation (rs  = 0.81) between testicular resistive index and sperm concentration. However, no correlations were observed between testicular resistive index and other variables. The testicular resistive index in men with spinal cord injury was significantly greater than 0.6. Measuring the testicular resistive index may represent a useful additional parameter in the assessment of infertility in spinal cord-injured men. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Testicular torsion and weather conditions: analysis of 21,289 cases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The hypothesis of association between testicular torsion and hyperactive cremasteric reflex, worsened by cold weather, has not been proved. Thirteen studies in the literature evaluated this issue, with inconclusive results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seasonality of testicular torsion in a large subset of patients surgically treated in Brazil, and additionally to estimate the incidence of testicular torsion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brazilian Public Health System Database was assessed from 1992-2010 to evaluate hospital admissions associated with treatment of testicular torsion. Average monthly temperature between 1992-2010 was calculated for each region. RESULTS: We identified 21,289 hospital admissions for treatment of testicular torsion. There was a higher number of testicular torsions during colder months (p = 0.002. To estimate the incidence of testicular torsion, we have related our findings to data from the last Brazilian census (2010. In 2010, testicular torsion occurred in 1.4:100,000 men in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS:Testicular torsion occurred at an annual incidence of approximately 1.4:100,000 men in Brazil in 2010. Seasonal variations do occur, with a significant increase of events during winter. Our findings support the theory of etiological role of cold weather to the occurrence of testicular torsion. Strategies to prevent these events can be based on these findings.

  13. Aetiology of testicular cancer: association with congenital abnormalities, age at puberty, infertility, and exercise. United Kingdom Testicular Cancer Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-28

    To determine the risk of testicular cancer associated with undescended testis, inguinal hernia, age at puberty, marital status, infertility, vasectomy, and amount of exercise. A population based case-control study with a questionnaire administered by an interviewer and with relevant supplementary data extracted from general practitioners' notes. Nine health regions within England and Wales. 794 men, aged 15-49 years, with a testicular germ cell tumour diagnosed between 1 January 1984 and 1 January 1987; each had an age matched (within one year) control selected from the list of their general practitioner. There was a significant association of testicular cancer with undescended testis (odds ratio 3.82; 95% confidence interval 2.24 to 6.52) and inguinal hernia (1.91; 1.12 to 3.23). The excess risk associated with undescended testis was eliminated in men who had had an orchidopexy before the age of 10 years. There were positive associations with early age at voice breaking, early age at starting to shave, and infertility. There was a significant association with a sedentary lifestyle and a moderate protective effect of exercise. There was no association with vasectomy. This study confirms previous reports that developmental urogenital abnormalities result in an increased risk of testicular cancer. The trend to perform orchidopexy at younger ages may reduce the risk associated with undescended testis. The increased risks associated with early age at puberty and low amounts of exercise may be related to effects of exposure to endogenous hormones. Changes in both of these factors may partly contribute to the increasing rates of testicular cancer observed in the past few decades.

  14. An Uncommon Presentation of a Metachronous Testicular Primary Nonseminoma and Seminoma Separated by Two Decades and a Testicular Cancer Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Andrew Buck

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men aged 15–40 years [Bols et al.: Philadelphia, Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011]. Its incidence comprises 0.8% of all male cancers worldwide, with a mortality rate of 0.1%. The incidence has nearly doubled from 1975 to 2007 leading to the concern of environmental causes [Thomas: Am J Epidemiol 2013; 178: 1240–1245]. Testicular cancer presents as a painless testicular mass without transillumination. Testicular cancer is subcategorized under germ cell testicular cancer or sex cord-stromal tumors. Of the germ cell tumors, approximately 90% originate in the testis, with the other 10% being extragonadal [Bols et al.: Philadelphia, Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011]. Typically, if a patient presents with a testicular mass and is 50 years old or older, the diagnosis of a primary lymphoma is considered until proven otherwise [Bols et al.: Philadelphia, Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011]. Germ cell testicular cancer is further divided into the subtypes of seminomatous and nonseminomatous; each presents with a unique histology and differing treatment implications. Discussion: Given the uniqueness of our patient’s metachronous second testicular primary, we sought to compare our case findings to available historic publications. We sought to address the issues of the incidence of a second primary testicular malignancy with regard to varying histology, age of incidence, and timing of a second primary testicular cancer, the presence of bowel involvement, and finally a brief discussion of testosterone replacement therapy. Conclusion: A review of our case presents several unique factors. The above varying literature has shown our patient to have met the odds of a contralateral testicular primary development in that he had a nonseminomatous primary, followed by a second testicular primary seminoma. Our patient exceeded the 15-year

  15. An Uncommon Presentation of a Metachronous Testicular Primary Nonseminoma and Seminoma Separated by Two Decades and a Testicular Cancer Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Dennis Andrew; Smith, Tristan Dean; Montana, Wilbur Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men aged 15-40 years [Bols et al.: Philadelphia, Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011]. Its incidence comprises 0.8% of all male cancers worldwide, with a mortality rate of 0.1%. The incidence has nearly doubled from 1975 to 2007 leading to the concern of environmental causes [Thomas: Am J Epidemiol 2013; 178: 1240-1245]. Testicular cancer presents as a painless testicular mass without transillumination. Testicular cancer is subcategorized under germ cell testicular cancer or sex cord-stromal tumors. Of the germ cell tumors, approximately 90% originate in the testis, with the other 10% being extragonadal [Bols et al.: Philadelphia, Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011]. Typically, if a patient presents with a testicular mass and is 50 years old or older, the diagnosis of a primary lymphoma is considered until proven otherwise [Bols et al.: Philadelphia, Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011]. Germ cell testicular cancer is further divided into the subtypes of seminomatous and nonseminomatous; each presents with a unique histology and differing treatment implications. Given the uniqueness of our patient's metachronous second testicular primary, we sought to compare our case findings to available historic publications. We sought to address the issues of the incidence of a second primary testicular malignancy with regard to varying histology, age of incidence, and timing of a second primary testicular cancer, the presence of bowel involvement, and finally a brief discussion of testosterone replacement therapy. A review of our case presents several unique factors. The above varying literature has shown our patient to have met the odds of a contralateral testicular primary development in that he had a nonseminomatous primary, followed by a second testicular primary seminoma. Our patient exceeded the 15-year cumulative risk of contralateral metachronous testicular cancer of 1

  16. Association between testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) and testicular neoplasia: evidence from 20 adult patients with signs of maldevelopment of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; Holm, Mette; Hoei-Hansen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Based on a well established association between testicular cancer and undescended testis and more recent publications on epidemiological links between these disorders and male infertility, we proposed the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). In most cases TDS presents with impaired...... testicular biopsies derived from patients with infertility, hypospadias and undescended testis. We searched for histological signs of testicular dysgenesis: microliths, Sertoli-cell-only tubules, immature seminiferous tubules with undifferentiated Sertoli cells, and tubules containing carcinoma in situ (CIS...... of semen sampling and testicular histology. In conclusion, our study of 20 patients with various reproductive abnormalities provided evidence that TDS is a real clinical entity. We speculate that most of these abnormalities are caused by adverse environmental effects rather than specific gene mutations....

  17. Testicular cancer mortality in the Americas, 1980-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuccio, Paola; Malvezzi, Matteo; Chatenoud, Liliane; Bosetti, Cristina; Negri, Eva; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2007-02-15

    Testicular cancer is generally curable if appropriate treatment is given. Data and statistics on testicular cancer mortality over the last decades are available from the US and Canada, but are more difficult to find, in a standard and comparable format, for Central and South American countries. The objective of the study was to compare death rates and trends over the 1980-2003 period in all the American countries that provide data. Overall and 20 to 44 years age-standardized (world population) mortality rates from testicular cancer, derived from the World Health Organization (WHO) database, are presented for the most recent available calendar years in 10 American countries. Trends in mortality for selected countries of the Americas are also given over the period 1980-2003. In the early 1980s the highest testicular cancer mortality rates were observed in Chile (1.7/100,000 at all ages, 3.6/100,000 at 20-44 years) and Argentina (0.9/100,000 at all ages, 1.7/100,000 at 20-44 years), as compared with 0.4/100,000 for all ages and 0.6/100,000 at 20 to 44 years in Canada, and 0.3/100,000 for all ages and 0.7/100,000 at 20 to 44 years in the US. In 2001-2003, testicular cancer mortality had fallen to 0.2/100,000 in men aged 20 to 44 years in Canada, and to 0.4/100,000 in the US. Conversely, rates were still 1.6/100,000 in Argentina, 2.2/100,000 in Chile and 1.2/100,000 in Mexico, and were around 0.5-0.6/100,000 in most other Latin American countries that provide data. Mortality from testicular cancer in (young) men remains exceedingly high in most Latin American countries. Urgent intervention is required to provide treatment (essentially modern integrated platinum-based chemotherapy) for this largely curable neoplasm in young men.

  18. Reproductive hormones and metabolic syndrome in 24 testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, M.; Jorgensen, N.; Juul, A.

    2017-01-01

    of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were elevated (p ≤ 0.001), while total testosterone, free testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone were lower (p ≤ 0.001) in testicular cancer survivors than in their biological brothers. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was similar and apart......Testicular cancer survivors have impaired gonadal function and increased risk of metabolic syndrome when compared to healthy controls. However, because of the fetal etiology of testicular cancer, familial unrelated healthy men might not be an optimal control group. The objective of this study...... was to clarify if testicular cancer survivors have impaired gonadal function and increased risk of metabolic syndrome when compared to their biological brothers. A cross-sectional study of testicular cancer survivors (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02240966) was conducted between 2014 and 2016. Of 158 testicular...

  19. [Asynchronous Bilateral Testicular Infarction with Suspected Polyarteritis Nodosa : A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Masayuki; Naito, Sei; Ichiyanagi, Osamu; Suto, Aya; Kurota, Yuta; Sakurai, Toshihiko; Nishida, Hayato; Kawazoe, Hisashi; Kato, Tomoyuki; Nagaoka, Akira; Ito, Hiromi; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Tsuchiya, Norihiko

    2016-12-01

    This report documents a case of asynchronous bilateral testicular infarction. The patient was a 42- year-old man who presented with left testicular pain and swelling. He had a past history of right idiopathic testicular infarction and underwent a right orchiectomy 6 years ago. He also had received treatment for 5 years for suspected polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). The left scrotal pain persisted for a week and left orchiectomy was performed. Pathological evaluations demonstrated a benign testis with testicular hemorrhage and chronic vasculopathy. There was no fibrinoid necrosis of medium-size vessel walls which characterizes PAN. In this report, we review the pathogenesis, risk of contralateral testicular infarction, and management of testicular infarction.

  20. Characteristics of symptomatic men with testicular microlithiasis:A Danish cross-sectional questionnaire study

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, M. R.; Møller, H; Rafaelsen, S R; Jørgensen, M M B; Osther, P J; Vedsted, P

    2017-01-01

    Testicular microlithiasis (TML) is an incidental finding at ultrasonography of the scrotum. A link between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer has been suggested. However, the majority of studies are retrospective using ultrasonography with minor data on health status and life style characteristics. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle and health are associated with TML. In 2014, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey including 1538 men, who all due to test...

  1. Testicular germ cell tumors: Molecular genetic and clinicomorphological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Nemtsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular tumors are the most common form of solid cancer in young men. According to the 2004 WHO classification, testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT may present with different histological types. Embryonic cells of varying grade may be a source of TGCT and the occurrence of this type of tumors is directly related to the formation of a pool of male sex cells and gametogenesis. The paper gives information on mo- lecular stages for the process of formation of male sex cells in health, as well as ways of their impairments leading to TGCT. An investigation of the profiles of gene expression and the spectrum of molecular damages revealed genes responsible for a predisposition to the sporadic and hereditary forms of TGCT. The paper presents the current molecular genetic and clinicomorphological characteristics of TGCT. 

  2. Stomach Cancer Following Hodgkin Lymphoma, Testicular Cancer and Cervical Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ethel S; Curtis, Rochelle E; Hauptmann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To further understand the risk of stomach cancer after fractionated high-dose radiotherapy, we pooled individual-level data from three recent stomach cancer case-control studies. These studies were nested in cohorts of five-year survivors of first primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), testicular cancer...... (TC) or cervical cancer (CX) from seven countries. Detailed data were abstracted from patient records and radiation doses were reconstructed to the site of the stomach cancer for cases and to the corresponding sites for matched controls. Among 327 cases and 678 controls, mean doses to the stomach were...... 15.3 Gy, 24.7 Gy and 1.9 Gy, respectively, for Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer and cervical cancer survivors, with an overall mean dose of 10.3 Gy. Risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach cancer site (P

  3. Testicular germ cell tumors: Molecular genetic and clinicomorphological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Nemtsova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Testicular tumors are the most common form of solid cancer in young men. According to the 2004 WHO classification, testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT may present with different histological types. Embryonic cells of varying grade may be a source of TGCT and the occurrence of this type of tumors is directly related to the formation of a pool of male sex cells and gametogenesis. The paper gives information on mo- lecular stages for the process of formation of male sex cells in health, as well as ways of their impairments leading to TGCT. An investigation of the profiles of gene expression and the spectrum of molecular damages revealed genes responsible for a predisposition to the sporadic and hereditary forms of TGCT. The paper presents the current molecular genetic and clinicomorphological characteristics of TGCT. 

  4. Testicular function in a birth cohort of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, R J; Doherty, D A; McLachlan, R I

    2015-01-01

    sperm concentration (P = 0.012) and total sperm output (P = 0.030) and lower serum inhibin B levels (P = 0.046). Smoking, alcohol intake, herniorrhaphy, an epididymal cyst, medication and illicit drugs were not associated with any significant semen variables, testicular volume...... and obesity may impact on human testicular function, most common drug exposures and the presence of epididymal cysts appear to have no or minimal adverse impact. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The majority of previous attempts to develop valid reference populations for spermatogenesis have relied on potentially...... biased sources such as recruits from infertility clinics, self-selected volunteer sperm donors for research or artificial insemination or once-fertile men seeking vasectomy. It is well known that studies requiring semen analysis have low recruitment rates which consequently question their validity...

  5. Testicular fine needle aspiration cytology in adults and geriatric dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez R., Alfonso; Facultad de Recursos Naturales y Medicina Veterinaria, Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Santo Tomás, Viña del Mar; Díaz T., Daniela; Facultad de Recursos Naturales y Medicina Veterinaria, Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Santo Tomás, Viña del Mar; Melo A., Tamara; Facultad de Recursos Naturales y Medicina Veterinaria, Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Santo Tomás, Viña del Mar

    2017-01-01

    Con el propósito de describir y comparar la citología testicular en perros adultos y geriátricos se seleccionaron para orquiectomía 10 perros adultos (2-6 años) y 10 geriátricos (>8 años) sin patologías testiculares aparentes. Una vez recolectados los testículos se realizó punción y aspiración con aguja fina (AAF), obteniéndose cuatro muestras por perro. Las muestras fueron teñidas con May-Grünwald Giemsa y estudiadas al microscopio óptico. En la descripción celular se reconocieron los com...

  6. Radiation therapy for stage IIA and IIB testicular seminoma: peripheral dose calculations and risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theocharris; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to calculate the peripheral dose to critical structures and assess the radiation risks from modern radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB testicular seminoma. A Monte Carlo code was used for treatment simulation on a computational phantom representing an average adult. The initial treatment phase involved anteroposterior and posteroanaterior modified dog-leg fields exposing para-aortic and ipsilateral iliac lymph nodes followed by a cone-down phase for nodal mass irradiation. Peripheral doses were calculated using different modified dog-leg field dimensions and an extended conventional dog-leg portal. The risk models of the BEIR-VII report and ICRP-103 were combined with dosimetric calculations to estimate the probability of developing stochastic effects. Radiotherapy for stage IIA seminoma with a target dose of 30 Gy resulted in a range of 23.0-603.7 mGy to non-targeted peripheral tissues and organs. The corresponding range for treatment of stage IIB disease to a cumulative dose of 36 Gy was 24.2-633.9 mGy. A dose variation of less than 13% was found by altering the field dimensions. Radiotherapy with the conventional instead of the modern modified dog-leg field increased the peripheral dose up to 8.2 times. The calculated heart doses of 589.0-632.9 mGy may increase the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases whereas the testicular dose of more than 231.9 mGy may lead to a temporary infertility. The probability of birth abnormalities in the offspring of cancer survivors was below 0.13% which is much lower than the spontaneous mutation rate. Abdominoplevic irradiation may increase the lifetime intrinsic risk for the induction of secondary malignancies by 0.6-3.9% depending upon the site of interest, patient’s age and tumor dose. Radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB seminoma with restricted fields and low doses is associated with an increased morbidity. These data may allow the definition of a risk-adapted follow-up scheme for long

  7. Dose-dependent protective effect of baicalin against testicular torsion-detorsion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, A A; Qutub, H O; Jresat, I

    2017-02-01

    Testicular torsion/detorsion induces oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation and apoptosis of testicular tissues. Baicalin exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the possible protective effect of baicalin against testicular torsion-detorsion injury in rats. Surgical testicular torsion was induced for 2 h, followed by detorsion which was continued for 24 h. Baicalin was administered in three different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 , by intraperitoneal injection). Each dose was given twice, the first 30 min before and the second 12 h after testicular detorsion. Baicalin, in a dose-dependent manner, decreased the torsion/detorsion-induced elevations of testicular malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-α, BCL2-associated X protein (Bax), cytosolic cytochrome c and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities. Baicalin, dose dependently, attenuated the reductions of B-cell leucemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in testicular tissues resulted from torsion/detorsion. In addition, baicalin ameliorated the histopathological testicular tissue damage and reduced the expression of Fas ligand in rat testes exposed to torsion/detorsion in a dose-dependent manner. It was concluded that baicalin, dose dependently, ameliorated testicular injury induced by torsion/detorsion via its antioxidant, antinitrosative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Testicular Growth During Puberty in Boys With and Without a History of Congenital Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadov, Sergey; Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The pattern of testicular growth during puberty may provide important information about early testicular damage and reproductive potential in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pubertal testicular growth in boys with congenital cryptorchidism and controls. DESIGN: Longitudinal case...... mL by orchidometer and 25 mm by ruler as cut-offs in definition of the onset of puberty. An orchidometer size of 3 mL and ruler length of 25 mm corresponded to 1.6 and 1.7 mL by ultrasound (with Lambert's formula), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Testicular growth in puberty was impaired in congenitally...

  9. Aetiology of testicular cancer: association with congenital abnormalities, age at puberty, infertility, and exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forman, D; Pike, M C; Davey, G; Dawson, S; Baker, K; Chilvers, C E D; Oliver, R T D; Coupland, C A C

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Objective : To determine the risk of testicular cancer associated with undescended testis, inguinal hernia, age at puberty, marital status, infertility, vasectomy, and amount of exercise. Design...

  10. Risk factors in past histories and familial episodes related to development of testicular germ cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanto, Satoru; Hiramatsu, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Kenichi; Ishidoya, Shigeto; Saito, Hideo; Yamada, Shigeyuki; Satoh, Makoto; Saito, Seiichi; Fukuzaki, Atsushi; Arai, Yoichi

    2004-08-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to examine the host factors of 240 testicular germ cell tumor patients. This study was performed to address a new theory proposed by Skakkebaek called testicular dysgenesis syndrome which claims that cryptorchism, hypospadias, poor semen quality and testicular germ cell tumors are symptoms of an underlying testicular dysgenesis in uterus. The past health histories and familial episodes of 240 testicular germ cell tumor patients were examined. The past health histories included cryptorchism, hypospadias, infertility, atrophic testis and inguinal hernia. Of the 240 patients, 13 (5.4%) had a history of cryptorchism or orchidopexy. Two (0.8%) showed existence of hypospadias or had experienced urethroplasty. Among 129 married couples, 104 (80.6%) couples were fertile. Three (1.3%) patients developed testicular tumors after they were diagnosed as infertile or came to the hospital with the complaints of infertility. Four (1.7%) had contralateral atrophic testis. 19 (7.9%) had experienced inguinal herniorrhaphy before age 15. Three (1.3%) had testicular germ cell tumor patients among their family or relatives. The testicular germ cell tumor patients showed a considerable incidence of complications such as cryptorchism, hypospadias and incomplete closure of processus vaginalis. Cryptorchism, perinatal factors and familial factors could be risks for developing testicular germ cell tumors.

  11. Tissue Engineered Testicular Prostheses With Prolonged Testosterone Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    in infertile men. Fertil. Steril ., Epub ahead of print. Marshall, S., 1986: Potential problems with testicular prostheses. Urology, 28, 388-390...strengths to maintain structural integrity. The polymers were sterilized in ethylene oxide and placed under sterile conditions until cell delivery...washed in Povidone-iodine 10% solution, and dissected into 2 to 3 mm tissue fragments. Chondrocytes were isolated under sterile conditions using a

  12. Osteonecrosis in patients with testicular tumours treated with chemotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Berkmortel, F. van den; Wit, R.; Rooy, J.W.J. de; De Mulder, P. H. M.

    2004-01-01

    The role of antiemetics is invaluable in allowing cancer patients to complete, otherwise possibly intolerable, chemotherapy. In the Perugia Consensus Conference it was decided that the recommended antiemetic regimen in the prevention of acute emesis induced by a single high, low and repeated doses of cisplatin is a serotonin receptor antagonist plus dexamethasone. We describe three testicular cancer patients who were cured with chemotherapy but developed bilateral osteonecrosis of the femoral...

  13. Factors affecting pediatric patient transfer in testicular torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodwick, Daniel L; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C; Deans, Katherine J; McLeod, Daryl

    2016-06-01

    Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency, and interhospital transfer could delay care and increase the risk of orchiectomy. This study identifies factors associated with transfer for pediatric testicular torsion. This retrospective cross-sectional study examined emergency department (ED) visits for testicular torsion by men aged 1-21 y in National Emergency Department Sample from 2006 to 2012. Freestanding children's hospitals were excluded. Analyses were weighted to produce nationally representative estimates. Patient- and institutional-level predictors of transfer were evaluated using Rao-Scott chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. There were 11,435 ED visits for testicular torsion resulting in admission or transfer. In multivariable regression, the probability of transfer decreased with increasing age but remained higher for patients aged 15-17 y than for those aged 18-21 y (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51, P patients living in zip codes in the highest income quartile (OR = 0.69 versus lowest, P = 0.003) or with listed comorbidities (OR = 0.55, P Transfer was less likely in the Northeast (OR = 0.28 versus Midwest, P Transfer was less common with increasing annual pediatric ED volume (OR = 0.95 per 1000 patients, P Transfer rates increased significantly over the study period (23.6%-38.8%, P transferred than young adults. Interhospital transfers in these patients may represent a potential target for improving care. Future work should focus on evaluating the effect of transfer on the risk for undergoing orchiectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of Stem Leydig Cells Derived from Pig Testicular Interstitium

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai Yu; Pengfei Zhang; Wuzi Dong; Wenxian Zeng; Chuanying Pan

    2017-01-01

    Stem Leydig cells (SLCs), located in the testicular interstitial compartment in the mammalian testes, are capable of differentiating to testosterone-synthesizing Leydig cells (LCs), thus providing a new strategy for treating testosterone deficiency. However, no previous reports have identified and cultured SLCs derived from the pig. The aim of the current study was to isolate, identify, and culture SLCs from pigs. Haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunochemical analysis showed that SLCs we...

  15. Serum Levels of Trace Elements in Patients with Testicular Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Mehmet; Pirinççi, Necip; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Demir, Murat; Akkoyun, HurremTuran; Demir, Halit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Trace elements are primary components of biological structures; however, they can be toxic when their concentrations are higher than those needed for biological functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study serum levels of trace elements were measured in 30 patients (mean age was 26.9±11.2 years) newly diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and 32 healthy volunteers (mean age: 27.4±10.8) by using furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum samples were stored at-20°C until assays. Results: In patients with germ cell testicular cancer, the diagnosis was seminoma in 15, mix germ cell tumor in 7, embryonal carcinoma in 4, yolk sac tumor in 2 and teratoma in 2 patients. There was stage I testicular tumor in 19 patients (63.3%) while stage II in 6 patients (20.0%), stage IIIA in 4 patients (13.3%) and stage IIIC in one patient (3.4%). It was found that serum Co, Cu, Mg and Pb levels were increased (ptrace elements. PMID:26742967

  16. Multiple vascular anomalies involving renal, testicular and suprarenal arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variations of blood vessels of the abdomen is important during operative, diagnostic and endovascular pro- cedures. During routine dissection of the abdominal cavity, we came across multiple vascular anomalies involving renal, suprarenal and testicular arteries. The left kidney was supplied by two renal arteries originating together from the abdomi- nal aorta, and the right kidney was supplied by two accessory renal arteries, one of which was arising from the right renal artery and the other one from the aorta (about 2 inches below the origin of the renal artery. Accessory renal veins were present on both sides. The right testicular artery was arising from the lower accessory renal artery. The left testicular artery was looping around the inferior tributary of the left renal vein, whereby forming a sharp kink. The left middle suprarenal artery was diving into three small branches; the upper two branches were supplying the left suprarenal gland, whereas the lower branch was supplying the left kidney. Furthermore, detailed literature and the clinical and surgical importance of the case are discussed. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(3.000: 168-171

  17. Malpractice Litigation and Testicular Torsion: A Legal Database Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Marc; Heavner, Matthew; Sunaryo, Peter; Terlecki, Ryan

    2015-12-01

    The litigious nature of the American medical environment is a major concern for physicians, with an estimated annual cost of $10 billion. The purpose of this study is to identify causes of litigation in cases of testicular torsion and what factors contribute to verdicts or settlements resulting in indemnity payments. Publicly available jury verdict reports were retrieved from the Westlaw legal database (Thomson Reuters, New York, NY). In order to identify pertinent cases, we used the search terms "medical malpractice" and "testicular torsion" with date ranging from 2000 to 2013. Jury verdicts, depositions, and narrative summaries were evaluated for their medical basis, alleged malpractice, findings, and indemnity payment(s) (if any). Fifty-two cases were identified that were relevant to this study. Fifty-one percent of relevant cases were found in favor of the defendant physician, with the remaining 49% involving an indemnity payment (13% of which were settled). The most commonly sued medical providers were emergency physicians (48% of defendants), with urologists being second most common and making up 23% of the defendant pool. Emergency physicians were significantly more likely to make indemnity payments than urologists. Testicular torsion is a delicate condition and requires expertise in evaluation and treatment. When emergency physicians choose not to consult an urologist for possible torsion, they leave themselves open to litigation risk. When an urologist is involved in torsion litigation, they are rarely unsuccessful in their defense. Finally, ultrasound is no guarantee for success against litigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  19. Identification of Stem Leydig Cells Derived from Pig Testicular Interstitium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem Leydig cells (SLCs, located in the testicular interstitial compartment in the mammalian testes, are capable of differentiating to testosterone-synthesizing Leydig cells (LCs, thus providing a new strategy for treating testosterone deficiency. However, no previous reports have identified and cultured SLCs derived from the pig. The aim of the current study was to isolate, identify, and culture SLCs from pigs. Haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunochemical analysis showed that SLCs were present and that PDGFRα was mainly expressed in the pig testicular interstitium, indicating that PDGFRα was a marker for SLCs in the neonatal pig. In addition, reverse transcription-PCR results showed that SLC markers were expressed in primary isolated LCs, indicating that they were putative SLCs. The putative SLCs were subsequently cultured with a testicular fluid of piglets (pTF medium. Clones formed after 7 days and the cells expressed PDGFRα. However, no clones grew in the absence of pTF, but the cells expressed CYP17A1, indicating that pTF could sustain the features of porcine SLCs. To summarize, we isolated porcine SLCs and identified their basic characteristics. Taken together, these results may help lay the foundation for research in the clinical application of porcine SLCs.

  20. Primary testicular plasmocytoma: A five year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Ghirelli Filho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The testicular plasmocytoma represents only 5% of the non-germinative cell testicular tumors, and accounts for only 2% of all plasma cell neoplasms. Approximately, 50 cases of testicular plasmocytoma have been reported in medical literature; however, only 9 of these are isolated tumors without previous history or progression to multiple myeloma. A 47-year-old patient, presenting progressive and painless growth of the right testicle in the last four years, underwent surgical treatment in another hospital two years ago, to correct a hydrocele in the same testicle with no improvement at all. Sonography showed a tumor with the following measurements for the right testicle: 84 × 59 × 80 mm. The tumor marker values were all normal. An abdominal computed tomography found no evidence of retroperitoneal lymph nodes invasion. The patient underwent a right radical orchiectomy. Pathologic analysis revealed a malignant neoplasia described as a plasmocytoma (solitary myeloma that produces immunoglobulin′s kappa light chain. After five years of follow-up, there were no signs of metastasis or local recurrence in the exams. Case report and review of literature have been presented here.

  1. Late gastrointestinal morbidity in patients with stage I-II testicular seminoma treated with radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallemeier, Christopher L; Davis, Brian J; Pisansky, Thomas M; Choo, Richard

    2014-05-01

    To define the incidence and risk factors for late gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity in patients with testicular seminoma treated with radiotherapy (RT). A retrospective review was conducted of 251 patients with stage I or II testicular seminoma treated with curative-intent RT at our institution from 1974 to 2009. All patients underwent orchiectomy and postoperative external beam RT to the involved nodal basin or at-risk nodal basin or both. Potential late GI morbidities that were assessed included endoscopically confirmed peptic ulcer disease (PUD), small bowel obstruction (SBO), and biopsy-confirmed malignancy of the GI tract. The probabilities of these GI morbidities were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analyses were performed to examine for associated predictive factors using the Cox proportional hazards model. Median age at diagnosis was 36 years (range 18-80). Clinical stage was I (n = 199) or II (n = 52). Median abdominopelvic RT dose was 26Gy (interquartile range = 25-30). Median follow-up was 15 years (range = 0.1-38). PUD risk at 10, 20, and 30 years was 4%, 7%, and 9%, respectively. Age at diagnosis (per y, HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09, P = 0.04) and RT dose (per Gy, HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.09-1.31, PHistory of inflammatory bowel disease was associated with risk of SBO (HR = 43, 95% CI 7-325, P<0.01). GI second malignancy risk at 10, 20, and 30 years was 0.5%, 3% and 16%, respectively. Age at RT was associated with risk of GI malignancy (per y, HR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.14, P = 0.01). In this patient population, late GI morbidity was relatively uncommon, but clinically significant. Refinements of treatment strategies may reduce this risk. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigens in diffuse large B-cell testicular lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hudolin, Tvrtko; Kaštelan, Željko; Ilić, Ivana; Levarda-Hudolin, Katarina; Bašić-Jukić, Nikolina; Rieken, Malte; Spagnoli, Giulio C; Juretić, Antonio; Mengus, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) is a rare and lethal disease. The most common histological subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Standard treatments are frequently ineffective. Thus, the development of novel forms of therapy is urgently required. Specific immunotherapy generating immune responses directed against antigen predominantly expressed by cancer cells such as cancer-testis antigens (CTA) may provide a valid alternative treatment for patients bearing PTL...

  3. Influence of Vitamin C and Vitamin E on testicular zinc content and testicular toxicity in lead exposed albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayinde, Oluseyi C; Ogunnowo, Sunday; Ogedegbe, Rita A

    2012-12-14

    Occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a public health problem as lead alters physiological processes by inducing oxidative stress and mimicking divalent cations. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Vitamin C (VC) and Vitamin E (VE) on the reproductive function of lead exposed male rats. Experimental animals were exposed to oral doses of lead, VC and VE at 60 mg/kg body weight, 40 mg/kg body weight, and 150 mg/kg body weight respectively, while control animals received 0.9% saline solution. Oral administration spanned for six weeks after which changes in testicular redox status, lead deposition, testicular zinc content, serum androgen content, semen quality and testis histology were examined. There were significant (p animals was also observed. Fluctuations were observed in androgen levels of lead treated animals with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (TT) content, while there was no significant change in luteinizing hormone (LH) content. Testicular tissue showed an alteration in its normal histology with degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium accompanied by a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of luminal spermatozoa. A downgrade in the semen appearance and semen quality -sperm motility, morphology, and count was also observed after lead exposure. VC and VE treatment showed a significant (p < 0.05) reversal of the physiological alteration induced by lead. Lead exposure resulted in a decline in the reproductive function of male rats by inducing oxidative stress, inhibiting enzymes and depleting testicular zinc contents. However, results clearly showed that VC and VE attenuated the deleterious impact of lead on the reproductive system.

  4. Factors associated with testicular self-examination among unaffected men from multiple-case testicular cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadaparampil Susan T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifetime testicular cancer (TC risk in the general population is relatively low (~1 in 250, but men with a family history of TC are at 4 to 9 times greater risk than those without. Some health and professional organizations recommend consideration of testicular self-examination (TSE for certain high-risk groups (e.g. men with a family history of TC. Yet little is known about factors associated with TSE behaviors in this at-risk group. Methods We collected information on this subject during an on-going NCI multidisciplinary, etiologically-focused, cross-sectional Familial Testicular Cancer (FTC study. We present the first report specifically targeting TSE behaviors among first- and second-degree relatives (n = 99 of affected men from families with ≥ 2 TC cases. Demographic, medical, knowledge, health belief, and psychological factors consistent with the Health Belief Model (HBM were evaluated as variables related to TSE behavior, using chi-square tests of association for categorical variables, and t-tests for continuous variables. Results For men in our sample, 46% (n = 46 reported performing TSE regularly and 51% (n = 50 reported not regularly performing TSE. Factors associated (p Conclusion The findings suggest that, even in this high-risk setting, TSE practices are sub-optimal. Our data provide a basis for further exploring psychosocial issues that are specific to men with a family history of TC, and formulating intervention strategies aimed at improving adherence to TSE guidelines.

  5. Changes in the profile of simple mucin-type O-glycans and polypeptide GalNAc-transferases in human testis and testicular neoplasms are associated with germ cell maturation and tumour differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Poll, S N; Goukasian, I

    2007-01-01

    -glycosylation pattern in haploid germ cells suggests a role in their maturation or egg recognition/fertilization warranting further studies in male infertility, whereas the findings in TGCT provide new diagnostic tools and support our hypothesis that testicular cancer is a developmental disease of germ cell...

  6. Guidelines on Testicular Cancer: 2015 Update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Peter; Albrecht, Walter; Algaba, Ferran; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Cohn-Cedermark, Gabriella; Fizazi, Karim; Horwich, Alan; Laguna, Maria Pilar; Nicolai, Nicola; Oldenburg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This is an update of the previous European Association of Urology testis cancer guidelines published in 2011, which included major changes in the diagnosis and treatment of germ cell tumours. To summarise latest developments in the treatment of this rare disease. Recommendations have been agreed

  7. Malignant melanoma revealed by testicular metastasi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Dusaud

    2015-01-01

    Due to rapid disease progression and high mortality rate within a short interval, a complete staging looking for other secondary locations must be done and a multidisciplinary care and palliative involvement must also be initiated in the context of metastatic melanoma.

  8. File list: InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. New reference charts for testicular volume in Dutch children and adolescents allow the calculation of standard deviation scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra, S.D.; Plas, E.M. van der; Goede, J.; Oostdijk, W.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Hack, W.W.M.; Buuren, S. van; Wit, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Accurate calculations of testicular volume standard deviation (SD) scores are not currently available. We constructed LMS-smoothed age-reference charts for testicular volume in healthy boys. Methods The LMS method was used to calculate reference data, based on testicular volumes from

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 No description Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Input control Gonad Testicular somati...c cells SRX591728,SRX591716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. ABSCESSO TESTICULAR EM HAMSTER: RELATO DE CASO

    OpenAIRE

    R.M. Santos; G. D. A. Araguchi; G. R. S. Sluizas; M. C. Menezes; Lega, E.; B. Paludeto; V. Fardin

    2012-01-01

    The Hamster, rodent originating from the Middle East, is a species studied along with other laboratory animals as experimental models in scientific papers and currently is also created as a pet, by virtue of being docile, easy to handle and require little space for survival. The suppurative processes in domestic animals are relatively frequent. Due to infectious diseases or purulent course of aggressiveness of the environment in which they live. The habit of storing food in the cheeks with sh...

  4. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutillas-Tolín, A; Mínguez-Alarcón, L; Mendiola, J

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER: These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive pote...

  5. Phenotypic characterisation of immune cell infiltrates in testicular germ cell neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvarness, Tine; Nielsen, John E; Almstrup, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Immune cells often infiltrate testicular germ cell neoplasms, including pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS), but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. The composition and distribution of infiltrating immune cells were examined by immunohistochemistry in testis samples with CIS......, suggesting the absence of active immune surveillance in testicular germ cell cancer....

  6. TB or not TB?: a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhargava, A

    2009-06-01

    Despite the genitourinary tract being the most common site affected by extrapulmonary TB, isolated testicular TB remains a rare clinical entity. In patients with co-morbidities such as hepatic impairment, treatment proves a challenge, as first-line hepatotoxic pharmaceuticals are contraindicated. Here, we report a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement, on a background of hepatic dysfunction.

  7. Crossed testicular ectopia: a case report and review of the literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crossed testicular ectopia (CTE) is an extremely rare anomaly in which deviation of testicular descent results in unilateral location of both testes. It is usually associated with an inguinal hernia, with the spermatic cord of the ectopic testis originating from the appropriate side. Most often the diagnosis of CTE is not made until ...

  8. Testicular microlithiasis in a 2-year-old boy with pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Hack, W.W.M.; Sijstermans, K.; Pierik, F.H.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudoxantoma elasticum (PXE) is a rare chromosomal disorder that results in mineralization of elastic fibers, especially in the skin, eye, and cardiovascular system. Recently, PXE has been associated with testicular microlithiasis (TM),1 which itself might be associated with testicular malignancy.2

  9. Significant worsening sperm parameters are associated to testicular hypotrophy in patients with a high grade varicocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, O; Aslan, Y; Balci, M; Tuncel, A; Unal, B; Atan, A

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between testicular volume and semen parameter sin patients with unilateral high grade left varicocele. One hundred eighty seven patients who had left high grade varicocele aged 19-to-25 years were included in this study. All patients underwent a standard evaluation, including medical history and physical examination. The percentage testicular volume difference between the right and left testicles was calculated. The patients were divided into the following three groups; Group 1 (n=72) testicular volume difference 20% Group 3 (n=41). The mean age and BMI of the patients were 21.5 years and 23.1kg/m(2), respectively (P=.596, P=.943). The semen parameters and testicular volumes of the three groups were compared. The total motile sperm count, percentage of motile sperm, percentage of normal morphology sperm were found to be lower in Group 3 (P=.011, P=.012, P=.029 respectively). The mean testicular volumes for the left and the right testis were found to be 15.2cm(3) and 17.7cm(3) (P<.001), respectively. No significant difference was found in the right testicular volumes between groups (17.4, 17.7 and 18.1cm(3), P=.573). A high grade left testicular varicocele is associated with ipsilateral testicular hypotrophy and parallel to worsened sperm parameters. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal variation in testicular and fat-body weight and plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in testicular and fat-body weight and plasma testosterone and androstenedione concentration of the lizard Cordylus polyzonus is described. Testicular recrudescence commenced in autumn (April), reaching a peak in early spring (September) and regression followed during mid-spring to early autumn ...

  11. Management of Testicular torsion in Mulago Hospital over a 5-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of Testicular torsion in Mulago Hospital over a 5-year period. Ibingira C B R. hI hled (Surg). 1-ecturer in Anatom!; Makerere University hfedical School. P O Box 7072, Itesticular, torsion, and management. A retrospective study of patients seen in. Mulago Hospital with a ...

  12. Testicular function in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacini, F.; Gasperi, M.; Fugazzola, L. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether {sup 131}I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) can affect endocrine testicular function. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) concentrations were measured in 103 patients periodically submitted for radioiodine therapy for residual or metastatic disease. Mean follow-up was 93.7{+-}54 mo (range 10-243 mo). Mean FSH values in {sup 131}I-treated patients tested after their last treatment were 15.3{+-}9.9 mU/ml, significantly higher than those of 19 untreated patients (6.5{+-}3.1 mU/ml). Considering the mean +3 s.d. FSH of untreated subjects as the upper limit of normal range, 36.8% of the patients had an abnormal increase in serum FSH. Longitudinal analysis performed in 21 patients showed that the behavior of FSH in response to {sup 131}I therapy was not universal. Six patients had no change or a slight increase in serum FSH after {sup 131}I administration; eleven patients had a transient increase above normal values 6-12 mo after {sup 131}I treatment, with return to normal levels in subsequent months. The administration of a second dose was followed by a similar increase in FSH levels. Finally, four patients, followed for a long period of time and treated with several {sup 131}I doses, showed a progressive increase in serum FSH, which eventually became permanent. Semen analysis, performed in a small subgroup of patients, showed a consistent reduction in the number of normokinetic sperm. No change was found in serum T levels between treated and untreated patients. The results indicate that {sup 131}I therapy for thyroid carcinoma is associated with transient impairment of testicular germinal cell function. The damage may become permanent for high-radiation activities delivered year after year and might pose a significant risk of infertility. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Giannandrea

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa and theobromine, the main stimulant of cocoa, exert toxic effects on the testis, inducing testicular atrophy and impaired sperm quality. A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the possible role of cocoa consumption on the occurrence of selected MRD during the prenatal and early life period of cases. The incidence rates between 1998-2002 of TC in 18 countries obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents were correlated with the average per-capita consumption of cocoa (kg/capita/year (FAOSTAT-Database in these countries from 1965 to 1980, i.e. the period corresponding to the early life of TC cases. In order to test the above correlation in the case of hypospadias, the mean prevalence at birth in 20 countries (1999-2003 with average per-capita consumption of cocoa in these countries in the same period corresponding to pregnancy were used. The consumption of cocoa in the period 1965–80, was most closely correlated with the incidence of TC in young adults (r=0.859; p<0.001. An analogous significant correlation was also observed between early cocoa consumption and the prevalence rates of hypospadias in the period 1999-2003 (r=0.760; p<0.001. Although the ecological approach used in this study cannot provide an answer on the causal relationship between consumption of cocoa in early life and TC and hypospadias, the results are suggestive and indicate the need of further analytic studies to investigate the role of individual exposure to cocoa, particularly during the prenatal and in early life of the patients.

  14. Primary testicular Ph-positive B lymphoblastic lymphoma: an unusual presentation and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiling; Zhang, Shiying; Zhu, Li; Li, Xinlu; Wang, Ying; Duan, Yaqi; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Primary testicular B-lymphoblastic lymphoma is a rare entity. Primary testicular Ph-positive B lymphoblastic lymphoma was not reported before. We reported a 27-year-old man with primary testicular Ph-positive B lymphoblastic lymphoma, for which fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) for the Philadelphia chromosome was not performed at the initial hospitalization. The patient showed manifestation of Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia at relapse. In this report, we reviewed the current literature about primary testicular B-lymphoblastic lymphoma, Ph-positive lymphoma and Ph-positive clone evolution. This report has 3 meanings. First: This is first report on primary testicular Ph-positive B lymphoblastic lymphoma. Second: This shows the importance of cytogenics for lymphoma treatment. Third: This implies Philadelphia-positive subclone evolution.

  15. Surveillance for Stage I Nonseminoma Testicular Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Gundgaard, Maria Gry; Mortensen, Mette Saksø

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe treatment results in a large cohort with stage I nonseminoma germ cell cancer (NSGCC) treated in a surveillance program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2007, 1,226 patients with stage I NSGCC, including high-risk patients with vascular invasion....... Relapses after 5 years were seen in 0.5% of the whole cohort or in 1.6% of relapsing patients. The majority of relapses (94.4%) belonged to the good prognostic group according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification. The disease-specific survival at 15 years was 99...

  16. Testicular parenchymal abnormalities in Klinefelter syndrome: a question of cancer? Examination of 40 consecutive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Accardo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (KS is a hypergonadotropic hypogonadism characterized by a 47, XXY karyotype. The risk of testicular cancer in KS is of interest in relation to theories about testicular cancer etiology generally; nevertheless it seems to be low. We evaluated the need for imaging and serum tumor markers for testicular cancer screening in KS. Participants were 40 consecutive KS patients, enrolled from December 2009 to January 2013. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin subunit (β-HCG serum levels assays and testicular ultrasound (US with color Doppler, were carried out at study entry, after 6 months and every year for 3 years. Abdominal magnetic resonance (MR was performed in KS when testicular US showed micro-calcifications, testicular nodules and cysts. Nearly 62% of the KS had regular testicular echotexture, 37.5% showed an irregular echotexture and 17.5% had micro-calcifications and cysts. Eighty seven percent of KS had a regular vascular pattern, 12.5% varicocele, 12.5% nodules 1 cm. MR ruled out the diagnosis of cancer in all KS with testicular micro calcifications, nodules and cysts. No significant variations in LDH, AFP, and β-HCG levels and in US pattern have been detected during follow-up. We compared serum tumor markers and US pattern between KS with and without cryptorchidism and no statistical differences were found. We did not find testicular cancer in KS, and testicular US, tumor markers and MR were, in selected cases, useful tools for correctly discriminating benign from malignant lesions.

  17. Atorvastatin mitigates testicular injuries induced by ionizing radiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Ramezan Ali; Talebpour Amiri, Fereshteh; Khalatbary, Ali Reza; Ghasemi, Arash; Zargari, Mehryar; Ghesemi, Maryam; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2017-09-01

    Radiotherapy in patients with pelvis malignancy causes testes irradiation and resulted in testicular damages. Atorvastatin (ATV) in the low-dose is considered as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This experimental study was investigated protective effects of ATV on irradiation-induced testicular injury. Sixty male balb/c mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: 1: control, 2: irradiated (IR), 3, 4 and 5: IR plus ATV (10, 20 and 50mg/kg), 6: only ATV (50mg/kg). The ATV treated groups were received ATV for 7days via oral gavage before IR. Irradiated groups exposed to 2Gy whole body X-ray on day 8. Biochemical, histological and immunohistological parameters were evaluated for radioprotective effect of ATV. In the ATV pretreatment in irradiated mice, MDA levels were significantly decreased compared with the IR group. The effect of all three doses of ATV caused reduced MDA level, but ATV to dose of 50mg/kg had more effect than other doses of ATV. Significant decrease in the concentration of testosterone was observed in only irradiated mice compared with the ATV plus irradiated. In addition, the histological examination showed Johnsen Score in the IR group was lower compared to ATV pretreated groups. ATV significantly reduced caspase-3 immunoreactivity induced by irradiation. The results from this study suggest that ATV at low dose has a protective effect against irradiation-induced testicular damage. This result provides a new indication of ATV for protection of testis during radiation therapy in treatment of cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Public awareness of testis cancer and the prevalence of testicular self-examination-changing patterns over 20 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Rowan G

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Delay in treatment of testis cancer (TC) has a proven negative impact on disease stage, treatment outcome, and mortality. Poor public awareness of the disease and lack of testis self-examination (TSE) may account for late presentation. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge of TC and performance of TSE in a group of men over 2 time periods 20 years apart. METHODS: In the current study, 677 men from a banking institution were surveyed on their knowledge of TC and their performance of TSE. Comparisons were made from the current data and those from the original study in 1986. RESULTS: This study demonstrates an increase in public awareness and modest concomitant increase in TSE since first studied in this country in 1986. There was no difference in knowledge across age groups in this study. Furthermore, men who demonstrate a superior degree of knowledge were more likely to perform TSE. Limitations included possible selection bias in the 2 studies conducted in a banking institution. CONCLUSIONS: Increased testicular cancer knowledge combined with TSE may have a role in improving detection of significant testicular pathology.

  19. Bifocal Presentation of Primary Testicular Extranasal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naboush

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Testicular lymphoma is an aggressive disease with a very poor prognosis. Nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL-N in particular is very uncommon and has a rapidly progressive, fatal course. Case Report. We report a case of primary NKTCL-N of the testis in a 38-years-old Middle Eastern man. The patient had a history of primary right testicular tumor diagnosed at an outside institution as a seminoma and treated with orchiectomy followed by chemo/radiation. On admission, the patient had an enormous nasal granuloma with blood workup showing pancytopenia and elevated liver function tests due to active hepatitis B infection. CT scan of the sinuses showed a very large soft tissue mass, and PET scan showed splenomegaly with multiple lymph node masses in the pelvis and the chest areas. Bone marrow and nasal tumor biopsies as well as review of the slides from the initial orchiectomy were all in favor of NKTCL-N lymphoma. The patient was treated with CHOD based combination chemotherapy and responded dramatically to the first two cycles but passed away from fulminant hepatitis B infection. Conclusion. Despite all known treatments of NKTCL-N lymphoma of the testes, this disease has a very poor prognosis and invariably follows an aggressive clinical course.

  20. Interactive effects of ethanol on ulcerative colitis and its associated testicular dysfunction in pubertal BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ajayi, Babajide O; Awogbindin, Ifeoluwa O; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-11-01

    Available epidemiological reports have indicated an increase in the incidence of ulcerative colitis, as well as alcohol consumption, globally. The present study investigated the possible interactive effects of ethanol consumption on ulcerative colitis and its associated testicular dysfunction using six groups of 12 pubertal mice each. Group I (Control) mice received drinking water alone. Group II mice received ethanol alone at 5 g/kg body weight. Group III mice received 2.5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in drinking water followed by normal drinking water. Groups IV, V, and VI mice received DSS followed by ethanol at 1.25, 2.5, and 5 g/kg, respectively. Administration of ethanol to mice with ulcerative colitis intensified the disease-activity index with marked reduction in colon length, colon mass index, body weight gain, and organo-somatic indices of testes and epididymis when compared with the DSS-alone group. Moreover, ethanol exacerbated colitis-mediated decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants but increased the oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in the testes and epididymis. The diminution in luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone levels was intensified following administration of ethanol to mice with ulcerative colitis that were administered 5 g/kg ethanol alone. The decrease in sperm functional parameters and testicular spermatogenic indices as well as histopathological damage in colon, testes, and epididymis was aggravated following administration of ethanol to mice with ulcerative colitis. In conclusion, the exacerbating effects of ethanol on ulcerative colitis-induced testicular dysfunction are related to increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the treated mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chromosomal imbalances associated with carcinoma in situ and associated testicular germ cell tumours of adolescents and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summersgill, B; Osin, P; Lu, Y-J; Huddart, R; Shipley, J

    2001-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) or intratubular germ cell neoplasia is generally considered the precursor lesion of adult testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT). The chromosomal imbalances associated with CIS and the corresponding seminoma (SE) or nonseminoma (NS) have been determined by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis of microdissected material from seven cases. Significantly, the CIS showed no gain of 12p material whereas in the invasive components of all cases gain of 12p was found, in 2 cases associated with amplification of the 12p11.2–12.1 region. Interphase fluorescence in situ analysis was consistent with this and provided evidence for the i(12p) or 12p11.2–12.1 amplification in the SE and NS but not in the corresponding CIS. This suggests a role for these changes in progression of CIS to invasive testicular cancer or progression of the invasive disease. Other imbalances such as gain of material from chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 8, 12q and X and loss of material from chromosome 18 were frequently identified (> 40% of cases) in the CIS associated with both SE and NS as well as in the invasive components. Loss of material from chromosome 4 and 13 and gain of 2p were more frequently found in the invasive components. The results shed light on the genetic relationship between the non-invasive and invasive components of testicular cancer and the stage at which particular chromosomal changes may be important. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11461079

  2. PET/Computed Tomography in Renal, Bladder, and Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Choyke, Peter L

    2015-07-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Hybrid imaging with PET/computed tomography (CT) is having a broad impact in oncology, and in recent years PET/CT is beginning to have an impact in urooncology. In both bladder and renal cancers, there is a need to study the efficacy of other tracers than F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), particularly tracers with limited renal excretion. Thus, new tracers are being introduced. This review focuses on the clinical role of FDG and other PET agents in renal, bladder, and testicular cancers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Environmental effects on hormonal regulation of testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Virtanen, H E; Skakkebaek, N E

    2006-01-01

    Regulation of testicular descent is hormonally regulated, but the reasons for maldescent remain unknown in most cases. The main regulatory hormones are Leydig cell-derived testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3). Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the secretion of these hormones...... hormone secretion without increased gonadotropin drive. This may be either the cause or consequence of cryptorchidism. Some phthalates act as anti-androgens and cause cryptorchidism in rodents. In our human material we found an association of a high phthalate exposure with a high LH/testosterone ratio. We...

  4. PET/CT in renal, bladder and testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Physician, Chief; Choyke, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Hybrid imaging with PET/CT is having a broad impact in oncology, and in recent years PET/CT is beginning to have an impact in uro-oncology as well. In both bladder and renal cancer there is a need to study the efficacy of other tracers than F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), particularly tracers with only limited renal excretion. Thus, new tracers are being introduced in these malignancies. This review focuses on the clinical role of FDG and other PET agents in renal, bladder and testicular cancer. PMID:26099672

  5. Testicular mixed germ cell tumor with polyembryoma component in brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaris, Sevgi; Resim, Sefa; Tunali, Nurdan

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old male with a testicular tumor and high serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein. The patient was treated with surgery followed by combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin. Histologic examination showed features of a mixed germ cell tumor composed of mature teratoma, immature teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and polyembryoma. He is currently well, and his serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein have been normal more than 5 months after treatment. His brother, aged 17 years at the time, had a similar tumor removed from the right testicle 5 years previously.

  6. Surgical Management of Cystic Calculi and Testicular Tumour in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abu Rafee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A ten year old male uncastrated spitz dog weighing 10 kg was presented with a history of straining to urinate, dribbling blood tinged urine from the prepuce, anorexia and distended abdomen since 4 days and enlargement of scrotum since one month. The physical examination showed asymmetrical testicles and tense abdomen. Radiography and ultrasonography diagnosed cystic calculi. Cystotomy and retropulsion was done to remove all the calculi from the urinary bladder and removal of testis along with scrotal ablation was performed for testicular tumour. After 6 months, animal was presented with tumour between phalanges which was removed surgically.

  7. The diagnostic impact of testicular biopsies for intratubular germ cell neoplasia in cryptorchid boys and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer in men with prepubertal surgery for syndromic or non-syndromic cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, Lene; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cryptorchidism is a risk factor for testicular cancer in adult life. It remains unclear how prepubertal surgery for cryptorchidism impacts later development of adult testicular cancer. The aim of study was to investigate tools to identify the cryptorchid boys who later develop...... testicular cancer. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 1403 men operated prepubertally/pubertally for undescended testis between 1971 and 2003. At surgery testicular biopsies were taken from the cryptorchid testes. The boys were followed for occurrence of testicular cancer. The testicular cancer risk....... We identified 16 cases with testicular cancer in adulthood. The standardized incidence ratio was 2.66 (95% CI: 1.52-4.32). At time of primary surgery in prepubertal/pubertal age Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia (ITGCN) was diagnosed in 5 cases and the boys were unilaterally orchiectomized. At follow...

  8. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat increase, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Peter-Paul M; van der Meer, Rutger W; Burggraaf, Jacobus; van Elderen, Saskia G C; de Kam, Marieke L; de Roos, Albert; Lamb, Hildo J; Osanto, Susanne

    2014-03-01

    Testicular cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy are at increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We explored acute effects of chemotherapy by assessing metabolic factors, abdominal fat volume, hepatic triglyceride content (HTC) and aortic wall stiffness. We studied 19 testicular cancer patients (age 20-54 years) before, at three and nine months after the start of chemotherapy. Blood serum was analyzed for lipids, glucose and insulin. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat volume and aortic pulse wave velocity were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques; HTC was measured by proton MR spectroscopy. Three months after start of chemotherapy visceral abdominal fat volume had significantly increased from 202 ± 141 to 237 ± 153 ml (p = 0.009) whereas body mass index and subcutaneous fat volume significantly increased nine months after treatment from 24.4 ± 4.0 to 26.4 ± 4.1 kg/m(2) (p = 0.01) and from 556 ± 394 to 668 ± 460 ml (p = 0.002) respectively. Serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin also significantly increased three months after start of treatment from 4.88 ± 1.1 to 5.61 ± 1.50 mmol/l (p = 0.002), 3.31 ± 1.16 to 3.73 ± 1.41 mmol/l (p = 0.02) and 5.7 ± 4.4 to 9.6 ± 6.3 mU/ml (p = 0.03), respectively. Nine months after start of chemotherapy serum lipid and insulin concentrations had returned to baseline. HTC increased in seven of the 19 patients (36.8%) during follow-up. Aortic pulse wave velocity remained unchanged at the three time points measured. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was associated with acute insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and an immediate increase in abdominal visceral adipose tissue and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in testicular cancer patients. A large prospective cohort study with long follow-up is warranted to characterize the time course and relationship between acutely induced obesity and hypercholesterolemia and the development

  9. Yolk sac tumor in a patient with transverse testicular ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yi-Ping

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE is a rare anomaly in which both testes descend through a single inguinal canal. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the ectopic testis of a patient with TTE. A 24-year-old man presented to our hospital with a left inguinal-mass, right cryptorchidism and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. A left herniotomy 3 years earlier demonstrated both testes in the left scrotum, one above another positionally. Four months ago, a left scrotal mass appeared and radical orchiectomy of both testes revealed testicular yolk sac tumor of the ectopic testis. An enlarging left inguinal-mass appeared 2 months ago and he was referred to our hospital. Laboratory data showed an elevation of AFP (245.5 ng/ml and a 46 XY karyotype. He underwent bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and simultaneous left inguinal mass dissection. Histopathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of recurrent yolk sac tumor in the left inguinal mass. The retroperitoneal lymph node was not enlarged and, on histopathology, was not involved. The patient has now been followed up for 8 months without evidence of biochemical or radiological recurrence.

  10. Alcohol-based solutions for bovine testicular tissue fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nelson C; Espinoza, Jorge R; Vargas-Jentzsch, Paul; Sandoval, Patricio; Ramos, Luis A; Aponte, Pedro M

    2017-01-01

    Tissue fixation, a central element in histotechnology, is currently performed with chemical compounds potentially harmful for human health and the environment. Therefore, alternative fixatives are being developed, including alcohol-based solutions. We evaluated several ethanol-based mixtures with additives to study fixative penetration rate, tissue volume changes, and morphologic effects in the bovine testis. Fixatives used were Bouin solution, 4% formaldehyde (F4), 70% ethanol (E70), E70 with 1.5% glycerol (E70G), E70 with 5% acetic acid (E70A), E70 with 1.5% glycerol and 5% acetic acid (E70AG), and E70 with 1.5% glycerol, 5% acetic acid, and 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; E70AGD). Five-millimeter bovine testicular tissue cubes could be completely penetrated by ethanol-based fixatives and Bouin solution in 2-3 h, whereas F4 required 21 h. Bouin solution produced general tissue shrinkage, whereas the other fixatives (alcohol-based and F4) caused tissue volume expansion. Although Bouin solution is an excellent fixative for testicular tissue, ethanol-based fixatives showed good penetration rates, low tissue shrinkage, and preserved sufficient morphology to allow identification of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, therefore representing a valid alternative for histotechnology laboratories. Common additives such as acetic acid, glycerol, and DMSO offered marginal benefits for the process of fixation; E70AG showed the best preservation of morphology with excellent nuclear detail, close to that of Bouin solution.

  11. Testicular touch preparation cytology in the evaluation of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Z Yildiz-Aktas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male infertility is traditionally evaluated by tissue core biopsies of the testes. Touch preparations (TP of these biopsies have been infrequently used. The aim of this study is to report our experience with using testicular biopsy TP for the evaluation of male infertility. Materials and Methods: A retrospective search was performed for cases of testes biopsies with concurrent TP. These cases were evaluated for clinical information, specimen adequacy, and cytological-histological correlation. Results: A total of 39 cases were identified from men with a mean age of 34 years (range 23 to 50 years. TP slides were satisfactory for evaluation in 31 (89% cases, and less than optimal in four due to low cellularity, obscuring blood or air drying artifact. Cytopathology showed concordance with the biopsy in almost all cases. In one discordant case where the biopsies showed no active spermatogenesis, a rare sperm were identified on the TP. Conclusions: TP of the testis is a helpful adjunct to biopsy because of its ability to clearly evaluate all stages of spermatogenesis. These data demonstrate that TP cytopathology of the testes in our experience has an excellent correlation with both normal testicular biopsies and those showing pathological spermatogenesis, and in rare cases may provide added benefit in evaluating the presence of spermatogenesis for male infertility. Albeit uncommon, cytopathologists may be required to identify and evaluate spermatogenic elements in cytology specimens being submitted from men with infertility.

  12. Alopecia universalis in a dog with testicular neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outerbridge, Catherine A; White, Stephen D; Affolter, Verena K

    2016-12-01

    To describe a case of testicular neoplasia and alopecia universalis in a dog, and successful treatment of the latter with ciclosporin. Twelve-year-old intact male wirehaired fox terrier. Castration, skin biopsy for histopathology, lymphocyte immunophenotyping and clonality analysis of the canine T-cell receptor gamma locus (TCRγ) rearrangement. The dog presented with symmetrical generalized alopecia. Testicular enlargement was noted which on castration was determined to be caused by bilateral interstitial cell tumours, Sertoli cell tumours and a unilateral seminoma. During the four months after castration the alopecia became more severe and widespread. Histopathology of the skin showed moderate, multifocal, mural folliculitis, peribulbar mucinosis and lymphocytic bulbitis, and targeting of anagen hair follicles. Immunophenotyping of the infiltrate showed a population of well-differentiated, small CD3-positive T lymphocytes, some expressing CD4 and others CD8. Molecular analysis revealed a polyclonal lymphocytic infiltrate, substantiating the diagnosis of alopecia areata rather than lymphoma. Treatment with ciclosporin (4.6 mg/kg) and ketoconazole (4.6 mg/kg) resulted in complete hair regrowth. Ciclosporin treatment, in combination with ketoconazole, can be effective for treatment of alopecia universalis in the dog. Alopecia universalis may present with clinically noninflammatory, symmetrical, generalized alopecia, mimicking an endocrine alopecia, and skin biopsies are needed to confirm the diagnosis. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Prevention of torsion-induced testicular injury by Rhodiola rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeturk, Ugur; Terzi, E Hakan; Gucuk, Adnan; Kemahli, Eray; Ozturk, Hayrettin; Tosun, Mehmet

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of Rhodiola rosea (R. rose) extract in terms of preventing tissue injury induced by testicular torsion and subsequent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Twenty-one Wistar albino male rats were divided into 3 groups: group 1 = control group, group 2 = I/R group, and group 3 = I/R + extract group. After 2 hours of ischemia and 4 hours of reperfusion, testes were removed and evaluated histologically by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Apoptosis in spermatogonial cells of seminiferous tubules was determined by transferase biotin-2'-deoxyuridine, 5'-triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL). To assess oxidative damage, serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. Median MDA and GSH levels were, respectively, 12 ± 3 pmol/mL and 24.8 ± 3.8 μM in group 1, 38 ± 11 pmol/mL and 10.3 ± 1.7 μM in group 2, and 19 ± 5 pmol/mL and 17.6 ± 1.3 μM in group 3 (P rosea extract was shown to have partially preventive effects on testicular injury induced by torsion in this rat model. The mechanism by which R. rosea extract cause these effects merits further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Corporal and testicular biometry in wild boar from birth to 12 months of age

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    Danillo Velloso Ferreira Murta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this tudy was to evaluate corporal and testicular development in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa from birth to 12 months of age, evaluating body weight, biometric testicular parameters, and gonadosomatic index. Thirty-nine male wild boars from a commercial farm licensed by IBAMA were used in the study. The animals were weighed and assigned to 13 experimental groups. The testes were recovered through unilateral orchiectomy, weighed on an analytical balance and measured for length, width and thickness. Body weight and testicular measures increased with the age, up to 12 months, and were more accelerated in the first and ninth months. Initially the testicular growth pattern, between zero and nine months, followed the body growth, and the gonadosomatic index varied from 0.07 to 0.09%. Between 9 and 11 months, the testicular growth was superior to the body growth, and the gonadosomatic index varied from 0.09 to 0.16%. Finally, after 11 months of age, testicular and body growth had a similar behavior. In conclusion, body weight, testicular biometry, and gonadosomatic index development accelerated in the ninth month.

  15. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

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    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function.

  16. Testicular shape and andrological aspects of young Nellore bulls under extensive farming

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    Jeanne Broch Siqueira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to determine the relationship between the frequency of testicular shape and the andrological aspects in young Nellore bulls, 18,676 animals were assessed. All andrological examinations were performed between the years 2000 and 2008. Animals were classified as able for breeding, able for breeding in natural mating system, unable for breeding and discarded. The testicular shape was classified as long, fairly long, oval-long, spherical-oval, and spherical. The analysis of Pearson correlations was performed for testicular shape with scrotal circumference, testicular volume, progressive motility, sperm vigor, major defects, minor defects and total defects. Testicles with oval shape prevailed (99.61%. It was obseved that 76.34; 66.34; 64.34; 58.33 and 50.00% of the animals were classified as sound for breeding for shapes long, fairly long, oval-long, spherical-oval, and spherical, respectively. Correlations between testicular shape with scrotal circumference, testicular volume, progressive motility, sperm vigor, major, minor and total defects were 0.26; 0.08; 0.00; 0.11; -0.02; 0.02 and -0.01, respectively. Testicular shape had no influence upon the andrological examination results. Testicles of long shape were prevalent within the population.

  17. Applied anatomic study of testicular veins in adult cadavers and in human fetuses

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    Luciano A. Favorito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Analyze the anatomic variations of the testicular veins in human cadavers and fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred male adult cadavers and 24 fetuses were studied. Four anatomic aspects were considered: 1 Number of testicular veins, 2 The local of vein termination, 3 Type and number of collaterals present and 4 Testicular vein termination angle. RESULTS: Cadavers - Right side - One testicular vein occurred in 85% and 2 veins in 5% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 21% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 82%, two veins in 15%, three veins in 2% and four veins in 1% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 31% of the cases. Fetuses - Right side -One testicular vein occurred in all cases. This vein drained to the vena cava in 83.3% of the cases, to the junction of the vena cava with the renal vein in 12.5% and to the renal vein in 4.2%. There were communicating veins with the colon in 25% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 66.6% of the cases, and 2 veins in occurred 33.3%. Communicating veins with the colon were found in 41.6% of the cases. CONCLUSION: The testicular vein presents numeric variations and also variations in its local of termination. In approximately 30% of the cases, there are collaterals that communicate the testicular vein with retroperitoneal veins. These anatomic findings can help understanding the origin of varicocele and its recurrence after surgical interventions.

  18. The role of apparent diffusion coefficient values in detecting testicular intraepithelial neoplasia: Preliminary results

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    Tsili, Athina C., E-mail: a_tsili@yahoo.gr [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Ntorkou, Alexandra, E-mail: alexdorkou@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Baltogiannis, Dimitrios, E-mail: Greece.dbaltog@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Urology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Goussia, Anna, E-mail: agoussia@uoi.gr [Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G., E-mail: astrakas@uoi.gr [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Malamou-Mitsi, Vasiliki, E-mail: vmalamou@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Sofikitis, Nikolaos, E-mail: akrosnin@hotmail.com [Department of Urology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I., E-mail: margyrop@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • ADC values proved useful in the discrimination between TGCNs and normal testis. • Testicular intraepithelial neoplasia represents the precursor of most TGCNs. • ADC values cannot be used to detect testicular intraepithelial neoplasia. - Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study is to improve detection of testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) by measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Materials and methods: Fifty-six MRI examinations of the scrotum, including 26 histologically proven testicular germ cell neoplasms were retrospectively evaluated. DWI was performed using a single shot, multi-slice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 900 s mm{sup −2}. ADC measurements were classified into three groups according to their location: group 1 (n = 19), non-tumoral part, adjacent to testicular carcinoma, where the possible location of TIN was; group 2 (n = 26), testicular carcinoma; and group 3 (n = 60), normal testicular parenchyma. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc analysis (Dunnett T3) was used for statistical purposes. Results: The mean ± s.d. of ADC values (×10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) of different groups were: group 1, 1.08 ± 0.20; group 2, 0.72 ± 0.27; and group 3, 1.11 ± 0.14. ANOVA revealed differences of mean ADC between groups (F = 38.859, P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed differences between groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.001), groups 2 and 1 (P < 0.001), but not between groups 3 and 1 (P = 0.87). Conclusions: Based on our preliminary results, ADC values do not provide a reliable differentiation between TIN and testicular carcinoma or normal testicular parenchyma.

  19. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats.

  20. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MInguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    , and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free...... testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest...... that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function....

  1. Hernia uterine inguinale with transverse testicular ectopia and mixed germ cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshekhar C Jaka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent mullerian duct syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of uterus and fallopian tube in 46XY phenotypic males and is ascribed to defects in the synthesis or action of anti-mullerian hormone. We report a rare case of hernia uterine inguinale, transverse testicular ectopia associated with mixed germ cell tumor of the testis with metastasis. Transverse testicular ectopia should be suspected preoperatively in patients who have unilateral inguinal hernia associated with contralateral nonpalpable testis. In such cases ultrasonography should be done prior to repair of hernia to evaluate the possible presence of mullerian structures and testicular malignancy, for better management.

  2. Seminoma in a Man with Russell-Silver Syndrome Presenting with Testicular Torsion

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    Satoshi Funada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS is a type of primordial dwarfism. Only one case of testicular cancer in RSS has been reported, the pathology of which was nonseminoma. Here, we report a case of seminoma in a 36-year-old man who was diagnosed with RSS at birth. The seminoma was diagnosed when the patient presented with testicular torsion. This is the first report of testicular seminoma in an RSS patient in the literature. We also discussed the correlation between seminoma and RSS.

  3. Reproductive hormones and metabolic syndrome in 24 testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandak, M; Jørgensen, N; Juul, A; Lauritsen, J; Kier, M G G; Mortensen, M S; Oturai, P S; Mortensen, J; Hojman, P; Helge, J W; Daugaard, G

    2017-07-01

    Testicular cancer survivors have impaired gonadal function and increased risk of metabolic syndrome when compared to healthy controls. However, because of the fetal etiology of testicular cancer, familial unrelated healthy men might not be an optimal control group. The objective of this study was to clarify if testicular cancer survivors have impaired gonadal function and increased risk of metabolic syndrome when compared to their biological brothers. A cross-sectional study of testicular cancer survivors (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02240966) was conducted between 2014 and 2016. Of 158 testicular cancer survivors included, 24 had a biological brother who accepted to participate in the study. Serum levels of reproductive hormones and prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to International Diabetes Federation Criteria and National Cholesterol Education Program (Adult Treatment Panel III) criteria comprised the main outcome measures of the study. Median age was similar in testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers [44 years (IQR 39-50) vs. 46 (40-53) years respectively (p = 0.1)]. In testicular cancer survivors, follow-up since treatment was 12 years (7-19). Serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were elevated (p ≤ 0.001), while total testosterone, free testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone were lower (p ≤ 0.001) in testicular cancer survivors than in their biological brothers. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was similar and apart from HDL-cholesterol, which was lower in testicular cancer survivors (p = 0.01); there were no differences in the individual components of the metabolic syndrome between testicular cancer survivors and their brothers. In conclusion, gonadal function was impaired in testicular cancer survivors, while we did not detect any difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers. © 2017 American

  4. A rare diagnosis: testicular dysgenesis with carcinoma in situ detected in a patient with ultrasonic microlithiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Sommer, Peter; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    -year-old man presenting with mild scrotal pain and ultrasonic testicular microlithiasis. Knowledge of the association of ultrasound and CIS is important to diagnose patients at the stage prior to development of an overt germ cell tumor. The patient had three of four disorders considered symptoms...... of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS): a dysgenetic left testicle with CIS, a mild left-sided cryptorchidism (high positioned scrotal hypotrophic testis) and a slightly reduced semen quality. Therefore, it should be kept in mind that a patient with one TDS symptom may harbour the other, even CIS or testicular...

  5. Medical ozone therapy reduces oxidative stress and testicular damage in an experimental model of testicular torsion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusat, Mustafa; Mentese, Ahmet; Demir, Selim; Alver, Ahmet; Imamoglu, Mustafa

    2017-06-14

    Testicular torsion (TT) refers to rotation of the testis and twisting of the spermatic cord. TT results in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury involving increased oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, and can even lead to infertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ozone therapy on testicular damage due to I/R injury in an experimental torsion model. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups; sham-operated, torsion/detorsion (T/D), and T/D+ozone. Ozone (1mg/kg) was injected intraperi-toneally 120 minutes before detorsion and for the following 24h. Blood and tissue samples were collected at the end of 24h. Johnsen score, ischemia modified albumin (IMA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels were determined. Levels of IMA, TOS, OSI, and histopathological scores increased in the serum/tissue of the rats in the experimental T/D group. Serum IMA, TOS, and OSI levels and tissue histo-pathological scores were lower in the rats treated with ozone compared with the T/D group. Our study results suggest that ozone therapy may exhibit beneficial effects on both biochemical and histopathological findings. Clinical trials are now necessary to confirm this. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  6. Alemtuzumab and Glucocorticoids in Treating Newly Diagnosed Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients Who Have Undergone a Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Graft Versus Host Disease; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  7. MGMT and CALCA promoter methylation are associated with poor prognosis in testicular germ cell tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Camila Maria da Silva; Lengert, André van Helvoort; Cárcano, Flavio Mavignier; Silva, Eduardo Caetano Albino; Brait, Mariana; Lopes, Luiz Fernando; Vidal, Daniel Onofre

    2017-08-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) represent the second main cause of cancer-related death in young men. Despite high cure rates, refractory disease results in poor prognosis. Epigenetic reprogramming occurs during the development of seminomas and non-seminomas. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of these tumors would represent an important advance in the search for new TGCT molecular markers. Hence the frequency of methylation of a gene panel (VGF, MGMT, ADAMTS1, CALCA, HOXA9, CDKN2B, CDO1 and NANOG) was evaluated in 72 primary TGCT by quantitative methylation specific PCR. A high frequency of MGMT (90.9%, 20/22; p=0.019) and CALCA (90.5%, 19/21; p<0.026) methylation was associated with non-seminomatous tumors while CALCA methylation was also associated with refractory disease (47.4%, 09/19; p=0.005). Moreover, promoter methylation of both genes predicts poor clinical outcome for TGCT patients (5-year EFS: 50.5% vs 77.1%; p=0.032 for MGMT and 51.3% vs 77.0%; p=0.029 for CALCA). The findings of this study indicate that methylation of MGMT and CALCA are frequent and could be used as new molecular markers of prognosis in TGCT.

  8. Anxiety and depression in long-term testicular germ cell tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehling, S; Mehnert, A; Hartmann, M; Oing, C; Bokemeyer, C; Oechsle, K

    2016-01-01

    Despite a good prognosis, the typically young age at diagnosis and physical sequelae may cause psychological distress in germ cell tumor survivors. We aimed to determine the frequency of anxiety and depression and analyze the impact of demographic and disease-related factors. We enrolled N=164 testicular germ cell tumor survivors receiving routine follow-up care at the University Cancer Center Hamburg and a specialized private practice (mean, 11.6 years after diagnosis). Patients completed the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form. We found clinically significant anxiety present in 6.1% and depression present in 7.9% of survivors. A higher number of physical symptoms and having children were significantly associated with higher levels of both anxiety and depression in multivariate regression analyses controlling for age at diagnosis, cohabitation, socioeconomic status, time since diagnosis, metastatic disease and relapse. Younger age at diagnosis and shorter time since diagnosis were significantly associated with higher anxiety. Although rates of clinically relevant anxiety and depression were comparably low, attention toward persisting physical symptoms and psychosocial needs related to a young age at diagnosis and having children will contribute to address potential long-term psychological distress in germ cell tumor survivors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF MALE INFERTILITY BY TESTICULAR BIOPSY IN SOUTHERN ODISHA

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    Sujata Naik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Infertility continues to be a significant problem since ages. Studies suggest that the problem affects 8-12% of couples across the globe, and among these affected couples, approximately 50% cases are contributed by the male partner. Semen analysis is the first investigation that indicates towards male factor in infertility. Finding the cause of infertility in cases of severe oligozoospermia and azoospermia by evaluating testicular biopsies has now become essential with the availability of Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART, which gives information about the level of spermatogenesis. The present study was undertaken to detect the histological findings in cases of male infertility in this geographic region. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in which testicular biopsies received from 52 infertile male patients with seminogram impressions of very severe oligozoospermia and azoospermia constituted the study group. Detailed clinical data including the LH. FSH and testosterone hormone levels were recorded. Tissue samples were routinely processed and Haematoxylin and Eosin stained were made. Modified Johnsen scoring was used to categorise each case. RESULTS 86.5% cases in the study group were found to have azoospermia and rest 13.5% cases had severe oligozoospermia. All the cases were histologically classified into six categories- obstructive pathology 25 of 52 cases (48.1%, pure germ cell aplasia 14 of 52 cases (26.9%, maturation arrest 7 of 52 cases (13.5%, atrophic testis 4 of 52 cases (7.7%, hypospermatogenesis 1 of 52 cases (1.9% and inconclusive in 1 of 52 cases. Serum FSH and serum LH levels were found significantly raised in cases of pure germ cell aplasia and atrophic testis in contrast cases of obstructive aetiology had normal levels. Modified Johnsen scoring values were 9 in cases with obstructive pathology, 1/2 only in cases of pure germ cell aplasia and atrophic testes and 3 to 6 in cases

  10. Reversible Testicular Toxicity of Piperine on Male Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinta, Gopichand; Coumar, Mohane Selvaraj; Periyasamy, Latha

    2017-10-01

    Piperine was widely used in traditional medicine for inducing sterility and abortion. To evaluate the effect of the piperine on testis of male albino rats. Adult male rats were divided into four groups (n = 12). Group I (control): Rats were given vehicle p.o. i.e. 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose in normal saline daily for 60 days, Group II (ED): Rats received piperine at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) daily, Group III (E4D): Rats received piperine at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. on every 4(th) day, Group IV (E7D): Rats received piperine at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. on every 7(th) day. Half of the animals from each group were sacrificed after the treatment period (60 days), and the remaining were kept for drug-free withdrawal period (60 days) and then sacrificed. Piperine significantly decreased the reproductive organ weights in groups ED and E4D. Piperine induced hormonal imbalance by altering the serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone binding globulin, serum, and testicular testosterone in groups ED and E4D. Furthermore, piperine decreased the activity of germ cell markers and Leydig cellular steroidogenic enzymes in the groups ED and E4D after 60 days. All the above-altered values returned to normal levels after withdrawal period. Histopathological findings also supported the above findings. From the above data, it can be concluded that piperine could be a good lead molecule for the development of reversible oral male contraceptive. Piperine was employed for the contraceptive purposes in traditional medicinePiperine significantly impaired the spermatogenesis by decreasing the testicular hormone synthesis in groups ED and E4DPiperine disrupted the testicular antioxidant system by promoting the ROS production and hydroxyl radical generation in rat testis in groups ED and E4DHistopathological evidence supported the disruption of spermatogenesis by piperineAll the effects of piperine after the treatment period (i.e. 60 days) were

  11. Early detection of testicular cancer: revisiting the role of self-efficacy in testicular self-examination among young asymptomatic males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Kanayo; Chadwick, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that self-efficacy is an important factor in behaviors that facilitate the early-detection of various cancers. In general people with high self-efficacy are more likely to attend cancer screening sessions or perform bodily self-exams. However, there is a paucity of research focusing on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination (TSE). The effect of self-efficacy on TSE remains unclear especially given the relative obscurity of the testicular cancer threat, and appropriate clinical- and self-detection procedures, in the young asymptomatic male population. Thus, the present study tested the interaction of self-efficacy with young men's appraisals of the threat of testicular cancer. The study was based on 2 × 2 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design. Over 100 young asymptomatic men were exposed to a health warning about testicular cancer and randomly assigned to high/low self-efficacy, vulnerability, and severity conditions. High self-efficacy increased motivation to perform TSE given high vulnerability, but damaged attitudes to self-exams given low vulnerability and severity estimates. High self-efficacy also facilitated subsequent TSE. Overall, these findings support preexisting notions of self-efficacy but raise new questions about the moderating effects of threat appraisals.

  12. Utilization of sperm banking and barriers to its use in testicular cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, D W; Brames, M J; Case-Eads, S; Einhorn, L H

    2015-09-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common carcinoma in 20- to 40-year-old men. Eighty percent of patients with metastases achieve disease-free status with chemotherapy with or without surgical resection. Standard first-line chemotherapy is bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) for three to four courses or etoposide and cisplatin (EP) for four courses. Forty percent of patients receiving chemotherapy will have permanently reduced sperm counts impairing future fertility. Sperm banking is an effective method of maintaining fertility. This retrospective study was performed to assess utilization and results from sperm banking, as well as the barriers to its use. Patients 18 and older who had received chemotherapy were given a five-item questionnaire on follow-up visit. This questionnaire included a mix of quantitative and qualitative questions. Two hundred patients enrolled in the study, and all 200 completed the questionnaire. Of the two hundred, 139 (70 %) patients chose not to bank sperm; 71 (51 %) of those were not interested, 25 (18 %) declined due to desire to start chemotherapy, 24 (17 %) were not offered, 12 (9 %) declined due to cost, and 7 (5 %) answered "other." The average age at cancer diagnosis of patients who banked sperm was 28.4 as opposed to 32.6 for patients who did not (p = 0.003). The percentage of patients that had children before their diagnosis was 21 % in the sperm banking group, and 50 % in the group that did not (p = 0.0002). Sixty-one (30 %) chose to bank sperm; 11 of 61 patients (18 %) utilized the banked sperm; 9 of 11 (82 %) patients that utilized were successful; and 3 of 9 (33 %) successes resulted in multiple gestations. Sperm banking provides the opportunity for paternity in testicular cancer patients with reduced sperm counts following treatment. However, the majority of these patients chose not to bank sperm or were not offered the opportunity. A range of factors such as time, emotional state, patient age, disease stage, prior

  13. Involvement of epigenetic modifiers in the pathogenesis of testicular dysgenesis and germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Andreas C.; Almstrup, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer manifests mainly in young adults as a seminoma or non-seminoma. The solid tumors are preceded by the presence of a non-invasive precursor cell, the carcinoma in situ cell (CIS), which shows great similarity to fetal germ cells. It is therefore hypothesized that the CIS...... cell is a fetal germ cell that has been arrested during development due to testicular dysgenesis. CIS cells retain a fetal and open chromatin structure, and recently several epigenetic modifiers have been suggested to be involved in testicular dysgenesis in mice. We here review the possible involvement...... of epigenetic modifiers with a focus on jumonji C enzymes in the development of testicular dysgenesis and germ cell cancer in men....

  14. Direct effects of microgravity on testicular function: analysis of hystological, molecular and physiologic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Esposito, R; Catizone, A; Galdieri, M

    2008-03-01

    Spaceflight experiments carried out in microgravity environments have revealed that exposure to altered gravity condition results in alteration of several cellular functions and, consequently, of several apparatuses. There is some evidence in the literature indicating that spaceflight affects the physiology of the testis. The data on effects of spaceflight or simulated microgravity on testicular function, however, sometimes appear contradictory. In the present study we used an in vitro experimental model in order to investigate the direct effects of microgravity on testicular tissue. We generated a microgravity environment using the Rotating Wall Vessel and performed experiments on testicular fragments isolated from pre-pubertal rats. In this model we then analyzed several parameters such as histological integrity, cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, occludin distribution pattern, and hormonal secretions. The emerging picture shows some alterations of testicular tissue physiology. Interestingly, we also demonstrate for the first time that, in organ culture, Leydig cell survival is severely affected by simulated microgravity.

  15. Grape juice concentrate (G8000®) intake mitigates testicular morphological and ultrastructural damage following cadmium intoxication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamas, Celina A; Gollücke, Andrea P.B; Dolder, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    ...‐oxidant and metal chelating properties. Since maintenance of tissue morphology is essential for testicular sperm development and hence male fertility, we analysed the protective effect of grape juice concentrate (GJC) (G8000...

  16. Chlorella Vulgaris Alleviates Lead-induced Testicular Toxicity Better than Zingiber Officinale: An Ultrastructural Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Hesham N.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorella Vulgaris Alleviates Lead-induced Testicular Toxicity Better than Zingiber Officinale: An Ultrastructural Study   XXIV International Symposium on Morphological Sciences, Prof. Dr. Cemil Bilsel Congress Hall, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey. Oral Presentation; 09/2015

  17. Sperm integrity pre- and post-chemotherapy in men with testicular germ cell cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spermon, J.R.; Ramos, L.; Wetzels, A.M.M.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Braat, D.D.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Witjes, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While (partial) recovery of spermatogenesis, observed by means of standard semen analysis, has been seen in testicular cancer patients after chemotherapy with cisplatin, sperm genomic integrity and its implication for the patient's fertility are poorly understood. METHODS: Semen and

  18. Crossover of the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal/interrenal, -thyroid, and -gonadal axes in testicular development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castañeda Cortés, Diana C; Langlois, Valerie S; Fernandino, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Besides the well-known function of thyroid hormones (THs) for regulating metabolism, it has recently been discovered that THs are also involved in testicular development in mammalian and non-mammalian species...

  19. Laparoscopic resection of a residual retroperitoneal tumor mass of nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozturk, Cigdem; van Ginkel, Robert J.; Krol, Ruby M.; Gietema, Jourik A.; Hofker, Hendrik S.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    Resection of a residual retroperitoneal tumor mass (RRRTM) is standard procedure after combination chemotherapy for metastatic nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors (NSTGCT). At the University Medical Center Groningen, 79 consecutive patients with disseminated NSTGCT were treated with

  20. Cervical mature teratoma 17 years after initial treatment of testicular teratocarcinoma: report of a late relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavion Mina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late relapses of testicular germ cell tumor are uncommon. We report a case of cervical mature teratoma appeared 17 years after treatment of testicular teratocarcinoma. Case presentation A 20- year- old patient underwent left sided orchiectomy followed by systemic therapy and retroperitoneal residual mass resection in 1989. He remained in complete remission for 200 months. In 2005 a huge left supraclavicular neck mass with extension to anterior mediastinum appeared. Radical surgical resection of the mass was performed and pathologic examination revealed mature teratoma. Conclusion This is one of the longest long-term reported intervals of a mature teratoma after treatment of a testicular nonseminoma germ cell tumor. This case emphasizes the necessity for follow up of testicular cancer throughout the patient's life.

  1. Resection of residual retroperitoneal masses in testicular cancer : Evaluation and improvement of selection criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyerberg, EW; Keizer, HJ; Fossa, SD; Sleijfer, DT; Bajorin, DF; Donohue, JP; Habbema, JDF

    1996-01-01

    Residual retroperitoneal masses may remain after chemotherapy for metastatic non-seminomatous testicular cancer, which harbour residual tumour or totally benign tissue (necrosis/fbrosis). These residual masses may be effectively removed by a surgical resection. We evaluated current selection

  2. Testicular Torsion in Cerebral Palsy - Resident's Grey Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalige, Hemanth S; N, Babitha; Maibam, Chetan; Sharma, M Birkumar; Singh, Th Sudhir Chandra

    2014-10-01

    The association of testicular torsion and cerebral palsy is a well-known fact. But the infrequent presentation to emergency room makes the clinician sceptical. Such a presentation often puzzles the residents regarding the diagnosis and the treatment. Here we present a case of an adolescent boy aged with cerebral palsy 13 years with incessant crying and not feeding well for last 3days. Right inguinal region showed a tender globular swelling with absence of testis in scrotum along with signs of septicaemia. The inguinal exploration was performed under general anaesthesia which revealed gangrenous right testis. Right orchidectomy and left orchidopexy was performed and the patient recovered well. This case is reported for its complexity due to lack of reliable history, delayed presentation and associated comorbidities posing challenges to the treating surgeons.

  3. "Burned out" testicular seminoma presenting as a primary gastric malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Hector; Rawal, Ajay; Rezcallah, Anthony; Iwamoto, Carlos; Niehans, Gloria A; Druck, Paul; Gupta, Pankaj

    2009-02-01

    In contrast to primary gastric adenocarcinomas, germ cell tumors are potentially curable even when metastatic. It is therefore essential for clinicians and pathologists to be aware of the spectrum of unusual manifestations of germ cell malignancies. Here we report on a 55-year-old man who presented with clinical and endoscopic features indicative of a primary gastric carcinoma. Surprisingly, the ulcerative mucosal lesion was found to be due to a metastasis from an occult, "burned-out" testicular seminoma. This case describes the radiological and pathological features that helped differentiate this rare situation from the much more common gastric adenocarcinoma, and extends the diagnostic possibilities that must be considered in patients presenting with gastric ulcers.

  4. Testicular microlithiasis is associated with ethnicity and socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland Vils; Bartlett, Emily C; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are limited studies about testicular microlithiasis (TML) and background information such as health, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of TML in relation to socioeconomic status and ethnicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From a database of scrotal...... on the examination report and a representative image obtained and stored. A total of 1105 cases with TML were reviewed and random sample of 1105 controls from the same database was also reviewed. Demographics were recorded including ethnicity (white, black, and others) and socioeconomic groups (IMD Quintile......). RESULTS: Black men had increased prevalence of TML (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.72-2.75) compared with white men. Among the 1105 TML cases, 423 (38.3%) were white, 273 (24.7%) black, 152 (13.8%) had other ethnicities, and 257 (23.2%) had no ethnicity recorded. In the control...

  5. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S

    2016-01-01

    patients and 145 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary pancreatic cancer was 1.1% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. Radiotherapy (72 (90%) cases and 115 (80%) controls) was associated......BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated among testicular cancer (TC) survivors. However, the roles of specific treatments are unclear. METHODS: Among 23 982 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1947-1991, doses from radiotherapy to the pancreas were estimated for 80 pancreatic cancer...... with the number of cycles of chemotherapy with alkylating or platinum agents (P=0.057), although only one case was exposed to platinum. CONCLUSIONS: A dose-response relationship exists between radiation to the pancreas and subsequent cancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small...

  6. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M

    2015-01-01

    for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received......BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend

  7. [Morphological contributions to the knowledge of testicular pathology (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resel, L; Bullon, A; Merchan, J

    1974-01-01

    Among a serie of more than 500 biopsies, the authors show some testicular lesions of difficult interpretation which do not seem to have been reported previously. The electron-microscopical findings are: Contrarily to the uniform thickening of the seminal tube's anhista basal hyalino -esclerosis, in the Klinefelter's syndrome, the anhista shows focal bizarre thickenings, which have been repeteadly observed in the 15 cases studied. Well defined collagen inside the Leydigs's cytoplasm the authors discuss the possible importance of this unique finding in a 28 years old azoospermyc as revealing cellular inmaturity (fibroblastic origin of the interstitial cells). In light microscopy, they discuss the role of the "Hiatus Germinalis", typical of the oligospermies, as related to alterations of the maturation process.

  8. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S; Stovall, Marilyn; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Rajaraman, Preetha; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Aleman, Berthe M P; Andersson, Michael; Curtis, Rochelle E; Dores, Graça M; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hall, Per; Holowaty, Eric J; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Langmark, Frøydis; Lynch, Charles F; Pukkala, Eero; Storm, Hans H; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Morton, Lindsay M; Fossa, Sophie D; Travis, Lois B

    2016-09-27

    Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated among testicular cancer (TC) survivors. However, the roles of specific treatments are unclear. Among 23 982 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1947-1991, doses from radiotherapy to the pancreas were estimated for 80 pancreatic cancer patients and 145 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Cumulative incidence of second primary pancreatic cancer was 1.1% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. Radiotherapy (72 (90%) cases and 115 (80%) controls) was associated with a 2.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-7.8) increased risk. The OR increased linearly by 0.12 per Gy to the pancreas (P-trendcancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small, should be considered when radiotherapy with exposure to the pancreas is considered for newly diagnosed patients. Additional data are needed on the role of chemotherapy.

  9. Quantitative software analysis of ultrasonographic textures in experimental testicular torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Kucukaslan, Ibrahim; Mulazimoglu, Serkan; Soyer, Tutku; Şenyücel, Mine; Çakmak, Murat; Scholbach, Jakob; Aslan, Selim

    2013-04-01

    Ultrasonography (US) has high diagnostic value in testicular torsion but is vulnerable to several potential errors, especially in the early period. Echotexture (ETX) analysis software provides a numerical expression of B-mode images and allows quantitative evaluation of blood flow due to ischemic damage using power Doppler US (PDUS) analysis. Our aim in this study was to determine the diagnostic value and effective parameters of EXT analysis software in the early period of torsion using B-mode and PDUS images. In this study, eight rats were used. Following anesthesia, the right testis was rotated to a 1080-degree counterclockwise position whereas the left testis was left in place to have a control group. B-mode and PDUS images of both sides were recorded with a portable US device immediately (0 hour) and 1 and 2 hours after torsion. The B-mode images were analyzed in terms of gradient, homogeneity, and contrast using the BS200pro software (BAB Digital Imaging System 2007, Ankara, Turkey). Intensity (I)-red and area (A)-red values were measured on PDUS images with the Pixelflux (Version 1.0, Chameleon-Software, Leipzig, Germany). The data were evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests. Data from B-mode US image EXT analysis showed no significant difference between the right and left testicles in 0 to 2 hours (p > 0.05). The values obtained from PDUS analysis (I-red and A-red) significantly decreased at the testicular torsion side at the end of the second hour (p 0.05) whereas the flow was significantly lower at 2 hours (p analysis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Gonadotropins regulate rat testicular tight junctions in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Mark J; Tarulli, Gerard A; Meachem, Sarah J; Robertson, David M; Smooker, Peter M; Stanton, Peter G

    2010-06-01

    Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) are an essential component of the blood-testis barrier required for spermatogenesis; however, the role of gonadotropins in their maintenance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gonadotropin suppression and short-term replacement on TJ function and TJ protein (occludin and claudin-11) expression and localization, in an adult rat model in vivo. Rats (n = 10/group) received the GnRH antagonist, acyline, for 7 wk to suppress gonadotropins. Three groups then received for 7 d: 1) human recombinant FSH, 2) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and rat FSH antibody (to study testicular androgen stimulation alone), and 3) hCG alone (to study testicular androgen and pituitary FSH production). TJ proteins were assessed by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, whereas TJ function was assessed with a biotin permeation tracer. Acyline treatment significantly reduced testis weights, serum androgens, LH and FSH, and adluminal germ cells (pachytene spermatocyte, round and elongating spermatids). In contrast to controls, acyline induced seminiferous tubule permeability to biotin, loss of tubule lumens, and loss of occludin, but redistribution of claudin-11, immunostaining. Short-term hormone replacement stimulated significant recoveries in adluminal germ cell numbers. In hCG +/- FSH antibody-treated rats, occludin and claudin-11 protein relocalized at the TJ, but such relocalization was minimal with FSH alone. Tubule lumens also reappeared, but most tubules remained permeable to biotin tracer, despite the presence of occludin. It is concluded that gonadotropins maintain Sertoli cell TJs in the adult rat via a mechanism that includes the localization of occludin and claudin-11 at functional TJs.

  11. Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, M B; Sigurdson, A J; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Graubard, B I; Korde, L; Greene, M H; McGlynn, K A

    2008-01-18

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our hypothesis, we conducted a case-case analysis of seminomas and nonseminomas using the alkaline comet assay to quantify single-strand DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites. The Familial Testicular Cancer study and the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort provided 112 TGCT cases (51 seminomas & 61 nonseminomas). A lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured for each patient and the alkaline comet assay was used to determine four parameters: tail DNA, tail length, comet distributed moment (CDM) and Olive tail moment (OTM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Values for tail length, tail DNA, CDM and OTM were modeled as categorical variables using the 50th and 75th percentiles of the seminoma group. Tail DNA was significantly associated with nonseminoma compared to seminoma (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.00, 10.98; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 3.71, 95%CI: 1.04, 13.20; p for trend=0.039). OTM exhibited similar, albeit statistically non-significant, risk estimates (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.75, 6.87; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 2.40, 95%CI: 0.75, 7.71; p for trend=0.12) whereas tail length and CDM showed no association. In conclusion, the results for tail DNA and OTM indicate that endogenous DNA damage levels are higher in patients who develop nonseminoma compared with seminoma. This may partly explain the more aggressive biology and younger age-of-onset of this histologic subgroup compared with the relatively less aggressive, later-onset seminoma.

  12. Structural analysis of testicular appendices in patients with cryptorchidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme D. Tostes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Report the incidence and structure of testicular appendices (TAs in patients with cryptorchidism, comparing their incidence with epididymal anomalies (EA and patency of the vaginal process (PVP and analyzes the structure of TAs. Material and Methods We studied 72 testes of patients with cryptorchidism (average of 6 years, and 8 testes from patients with hydroceles (average of 9 years. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and PVP and prevalence and histology of the TAs. The appendices of 10 patients with cryptorchidism and 8 with hydrocele were dissected and embedded in paraffin and stained with Masson trichrome; Weigert and Picro-Sirius Red with polarization and immunohistochemistry analysis of the collagen type III fibers to observe collagen. The stereological analysis was done with the software Image Pro and Image J, using a grid to determine volumetric densities (Vv. Means were statistically compared using the ANOVA and unpaired T test (p < 0.05. Results Of the 72 testes with cryptorchidism, 20 (27.77% presented EA, 41 (56.9% had PVP and 44 (61.1% had TAs. Of the 44 testes with cryptorchidism and appendices, 30 (68.18% presented PVP and 11 (25% presented EA. There was no alteration of the epithelium in the appendices of patients in both groups. Stereological analysis documented the prevalence of ESFs (mean of 1.48%, prevalence of veins (mean of 10.11% and decrease (p = 0.14 of SMCs in the TAs of patients with cryptorchidism (mean = 4.93%. Collagen III prevailed in the TAs of patients with cryptorchidism. Conclusion The testicular appendices presented significant structural alteration in the patients with cryptorchidism, indicating that TAs present a structural remodeling.

  13. Gross testicular abnormalities in indigenous breeds of bulls in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Eshetu Gemeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of different types of gross testicular disorders in bulls, and to evaluate the associations with sampling year, age, and body condition. Materials and methods: In this study, a total of 398 apparently healthy bulls were randomly selected that were brought from different parts of eastern Ethiopia to the Haramaya University abattoir for slaughtering during the period from June 2014 to September 2016. Ante- and post-mortem examinations of the bulls were employed. Visual inspection, palpation, serial and systematic dissections into the parenchyma of the testes and scrotum were performed to determine the presence and the extent of gross pathological changes. Results: Out of 398 bulls, 209(52.5% were affected by one or more gross testicular abnormalities of unidentified causes. Bilateral testicular hypoplasia was the most prevalent (9.8%; n=39/398 testicular abnormality, followed by unilateral testicular hypoplasia (9%; n=36/398, testicular hematoma (9%; n=36/398, orchitis (8.3%; n=33/398, testicular degeneration (6.5%; n=26/398, scrotal wound (6.3%; n=25/398 and epididymitis (2.5%; n=10/398. Unilateral cryptorchidism was the least prevalent (1%; n=4/398. Age and body condition did not affect the prevalence of any abnormality (P>0.05 except in scrotal wound which was significantly varied among body condition categories (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study reveals that the incidence of gross testicular abnormalities was 52.5% in bulls. Thus, attention should be given to reproductive management of bulls in Ethiopia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(2.000: 200-206

  14. A rare diagnosis: testicular dysgenesis with carcinoma in situ detected in a patient with ultrasonic microlithiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Sommer, Peter; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS): a dysgenetic left testicle with CIS, a mild left-sided cryptorchidism (high positioned scrotal hypotrophic testis) and a slightly reduced semen quality. Therefore, it should be kept in mind that a patient with one TDS symptom may harbour the other, even CIS or testicular...... cancer. Accordingly, patients with one TDS symptom ought to be examined for the presence of the others, and if more that one is present, extra concern is warranted....

  15. Subfertility and Risk of Testicular Cancer in the EPSAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Grasso

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that subfertility and testicular cancer share genetic and environmental risk factors. We studied both subfertility and the strongest known testicular cancer susceptibility gene, the c-KIT ligand (KITLG, whose pathway is involved in spermatogenesis.The EPSAM case-control study is comprised of testicular cancer patients from the Province of Turin, Italy, diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. The present analysis included 245 cases and 436 controls from EPSAM, who were aged 20 years or older at diagnosis/recruitment. The EPSAM questionnaire collected information on factors such as number of children, age at first attempt to conceive, duration of attempt to conceive, use of assisted reproduction techniques, physician-assigned diagnosis of infertility, number of siblings, and self-reported cryptorchidism. Genotyping of the KITLG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs995030 was performed on the saliva samples of 202 cases and 329 controls.Testicular cancer was associated with the number of children fathered 5 years before diagnosis (odds ratio (OR per additional child: 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.58-1.04 and sibship size (OR per additional sibling: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66-0.88. When considering the reproductive history until 1 year before diagnosis, attempting to conceive for at least 12 months or fathering a child using assisted reproduction techniques was not associated with the risk of testicular cancer, nor was age at first attempt to conceive or physician-assigned diagnosis of infertility. The SNP rs995030 was strongly associated with risk of testicular cancer (per allele OR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.26-2.64, but it did not modify the association between number of children and the risk of testicular cancer.This study supports the repeatedly reported inverse association between number of children and risk of testicular cancer, but it does not find evidence of an association for other indicators of subfertility.

  16. Straight to the Operating Room: An Emergent Surgery Track for Acute Testicular Torsion Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Michelle K; Sheth, Kunj R; Menon, Vani S; Ostrov, Lauren; Hennes, Halim; Singla, Nirmish; Koral, Korgun; Schlomer, Bruce J; Baker, Linda A

    2018-01-01

    To assess the effect of implementing an emergency surgery track for testicular torsion transfers. We hypothesized that transferring children from other facilities diagnosed with torsion straight to the operating room (STOR) would decrease ischemia time, lower costs, and reduce testicular loss. Demographics, arrival to incision time, hospital cost in dollars, and testicular outcome (determined by testicular ultrasound) at follow-up were retrospectively compared in all patients transferred to our tertiary care children's hospital with a diagnosis of testicular torsion from 2012 to 2016. Clinical data for STOR and non-STOR patients were compared by Wilcoxon rank-sum, 2-tailed t test, or Fisher exact test as appropriate. Sixty-eight patients met inclusion criteria: 35 STOR and 33 non-STOR. Children taken STOR had a shorter median arrival to incision time (STOR: 54 minutes vs non-STOR: 94 minutes, P  STOR: $3882 vs non-STOR: $4419, P STOR patients and 48.4% of non-STOR patients achieved surgery within 6 hours of symptom onset. Testicular salvage rates in STOR and non-STOR patients were not significantly different (STOR: 68.4% vs non-STOR: 36.8%, P = .1), but follow-up was poor. STOR decreased arrival to incision time and hospital cost but did not affect testicular loss. The bulk of ischemia time in torsion transfers occurred before arrival at our tertiary care center. Further interventions addressing delays in diagnosis and transfer are needed to truly improve testicular salvage rates in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography of testicular disorders in dogs: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    FELICIANO, M. A. R.; Maronezi,M.C.; Simões,A.P.R.; G.S. Maciel; Pavan, L; B. Gasser; Silva, P.; Uscategui,R.R.; CARVALHO, C.F.; J. C. Canola; Vicente, W. R. R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the use of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in the evaluation of testicular disorders in dogs. Eighteen dogs with testicular disorders (thirty-six testicles) were assessed. Echotexture, size, contours and margins of testes were analysed by ultrasonography. Deformities and tissue stiffness (greyscale and homogenous or heterogeneous) were evaluated by qualitative elastography and shear velocity was determined quantitatively. Subsequent t...

  18. Crossed testicular ectopia, a rare congenital anomaly of the male genitalia, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Tahaoglu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Crossed testicular ectopia (CTE is a rare congenital anomaly of testicular descent in which migration of one testis towards the opposite inguinal canal. The ordinary presentation is that of ipsilateral inguinal hernia and contralateral cryptorchidism. Here, a 2-year-old boy presented in surgical outpatient department with right inguinal hernia and impalpable testis in left scrotum and inguinal canal. Right herniotomy was performed. Left testis was brought to the left scrotum through transceptal window.

  19. Optical monitoring of testicular torsion using a miniaturized near infrared spectroscopy sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Kajbafzadeh, Majid; Nigro, Mark; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.; Macnab, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Background: Testicular torsion is an acute urological emergency occurring in children and adolescents. Accurate and fast diagnosis is important as the resulting ischemia can destroy the testis. Currently, Doppler ultrasound is the preferred diagnostic method. Ultrasound is not readily available in all centers which may delay surgical treatment. In this study, a rat model was used to examine the feasibility and sensitivity of using spatially-resolved near infrared spectroscopy (SR-NIRS) with a custom-made miniaturized optical sensor probe to detect and study changes in testicular hemodynamics and oxygenation during three degrees of induced testicular torsion, and after detorsion. Methods: Eight anesthetized rats (16 testes) were studied using SR-NIRS with the miniaturized optical probe applied directly onto the surface of the surgically exposed testis during 360, 720 and 1080 degrees of torsion followed by detorsion. Oxygenated, deoxygenated and total hemoglobin and TOI% were studied pre-and post-manipulations. Results: NIRS monitoring reflected acute testicular ischemia and hypoxia on induction of torsion, and tissue reperfusionreoxygenation after detorsion. Testicular torsion at 720 degrees induced the maximum observed degree of hypoxic changes. In all cases, rhythmic changes were observed in the NIRS signals before inducing torsion; these disappeared after applying 360 degrees of torsion and did not reappear after detorsion. Conclusion: This animal study indicates that SR-NIRS monitoring of the testes using a directly applied miniature sensor is a feasible and sensitive method to detect testicular ischemia and hypoxia immediately after torsion occurs, and testicular reperfusion upon detorsion. This study offers the potential for a SR-NIRS system with a miniaturized sensor to be explored further as a rapid, noninvasive, optical method for detecting testicular torsion in children.

  20. Subfertility Increases Risk of Testicular Cancer: Evidence from Population-Based Semen Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Heidi A; Anderson, Ross E; Aston, Kenneth I; Carrell, Douglas T; Smith, Ken R; Hotaling, James M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To further understand the association between semen quality and cancer risk using well-defined semen parameters. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Subfertility Heath and Assisted Reproduction (SHARE) study in Utah from 1994 to 2011. Patients 20,433 men from that underwent semen analysis (SA) and a sample of 20,433 fertile controls matched on age and birth year Interventions none. Main Outcome Measures Risk of all cancers, as well as site-specific results for prostate, testicular, and melanoma. Results Relative to fertile men, men with SA have an increased risk of testicular cancer (Hazard Rate Ratio (HR) =3.3). When the characterization of infertility is refined using individual semen parameters, we find that oligozoospermic men have an increased risk of cancer relative to fertile controls. This association is particularly strong for testicular cancer, with increased risk in men with oligozoospermia based on concentration (HR=11.9) and sperm count (HR=10.3). Men in the in the lowest quartile of motility (HR=4.1), viability (HR=6.6), morphology (HR=4.2) or total motile count (HR=6.9) have higher risk of testicular compared to fertile men. Men with sperm concentration and count in the 90th percentile of the distribution (≥178 M/ml and ≥579, respectively) and total motile count (TMC) have an increased risk of melanoma (HRConcentration=2.1; HRCount=2.7; HRTMC=2.0). We find no differences in cancer risk between azoospermic and fertile men. Conclusions Men with SA have an increased risk of testicular cancer that varies by semen quality. Unlike prior work, we did not find an association between azoospermia and increased cancer or testicular cancer risk. Capsule Subfertile men have an increased risk of testicular cancer that varies by semen quality. We did not find an association between azoospermia and increased cancer or testicular cancer risk. PMID:26604070

  1. Sonographic Finding of Extravaginal Testicular Torsion in a Neonate: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jee Young; Kim, Young Jun; Park, Hee Sun; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Park, Hyoung Keun; Paick, Sung Hyun; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Lho, Yong Soo; Lim, So Dug; Jung, Sung Il [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Extravaginal testicular torsion is known to be the predominant mechanism of the torsion in fetuses and neonates. In this torsion, twisting of the spermatic cord occurs outside the sac of the tunica vaginalis in the scrotum. Herein, we describe the sonographic findings of an extravaginal testicular torsion in a newborn baby who presented with a hard scrotal mass. Gray-scale ultrasound (US) showed hypoechoic linear striations in the testis with a thick hyperechoic peritesticular rim. Surgical exploration revealed an extravaginally twisted testis

  2. Expression patterns of DLK1 and INSL3 identify stages of Leydig cell differentiation during normal development and in testicular pathologies, including testicular cancer and Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, G; Nielsen, J E; Maroun, L L

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the differentiation stage of human testicular interstitial cells, in particular Leydig cells (LC), within micronodules found in patients with infertility, testicular cancer and Klinefelter syndrome? SUMMARY ANSWER: The Leydig- and peritubular-cell populations in testes......, and in the majority of LCs, it was mutually exclusive of DLK1. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The number of samples was relatively small and no true normal adult controls were available. True stereology was not used for LC counting, instead LCs were counted in three fields of 0.5 µm(2) surface for each sample...... in adult men with testicular pathologies including testis cancer and Klinefelter syndrome. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This work was funded by Rigshospitalet's research funds, the Danish Cancer Society and Kirsten and Freddy Johansen's foundation. The authors have no conflicts of interest....

  3. Sulforaphane Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Testicular Cell Death via Activation of NRF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although angiotensin II (Ang II was reported to facilitate sperm motility and intratesticular sperm transport, recent findings shed light on the efficacy of Ang II in stimulating inflammatory events in testicular peritubular cells, effect of which may play a role in male infertility. It is still unknown whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death, which may be a more direct action of Ang II in male infertility. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death and whether this action can be prevented by sulforaphane (SFN via activating nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2, the governor of antioxidant-redox signalling. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J wild type (WT and Nrf2 gene knockout mice were treated with Ang II, in the presence or absence of SFN. In WT mice, SFN activated testicular NRF2 expression and function, along with a marked attenuation in Ang II-induced testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic cell death. Deletion of the Nrf2 gene led to a complete abolishment of these efficacies of SFN. The present study indicated that Ang II may result in testicular apoptotic cell death, which can be prevented by SFN via the activation of NRF2.

  4. Laparoscopic TEP repair of inguinal hernia does not alter testicular perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, P; Bansal, B; Sharma, R; Pradhan, G

    2016-06-01

    The effect of laparoscopic TEP repair on testicular perfusion is unclear. The procedure entails dissection of testicular blood vessels off the hernial sac and incorporation of a prosthetic mesh. This carries at minimum, a theoretical risk of compromise in testicular blood supply, which in turn may affect fertility. Our study aims to establish if any alteration in testicular perfusion occurs in very early (24 h), early (1 week) or late postoperative period (3 months) after laparoscopic TEP repair in the Indian population. In our prospective trial, 20 patients underwent unilateral and 8 underwent bilateral laparoscopic TEP hernia repairs using standard technique by experienced surgeons. Flow parameters of testicular, capsular and intratesticular artery were noted using color Doppler ultrasound preoperatively and postoperatively and the postoperative resistive indexes of operated side (n = 36) were compared with preoperative values. Additionally, for unilateral repairs, flow parameters on operated side were compared with the non-operated side. No statistically significant difference was noticed in the resistive index of the arteries upon comparing these postoperative with preoperative values. For unilateral repairs, the flow parameters of the operated side were comparable with that of non-operated side (i.e. p > 0.05). Laparoscopic TEP performed by experienced surgeons does not alter testicular flow dynamics in early or late postoperative period.

  5. Testicular fine-needle aspiration for the assessment of intratesticular hormone concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada P Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of intratesticular sex steroid concentrations in men informs both the development of male hormonal contraceptives and the understanding of male infertility. Given the challenges of using invasive techniques to measure testicular hormone physiology, our group has used a minimally-invasive fine-needle aspiration technique to measure intratesticular hormones in normal healthy men. Herein, we present a post-hoc analysis of the safety and efficacy of testicular fine-needle aspiration (FNA completed as part of six clinical trials. From 2001 through 2011, a total of 404 procedures were conducted among 163 research volunteers, 85.9% of which were successful in obtaining sufficient fluid for the measurement of intratesticular steroid concentrations. Pain was the most common side effect, with 36.8% of procedures associated with moderate procedural pain and 4.7% with severe procedural pain. Postprocedural pain was uncommon and abated within a few days. Mild local bruising occurred with 14.9% of procedures. Two serious adverse events (0.5% required surgical intervention. The risk of an adverse event was not associated with age, body mass index, testicular size, or the volume of fluid aspirated. Testicular FNA to obtain fluid for measurement of intratesticular steroid concentrations frequently causes mild to moderate procedural pain, but serious adverse events occur rarely. Testicular FNA has been instrumental for defining human intratesticular hormone physiology and is a minimally-invasive, safe, effective method for obtaining fluid for research on testicular physiology and pathology.

  6. Clinical characteristics and reproductive outcomes in infertile men with testicular early and late maturation arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chun; Cheng, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Tsung-Yen; Yang, Wen-Horng; Lin, Yung-Ming

    2012-10-01

    To compare the clinical characteristics and reproductive outcomes of nonobstructive azoospermic men with uniform early and late maturation arrest. Patients with biopsy-documented uniform maturation arrest undergoing testicular sperm retrieval and complete medical records were enrolled in the present study. Their medical history, physical examination findings, testicular volume, serum hormone parameters, genetic anomalies, sperm retrieval, and reproductive outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. In a cohort of 223 nonobstructive azoospermic men, 34 men with uniform maturation arrest (21 early maturation arrest and 13 late maturation arrest) were identified. No significant differences were seen in the age distribution, testicular volume, or hormone parameters between patients with early and late maturation arrest. Only 13 patients (38.2%) had a normal serum follicle-stimulating hormone level and normal testicular volume. Patients with early maturation arrest had a greater frequency of overall genetic anomalies, and patients with late maturation arrest had a greater frequency of previous testicular insults. The sperm retrieval and impregnation rate were nonsignificantly greater in patients with late maturation arrest. Maturation arrest has a variety of causes and presents with diverse phenotypes. Not all patients with uniform maturation arrest have a normal follicle-stimulating hormone level or testicular volume. Patients with early maturation arrest have a greater incidence of genetic anomalies and are more likely to have worse reproductive outcomes than are patients with late maturation arrest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sports-related testicular injuries and the use of protective equipment among young male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Jared M; Sumfest, Joel M

    2014-12-01

    To survey young male athletes to determine the self-reported prevalence of sports-related testicular injuries and use of protective equipment among adolescents and young adults. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to male students at local high schools and colleges. Respondents were asked about personal and team member usage of athletic cups and history of testicular injuries. Returned surveys were analyzed for descriptive statistics and compared between high school and college respondents. Approximately 1700 surveys were distributed and 731 returned. The mean age of all respondents was 17.7 years. Across all sports, 18% of athletes experienced a testicular injury during sports and 36.4% observed injuries in team members, whereas only 12.9% of respondents reported wearing athletic cups. The prevalence of testicular injuries for lacrosse, wrestling, baseball, and football was 48.5%, 32.8%, 21%, and 17.8%, respectively. Of athletes reporting a prior injury, 20.1% reported that they wear a cup now. Rates of athletic cup usage were significantly less for college baseball, football, and all respondents compared with their high school counterparts. Previously reported rates of testicular injury with sports participation may underestimate the prevalence of these injuries among adolescent and young adult athletes among whom testicular protective equipment is infrequently used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing a Clinical-Grade Cryopreservation Protocol for Human Testicular Tissue and Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, Jason; Ramos, Thomas; Howerton, Kyle; Greilach, Scott; Zaragoza, Karina; Olmstead, Marnie; Izadyar, Fariborz

    2013-01-01

    Recent work in preservation of female fertility as well as new information on the nature of spermatogonial stem cells has prompted an investigation into the possibility of an effective clinical-grade procedure for the cryopreservation of testicular cells and/or tissue. Clinical-grade reagents, validated equipment, and protocols consistent with cGTP/cGMP standards were used in developing a procedure suitable for the safe and effective cryopreservation of human testicular cells and tissues. These procedures were designed to be compliant with the relevant FDA regulations. The procedure proved to effectively cryopreserve both testicular cells and tissue. The cryopreservation of testicular tissue was comparable in most aspects we measured to the cryopreservation of isolated cells, except that the viability of the cells from cryopreserved testicular tissue was found to be significantly higher. On the other hand, cryopreservation of cells is preferred for cell analysis, quality control, and sterility testing. This study demonstrates that testicular tissue and cells from sexual reassignment patients can be successfully cryopreserved with a clinical-grade procedure and important cell populations are not only preserved but also enriched by the process. Further studies will determine whether these findings from hormone-treated patients can be generalized to other patients. PMID:23509810

  9. Carcinoma in situ of contralateral testis in patients with testicular germ cell cancer: study of 27 cases in 500 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Maase, H; Rørth, M; Walbom-Jørgensen, S

    1986-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testis was diagnosed in 27 of 500 patients (5.4%) with unilateral testicular germ cell cancer. Eight of the 27 patients received intensive chemotherapy for spread of their initial testicular cancer. Follow up biopsy studies did not detect changes of carcinoma...... in situ in any of these patients, and none developed a contralateral testicular tumour (observation time 12-88 months). Of the remaining 19 patients with carcinoma in situ, seven developed contralateral testicular cancer. The estimated risk of developing invasive growth was 40% within three years and 50......% within five years. None of the 473 patients without carcinoma in situ detected by screening biopsy developed contralateral testicular cancer (observation time 12-96 months). No serious complications arose from the biopsy procedures. All patients with unilateral testicular germ cell cancer should...

  10. Indicators and outcomes of transfer to tertiary pediatric hospitals for patients with testicular torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Janae; Ching, Christina; Yackey, Katelyn; Jayanthi, Venkata; McLeod, Daryl; Alpert, Seth; DaJusta, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Testicular torsion threatens testicular viability with increased risk of loss with delayed management. Still, healthy adolescents continue to be transferred from community hospitals to tertiary hospitals for surgical management for torsion even though adult urologists may be available. We sought to determine reasons behind patient transfer and to evaluate whether transfer to tertiary centers for testicular torsion leads to increased rates of testicular loss. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients presenting to our free-standing pediatric tertiary care facility with surgically confirmed testicular torsion during the 5-year period between January 2011 and January 2016. Data was collected regarding transfer status, patient demographics, time of presentation to our facility, duration of symptoms, patient workup, and surgical outcomes. Patients with perinatal or intermittent torsion were excluded. One-hundred and twenty-five patients met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-six of those were transferred from outside facilities while 89 presented directly to our hospital. A greater proportion of the transferred patients presented during nights or weekends than those presenting directly to our facility (77.8% versus 51.7%, p = 0.009). Eighty-nine patients presented with symptom duration of less than 24 h and had potentially viable testicles. Of those, 23 were transferred and 66 presented directly to our hospital. Differences are shown in the Table. Transferred patients had twice the rate of testicular loss as those not transferred, although the results were not significant (30.4% versus 15.2%, p = 0.129). Patients undergoing ultrasound prior to transfer had prolonged symptom duration and faced higher rates of testicular loss when compared with patients not transferred, although the latter was not significant (mean duration 8.0 versus 4.9 h, p = 0.025, and testicular loss 40.0% versus 15.2%, p = 0.065, respectively). Patients transferred over 30 miles

  11. Uropathogenic E. coli Induce Different Immune Response in Testicular and Peritoneal Macrophages: Implications for Testicular Immune Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Sudhanshu; Hossain, Hamid; Lu, Yongning; Geisler, Andreas; Tchatalbachev, Svetlin; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Schuler, Gerhard; Klug, Jörg; Pilatz, Adrian; Wagenlehner, Florian; Chakraborty, Trinad; Meinhardt, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Infertility affects one in seven couples and ascending bacterial infections of the male genitourinary tract by Escherichia coli are an important cause of male factor infertility. Thus understanding mechanisms by which immunocompetent cells such as testicular macrophages (TM) respond to infection and how bacterial pathogens manipulate defense pathways is of importance. Whole genome expression profiling of TM and peritoneal macrophages (PM) infected with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) revealed major differences in regulated genes. However, a multitude of genes implicated in calcium signaling pathways was a common feature which indicated a role of calcium-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling. UPEC-dependent NFAT activation was confirmed in both cultured TM and in TM in an in vivo UPEC infectious rat orchitis model. Elevated expression of NFATC2-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines was found in TM (IL-4, IL-13) and PM (IL-3, IL-4, IL-13). NFATC2 is activated by rapid influx of calcium, an activity delineated to the pore forming toxin alpha-hemolysin by bacterial mutant analysis. Alpha-hemolysin suppressed IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine release from PM and caused differential activation of MAP kinase and AP-1 signaling pathways in TM and PM leading to reciprocal expression of key pro-inflammatory cytokines in PM (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 downregulated) and TM (IL-1β, IL-6 upregulated). In addition, unlike PM, LPS-treated TM were refractory to NFκB activation shown by the absence of degradation of IκBα and lack of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-6, TNF-α). Taken together, these results suggest a mechanism to the conundrum by which TM initiate immune responses to bacteria, while maintaining testicular immune privilege with its ability to tolerate neo-autoantigens expressed on developing spermatogenic cells. PMID:22164293

  12. Feasibility of MRI-guided Focused Ultrasound as Organ-Sparing Treatment for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staruch, Robert; Curiel, Laura; Chopra, Rajiv; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-04-01

    High cure rates for testicular cancer have prompted interest in organ-sparing surgery for patients with bilateral disease or single testis. Focused ultrasound (FUS) ablation could offer a noninvasive approach to organ-sparing surgery. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using MR thermometry to guide organ-sparing focused ultrasound surgery in the testis. The testes of anesthetized rabbits were sonicated in several discrete locations using a single-element focused transducer operating at 2.787MHz. Focal heating was visualized with MR thermometry, using a measured PRF thermal coefficient of -0.0089±0.0003 ppm/° C. Sonications at 3.5-14 acoustic watts applied for 30 seconds produced maximum temperature elevations of 10-80° C, with coagulation verified by histology. Coagulation of precise volumes in the testicle is feasible with MRI-guided focused ultrasound. Variability in peak temperature for given sonication parameters suggests the need for online temperature feedback control.

  13. Recent advances in molecular and cell biology of testicular germ-cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Testicular germ-cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most frequent solid malignant tumors in men 20-40 years of age and the most frequent cause of death from solid tumors in this age group. TGCTs comprise two major histologic groups: seminomas and nonseminomas germ-cell tumors (NSGCTs). NSGCTs can be further divided into embryonal, carcinoma, Teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and choriocarcinoma. Seminomas and NSGCTs present significant differences in clinical features, therapy, and prognosis, and both show characteristics of the primordial germ cells. Many discovered biomarkers including OCT3/4, SOX2, SOX17, HMGA1, Nek2, GPR30, Aurora-B, estrogen receptor β, and others have given further advantages to discriminate between histological subgroups and could represent useful novel molecular targets for antineoplastic strategies. More insight into the pathogenesis of TGCTs is likely to improve disease management not only to better treatment of these tumors but also to a better understanding of stem cells and oncogenesis. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MicroRNA expression profiling of primary sheep testicular cells in response to bluetongue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junzheng; Gao, Shandian; Tian, Zhancheng; Xing, Shanshan; Huang, Dexuan; Zhang, Guorui; Zheng, Yadong; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Chang, Huiyun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a member of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae and causes a non-contagious, insect-transmitted disease in domestic and wild ruminants, mainly in sheep and occasionally in cattle and some species of deer. Virus infection can trigger the changes of the cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression profile, which play important post-transcriptional regulatory roles in gene expression and can greatly influence viral replication and pathogenesis. Here, we employed deep sequencing technology to determine which cellular miRNAs were differentially expressed in primary sheep testicular (ST) cells infected with BTV. A total of 25 known miRNAs and 240 novel miRNA candidates that were differentially expressed in BTV-infected and uninfected ST cells were identified, and 251 and 8428 predicted target genes were annotated, respectively. Nine differentially expressed miRNAs and their mRNA targets were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Targets prediction and functional analysis of these regulated miRNAs revealed significant enrichment for several signaling pathways including MAPK, PI3K-Akt, endocytosis, Hippo, NF-kB, viral carcinogenesis, FoxO, and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. This study provides a valuable basis for further investigation on the roles of miRNAs in BTV replication and pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of the c-myc oncogene product in testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, K.; Evan, G.; Stewart, J.; Watson, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    A set of monoclonal antibodies was constructed by immunising mice with peptide fragments of the c-myc oncogene product. One such antibody, Myc 1-6E10 was shown to bind to a 62,000 dalton protein identifiable with the c-myc product (p62c-myc). The antigen recognised was not destroyed by paraffin wax embedding. Myc 1-6E10 was used to characterise the distribution of p62c-myc in archival testicular tumour material. Normal testes expressed only small amounts of p62c-myc. Seminomas showed increased nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. Undifferentiated teratoma showed little activity, whereas p62c-myc was abundant in the nuclei of differentiating epithelial structures, yolk sacs and embryoid bodies. Only small amounts of p62c-myc were seen in the tumours of 5 patients who subsequently died from their disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:4027160

  16. Outcome of Resection and Chemotherapy versus Chemotherapy Alone for Retroperitoneal Recurrence of Testicular Cancer Involving the Inferior Vena Cava: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 22 Consecutive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio, Francesco G; Angelici, Alberto M; Pizzardi, Giulia; Pasqua, Rocco; Masci, Federica; Vietri, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Optimal treatment strategy for retroperitoneal recurrence of testicular cancer involving the inferior vena cava (IVC) is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to validate the hypothesis that surgical resection, en-bloc with the involved segment of IVC and its subsequent reconstruction followed by chemotherapy, would yield better oncologic results than chemotherapy alone. Two consecutive series of patients with retroperitoneal recurrence of testicular cancer involving the IVC, treated with surgical resection plus chemotherapy (group A, n=14) or chemotherapy alone (group B, n=8) were retrospectively reviewed. The mean duration of follow-up was was 65 months (range=8-184). Operative mortality and morbidity in group A, response to chemotherapy in group B, disease-specific survival and quality adjusted life-years (QALY) for both groups, were primary end-points of the study. Postoperative mortality and morbidity (group A) were, respectively, nil and 14%. In group B, two patients (25%) fully responded to chemotherapy and remained free from disease progression. Disease-specific survival at 3 and 5 years was 81% and 54% in group A and 36% in group B both at 3 and 5 years, respectively (p=0.02). QALY was 3.92 in group A and 0.77 for both 3 and 5 years in group B, respectively, (p=0.031). En bloc resection of retroperitoneal recurrence of testicular tumors invading the IVC, followed by chemotherapy, allows a better survival rate compared to chemotherapy alone. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Mendelian randomisation analysis provides no evidence for a relationship between adult height and testicular cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M; Hall, D; Sud, A; Law, P; Litchfield, K; Dudakia, D; Haugen, T B; Karlsson, R; Reid, A; Huddart, R A; Grotmol, T; Wiklund, F; Houlston, R S; Turnbull, C

    2017-09-01

    Observational studies have suggested anthropometric traits, particularly increased height are associated with an elevated risk of testicular cancer (testicular germ cell tumour). However, there is an inconsistency between study findings, suggesting the possibility of the influence of confounding factors. To examine the association between anthropometric traits and testicular germ cell tumour using an unbiased approach, we performed a Mendelian randomisation study. We used genotype data from genome wide association studies of testicular germ cell tumour totalling 5518 cases and 19,055 controls. Externally weighted polygenic risk scores were created and used to evaluate associations with testicular germ cell tumour risk per one standard deviation (s.d) increase in genetically-defined adult height, adult BMI, adult waist hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI), adult hip circumference adjusted for BMI (HIPadjBMI), adult waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCadjBMI), birth weight (BW) and childhood obesity. Mendelian randomisation analysis did not demonstrate an association between any anthropometric trait and testicular germ cell tumour risk. In particular, despite good power, there was no global evidence for association between height and testicular germ cell tumour. However, three SNPs for adult height individually showed association with testicular germ cell tumour (rs4624820: OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.41-1.55, p = 2.7 × 10-57 ; rs12228415: OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.22, p = 3.1 × 10-10 ; rs7568069: OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07-1.18, p = 1.1 × 10-6 ). This Mendelian randomisation analysis, based on the largest testicular germ cell tumour genome wide association dataset to date, does not support a causal etiological association between anthropometric traits and testicular germ cell tumour aetiology. Our findings are more compatible with confounding by shared environmental factors, possibly related to prenatal growth with exposure to these risk factors

  18. Mannitol has a protective effect on testicular torsion: An experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Omer; Yazici, Cenk Murat; Erboga, Mustafa; Turan, Cuneyt; Bozdemir, Yeliz; Akbas, Alpaslan; Turker, Polat; Aktas, Cevat; Aydin, Murat; Yesildag, Ebru

    2016-06-01

    Testicular torsion is an emergency condition that causes testicular injury. Any treatment opportunity reducing the destructive effect of testicular torsion is important for the future life of patients. In this experimental study we investigated the protective effect of mannitol on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in a rat testes torsion model. In total, 32 male Sprague Dawley rats were included. Four experimental groups included eight rats each. Group A was a sham group in which the right testis was brought out through a scrotal incision and then replaced in the scrotum without torsion. In Group B, the right testis was torsioned, by rotating 720° clockwise and fixed to the scrotum with no treatment. In Group C, the same testicular torsion process was performed with saline infusion just after testicular torsion. In group D, mannitol infusion was used just after testicular torsion. Testicles were detorsioned after 3 h and left inside for more than 2 h before orchiectomy. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses were performed. Testicular architecture was disturbed significantly in the torsion groups without mannitol infusion. However, testicular tissue structure was significantly better in the mannitol-treated group, demonstrating a protective effect. Similar findings were also shown for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) index and antioxidant activity; both were higher in the mannitol group than in the no-treatment and saline groups (p mannitol-treated group compared with the no treatment and saline groups (p mannitol treatment was significantly disturbed, whereas the structural disruption was considerably less in the mannitol group. Mannitol treatment also decreased reactive oxygen radical levels significantly and was able to decrease apoptosis. These results were consistent with other organ model studies that evaluated the protective effects of mannitol treatment in I/R injury. Mannitol infusion had a protective effect

  19. [Primary testicular lymphoma: experience at the Instituto Especializado de Enfermedades Neoplásicas, Lima-Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Pérez, Gilmer A; Pow-Sang Godoy, Mariela; Morante Deza, Carlos; Meza Montoya, Luis; Destefano Urrutia, Víctor

    2009-02-01

    Testicular lymphoma is a rare illness with peculiar characteristics but with a poor prognosis. We evaluated 32 patients retrospectively studying their epidemiologic characteristics, hematologic values, histologic type, metastasis sites, the treatment given and the survival. We compared our results with international reports and we think that prospective studies are needed for better conclusions. The average of age was 45-years-old, with more than the half of patients with clinical stage IV at the moment of the diagnosis, the histiocitic pathology was the most frequent, and the time of survival was 39,543 +/- 14,451 months and the time in which the 50% of the patients die is 15 +/- 7,025 months. This is a rare disease, with a very poor prognosis, with a time of survival of 39,543 +/- 14,451 months and the time in which the 50% of the patients die is 15 +/- 7,025 months.

  20. Beclomethasone in Treating Patients With Graft-Versus-Host Disease of the Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, or Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Graft Versus Host Disease; Kidney Cancer; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor