Habib U Jan
Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is a modern breeding approach where genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker profiles are simultaneously used to estimate performance of untested genotypes. In this study, the potential of genomic selection methods to predict testcross performance for hybrid canola breeding was applied for various agronomic traits based on genome-wide marker profiles. A total of 475 genetically diverse spring-type canola pollinator lines were genotyped at 24,403 single-copy, genome-wide SNP loci. In parallel, the 950 F1 testcross combinations between the pollinators and two representative testers were evaluated for a number of important agronomic traits including seedling emergence, days to flowering, lodging, oil yield and seed yield along with essential seed quality characters including seed oil content and seed glucosinolate content. A ridge-regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP model was applied in combination with 500 cross-validations for each trait to predict testcross performance, both across the whole population as well as within individual subpopulations or clusters, based solely on SNP profiles. Subpopulations were determined using multidimensional scaling and K-means clustering. Genomic prediction accuracy across the whole population was highest for seed oil content (0.81 followed by oil yield (0.75 and lowest for seedling emergence (0.29. For seed yieId, seed glucosinolate, lodging resistance and days to onset of flowering (DTF, prediction accuracies were 0.45, 0.61, 0.39 and 0.56, respectively. Prediction accuracies could be increased for some traits by treating subpopulations separately; a strategy which only led to moderate improvements for some traits with low heritability, like seedling emergence. No useful or consistent increase in accuracy was obtained by inclusion of a population substructure covariate in the model. Testcross performance prediction using genome-wide SNP markers shows
Jan, Habib U; Abbadi, Amine; Lücke, Sophie; Nichols, Richard A; Snowdon, Rod J
Genomic selection (GS) is a modern breeding approach where genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker profiles are simultaneously used to estimate performance of untested genotypes. In this study, the potential of genomic selection methods to predict testcross performance for hybrid canola breeding was applied for various agronomic traits based on genome-wide marker profiles. A total of 475 genetically diverse spring-type canola pollinator lines were genotyped at 24,403 single-copy, genome-wide SNP loci. In parallel, the 950 F1 testcross combinations between the pollinators and two representative testers were evaluated for a number of important agronomic traits including seedling emergence, days to flowering, lodging, oil yield and seed yield along with essential seed quality characters including seed oil content and seed glucosinolate content. A ridge-regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) model was applied in combination with 500 cross-validations for each trait to predict testcross performance, both across the whole population as well as within individual subpopulations or clusters, based solely on SNP profiles. Subpopulations were determined using multidimensional scaling and K-means clustering. Genomic prediction accuracy across the whole population was highest for seed oil content (0.81) followed by oil yield (0.75) and lowest for seedling emergence (0.29). For seed yieId, seed glucosinolate, lodging resistance and days to onset of flowering (DTF), prediction accuracies were 0.45, 0.61, 0.39 and 0.56, respectively. Prediction accuracies could be increased for some traits by treating subpopulations separately; a strategy which only led to moderate improvements for some traits with low heritability, like seedling emergence. No useful or consistent increase in accuracy was obtained by inclusion of a population substructure covariate in the model. Testcross performance prediction using genome-wide SNP markers shows considerable
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye is an important European crop used for food, feed, and bioenergy. Several quality and yield-related traits are of agronomic relevance for rye breeding programs. Profound knowledge of the genetic architecture of these traits is needed to successfully implement marker-assisted selection programs. Nevertheless, little is known on quantitative loci underlying important agronomic traits in rye. Results We used 440 F3:4 inbred lines from two biparental populations (Pop-A, Pop-B fingerprinted with about 800 to 900 SNP, SSR and/or DArT markers and outcrossed them to a tester for phenotyping. The resulting hybrids and their parents were evaluated for grain yield, single-ear weight, test weight, plant height, thousand-kernel weight, falling number, protein, starch, soluble and total pentosan contents in up to ten environments in Central Europe. The quality of the phenotypic data was high reflected by moderate to high heritability estimates. QTL analyses revealed a total of 31 QTL for Pop-A and 52 for Pop-B. QTL x environment interactions were significant (P Conclusions QTL mapping was successfully applied based on two segregating rye populations. QTL underlying grain yield and several quality traits had small effects. In contrast, thousand-kernel weight, test weight, falling number and starch content were affected by several major QTL with a high frequency of occurrence in cross validation. These QTL explaining a large proportion of the genotypic variance can be exploited in marker-assisted selection programs and are candidates for further genetic dissection.
Larièpe, A; Moreau, L; Laborde, J; Bauland, C; Mezmouk, S; Décousset, L; Mary-Huard, T; Fiévet, J B; Gallais, A; Dubreuil, P; Charcosset, A
General and specific combining abilities of maize hybrids between 288 inbred lines and three tester lines were highly related to population structure and genetic distance inferred from SNP data. Many studies have attempted to provide reliable and quick methods to identify promising parental lines and combinations in hybrid breeding programs. Since the 1950s, maize germplasm has been organized into heterotic groups to facilitate the exploitation of heterosis. Molecular markers have proven efficient tools to address the organization of genetic diversity and the relationship between lines or populations. The aim of the present work was to investigate to what extent marker-based evaluations of population structure and genetic distance may account for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability components in a population composed of 800 inter and intra-heterotic group hybrids obtained by crossing 288 inbred lines and three testers. Our results illustrate a strong effect of groups identified by population structure analysis on both GCA and SCA components. Including genetic distance between parental lines of hybrids in the model leads to a significant decrease of SCA variance component and an increase in GCA variance component for all the traits. The latter suggests that this approach can be efficient to better estimate the potential combining ability of inbred lines when crossed with unrelated lines, and limits the consequences of tester choice. Significant residual GCA and SCA variance components of models taking into account structure and/or genetic distance highlight the variation available for breeding programs within structure groups.
In accordance with pseudo-testcross strategy, the first genetic linkage map of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. was constructed by an F1 population of 122 plants ... These genetic linkage maps facilitate the analysis of QTL that control commercially ..... to avoid inbreeding depression of long growth-cycle trees. The pseudo-testcross ...
Made J. Mejaya
Full Text Available Selection for increased oil level in maize showed the increase was associated with decrease in starch concentration, kernel weight, and grain yield. The study was conducted with the objectives: (1 to evaluate response to six cycles for increased grain yield in the high oil maize Alexho Elite (AE: 60-90 g kg-1 oil concentration and Ultra High Oil (UHO: 100-140 g kg-1 oil concentration using inbred tester B73; (2 to measure responses to selection for increased grain yield with changes in yield components; and (3 to determine a suitable tester. Previously the two synthetics had been selected for oil concentration. After six cycles, the six genotypes i.e. AE C0, AE C3, AE C6, UHO C0, UHO C3, and UHO C6 were testcrossed to B73, LH185, and LH202 inbreds (40 g kg-1 oil concentration to a total of 18 testcrosses. Two field experiments were used to evaluate selection in AE and UHO testcrosses. The study showed selection using inbred tester B73 in AE and UHO was effective in increasing grain yield of AE testcrosses without changing (i.e. decreasing oil and protein concentrations. AE testcrosses produced higher grain yield and greater selection response for grain yield than UHO testcrosses. LH185 was best for grain yield in AE and UHO testcrosses. Increase in grain yield in most of the testcrosses was associated with increases in starch concentration, kernel weight, kernel number, and grain weight.
Dec 13, 2013 ... 1Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory for Biology and Control of Plant Disease and Insect Pests, College of Bio-Safety Science and Technology, Hunan ... The objective of our research was to estimate how different base populations, sample sizes, testcross numbers and heritability influence QTL analyses of ...
Aug 5, 2013 ... outbreeding heterozygous plants and inbreeding depression limits their ability to produce F2 or backcross populations for genetic linkage mapping. Hence, in this study the dou- ble pseudo-testcross mapping strategy and the 90 progenies of the F1 cross family D. nobile × D. moniliforme as the mapping ...
The primary source of male sterility used to produce hybrid-onion cultivars is conditioned by the interaction of the cytoplasm (N versus S) and alleles at one nuclear male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus Due to the biennial life cycle of onion and the necessity to score testcross progenies, the de...
Full Text Available The objective of marker assisted recurrent selection (MARS is to increase the frequency of favorable marker alleles in a population before inbred line extraction. This approach was used to improve drought tolerance and grain yield (GY in a biparental cross of two elite drought tolerant lines. The testcrosses of randomly selected 50 S1 lines from each of the three selection cycles (C0, C1, C2 of the MARS population, parental testcrosses and the cross between the two parents (F1 were evaluated under drought stress (DS and well watered (WW well as under rainfed conditions to determine genetic gains in GY and other agronomic traits. Also, the S1 lines derived from each selection types were genotyped with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Testcrosses derived from C2 produced significantly higher grain field under DS than those derived from C0 with a relative genetic gain of 7% per cycle. Also, the testcrosses of S1 lines from C2 showed an average genetic gain of 1% per cycle under WW condition and 3% per cycle under rainfed condition. Molecular analysis revealed that the frequency of favorable marker alleles increased from 0.510 at C0 to 0.515 at C2, while the effective number of alleles (Ne per locus decreased from C0 (1.93 to C2 (1.87. Our results underscore the effectiveness of MARS for improvement of GY under DS condition.
A total of 286 RAPD loci and 68 ISSR loci were identified and used for genetic linkage analysis. Maps were constructed by double pseudo-testcross mapping strategy using the software Mapmaker/EXP ver. 3.0, and Kosambi map distances were constructed using a LOD score ≥4 and a recombination threshold of 0.4.
Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a major maize (Zea mays L) storage insect pest in the tropics. Fifty-two inbred lines developed for weevil resistance were crossed to two testers, A and B, to determine their heterotic groups and inheritance of resistance to maize weevil. For 10 testcrosses selected for ...
complete diallel crosses derived by crossing three common carps (Cyprinus carpio var. jian, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus Temminck ... Full diallel cross of three strains of common carp. Cross. Female h j y. Male. H. Hh ..... combining ability loci for five yield-related traits in maize using a set of testcrosses with introgression ...
Valentin V. Kozhemyakin
Full Text Available Use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS in hybrid breeding requires effective male fertility-restoring lines. In sorghum, very few restoring lines that can restore fertility in A3 CMS have been reported. To identify the reasons for this deficiency, F1 and F2 hybrids of an A3 CMS line crossed with the line IS1112C, a donor of fertility-restoring (Rf genes for A3 cytoplasm, and testcrosses of fertile plants to A3 CMS lines were grown under contrasting water availability regimes in dryland and irrigated field plots. In the irrigated plots the frequency of fertile plants in testcrosses was twice that in dryland plots (P < 0.05. Fertile plants from the F2 family grown in the irrigated plots showed significantly higher restoration ability than fertile plants from the same family grown in dryland plots. F3 plants from the F2 family grown in irrigated plots yielded on average a sixfold higher frequency of fertile plants in testcrosses than F3 plants derived from dryland plots (P < 0.01. Fertility of testcross hybrids correlated negatively with air vapor pressure deficit (VPD at flowering (r = −0.96; P < 0.01 suggesting that VPD is a trigger for downregulation of Rf genes for A3 cytoplasm.
Flachenecker, C; Frisch, M; Falke, K C; Melchinger, A E
Selection response of a modified recurrent full-sib (FS) selection scheme conducted in two European flint F(2) maize (Zea mays L.) populations was re-evaluated. Our objectives were to (1) determine the selection response for per se and testcross performance in both populations and (2) separate genetic effects due to selection from those due to random genetic drift. Modified recurrent FS selection was conducted at three locations using an effective population size N(e) = 32 and a selection rate of 25% for a selection index, based on grain yield and grain moisture. Recombination was performed according to a pseudo-factorial mating scheme. Selection response was assessed using a population diallel including the source population and advanced selection cycles, as well as testcrosses with unrelated inbred line testers and the parental F(1) generation. Selection response per cycle was significant for grain yield and grain moisture in both populations. Effects of random genetic drift caused only a small reduction in the selection response. No significant selection response was observed for testcrosses, suggesting that for heterotic traits, such as grain yield, a high frequency of favorable alleles in the elite tester masked the effects of genes segregating in the populations. We conclude that our modified recurrent FS selection is an alternative to other commonly applied intrapopulation recurrent selection schemes, and some of its features may also be useful for increasing the efficiency of interpopulation recurrent selection programs.
Chagné, David; Lalanne, Céline; Madur, Delphine; Kumar, Satish; Frigério, Jean-Marc; Krier, Catherine; Decroocq, Stéphane; Savouré, Arnould; Magida Bou-Dagher-Kharrat,; Bertocchi, Evangelista; Brach, Jean; Plomion, Christophe
International audience; We constructed a high-density linkage map of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) based on AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) markers using a three-generation outbred pedigree. In a first step, male and female maps were established independently with test-cross markers segregating 1:1 (presence:absence of the amplified fragment in the full-sib progeny). In a second step, both maps were merged using intercross markers segregating 3:1 in the progeny. A combinat...
Portis, E; Mauromicale, G; Mauro, R; Acquadro, A; Scaglione, D; Lanteri, S
The genome organization of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus), unlike other species belonging to Asteraceae (=Compositae) family (i.e. sunflower, lettuce and chicory), remains largely unexplored. The species is highly heterozygous and suffers marked inbreeding depression when forced to self-fertilize. Thus a two-way pseudo-testcross represents the optimal strategy for linkage analysis. Here, we report linkage maps based on the progeny of a cross between globe artichoke (C. cardunculus var. scolymus) and cultivated cardoon (C. cardunculus var. altilis). The population was genotyped using a variety of PCR-based marker platforms, resulting in the identification of 708 testcross markers suitable for map construction. The male map consisted of 177 loci arranged in 17 major linkage groups, spanning 1,015.5 cM, while female map was built with 326 loci arranged into 20 major linkage groups, spanning 1,486.8 cM. The presence of 84 loci shared between these maps and those previously developed from a cross within globe artichoke allowed for map alignment and the definition of 17 homologous linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid number of the species. This will provide a favourable property for QTL scanning; furthermore, as 25 mapped markers (8%) correspond to coding regions, it has an additional value as functional map and might represent an important genetic tool for candidate gene studies in globe artichoke.
Fristche-Neto, Roberto; Akdemir, Deniz; Jannink, Jean-Luc
Testcross is the worst mating design to use as a training set to predict maize single-crosses that would be obtained through full diallel or North Carolina design II. Even though many papers have been published about genomic prediction (GP) in maize, the best mating design to build the training population has not been defined yet. Such design must maximize the accuracy given constraints on costs and on the logistics of the crosses to be made. Hence, the aims of this work were: (1) empirically evaluate the effect of the mating designs, used as training set, on genomic selection to predict maize single-crosses obtained through full diallel and North Carolina design II, (2) and identify the possibility of reducing the number of crosses and parents to compose these training sets. Our results suggest that testcross is the worst mating design to use as a training set to predict maize single-crosses that would be obtained through full diallel or North Carolina design II. Moreover, North Carolina design II is the best training set to predict hybrids taken from full diallel. However, hybrids from full diallel and North Carolina design II can be well predicted using optimized training sets, which also allow reducing the total number of crosses to be made. Nevertheless, the number of parents and the crosses per parent in the training sets should be maximized.
Full Text Available Based on a two-way pseudo-testcross strategy, high density and complete coverage linkage maps were constructed for the maternal and paternal parents of an intraspecific F2 pedigree of Populus deltoides. A total of 1,107 testcross markers were obtained, and the mapping population consisted of 376 progeny. Among these markers, 597 were from the mother, and were assigned into 19 linkage groups, spanning a total genetic distance of 1,940.3 cM. The remaining 519 markers were from the father, and were also were mapped into 19 linkage groups, covering 2,496.3 cM. The genome coverage of both maps was estimated as greater than 99.9% at 20 cM per marker, and the numbers of linkage groups of both maps were in accordance with the 19 haploid chromosomes in Populus. Marker segregation distortion was observed in large contiguous blocks on some of the linkage groups. Subsequently, we mapped the segregation distortion loci in this mapping pedigree. Altogether, eight segregation distortion loci with significant logarithm of odds supports were detected. Segregation distortion indicated the uneven transmission of the alternate alleles from the mapping parents. The corresponding genome regions might contain deleterious genes or be associated with hybridization incompatibility. In addition to the detection of segregation distortion loci, the established genetic maps will serve as a basic resource for mapping genetic loci controlling traits of interest in future studies.
Zhou, Wencai; Tang, Zaixiang; Hou, Jing; Hu, Nan; Yin, Tongming
Based on a two-way pseudo-testcross strategy, high density and complete coverage linkage maps were constructed for the maternal and paternal parents of an intraspecific F2 pedigree of Populus deltoides. A total of 1,107 testcross markers were obtained, and the mapping population consisted of 376 progeny. Among these markers, 597 were from the mother, and were assigned into 19 linkage groups, spanning a total genetic distance of 1,940.3 cM. The remaining 519 markers were from the father, and were also were mapped into 19 linkage groups, covering 2,496.3 cM. The genome coverage of both maps was estimated as greater than 99.9% at 20 cM per marker, and the numbers of linkage groups of both maps were in accordance with the 19 haploid chromosomes in Populus. Marker segregation distortion was observed in large contiguous blocks on some of the linkage groups. Subsequently, we mapped the segregation distortion loci in this mapping pedigree. Altogether, eight segregation distortion loci with significant logarithm of odds supports were detected. Segregation distortion indicated the uneven transmission of the alternate alleles from the mapping parents. The corresponding genome regions might contain deleterious genes or be associated with hybridization incompatibility. In addition to the detection of segregation distortion loci, the established genetic maps will serve as a basic resource for mapping genetic loci controlling traits of interest in future studies.
Cadic, Elena; Coque, Marie; Vear, Felicity; Grezes-Besset, Bruno; Pauquet, Jerôme; Piquemal, Joël; Lippi, Yannick; Blanchard, Philippe; Romestant, Michel; Pouilly, Nicolas; Rengel, David; Gouzy, Jerôme; Langlade, Nicolas; Mangin, Brigitte; Vincourt, Patrick
Association mapping and linkage mapping were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and/or causative mutations involved in the control of flowering time in cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus. A panel of 384 inbred lines was phenotyped through testcrosses with two tester inbred lines across 15 location × year combinations. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population comprising 273 lines was phenotyped both per se and through testcrosses with one or two testers in 16 location × year combinations. In the association mapping approach, kinship estimation using 5,923 single nucleotide polymorphisms was found to be the best covariate to correct for effects of panel structure. Linkage disequilibrium decay ranged from 0.08 to 0.26 cM for a threshold of 0.20, after correcting for structure effects, depending on the linkage group (LG) and the ancestry of inbred lines. A possible hitchhiking effect is hypothesized for LG10 and LG08. A total of 11 regions across 10 LGs were found to be associated with flowering time, and QTLs were mapped on 11 LGs in the RIL population. Whereas eight regions were demonstrated to be common between the two approaches, the linkage disequilibrium approach did not detect a documented QTL that was confirmed using the linkage mapping approach.
Hu, Biao-Lin; Xie, Jian-Kun; Wan, Yong; Zhang, Jin-Wei; Zhang, Fan-Tao; Li, Xia
Hybrid rice breeding using cytoplasmic male sterility/fertility restoration (CMS/Rf) systems plays an important role in ensuring global food security. Two backcross inbred line (BIL) populations derived from either Xieqingzao B (XB)//XB/Dongxiang wild rice (DWR) (XXD) or XB//DWR/XB (XDX) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fertility restoration of Dwarf wild abortive- (DA-), Indonesia Paddy- (ID-), and DWR-type CMS in rice. Lines with ID- and DA-type CMS were testcrossed with both the XXD- and XDX-BILs, while the line with DWR-type CMS was testcrossed with the XDX-BILs only. A total of 16 QTLs for fertility restoration of CMS systems were identified, including three for DWR-type CMS, six for DA-type CMS, and seven for ID-type CMS. All of the additive alleles in the QTLs were derived from Oryza rufipogon. Eleven QTLs were clustered in five chromosomal regions, indicating that common Rf loci restored different CMS systems, and the favorable O. rufipogon alleles could be used to develop restorer lines for various CMS types by marker-assisted selection.
Full Text Available To identify and develop drought tolerant maize (Zea mays L., high-throughput and cost-effective screening methods are needed. In dicot crops, measuring survival and recovery of seedlings has been successful in predicting drought tolerance but has not been reported in C4 grasses such as maize. Seedlings of sixty-two diverse maize inbred lines and their hybrid testcross progeny were evaluated for germination, survival and recovery after a series of drought cycles. Genotypic differences among inbred lines and hybrid testcrosses were best explained approximately 13 and 18 days after planting, respectively. Genotypic effects were significant and explained over 6% of experimental variance. Specifically three inbred lines had significant survival, and 14 hybrids had significant recovery. However, no significant correlation was observed between hybrids and inbreds (R2 = 0.03, indicating seedling stress response is more useful as a secondary screening parameter in hybrids than in inbred lines per se. Field yield data under full and limited irrigation indicated that seedling drought mechanisms were independent of drought responses at flowering in this study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative differences between individuals stem from a combination of genetic and environmental factors, with the heritable variation being shaped by evolutionary forces. Drosophila wing shape has emerged as an attractive system for genetic dissection of multi-dimensional traits. We utilize several experimental genetic methods to validation of the contribution of several polymorphisms in the Epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr gene to wing shape and size, that were previously mapped in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from North Carolina (NC and California (CA. This re-evaluation utilized different genetic testcrosses to generate heterozygous individuals with a variety of genetic backgrounds as well as sampling of new alleles from Kenyan stocks. Results Only one variant, in the Egfr promoter, had replicable effects in all new experiments. However, expanded genotyping of the initial sample of inbred lines rendered the association non-significant in the CA population, while it persisted in the NC sample, suggesting population specific modification of the quantitative trait nucleotide QTN effect. Conclusion Dissection of quantitative trait variation to the nucleotide level can identify sites with replicable effects as small as one percent of the segregating genetic variation. However, the testcross approach to validate QTNs is both labor intensive and time-consuming, and is probably less useful than resampling of large independent sets of outbred individuals.
Elkonin, L A; Gerashchenkov, G A; Domanina, I V; Rozhnova, N A
Heritable phenotypic alterations occurring during plant ontogenesis under the influence of environmental factors are among the most intriguing genetic phenomena. It was found that male-sterile sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm from the F1 and F2 generations, which were obtained by crossing CMS lines with different fertile lines grown in field conditions, were transferred to greenhouse produce fertile tillers. Lines created by the self-pollination of revertant tillers exhibit complete male fertility upon cultivation under various environments (in the field, Tdry plot,(y) Tirrigated plot(y)). In a number of test-crosses of revertants to CMS lines in the 9E cytoplasm, restoration of male fertility in F1 hybrids was found, indicating that revertants possess functional fertility-restoring genes. A high positive correlation was found between the fertility level of the test-cross hybrids and the hydrothermal coefficient (the ratio of the sum of precipitation to the sum of temperatures) during the booting stage and pollen maturation (r = 0.75...0.91; Pfertility-restoring genes of revertants. These data show that the fertility-restoring genes for the 9E cytoplasm are dominant in conditions of high water availability and recessive in drought conditions; reversions to male fertility are due to up-regulation of fertility-restoring genes by a high level of water availability. Comparative MSAP-analysis of DNA of male-sterile and male-fertile test-cross hybrids using HpaII/MspI restrictases and primers to polygalacturonase gene ADPG2, which is required for cell separation during reproductive development, and gene MYB46, the transcription factor regulating secondary wall biosynthesis, revealed differences in the number and the length of amplified fragments. Changes in the methylation of these genes in conditions of drought stress are apparently the reason for male sterility of sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm. These data demonstrate that methylation of nuclear genes in
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to observe differences among four sizes of the F2 populations (100, 200, 300 and 500 plants on the basis of test-crosses for grain yield according to the average values of the populations, genetic and phenotypic variances, genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variations and broad-sense heritability. The values of genetic variance did not significantly differ over population sizes according to all possible comparisons, including the comparison of values obtained for the phenotypic variance. Furthermore, the values of broadsense heritability (67.8%-69% did not significantly vary over different F2 population sizes. Genetic variability of the observed progenies, as a principal prerequisite of successful selection, was at the satisfactory level in all population sizes.
Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Moseman, J. G.
Attempts were made to recombine the dominant or semidominant resistance genes Ml-a, Ml-a3, Ml-a8 and Ml-a9 from the barley varieties Algerian Ricardo, Heil's Hanna and Monte Cristo, respectively. No recombinants with two resistance genes in the coupling phase were found in a total of 3117 test......-cross seedlings from four crosses studied. The true recombination percentages between the genes Ml-a/Ml-a3, Ml-a/Ml-a8, Ml-a/Ml-a9 and Ml-a8/Ml-a9 are between zero and 0.5. One possible recombinant susceptible to Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei suggests that the recombination percentage between the recessive...
Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Liu, Wenxin; Würschum, Tobias; Maurer, Hans P; Longin, Friedrich H; Ranc, Nicolas; Reif, Jochen C
Genomic selection is a promising breeding strategy for rapid improvement of complex traits. The objective of our study was to investigate the prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values through cross validation. The study was based on experimental data of six segregating populations from a half-diallel mating design with 788 testcross progenies from an elite maize breeding program. The plants were intensively phenotyped in multi-location field trials and fingerprinted with 960 SNP markers. We used random regression best linear unbiased prediction in combination with fivefold cross validation. The prediction accuracy across populations was higher for grain moisture (0.90) than for grain yield (0.58). The accuracy of genomic selection realized for grain yield corresponds to the precision of phenotyping at unreplicated field trials in 3-4 locations. As for maize up to three generations are feasible per year, selection gain per unit time is high and, consequently, genomic selection holds great promise for maize breeding programs.
Nematzadeh GHORBAN ALI
Full Text Available Five suitable maintainer varieties were identifi ed through testcrosses with IR58025A and the transfer of wild abortive cytoplasm was carried out by seven successive backcrosses. Five new CMS lines were developed by this approach in well adapted high yielding improved varietal background such as ‘Nemat’, ‘Neda’, ‘Dasht’, ‘Amol3’ and ‘Champa’. Agronomical characterization and allogamy-associated traits of the fi ve newly developed CMS lines were studied for their interrelationship. Anther length had a signifi cant positive correlation with the duration of glume opening (0.759 and high correlation of (0.698 with the angle between lemma and palea. The results indicated that ‘Nemat’ A, ‘Neda’ A, ‘Dasht’ A are more suitable as parents for hybrid seed production due to their favorable and superior fl oral characteristics in comparison to IR58025A.
Ward Judson A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid development of highly saturated genetic maps aids molecular breeding, which can accelerate gain per breeding cycle in woody perennial plants such as Rubus idaeus (red raspberry. Recently, robust genotyping methods based on high-throughput sequencing were developed, which provide high marker density, but result in some genotype errors and a large number of missing genotype values. Imputation can reduce the number of missing values and can correct genotyping errors, but current methods of imputation require a reference genome and thus are not an option for most species. Results Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS was used to produce highly saturated maps for a R. idaeus pseudo-testcross progeny. While low coverage and high variance in sequencing resulted in a large number of missing values for some individuals, a novel method of imputation based on maximum likelihood marker ordering from initial marker segregation overcame the challenge of missing values, and made map construction computationally tractable. The two resulting parental maps contained 4521 and 2391 molecular markers spanning 462.7 and 376.6 cM respectively over seven linkage groups. Detection of precise genomic regions with segregation distortion was possible because of map saturation. Microsatellites (SSRs linked these results to published maps for cross-validation and map comparison. Conclusions GBS together with genome-independent imputation provides a rapid method for genetic map construction in any pseudo-testcross progeny. Our method of imputation estimates the correct genotype call of missing values and corrects genotyping errors that lead to inflated map size and reduced precision in marker placement. Comparison of SSRs to published R. idaeus maps showed that the linkage maps constructed with GBS and our method of imputation were robust, and marker positioning reliable. The high marker density allowed identification of genomic regions with segregation
Ayala-Navarrete, L; Bariana, H S; Singh, R P; Gibson, J M; Mechanicos, A A; Larkin, P J
Rusts and barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) are among the main diseases affecting wheat production world wide for which wild relatives have been the source of a number of translocations carrying resistance genes. Nevertheless, along with desirable traits, alien translocations often carry deleterious genes. We have generated recombinants in a bread wheat background between two alien translocations: TC5, ex-Thinopyrum (Th) intermedium, carrying BYDV resistance gene Bdv2; and T4m, ex-Th. ponticum, carrying rust resistance genes Lr19 and Sr25. Because both these translocations are on the wheat chromosome arm 7DL, homoeologous recombination was attempted in the double hemizygote (TC5/T4m) in a background homozygous for the ph1b mutation. The identification of recombinants was facilitated by the use of newly developed molecular markers for each of the alien genomes represented in the two translocations and by studying derived F(2), F(3) and doubled haploid populations. The occurrence of recombination was confirmed with molecular markers and bioassays on families of testcrosses between putative recombinants and bread wheat, and in F(2) populations derived from the testcrosses. As a consequence it has been possible to derive a genetic map of markers and resistance genes on these previously fixed alien linkage blocks. We have obtained fertile progeny carrying new tri-genomic recombinant chromosomes. Furthermore we have demonstrated that some of the recombinants carried resistance genes Lr19 and Bdv2 yet lacked the self-elimination trait associated with shortened T4 segments. We have also shown that the recombinant translocations are fixed and stable once removed from the influence of the ph1b. The molecular markers developed in this study will facilitate selection of individuals carrying recombinant Th. intermedium-Th. ponticum translocations (Pontin series) in breeding programs.
Armour, D J; Mackie, J M; Musial, J M; Irwin, J A G
Five asymmetric hybrid plants were obtained between Medicago sativa (2n = 4x = 32) and Medicago arborea (2n = 4x = 32) through sexual reproduction and the use of a cytoplasmically male sterile M. sativa genotype. Over 2,000 pollinations were made to obtain these hybrids. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that in the most studied hybrid (WA2273), 4% of the bands unique to the M. arborea parent were present, versus 72% for the unique M. sativa bands. This suggests that only a single M. arborea chromosome or chromosome parts has been transferred. WA2273 had 7% of AFLP bands which were not present in either parent, which is suggestive of chromosome rearrangements as would be expected if only chromosome parts or a single part had been transferred from M. arborea. Phenotypic evidence for hybridity was obtained for pod coiling (1.4 coils in WA2273 versus three coils in the M. sativa parent and its self and testcross populations, and one coil in M. arborea), and Colletotrichum trifolii race 2 resistance (transferred from the resistant M. arborea parent, as the M. sativa parent and the self populations were highly susceptible). The hybrids were self sterile, but were female fertile to a high level when crossed with 4x, but not 2x, M. sativa, indicating they were at or near 4x. Both the pod coiling trait and anthracnose resistance segregated in the progeny of testcrosses between WA2273 and M. sativa. The work demonstrates that agronomically useful traits can be introgressed into M. sativa from M. arborea by use of male sterile M. sativa and sexual reproduction.
Gustavo Hiroshi Sera
Full Text Available As cultivares de café IPR 99 ("Sarchimor" e IPR 107 ('IAPAR 59' x 'Mundo Novo IAC 376-4' eram no passado resistentes à ferrugem (Hemileia vastatrix. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: a Identificar progênies dessas duas cultivares com resistência à ferrugem; b Identificar progênies com resistência incompleta; c Verificar a eficiência dos cruzamentos testes na seleção dessas cultivares. A avaliação da resistência em campo foi realizada em cafeeiros adultos expostos à população local de raças presentes no IAPAR. Foram avaliados 23 cruzamentos testes com progênies F3 de 'IPR 107' e 5 com progênies F4 de 'IPR 99'. Além disso, foram avaliadas 11 progênies F4 de 'IPR 107' e 5 progênies F5 de 'IPR 99', provenientes de autofecundação. Várias progênies das cultivares IPR 99 e 107 apresentaram alta freqüência de plantas com resistência completa e são portadoras de mais genes de resistência não quebrados pelas raças de ferrugem. Progênies das cultivares IPR 99 e IPR 107 com a resistência quebrada apresentaram resistência incompleta à população local de raças. Cruzamentos testes foram eficientes na seleção de progênies de café com mais genes de resistência não quebrados.All plants of the coffee cultivars IPR 99 ("Sarchimor" and IPR 107 ('IAPAR 59' x 'Mundo Novo IAC 376-4' were resistant to rust (Hemileia vastatrix in the past. Currently, susceptible plants were observed in the two cultivars due to the breakdown of resistance by new rust races. The aims of this study were: a to identify coffee (Coffea arabica L. progenies of the two cultivars with resistance to rust; b to identify progenies with incomplete resistance; c to investigate the efficiency of test-crosses for selection from these cultivars. Evaluation for field resistance was carried out in adult plants subjected to natural infection by the local leaf rust population at IAPAR. Twenty-three test-crosses with F3 progenies of 'IPR 107' and five with F4
Performance of testers with different genetic structure for evaluation of maize inbred lines Desempenho de testadores com diferentes estruturas genéticas para avaliação de linhagens endogâmicas de milho
Lauro José Moreira Guimarães
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate four maize testers for identification of superior inbreed lines in testcross. The four testers evaluated are cultivars with narrow or wide genetic base (single-cross hybrids and open pollinated varieties and two kernel types (flint or dent. SynD and SynF testers are open pollinated varieties with dent and flint kernels, respectively, and FSH and DSH testers are single-cross hybrids with flint and dent kernels, respectively. SynD tester showed the biggest genetic variance among the maize inbreed lines in crosses. The effects of general combining ability (GCA for lines and specific combining ability (SCA for lines x testers were significant, whereas GCA effects for testers were not significant. SynD and SynF testers identified the largest number of lines with higher GCA. The DSH and FSH testers showed suitable to identify lines with high SCA. It was concluded that SynD and SynF testers are adequate to identify inbreed lines with high GCA effects, and it's possible to identify new lines with high heterotic potential in each one of the four testers.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar quatro testadores de milho quanto à capacidade de identificar linhagens superiores em testcross. Os quatro testadores avaliados são cultivares com base genética ampla (variedades de polinização aberta e estreita (híbridos simples e dois tipos de grãos (duro e dentado. Os testadores SynD e SynF são populações de milho de polinização aberta com grãos dentados e duros, respectivamente, e FSH e DSH são híbridos simples com grãos duros e dentados, respectivamente. O testador SynD possibilitou a maior expressão de variância genética entre os cruzamentos com as linhagens. A capacidade geral de combinação (CGC das linhagens e a capacidade específica de combinação (CEC entre linhagens e testadores foram significativas, enquanto que os efeitos de CGC dos testadores foram não significativos. Concluiu-se que os
Lev Aleksandrovich Elkonin
Full Text Available Heritable changes of phenotype arising in plant ontogenesis by the influence of environmental factors belong to the most intriguing genetic phenomena. Studying restoration of male fertility in the ‘9E’ type of CMS-inducing cytoplasm of sorghum and related CMS-inducing cytoplasms, A4 and M35-1A, in some hybrid combinations, we found an unusual inheritance pattern: the Rf-genes functioned in the self-pollinated progenies of F1 hybrids (up to F10 but did not or poorly expressed in backcrosses of these hybrids to CMS-lines with the same cytoplasm type. In experiments on parallel growing of the same F1 hybrid combinations in the ‘dry plot’ and in the ‘irrigated plot’, it was found that high level of plant water availability during panicle and pollen developmental stages significantly increased male fertility of F1 and testcross hybrid populations, in which fertility-restoring genes were in heterozygote state, whereas in F2 populations the influences of water availability conditions cause less pronounce effects. Similarly, male-sterile F1 plants, being transferred from the ‘dry plot’ to greenhouse, produced male-fertile panicles. In addition, male-sterile plants from F2 families, which segregated-out as recessives, being transferred to greenhouse also produced male-fertile panicles. In the progenies of these revertants that were grown in field conditions and in the ‘dry plot’, stable inheritance of male fertility for 3 cycles of self-pollination was observed, and a number of stable fertile lines in the ‘9E’ cytoplasm were obtained. However, in test-crosses of these fertile lines to CMS-lines with the ‘9E’ cytoplasm restoration of male fertility was not observed, except the progeny of one revertant that behaved as fertility-restorer line. These data suggest that the functional state of fertility-restoring genes for the ‘9E’ sorghum cytoplasm is epigenetically-regulated trait established by the influence of environmental
Lee, Young Mok; Jung, Jin Gyoung; Kim, Jin Nam; Park, Tae Sub; Kim, Tae Min; Shin, Sang Su; Kang, Dae Kyung; Lim, Jeong Mook; Han, Jae Yong
In this study, we proposed a testis-mediated germline chimera production system based on the transplantation of testicular cells directly into heterologous testes. The testicular cells of juvenile (4-wk-old) or adult (24-wk-old) Korean Ogol chickens with a recessive pigmentation inhibitory gene, with or without prior culture, were injected (2 x 10(7) cells/head) into the seminiferous tubules of juvenile or adult recipients with White Leghorn with a dominant pigmentation inhibitory gene in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. The localization of transplanted cells into the inner space of the seminiferous tubules was confirmed within 24 h after injection. Subsequent testcross analyses showed that 7.8% (5/64) of the recipients had chimeric status in their testes. The periods of time from transfer to hatching of the first progeny with black feathers were 38 and 45 days for adult cells transplanted into an adult recipient, 188 days for adult cells into a juvenile recipient, and 137 days for juvenile cells into a juvenile recipient. Culture of the testicular cells derived both colony-forming and monolayer-forming cells. The colony-forming cells were stained positively for periodic acid Schiff solution, and further reacted with anti-SSEA-1, anti-SSEA-3, and anti-SSEA-4 antibodies both before and after culture for 15 days. In conclusion, it may be possible to develop the testis-mediated germline chimera production technique, which extends the feasibility of genetic manipulations in avian species.
Full Text Available Abstract. During the period 2012 – 2014, a second cycle of recurrent selection of early flowering in a synthetic maize population “Exotic-07” was conducted 2 and finished on the experimental field of Maize Research institute – Knezha. The experiments are carried out by a block method, on a test plot of 10 m , with three replications, and the respective for the region agricultural equipment. Twenty-three progeny from the first and second cycle, the source and improved exotic maize populations, as well as their testcrosses with the lines ХМ 4416 and PAU 1617 are tested. A phenotypic cycle assumes a leading position in terms of dates of plant silking as the forms of the earliest flowering are used as pollen in the population. The selected early flowering forms are sown for inbreeding and forming an improved maize population. As a direct result of the work of improvement, progeny with a period of days until silking averagely shorter with 5 days and grain moisture lowered by 1.1% are obtained. The aim of this study is to point out inbred lines with a shorter vegetative period and use them as parental forms for obtaining high-yielding mid-late maize hybrids.
Full Text Available Consistent grain yield in drought environment has attracted wide attention due to global climate change. However, the important drought-related traits/genes in crops have been rarely reported. Many near-isogenic lines (NILs of male sterile and fertile Salvia miltiorrhiza have been obtained in our previous work through testcross and backcross in continuous field experiments conducted in 2006–2009. Both segregating sterile and fertile populations were subjected to bulked segregant analysis (BSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP with 384 and 170 primer combinations, respectively. One out of 14 AFLP markers (E9/M3246 was identified in treated fertile population as tightly linked to the drought stress gene with a recombination frequency of 6.98% and at a distance of 7.02 cM. One of 15 other markers (E2/M5357 was identified in a treated sterile population that is closely associated with the drought stress gene. It had a recombination frequency of 4.65% and at a distance of 4.66 cM. Interestingly, the E9/M3246 fragment was found to be identical to another AFLP fragment E11/M4208 that was tightly linked to the male sterile gene of S. miltiorrhiza with 95% identity and e-value 4 × 10−93. Blastn analysis suggested that the drought stress gene sequence showed higher identity with nucleotides in Arabidopsis chromosome 1–5.
Sirjana Devi Shrestha
Full Text Available The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076 with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop and characterize a novel cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS source which was identified from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon by crossing Dongxiang wild rice as female with Zhongzao 35, an indica inbred variety, as male and continuous backcrossing with Zhongzao 35. Observation under optical microscope manifested that this novel CMS belonged to typical abortion type with less pollen compared with wild abortive type cytoplasm (CMS-WA. Sequential planting showed that this novel CMS has complete and stable male sterility. Testcross experiment showed that all the 24 tested materials including maintainer and restorer lines of CMS-WA and Honglian type cytoplasm (CMS-HL and other indica inbred varieties are the maintainers with complete maintaining ability, suggesting that this novel CMS has fertility restoration totally different from CMS-WA and CMS-HL and belongs to a novel type of CMS. So far, we only discovered a unique fertility restoration source for this novel CMS. Inheritance analysis showed that the fertility restoration of this CMS was governed by three pairs of independent dominant genes. Prospect for application of this novel CMS system in hybrid rice breeding was also discussed.
Raboy, Victor; Cichy, Karen; Peterson, Kevin; Reichman, Sarah; Sompong, Utumporn; Srinives, Peerasak; Saneoka, Hirofumi
Inositol hexaphosphate (Ins P6 or "phytic acid") typically accounts for 75 (± 10%) of seed total phosphorus (P). In some cases, genetic blocks in seed Ins P6 accumulation can also alter the distribution or total amount of seed P. In nonmutant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) caryopses, ~80% of Ins P6 and total P accumulate in the aleurone layer, the outer layer of the endosperm, with the remainder in the germ. In barley low phytic acid 1-1 (Hvlpa1-1) seed, both endosperm Ins P6 and total P are reduced (~45% and ~25%, respectively), but germs are phenotypically wild type. This translates into a net reduction in whole-seed total P of ~15%. Nutrient culture studies demonstrate that the reduction in endosperm total P is not due to a reduction in the uptake of P into the maternal plant. Genetic tests (analyses of testcross and F2 seed) reveal that the Hvlpa1-1 genotype of the filial seed conditions the seed total P reduction; sibling seed in the same head of barley that differ in their Hvlpa1-1 genotype (heterozygous vs. homozygous recessive) differ in their total P (normal vs. reduced, respectively). Therefore, Hvlpa1 functions as a seed-specific or filial determinant of barley endosperm total P. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Genetic Association 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Janse, J; Sybenga, J
Transmission of the extra (translocated) chromosome of tertiary trisomic T282W of rye (Secale cereale L.) upon seifing, through the male and/or the female, ranged from 0% to 36% in different inbred lines. Tetrasomics arising from simultaneous male and female transmission were not recovered and thus apparently not viable. Low seed weight, poor seed germination and a low transmission rate were correlated with low seed weight and reduced plant vigour. Inbreeding depression was concluded to affect transmission rate through its effect on the relative viability of trisomic seeds or seedlings.Male transmission in testcrosses with disomics averaged 7%, but varied between lines. Genetic factors were involved, but their expression remains uncertain. Pollen quality, as determined by a fluorescence reaction, was somewhat lower in trisomics than in disomics of the same genetic background and was not correlated with male transmission rate, which appears to be determined mainly by relative pollen-tube growth of euploid and aneuploid gametophytes. The results are discussed in relation to the use of tertiary trisomics in balanced chromosomal systems for hybrid breeding.
The fly Megaselia scalaris Loew possesses three homomorphic chromosome pairs; 2 is the sex chromosome pair in two wild-type laboratory stocks of different geographic origin (designated "original" sex chromosome pair in this paper). The primary male-determining function moves at a very low rate to other chromosomes, thereby creating new Y chromosomes. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers obtained by polymerase chain reaction with single decamer primers and a few available phenotypic markers were used in testcrosses to localize the sex-determining loci and to define the new sex chromosomes. Four cases are presented in which the primary male-determining function had been transferred from the original Y chromosome to a new locus either on one of the autosomes or on the original X chromosome, presumably by transposition. In these cases, the sex-determining function had moved to a different locus without an obvious cotransfer of other Y chromosome markers. Thus, with Megaselia we are afforded an experimental system to study the otherwise hypothetical primary stages of sex chromosome evolution. An initial molecular differentiation is apparent even in the new sex chromosomes. Molecular differences between the original X and Y chromosomes illustrate a slightly more advanced stage of sex chromosome evolution.
Н. Е. Волкова
Full Text Available Purpose. To review publications relating to the key point of the genotyping technology that is competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (which is called now Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR, KASPTM and its use in various genetic-breeding researching (a study of maize. Results. The essence of KASP-genotyping, its advantages are highlighted. The requirements for matrix DNA are presented, since the success of the KASP-analysis depends on its quality and quantity. Examples of global projects of plant breeding for increasing crop yields using the KASP genotyping technology are given. The results of KASP genotyping and their introduction into breeding and seed production, in particular, for determining genetic identity, genetic purity, origin check, marker-assisted selection, etc. are presented using maize as an example. It is demonstrated how genomic selection according to KASP genotyping technology can lead to rapid genetic enhancement of drought resistance in maize. Comparison of the effectiveness of creating lines with certain traits (for example, combination of high grain yield and drought resistance using traditional breeding approaches (phenotype selection and molecular genetic methods (selection by markers was proved that it takes four seasons (two years in case of greenhouses in order to unlock the potential of the plant genotype using traditional self-pollination, test-crossing and definitions, while using markers, the population was enriched with target alleles during one season. At the same time, there was no need for a stress factor. Conclusions. KASP genotyping technology is a high-precision and effective tool for modern genetics and breeding, which is successfully used to study genetic diversity, genetic relationship, population structure, genetic identity, genetic purity, origin check, quantitative locus mapping, allele mapping, marker-assisted selection, marker-assisted breeding. It is expedient and timely to
Messina, Carlos D; Podlich, Dean; Dong, Zhanshan; Samples, Mitch; Cooper, Mark
The effectiveness of breeding strategies to increase drought resistance in crops could be increased further if some of the complexities in gene-to-phenotype (G → P) relations associated with epistasis, pleiotropy, and genotype-by-environment interactions could be captured in realistic G → P models, and represented in a quantitative manner useful for selection. This paper outlines a promising methodology. First, the concept of landscapes was extended from the study of fitness landscapes used in evolutionary genetics to the characterization of yield-trait-performance landscapes for agricultural environments and applications in plant breeding. Second, the E(NK) model of trait genetic architecture was extended to incorporate biophysical, physiological, and statistical components. Third, a graphical representation is proposed to visualize the yield-trait performance landscape concept for use in selection decisions. The methodology was demonstrated at a particular stage of a maize breeding programme with the objective of improving the drought tolerance of maize hybrids for the US Western Corn-Belt. The application of the framework to the genetic improvement of drought tolerance in maize supported selection of Doubled Haploid (DH) lines with improved levels of drought tolerance based on physiological genetic knowledge, prediction of test-cross yield within the target population of environments, and their predicted potential to sustain further genetic progress with additional cycles of selection. The existence of rugged yield-performance landscapes with multiple peaks and intervening valleys of lower performance, as shown in this study, supports the proposition that phenotyping strategies, and the directions emphasized in genomic selection can be improved by creating knowledge of the topology of yield-trait performance landscapes.
Carletti, Giorgia; Carra, Andrea; Allegro, Gianni; Vietto, Lorenzo; Desiderio, Francesca; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Gianinetti, Alberto; Cattivelli, Luigi; Valè, Giampiero; Nervo, Giuseppe
The genus Populus represents one of the most economically important groups of forest trees. It is composed by approximately 30 species used for wood and non-wood products, phytoremediation and biomass. Poplar is subjected to several biological and environmental threats although, compared to annual crops, we know far less about the genetic bases of biotic stress resistance. Woolly poplar aphid (Phloeomyzus passerinii) is considered a main pest of cultivated poplars in European and American countries. In this work we present two high density linkage maps in poplar obtained by a genotyping by sequencing (GBS) approach and the identification of QTLs involved in Ph. passerinii resistance. A total of 5,667 polymorphic markers (5,606 SNPs and 61 SSRs) identified on expressed sequences have been used to genotype 131 plants of an F1 population P ×canadensis obtained by an interspecific mate between Populus deltoides (resistant to woolly poplar aphid) and Populus nigra (susceptible to woolly poplar aphid). The two linkage maps, obtained following the two-way pseudo-testcross mapping strategy, have been used to investigate the genetic bases of woolly poplar aphid resistance. One major QTL and two QTLs with minor effects (mapped on LGV, LGXVI and LG XIX) explaining the 65.8% of the genetic variance observed in the progeny in response to Ph. passerinii attack were found. The high density coverage of functional markers allowed the identification of three genes belonging to disease resistance pathway as putative candidates for P. deltoides resistance to woolly poplar aphid. This work is the first report on genetic of woolly poplar aphid genetic resistance and the resistant loci associated markers identified represent a valuable tool in resistance poplar breeding programs.
Shima, A; Shimada, A
To develop a specific-locus test (SLT) system for environmental mutagenesis using vertebrate species other than the mouse, we first established a tester stock of the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes) that is homozygous recessive at three loci. The phenotypic expression of these loci can be easily recognized early in embryonic development by observation through the transparent egg membrane. We irradiated wild-type males with 137Cs gamma-rays to determine the dose-response relationships for dominant lethal and specific-locus mutations induced in sperm, spermatids, and spermatogonia. Through observation of 322,666 loci in control offspring and 374,026 loci in offspring obtained from 0.64-, 4.75-, or 9.50-Gy-irradiated gametes, specific-locus mutations were phenotypically detected during early development. These putative mutations, designated "total mutation," can be recognized only in embryos of oviparous animals. The developmental fate of these mutant embryos was precisely followed. During subsequent embryonic development, a large fraction died and thus was unavailable for test-crossing, which was used to identify "viable mutations." Our medaka SLT system demonstrates that the vast majority of total mutations is associated with dominant lethal mutations. Thus far only one spontaneous viable mutation has been observed, so that all doubling calculations involving this endpoint carry a large error. With these reservations, however, we conclude that the quantitative data so far obtained from the medaka SLT are quite comparable to those from the mouse SLT and, hence, indicate the validity of the medaka SLT as a possible nonmammalian test system. PMID:2006189
Shima, A.; Shimada, A. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))
To develop a specific-locus test (SLT) system for environmental mutagenesis using vertebrate species other than the mouse, we first established a tester stock of the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes) that is homozygous recessive at three loci. The phenotypic expression of these loci can be easily recognized early in embryonic development by observation through the transparent egg membrane. We irradiated wild-type males with 137Cs gamma-rays to determine the dose-response relationships for dominant lethal and specific-locus mutations induced in sperm, spermatids, and spermatogonia. Through observation of 322,666 loci in control offspring and 374,026 loci in offspring obtained from 0.64-, 4.75-, or 9.50-Gy-irradiated gametes, specific-locus mutations were phenotypically detected during early development. These putative mutations, designated total mutation, can be recognized only in embryos of oviparous animals. The developmental fate of these mutant embryos was precisely followed. During subsequent embryonic development, a large fraction died and thus was unavailable for test-crossing, which was used to identify viable mutations. Our medaka SLT system demonstrates that the vast majority of total mutations is associated with dominant lethal mutations. Thus far only one spontaneous viable mutation has been observed, so that all doubling calculations involving this endpoint carry a large error. With these reservations, however, we conclude that the quantitative data so far obtained from the medaka SLT are quite comparable to those from the mouse SLT and, hence, indicate the validity of the medaka SLT as a possible nonmammalian test system.
Lanteri, S; Acquadro, A; Comino, C; Mauro, R; Mauromicale, G; Portis, E
We present the first genetic maps of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L. 2n=2x=34), constructed with a two-way pseudo-testcross strategy. A F1 mapping population of 94 individuals was generated between a late-maturing, non-spiny type and an early-maturing spiny type. The 30 AFLP, 13 M-AFLP and 9 S-SAP primer combinations chosen identified, respectively, 352, 38 and 41 polymorphic markers. Of 32 microsatellite primer pairs tested, 12 identified heterozygous loci in one or other parent, and 7 were fully informative as they segregated in both parents. The female parent map comprised 204 loci, spread over 18 linkage groups and spanned 1330.5 cM with a mean marker density of 6.5 cM. The equivalent figures for the male parent map were 180 loci, 17 linkage groups, 1239.4 and 6.9 cM. About 3% of the AFLP and AFLP-derived markers displayed segregation distortion with a P value below 0.01, and were not used for map construction. All the SSR loci were included in the linkage analysis, although one locus did show some segregation distortion. The presence of 78 markers in common to both maps allowed the alignment of 16 linkage groups. The maps generated provide a firm basis for the mapping of agriculturally relevant traits, which will then open the way for the application of a marker-assisted selection breeding strategy in this species.
Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Cabeza, Amalia; Domínguez, Pedro; Medina, Juan Jesús; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Amaya, Iraida
Breeding for fruit quality traits in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 2n = 8x = 56) is complex due to the polygenic nature of these traits and the octoploid constitution of this species. In order to improve the efficiency of genotype selection, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and associated molecular markers will constitute a valuable tool for breeding programs. However, the implementation of these markers in breeding programs depends upon the complexity and stability of QTLs across different environments. In this work, the genetic control of 17 agronomical and fruit quality traits was investigated in strawberry using a F(1) population derived from an intraspecific cross between two contrasting selection lines, '232' and '1392'. QTL analyses were performed over three successive years based on the separate parental linkage maps and a pseudo-testcross strategy. The integrated strawberry genetic map consists of 338 molecular markers covering 37 linkage groups, thus exceeding the 28 chromosomes. 33 QTLs were identified for 14 of the 17 studied traits and approximately 37% of them were stable over time. For each trait, 1-5 QTLs were identified with individual effects ranging between 9.2 and 30.5% of the phenotypic variation, indicating that all analysed traits are complex and quantitatively inherited. Many QTLs controlling correlated traits were co-located in homoeology group V, indicating linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci. Candidate genes for several QTLs controlling yield, anthocyanins, firmness and L-ascorbic acid are proposed based on both their co-localization and predicted function. We also report conserved QTLs among strawberry and other Rosaceae based on their syntenic location.
Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Rambla, José-Luis; Cabeza, Amalia; Medina, Juan J.; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Botella, Miguel A.; Granell, Antonio; Amaya, Iraida
Improvement of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit flavor is an important goal in breeding programs. To investigate genetic factors controlling this complex trait, a strawberry mapping population derived from genotype ‘1392’, selected for its superior flavor, and ‘232’ was profiled for volatile compounds over 4 years by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. More than 300 volatile compounds were detected, of which 87 were identified by comparison of mass spectrum and retention time to those of pure standards. Parental line ‘1392’ displayed higher volatile levels than ‘232’, and these and many other compounds with similar levels in both parents segregated in the progeny. Cluster analysis grouped the volatiles into distinct chemically related families and revealed a complex metabolic network underlying volatile production in strawberry fruit. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection was carried out over 3 years based on a double pseudo-testcross strategy. Seventy QTLs covering 48 different volatiles were detected, with several of them being stable over time and mapped as major QTLs. Loci controlling γ-decalactone and mesifurane content were mapped as qualitative traits. Using a candidate gene approach we have assigned genes that are likely responsible for several of the QTLs. As a proof of concept we show that one homoeolog of the O-methyltransferase gene (FaOMT) is the locus responsible for the natural variation of mesifurane content. Sequence analysis identified 30 bp in the promoter of this FaOMT homoeolog containing putative binding sites for basic/helix-loop-helix, MYB, and BZIP transcription factors. This polymorphism fully cosegregates with both the presence of mesifurane and the high expression of FaOMT during ripening. PMID:22474217
Yu, Y; Andrés, Jose A
Biological invasions can result in new selection pressures driven by the establishment of new biotic interactions. The response of exotic and native species to selection depends critically on the genetic architecture of ecologically relevant traits. In the Florida peninsula, the soapberry bug (Jadera haematoloma) has colonized the recently introduced Chinese flametree, Koelreuteria elegans, as a host plant. Driven by feeding efficiency, the populations associated with this new host have differentiated into a new bug ecomorph characterized by short beaks more appropriate for feeding on the flattened pods of the Chinese flametree. In this study, we have generated a three-generation pedigree from crossing the long-beaked and short-beaked ecomorphs to construct a de novo linkage map and to locate putative quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling beak length and body size in J. haematoloma. Using amplified fragment-length polymorphism markers and a two-way pseudo-testcross design, we have produced two parental maps in six linkage groups, covering the known number of chromosomes. QTL analysis revealed one significant QTL for beak length on a maternal linkage group and the corresponding paternal linkage group. Three QTL were found for body size. Through single marker regression analysis, nine single markers that could not be placed on the map were also found to be significantly associated with one or both of the two traits. Interestingly, the most significant body size QTL co-localized with the beak length QTL, suggesting linkage disequilibrium or pleiotropic effects of related traits. Our results suggest an oligogenic control of beak length.
Schulthess, Albert Wilhelm; Wang, Yu; Miedaner, Thomas; Wilde, Peer; Reif, Jochen C; Zhao, Yusheng
Exploiting the benefits from multiple-trait genomic selection for protein content prediction relying on additional grain yield information within training sets is a realistic genomic selection approach in rye breeding. Multiple-trait genomic selection (MTGS) was specially designed to benefit from the information of genetically correlated indicator traits in order to improve genomic prediction accuracies. Two segregating F3:4 rye testcross populations genotyped using diversity array technology markers and evaluated for grain yield (GY) and protein content (PC) were considered. The aims of our study were to explore the benefits of MTGS over single-trait genomic selection (STGS) for GY and PC prediction and to apply GS to predict different selection indices (SIs) for GY and PC improvement. Our results using a two-trait model (2TGS) empirically confirm that the ideal scenario to exploit the benefits of MTGS would be when the predictions of a relatively low heritable target trait with scarce phenotypic records are supported by an intensively phenotyped genetically correlated indicator trait which has higher heritability. This ideal scenario is expected for PC in practice. According to our GS implementation, MTGS can be performed in order to achieve more cycles of selection by unit of time. If the aim is to exclusively improve the prediction accuracy of a scarcely phenotyped trait, 2TGS will be a more accurate approach than a three-trait model which incorporates an additional correlated indicator trait. In general for balanced phenotypic information, we recommend to perform GS considering SIs as single traits, this method being a simple, direct and efficient way of prediction.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic improvement of fibre-producing animal species has often induced transition from double coated to single coated fleece, accompanied by dramatic changes in skin follicles and hair composition, likely implying variation at multiple loci. Huacaya, the more common fleece phenotype in alpaca (Vicugna pacos, is characterized by a thick dense coat growing perpendicularly from the body, whereas the alternative rare and more prized single-coated Suri phenotype is distinguished by long silky fibre that grows parallel to the body and hangs in separate, distinctive pencil locks. A single-locus genetic model has been proposed for the Suri-Huacaya phenotype, where Huacaya is recessive. Results Two reciprocal experimental test-crosses (Suri × Huacaya were carried out, involving a total of 17 unrelated males and 149 unrelated females. An additional dataset of 587 offspring of Suri × Suri crosses was analyzed. Segregation ratios, population genotype frequencies, and/or recombination fraction under different genetic models were estimated by maximum likelihood. The single locus model for the Suri/Huacaya phenotype was rejected. In addition, we present two unexpected observations: 1 a large proportion (about 3/4 of the Suri animals are segregating (with at least one Huacaya offspring, even in breeding conditions where the Huacaya trait would have been almost eliminated; 2 a model with two different values of the segregation ratio fit the data significantly better than a model with a single parameter. Conclusions The data support a genetic model in which two linked loci must simultaneously be homozygous for recessive alleles in order to produce the Huacaya phenotype. The estimated recombination rate between these loci was 0.099 (95% C.L. = 0.029-0.204. Our genetic analysis may be useful for other species whose breeding system produces mainly half-sib families.
Prigge, Vanessa; Xu, Xiaowei; Li, Liang; Babu, Raman; Chen, Shaojiang; Atlin, Gary N; Melchinger, Albrecht E
Haploids and doubled haploid (DH) inbred lines have become an invaluable tool for maize genetic research and hybrid breeding, but the genetic basis of in vivo induction of maternal haploids is still unknown. This is the first study reporting comparative quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of this trait in maize. We determined haploid induction rates (HIR) in testcrosses of a total of 1061 progenies of four segregating populations involving two temperate haploid inducers, UH400 (HIR = 8%) and CAUHOI (HIR = 2%), one temperate and two tropical inbreds with HIR = 0%, and up to three generations per population. Mean HIR of the populations ranged from 0.6 to 5.2% and strongly deviated from the midparent values. One QTL (qhir1) explaining up to p = 66% of the genetic variance was detected in bin 1.04 in the three populations involving a noninducer parent and the HIR-enhancing allele was contributed by UH400. Segregation ratios of loci in bin 1.04 were highly distorted against the UH400 allele in these three populations, suggesting that transmission failure of the inducer gamete and haploid induction ability are related phenomena. In the CAUHOI × UH400 population, seven QTL were identified on five chromosomes, with qhir8 on chromosome 9 having p > 20% in three generations of this cross. The large-effect QTL qhir1 and qhir8 will likely become fixed quickly during inducer development due to strong selection pressure applied for high HIR. Hence, marker-based pyramiding of small-effect and/or modifier QTL influencing qhir1 and qhir8 may help to further increase HIR in maize. We propose a conceptual genetic framework for inheritance of haploid induction ability, which is also applicable to other dichotomous traits requiring progeny testing, and discuss the implications of our results for haploid inducer development.
Full Text Available More than 80% of the 19 million ha of maize ( L. in tropical Asia is rainfed and prone to drought. The breeding methods for improving drought tolerance (DT, including genomic selection (GS, are geared to increase the frequency of favorable alleles. Two biparental populations (CIMMYT-Asia Population 1 [CAP1] and CAP2 were generated by crossing elite Asian-adapted yellow inbreds (CML470 and VL1012767 with an African white drought-tolerant line, CML444. Marker effects of polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were determined from testcross (TC performance of F families under drought and optimal conditions. Cycle 1 (C1 was formed by recombining the top 10% of the F families based on TC data. Subsequently, (i C2[PerSe_PS] was derived by recombining those C1 plants that exhibited superior per se phenotypes (phenotype-only selection, and (ii C2[TC-GS] was derived by recombining a second set of C1 plants with high genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs derived from TC phenotypes of F families (marker-only selection. All the generations and their top crosses to testers were evaluated under drought and optimal conditions. Per se grain yields (GYs of C2[PerSe_PS] and that of C2[TC-GS] were 23 to 39 and 31 to 53% better, respectively, than that of the corresponding F population. The C2[TC-GS] populations showed superiority of 10 to 20% over C2[PerSe-PS] of respective populations. Top crosses of C2[TC-GS] showed 4 to 43% superiority of GY over that of C2[PerSe_PS] of respective populations. Thus, GEBV-enabled selection of superior phenotypes (without the target stress resulted in rapid genetic gains for DT.
Shapturenko, M N; Tarutina, L A; Mishin, L A; Kil'chevskiĭ, A V; Hotyleva, L V
The identification of perspective parental forms for the creation of high-yield hybrids is the most labor-consuming stage of selection, because it needs extensive crossings and trials of combinative ability. Based on eval- uation of the genetic divergence of the parental forms, the efficiency of the prediction of the yield potential of F1 hybrids of the sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was investigated in this study. The value of the divergence was calculated using biometric and molecular analyses, such as inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). As a result of molecular-genetic study on the selective collection, 10 lines were selected for cyclic cross (scheme I) and testcross (scheme II). In most combinations, the F1 hybrids were significantly superior to the parents in the main economically valuable traits. The level of heterosis was significantly higher among hybrids of scheme I. Analysis of the relationship between parental divergence and F1 performance showed that the hybrid productivity of scheme I was predetermined by ISSR divergence in 86%, and productivity was caused by RAPD divergence in 69%, whereas the F1 yield of scheme II was not related to the value of genetic distances. Since the values of DNA divergence were closely associated both with mid-parent level and F1 performance, we assumed that some part of the polymorphic DNA fragments of the constituents of scheme I is related to heterotic loci (HTL), which may be considered potential markers for the choice of the initial material in selection for heterosis.
Gong, Wen-Bing; Liu, Wei; Lu, Ying-Ying; Bian, Yin-Bing; Zhou, Yan; Kwan, Hoi Shan; Cheung, Man Kit; Xiao, Yang
The most saturated linkage map for Lentinula edodes to date was constructed based on a monokaryotic population of 146 single spore isolates (SSIs) using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP), insertion-deletion (InDel) markers, and the mating-type loci. Five hundred and twenty-four markers were located on 13 linkage groups (LGs). The map spanned a total length of 1006.1 cM, with an average marker spacing of 2.0 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping was utilized to uncover the loci regulating and controlling the vegetative mycelium growth rate on various synthetic media, and complex medium for commercial cultivation of L. edodes. Two and 13 putative QTLs, identified respectively in the monokaryotic population and two testcross dikaryotic populations, were mapped on seven different LGs. Several vegetative mycelium growth rate-related QTLs uncovered here were clustered on LG4 (Qmgr1, Qdgr1, Qdgr2 and Qdgr9) and LG6 (Qdgr3, Qdgr4 and Qdgr5), implying the presence of main genomic areas responsible for growth rate regulation and control. The QTL hotspot region on LG4 was found to be in close proximity to the region containing the mating-type A (MAT-A) locus. Moreover, Qdgr2 on LG4 was detected on different media, contributing 8.07 %-23.71 % of the phenotypic variation. The present study provides essential information for QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in L. edodes. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The genus Populus represents one of the most economically important groups of forest trees. It is composed by approximately 30 species used for wood and non-wood products, phytoremediation and biomass. Poplar is subjected to several biological and environmental threats although, compared to annual crops, we know far less about the genetic bases of biotic stress resistance. Woolly poplar aphid (Phloeomyzus passerinii is considered a main pest of cultivated poplars in European and American countries. In this work we present two high density linkage maps in poplar obtained by a genotyping by sequencing (GBS approach and the identification of QTLs involved in Ph. passerinii resistance. A total of 5,667 polymorphic markers (5,606 SNPs and 61 SSRs identified on expressed sequences have been used to genotype 131 plants of an F1 population P ×canadensis obtained by an interspecific mate between Populus deltoides (resistant to woolly poplar aphid and Populus nigra (susceptible to woolly poplar aphid. The two linkage maps, obtained following the two-way pseudo-testcross mapping strategy, have been used to investigate the genetic bases of woolly poplar aphid resistance. One major QTL and two QTLs with minor effects (mapped on LGV, LGXVI and LG XIX explaining the 65.8% of the genetic variance observed in the progeny in response to Ph. passerinii attack were found. The high density coverage of functional markers allowed the identification of three genes belonging to disease resistance pathway as putative candidates for P. deltoides resistance to woolly poplar aphid. This work is the first report on genetic of woolly poplar aphid genetic resistance and the resistant loci associated markers identified represent a valuable tool in resistance poplar breeding programs.
Ma, Jian-Qiang; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Ma, Chun-Lei; Wang, Xin-Chao; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Wang, Xue-Min; Chen, Liang
Catechins are the most important bioactive compounds in tea, and have been demonstrated to possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for catechins content in the tender shoots of tea plant, we constructed a moderately saturated genetic map using 406 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, based on a pseudo-testcross population of 183 individuals derived from an intraspecific cross of two Camellia sinensis varieties with diverse catechins composition. The map consisted of fifteen linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of tea plant (2n = 2x = 30). The total map length was 1,143.5 cM, with an average locus spacing of 2.9 cM. A total of 25 QTLs associated with catechins content were identified over two measurement years. Of these, nine stable QTLs were validated across years, and clustered into four main chromosome regions on LG03, LG11, LG12 and LG15. The population variability explained by each QTL was predominantly at moderate-to-high levels and ranged from 2.4% to 71.0%, with an average of 17.7%. The total number of QTL for each trait varied from four to eight, while the total population variability explained by all QTLs for a trait ranged between 38.4% and 79.7%. This is the first report on the identification of QTL for catechins content in tea plant. The results of this study provide a foundation for further cloning and functional characterization of catechin QTLs for utilization in improvement of tea plant.
Full Text Available Several strategies have been used to generate transgenic birds. The most successful method so far has been the injection of lentiviral vectors into the subgerminal cavity of a newly laid egg. We report here a new, easy and effective way to produce transgenic quails through direct injection of a lentiviral vector, containing an enhanced-green fluorescent protein (eGFP transgene, into the blood vessels of quail embryos at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 13-15 (HH13-15. A total of 80 embryos were injected and 48 G0 chimeras (60% were hatched. Most injected embryo organs and tissues of hatched quails were positive for eGFP. In five out of 21 mature G0 male quails, the semen was eGFP-positive, as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, indicating transgenic germ line chimeras. Testcross and genetic analyses revealed that the G0 quail produced transgenic G1 offspring; of 46 G1 hatchlings, 6 were transgenic (6/46, 13.0%. We also compared this new method with the conventional transgenesis using stage X subgerminal cavity injection. Total 240 quail embryos were injected by subgerminal cavity injection, of which 34 (14.1% were hatched, significantly lower than the new method. From these hatched quails semen samples were collected from 19 sexually matured males and tested for the transgene by PCR. The transgene was present in three G0 male quails and only 4/236 G1 offspring (1.7% were transgenic. In conclusion, we developed a novel bird transgenic method by injection of lentiviral vector into embryonic blood vessel at HH 13-15 stage, which result in significant higher transgenic efficiency than the conventional subgerminal cavity injection.
Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Le Cunff, Loïc; Gomez, Camila; Doligez, Agnès; Ageorges, Agnès; Roux, Catherine; Bertrand, Yves; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Cheynier, Véronique; This, Patrice
The combination of QTL mapping studies of synthetic lines and association mapping studies of natural diversity represents an opportunity to throw light on the genetically based variation of quantitative traits. With the positional information provided through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, which often leads to wide intervals encompassing numerous genes, it is now feasible to directly target candidate genes that are likely to be responsible for the observed variation in completely sequenced genomes and to test their effects through association genetics. This approach was performed in grape, a newly sequenced genome, to decipher the genetic architecture of anthocyanin content. Grapes may be either white or colored, ranging from the lightest pink to the darkest purple tones according to the amount of anthocyanin accumulated in the berry skin, which is a crucial trait for both wine quality and human nutrition. Although the determinism of the white phenotype has been fully identified, the genetic bases of the quantitative variation of anthocyanin content in berry skin remain unclear. A single QTL responsible for up to 62% of the variation in the anthocyanin content was mapped on a Syrah x Grenache F(1) pseudo-testcross. Among the 68 unigenes identified in the grape genome within the QTL interval, a cluster of four Myb-type genes was selected on the basis of physiological evidence (VvMybA1, VvMybA2, VvMybA3, and VvMybA4). From a core collection of natural resources (141 individuals), 32 polymorphisms revealed significant association, and extended linkage disequilibrium was observed. Using a multivariate regression method, we demonstrated that five polymorphisms in VvMybA genes except VvMybA4 (one retrotransposon, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and one 2-bp insertion/deletion) accounted for 84% of the observed variation. All these polymorphisms led to either structural changes in the MYB proteins or differences in the VvMybAs promoters. We concluded that
Wang, Congli; Ulloa, Mauricio; Duong, Tra T; Roberts, Philip A
Transgressive segregation in cotton (Gossypium spp.) provides an important approach to enhance resistance to the major pest root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. Our previous studies reported transgressive RKN resistance in an intraspecific Gossypium hirsutum resistant NemX × susceptible SJ-2 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population and early generations of interspecific cross Gossypium barbadense (susceptible Pima S-7) × G. hirsutum (NemX). However, the underlying functional mechanisms for this phenomenon are not known. In this study, the region of RKN resistance gene rkn1 on chromosome (Chr) 11 and its homoeologous Chr 21 was fine mapped with G. raimondii D5 genome reference sequence. Transgressive resistance was found in the later generation of a new RIL population F2:7 (Pima S-7 × NemX) and one interspecific F2 (susceptible Pima S-7 × susceptible SJ-2). QTL analysis revealed similar contributions to root-galling and egg-production resistance phenotypes associated with SSR marker CIR316 linked to resistance gene rkn1 in NemX on Chr 11 in all seven populations analyzed. In testcross NemX × F1 (Pima S-7 × SJ-2) marker allele CIR069-271 from Pima S-7 linked to CIR316 contributed 63% of resistance to galling phenotype in the presence of rkn1. Similarly, in RIL population F2:8 (NemX × SJ-2), SJ-2 markers closely linked to CIR316 contributed up to 82% of resistance to root-galling. These results were confirmed in BC1F1 SJ-2 × F1 (NemX × SJ-2), F2 (NemX × SJ-2), and F2 (Pima S-7 × SJ-2) populations in which up to 44, 36, and 15% contribution in resistance to galling was found, respectively. Transgressive segregation for resistance was universal in all intra- and inter-specific populations, although stronger transgressive resistance occurred in later than in early generations in the intraspecific cross compared with the interspecific cross. Transgressive effects on progeny from susceptible parents are possibly provided in the rkn1 resistance region
Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS increases genetic gain by reducing the length of the selection cycle, as has been exemplified in maize using rapid cycling recombination of biparental populations. However, no results of GS applied to maize multi-parental populations have been reported so far. This study is the first to show realized genetic gains of rapid cycling genomic selection (RCGS for four recombination cycles in a multi-parental tropical maize population. Eighteen elite tropical maize lines were intercrossed twice, and self-pollinated once, to form the cycle 0 (C0 training population. A total of 1000 ear-to-row C0 families was genotyped with 955,690 genotyping-by-sequencing SNP markers; their testcrosses were phenotyped at four optimal locations in Mexico to form the training population. Individuals from families with the best plant types, maturity, and grain yield were selected and intermated to form RCGS cycle 1 (C1. Predictions of the genotyped individuals forming cycle C1 were made, and the best predicted grain yielders were selected as parents of C2; this was repeated for more cycles (C2, C3, and C4, thereby achieving two cycles per year. Multi-environment trials of individuals from populations C0, C1, C2, C3, and C4, together with four benchmark checks were evaluated at two locations in Mexico. Results indicated that realized grain yield from C1 to C4 reached 0.225 ton ha−1 per cycle, which is equivalent to 0.100 ton ha−1 yr−1 over a 4.5-yr breeding period from the initial cross to the last cycle. Compared with the original 18 parents used to form cycle 0 (C0, genetic diversity narrowed only slightly during the last GS cycles (C3 and C4. Results indicate that, in tropical maize multi-parental breeding populations, RCGS can be an effective breeding strategy for simultaneously conserving genetic diversity and achieving high genetic gains in a short period of time.
Rekiya O. Abdulmalik
Full Text Available Marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS is a breeding method used to accumulate favorable alleles that for example confer tolerance to drought in inbred lines from several genomic regions within a single population. A bi-parental cross formed from two parents that combine resistance to Striga hermonthica with drought tolerance, which was improved through MARS, was used to assess changes in the frequency of favorable alleles and its impact on inbred line improvement. A total of 200 testcrosses of randomly selected S1 lines derived from the original (C0 and advanced selection cycles of this bi-parental population, were evaluated under drought stress (DS and well-watered (WW conditions at Ikenne and under artificial Striga infestation at Abuja and Mokwa in Nigeria in 2014 and 2015. Also, 60 randomly selected S1 lines each derived from the four cycles (C0, C1, C2, C3 were genotyped with 233 SNP markers using KASP assay. The results showed that the frequency of favorable alleles increased with MARS in the bi-parental population with none of the markers showing fixation. The gain in grain yield was not significant under DS condition due to the combined effect of DS and armyworm infestation in 2015. Because the parents used for developing the bi-parental cross combined tolerance to drought with resistance to Striga, improvement in grain yield under DS did not result in undesirable changes in resistance to the parasite in the bi-parental maize population improved through MARS. MARS increased the mean number of combinations of favorable alleles in S1 lines from 114 in C0 to 124 in C3. The level of heterozygosity decreased by 15%, while homozygosity increased by 13% due to the loss of some genotypes in the population. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of MARS in increasing the frequency of favorable alleles for tolerance to drought without disrupting the level of resistance to Striga in a bi-parental population targeted as a source of improved
Mi, Jiaming; Li, Guangwei; Huang, Jianyan; Yu, Huihui; Zhou, Fasong; Zhang, Qifa; Ouyang, Yidan; Mou, Tongmin
Pyramiding of S5 - n and f5 - n cumulatively improved seed-setting rate of indica-japonica hybrids, which provided an effective approach for utilization of inter-subspecific heterosis in rice breeding. Breeding for indica-japonica hybrid rice is an attractive approach to increase rice yield. However, hybrid sterility is a major obstacle in utilization of inter-subspecific heterosis. Wide-compatibility alleles can break the fertility barrier between indica and japonica subspecies, which have the potential to overcome inter-subspecific hybrid sterility. Here, we improved the compatibility of an elite indica restorer line 9311 to a broad spectrum of japonica varieties, by introducing two wide-compatibility alleles, S5-n and f5-n, regulating embryo-sac and pollen fertility, respectively. Through integrated backcross breeding, two near isogenic lines harboring either S5-n or f5-n and a pyramiding line carrying S5-n plus f5-n were obtained, with the recurrent parent genome recovery of 99.95, 99.49, and 99.44 %, respectively. The three lines showed normal fertility when crossed to typical indica testers. When testcrossed to five typical japonica varieties, these lines allowed significant increase of compatibility with constant agronomic performance. The introgressed S5-n could significantly improve 14.7-32.9 % embryo-sac fertility in indica-japonica hybrids. In addition, with the presence of f5-n fragment, S5-n would increase the spikelet fertility from 9.5 to 21.8 %. The introgressed f5-n fragment greatly improved anther dehiscence, embryo-sac and pollen fertility in indica-japonica hybrids, thus leading to improvement of spikelet fertility from 20.4 to 30.9 %. Moreover, the pyramiding line showed 33.6-46.7 % increase of spikelet fertility, suggesting cumulative effect of S5-n and f5-n fragment in seed-set improvement of inter-subspecific hybrids. Our results provided an effective approach for exploiting heterosis between indica and japonica subspecies, which had a
Miklas, P N; Stavely, J R; Kelly, J D
the time-consuming testcrosses required to pyramid bean rust resistance genes that exhibit epistasis.