WorldWideScience

Sample records for test-day milk yield

  1. Genetic parameters of test day milk yields of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Machado

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Data were obtained from 17,968 records from 2,130 first lactations of Holstein cows calving between 1988 and 1991. The subjects were daughters of 136 sires monitored by Brazilian Breeders Association, Animal Science Institute, Department of Agriculture, a branch of the State of São Paulo. Data were divided into 10 subsets based on the number of days in milk yield. Test day milk yields (M1 to M10 and 305-day milk yield (M305 were the traits studied. These traits were adjusted for several environmental effects: class of cow age at calving, interval from calving to first test day, and herd-year-season. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of (covariance components were obtained from one and two-traits analysis under a sire model. Estimates of heritabilities for M ranged from 0.04 to 0.32. The highest values were found in the second half of lactation (M5 to M7. Heritability estimate for M305 was 0.32. Genetic correlations between individual test days and M305 ranged from 0.78 to 1.00. Results suggested that test day milk yields, mainly in mid-lactation, can be used instead of 305-day milk yield in genetic evaluations, because estimates of these two-trait heritabilities are nearly alike. Moreover, early selection can reduce generation intervals.No presente estudo foram utilizados 17.968 registros de produção de leite, referentes a 2130 primeiras lactações de vacas da raça Holandesa, paridas nos anos de 1988 a 1991, filhas de 136 touros e controladas pela Associação Brasileira de Criadores (ABC. Os dados foram distribuídos em dez sub-arquivos de acordo com o número do controle (M1 a M10. As características estudadas foram: produção de leite no dia do controle (M e produção aos 305 dias de lactação (M305, as quais foram ajustadas para os seguintes fatores de variação: idade da vaca ao parto em classes, intervalo parto-primeiro controle e subclasses de rebanho-ano-estação de parto. Os componentes de (covariância foram obtidos a

  2. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order and the permanent environmental effect (5th order. Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11 to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5. The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields.

  3. A Model for Quantifying Sources of Variation in Test-day Milk Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cow's test-day milk yield is influenced by several systematic environmental effects, which have to be removed when estimating the genetic potential of an animal. The present study quantified the variation due to test date and month of test in test-day lactation yield records using full and reduced models. The data consisted ...

  4. Test-day milk yield as a selection criterion for dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis Artiodactyla, Bovidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Tonhati

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great demand for buffalo milk by-products the interest in technical-scientific information about this species is increasing. Our objective was to propose selection criteria for milk yield in buffaloes based on total milk yield, 305-day milk yield (M305, and test-day milk yield. A total of 3,888 lactations from 1,630 Murrah (Bubalus bubalis cows recorded between 1987 and 2001, from 10 herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed. Covariance components were obtained using the restricted maximum likelihood method applied to a bivariate animal model. Additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were considered as random, and contemporary group and lactation order as fixed effects. The heritability estimates were 0.22 for total milk yield and 0.19 for M305. For test-day yields, the heritability estimates ranged from 0.12 to 0.30, with the highest values being observed up to the third test month, followed by a decline until the end of lactation. The present results show that test-day milk yield, mainly during the first six months of lactation, could be adopted as a selection criterion to increase total milk yield.

  5. Genetic analysis of Test Day Milk Yields of Brown Swiss cattle raised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 3696 Test Day Milk Yield (TDMY) records of Brown Swiss cows raised at Konuklar State Farm in the Konya Province of Turkey were used for estimating phenotypic and genetic parameters for TDMY. The phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated by an MTDFREML programme using a Single Trait Animal ...

  6. Genetic parameters for test-day milk yield in tropical Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate estimates of genetic parameters are essential for genetic improvement of milk yield in dairy cattle and for setting up breeding programmes. Estimates of genetic parameters from test-day models, particularly for Holstein Friesian cattle maintained in tropical environments, are scant in the literature. The objective of ...

  7. Lactation curves of Valle del Belice dairy ewes for yields of milk, fat, and protein estimated with test day models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappio-Borlino, A; Portolano, B; Todaro, M; Macciotta, N P; Giaccone, P; Pulina, G

    1997-11-01

    Test day models were used to estimate the lactation curves for Valle del Belice ewes and to study the main environmental effects on milk yield and on percentage of fat and protein. Environmental effects were treated as fixed. A random effect was associated with each lactation to evaluate the mean correlation among all test day records of an individual ewe. Lactation curves were constructed by adding solutions for classes of either days in milk nested within parity or days in milk nested within season of lambing to appropriate general means. Parity primarily affected the lactation curve for milk yield, which was lower and flatter for first lambing ewes; effects on fat and protein were smaller. Season of lambing affected all traits. Seasonal productivity had the greatest effect on milk composition, resulting in an imbalance between fat and protein percentages. Flock and feed supplementation affected only the lactation curve for milk yield. The lactation curve of Valle del Belice ewes stood at a relatively high level. However, the presence of notable, perturbative effects (environmental and random variation) on milk yield and composition suggests that management is unable to meet the requirements of ewes consistently.

  8. Studies on test-day and lactation milk, fat and protein yield of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, J.B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Data of milk recording provides the basis to control herd management and genetic improvement of cows. Different management guides can be presented to dairy farmers. Breeding values are predicted for 305-day yields in order to select bulls and cows. However, breeding values should be

  9. Random regression models to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk yield in Brazilian Murrah buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesana, R C; Bignardi, A B; Borquis, R R A; El Faro, L; Baldi, F; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this work was to estimate covariance functions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects and, subsequently, to obtain genetic parameters for buffalo's test-day milk production using random regression models on Legendre polynomials (LPs). A total of 17 935 test-day milk yield (TDMY) from 1433 first lactations of Murrah buffaloes, calving from 1985 to 2005 and belonging to 12 herds located in São Paulo state, Brazil, were analysed. Contemporary groups (CGs) were defined by herd, year and month of milk test. Residual variances were modelled through variance functions, from second to fourth order and also by a step function with 1, 4, 6, 22 and 42 classes. The model of analyses included the fixed effect of CGs, number of milking, age of cow at calving as a covariable (linear and quadratic) and the mean trend of the population. As random effects were included the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. The additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects were modelled by LP of days in milk from quadratic to seventh degree polynomial functions. The model with additive genetic and animal permanent environmental effects adjusted by quintic and sixth order LP, respectively, and residual variance modelled through a step function with six classes was the most adequate model to describe the covariance structure of the data. Heritability estimates decreased from 0.44 (first week) to 0.18 (fourth week). Unexpected negative genetic correlation estimates were obtained between TDMY records at first weeks with records from middle to the end of lactation, being the values varied from -0.07 (second with eighth week) to -0.34 (1st with 42nd week). TDMY heritability estimates were moderate in the course of the lactation, suggesting that this trait could be applied as selection criteria in milking buffaloes. Copyright 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Random regression analysis of test-day milk yields in the first and second lactations of Brazilian Gyr cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Herrera, L G; El Faro, L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Machado, C H C; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-12-09

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters for test-day milk yields (TDMY) in the first and second lactations using random regression models (RRM) in order to contribute to the application of these models in genetic evaluation of milk yield in Gyr cattle. A total of 53,328 TDMY records from 7118 lactations of 5853 Gyr cows were analyzed. The model included the direct additive, permanent environmental, and residual random effects. In addition, contemporary group and linear and quadratic effects of the age of cows at calving were included as fixed effects. A random regression model fitting fourth-order Legendre polynomials for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, with five classes of residual variance, was applied. In the first lactation, the heritabilities increased from early lactation (0.26) until TDMY3 (0.38), followed by a decrease until the end of lactation. In the second lactation, the estimates increased from the first (0.29) to the fifth test day (0.36), with a slight decrease thereafter, and again increased on the last two test days (0.34 and 0.41). There were positive and high genetic correlations estimated between first-lactation TDMY and the remaining TDMY of the two lactations. The moderate heritability estimates, as well as the high genetic correlations between half the first-lactation TDMY and all TDMY of the two lactations, suggest that the selection based only on first lactation TDMY is the best selection strategy to increase milk production across first and second lactations of Gyr cows.

  11. Estimation of genetic parameters of weekly test-day milk yields and first lactation 305-day milk yield in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Kumar Sahoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to estimate genetic parameters of weekly test-day (TD milk yields and first lactation 305-day milk yield (FL305DY in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The data on 39059 weekly test-day milk yield (WTDY records during first lactation of 961 Murrah buffaloes calved from 1977 to 2012 and sired by 101 bulls maintained in an organized farm at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal was analyzed to study the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors. Least squares maximum likelihood program was used to estimate genetic and non-genetic parameters affecting WTDY and FL305DY. Heritability was estimated using paternal half-sib correlation method. The genetic and phenotypic correlations among WTDY and 305- day milk yield was calculated from the analysis of variance and covariance among sire groups. Results: The least squares means for FL305DY was found to be 1853.49±15.88 Kg. The least squares means of overall WTDY ranged from 2.44±0.07 kg (TD-43 to 7.95±0.06 kg (TD-8. Effect of period, season and age at first calving groups was found to be highly significant (p<0.01, significant (p<0.05 and non-significant on FL305DY, respectively. The h2 estimate of FL305DY was 0.25±0.09. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations between 305-day milk yield and different WTDY ranged from 0.52 to 0.84 and from 0.19 to 0.98, respectively. Conclusions: Our study showed that the effect of period of calving was highly significant (p<0.01 on FL305DY as well as all the WTDY. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations were generally higher in the middle segment of lactation suggesting that these TD yields could be used as the selection criteria for early evaluation and selection of animals.

  12. Test day-milk yields variance component estimation using repeatability or random regression models in the Rendena breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mantovani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has aimed to compare Repeatability (RP-TDm and Random-Regression Test Day models (RR-TDm in genetic evaluations of milk (M, fat (F and protein (P yields in Rendena breed. Variance estimations for Milk (M, Fat (F and Protein (P were obtained on a sample of 43,842 TD belonging to 2,692 animals controlled over 15 years (1990-2005. RP-TDm estimates of h2 were of 0.21 for M and 0.17 for both F and P, whereas RR-TDM provided a trend of h2 ranging from 0.15-0.34 for M, 0.15-0.31 for F and 0.10-0.24 for P. Both RP-TDm and RR-TDm results agreed with literature, even though RR-TDm provided a pattern of h2 along the lactation different from other studies, with the lowest h2 at the beginning and at the end of lactation. PSB, MAD and -2Log L parameters revealed lower power of RP-TDm as compare with the RR-TDm.

  13. The relationship between Norwegian Red heifer growth and their first-lactation test-day milk yield: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storli, K S; Klemetsdal, G; Volden, H; Salte, R

    2017-09-01

    Today's Norwegian Red (NR) is markedly different from the one that existed 25 yr ago due to the continuous genetic improvement of economically important traits. Still, current national recommendations on replacement heifer rearing largely are based on results from Danish studies from the late 1980s to the mid 1990s. The objectives of the present study were to gain information on (1) growth and growth profiles of modern NR replacement heifers in commercial dairy herds and (2) how growth during the rearing period affects the heifers' milk yield during their first lactation. To this end, we conducted a field study on 5 high-producing and 5 low-producing commercial dairy farms from each of 3 geographical regions in Norway. On these 30 farms, we combined repeated onsite registrations of growth on all available females from newborn to calving with registrations deriving from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. Each herd was visited 6 to 8 times over a period of 2 yr. At each visit, heart girth circumference on all available young females was measured. Registrations were made on a total of 3,110 heifers. After imposing restrictions on the data, growth parameters were estimated based on information from 536 animals, whereas 350 of these animals had the required information needed to estimate the relationship between growth and test-day milk yield. Our findings pointed toward an optimal ADG of 830 g/d from 10 to 15 mo of age that would optimize first-lactation yield of heifers in an average Norwegian dairy herd. The optimum will likely increase from selection over time. Utilizing simple proportionality, the ADG between 5 and 10 mo of age ideally should be 879 g/d, taking into account the fact that animal growth rate is higher at low ages and that a high prepubertal growth rate had no negative effect on first-lactation yield. When such a rearing practice is used to meet the requirements of today's genetically improved NR heifer, heifers can both optimize production in

  14. Comparison of Fixed Regression and Random Regression Test-Day Models for genetic evaluation of milk yield trait in Holstein cows Razavi Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Shamshirgaran

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fixed Regression Test-Day Model (FRM and Random Regression Test-Day Model (RRM for genetic evaluation of milk yield trait of dairy cattle in Khorasan Razavi province were studied. Breeding values and genetic parameters of milk yield trait from two models were compared. A total of 164391 monthly test day milk records (three times milking per day obtained from 19217 Holstein cows distributed in 172 herds and calved from 1991 to 2008, were used to estimate genetic parameters and to predict breeding values. The contemporary group of herd- year- month of production was fitted as fixed effects in the models. Also linear and quadratic forms of age at calving and Holstein gene percentage were fitted as covariate. The random factors of the models were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. In the random regression model, orthogonal legendre polynomial up to order 4(cubic was implemented to take account of genetic and environmental aspects of milk production over the course of lactation. Heritability estimates resulted from the FRM was 0.15. The average heritability estimates resulted from the RRM of monthly test day milk production for the second half of the lactation was higher than that of the first half of lactation period. The highest and lowest heritability values were found for the first (0.102 and sixth (0.235 month of lactation. Breeding value of animals predicted from FRM and RRM were also compared. The results showed similar ranking of animals based on their breeding values from both models.

  15. The association of hoof lesions at claw trimming with test-day milk yield in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Capion, Nynne; Hill, Ashley E.

    2007-01-01

    on the stage of lactation in which the lesions were diagnosed; during the first 100 days in milk, between days 101 and 200 and between days 201 and 305. Associations between the presence of hoof lesions at trimming and milk production were analyzed by linear mixed modeling at the cow level, clustered within...

  16. Test-day somatic cell score, fat-to-protein ratio and milk yield as indicator traits for sub-clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2012-02-01

    Test-day (TD) records of milk, fat-to-protein ratio (F:P) and somatic cell score (SCS) of first-lactation Canadian Holstein cows were analysed by a three-trait finite mixture random regression model, with the purpose of revealing hidden structures in the data owing to putative, sub-clinical mastitis. Different distributions of the data were allowed in 30 intervals of days in milk (DIM), covering the lactation from 5 to 305 days. Bayesian analysis with Gibbs sampling was used for model inferences. Estimated proportion of TD records originated from cows infected with mastitis was 0.66 in DIM from 5 to 15 and averaged 0.2 in the remaining part of lactation. Data from healthy and mastitic cows exhibited markedly different distributions, with respect to both average value and the variance, across all parts of lactation. Heterogeneity of distributions for infected cows was also apparent in different DIM intervals. Cows with mastitis were characterized by smaller milk yield (down to -5 kg) and larger F:P (up to 0.13) and SCS (up to 1.3) compared with healthy contemporaries. Differences in averages between healthy and infected cows for F:P were the most profound at the beginning of lactation, when a dairy cow suffers the strongest energy deficit and is therefore more prone to mammary infection. Residual variances for data from infected cows were substantially larger than for the other mixture components. Fat-to-protein ratio had a significant genetic component, with estimates of heritability that were larger or comparable with milk yield, and was not strongly correlated with milk and SCS on both genetic and environmental scales. Daily milk, F:P and SCS are easily available from milk-recording data for most breeding schemes in dairy cattle. Fat-to-protein ratio can potentially be a valuable addition to SCS and milk yield as an indicator trait for selection against mastitis. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Use of test-day records to predict first lactation 305-day milk yield using artificial neural network in Kenyan Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njubi, D M; Wakhungu, J W; Badamana, M S

    2010-04-01

    The study is focused on the capability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict next month and first lactation 305-day milk yields (FLMY305) of Kenyan Holstein-Friesian (KHF) dairy cows based on a few available test days (TD) records in early lactation. The developed model was compared with multiple linear regressions (MLR). A total of 39,034 first parity TD records of KHF dairy cows collected over 102 herds were analyzed. Different ANNs were modeled and the best performing number of hidden layers and neurons and training algorithms retained. The best ANN model had one hidden layer of logistic transfer function for all models, but hidden nodes varied from 2 to 7. The R (2) value for ANNs for training, validation, and test data were consistently high showing that the models captured the features accurately. The R (2), r, and root mean square were consistently superior for ANN than MLR but significantly different (p > 0.05). The prediction equation with four variables, i.e., first, second, third, and fourth TD milk yield, gave adequate accuracy (79.0%) in estimating the FLMY305 from TD yield. It emerges from this study that the ANN model can be an alternative for prediction of FLMY305 and monthly TD in KHF.

  18. Genetic Analysis of Milk Yield in First-Lactation Holstein Friesian in Ethiopia: A Lactation Average vs Random Regression Test-Day Model Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meseret

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective genetic evaluations and selection of sires requires accurate estimates of genetic parameters for all economically important traits in the breeding goal. The main objective of this study was to assess the relative performance of the traditional lactation average model (LAM against the random regression test-day model (RRM in the estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values for Holstein Friesian herds in Ethiopia. The data used consisted of 6,500 test-day (TD records from 800 first-lactation Holstein Friesian cows that calved between 1997 and 2013. Co-variance components were estimated using the average information restricted maximum likelihood method under single trait animal model. The estimate of heritability for first-lactation milk yield was 0.30 from LAM whilst estimates from the RRM model ranged from 0.17 to 0.29 for the different stages of lactation. Genetic correlations between different TDs in first-lactation Holstein Friesian ranged from 0.37 to 0.99. The observed genetic correlation was less than unity between milk yields at different TDs, which indicated that the assumption of LAM may not be optimal for accurate evaluation of the genetic merit of animals. A close look at estimated breeding values from both models showed that RRM had higher standard deviation compared to LAM indicating that the TD model makes efficient utilization of TD information. Correlations of breeding values between models ranged from 0.90 to 0.96 for different group of sires and cows and marked re-rankings were observed in top sires and cows in moving from the traditional LAM to RRM evaluations.

  19. Genetic Analysis of Milk Yield in First-Lactation Holstein Friesian in Ethiopia: A Lactation Average vs Random Regression Test-Day Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseret, S.; Tamir, B.; Gebreyohannes, G.; Lidauer, M.; Negussie, E.

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective genetic evaluations and selection of sires requires accurate estimates of genetic parameters for all economically important traits in the breeding goal. The main objective of this study was to assess the relative performance of the traditional lactation average model (LAM) against the random regression test-day model (RRM) in the estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values for Holstein Friesian herds in Ethiopia. The data used consisted of 6,500 test-day (TD) records from 800 first-lactation Holstein Friesian cows that calved between 1997 and 2013. Co-variance components were estimated using the average information restricted maximum likelihood method under single trait animal model. The estimate of heritability for first-lactation milk yield was 0.30 from LAM whilst estimates from the RRM model ranged from 0.17 to 0.29 for the different stages of lactation. Genetic correlations between different TDs in first-lactation Holstein Friesian ranged from 0.37 to 0.99. The observed genetic correlation was less than unity between milk yields at different TDs, which indicated that the assumption of LAM may not be optimal for accurate evaluation of the genetic merit of animals. A close look at estimated breeding values from both models showed that RRM had higher standard deviation compared to LAM indicating that the TD model makes efficient utilization of TD information. Correlations of breeding values between models ranged from 0.90 to 0.96 for different group of sires and cows and marked re-rankings were observed in top sires and cows in moving from the traditional LAM to RRM evaluations. PMID:26194217

  20. Genetic associations of test-day fat:protein ratio with milk yield, fertility, and udder health traits in Nordic Red cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, E; Strandén, I; Mäntysaari, E A

    2013-02-01

    Interest is growing in finding indicator traits for the evaluation of nutritional or tissue energy status of animals directly at the individual animal level. The development and subsequent use of such traits in practice demands a clear understanding of the genetic and phenotypic associations with the various production and functional traits. In this study, the relationships during lactation between milk fat:protein ratio (FPR) and production and functional traits were estimated for Nordic Red cattle, in which published information is scarce. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic associations of FPR with milk yield (MY), fertility, and udder health traits during different stages of lactation. Traits included in the analyses were MY, 4 fertility traits-days from calving to insemination (DFI), days open (DO), number of inseminations (NI), and nonreturn rate to 56 d (NRR)-and 2 udder health traits-test-day somatic cell score (SCS) and clinical mastitis (CM). Data were from a total of 22,422 first-lactation cows. Random regression models were used to estimate genetic parameters and associations between traits. The mean FPR in first-lactation cows was 1.28 and ranged from 1.25 to 1.45. During first lactation, the heritability of FPR ranged from 0.14 to 0.25. Genetic correlations between FPR and MY in early lactation (until 50 d in milk) were positive and ranged from 0.05 to 0.22; later in lactation, they were close to zero or negative, indicating that cows may have come out of the negative state of energy balance. The strength of genetic associations between FPR and fertility traits varied during lactation. In early lactation, correlations between FPR and the interval fertility traits DFI and DO were positive and ranged from 0.14 to 0.28. Genetic correlations between FPR and the udder health traits SCS and CM in early lactation ranged from 0.09 to 0.20. Milk fat:protein ratio is a heritable trait and easily available from routine milk-recording schemes

  1. Estimation of genetic parameters of test day fat and protein yields in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for daily fat and protein yields of Brazilian Holstein cattle, using an autoregressive test day multiple lactations (AR) animal model. Data consisted of test day (TD) records produced by Holstein cows under milk recording supervised by the ...

  2. Effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on test-day milk production traits throughout lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenhuis, Henk; Visker, H P W; van Valenberg, H J F

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism has a major effect on milk production traits. It is less clear how effects of DGAT1 on milk production traits change throughout lactation, if dominance effects of DGAT1 are relevant, and whether DGAT1...... also affects lactose content, lactose yield, and total energy output in milk. Results from this study, using test-day records of 3 subsequent parities of around 1,800 cows, confirm previously reported effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on milk, fat, and protein yield, as well as fat and protein content...

  3. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with test-day animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Portolano, B.; Maizon, D. O.; Riggio, V.; Tolone, M.; Cacioppo, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than that currently obtained with a monthly test-day schedule were employed to estimate breeding values. A random regression animal mixed model that used a spline function of days in milk was fitted. EB...

  4. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with test-day animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portolano, B.; Maizon, D.O.; Riggio, V.; Tolone, M.; Cacioppo, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than

  5. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with Test-Day animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cacioppo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than that currently obtained with a monthly test-day schedule were employed to estimate breeding values. A random regression animal mixed model that used a spline function of days in milk was fitted. EBVs obtained with alternative recording schemes showed different degrees of Spearman correlation with EBVs obtained using the monthly recording scheme. These correlations ranged from 0.77 to 0.92. A reduction in accuracy and intensity of selection could be anticipated if these alternative schemes are used; more research in this area is needed to reduce the costs of test-day recording.

  6. Estimation of genetic parameters for test-day milk production at different stages of lactation of Finnish Ayrshire heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KETTUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters for test-day milk production at different stages of lactation of Finnish Ayrshire heifers were estimated with the REML method using the AI algorithm and animal model. The data consisted of 38679 first lactation test-day milk yields of 4205 cows from 231 herds in three geographical regions (North Savo, Central Ostrobothnia and Lapland. To identify different test days, records were numbered according to the days in milk after calving, and were further categorized into three part-lactations according to the test-day classification. Expressions in the three part-lactations were considered as separate traits, and tests were treated as repeated observations within the trait. Heritability estimates for test-day milk yield varied between 0. 11 and 0. 17, being lowest at the beginning of lactation. Genetic correlations between test-day milk yields at different trimesters ranged from 0.64 to 0.91, being highest between consecutive trimesters. Standard errors of the estimates of genetic parameters varied between 0.02 and 0.08. Genetic interrelationships differed from 1.0, supporting the assumption that genetic variation exists in the shape of the lactation curve. The necessity of considering deviations from the general lactation curve in the test-day model, e.g. fitting random regression coefficients, is discussed.;

  7. Effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on test-day milk production traits throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenhuis, H; Visker, M H P W; van Valenberg, H J F; Buitenhuis, A J; van Arendonk, J A M

    2015-09-01

    Several studies have shown that the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism has a major effect on milk production traits. It is less clear how effects of DGAT1 on milk production traits change throughout lactation, if dominance effects of DGAT1 are relevant, and whether DGAT1 also affects lactose content, lactose yield, and total energy output in milk. Results from this study, using test-day records of 3 subsequent parities of around 1,800 cows, confirm previously reported effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on milk, fat, and protein yield, as well as fat and protein content. In addition, we found significant effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on lactose content and lactose yield. No significant effects on somatic cell score were detected. The effect of DGAT1 on total energy excreted in milk was only significant in parity 1 and is mainly due to a higher energy output in milk of heterozygous cows. Significant but relatively small dominance effects of DGAT1 on fat content and yield were detected, which are of little practical relevance. Significant DGAT1 by lactation stage interaction was detected for milk yield, lactose yield, fat content, and protein content, indicating that the effect of the DGAT1 polymorphism changes during lactation. In general, the DGAT1 effect shows a large increase during early lactation (from the start of lactation to d 50 to 150) and tends to decrease later in lactation. No DGAT1 by lactation stage interaction for fat yield was observed. Similar to DGAT1, effects of other genes also might vary throughout lactation and, therefore, using longitudinal models is recommended. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predição de valores genéticos para a produção de leite no dia do controle e para a produção acumulada até 305 dias Predicting breeding values for test-day records and accumulated 305 day milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira El Faro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimados valores genéticos para as produções de leite no dia do controle de animais da raça Caracu, usando modelo unicaracterístico padrão (TDMO e modelo de regressão aleatória (MRA. Os animais foram classificados com base na produção acumulada até 305 (PTA305, como tradicionalmente é feito em gado de leite. Além das produções na semana do controle, o MRA proporcionou predições de valores genéticos para produção até 305 dias, obtidos pela soma dos valores genéticos diários (MRA305. Foram estimadas as correlações de ordem (spearman entre os valores genéticos estimados pelas diferentes metodologias, observando-se coincidência de touros classificados como deca 1 (10% melhores touros. As curvas de lactação genéticas para os cinco melhores touros foram comparadas. As correlações de ordem entre os valores genéticos para as produções de leite na semana do controle, preditos do TDMO foram menores que 0,80. Para o MRA as correlações de ordem foram maiores, variando de 0,41 a 1,00. Entre PTA305 e MRA305 a correlação de ordem foi de 0,87 para touros. Esse valor indica que, apesar de alta, essa correlação não assegura coincidência de classificação para os touros. Verificou-se também que os melhores touros para PTA305 não apresentaram as melhores curvas de lactação genéticas estimadas pelo MRA. O MRA parece ser mais adequado que o TDMO para substituir a produção acumulada até 305 dias em programas de avaliação genética.Breeding values were predicted for test day milk yields of Caracu cows, using univariate model (TDMO and random regression model (RRM. The ranks were based on traditional 305-day milk yield breeding values (PTA305. For RRM, breeding values were predicted for individual test-day milk yield and for sum of all test-days (RRM305. Spearman correlation were estimated among predicted breeding values from different methodos (TDMO and RRM and the coincidence of rank of 10% best sires were

  9. Accuracy of predicting milk yield from alternative recording schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Olori, V.E.; Cromie, A.R.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Dilon, P.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of reducing the frequency of official milk recording and the number of recorded samples per test-day on the accuracy of predicting daily yield and cumulative 305-day yield was investigated. A control data set consisting of 58 210 primiparous cows with milk test-day records every 4 weeks

  10. Parâmetros genéticos para as produções de leite no dia do controle e da primeira lactação de vacas da raça Holandesa Genetic parameters for test day and lactation milk yields of first lactation Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues de Melo

    2005-06-01

    alta correlação com a mesma indicam potencial de uso das PDC nas avaliações genéticas de animais da raça Holandesa no Brasil. Embora predominantemente altas, as estimativas de r g entre as PDC não foram homogêneas (0,64-1,0; entretanto as maiores freqüências foram para valores próximos ou iguais a 1. Assim, modelos de regressão aleatória devem ser também avaliados para se concluir sobre a melhor utilização das PDC da raça Holandesa no Brasil.Covariance components for test day records and lactation milk yield using 263.390 records of 32.448 first lactation Holstein cows, were estimated using animal models by REML. Besides the lactation model, two alternative repeatability models (RM were analyzed. Lactation model included fixed effects of herd-year-season and age of cow with linear and quadratic terms, and random effects of animal and error. The first model for test-day yield (RMF included the same effects, but fixed effect of contemporary group, defined as herd-year-month of test. Alternatively another model for test-day yield (RMF used a logarithmic polynomial sub-model for the shape of the lactation curve. Heritability for lactation yield (0.27 was smaller than those estimated by RMF and RMS, 0.30 and 0.43, respectively. Heritability estimates for univariate (0.22-0.36 and bivariate models (0.23-0.33 for test day milk yields were found to be smallest during early and late lactation. Heritability estimate for lactation milk yield when estimated by univariate model (0.27 was smaller than estimates obtained by bivariate models (0.27-0.30. Genetic correlations were higher between consecutive test days than between test days in the beginning and end of lactation. Larger heritability estimates for test day models and large genetic correlations between test day and lactation yield (0.86-0.99 indicate a potential use of test day records in genetic evaluations.

  11. Strategic test-day recording regimes to estimate lactation yield in tropical dairy animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGill, D.M.; Thomson, P.C.; Mulder, H.A.; Lievaart, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In developing dairy sectors, genetic improvement programs have limited resources and recording of herds is minimal. This study evaluated different methods to estimate lactation yield and sampling schedules with fewer test-day records per lactation to determine recording regimes that (1)

  12. Analysis of test day yield data of Costa Rican dairy cattle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Perez, E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of variance components for test day records in an animal model that considered multiple traits over multiple lactations were calculated using REML methodology. Test day records were classified into 11 periods within first and later lactations. Missing ancestors in the relationship matrix

  13. Short Communication: Genetic Correlation Between Test-Day Electrical Conductivity of Milk and Mastitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norberg, E; Rogers, G. W; Odegard, J; Cooper, J. B; Madsen, P

    2006-01-01

    ... and labor are connected to the sampling of SCC. Electrical conductivity ( EC ) of milk was introduced as an indicator for mastitis in the 1970s and has been used for detection of mastitis ( Hamann and Zecconi, 1998 ). If a cow suffers from mastitis, the concentration of Na + and Cl − in the milk increases, leading to increased EC of milk from infected quarters ...

  14. Prediction of 305-day milk yield in Brown Swiss cattle using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... test-day records when these were recorded to the system as X1‒X8 in the ANN system. In this study, the prediction of 305-d milk yield by ANN gave better results that those of MLR, suggesting that ANN can be used as an alternative prediction tool. Keywords: Prediction, milk yield, ANN, back propagation, test day records ...

  15. Effects of the DGAT1 polymorphism on test-day milk production traits throughout lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenhuis, H.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Buitenhuis, A.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism has a major effect on milk production traits. It is less clear how effects of DGAT1 on milk production traits change throughout lactation, if dominance effects of DGAT1 are relevant, and whether DGAT1

  16. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Chagunda, G G

    2011-01-01

    Automatic milking systems allow cows voluntary access to milking and concentrates within set limits. This leads to large variation in milking intervals, both within and between cows, which further affects yield per milking and composition of milk. This study aimed to describe the degree to which...... differences in milking interval were attributable to individual cows, and how this correlated to individual differences in yield and composition of milk throughout lactation. Data from 288,366 milkings from 664 cow-lactations were used, of which 229,020 milkings had milk composition results. Cows were...... milking was found to be highly repeatable in all breeds, with the highest values occurring by the end of lactation. Fat percentage had only moderate repeatability in early to mid lactation but increased toward the end of lactation. Individual level correlations showed that cows with higher milking...

  17. Utilização de modelos de regressão aleatória para produção de leite no dia do controle, com diferentes estruturas de variâncias residuais Random regression test-day models for milk yield records, with different structure of residual variances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira El Faro

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados quatorze modelos de regressão aleatória, para ajustar 86.598 dados de produção de leite no dia do controle de 2.155 primeiras lactações de vacas Caracu, truncadas aos 305 dias. Os modelos incluíram os efeitos fixos de grupo contemporâneo e a covariável idade da vaca ao parto. Uma regressão ortogonal de ordem cúbica foi usada para modelar a trajetória média da população. Os efeitos genéticos aditivos e de ambiente permanente foram modelados por meio de regressões aleatórias, usando polinômios ortogonais de Legendre, de ordens cúbicas. Diferentes estruturas de variâncias residuais foram testadas e consideradas por meio de classes contendo 1, 10, 15 e 43 variâncias residuais e de funções de variâncias (FV usando polinômios ordinários e ortogonais, cujas ordens variaram de quadrática até sêxtupla. Os modelos foram comparados usando o teste da razão de verossimilhança, o Critério de Informação de Akaike e o Critério de Informação Bayesiano de Schwar. Os testes indicaram que, quanto maior a ordem da função de variâncias, melhor o ajuste. Dos polinômios ordinários, a função de sexta ordem foi superior. Os modelos com classes de variâncias residuais foram aparentemente superiores àqueles com funções de variância. O modelo com homogeneidade de variâncias foi inadequado. O modelo com 15 classes heterogêneas foi o que melhor ajustou às variâncias residuais, entretanto, os parâmetros genéticos estimados foram muito próximos para os modelos com 10, 15 ou 43 classes de variâncias ou com FV de sexta ordem.Fourteen random regression models were used to adjust 86,595 test-day milk records of 2,155 first lactation of native Caracu cows. The models include fixed effects of contemporary group and age of cow as covariable. A cubic regression on Legendre orthogonal polynomial of days in milk was used to model the mean trend and the additive genetic and permanent environmental regressions

  18. Use of test day milk fat and milk protein to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, T F; Kelton, D F; Leslie, K E; Lissemore, K D; Lumsden, J H

    1997-01-01

    Serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels were determined for 1333 dairy cows in various stages of lactation and parity on 93 dairy farms in Ontario. The data were collected in a cross-sectional manner, as part of the 1992 Ontario Dairy Monitoring and Analysis Program. The median serum BHB was 536 mumol/L for all cows, with a range of 0 to 5801 mumol/L. When subclinical ketosis was defined as a serum BHB level of 1200 mumol/L or higher, the prevalence of ketosis for cows in early lactation ( 149 DIM), and dry cows were 5.3%, 3.2%, and 1.6%, respectively. The mean serum BHB was significantly higher in the early group compared with each of the other 3 groups (P ketosis. However, test-day fat percent and test-day protein percent, used alone or in combination, were not useful screening tests for identifying cows with subclinical ketosis. PMID:9360791

  19. Cluster analysis of breeding values for milk yield and lactation persistency in Guzerá cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Campos da Cruz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of genetic lactation curves of Guzerá cattle using cluster analysis. Test-day milk yields of 5,274 first-lactation Guzerá cows were recorded in a progeny test. A total of 34,193 monthly records were analyzed with a random regression animal model using Legendre polynomials to fit additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects and mean trends. Hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses were performed based on the EBVs for monthly test-day milk yield, peak yield, lactation persistency, and partial cumulative and 305-day yields. The heritability estimates for test-day milk yields ranged from 0.24 to 0.52. Cluster analysis identified animals in the population that belong to different groups according to milk production level and lactation persistency.

  20. Effect of eprinomectin treatment on milk yield and quality in dairy cows in South Tyrol, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reist, M; Forbes, A B; Bonfanti, M; Beretta, W; Pfister, K

    2011-05-07

    The effect of treatment with eprinomectin on milk yield, milk composition and somatic cell counts (SCCs) was studied in 105 dairy cows located on seven farms in South Tyrol, Italy. On each farm, half of the animals were treated with eprinomectin and the other half were used as an untreated control group. Three test day records per animal were obtained before treatment (days -117, -75 and -33) and another three test day records were obtained after treatment (days 22, 62 and 131). Test day records comprised milk yield, milk composition, SCC and days in milk. On the day of treatment, blood samples and faecal samples were taken for parasitological analysis. Cows with positive faecal egg counts yielded less milk. A significant effect of eprinomectin on milk yield was observed after treatment and was most pronounced on the second and the third test days after treatment (+1.90 kg [P=0.002] and +2.63 kg [P<0.001], respectively). Furthermore, a significant decrease in SCC was observed on the second test day after treatment.

  1. Factors affecting goat milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the effects of breed, stage of lactation, season of kidding and parity on goat milk yield and composition. A total of 25255 records of daily milk production and 25065 records of fat percentage, 25382 records of protein percentage and 24810 records of lactose percentage were obtained, at approximately monthly intervals, from 3702 Alpine and 411 Saanen goats in Croatia. The analysed data were recorded during 2006. Saanen breed had significantly (P<0.01 higher lactation and daily milk yield than Alpine breed (720 kg and 2.63 kg/day versus 577 kg and 2.08 kg/day, respectively. The contents of protein and lactose were similar between investigated breeds, while Alpine goats had significantly higher (P<0.05 milk fat content than Saanen goats (3.47 % versus 3.25 %, respectively. Least square analyses showed significant effects of stage of lactation, season of kidding and parity on almost all variables. Milk lactose content tended to decline as the lactation period progressed and milk yield decreased. Milk protein content tended to increase with the lactation period. The lowest content of milk fat was established in the mid stage of lactation, whereas the highest fat content was recorded at the end of lactation. The effect of parity on total lactation and daily milk yield shows an almost steady growing trend from first to fourth lactation. Goats kidding early in the year had better milking performances (longer lactation period, higher milk yield, higher content of milk fat than goats kidding in the spring. In order to improve lactation performances of their animals, the goat farmers should apply earlier mating season and use the appropriate breeding programmes.

  2. Methods for estimation of daily and lactation milk yields from alternative milk recording scheme in Holstein and Simmental cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Kuterovac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare different statistical methods for the estimation of daily and 305-day lactation milk, fat and protein yields of Holstein and Simmental cattle breeds using an alternative milk recording scheme. Data included 6,824 individual test-day milk yield records collected according to the A4 milk recording method on 668 cows reared on 15 family farms. Daily milk, fat and protein yields were estimated using several statistical methods with regard to breed. The 305-day lactation yields were calculated from estimated daily yields using the Test Interval Method. The correlation between estimated and true yields, as well as the mean difference among estimated and true yield were used as the evaluation criteria for estimation methods. The linear regression of daily to partial milk, fat and protein yields while taking into account the interval between successive milkings was shown to be the most accurate model for estimating daily values, either from morning or evening records. The simple doubling of morning or evening records overestimated and underestimated the daily yields, respectively. When 305-day lactation milk, fat and protein yields were compared no difference between evaluated methods were found. Also, a separate estimation of daily and 305-day lactation yields according to breeds did not result in increased estimation accuracy.

  3. The effect of thermal environment on daily milk yield of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metodija Trajchev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of environmental air temperatures on the milk production of dairy cows. Therefore, the experiment was carried out at the height of summer (from 15th of June to 15th of September in three small family dairy farms and one commercial dairy farm. In total, 51 dairy cows from the black-white breed were subjected to the study. The season of research was divided into three periods: the period before the hot season, the period of the hot season and the period after the hot season. In each period there were three test days selected that were used for recording the air temperature inside and outside the barns and cow’s daily milk yield. Unvaried associations between the test day milk yield of cows and independent environmental and cow factors were done using the linear mixed model for repeated measurements. The statistical model showed that the farm management system and the hot season of the year had significant infl uence on daily milk yield per cow at the level of p<0.001. The test day per periods of the season when milk control was performed and the average test day environmental temperature showed statistically significant influence on daily milk yield per cow at level p<0.01. The present results revealed that environmental air temperatures contributes to considerable loss in the milk production of dairy cows.

  4. Correlation between whole and partial milk yields of dairy cows milked using the automatic milking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Chládek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to quantify the correlations between milk indicators of partial milk yields and whole milk output; we analysed 576 milk samples taken from 2 to 4 partial milk yields of 156 Holstein dairy cows milked using the automatic milking system (AMS. In the accredited (EN ISO 17025 milk laboratory in Brno–Tuřany the samples were analysed for the content of fat (T; g . 100g−1, crude protein (B; g . 100g−1, lactose (L; lactose monohydrate; g . 100g−1 and somatic cell count (SCC; 103.ml−1. The average values in the whole milk output were as follows: T = 3.69 g . 100g−1, B = 3.39 g . 100g−1, L = 4.92 g . 100g−1, PSB = 345.103 ml−1 and log SCC = 1.9695, at a whole milk output of 29.88 kg.day1 of milk. The correlation coefficients between the milk indicators (T, B, L, PSB and log PSB of partial milk yields and whole milk output ranged from the minimum r = 0.786 (between the content of T in the whole and 3rd milk yield to the maximum r = 0.979 (between the content of B in the whole milk output and identically in the 1st, 3rd and 4th milk yields and in all cases they were statistically highly significant (P ≤ 0.001. Next we calculated the regression equations for the estimation of milk indicators of the whole milk output from milk indicators of the 1st to 4th partial milk yields.

  5. Predicting hyperketonemia by logistic and linear regression using test-day milk and performance variables in early-lactation Holstein and Jersey cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, T L; Pralle, R S; Dórea, J R R; Poock, S E; Oetzel, G R; Fourdraine, R H; White, H M

    2018-03-01

    Although cowside testing strategies for diagnosing hyperketonemia (HYK) are available, many are labor intensive and costly, and some lack sufficient accuracy. Predicting milk ketone bodies by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry during routine milk sampling may offer a more practical monitoring strategy. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop linear and logistic regression models using all available test-day milk and performance variables for predicting HYK and (2) compare prediction methods (Fourier transform infrared milk ketone bodies, linear regression models, and logistic regression models) to determine which is the most predictive of HYK. Given the data available, a secondary objective was to evaluate differences in test-day milk and performance variables (continuous measurements) between Holsteins and Jerseys and between cows with or without HYK within breed. Blood samples were collected on the same day as milk sampling from 658 Holstein and 468 Jersey cows between 5 and 20 d in milk (DIM). Diagnosis of HYK was at a serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L. Concentrations of milk BHB and acetone were predicted by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark). Thresholds of milk BHB and acetone were tested for diagnostic accuracy, and logistic models were built from continuous variables to predict HYK in primiparous and multiparous cows within breed. Linear models were constructed from continuous variables for primiparous and multiparous cows within breed that were 5 to 11 DIM or 12 to 20 DIM. Milk ketone body thresholds diagnosed HYK with 64.0 to 92.9% accuracy in Holsteins and 59.1 to 86.6% accuracy in Jerseys. Logistic models predicted HYK with 82.6 to 97.3% accuracy. Internally cross-validated multiple linear regression models diagnosed HYK of Holstein cows with 97.8% accuracy for primiparous and 83.3% accuracy for multiparous cows. Accuracy of Jersey models was 81.3% in primiparous and 83

  6. Evaluation of milk yield traits of Holstein x Jersey crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Corrêa da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The crossbreeding practice between specialized dairy breeds is an usual method for dairy producers and recently the Holstein x Jersey crosses has continuously increased in some regions of Brazil. Motivating factors of this practice include an interest in improving the milk solids content, somatic cell count (SCC, fertility, longevity and calving ease, in addition to reduce the problems of consanguinity. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the milk components and milk yield of Holstein x Jersey crosses. Data set comprised 59,331 monthly records of 6,429 pure Holstein (H and Jersey (J and ½ H x ½ J crossed cows calving from 1992 to 2010. The traits analyzed were test-day milk yields (MT, somatic cell score (SCS and percentages of fat (%F and protein (%P. Since the SCC is not normal distributed it was converted to a logarithmic scale in SCS, using the following equation, SCS = log2 (SCC/100 + 3. The variables MT, SCS, %F and %P were analyzed as dependent variables by least square method using GLM procedure. There were considered linear models containing the effects of breed (H, J and ½ H x ½ J or F1, herd, year and month of test as classificatory variables. Age at calving (AC and days in milk (DM were included as covariates (linear and quadratic effects for all traits. The test-day milk yield was included as covariate for SCS model, %F and %P. All variables included in the model showed significant effects for MT, SCS, %F and %P. The estimated least square means for milk yield (19.13 H; 16.27 JH and 13.39 J showed statistically significant differences for the different genetic groups. The Holstein breed had higher test-day milk yields in comparison to Jersey breed that was an expected result since the frame of Holstein breed is greater and the selection has been practiced more intensively for production in this breed. When compared to F1 cows and Jersey, the mean of crossbreed animals was higher due to heterosis and due to difference of

  7. Genetic Parameters for Body condition score, Body weigth, Milk yield and Fertility estimated using random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk yield, and fertility were estimated using a random regression animal model extended to multivariate analysis. The data analyzed included 81,313 BCS observations, 91,937 BW observations, and 100,458 milk test-day yields

  8. Effective lactation yield: A measure to compare milk yield between cows with different dry period lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, A; van Middelaar, C E; Engel, B; van Knegsel, A T M; Hogeveen, H; Kemp, B; de Boer, I J M

    2016-04-01

    To compare milk yields between cows or management strategies, lactations are traditionally standardized to 305-d yields. The 305-d yield, however, gives no insight into the combined effect of additional milk yield before calving, decreased milk yield after calving, and a possible shorter calving interval in the case of a shortened dry period. We aimed to develop a measure that would enable the comparison of milk yield between cows with different dry period (DP) lengths. We assessed the importance of accounting for additional milk yield before calving and for differences in calving interval. The 305-d yield was compared with a 365-d yield, which included additional milk yield in the 60 d before calving. Next, an effective lactation yield was computed, defined as the daily yield from 60d before calving to 60 d before the next calving, to account for additional milk yield before calving and for differences in calving interval. Test-day records and drying-off dates of 15 commercial farms were used to compute the 305-d, 365-d, and effective lactation yields for individual cows. We analyzed 817 second-parity lactations preceded by no DP, a short DP (20 to 40 d), or a conventional DP (49 to 90 d). Compared with cows with a conventional DP, the 305-d yield of cows with no DP was 7.0 kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) per day lower, and the 305-d yield of cows with a short DP was 2.3 kg of FPCM per day lower. Including additional milk yield before calving in the 365-d yield reduced this difference to 3.4 kg of FPCM per cow per day for cows with no DP and to 0.9 kg of FPCM per cow per day for cows with a short DP. Compared with cows with a conventional DP, median days open were reduced by 25d for cows with no DP and by 18d for cows with a short DP. Accounting for these differences in calving interval in the effective lactation yield further decreased yield reductions for cows with no DP or a short DP by 0.3 kg of FPCM per cow per day. At the herd level, estimated

  9. The influence of milking procedures on cow’s teat tissue, milk yield and milking time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Špoljar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different milking procedures on teat length and diameter, milk yield and milking time. During the first milking procedure the milker decides when to remove the milking cluster from the udder, while in the second an automatic cluster removal, when milk flow was lower than 200 g/min, was performed. Measurements were made on two commercial farms B and A on 15 randomly chosen cows without any clinical sign of mastitis. There were no significant differencesbetween those farms in teat length and diameter differences before and after the milking. Average milking time on farm A was 6 min and 58 s, while on farm B was 5 min and 3 s. Average milk yield was 12.9 kg on farm B and 13.4 kg on farm A. Milking time was considerably shorter on farm B compared to farm A, while milk yield was almost equal on both farms. Automatic cluster weighting 2 kg removal was performed when milk flow was lower than 200 g/min in order to shorten the time needed to milk the cow, ensuring good udder health.

  10. Prediction of 305-day milk yield in Brown Swiss cattle using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ozcan_eren

    Keywords: Prediction, milk yield, ANN, back propagation, test day records ... technology was able to determine major factors related to the presence or absence ... compared the neural network and multiple regression predictions for 305-d ..... for analyzing continuous outcome variables in meta analysis: A simulation study.

  11. Prediction of 305-day milk yield in Brown Swiss cattle using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been shown to be a powerful tool for system modelling in a wide range of applications. In this paper, we focus on the capability of ANNs to predict 305-d milk yield in early lactation of Brown Swiss cattle, based on a few test-day records, and some environmental factors such as age, ...

  12. Factors affecting milk yield and reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laben, R L; Shanks, R; Berger, P J; Freeman, A E

    1982-06-01

    Dairy Herd Improvement testing records of 201 dairy herds of sizes from under 100 to over 1000 cows and herd average milk yields from under 5,000 to over 10,000 kg were studied. Average days to first postpartum breeding tended to be less in herds of over 500 cows. Herds of 300 to 600 cows had highest production per cow. Herds with higher average yields averaged shorter intervals to first postpartum breeding and fewer days open. Days open included farrow cows arbitrarily assigned 305 days open. Number of breedings changed little as herd yield increased, but days open for highest producing herds averaged one estrous period shorter than for low producing herds, suggesting better detection of estrus. For the individual cow, high yield or associated factors have a small but real antagonistic association with reproductive efficiency. Days to first breeding, to last breeding, and days open increased .27, .80, and .61, and number of breedings increased .014 for each 100 kg increase in 180-day yield of fat-corrected milk. The record averages of high-producing herds indicate this antagonism may be overshawdowed by good management; effective estrus detection probably is a major factor.

  13. The effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oravcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes. Breed lactation curves for daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content were modelled as a sub-model of the three-trait animal model based on repeated test-day records that were collected by the Breeding Services of the Slovak Republic between 1995 and 2010. Data included 188403 (Tsigai and 352094 (Improved Valachian ewe’s performance records. Pedigree file included 35484 (Tsigai and 66994 (Improved Valachian animals with genetic ties to ewes with milk performance data. The fixed part of the model included parity, litter size and stage of lactation. The effect of days in milk (i.e. stage of lactation was fitted using Ali and Schaeffer lactation curve. The random part of the model included flock-test day effect, direct additive genetic effect, and permanent environmental effect of ewe nested within lactation. Due to limited number of test-day records in the first and the eighth month of lactation and related difficulties in modelling milk traits in these phases of lactation, the lactation curves were plotted between days 30 and 210. During lactation period the daily milk yield curves were decreasing, while milk fat and protein content were increasing. Because of higher changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with higher changes at the end of lactation in Tsigai and smaller changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with smaller changes at the end of lactation in Improved Valachian, 150d milk yield and average milk fat and protein content were almost the same in both breeds.

  14. Effects of once versus twice daily milking throughout lactation on milk yield and milk composition in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, A A K; Such, X; Caja, G; Rovai, M; Casals, R; Albanell, E; Marín, M P; Martí, A

    2003-05-01

    The effects of once (1X) vs. twice (2X) daily milking throughout lactation on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC), and udder health were studied in 32 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats. Goats were assigned at wk 2 of lactation to two treatment groups; once daily milking at 0900 (1X, n = 17), or twice daily milking at 0900 and 1700 (2X, n = 15). Milk yield was recorded weekly until wk 28, and milk composition and SCC were evaluated for each individual udder half at each milking at wk 2 and 4 of lactation and then, monthly until the end of the experiment. Once daily milking resulted in an 18% reduction in the yield of 4% fat-corrected milk compared to twice daily milking (1.61 vs. 1.95 L/d, respectively). This reduction was more marked from wk 2 to 12 than in mid and late lactation. Response to milking frequency also varied according to parity number where goats of less than four parities suffered more milk yield losses during 1X than older goats. Milk of 1X goats contained higher percentages of total solids (13.6 vs. 12.9%), fat (5.10 vs. 4.62%) and casein (2.57 vs. 2.35%) than milk of 2X goats, but milk protein percentage did not differ between treatments (3.28 vs. 3.20%). Yields of total solids, fat, protein and casein tended to be higher for 2X than 1X. Milk SCC did not differ between treatments. We conclude that application of once daily milking in Murciano-Granadina dairy goats moderately reduced milk yield without negative effects on milk composition and udder health. Losses in milk yield would be reduced if 1X is practiced during mid- or late lactation and in older goats. An increase in labor productivity and a higher farmer's standard of living is also expected.

  15. Associations between milk protein concentration, milk yield, and reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, J M; Auldist, M J; Douglas, M L; Macmillan, K L

    2016-12-01

    Milk protein concentration in dairy cows has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance. It was possible that these associations were due to confounding by milk volume. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using data collected from 74 dairy herds with seasonal or split calving patterns. Associations between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression. The key finding from this study was that the associations between milk protein concentration in early lactation and reproductive performance were not due to confounding by milk yield. Associations between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance were weaker at higher early lactation milk yields, but positive associations were evident at all milk volumes assessed. The second major finding was that increases in milk yield were associated with improved proportions of cows pregnant by wk 6 and 21 at low to moderate milk protein concentrations but with decreases in these reproductive measures at high milk protein concentrations. Thus, no simple relationship is present between milk yield and reproductive performance; effects of milk yield depend on milk protein concentration. These results indicate that mechanisms causing the associations between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance may be linked to milk yield but these mechanisms operate over a wide range of milk yields (<2,000 to ≥5,000kg in the first 120d of lactation). Further research is required to identify the causes of these associations. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of gradual or abrupt cessation of milking at dry off on milk yield and somatic cell score in the subsequent lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, P N; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Schuenemann, G M; Proudfoot, K L; Hogan, J S

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of milk cessation method (abrupt or gradual) at dry off on milk yield and somatic cell score (SCS) up to 120 d in milk during the subsequent lactation. Data from 428 cows from 8 dairy herds in Ohio were analyzed. Abrupt cessation cows kept the farm's regular milking schedule (2 or 3 times) through dry off and gradual cessation cows were milked once daily for the final week of lactation. Milk yield and SCS were collected using Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day records. Aseptic quarter milk samples were collected approximately 1 wk before dry off, at dry off, and within 1 wk after calving for bacterial culture to determine the presence of intramammary infections. Overall, milk cessation method was not significantly associated with either milk yield or SCS in early lactation; however, interaction between the milk cessation method and herd was highly significant. Cows producing greater amounts of milk around dry off had significantly higher SCS in the following lactation. Shorter dry periods were significantly associated with decreased milk yield in the following lactation, especially among abruptly dried off cows. Additionally, as expected, several other factors, such as parity of cows and stage of lactation, were significantly associated with both outcomes. No interactions between the milk cessation method and the other explanatory variables in the final models were significant. The results of the current study suggest that higher milk yield at dry off was associated with higher SCS in the following lactation, even though milk cessation method at the end of lactation had a varying effect on test-day milk yield and SCS in different herds during the first 120 d in milk in the following lactation. The specific herd characteristics influencing this could not be identified within this study, warranting further research. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on

  17. Technical note: variation in daily milk yield calculations for dairy cows milked in an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, P P; Pettersson, G; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K M; Norell, L

    2010-03-01

    An accurate estimation of the daily milk yield of dairy cows milked in an automatic milking system is not obvious because of variations in milking intervals and frequencies. Daily harvested milk varies substantially, and developing a method to be used for estimating daily milk production is of great importance. Three calculation methods (simple, semiadvanced, and advanced) were used. The simple method calculated rough daily milk production by summing up the yield per day. The semiadvanced used yield in combination with time since last milking to calculate the milk production per hour between milking; an average of the milk production per hour over the day was calculated and multiplied by 24. The advanced method calculated the milk production from midnight to midnight by using information about yield and time since last milking to calculate the exact milk production. The results show a clear preference for the advanced calculation method because the variation [variation for the advanced method=ln(1.79) for first lactation and ln(2.28) for later lactations] between days was reduced significantly (3 to 4 times lower compared with the simple method). Variation in daily harvested milk can be used as a management tool.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  19. Genotype x environment interaction for milk yield in Holsteins using Luxembourg and Tunisian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, H; Rekik, B; Soyeurt, H; Bastin, C; Stoll, J; Gengler, N

    2008-09-01

    Test-day (TD) milk yield records of first-lactation Holstein cows in Luxembourg and Tunisia were analyzed using within-and between-country random regression TD models. Edited data used for within-country analysis included 661,453 and 281,913 TD records in Luxembourg and Tunisia, respectively. The joint data included 730,810 TD records of 87,734 cows and 231 common sires. Both data sets covered calving years 1995 to 2006. Fourth-order Legendre polynomials for random effects and a Gibbs sampling method were used to estimate variance components of lactation curve parameters in separate and joint analyses. Genetic variances of the first 3 coefficients from Luxembourg data were 46 to 69% larger than corresponding estimates from the Tunisian data. Inversely, the Tunisian permanent environment variances for the same coefficients were 52 to 65% larger than the Luxembourg ones. Posterior mean heritabilities of 305-d milk yield and persistency, defined as estimated breeding values (EBV) at 280 days in milk-EBV at 80 days in milk, from between-country analysis were 0.42 and 0.12 and 0.19 and 0.08 in Luxembourg and Tunisia, respectively. Heritability estimates for the same traits from within-country analyses, mainly from the Tunisian data, were lower than those from the joint analysis. Genetic correlations for 305-d milk yield and persistency between countries were 0.60 and 0.36. Product moment and rank correlations between EBV of common sires for 305-d milk yield and persistency from within-country analyses were 0.38 and 0.41 and 0.27 and 0.26, respectively. Differences between genetic variances found in both countries reflect different milk production levels. Moreover, low genetic and rank correlations suggest different ranking of sires in the 2 environments, which implies the existence of a genotype x environment interaction for milk yield in Holsteins.

  20. Suspension of milking in dairy cows produces a transient increase in milk lactoferrin concentration and yield after resumption of milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S R; South, C R

    2015-11-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein with a range of antimicrobial and immune-related properties that is found at >10-fold higher concentration in human milk (~1.7 g/L) relative to bovine milk (~0.15 g/L). Consumer demand is increasing for bovine lactoferrin through a wide range of nutritional and cosmetic consumer products. Increasing lactoferrin yield and concentration in bovine milk could assist in satisfying this increasing demand and may also help in increasing resistance to bovine mammary infection. Two experiments with cows in mid and late lactation were carried out to examine milking strategies to increase milk lactoferrin concentration and yield. Milking was suspended in cows normally milked twice daily, for periods of 2, 4, or 7d (mid lactation) or 2 or 4d (late lactation) after which cows were milked out and twice-daily milking resumed for 4d. In all groups, lactoferrin concentration was significantly increased during the remilking period, approaching concentrations similar to those found in human milk (~1 g/L). Lactoferrin yields were significantly higher in all treatment groups, although increasing the nonmilking period beyond 2d offered no advantage. Milk yield was lower initially after resumption of milking but recovered to preexperimental values by the fourth day of remilking in all groups, except the 4-d nonmilking group in late lactation. Milk somatic cell count was significantly elevated in all groups at the start of remilking but had substantially reduced by d 4 and reached a preexperimental level in the 2-d nonmilking group of mid-lactation cows. In summary, extended milking intervals can be used as a tool to produce a short-term increase in the concentration and yield of lactoferrin from bovine milk during established lactation, without any apparent long-term effects on milk yield and quality. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dairy cattle in a temperate climate: the effects of weather on milk yield and composition depend on management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D L; Wall, E

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of how livestock respond to weather is essential to enable farming to adapt to a changing climate. Climate change is mainly expected to impact dairy cattle through heat stress and an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. We investigated the effects of weather on milk yield and composition (fat and protein content) in an experimental dairy herd in Scotland over 21 years. Holstein Friesian cows were either housed indoors in winter and grazed over the summer or were continuously housed. Milk yield was measured daily, resulting in 762 786 test day records from 1369 individuals, and fat and protein percentage were sampled once a week, giving 89 331 records from 1220 cows/trait. The relative influence of 11 weather elements, measured from local outdoor weather stations, and two indices of temperature and humidity (THI), indicators of heat stress, were compared using separate maximum likelihood models for each element or index. Models containing a direct measure of temperature (dry bulb, wet bulb, grass or soil temperature) or a THI provided the best fits to milk yield and fat data; wind speed and the number of hours of sunshine were most important in explaining protein content. Weather elements summarised across a week's timescale from the test day usually explained milk yield and fat content better than shorter-scale (3 day, test day, test day -1) metrics. Then, examining a subset of key weather variables using restricted maximum likelihood, we found that THI, wind speed and the number of hours of sunshine influenced milk yield and composition. The shape and magnitude of these effects depended on whether animals were inside or outside on the test day. The milk yield of cows outdoors was lower at the extremes of THI than at average values, and the highest yields were obtained when THI, recorded at 0900 h, was 55 units. Cows indoors decreased milk yield as THI increased. Fat content was lower at higher THIs than at intermediate THIs

  2. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcumamangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milkprotein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomizeddesign was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcumazeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. Thecollected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects wastested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbssignificantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreasedmastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  3. Effect of bromelain on milk yield, milk composition and mammary health in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, A; Paape, M J; Miller, R H; Corrales, J C; Luengo, C; Sánchez, A

    2009-04-01

    A 7 month prospective cohort study was designed to determine if feeding bromelain to dairy goats influenced the MSCC, milk yield, milk composition and the incidence of IMI. Forty-four clinically normal goats from 2nd to 6th parities were studied. Daily bromelain dosage was 7.4 grams/animal (185-mg/Kg weight). Samples for diagnostic bacteriology were collected from each udder half every 2 weeks. Samples for MSCC and composition were obtained every 42 days. Milk yield was also recorded every 42 days. Bromelain affected milk protein and fat but not MSCC, milk yield or milk lactose. Bromelain did not decrease the MSCC in healthy goats. Milk protein and fat increased in the bromelain treated group (P bromelain had no significant effect on IMI (P > 0.05). In addition, the use of pineapple by-products could be especially important in tropical countries were pineapple waste seems to be a pollution problem.

  4. Influence of storage of refrigerated milk on yield and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of milk stored at different temperatures and storage times and the influence on yield and sensory characteristics of queso fresco. The milk collected was stored at temperatures of 3 and 7°C for times of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h for analysis and processing of queso fresco. Cheeses ...

  5. Neural prediction of cows' milk yield according to environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Piotr

    milk yield and milk composition characteristics of Bunaji and Friesian. × Bunaji cows. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11(36): 8790-8793. Boniecki P, Dach J, Nowakowski K, Jakubek A (2009). Neural image analysis of maturity stage during composting of sewage sludge. International Conference on Digital Image Processing, Bangkok,.

  6. Neural prediction of cows' milk yield according to environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medium and maximum air temperatures around the milk cowsheds were measured and these empirical data were used to create a neural prediction model evaluating the cows' milk yield under varying thermal conditions. We found out that artificial neural networks were an effective tool supporting the process of short-term ...

  7. Milk yield persistency in Brazilian Gyr cattle based on a random regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R J; Verneque, R S; Lopes, P S; Santana, M L; Lagrotta, M R; Torres, R A; Vercesi Filho, A E; Machado, M A

    2012-06-15

    With the objective of evaluating measures of milk yield persistency, 27,000 test-day milk yield records from 3362 first lactations of Brazilian Gyr cows that calved between 1990 and 2007 were analyzed with a random regression model. Random, additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled using Legendre polynomials of order 4 and 5, respectively. Residual variance was modeled using five classes. The average lactation curve was modeled using a fourth-order Legendre polynomial. Heritability estimates for measures of persistency ranged from 0.10 to 0.25. Genetic correlations between measures of persistency and 305-day milk yield (Y305) ranged from -0.52 to 0.03. At high selection intensities for persistency measures and Y305, few animals were selected in common. As the selection intensity for the two traits decreased, a higher percentage of animals were selected in common. The average predicted breeding values for Y305 according to year of birth of the cows had a substantial annual genetic gain. In contrast, no improvement in the average persistency breeding value was observed. We conclude that selection for total milk yield during lactation does not identify bulls or cows that are genetically superior in terms of milk yield persistency. A measure of persistency represented by the sum of deviations of estimated breeding value for days 31 to 280 in relation to estimated breeding value for day 30 should be preferred in genetic evaluations of this trait in the Gyr breed, since this measure showed a medium heritability and a genetic correlation with 305-day milk yield close to zero. In addition, this measure is more adequate at the time of peak lactation, which occurs between days 25 and 30 after calving in this breed.

  8. Estimation of 305-day yield from total milk yields in Bunaji and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactation data of 207 cows comprising of 91 Bunaji and 116 Friesian-Bunaji crosses milking for over 305 days were analysed on the basis of average daily yield (ADY), actual 305-day yield (A305), total yield (1Y) and lactation length (LL). The objective was to fit a suitable equation that would estimate 305- dny yield from 1Y ...

  9. Relationships between conception rate in Holstein heifers and cows and milk yield at various stages of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiya, K; Terawaki, Y; Yamazaki, T; Nagamine, Y; Itoh, F; Yamaguchi, S; Abe, H; Gotoh, Y; Kawahara, T; Masuda, Y; Suzuki, M

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between conception rates (CRs) at first service in Japanese Holstein heifers (i.e. animals that had not yet had their first calf) and cows and their test-day (TD) milk yields. Data included records of artificial insemination (AI) for heifers and cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2008 and their TD milk yields at 6 through 305 days in milk (DIM) from first through third lactations. CR was defined as a binary trait for which first AI was a failure or success. A threshold-linear animal model was applied to estimate genetic correlations between CRs of heifers or cows and TD milk yield at various lactation stages. Two-trait genetic analyses were performed for every combination of CR and TD milk yield by using the Bayesian method with Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of the heritabilities of CR were 0.031 for heifers, 0.034 for first-lactation cows and 0.028 for second-lactation cows. Heritabilities for TD milk yield increased from 0.324 to 0.433 with increasing DIM but decreased slightly after 210 DIM during first lactation. These heritabilities from the second and third lactations were higher during late stages of lactation than during early stages. Posterior means of the genetic correlations between heifer CR and all TD yields were positive (range, 0.082 to 0.287), but those between CR of cows and milk yields during first or second lactation were negative (range, -0.121 to -0.250). Therefore, during every stage of lactation, selection in the direction of increasing milk yield may reduce CR in cows. The genetic relationships between CR and lactation curve shape were quite weak, because the genetic correlations between CR and TD milk yield were constant during the lactation period.

  10. Milk yield of some goat breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, goats are primarily bred for meat production. However, for the past twenty years the interest in goat milk production was based on imported breeds such as Alpine-French, Saanen and German Improved Fawn goat. The purpose of this paper is to establish litter size of the principal goat breeds in Croatia and the indicators related to milk yield and chemical composition. The largest average litter size has been determined on the German Improved Fawn (1.72, then with the Boer (1.54, the Saanen (1.53 and the Croatian coloured goat (1.51, while the Alpine-French goat was the smallest (1.31. The longest lactation period (259 days has been determined on the Alpine-French goat, while the largest milk yield during lactation (724.4 kg and the largest milk fat yield (20.16 kg and protein yield (18.64 kg have been determined on the Saanen goat. However, it has been established that the Alpine-French goat milk has the highest average fat content (3.55 %, while the German Improved Fawn’s milk has the highest protein content (3.23 %. The Saanen goat had the longest milking period (222 days and the shortest suckling period (32 days, while the Alpine-French and the German Improved Fawn had the longest suckling period (51 and 45 days, respectively. The lowest quantity of milk during the suckling period (102.97 kg, i.e. 14 % was suckled by Saanen kids, while the Alpine-French (122.08 kg, i.e. 22 % and the German Improved Fawn kids suckled the greatest quantity (116.31 kg, i.e. 22 %.

  11. The effect of lactation number, stage, length, and milking frequency on milk yield in Korean Holstein dairy cows using automatic milking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Park, Ji Hoo; Ki, Kwang Seok; Lim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Sang Bum; Park, Seong Min; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Park, Beom Young; Kim, Tae Il

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to describe the relationship between milk yield and lactation number, stage, length and milking frequency in Korean Holstein dairy cows using an automatic milking system (AMS). Methods The original data set consisted of observations from April to October 2016 of 780 Holstein cows, with a total of 10,751 milkings. Each time a cow was milked by an AMS during the 24 h, the AMS management system recorded identification numbers of the AMS unit, the cow being milking, date and time of the milking, and milk yield (kg) as measured by the milk meters installed on each AMS unit, date and time of the lactation, lactation stage, milking frequency (NoM). Lactation stage is defined as the number of days milking per cows per lactation. Milk yield was calculated per udder quarter in the AMS and was added to 1 record per cow and trait for each milking. Milking frequency was measured the number of milkings per cow per 24 hour. Results From the study results, a significant relationship was found between the milk yield and lactation number (plactation cows. We recorded the highest milk yield, in a greater lactation length period of early stage (55 to 90 days) at a 4× milking frequency/d, and the lowest milk yield was observed in the later stage (>201 days) of cows. Also, milking frequency had a significant influence on milk yield (plactation number, stage, length, and milking frequency associated with increasing milk yield using AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers for maximizing milk yield in Korean Dairy industries. PMID:28423887

  12. Milk yield and mammary growth effects due to increased milking frequency during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, S A; Capuco, A V; Erdman, R A

    2003-06-01

    Increased milking frequency (IMF) at the beginning of lactation has been shown to increase milk yield not only during IMF but also after its cessation. The objectives of this experiment evaluated the effects of increased milking frequency initiated during early lactation on mammary growth and effects on milk yield (MY). Thirty-one cows were divided into treatment groups: 1) 2X: cows milked twice daily (2X) beginning at parturition (d 1), 2) IMF1: cows milked four times daily (4X) from d 1 to 21 postpartum (PP) and 3) IMF4: cows milked 2X d 1 to 3 and 4X d 4 to 21 PP. The 4X cows were milked immediately before 2X cows and again approximately 3 h later, at the end of the normal milking routine. All cows were milked 2X from d 21 to 305 postpartum. Milk yields were 34.5, 37.8 and 37.6 kg/d during wk 1 to 44 for 2X, IMF1 and IMF4, respectively. Mammary biopsies from four cows per treatment were obtained on d 7 and 14 PP to evaluate mammary cell proliferation. Tritiated-thymidine incorporation tended to increase on d 7 in IMF1 cows, and arithmetic means of the percentage of cells expressing Ki-67 proliferation antigen were consistent with a proliferative response to IMF though not significant. Blood was sampled three times per wk during the first 2 wk and then once per wk during wk 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) averaged 20.1 ng/ml in IMF cows vs. 24.2 in 2X but was not accompanied by a change in bST. Prolactin was also not affected by treatment. Neither milk yield nor potential effects on mammary cell proliferation were correlated with systemic IGF-1. Implementing an IMF routine increases MY during treatment and elicits a carryover effect on the remainder of lactation. Milk yield responses after an IMF routine may be the result of increased mammary cell proliferation.

  13. Genetic Parameters for Milk Yield and Lactation Persistency Using Random Regression Models in Girolando Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali William Canaza-Cayo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 32,817 test-day milk yield (TDMY records of the first lactation of 4,056 Girolando cows daughters of 276 sires, collected from 118 herds between 2000 and 2011 were utilized to estimate the genetic parameters for TDMY via random regression models (RRM using Legendre’s polynomial functions whose orders varied from 3 to 5. In addition, nine measures of persistency in milk yield (PSi and the genetic trend of 305-day milk yield (305MY were evaluated. The fit quality criteria used indicated RRM employing the Legendre’s polynomial of orders 3 and 5 for fitting the genetic additive and permanent environment effects, respectively, as the best model. The heritability and genetic correlation for TDMY throughout the lactation, obtained with the best model, varied from 0.18 to 0.23 and from −0.03 to 1.00, respectively. The heritability and genetic correlation for persistency and 305MY varied from 0.10 to 0.33 and from −0.98 to 1.00, respectively. The use of PS7 would be the most suitable option for the evaluation of Girolando cattle. The estimated breeding values for 305MY of sires and cows showed significant and positive genetic trends. Thus, the use of selection indices would be indicated in the genetic evaluation of Girolando cattle for both traits.

  14. National HIV Testing Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-09

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses National HIV Testing Day, an annual observance which raises awareness of the importance of knowing one's HIV status and encourages at-risk individuals to get an HIV test.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  15. Effect of management practices on milk yield and live weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These studies were carried out at the Research farm of National Animal Production Research Institute, Shika to investigate the effect of management practices on the milk yield and live weight changes of grazing Red Sokoto and Sahelian goats as influenced by supplementation with groundnut haulms and concentrate.

  16. Winter and spring variation in daily milk yield and mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of genotype and season on daily milk yield (DMY) and mineral composition of pasture-based dairy cows. This was done by collecting data from 20 Friesian, 20 Jersey and 20 Friesian × Jersey crossbred cows in the early stage of their 4th parity in winter and spring, ...

  17. Evidence of Heterogeneity of Variance in Milk Yield among Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three thousand, nine hundred and seventy five lactation records of Holstein- Friesian cows between 1968 and 1984 were used to investigate the existence of heterogeneity of variance in milk yield in Kenya. Coefficient of variation and standard deviations across herds were used to test heterogeneity of variance. Average ...

  18. Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1220 records ... Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic improvement in Friesian vs Arsi crossbred cows in the highlands of south eastern. Ethiopia. Dumar Wabe1 and Kassahun Asmare2. 1Allage Agricultural Technical, Vocational Education Training College, P.O. Box 077. 2School of Veterinary ...

  19. Relationships between body condition score, milk yield, insulin-like ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationships between milk yield, body condition score (BCS), plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and the resumption of ovarian cyclicity in Sanga cows. Sixteen multiparous Sanga cows were grazed extensively on natural pasture. Cows were weighed monthly ...

  20. The effect of lactation number, stage, length, and milking frequency on milk yield in Korean Holstein dairy cows using automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Park, Ji Hoo; Ki, Kwang Seok; Lim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Sang Bum; Park, Seong Min; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Park, Beom Young; Kim, Tae Il

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to describe the relationship between milk yield and lactation number, stage, length and milking frequency in Korean Holstein dairy cows using an automatic milking system (AMS). The original data set consisted of observations from April to October 2016 of 780 Holstein cows, with a total of 10,751 milkings. Each time a cow was milked by an AMS during the 24 h, the AMS management system recorded identification numbers of the AMS unit, the cow being milking, date and time of the milking, and milk yield (kg) as measured by the milk meters installed on each AMS unit, date and time of the lactation, lactation stage, milking frequency (NoM). Lactation stage is defined as the number of days milking per cows per lactation. Milk yield was calculated per udder quarter in the AMS and was added to 1 record per cow and trait for each milking. Milking frequency was measured the number of milkings per cow per 24 hour. From the study results, a significant relationship was found between the milk yield and lactation number (pyield occurring in the third lactation cows. We recorded the highest milk yield, in a greater lactation length period of early stage (55 to 90 days) at a 4× milking frequency/d, and the lowest milk yield was observed in the later stage (>201 days) of cows. Also, milking frequency had a significant influence on milk yield (pyield using AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers for maximizing milk yield in Korean Dairy industries.

  1. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily...... supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were...

  2. Application of random regression models for genetic analysis of 305-d milk yield over different lactations of Iranian Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Elahi Torshizi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective During the last decade, genetic evaluation of dairy cows using longitudinal data (test day milk yield or 305- day milk yield using random regression method has been officially adopted in several countries. The objectives of this study were to estimate covariance functions for genetic and permanent environmental effects and to obtain genetic parameters of 305-day milk yield over seven parities. Methods Data including 60,279 total 305–day milk yield of 17,309 Iranian Holstein dairy cows in 7 parities calved between 20 to 140 months between 2004 and 2011. Residual variances were modeled by homogeneous and step functions with 7 and 10 classes. Results The results showed that a third order polynomial for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects plus a step function with 10 classes for the residual variance was the most adequate and parsimonious model to describe the covariance structure of the data. Heritability estimates obtained by this model varied from 0.17 to 0.28. The performance of this model was better than repeatability model. Moreover, 10 classes of residual variance produce the more accurate result than 7 classes or homogeneous residual effect. Conclusion A quadratic Legendre polynomial for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects with 10 step function residual classes are sufficient to produce a parsimonious model that explained the change in 305-day milk yield over consecutive parities of Iranian Holstein cows.

  3. Investigation of the association between the test day milk fat-protein ratio and clinical mastitis using a Poisson regression approach for analysis of time-to-event data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoche-Golob, V; Heuwieser, W; Krömker, V

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between the milk fat-protein ratio and the incidence rate of clinical mastitis including repeated cases of clinical mastitis to determine the usefulness of this association to monitor metabolic disorders as risk factors for udder health. Herd records from 10 dairy herds of Holstein cows in Saxony, Germany, from September 2005-2011 (36,827 lactations of 17,657 cows) were used for statistical analysis. A mixed Poisson regression model with the weekly incidence rate of clinical mastitis as outcome variable was fitted. The model included repeated events of the outcome, time-varying covariates and multilevel clustering. Because the recording of clinical mastitis might have been imperfect, a probabilistic bias analysis was conducted to assess the impact of the misclassification of clinical mastitis on the conventional results. The lactational incidence of clinical mastitis was 38.2%. In 36.2% and 34.9% of the lactations, there was at least one dairy herd test day with a fat-protein ratio of 1.5, respectively. Misclassification of clinical mastitis was assumed to have resulted in bias towards the null. A clinical mastitis case increased the incidence rate of following cases of the same cow. Fat-protein ratios of 1.5 were associated with higher incidence rates of clinical mastitis depending on week in milk. The effect of a fat-protein ratio >1.5 on the incidence rate of clinical mastitis increased considerably over the course of lactation, whereas the effect of a fat-protein ratio 1.5 on the precedent test days of all cows irrespective of their time in milk seemed to be better predictors for clinical mastitis than the first test day results per lactation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of patent Dictyocaulus viviparus (re)infections on individual milk yield and milk quality in pastured dairy cows and correlation with clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Katharina; Brügemann, Kerstin; König, Sven; Strube, Christina

    2018-01-08

    Infections with the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus might lead to reduced milk production and detrimental impacts on milk quality resulting in considerable economic losses in dairy farming. In the presented field study, 1988 faecal samples were collected from 1166 Black and White dairy cows allocated in 17 small and medium-sized German grassland farms. Faecal samples were collected in summer and autumn 2015 to assess D. viviparus larvae excretion. Test-day records were used to estimate the association between patent D. viviparus infections in individual cows and the milk production parameters milk yield, milk protein and milk fat content by using linear mixed models. Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from each farm and individual milk samples from those cows which were excreting larvae in summer were collected in autumn. In addition, occurrence of the clinical symptom "coughing" was noted in individual cows during autumn sampling to determine its association with patent lungworm infections. Patent D. viviparus infections were found on 23.5% (4/17) of farms with a prevalence at the individual cow level of 0.9% (9/960) in summer and 3.4% (35/1028) in autumn. No BTM sample exceeded the BTM ELISA cut-off value of 0.410 optical density ratio (ODR), the mean value was 0.168 ODR. Only one individual milk sample exceeded the individual milk ELISA cut-off value of 0.573 ODR (mean value of 0.302 ODR). A patent D. viviparus infection status was associated with a lower average daily milk yield of 1.62 kg/cow/day (P = 0.0406). No significant association was found with milk protein or fat content representing milk quality parameters. Coughing was observed in 5.9% (61/1028) of cows. Of the coughing cows, only 4.9% (3/61) had a patent lungworm infection. Fisher's exact test showed no significant difference between infected and non-infected coughing cows. Farmers and veterinarians should be aware that patent lungworm (re)infections in dairy cows reduce milk yield, despite

  5. Predicting milk yield and composition in lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Strathe, A B; Kebreab, E

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a framework describing the milk production curve in sows as affected by parity, method of milk yield (MY) determination, litter size (LS), and litter gain (LG). A database containing data on LS, LG, dietary protein and fat content, MY, and composition.......0; 3.3) and 9.5 piglets (5; 14), respectively. The MY was affected by LS on d 5 and 20 (P MY at peak lactation was 9.23 kg (SD = 0.14). The average protein, lactose......, and fat content of milk was 5.22 (SD = 0.06), 5.41 (SD = 0.08), and 7.32% (SD = 0.17%), respectively. The NE requirement for lactation increased from d 5 to 20 because of increased MY. Requirements also increased with increasing LG and LS. The framework could be used to predict energy and protein...

  6. Milk Yield and Quality of Holstein and Jersey Breeds of Cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Friesian cows were used to evaluate the effects of breed, month of lactation and milking time on the milk yield and quality of commercial dairy cows under the tropical climate of Nigeria. Mean milk yield and milk protein were significantly higher ...

  7. Effect of post-partum body condition score on milk yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determines the effect of dam body condition on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows. The milk production records of 60 Friesian x Bunaji dairy cows were used for the study. The body condition score (BCS) was recorded on scale 1 to 5 with an increment of 0.25 points. The mean initial milk yield (IMY), ...

  8. Estimation of genomic breeding values for milk yield in UK dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, S; Mrode, R; MacLaren-Lee, I; Coffey, M; Conington, J

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genomic breeding values for milk yield in crossbred dairy goats. The research was based on data provided by 2 commercial goat farms in the UK comprising 590,409 milk yield records on 14,453 dairy goats kidding between 1987 and 2013. The population was created by crossing 3 breeds: Alpine, Saanen, and Toggenburg. In each generation the best performing animals were selected for breeding, and as a result, a synthetic breed was created. The pedigree file contained 30,139 individuals, of which 2,799 were founders. The data set contained test-day records of milk yield, lactation number, farm, age at kidding, and year and season of kidding. Data on milk composition was unavailable. In total 1,960 animals were genotyped with the Illumina 50K caprine chip. Two methods for estimation of genomic breeding value were compared-BLUP at the single nucleotide polymorphism level (BLUP-SNP) and single-step BLUP. The highest accuracy of 0.61 was obtained with single-step BLUP, and the lowest (0.36) with BLUP-SNP. Linkage disequilibrium (r(2), the squared correlation of the alleles at 2 loci) at 50 kb (distance between 2 SNP) was 0.18. This is the first attempt to implement genomic selection in UK dairy goats. Results indicate that the single-step method provides the highest accuracy for populations with a small number of genotyped individuals, where the number of genotyped males is low and females are predominant in the reference population. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increase in milk yield following eprinomectin treatment at calving in pastured dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nødtvedt, Ane; Dohoo, Ian; Sanchez, Javier; Conboy, Gary; DesCôteaux, Luc; Keefe, Greg

    2002-05-02

    Gastrointestinal nematodes rarely cause signs of clinical disease in adult cattle. However, they have been shown to exert a negative impact on production in lactating animals, as seen by improved production following elimination of the worms using anthelmintics. A double blind, randomized clinical trial was performed in 28 dairy herds in Canada. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with eprinomectin pour-on solution (IVOMEC EPRINEX) at calving on production, in cattle that have had some exposure to pasture. Cows were randomly allocated to treatment or placebo in blocks of 10, based on calving date, and treated with eprinomectin or placebo on the day of calving. Information on milk production was obtained from all animals, as well as recorded cases of selected diseases. Milk production results from the Canadian dairy herd management system database were analysed using a mixed model with herd as a random effect and test within-cow as a repeated measurement. Test day milk yields from the first six tests after treatment were included in the model, representing a period of between 180 and 200 days in milk (dim). Treated cows produced an additional 0.94 kg of milk per day when compared to the controls over this period. The production effect was independent of calving season, age of the animal and geographical location. No effect of treatment was seen on milk composition, somatic cell count (scc) or on the selected health parameters that were recorded for all included animals. Monthly fecal egg counts (FEC) were performed for eight randomly selected animals in each herd. The observed FEC were low in this study, with a range from 0 to 419 trichostrongyle type eggs per 5g (ep5g) of feces in animals not yet treated with the anthelmintic. The average count was 9.8 and the median was 1.0. FECs dropped immediately after calving and stayed lower for at least 100 days in treated animals when compared to controls. In conclusion, gastrointestinal

  10. [Milk yield and environmental factors: Multiple regression analysis of the association between milk yield and udder health, fertility data and replacement rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölsche, C; Staufenbiel, R

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between milk yield and both fertility and general animal health in dairy herds is discussed from opposing viewpoints. The hypothesis (1) that raising the herd milk yield would decrease fertility results, the number of milk cells as an indicator for udder health and the replacement rate as a global indicator for animal health as well as increasing the occurrence of specific diseases as a herd problem was compared to the opposing hypotheses that there is no relationship (2) or that there is a differentiated and changing relationship (3). A total of 743 herd examinations, considered independent, were performed in 489 herds between 1995 and 2010. The milk yield, fertility rate, milk cell count, replacement rate, categorized herd problems and management information were recorded. The relationship between the milk yield and both the fertility data and animal health was evaluated using simple and multiple regression analyses. The period between calving and the first service displayed no significant relationship to the herd milk yield. Simple regression analysis showed that the period between calving and gestation, the calving interval and the insemination number were significantly positively associated with the herd milk yield. This positive correlation was lost in multiple regression analysis. The milk cell count and replacement rate using both the simple and multiple regression analyses displayed a significant negative relationship to the milk yield. The alternative hypothesis (3) was confirmed. A higher milk yield has no negative influence on the milk cell count and the replacement rate in terms of the udder and general health. When parameterizing the fertility, the herd milk yield should be considered. Extending the resting time may increase the milk yield while preventing a decline in the insemination index.

  11. Buffalos milk yield analysis using random regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Schierholt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Data comprising 1,719 milk yield records from 357 females (predominantly Murrah breed, daughters of 110 sires, with births from 1974 to 2004, obtained from the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Bubalinos (PROMEBUL and from records of EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental - EAO herd, located in Belém, Pará, Brazil, were used to compare random regression models for estimating variance components and predicting breeding values of the sires. The data were analyzed by different models using the Legendre’s polynomial functions from second to fourth orders. The random regression models included the effects of herd-year, month of parity date of the control; regression coefficients for age of females (in order to describe the fixed part of the lactation curve and random regression coefficients related to the direct genetic and permanent environment effects. The comparisons among the models were based on the Akaike Infromation Criterion. The random effects regression model using third order Legendre’s polynomials with four classes of the environmental effect were the one that best described the additive genetic variation in milk yield. The heritability estimates varied from 0.08 to 0.40. The genetic correlation between milk yields in younger ages was close to the unit, but in older ages it was low.

  12. Impact of Different Milk Yields on Milk Quality in Bohemian Spotted Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hanuš

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk yield (MY is a significant economic and health factor. MY influences the health state of dairy cows, their reproduction performance, longevity and milk indicators (MIs. Differences within MIs between 2 higher (1; 8 348 kg per lactation; 240 individual milk samples and 2 lower yielding herds (2; 7 344; 239 of Bohemian Spotted dairy cows (B were tested. Sampling was carried out during summer and winter feeding seasons. Lactation factors were well balanced. Group 1 was on a higher genetical level, had better nutrition and higher MY by 13.7% (P P P > 0.05. The U was higher (5.707 > 4.365 mmol l-1 in group 1, AC and URN as well (0.0362 > 0.0238 mmol l-1 and 51.94 > 41.97%. It corresponds with nitrogen and energy metabolism.

  13. Effects of Genotype by Environment Interactions on Milk Yield, Energy Balance, and Protein Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerda, B.; Ouweltjes, W.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Windig, J.J.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in genetic merit for milk yield are associated with increases in mobilization of body reserves. This study assessed the effects of genotype by environment (GxE) interactions on milk yield and energy and protein balances. Heifers (n = 100) with high or low genetic merit for milk yield were

  14. Thyroid hormones in donkey blood and milk: correlations with milk yield and environmental temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Todini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (TH are the primary endocrine stimulators of non-shivering thermogenesis and are known to stimulate lactation. Triiodothyronine (T3 is the bioactive form, mainly derived by deiodination of thyroxine (T4, and the free quote (unbound to plasma proteins is immediately bioavailable. This study aimed to evaluate potential relationships among TH in the blood, triiodothyronine in the milk (T3M, milk yield and environmental temperature in March to July for 8 lactating donkeys. Milk yield and blood TH concentrations changed significantly over time, whereas T3M was rather stable among individuals and not affected by time of sampling. Free T3 was not correlated with free T4 or with total TH in the blood, but it was weakly correlated with T3M. No relationship was found between blood TH and milk yield, which was negatively correlated with T3M. Thus, the absolute quantity of bioactive hormone in milk secretion is maintained. Milk yield was positively correlated with the free/total T3 and free T3/free T4 ratios, thus in turn with the relative quote of the circulating bioactive hormone. Circulating T3/T4 ratios were negatively correlated with environmental temperature. It is concluded that environmental temperature, in the range of the present study (-2 to 35°C, does not significantly entrain thyroid gland activity, which is affected more by other factors, such as inter-individual variations and physiological status (i.e., stage of lactation. However, increases in environmental temperature most likely induce decreases in deiodinase activity at the peripheral tissue level, as indicated by the decrease in the T3/T4 ratios in the blood.

  15. Comparison of 2 systems of pasture allocation on milking intervals and total daily milk yield of dairy cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, N A; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2013-07-01

    Cows milked in pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS) have greater milking intervals than cows milked in indoor AMS. Long milking intervals greater than 16h have a negative effect on milk yield and udder health. The impact of 2 systems of pasture allocation in AMS on milking interval and yield was investigated at the FutureDairy AMS research farm (Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Camden, New South Wales, Australia) in late November to early December 2010. Two- (2WG) versus 3-way grazing (3WG) allocations per 24-h period were compared in a field study to test the hypothesis that an increase in the frequency of pasture allocation would reduce the milking interval and, therefore, increase milking frequency. The study involved the entire milking herd of 145 cows, with (mean ± SD) DIM=121±90d, 7-d average milking frequency=1.52±0.41 milkings/cow per day, and 7-d average milk yield=21.3±7.6kg/cow per day. Cows were milked using 2 DeLaval VMS milking units (DeLaval International AB, Tumba, Sweden). Cows in the 3WG treatment had 31% reduced milking interval, 40% greater milking frequency, and 20% greater daily milk production compared with 2WG. Increased milking frequency and milk production for 3WG was associated with greater utililization levels of the AMS milking units throughout the day. These results support the recommendation that, wherever possible, farmers installing AMS should incorporate sufficient infrastructure to accommodate 3WG, which provides additional flexibility with managing extremely long (and short) milking intervals. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of kid rearing systems on milk composition and yield of Murciano-Granadina dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, S; Caja, G; Such, X; Casals, R; Ferret, A; Torre, C

    1997-12-01

    One-hundred eight lactations of Murciano-Granadina goats from different years were used to compare two kid rearing systems. Goats were separated into two groups: suckling and milking. Dams in the suckling group were milked once daily until kids were weaned (wk 0 to 7) and then were milked twice daily. Dams in the milking group were separated from their kids at 48 h after birth; then, kids were raised artificially, and goats were milked twice daily. Total milk yield was estimated according to the oxytocin method during suckling. Stage of lactation, parity, prolificacy, and year effects on milk yield and composition were also studied. As expected, during the first 7 wk of lactation, marketable milk was higher for dams that were milked than for dams that were suckled. Neither milk yield nor milk composition throughout the entire lactation was affected by group or prolificacy with the exception of the percentage of milk CP. The lactation curve peaked at wk 4 or 5 and declined slowly afterward. First parity goats had the lowest milk yield but the highest fat and protein percentages. Third parity goats had the highest milk yield. The separation of kids from their dams after birth did not affect total lactation performance because of the minimal importance of the neuroendocrine milk ejection reflex in goats compared with that of other ruminants.

  17. Investigating the within-herd prevalence and risk factors for ketosis in dairy cattle in Ontario as diagnosed by the test-day concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatone, Elise H; Duffield, Todd F; LeBlanc, Stephen J; DeVries, Trevor J; Gordon, Jessica L

    2017-02-01

    An observational study of 790 to over 3,000 herds was conducted to estimate the within-herd prevalence and cow-level risk factors for ketosis in dairy cattle in herds that participate in a Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) program. Ketosis or hyperketolactia (KET) was diagnosed as milk β-hydroxybutyrate ≥0.15 mmol/L at first DHIA test when tested within the first 30 d in milk. Seven hundred ninety-five herds providing at least 61 first milk tests from June 2014 to December 2015 were used to estimate the provincial within-herd prevalence of KET. All herds on DHIA in Ontario (n = 3,042) were used to construct cow-level multilevel logistic regression models to investigate the association of DHIA collected variables with the odds of KET at first DHIA milk test. Primiparous and multiparous animals were modeled independently. The cow-level KET prevalence in Ontario was 21%, with an average within-herd prevalence of 21% (standard deviation = 10.6) for dairy herds enrolled in a DHIA program. The prevalence of KET had a distinct seasonality with the lowest prevalence occurring from July to November. Automatic milking systems (AMS) were associated with increased within-herd prevalence, as well as increased odds of KET in multiparous animals at first test (odds ratio: 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.30 to 1.63). Jersey cattle had over 1.46 times higher odds of KET than Holstein cattle. Milk fat yield ≥1.12 kg/d at the last test of the previous lactation was associated with decreased odds of KET in the current lactation (odds ratio: 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.53 to 0.59). Increased days dry and longer calving intervals, for multiparous animals, and older age at first calving for primiparous animals increased the odds of KET at first test. This study confirms previous findings that increased days dry, longer calving intervals, and increased age at first calving are associated with increased odds of KET and is the first report of increased KET in herds with

  18. The Effect of Biostimulative Substance on Daily Milk Yield and Quality Components in Cow´s Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hnisová

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the impact of the liquid Biopolym FZT on quality components in cow´s milk and daily milk yield. Biopolym was, calibrated by a milking robot, given to dairy cows in a selected breeding around České Budějovice for a selected period of time. It found a slight increase in the average daily milk yield in dairy cows at first lactation. Daily milk yield increased on average by about 6, 7 L, but all we can give only the product but also as good nutrition. Because the components of milk a slight increase in fat levels in milk, while the impairment of protein.

  19. Solving large test-day models by iteration on data and preconditioned conjugate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidauer, M; Strandén, I; Mäntysaari, E A; Pösö, J; Kettunen, A

    1999-12-01

    A preconditioned conjugate gradient method was implemented into an iteration on a program for data estimation of breeding values, and its convergence characteristics were studied. An algorithm was used as a reference in which one fixed effect was solved by Gauss-Seidel method, and other effects were solved by a second-order Jacobi method. Implementation of the preconditioned conjugate gradient required storing four vectors (size equal to number of unknowns in the mixed model equations) in random access memory and reading the data at each round of iteration. The preconditioner comprised diagonal blocks of the coefficient matrix. Comparison of algorithms was based on solutions of mixed model equations obtained by a single-trait animal model and a single-trait, random regression test-day model. Data sets for both models used milk yield records of primiparous Finnish dairy cows. Animal model data comprised 665,629 lactation milk yields and random regression test-day model data of 6,732,765 test-day milk yields. Both models included pedigree information of 1,099,622 animals. The animal model ¿random regression test-day model¿ required 122 ¿305¿ rounds of iteration to converge with the reference algorithm, but only 88 ¿149¿ were required with the preconditioned conjugate gradient. To solve the random regression test-day model with the preconditioned conjugate gradient required 237 megabytes of random access memory and took 14% of the computation time needed by the reference algorithm.

  20. Concentrate feeding and milk yield based on the field data of milk recorded herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. KAUSTELL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Field data from 16 051 Finnish milk recorded herds including milk yield (MY, feed consumption, feed analyses, and the herd effect for milk yield (HMILK obtained from the national breeding value estimation program, were analysed to detect the influence of concentrate feeding on milk production. HMILKs are deviations from the average national level with mean of 45 kg and SD of 722 kg. Mean MY was 6917 kg and mean dry matter intake (DMI 5679 kg per cow per year. The effect of concentrate feeding on HMILK and MY was studied by using quantitative [amount of energy (FUI and concentrates (CI in the diet] and qualitative [proportion of grain (Gc or compound feed (Mc in concentrates or CP content (CPc of concentrates] diet characteristics as dependent variables in multivariate regression analysis. The general linear effect of CI was 1.18 kg MY/kg CI. Production response of CI decreased with increasing CI as indicated by significant interactions between CI and CI classes. Gc showed a negative relationship with HMILK, but CPc proved to be a more important factor affecting HMILK. Feeding grain instead of compound feed was connected with too low protein content in concentrates. Mc was positively correlated with CP content of concentrates. However, the use of compound feed appeared to give a slight increase in HMILK even after accounting for the effect of CP. ;

  1. Milk yield affects time budget in daiyr cows kept in tie-stalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norring, M.; Valros, A.; Munksgaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    compared with multiparous cows. Multiparous cows ruminated more while lying than primiparous cows. High milk yield cows spent a shorter time lying and they fell asleep (lay with neck relaxed) sooner. The degree of daily milk yield was associated with modifications in behavior and cows with high milk......Effective selection in breeding programs and improved management has increased the milk production per cow. However, the effects of the increased yield on behavior have not yet been clarified. We investigated the effect of milk yield on the time budget of 29 Finnish Ayrshire cows in the same stage...... of lactation kept in tie-stalls. The time spent lying, eating, ruminating, lying inactive without ruminating, and lying with the neck muscles relaxed, as well as the milk yield of primiparous and multiparous cows were recorded for 2d. The effects of milk yield and parity on behavior were analyzed with mixed...

  2. Somatic cell count and milk yield on physicochemical components of milk from free-stall housed cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Freitas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurement and evaluation of the factors that may influence milk composition has been shown to determine the actual gains in milk quality and quantity. The study was conducted to evaluate the influence of daily milk yield on the physicochemical composition of milk and analyze the correlations between milk yield and somatic cell count (SCC on the fat, protein, lactose, total solids and nitrogen urea contents in Holstein cows’ milk. A total of 3,544 data collected from 467 cows were evaluated. In the analysis, the animals were divided into groups – I (5-15 kg milk day-1, II (15-30 kg milk day-1 and III (above 30 kg milk day -1 – based on their daily production. Animals of Group I had higher SCC (P 0.05 between SCC and fat, protein and total solids contents was observed. A lower milk yield is significantly associated with a higher SCC, which, besides hindering the quality of milk, compromises the cow's udder health.

  3. Changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio persist for up to 8 weeks after antibiotic treatment of mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Løvendahl, Peter; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner

    2015-01-01

    Within the dairy industry, the appearance of milk and withdrawal time due to antibiotic residuals in the milk are used to determine recovery status after cases of treated mastitis. However, both milk production and dairy cow behavior have been shown to be affected after the normalization of milk...... appearance, indicating that animals may not have fully recovered. The aim of the present study was to describe the changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase activity, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio (defined as the coefficient of variation between the active quarters) after cases...... of naturally occurring mastitis with special focus on the recovery period after antibiotic treatment. A second aim was to examine whether these changes were affected by the pathogens present at the time of mastitis diagnosis. This retrospective study was based on a cohort data set including 1,032 lactations...

  4. Milk composition and yield of the black Bedouin goat during dehydration and rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, E; Shkolnik, A

    1984-02-01

    Milk composition and yield were measured in the black Bedouin goat during 4 d of dehydration followed by 2 d of rehydration. During this time the goats were exposed to strong solar radiation with no access to shade; all of these conditions occur commonly in the desert. Milk yield, initially similar to that found in the desert, was maintained during the first 2 d of dehydration, fell to 35% of the initial value over the third and fourth days and recovered fully during 2 d of rehydration. As yield fell, milk osmolality, and milk fat and protein concentrations rose. During rehydration all 3 fell once more, but whereas osmolality finished below initial values the concentrations of fat and protein remained higher than before dehydration. The milk remained isosmolar with plasma throughout. Total yields of milk solids and milk water during the whole experimental period were 70 and 67% of normal respectively and normal growth of the young was not disturbed.

  5. Test-day records as a tool for subclinical ketosis detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gantner Vesna; Potočnik K.; Jovanovac Sonja

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence, as well as the effect of subclinical ketosis on daily milk yield, was observed using 1.299,630 test-day records collected from January 2000 to December 2005 on 73,255 Slovenian Holstein cows. Subclinical ketosis was indicated by the fat to protein ratio (F/P ratio) higher than 1.5 in cows that yielded between 33 to 50 kg of milk per day (Eicher, 2004). The ketosis index was defined in relation to the timing of subclinical ketosis detection to the subsequent measures of test-da...

  6. Genetic relationship between weaning weight and milk yield in Nguni cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesengani, L T; Nephawe, K A; Sebei, J; Norris, D; Maiwashe, A

    2017-07-11

    A study was conducted to estimate the genetic relationship between weaning weight and milk yield in Nguni cattle. Milk yield data (n=125) were collected from 116 Nguni cows from Mara Research Station located in Limpopo Province and Loskop South Farm located in Mpumalanga Province using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. Weaning weight data (n=19 065) were obtained from stud Nguni cattle from 146 herds distributed throughout South Africa. Estimates of (co)variance components for milk yield and weaning weight were calculated using PEST and VCE softwares. The average weaning weight, age of the calf at weaning and 24-h milk yield was 158.94 kg, 210 days and 5.25 kg/day, respectively. Heritability estimates for milk yield, direct and maternal weaning weight were 0.22±0.238, 0.47±0.039 and 0.25±0.029, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations for milk yield and maternal weaning weight, milk yield and direct weaning weight, direct and maternal weaning weight were 0.97±0.063, -0.71±0.416 and -0.56±0.247, respectively. The results indicate that maternal weaning weight is genetically highly predictive of milk yield in Nguni cattle. Maternal breeding values for weaning weight could therefore be used as a selection criterion to improve milk yield in Nguni cattle.

  7. Once-daily milking effects in high-yielding Alpine dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komara, M; Boutinaud, M; Ben Chedly, H; Guinard-Flament, J; Marnet, P G

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the milk loss of high-yielding Alpine goats resulting from once-daily milking (ODM) and its relationship to udder cisternal size. We investigated the effects of application of this management strategy on milk yield, composition, and technological parameters: lipolysis, fat globule size, and cheese yield. In a second experiment, we investigated the effect of repeated periods of ODM management during lactation. Goats at the beginning of both experiments were at 25 d in milk on average and were previously milked twice daily (twice-daily milking; TDM). In experiment 1, which was conducted for 2 periods (P) of 9 wk (P1, P2), 48 goats were grouped (1, 2, 3, and 4) according to milk yield, parity, and somatic cell count (SCC). Over the 2 periods, goats from group 1 were managed with TDM and those from group 2 were managed with ODM. In group 3, goats were assigned to TDM during P1 and ODM during P2, conversely, those in group 4 were assigned to ODM in P1 and TDM in P2. During P1, the 12 goats from group 3 underwent 2 distinct morning machine milkings to measure milk repartition (cisternal and alveolar) in the udder based on the "atosiban method." On P1 plus the P2 period of 18 wk, milk loss caused by ODM (compared with TDM) was 16%. In our condition of 24-h milk accumulation, there was no correlation between milk loss and udder cisternal size. Milk fat content, fat globule size, or apparent laboratory cheese yield was not modified by ODM, but milk protein content (+2.7 g/kg), casein (+1.8 g/kg), milk soluble protein concentration (+1.0 g/kg), and SCC increased, whereas lipolysis decreased (-0.3 mEq/100 g of oleic acid). In experiment 2, which was conducted for 4 periods (P1, P2, P3, P4) of 5 wk each, 8 goats, blocked into 2 homogenous groups (5 and 6), were used to study the effects of a double inversion of milking frequency (TDM or ODM) for 20 wk of lactation. Milk loss was 17% and ODM did not modify milk fat or protein contents

  8. Effect of feeding fractionated RBD palm stearin on milk yield and quality of dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza, S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy intake of dairy cows is important during the peak of milk production to maintain consistency of milk yield. To overcome energy deficiency, diet with high energy density is required for lactating dairy cows which can be enhanced by incorporating fats. Therefore a feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing fat with fractionated RBD Palm Stearin on feed consumption, milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile of dairy cows. A total of 35 lactating dairy cows in early and mid-lactating periods were used in this trial. The trial was conducted for 12 wk and individual milk yield was recorded twice daily. Daily milk yield was increased (p<0.05 from 8.18 l for diet without fat to 8.42 and 8.32 l of milk yield per day, for inclusion of 5% and 2.5% fractionated RBD Palm Stearin, respectively.

  9. Effect of somatic cell count on milk yield and composition of first and second lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Cinar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of somatic cell count (SCC on milk yield and milk composition in first and second lactation Holstein dairy cows. Thirty cows in first lactation and 49 cows in second lactation were used in the study. Animals were 15±9.87 days in milk. Individual milk samples were collected monthly from June 2009 to March 2010, and somatic cell counts, milk protein, milk fat, lactose and milk urea-N were determined. Four SCC groups were formed for determining effect of SCC on milk yield and composition. These groups were as follows: ≤200, 201-500, 501-999, and ≥1.000x103 cell/mL. It was observed that SCC had a high significant effect on milk yield, milk protein, milk lactose (P0.05. This study indicates that high SCC negatively affects not only milk yield but also milk composition and quality.

  10. Effects of dietary betaine on milk yield and milk composition of mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, S E; Rezamand, P; Williams, J E; Price, W; Chahine, M; McGuire, M A

    2012-11-01

    Betaine, naturally found in plants and an oxidative product of choline, is converted to acetate in the rumen, which may be used for milk fat synthesis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental dietary betaine on milk yield and milk composition. Eighteen Holstein dairy cows (126±5 d in milk; mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to a sequence of treatments of rumen-unprotected betaine at 0, 25, 50, and 100 g/d added to a standard lactation ration in a 4×4 Latin square design. Animals were fed individually with feed intake and milk yield recorded daily. Body condition score and body weight were recorded on the last day of each period that lasted 16 d, with milk sampled on the last 2 d of each period. Milk composition was determined by a Dairy Herd Improvement Association laboratory and milk fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Data collected over the last 2 to 3 d were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Milk yield (mean ± SEM) was increased by betaine when fed at 100g/d (22.4, 22.5, 22.8, 24.1±1.19 kg/d for 0, 25, 50, and 100g of betaine/d, respectively). No effect of dietary betaine was detected on dry matter intake, feed efficiency, body weight, or body condition score. Percentages of milk fat, lactose, solids-not-fat, and somatic cell count were not altered; however, protein concentration was decreased by betaine supplementation as compared with the control (3.35, 3.28, 3.27, and 3.28±0.07% for 0, 25, 50, and 100 g of betaine/d, respectively). Daily yields of milk protein, fat, lactose, energy-corrected milk, and 3.5% fat-corrected milk did not differ with betaine supplementation. Overall, inclusion of dietary betaine at 100 g/d increased milk yield, whereas all levels of betaine supplementation decreased milk protein percent and slightly altered milk fatty acid profile. Further studies are needed to determine the ruminal fermentation characteristics and the optimum rate of

  11. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  12. Effect of grape seed and skin supplement on milk yield and composition of dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni, Meherzia; Amri, Mohamed; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of grape seed and skin supplement (GSSS), on lactating dairy ewes' production. Ten dairy pregnant ewes from northern Tunisia were allocated to two groups: control diet (C) and supplemented with 20 % (w/w) GSSS. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks and took place after 2 months of lambing. During the experiment, daily milk yield and milk composition were determined. Supplementation of the diet with GSSS increased milk production (P milk fat nor protein. From these data, it is concluded that the inclusion of GSSS in sheep diets increased significantly ewes' milk yield.

  13. Effect of days in milk and milk yield on testing positive in milk antibody ELISA to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples are becoming more used as a diagnostic specimen for assessment of occurrence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study assessed the effect of days in milk (DIM) and milk yield on testing positive in a commercial MAP specific milk antibody ELISA...... among 222,774 Danish Holstein cows. Results showed that odds of testing positive on 1-2 DIM were 9-27 times higher than the rest of lactation, where the chance of testing positive varied less. The reason is most likely a high concentration of non-specific antibodies in colostrum. Consequently, samples...... from the first couple of DIM should be excluded from MAP testing until further information on their significance is established. Milk yield also had a significant effect on odds of testing positive due to its diluting effect. Inclusion of milk yield in the interpretation of test results could improve...

  14. Winter and spring variation in daily milk yield and mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    201007395

    2013-06-02

    Jun 2, 2013 ... system (Waikato Milking systems, New Zealand) from morning and afternoon milking. For the determination of all minerals, 0.5 g of freeze-dried milk samples was digested with concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) and perchloric acid (HClO4) at 200 ºC using a Varian 207 Liberty 200 machine. Concentrated ...

  15. Devices used by automated milking systems are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting a representative milk sample compared with devices used by farms with conventional milk recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Dela Rue, B.; Turner, S.A.; Petch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information on accuracy of milk-sampling devices used on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) is essential for development of milk recording protocols. The hypotheses of this study were (1) devices used by AMS units are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting

  16. Post-weaning feed efficiency decreased in progeny of higher milk yielding beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; McFarlane, Z D; Cope, E R

    2018-02-01

    Current trends in the beef industry focus on selecting production traits with the purpose of maximizing calf weaning weight; however, such traits may ultimately decrease overall post-weaning productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of actual milk yield in mature beef cows on their offspring's dry matter intake (DMI), BW, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) during a ~75-day backgrounding feeding trial. A period of 24-h milk production was measured with a modified weigh-suckle-weigh technique using a milking machine. After milking, cows were retrospectively classified as one of three milk yield groups: Lower (6.57±1.21 kg), Moderate (9.02±0.60 kg) or Higher (11.97±1.46 kg). Calves from Moderate and Higher milk yielding dams had greater (Pfeeding phase; however, day 75 BW were not different (P=0.36) between Lower and Moderate calves. Body weight gain was greater (P=0.05) for Lower and Moderate calves from the day 0 BW to day 35 BW compared with Higher calves. Overall DMI was lower (P=0.03) in offspring from Lower and Moderate cows compared with their Higher milking counterparts. With the decreased DMI, FCR was lower (P=0.03) from day 0 to day 35 in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams. In addition, overall FCR was lower (P=0.02) in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams compared with calves from Higher milk yielding dams. However, calving of Lower milk yielding dams had an increased (P=0.04) efficiency from a negative RFI value compared with calves from Moderate and Higher milking dams. Results from this study suggest that increased milk production in beef cows decreases feed efficiency during a 75-day post-weaning, backgrounding period of progeny.

  17. The effect of lactating dairy ewes’ diet supplementation with ALIMET (liquid methionine on milk yield and milk composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zervas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effect of the supplementation of dairy ewes’ diet with liquid methionine  (ALIMET on milk yield and milk composition, from late pregnancy to mid lactation period. Sixty 3-4 year old Boutsiko  breed lactating dairy ewes with an average initial body weight 48±1.7 kg and good body condition (3.6, were divided  into three groups (treatments, balanced according to milk yield. Ewes were fed 0.8 kg alfalfa hay and 0.8 kg of concen-  trate daily. Ewes in Group A were fed a usual concentrate for lactating ewes (control, in Group B the control concentrate  +1 g ALIMET /kg concentrate, and in Group C the control concentrate +3 g ALIMET /kg concentrate. Ewes were milked  twice daily, and milk weights (yield were recorded every 4 weeks, while milk samples were taken, on a percent basis  (10%, for compositional analysis. The results showed that the inclusion of ALIMET significantly increased (p  yield (by 6.8% in Group B and 12% in Group C, compared to control, FCM (6% fat yield (by 5.5% in Group B and  13.6% in Group C, and milk fat, protein and non fat solids. The growth rate of lambs was 7% and 8% higher, for the  suckling period of 42 days, for the Groups B and C, respectively, compared to control, but those differences were not sig-  nificant. The average daily body weight change of ewes during the experimental lactation period was +0.6, +1.0 and -  0.2 kg for Groups A, B and C, respectively. Thus, supplementing the ewes’ diet with ALIMET, at a level of 3 g /kg con-  centrate, had a positive effect on milk yield and milk composition. 

  18. Analyze of the milk yield and economics indicators in dairy cows of Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    ZNAMENANÁ, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the trial was to analyze selected indicators of milk yield and economics of milk production in dairy herd of Holstein cattle. Economics of dairy cows is critical to keeping cattle on the farm. Among the main priorities that can improve the economic results of cattle, are mainly production conditions corresponding milk yields, good fertility, high quality market products, quality dairy nutrition, good health, appropriate management of breeding and compliance of welfare in the cattle...

  19. Effect of dry period length on milk yield over multiple lactations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Engel, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Kemp, B.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) can improve the energy balance of dairy cows in early lactation through a decrease in milk yield after calving. Little is known about the effect of a short or no DP on milk yield over multiple lactations. Our objectives were (1) to assess the effect of DP

  20. Non-genetic causes of the heterogeneity of variance in milk yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactation records of Holstein- Friesian cows in Kenya made during the period 1968 to 1984 were analyzed for the cases of heterogeneity of variance in milk yield among herds using a fixed effect least squares model. Year, herd, herd class, parity, calving interval and lactation length all influenced milk yields significantly ...

  1. Effect of sub-clinical mastitis on milk yield and composition of dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of dairy goats is on the increase in East African countries. As in cows, prevalence of mastitis in dairy goats appears to be high but studies on the influence of this disease on milk yield and composition are scarce. This study was, therefore, carried out to determine the effect of sub-clinical mastitis on milk yield and ...

  2. The effect of lactating dairy ewes’ diet supplementation with ALIMET (liquid methionine) on milk yield and milk composition

    OpenAIRE

    George Zervas; Georgia Zabeli; Kostas Koutsotolis; George Papadomichelakis

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of the supplementation of dairy ewes’ diet with liquid methionine  (ALIMET) on milk yield and milk composition, from late pregnancy to mid lactation period. Sixty 3-4 year old Boutsiko  breed lactating dairy ewes with an average initial body weight 48±1.7 kg and good body condition (3.6), were divided  into three groups (treatments), balanced according to milk yield. Ewes were fed 0.8 kg alfalfa hay and 0.8 kg of c...

  3. Asymmetric time interval between evening and morning milking and its effect on the total daily milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Chládek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of milk obtained in the course of evening and morning milking performed in variable time intervals of either 11 and 13 hours (n = 1.282 or 10 and 14 hours (n = 370 were collected with the aim to quantify the effect of the length of a variable (asymmetric time interval between evening and morning milking on the total amount and composition of daily milk production of dairy cows. Milk samples were analysed in an accredited (EN ISO 17025 laboratory in Brno-Tuřany (Czech Republic and the following contents of individual milk components were estimated: fat (F; g.100g−1, total protein (TP; g.100g−1, lactose (L; lactose monohydrate; g.100g−1, and somatic cell counts (SCC; ­103.ml−1 were estimated in. It was found out that with the increasing total daily milk production the shares of evening and morning milk yield increased as well; however, the percentages of evening and/or morning yields in the total yield remained practically unchanged and represented 43.5 % and 56.5% or 40.4 % and 59.6 % in variants with intervals of 11 and 13 hours and/or 10 and 14 hours, respectively. In the variant with the milking interval of 11 and 13 hours, values of correlation coefficients between the above parameters (i.e. F, TP, L, SCC, and log SCC of evening and morning milk yields on the one hand and the total milk performance on the other ranged from the minimum r = 0.896 (F to the maximum r = 0.980 (TP. In the variant with the interval of 10 and 14 hours, the corresponding values of correlation coefficients were r = 0.848 (F and r = 0.983 (TP. These correlations were statistically highly significant in all cases (P ≤ 0.001. Further, linear regression equations enabling the estimation of milk parameters of the total milk yield on the base of results obtained in evening and morning milking was calculated as well. Values of coefficients of determination (R2 of these equations ranged from 0.803 (F to 0.960 (TP and from 0.718 (F to 0.966 (TP for

  4. Does increasing milk yield per cow reduce greenhouse gas emissions? A system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetmeier, M; Baudracco, J; Hoffmann, H; Heißenhuber, A

    2012-01-01

    Milk yield per cow has continuously increased in many countries over the last few decades. In addition to potential economic advantages, this is often considered an important strategy to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg of milk produced. However, it should be considered that milk and beef production systems are closely interlinked, as fattening of surplus calves from dairy farming and culled dairy cows play an important role in beef production in many countries. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of increasing milk yield per cow on GHG emissions and on other side effects. Two scenarios were modelled: constant milk production at the farm level and decreasing beef production (as co-product; Scenario 1); and both milk and beef production kept constant by compensating the decline in beef production with beef from suckler cow production (Scenario 2). Model calculations considered two types of production unit (PU): dairy cow PU and suckler cow PU. A dairy cow PU comprises not only milk output from the dairy cow, but also beef output from culled cows and the fattening system for surplus calves. The modelled dairy cow PU differed in milk yield per cow per year (6000, 8000 and 10 000 kg) and breed. Scenario 1 resulted in lower GHG emissions with increasing milk yield per cow. However, when milk and beef outputs were kept constant (Scenario 2), GHG emissions remained approximately constant with increasing milk yield from 6000 to 8000 kg/cow per year, whereas further increases in milk yield (10 000 kg milk/cow per year) resulted in slightly higher (8%) total GHG emissions. Within Scenario 2, two different allocation methods to handle co-products (surplus calves and beef from culled cows) from dairy cow production were evaluated. Results showed that using the 'economic allocation method', GHG emissions per kg milk decreased with increasing milk yield per cow per year, from 1.06 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) to 0.89 kg CO2eq for the 6000 and

  5. Use of multiple-trait animal models for genetic evaluation of milk, fat and protein lactation yields of dairy cattle in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Coenraets

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of computation time between single-trait and multiple-trait evaluations showed that with the use of the canonicat transformation associated with multiple diagonalization of (covariance matrices, multiple-trait analysis for milk, fat and protein yields is not more expensive than three single-trait analyzes. Rank correlations between breeding values for 54,820 cows with records (for their 1,406 sires estimated with the single-trait and multiple-trait models were over .98 (.99 in fat yield and over .99 (.99 in milk and protein yields. The relative gain expressed as reduction in mean prediction error variance was 3% (1% in milk yield, 6% (3% in fat yield, and .4% (.2% in protein yield for cows (for sires. Relative genetic gains were 3% (1%, 6% (2% and .5% (.2% respectively in milk, fat and protein yields for cows (for sires. The use of multiple-trait models bas therefore the advantages of improved precision and reduced selection bics. Multiple-trait analysis could be extended for the analyzes of test-day records. Results show that this or similar multiple-trait animal model could be implemented immediately in Belgium at low computing cost, using the proposed algorithme and could be the first step to new, more advanced evaluation methods.

  6. Comparison of parametric, orthogonal, and spline functions to model individual lactation curves for milk yield in Canadian Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Dimauro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Test day records for milk yield of 57,390 first lactation Canadian Holsteins were analyzed with a linear model that included the fixed effects of herd-test date and days in milk (DIM interval nested within age and calving season. Residuals from this model were analyzed as a new variable and fitted with a five parameter model, fourth-order Legendre polynomials, with linear, quadratic and cubic spline models with three knots. The fit of the models was rather poor, with about 30-40% of the curves showing an adjusted R-square lower than 0.20 across all models. Results underline a great difficulty in modelling individual deviations around the mean curve for milk yield. However, the Ali and Schaeffer (5 parameter model and the fourth-order Legendre polynomials were able to detect two basic shapes of individual deviations among the mean curve. Quadratic and, especially, cubic spline functions had better fitting performances but a poor predictive ability due to their great flexibility that results in an abrupt change of the estimated curve when data are missing. Parametric and orthogonal polynomials seem to be robust and affordable under this standpoint.

  7. Heritability and repeatability of milk coagulation properties predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy during routine data recording, and their relationships with milk yield and quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiezzi, F; Pretto, D; De Marchi, M; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate (co)variance components for milk coagulation properties (MCP) predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) during routine milk recording, and to assess their relationships with yield and quality traits. A total of 63 470 milk samples from Holstein-Friesian cows were analyzed for MCP, pH and quality characteristics using MIRS. Casein to protein and protein to fat ratios were calculated from information obtained by MIRS. Records were collected across 1 year on 16 089 cows in 345 herds. The model used for genetic analysis included fixed effects of parity and stage of lactation, and random effects of herd-test-day, cow permanent environmental, animal additive genetic and residual. (Co)variance components were assessed in a Bayesian framework using the Gibbs Sampler. Estimates of heritabilities were consistent with those reported in the literature, being moderate for MCP (0.210 and 0.238 for rennet coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (a30), respectively), milk contents (0.213 to 0.333) and pH (0.262), and low for somatic cell score (0.093) and yield traits (0.098 to 0.130). Repeatabilities were 0.391 and 0.434 for RCT and a30, respectively, and genetic correlations were generally low, with estimates greater than 0.30 (in absolute value) only for a30 with fat, protein and casein contents. Overall, results suggest that genetic evaluation for MCP predicted by MIRS is feasible at population level, and several repeated measures per cow during a lactation are required to estimate reliable breeding values for coagulation traits.

  8. Feeding Moringa oleifera fresh or ensiled to dairy cows--effects on milk yield and milk flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendieta-Araica, Bryan; Spörndly, Eva; Reyes-Sánchez, Nadir; Spörndly, Rolf

    2011-06-01

    Moringa oleifera, either fresh or ensiled, was compared with Elephant grass as a main feedstuff for dairy cows. To test the effects feed had on milk yield, milk composition, ration digestibility, and the organoleptic characteristics of milk, six lactating dairy cows were used in a Changeover 3 × 3 Latin Square experiment, replicated twice. With equal intake of metabolizable energy the intake of protein and fiber differed (p Moringa had the highest and the Elephant grass diet had the lowest intake. Compared with the control diet, ensiled Moringa had higher digestibility (P Moringa and Moringa silage treatments. Milk yield did not differ between any of the treatments and averaged 13.7 kg cow day(-1). Milk composition was similar among all treatments. Milk from the fresh Moringa treatment, however, had a grassy flavor and aroma, significantly different from the other two treatments, even though it was normal in color and appearance. No organoleptic differences were found between milk from the control treatment and the Moringa silage treatment. The conclusion is that Moringa silage can be fed to dairy cows in large quantities to produce the same quantity and quality of milk as traditional diets.

  9. Changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio persist for up to 8 weeks after antibiotic treatment of mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogsgaard, K K; Løvendahl, P; Bennedsgaard, T W; Østergaard, S

    2015-11-01

    Within the dairy industry, the appearance of milk and withdrawal time due to antibiotic residuals in the milk are used to determine recovery status after cases of treated mastitis. However, both milk production and dairy cow behavior have been shown to be affected after the normalization of milk appearance, indicating that animals may not have fully recovered. The aim of the present study was to describe the changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase activity, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio (defined as the coefficient of variation between the active quarters) after cases of naturally occurring mastitis with special focus on the recovery period after antibiotic treatment. A second aim was to examine whether these changes were affected by the pathogens present at the time of mastitis diagnosis. This retrospective study was based on a cohort data set including 1,032 lactations from 795 dairy cows kept on 2 Danish farms and milked by an automatic milking system. A total of 174 treated mastitis cases were compared with nontreated control cows from 5 wk before treatment and until 8 wk after. Treated mastitis resulted in reduced milk yield, elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity, lower milking frequency, and elevated interquarter yield ratio. Within these measures, deviations from baseline levels and from the control cows were found as early as 1 to 3 wk before the antibiotic treatment and peaked around the days of treatment. In some cases, the mastitic cows returned to premastitis levels, whereas in others they remained affected throughout the rest of the observation period. To correctly estimate the effects of treated mastitis and the recovery status of cows, it is important to take the individual cow into account and not only compare with herd levels, as this might mask the true degree of the changes. The effects on each outcome variable depended on the involved pathogen and differences were found between primiparous cows and older animals. However

  10. Statistical Evaluations of Variations in Dairy Cows’ Milk Yields as a Precursor of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Masashi; Asano, Tomokazu; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary There are many reports of abnormal changes occurring in various natural systems prior to earthquakes. Unusual animal behavior is one of these abnormalities; however, there are few objective indicators and to date, reliability has remained uncertain. We found that milk yields of dairy cows decreased prior to an earthquake in our previous case study. In this study, we examined the reliability of decreases in milk yields as a precursor for earthquakes using long-term observation data. In the results, milk yields decreased approximately three weeks before earthquakes. We have come to the conclusion that dairy cow milk yields have applicability as an objectively observable unusual animal behavior prior to earthquakes, and dairy cows respond to some physical or chemical precursors of earthquakes. Abstract Previous studies have provided quantitative data regarding unusual animal behavior prior to earthquakes; however, few studies include long-term, observational data. Our previous study revealed that the milk yields of dairy cows decreased prior to an extremely large earthquake. To clarify whether the milk yields decrease prior to earthquakes, we examined the relationship between earthquakes of various magnitudes and daily milk yields. The observation period was one year. In the results, cross-correlation analyses revealed a significant negative correlation between earthquake occurrence and milk yields approximately three weeks beforehand. Approximately a week and a half beforehand, a positive correlation was revealed, and the correlation gradually receded to zero as the day of the earthquake approached. Future studies that use data from a longer observation period are needed because this study only considered ten earthquakes and therefore does not have strong statistical power. Additionally, we compared the milk yields with the subionospheric very low frequency/low frequency (VLF/LF) propagation data indicating ionospheric perturbations. The results showed

  11. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  12. Multiplicative random regression model for heterogeneous variance adjustment in genetic evaluation for milk yield in Simmental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidauer, M H; Emmerling, R; Mäntysaari, E A

    2008-06-01

    A multiplicative random regression (M-RRM) test-day (TD) model was used to analyse daily milk yields from all available parities of German and Austrian Simmental dairy cattle. The method to account for heterogeneous variance (HV) was based on the multiplicative mixed model approach of Meuwissen. The variance model for the heterogeneity parameters included a fixed region x year x month x parity effect and a random herd x test-month effect with a within-herd first-order autocorrelation between test-months. Acceleration of variance model solutions after each multiplicative model cycle enabled fast convergence of adjustment factors and reduced total computing time significantly. Maximum Likelihood estimation of within-strata residual variances was enhanced by inclusion of approximated information on loss in degrees of freedom due to estimation of location parameters. This improved heterogeneity estimates for very small herds. The multiplicative model was compared with a model that assumed homogeneous variance. Re-estimated genetic variances, based on Mendelian sampling deviations, were homogeneous for the M-RRM TD model but heterogeneous for the homogeneous random regression TD model. Accounting for HV had large effect on cow ranking but moderate effect on bull ranking.

  13. Predictions of Daily Milk and Fat Yields, Major Groups of Fatty Acids, and C18:1 cis-9 from Single Milking Data without a Milking Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie M. R. Arnould

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the frequency of milk recording would help reduce the costs of official milk recording. However, this approach could also negatively affect the accuracy of predicting daily yields. This problem has been investigated in numerous studies. In addition, published equations take into account milking intervals (MI, and these are often not available and/or are unreliable in practice. The first objective of this study was to propose models in which the MI was replaced by a combination of data easily recorded by dairy farmers. The second objective was to further investigate the fatty acids (FA present in milk. Equations to predict daily yield from AM or PM data were based on a calibration database containing 79,971 records related to 51 traits [milk yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; fat content (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; fat yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day; levels of seven different FAs or FA groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/dL milk, and the corresponding FA yields for these seven FA types/groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day]. These equations were validated using two distinct external datasets. The results obtained from the proposed models were compared to previously published results for models which included a MI effect. The corresponding correlation values ranged from 96.4% to 97.6% when the daily yields were estimated from the AM milkings and ranged from 96.9% to 98.3% when the daily yields were estimated from the PM milkings. The simplicity of these proposed models should facilitate their use by breeding and milk recording organizations.

  14. Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk recording intervals was studied by analysing 1220 lactation records of Friesian x Arsi crossbred cows kept in south eastern highlands of Ethiopia. Milk Recording Intervals (MRI) comparison was made at 15, 30 and 45 day's length. Accuracy was measured in terms of percentage difference between actual and estimated ...

  15. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  16. BDNF contributes to the genetic variance of milk fat yield in German Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Lea G.; Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Jens eTetens; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe gene encoding the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been repeatedly associated with human obesity. As such, it could also contribute to the regulation of energy partitioning and the amount of secreted milk fat during lactation, which plays an important role in milk production in dairy cattle. Therefore, we performed an association study using estimated breeding values of bulls and yield deviations of German Holstein dairy cattle to test the effect of BDNF on milk fat yi...

  17. Selection of locations of knots for linear splines in random regression test-day models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2010-04-01

    Using spline functions (segmented polynomials) in regression models requires the knowledge of the location of the knots. Knots are the points at which independent linear segments are connected. Optimal positions of knots for linear splines of different orders were determined in this study for different scenarios, using existing estimates of covariance functions and an optimization algorithm. The traits considered were test-day milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first three lactations of Canadian Holsteins. Two ranges of days in milk (from 5 to 305 and from 5 to 365) were taken into account. In addition, four different populations of Holstein cows, from Australia, Canada, Italy and New Zealand, were examined with respect to first lactation (305 days) milk only. The estimates of genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were based on single- and multiple-trait test-day models, with Legendre polynomials of order 4 as random regressions. A differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the best location of knots for splines of orders 4 to 7 and the criterion for optimization was the goodness-of-fit of the spline covariance function. Results indicated that the optimal position of knots for linear splines differed between genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as between traits and lactations. Different populations also exhibited different patterns of optimal knot locations. With linear splines, different positions of knots should therefore be used for different effects and traits in random regression test-day models when analysing milk production traits.

  18. Influence of milk somatic cell content on Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summer, Andrea; Franceschi, Piero; Formaggioni, Paolo; Malacarne, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the somatic cell content (SCC) of milk on Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield, produced in commercial cheese factories under field conditions. The study was carried out following the production of 56 batches of Parmigiano-Reggiano in 13 commercial cheese factories by processing milk collected from Italian Friesian cattle herds. The vat-milk (V-milk) used for making each cheese batch was obtained by mixing evening milk (partially skimmed following spontaneous separation of fat overnight, natural creaming) and morning milk. The batches of cheese produced were divided into 5 classes according to the SCC value of the evening milk determined prior to natural creaming (class 1, from 0 to 200,000; 2, 201,000-300,000; 3, 301,000-400,000; 4, 401,000-500,000; 5, over 501,000 cells/ml). The cheese yield was calculated as the amount of 24-h cheese, expressed in kilograms, obtained from 100 kg of V-milk (24 h ACY). The values of fat, crude protein, true protein, casein and 24 h ACY of V-milk were negatively correlated with the somatic cell score (SCS) of the evening milk. Conversely, a positive correlation was observed between chloride and SCS. Fat, protein fractions (crude protein, casein and whey proteins), P and titratable acidity of V-milk were positively correlated with its 24 h ACY, while chloride, pH and SCS showed a negative correlation. A significant drop in 24 h ACY was observed in classes 3, 4 and 5, therefore when the SCC of the evening milk exceeded 300,000 cells/ml. Finally a lower recovery of milk fat in cheese was observed as SCC of evening milk increase.

  19. Milk yield and quality of crossbred dairy cows fed with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk yield and quality of crossbred dairy cows fed with different levels of vetch ( Vicia dasycarpa ) hay and concentrate on a basal diet of fresh cut napier grass ... and T5 concentrate mix (55% wheat bran, 43% noug seed cake (Gizotia abysinica) and 2% salt) was supplemented at the rate of 0.5 kg per liter of milk produced.

  20. Different fibre sources in dairy ass’s diet: effects on milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Polidori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As ass’s milk is increasingly considered as an effective hypoallergenic food for infants (Carroccio et al., 2000; Muraro et al., 2002, studies on ass’s milk yield and composition are becoming more frequent in order to fulfil the rare literature references on this innovative animal production (Chiofalo et al., 2003; Doreau et al., 2002; Salimei et al., 2004.

  1. Effect of milk yield genotype on response to repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to lactating Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cows (n = 12/genotype) from unselected (stable milk yield since 1964, UH) and contemporary (CH) Holsteins that differed by more than 4,500 kg milk/305 d were fed the same diet ad lib and housed together for more than 4 months before being blocked (2/genotype) by DIM and randomly assigned within geno...

  2. Effects of non-structural carbohydrate levels of diet on milk yield of primiparous Sarda ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Di Lella

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades Sarda sheep have spread almost throughout Italy due to their high milk yield aptitude. Genetic improvement has contributed greatly to increase production that in 1999 was 137 litres in 110 days of milking in primiparous ewes (Sanna et al., 2000. Knowledge of dairy sheep rationing has also improved apace, with benefits for performance of bred animals...

  3. Milk Yield and Composition of West African Dwarf (WAD) Does fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve individually housed West African Dwarf (WAD) does in their mid-lactation were used to study the effect of Bambara nut meal on milk yield, composition and mineral content of goat milk. Four experimental diets designated A, B, C and D were formulated to contain 0, 10, 20 and 30% Bambara nut meal (BM), ...

  4. Cheesemaking in highland pastures: Milk technological properties, cream, cheese and ricotta yields, milk nutrients recovery, and products composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Stocco, G; Valorz, C; Bazzoli, I; Sturaro, E; Ramanzin, M; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    Summer transhumance of dairy cows to high Alpine pastures is still practiced in many mountainous areas. It is important for many permanent dairy farms because the use of highland pastures increases milk production and high-priced typical local dairy products often boost farm income. As traditional cheese- and ricotta-making procedures in Alpine pastures are central to this dairy system, the objective of this study was to characterize the quality and efficiency of products and their relationships with the quality and availability of grass during the grazing season. The milk from 148 cows from 12 permanent farms reared on a temporary farm located in Alpine pastures was processed every 2wk during the summer (7 cheesemakings from late June to early September). During each processing, 11 dairy products (4 types of milk, 2 by-products, 3 fresh products, and 2 ripened cheeses) were sampled and analyzed. In addition, 8 samples of fresh forage from the pasture used by the cows were collected and analyzed. At the beginning of the pasture season the cows were at 233±90d in milk, 2.4±1.7 parities, and produced 23.6±5.7kg/d of milk. The milk yield decreased with the move from permanent to temporary farms and during the entire summer transhumance, but partly recovered after the cows returned to the permanent farms. Similar trends were observed for the daily yields of fat, protein, casein, lactose, and energy, as we found no large variations in the quality of the milk, with the exception of the first period of Alpine pasture. The somatic cell counts of milk increased during transhumance, but this resulted from a concentration of cells in a lower quantity of milk rather than an increase in the total number of cells ejected daily from the udder. We noted a quadratic trend in availability of forage (fresh and dry matter weight per hectare), with a maximum in late July. The quality of forage also varied during the summer with a worsening of chemical composition. The evening milk

  5. Genetic correlations among milk yield, morphology, performance test traits and somatic cells in dual-purpose Rendena breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, C; Guzzo, N; Mazza, S; Mantovani, R

    2017-10-17

    Selection in native local breeds needs great carefulness due to the small population size and the risk of inbreeding. Furthermore, most breeds are dual-purpose, and milk and beef attitudes are antagonistic. For preservation purposes functional traits need to be considered. Focusing on the small local Rendena cattle, this study aimed to analyse the genetic correlations among milk, beef and udder health traits and the response to selection predicted under different scenarios. The study considered milk, fat and protein yields (MY), factor scores for udder volume (UV), conformation (UC) and muscularity obtained from type traits scored on primiparous cows, and performance test traits (PT) measured on young bulls at test station: average daily gain, in vivo SEUROP fleshiness, in vivo dressing percentage. Somatic cell score (SCS) was considered as a functional trait, with a possibility of restricting its genetic gain to zero. The study considered 281 497 MY test-day data collected on 16 974 cows, and data from linear type evaluation on 11 992 primiparous cows for factor scores. The PT data were recorded on 1428 young bulls, and SCS obtained from cell counts at milk recording. Bi-trait restricted maximum likelihood animal model analyses were performed to assess genetic parameters. Heritability varied from 0.157 (fat) to 0.442 (dressing percentage). Udder volume and MY resulted positively genetically correlated (average correlation 0.427), whereas the low-negative genetic correlation between MY and UC (-0.141) suggested a negative impact of milk gain on udder form. Beef traits of factor muscularity and PT showed medium-high favourable genetic correlations (from 0.357 to 0.984), excluding a null correlation between daily gain and muscularity. The genetic correlation MY v. muscularity was unfavourable (-0.328 on average), whereas null correlations were found in MY v. PT, apart from fat v. dressing percentage (-0.151). Somatic cell score showed low unfavourable correlations

  6. Yield and quality of milk and udder health in Martina Franca ass: effects of daily interval and time of machine milking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Martemucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty asses of Martina Franca breed, machine milked twice a day, were used to assess the influence of milking interval (3-h, 5-h, and 8-h; N=5 and time (700, 1200 and 1900 on milk yield and udder health. Individual milk samples were taken to determine fat, protein and lactose con- tent. Sensory analysis profile was also assessed. Milk’s total bacterial count (TBC, somatic cell con- tent (SCC and udder’s skin temperature were considered to assess udder health. Milk yield increases by 28.4% (P<0.01 with a milking interval from 3-h to 8-h and is higher (P<0.01 at morning milking. The maximum milk yield per milking corresponds to 700 milking (1416.9 mL thus indicating a circa- dian rhythm in milk secretion processes. Milking intervals of 5 and 8 hours cause a decrease (P<0.01 in milk fat and lactose content. The 8-h interval leads to an increase (P<0.01 in SCC but without any significance for the health udder. No alterations about CBT, clinical evaluation and temperature of ud- der were observed. Milk organoleptic characteristics were better in the 3-h interval milking.

  7. Impact of variation at the FTO locus on milk fat yield in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea G Zielke

    Full Text Available This study explores the biological role of the Fat Mass and Obesity associated (FTO gene locus on milk composition in German Holstein cattle. Since FTO controls energy homeostasis and expenditure and the FTO locus has repeatedly shown association with obesity in human studies, we tested FTO as a candidate gene in particular for milk fat yield, which represents a high amount of energy secreted during lactation. The study was performed on 2,402 bulls and 860 cows where dense milk composition data were available. Genetic information was taken from a 2 Mb region around FTO. Five SNPs and two haplotype blocks in a 725 kb region covering FTO and the neighboring genes RPGRIP1L, U6ATAC, and 5 S rRNA were associated with milk fat yield and also affected protein yield in the same direction. Interestingly, higher frequency SNP alleles and haplotypes within the FTO gene increased milk fat and protein yields by up to 2.8 and 2.2 kg per lactation, respectively, while the most frequent haplotype in the upstream block covering exon 1 of FTO to exon 15 of RPGRIP1L had opposite effects with lower fat and milk yield. Both haplotype blocks were also significant in cows. The loci accounted for about 1% of the corresponding trait variance in the population. The association signals not only provided evidence for at least two causative mutations in the FTO locus with a functional effect on milk but also milk protein yield. The pleiotropic effects suggest a biological function on the usage of energy resources and the control of energy balance rather than directly affecting fat and protein synthesis. The identified effect of the obesity gene locus on milk energy content suggests an impact on infant nutrition by breast feeding in humans.

  8. Evaluation of selective dry cow treatment following on-farm culture: Milk yield and somatic cell count in the subsequent lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M; Keefe, G P; Roy, J-P; Stryhn, H; Dohoo, I R; McKenna, S L

    2015-04-01

    Compared with blanket dry cow therapy (DCT), the selective antimicrobial treatment of cows based upon on-farm culture results has the potential to reduce the amount of antimicrobials used in dairy production. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of a Petrifilm (3M Canada, London, Ontario) on-farm culture-based selective DCT program on milk yield and somatic cell count (SCC) in the following lactation. A total of 729 low-SCC (milk samples collected on the day before drying off, cows in the selective DCT group were treated at drying off based on the results obtained by the Petrifilm on-farm culture system with DCT and ITS (Petrifilm culture positive) or ITS alone (Petrifilm culture negative). Milk test-day records for the following lactation were obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement for all cows enrolled in the trial. Repeated measures linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of study group (blanket or selective DCT) on test-day milk production and natural logarithm of SCC over the first 180 d of the subsequent lactation. According to the final multivariable models, when low-SCC cows were selectively treated with DCT at drying off based on results obtained using the Petrifilm on-farm culture system, no effect on milk production (least squares means for blanket DCT = 39.3 kg vs. selective DCT = 39.0 kg) or natural logarithm of SCC (least squares means for blanket DCT = 3.95 vs. selective DCT = 3.97) was observed in the subsequent lactation when compared with cows receiving blanket DCT. The results of this study indicate that selective DCT based on results obtained by the Petrifilm on-farm culture system enabled a reduction in the use of DCT without negatively affecting milk production and milk quality. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of chemical composition of milk on yield of semi-hard cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Bojanić-Rašović M.; Mirecki S.; Nikolić N.; Rašović R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of paper was to examine the impact of the milk quality on yield of semi-hard naturally dried cheese, produced in cheese plant factory ZZ 'Cijevna' in Podgorica. Tests were conducted on 6 samples of bulk milk of cows and 6 productive batch of cheese. Chemical tests of the bulk milk have been done on the device MilcoScan 4000, and the determination content dry matter of whey and dry matter of cheese on the device MilcoScan FT 120. Theoretical yield of cheese wa...

  10. A new somatic cell count index to more accurately predict milk yield losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jeretina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intramammary infection and clinical mastitis in dairy cows leads to considerable economic losses for farmers. The somatic cell concentration in cow's milk has been shown to be an excellent indicator for the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. In this study, a new somatic cell count index (SCCI was proposed for the accurate prediction of milk yield losses caused by elevated somatic cell count (SCC. In all, 97 238 lactations (55 207 Holstein cows from 2328 herds were recorded between 2010 and 2014 under different scenarios (high and low levels of SCC, four lactation stages, different milk yield intensities, and parities (1, 2, and  ≥  3. The standard shape of the curve for SCC was determined using completed standard lactations of healthy cows. The SCCI was defined as the sum of the differences between the measured interpolated values of the natural logarithm of SCC (ln(SCC and the values for the standard shape of the curve for SCC for a particular period, divided by the total area enclosed by the standard curve and upper limit of ln(SCC  =  10 for SCC. The phenotypic potential of milk yield (305-day milk yield – MY305 was calculated using regression coefficients estimated from the linear regression model for parity and breeding values of cows for milk yield. The extent of daily milk yield loss caused by increased SCC was found to be mainly related to the early stage of lactation. Depending on the possible scenarios, the estimated milk yield loss from MY305 for primiparous cows was at least 0.8 to 0.9 kg day−1 and for multiparous cows it ranged from 1.3 to 4.3 kg day−1. Thus, the SCCI was a suitable indicator for estimating daily milk yield losses associated with increased SCC and might provide farmers reliable information to take appropriate measures for ensuring good health of cows and reducing milk yield losses at the herd level.

  11. INFLUENCE OF BETAINE ON GOAT MILK YIELD AND BLOOD METABOLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Fernandez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Betaine is a natural occurring compound with methyl donor properties which is increasingly being used in animal feeding. Betaine, an oxidative product of choline is able to replace methionine in some physiologically important body processes. The subject of this work was to study the effect of betaine added to the diet on milk production and blood metabolites on Murciano-Granadina dairy goats.  Sixty lactating goats were selected from a commercial Murciano-Granadina goat herd (EXCAMUR S.L. located in Murcia Region (Spain. Goats were selected from a 250 goats herd, taken  into account the age, stage of lactation (2.5 as average, live weight (36 kg as average and type of birth (2 kids. Two homogenous groups of 30 goats were made and fed with 1.5 kg of compound feed and 1 kg of alfalfa hay per day and goat. Goats were fed twice a day and water was provided ad libitum. Both groups received the same diet but for the second group the diet was supplemented with 4 g∙kg-1 betaine (betaine anhydrous, Danisco Animal Nutrition. The feeds, presented in pellets, were formulated in based on recommendations of INRA (2007. The experimental period was 6 months and the experimental diets were provided 15 days before parturition. The herd was machine milked once at day. Chemical composition, milk production and blood metabolites of each goat were recorded and analyzed at the end of the trial. Variance analysis and means comparison were carried out using the general lineal model procedure and Tukey test for mean comparison. Goats fed with betaine diet had higher milk fat than goats fed control diet (4.8 vs. 5.2 % for control and betaine respectively; P

  12. Parâmetros genéticos para a produção de leite de controles individuais de vacas da raça Gir estimados com modelos de repetibilidade e regressão aleatória Estimation of genetic parameters for test day milk records of first lactation Gyr cows using repeatability and random regression animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Napolis Costa

    2005-10-01

    número de estimativas negativas entre as PLC do início e fim da lactação do que a FAS. Exceto para a FAS, observou-se redução das estimativas de correlação genética próximas à unidade entre as PLC adjacentes para valores negativos entre as PLC no início e no fim da lactação. Entre os polinômios de Legendre, o de quinta ordem apresentou um melhor o ajuste das PLC. Os resultados indicam o potencial de uso de regressão aleatória, com os modelos LP5 e a FAS apresentando-se como os mais adequados para a modelagem das variâncias genética e de efeito permanente das PLC da raça Gir.Data comprising 8,183 test day records of 1,273 first lactations of Gyr cows from herds supervised by ABCZ were used to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for milk yield using repeatability and random regression animal models by REML. Genetic modelling of logarithmic (FAS, exponential (FW curves was compared to orthogonal Legendre polynomials (LP of order 3 to 5. Residual variance was assumed to be constant in all (ME=1 or some periods of lactation (ME=4. Lactation milk yield in 305-d was also adjusted by an animal model. Genetic variance, heritability and repeatability for test day milk yields estimated by a repeatability animal model were 1.74 kg2, 0.27, and 0.76, respectively. Genetic variance and heritability estimates for lactation milk yield were respectively 121,094.6 and 0.22. Heritability estimates from FAS and FW, respectively, decreased from 0,59 and 0.74 at the beginning of lactation to 0.20 at the end of the period. Except for a fifth-order LP with ME=1, heritability estimates decreased from around 0,70 at early lactation to 0,30 at the end of lactation. Residual variance estimates were slightly smaller for logarithimic than for exponential curves both for homogeneous and heterogeneous variance assumptions. Estimates of residual variance in all stages of lactation decreased as the order of LP increased and depended on the assumption about ME

  13. Comparison of non-linear models to describe the lactation curves for milk yield and composition in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-02-01

    In order to describe the lactation curves of milk yield (MY) and composition in buffaloes, seven non-linear mathematical equations (Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Brody, Dijkstra and Rook) were used. Data were 116,117 test-day records for MY, fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentages of milk from the first three lactations of buffaloes which were collected from 893 herds in the period from 1992 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly production records of dairy buffaloes using the NLIN and MODEL procedures in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using adjusted coefficient of determination (Radj(2)), root means square error (RMSE), Durbin-Watson statistic and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The Dijkstra model provided the best fit of MY and PP of milk for the first three parities of buffaloes due to the lower values of RMSE and AIC than other models. For the first-parity buffaloes, Sikka and Brody models provided the best fit of FP, but for the second- and third-parity buffaloes, Sikka model and Brody equation provided the best fit of lactation curve for FP, respectively. The results of this study showed that the Wood and Dhanoa equations were able to estimate the time to the peak MY more accurately than the other equations. In addition, Nelder and Dijkstra equations were able to estimate the peak time at second and third parities more accurately than other equations, respectively. Brody function provided more accurate predictions of peak MY over the first three parities of buffaloes. There was generally a positive relationship between 305-day MY and persistency measures and also between peak yield and 305-day MY, calculated by different models, within each lactation in the current study. Overall, evaluation of the different equations used in the current study indicated the potential of the non-linear models for fitting monthly productive records of buffaloes.

  14. Screening for ketosis using multiple logistic regression based on milk yield and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayano, Mitsunori; Kataoka, Tomoko

    2015-11-01

    Multiple logistic regression was applied to milk yield and composition data for 632 records of healthy cows and 61 records of ketotic cows in Hokkaido, Japan. The purpose was to diagnose ketosis based on milk yield and composition, simultaneously. The cows were divided into two groups: (1) multiparous, including 314 healthy cows and 45 ketotic cows and (2) primiparous, including 318 healthy cows and 16 ketotic cows, since nutritional status, milk yield and composition are affected by parity. Multiple logistic regression was applied to these groups separately. For multiparous cows, milk yield (kg/day/cow) and protein-to-fat (P/F) ratio in milk were significant factors (Pketosis. For primiparous cows, lactose content (%), solid not fat (SNF) content (%) and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content (mg/dl) were significantly associated with ketosis (Pketosis, provided the sensitivity, specificity and AUC values of (1) 0.711, 0.726 and 0.781; and (2) 0.678, 0.767 and 0.738, respectively.

  15. Milk yield differences between 1x and 4x milking are associated with changes in mammary mitochondrial number and milk protein gene expression, but not mammary cell apoptosis or "SOCS" gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milking frequency is known to affect milk production and lactation persistence in dairy cows. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying this effect are only partially understood. Previous work in dairy cows examining increases in milk yield due to increased milking frequency have identified changes in...

  16. Analysis of factors affecting milk yield of Ankole cows grazed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of seasonal rainfall (RF) and maximum temperature (Tm) variations on milk yield of Ankole cows grazed solely on range pastures were investigated. The resulting changes in herbage growth (HG), herbage yields (HY), herbage crude protein CPh) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), as well as body condition score ...

  17. Milk yield responses to changes in milking frequency during early lactation are associated with coordinated and persistent changes in mammary gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The lactating mammary gland responds to changes in milking frequency by modulating milk production. This response is locally regulated and, in dairy cows, the udder is particularly sensitive during early lactation. Relative to cows milked twice-daily throughout lactation, those milked four-times-daily for just the first 3 weeks of lactation produce more milk throughout that lactation. We hypothesized that the milk yield response would be associated with increased mammary cell turnover and changes in gene expression during frequent milking and persisting thereafter. Cows were assigned to unilateral frequent milking (UFM; left udder halves milked twice-daily; right udder halves milked four-times daily) on days 1 to 21 of lactation, followed by twice-daily milking for the remainder of lactation. Relative to udder halves milked twice-daily, those milked four-times produced more milk during UFM; the difference in milk yield declined acutely upon cessation of UFM after day 21, but remained significantly elevated thereafter. We obtained mammary biopsies from both udder halves on days 21, 23, and 40 of lactation. Results Mammary cell proliferation and apoptosis were not affected by milking frequency. We identified 75 genes that were differentially expressed between paired udder halves on day 21 but exhibited a reversal of differential expression on day 23. Among those genes, we identified four clusters characterized by similar temporal patterns of differential expression. Two clusters (11 genes) were positively correlated with changes in milk yield and were differentially expressed on day 21 of lactation only, indicating involvement in the initial milk yield response. Two other clusters (64 genes) were negatively correlated with changes in milk yield. Twenty-nine of the 75 genes were also differentially expressed on day 40 of lactation. Conclusions Changes in milking frequency during early lactation did not alter mammary cell population dynamics, but were

  18. BDNF contributes to the genetic variance of milk fat yield in German Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea G. Zielke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe gene encoding the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been repeatedly associated with human obesity. As such, it could also contribute to the regulation of energy partitioning and the amount of secreted milk fat during lactation, which plays an important role in milk production in dairy cattle. Therefore, we performed an association study using estimated breeding values of bulls and yield deviations of German Holstein dairy cattle to test the effect of BDNF on milk fat yield. A highly significant effect (corrected p-value =3.362 x10-4 was identified for an SNP 168 kb up-stream of the BDNF transcription start. The association tests provided evidence for an additive allele effect of 5.13 kg of fat per lactation on the estimated breeding value for milk fat yield in bulls and 6.80 kg of fat of the own production performance in cows explaining 1.72% and 0.60% of the phenotypic variance in the analysed populations, respectively. The analyses of bulls and cows consistently showed three haplotype groups that differed significantly from each other, suggesting at least two different mutations in the BDNF-region affecting the milk fat yield. The fat yield increasing alleles also had low but significant positive effects on protein and total milk yield which suggests a general role of the BDNF-region in energy partitioning, rather than a specific regulation of fat synthesis. The results obtained in dairy cattle suggest similar effects of BDNF on milk composition in other species, including man.

  19. Season of birth is associated with first-lactation milk yield in Holstein Friesian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eetvelde, M; Kamal, M M; Vandaele, L; Opsomer, G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present research was to assess factors associated with first-lactation milk yield in dairy heifers, including maternal and environmental factors, factors related to the development of the heifer and factors related to its offspring such as gender of the calf. In addition, the potential underlying mechanism, in particular metabolic adaptations, was further explored. Data on body growth, reproduction and milk yield of 74 Holstein Friesian heifers on three herds in Flanders (Belgium) were collected. At birth, body measurements of the heifers were recorded and blood samples were taken (in order) to determine basal glucose and insulin concentrations. Body measurements were assessed every 3 months until first calving, and gender and weight of their first calf were recorded. Information on fertility and milk yield of the heifer and its dam were collected from the herd databases. Daily temperature and photoperiod were recorded from the database of the Belgian Royal Meteorological Institute. Linear mixed models were run with herd as a random factor, to account for differences in herd management. Heifers grew 867±80.7 g/day during their first year of life and were inseminated at 14.8±1.34 months. First calving took place at 24.5±1.93 months, at a weight of 642±61.5 kg and heifers produced 8506±1064 kg energy corrected milk during their first 305-day lactation. Regression models revealed that none of the maternal factors such as milk yield and parity, nor the growth of the heifer during the 1st year of life were associated with milk yield during first lactation. Age, and to a lesser extent BW at first parturition were positively associated with first-lactation milk yield. In addition, the season of birth, but not calving, had a significant influence on milk yield, with winter-born heifers producing less than heifers born in any other season. The lower yielding winter-born heifers had higher insulin concentrations at birth, whereas glucose concentrations

  20. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance QTL on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2015-01-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve........ Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis (CM) and milk yield (MY) on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter...... nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both CM and MY peaked in the 26 to 40 Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single......, there was indication on differences in the causal factor(s) across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene showed strong association with milk, fat, protein yields. In HOL, the highest peaks for milk yield and susceptibility to mastitis were separated...

  1. Effects of different diets on milk yield and quality of lactating buffaloes: maize versus sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen pluriparous lactating buffaloes were divided in two groups homogeneous for parity, lactation stage, milk yield and weight. The diets assigned to two groups, based on maize silage (M group and sorghum silage (S group, had the same energy-protein level (0.90 Milk FU/kg DM and 155 g/kg DM of crude protein. Five records of milk yield and quality during lactation were carried out. The physical-chemical characteristics (pH, fat, protein, lactose and urea, somatic cell count, coagulation properties and nutritional parameters (cholesterol, alfa tocopherol, 13 cis and trans retinol and 13 cis/trans retinol ratio were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed using a factorial model. The average daily milk yield during experimental period was similar: 9.29 and 9.55 kg respectively in M and S groups. Fat and protein content were not different, while the urea content was significantly different varying from 39.13 mg/dl in M group to 45.55 mg/dl in S group. The coagulation properties, the estimated Mozzarella yield, somatic cell count and the nutritional parameters analysed were not different between the two groups. These results indicate that the sorghum silage diet utilised did not affect the milk yield and quality, then it could be adopted in lactating buffaloes.

  2. Short communication: genetic and environmental relationships between milk yield and kidding interval in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, H H; Valencia-Posadas, M; Wiggans, G R; Shepard, L; Torres-Vázquez, J A

    2010-01-01

    First-parity 305-d milk yield and intervals between first and second kiddings from 1975 through 2005 were analyzed to estimate genetic and environmental parameters for United States Alpine, LaMancha, Nubian, Saanen, and Toggenburg dairy goats. The data set included 43,612 does with first-parity milk yield and 25,863 does with first kidding interval. Parameters were estimated by REML using bivariate mixed models within and across breeds. Fixed effects were month and herd-year of kidding within breed and month and breed-herd-year of kidding across breeds. Random effects were animal and residual. The heritability estimate for first-parity milk yield was 0.36+/-0.01 across breeds and ranged from 0.35 to 0.38 within breed; heritability for first kidding interval was 0.05+/-0.01 across breeds and ranged from 0.00 to 0.15 within breed. The estimate of the genetic correlation between first-parity milk yield and first kidding interval was positive (unfavorable) across breeds (0.35+/-0.09). Estimates of environmental correlations within and across breeds were positive (0.16-0.25). The presence of unfavorable genetic relationships between milk yield and kidding interval indicates a need to include reproductive performance as a selection criterion. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increase in milk yield of commercial dairy herds fed a microbial and enzyme supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilliard, M L; Stallings, C C

    1998-05-01

    A microbial and enzyme supplement fed at 21.2 g/d per cow to 46 Virginia dairy herds increased the milk yield of 31 herds (17 significantly) and decreased the milk yield of 15 herds (7 significantly). Effects of season were important but consistent with overall results. Herds began receiving the supplement, which contained dried fermentation products of Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and yeast culture, midway between the first and second monthly Dairy Herd Improvement tests and continued on the supplement through the 3rd mo. Entry of herds was staggered over 8 mo to reduce the influence of season. The trial involved 3417 cows with 5 test mo between 60 and 365 d in milk. Milk yield during mo 3 averaged 0.64 kg/d per cow more (+0.73 kg/d for first lactation cows and +0.56 kg/d for later lactation cows) than the mean milk yield during mo 1 and 5. Herds completing the study before summer responded similarly to all other herds, which included herds that were fed the product during summer and those that finished the study during summer. Fat and protein yields and protein percentage differed little with or without the supplement. Fat percentage decreased (0.10%). Twenty-one herds that were fed a yeast product prior to and during the study responded similarly to the 17 herds that were not fed a yeast product.

  4. Effects of continuous milking during a field trial on productivity, milk protein yield and health in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köpf, M; Gellrich, K; Küchenhoff, H; Meyer, H H D; Kliem, H

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this field study with an automatic milking system was to evaluate the effects of omitting the dry period on health and productivity during the subsequent lactation in dairy cows. A total of 98 German Simmental cows of six Southern German farms were assigned randomly to two experimental groups: The first group was dried-off 56 days before calving (D for dried-off, n=49), and the second group was milked continuously during this period until calving (CM for continuous milking, n=49). From the latter a third group emerged, including cows that dried-off themselves spontaneously (DS for dried-off spontaneously, n=14). Blood serum values of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and IGF-1 showed most pronounced fluctuations in D cows. Over the entire study period, the concentrations of BHBA and NEFA were markedly lower in the CM and DS groups. Furthermore, IGF-1 concentration was lowest for D cows and also decrease in back fat thickness was more pronounced. Mean concentration of milk protein was markedly higher in CM and DS cows (3.70% and 3.71%) compared with D cows (3.38%). Owing to the lower 305-day milk yield (-15.6%) and the lower total milk yield (-3.1%), the total amount of produced protein in the subsequent lactation was 2.5% (6.8 kg) lower, although the additional protein amount in CM cows from week -8 to calving was 35.7 kg. The greatest benefit resulted from positive effects on fertility and the lower incidence of diseases: CM cows had their first oestrus 1 week earlier compared with D cows, they also conceived earlier and showed a significantly lower risk of developing hypocalcaemia, ketosis and puerperal disorders. The present study showed that the costs of medical treatment and milk losses were twice as high in D cows, compared with CM and DS cows, and thus the reduced costs because of the more stable health outweighed the financial losses of milk yield by +18.49 € per cow and lactation.

  5. Factors affecting yield and composition of camel milk kept under desert conditions of central Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sibtain; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad Qamar; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Muhammad, Ghulam; Yang, Li-Guo; Tariq, Muhammad

    2012-10-01

    This study was planned to study the herd composition, farming system, and reproductive traits and to evaluate the effect of season, stage of lactation and parity on milk production, and composition of camels kept under pastoral environment of central Punjab, Pakistan. Based on purposive sampling method, 50 herds belonging to small, medium, and large-sized herds were selected. From these herds, 1,137 she-camels were entered in this study and their composite milk samples were collected and analyzed through standard procedures to determine the milk yield and percentages of milk contents. The results showed that the male camels constituted a lesser percentage (p camels (56.92; 502/882). The mean daily milk yield was 8.17 ± 0.09 L and mean percentage of fat was 3.79 ± 0.13%, protein was 3.66 ± 0.07%, lactose was 5.15 ± 0.09%, ash was 0.81 ± 0.02%, acidity was 0.20 ± 0.01%, solids not fat (SNF) was 9.63 ± 0.15%, total solids was 13.42 ± 0.21, and moisture was 86.58 ± 0.43. Mean daily milk yield was significantly higher (p Milk fat and protein contents were the highest in hot dry summer, while lactose contents were higher during rainy season. The stage of lactation and parity confirmed to impinge significantly (p milk yield and composition in order to make camel rearing an economical proposition.

  6. Comparing milk yield, chemical properties and somatic cell count from organic and conventional mountain farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Bianchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of farming systems (organic vs. conventional, diet (hay/concentrate vs. pasture and their interaction on milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid (FA profile of dairy cows bred in mountainous areas. For this purpose four dairy farms (two organic and two conventional were chosen in the alpine territory of Aosta Valley (NW Italy; individual milk yield was recorded daily and bulk milk samples were collected monthly from February to September 2007 to cover dietary variations. Higher levels of milk production (P<0.05 and lower milk protein amounts (P<0.01 were observed in the organic farms with respect to the conventional ones, while no significant differences were noticed in milk fat and lactose contents and in somatic cell count. Concerning fatty acids, only small differences were detected between organic and conventional milk and such differences seemed to be related mainly to the stabled period. Diet affected almost all variables studied: pasture feeding provided a significant improvement in the fatty acid composition in both organic and conventional systems leading to lower hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, higher mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid amounts (P<0.001.

  7. Yield and composition of milk from dairy cows fed diets containing cashew nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work evaluated the production and composition of milk from dairy cows fed increasing levels of cashew nuts in the concentrate portion of the diet. Eight Holstein multiparous cows were used, between the third and fifth lactation, with an average milk yield of 28.0 ? 4.0 kg day-1, arranged in a double 4 x 4 Latin square experimental design. The assessed diets consisted of including different amounts of ground cashew nuts (CN: 0; 80; 160 and 240 g kg-1 of concentrate portion, which resulted in ether extract contents of 31.6; 46.0; 68.9 and 73.1 g kg-1 of dietary dry matter, respectively. Corn silage was used as the only roughage at a proportion of 50% and diets were formulated to be isoprotein. Diet was offered as a complete mixture. Average milk yield was 30.3 kg day-1. The concentration of protein, N-urea and lactose did not present significant variations (p>0.05 among the diets. The inclusion of 24% of cashew nut in the concentrate portion of the diet, maintains milk production, reduces milk fat content and together with the reduction in the concentration of short chain fatty acids and the increase in the concentrations of long chain fatty acids, provide a greater nutraceutical value to milk, making the use of cashew nut an excellent alternative for obtaining milk with more benefits to human health.

  8. Associations of soft flooring materials in free stalls with milk yield, clinical mastitis, teat lesions, and removal of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, L E; Bøe, K E; Osterås, O

    2010-04-01

    The objective was to test if there was an association between free-stall base softness and milk yield, incidence of clinical mastitis (CM), teat lesions, and removal of cows. In a questionnaire sent to 1,923 dairy farms presumed to be using free-stall housing, farmers were asked for information regarding housing and stall base; for example, the year of installation and the product name or brand of their mats or mattresses. This information was merged with data for milk yield, CM, teat lesions, and removal of cows extracted from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System for the years after installation of mats or mattresses. After exclusion of invalid contributions, the data set consisted of 29,326 lactations for milk yield distributed over 363 free-stalled herds in Norway. The farms were stratified into 5 categories according to the softness of the stall surface measured as millimeter impact of a sphere with a diameter of 120 mm at 2-kN load: 1=concrete, softness of 0mm; 2=rubber, softness of 1 to 8mm; 3=soft mats, softness of 9 to 16 mm; 4=multilayer mats, softness of 17 to 24 mm; and 5=mattresses, softness over 24 mm. Lactation curves were estimated as modified Wood's lactation curves using test-day data and mixed models with repeated measurements, adjusting for days in milk, parity, and softness of free-stall flooring. Herds on concrete free-stall bases yielded 6,727+/-146 kg of milk from 5 to 305 days in milk. In comparison, herds showed a decrease of 0.3% on rubber, an increase of 2.4% on soft mats, an increase of 4.5% on multilayer mats, and an increase of 3.9% on mattresses. Compared with concrete, the hazard ratio (HR) of CM was less on rubber, multilayer mats, and mattresses [HR=0.89 (0.79-0.99), 0.85 (0.73-0.996), and 0.80 (0.73-0.88), respectively]. Compared with concrete, the HR of teat lesions was less on rubber, soft mats, multilayer mats, and mattresses [HR=0.41 (0.26-0.65), 0.33 (0.24-0.44), 0.12 (0.04-0.38), and 0.47 (0.33-0.67), respectively]. The

  9. Genetic parameters for milk fatty acids, milk yield and quality traits of a Holstein cattle population reared under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, J; Iung, L H S; Rodriguez, M A P; Salvian, M; Pértille, F; Rovadoscki, G A; Cassoli, L D; Coutinho, L L; Machado, P F; Wiggans, G R; Mourão, G B

    2016-10-01

    Information about genetic parameters is essential for selection decisions and genetic evaluation. These estimates are population specific; however, there are few studies with dairy cattle populations reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Thus, the aim was to obtain estimates of heritability and genetic correlations for milk yield and quality traits using pedigree and genomic information from a Holstein population maintained in a tropical environment. Phenotypic records (n = 36 457) of 4203 cows as well as the genotypes for 57 368 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 755 of these cows were used. Covariance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method under a mixed animal model, considering a pedigree-based relationship matrix or a combined pedigree-genomic matrix. High heritabilities (around 0.30) were estimated for lactose and protein content in milk whereas moderate values (between 0.19 and 0.26) were obtained for percentages of fat, saturated fatty acids and palmitic acid in milk. Genetic correlations ranging from -0.38 to -0.13 were determined between milk yield and composition traits. The smaller estimates compared to other similar studies can be due to poor environmental conditions, which may reduce genetic variability. These results highlight the importance in using genetic parameters estimated in the population under evaluation for selection decisions. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Effect of parity, milking time and stage of lactation on milk yield of Jiangyue donkey (Equus asinus) in North West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhatai, Geminguli; Cheng, Long; Rugoho, Innocent; Xiao, Guoliang; Chen, Genyuan; Hodge, Simon; Zhou, Xiaoling

    2017-02-01

    The study reported in this Research Communication was carried out to examine how parity and milking time affected donkey milk yield under a typical Chinese production system. Eighteen Jiangyue breed donkeys with good health condition, aged between 6 and 9 years, and with parities 3 and 4, were selected. Milk production was measured commencing from the fourth week post-foaling, with a total data collection of 170 d in milk (lactation length). Mean milk yield of the donkeys used in this study was 3·0 kg/donkey/d. Results showed milk yield decreased with days in milk from 3·3 kg/donkey/d at the start of the study, to 2·2 kg/donkey/d by the end of the 170 d. Parity 3 donkeys produced 22% more milk than parity 4 donkeys (3·3 kg/donkey/d vs 2·7 kg/donkey/d). The information provided by this study should aid producers in estimating the expected milk yields from individual donkey, and better predict milk yield over the course of a production cycle.

  11. Effects of isolation of calves on growth, behavior, and first lactation milk yield of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arave, C W; Albright, J L; Armstrong, D V; Foster, W W; Larson, L L

    1992-12-01

    Holstein (n = 323) calves in the herds of four experiment stations were reared individually (control) or in isolation to 70 d of age to determine whether isolation affected growth, behavior, and first lactation yield. Treatment differences were not observed for average daily gain for BW at d 28, 56 or 70. Postweaning approach distance was measured in two herds (n = 122; n = 28). Detailed pre and post-weaning behaviors were reported in one herd (n = 26). Isolation did not affect subsequent milk yield or culling percentages. In a second experiment, seven pairs of monozygous twins and a set of identical triplet calves were obtained by transferring split embryos into recipients, one member of each pair was reared in a group, and the twin was reared in isolation. Early rearing previously had been found to affect growth, feed intake, dominance rank, and learning ability of calves, and, in our study, the subsequent milk yield of calves reared in isolation tended to average more than for calves in groups. Intraclass correlations between monozygous twin pairs for milk, fat, relative value milk, and relative value fat were lower than anticipated. These data indicate that preweaning isolation did not affect first lactation milk yield traits.

  12. Analyses of fixed effects for genetic evaluation of dairy cattle using test day records in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Anang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Season, rainfall, day of rain, temperature, humidity, year and farm are fixed effects, which have been reported to influence milk yield. Those factors are often linked together to contribute to the variation of milk production. This research is addressed to study the fixed effect factors, including lactation curve, which should be considered for genetic evaluation of milk yield based on test day records of dairy cattle. The data were taken from four different farms, which were PT. Taurus Dairy Farm, BPPT Cikole, Bandang Dairy Farm, and BBPTU Baturraden. In total of 16806 test day records were evaluated, consisting of 9,302 at first and 7,504 at second lactation, respectively. The results indicated that fixed effects were very specific and the influences had different patterns for each farm. Consequently, in a genetic evaluation, these factors such as lactation, temperature, year, day of rain, and humidity need to be evaluated first. Ali-Schaeffer curve represented the most appropriate curve to use in the genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in Indonesia.

  13. Lactation curve and effects of milking regimen on milk yield and quality, and udder health in Martina Franca jennies (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A G; Martemucci, G

    2012-02-01

    Three experiments were conducted on Martina Franca jennies. Experiment 1 tested Wood's model for evaluating the lactation curve. Data from the entire lactation period of 12 jennies were used. The results showed that Wood's model was able to recognize the shape of the lactation curve from pooled data (r(2) = 0.11; P < 0.01), with the lactation peak occurring at 48 d. Individual curves showed wide variability. Experiment 2 aimed to evaluate the effects of the daily number of milkings (1, 3, or 6) and the interval between the separation of foals from dams and milking (2 or 3 h) on milk yield and udder health. Four groups of jennies (n = 5) were considered: 1 × 3H, milked once per day (1×) with a 3-h interval from the time of foal removal (3H) from the dams to mechanical milking (3-h interval); 3 × 3H, milked 3 times per day with 3-h intervals; 3 × 2H, milked 3 times per day with 2-h intervals; and 6 × 2H, milked 6 times per day with 2-h intervals. The milk somatic cell count (SCC) was monitored. Better efficiency was observed for 3 vs. 1 milking per day and for 3-h vs. 2-h intervals. The regimen of 6 daily milkings at 2-h intervals did not increase milk yield and was related to an increase in the SCC compared with 3 daily milkings. In Exp. 3, the effects of the interval from foal removal to milking (3, 5, or 8 h) on yield, gross chemical composition, organoleptic characteristics of the milk, and udder health of the jennies were evaluated. The effects of milking time were also evaluated. Twenty jennies milked twice daily (2×) were subdivided into 4 groups (n = 5): 2 × 3H, with milkings at 1200 h and 1900 h and an interval of 3 h; 2 × 5H, milked at 1200 h and 1900 h with a 5-h interval; 2 × 8H(1), milked at 1200 h and 2200 h with an 8-h interval; and 2 × 8H(2), milked at 0700 h and 1900 h with an 8-h interval. Milk yield was greater by 28.4% when an 8-h interval was used compared with a 3-h interval and at the morning vs. the evening milking. The milk yield

  14. Derivation of multivariate indices of milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yield in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, M G; Serdino, J; Gaspa, G; Urgeghe, P; Ibba, I; Contu, M; Fresi, P; Macciotta, N P P

    2016-06-01

    Milk composition and its technological properties are traits of interest for the dairy sheep industry because almost all milk produced is processed into cheese. However, several variables define milk technological properties and a complex correlation pattern exists among them. In the present work, we measured milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yields in a sample of 991 Sarda breed ewes in 47 flocks. The work aimed to study the correlation pattern among measured variables and to obtain new synthetic indicators of milk composition and cheese-making properties. Multivariate factor analysis was carried out on individual measures of milk coagulation parameters; cheese yield; fat, protein, and lactose percentages; somatic cell score; casein percentage; NaCl content; pH; and freezing point. Four factors that were able to explain about 76% of the original variance were extracted. They were clearly interpretable: the first was associated with composition and cheese yield, the second with udder health status, the third with coagulation, and the fourth with curd characteristics. Factor scores were then analyzed by using a mixed linear model that included the fixed effect of parity, lambing month, and lactation stage, and the random effect of flock-test date. The patterns of factor scores along lactation stages were coherent with their technical meaning. A relevant effect of flock-test date was detected, especially on the 2 factors related to milk coagulation properties. Results of the present study suggest the existence of a simpler latent structure that regulates relationships between variables defining milk composition and coagulation properties in sheep. Heritability estimates for the 4 extracted factors were from low to moderate, suggesting potential use of these new variables as breeding goals. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of total replacement of corn silage with sorghum silage on milk yield, composition, and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, M; Guzzo, N; Mantovani, R; Bailoni, L

    2017-01-01

    In the last years, difficulties occurring in corn cultivation (i.e., groundwater shortages, mycotoxin contamination) have been forcing dairy farmers to consider alternative silages. Some experiments conducted on lactating cows have proven that the total replacement of corn silage with sorghum silage did not reduce milk yield. However, this kind of substitution involves supplementing sorghum-based diets with grains, to compensate for the lower starch content of sorghum silage compared to corn silage. Change of silage type and inclusion of starch sources in the diet would influence rumen fermentations, with possible effects on milk composition (i.e., fatty acid profile) and coagulation properties. A worsening of milk coagulation properties would have a negative economic impact in Italy, where most of the milk produced is processed into cheese. This study was designed to compare milk composition and quality, with emphasis on fatty acid profile and coagulation properties, in dairy cows fed two diets based on corn or sorghum silage. The sorghum diet reduced milk yield (P = 0.043) but not 4% fat corrected milk (P = 0.85). Feeding sorghum silage did not influence milk contents of protein (P = 0.07) and lactose (P = 0.65), and increased fat content (P = 0.024). No differences emerged for milk concentrations of saturated (P = 0.61) and monounsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.50), whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids were lower (P acids (P = 0.017) were lower in milk of cows fed the sorghum diet. Milk coagulation properties did not differ between the two diets, except the "a30" (the curd firmness, expressed in mm, 30 min after rennet addition), that was lower (P = 0.042) for the sorghum diet. Feeding a forage sorghum silage, properly supplemented with corn meal, as total replacement of corn silage maintained milk composition and did not influence negatively milk coagulation properties, which have a great economic relevance for the Italian

  16. A new standard model for milk yield in dairy cows based on udder physiology at the milking-session level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasqui, Patrick; Trommenschlager, Jean-Marie

    2017-08-21

    Milk production in dairy cow udders is a complex and dynamic physiological process that has resisted explanatory modelling thus far. The current standard model, Wood's model, is empirical in nature, represents yield in daily terms, and was published in 1967. Here, we have developed a dynamic and integrated explanatory model that describes milk yield at the scale of the milking session. Our approach allowed us to formally represent and mathematically relate biological features of known relevance while accounting for stochasticity and conditional elements in the form of explicit hypotheses, which could then be tested and validated using real-life data. Using an explanatory mathematical and biological model to explore a physiological process and pinpoint potential problems (i.e., "problem finding"), it is possible to filter out unimportant variables that can be ignored, retaining only those essential to generating the most realistic model possible. Such modelling efforts are multidisciplinary by necessity. It is also helpful downstream because model results can be compared with observed data, via parameter estimation using maximum likelihood and statistical testing using model residuals. The process in its entirety yields a coherent, robust, and thus repeatable, model.

  17. Feeding restriction impairs milk yield and physicochemical properties rendering it less suitable for sale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Fruscalso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feed shortages are relatively frequent in subtropical pasture-based dairy production systems. The effect of feed restriction on milk yield and physical-chemical traits was evaluated in this study. The experiment was carried out in Brazil's south region. Treatments consisted of control and restricted diet. Six multiparous and six primiparous cows, with 499 ± 47.20 kg body weight (BW, at mid-lactation (188 ± 124 days in milk, producing 19.35 ± 4.10 kg of milk were assigned to two groups, balanced for parity, each group receiving a different sequence of the dietary treatments for 56 days, in a crossover design. Diet nominated as control included 8 kg DM 100 kg BW-1 of Bermuda grass var. Tifton pasture (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., 5.00 kg of concentrate and 2.50 kg of Tifton hay per day. The restriction diet consisted of 50 % of the quantity offered in the control diet. Milk production and physicochemical composition were evaluated. Feed restriction reduced milk production by 40 %, body condition score by 5 %, milk magnesium by 14.3 %, lactose by 1.7 %, titratable acidity by 10 % and stability to the ethanol test by 9 % and it tended to increase (7 % milk potassium content. No changes were found for the remaining characteristics. Since feed restriction is quite frequent in Brazil's extensive dairy production systems, our concern is that besides decreased milk production, changes can occur in the physiochemical attributes of the milk, mainly a reduction in the stability to the ethanol test, which may increase the volume of milk rejected by the industry.

  18. TEST DAY MODELS FOR PRODUCTION TRAITS IN DAIRY CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernice Mostert

    A cow that did not participate in milk recording during her first lactation or for some reason her first lactation ... tend to underestimate 305-day yields from early testdays for more persistent cows and overestimate yields .... Table 1 Variance ratios (on the diagonal) and correlations (above the diagonal) for milk, butterfat and.

  19. Culling of dairy cows. Part III. Effects of diseases, pregnancy status and milk yield on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gröhn, Y T

    1999-08-23

    The effects of 15 diseases, pregnancy status and milk yield on culling were studied in 39727 Finnish Ayrshire cows that calved in 1993 and were followed until culling or next calving. Survival analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model, was performed with diseases, pregnancy status and milk yield as time-dependent covariates. Effects of parity, calving season and herd were also accounted for. Pregnancy status was the single most influential factor affecting culling decisions, followed by milk yield. Several diseases also had a significant effect on culling, the most influential ones being mastitis, lameness, teat injuries, and milk fever. The effects of all of these factors varied according to the stage of lactation. Milk yield had a significant effect on culling decisions, depending on the stage of lactation. At the beginning of lactation, milk production did not have any effect on culling decisions, but later on, the highest producers were at the lowest risk of being culled and the lowest producers had the highest risk. Adjusting for milk yield modified the effects of parity, most diseases and also pregnancy status on culling. Effects of parity increased after including milk yield in the model, indicating that milk yield and parity are interrelated in their effects on culling. The effects of pregnancy status also increased towards the end of lactation when milk yield was accounted for in the model. The effects of mastitis, teat injuries and lameness decreased after adjusting for milk production. These diseases lower milk yield and thus, part of their effect on culling was mediated through milk production. The effects of anestrus and ovarian cysts were mainly modified by pregnancy status, but not by milk yield. The effects of milk fever on culling increased at the beginning of lactation after including milk yield in the model. This suggests that even though cows with milk fever tend to be higher producers, it is the disease as such that triggers the

  20. Cow-level associations of lameness, behavior, and milk yield of cows milked in automated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M T M; LeBlanc, S J; Pajor, E A; DeVries, T J

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated differences in behavior and productivity between lame and nonlame cows in herds with automated milking systems (AMS). We monitored 30 cows per herd on 41 farms with AMS in Canada (26 herds in Ontario and 15 herds in Alberta). During a 6-d period, milking data (n = 1,184) and lying behavior data (n = 1,209) were collected from cows on 41 farms. Rumination behavior (n = 569) and activity (n = 615) data were available for cows at 22 farms. Locomotion was scored using a numerical rating system (NRS; 1 = sound; 5 = extremely lame). Cows were defined as clinically lame with NRS ≥ 3 (n = 353, 29%) and nonlame with NRS < 3 (n = 865, 71%). Greater parity, lower body condition, and lower environmental temperature were factors associated with lameness. When accounting for other factors, lame cows produced 1.6 kg/d less milk in 0.3 fewer milkings/d. Lame cows were 2.2 times more likely to be fetched more than 1 time during the 6-d period and spent 38 min/d more time lying down in bouts that were 3.5 min longer in comparison with nonlame cows. As the number of cows per AMS unit increased, the frequency of milkings and refusals per cow per day decreased and cow activity increased. For each 13.3-percentage-point increase in freestall stocking density (cows per stall), daily lying time decreased by 13 min/d and cows were 1.6 times more likely to be fetched more than 1 time during the 6-d period. There was no difference in daily rumination or activity between lame and nonlame cows or in night:day rumination time, but lame cows had greater night:day activity ratios. This study supports the growing knowledge that lameness has negative effects on milk production, voluntary milking behavior, and lying behavior of cows in herds with AMS. These results may help dairy producers gain a better appreciation of the negative effects of even moderate cases of lameness and may help motivate them to improve their lameness monitoring and treatment protocols. Copyright

  1. Milk yield and composition of dairy cows fed concentrate based on naked oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, H V; Alary, S

    1999-05-01

    A 1.5-yr study was designed to determine the effects of feeding isonitrogenous and isoenergetic concentrates based on naked oats, corn, or a mixture (50: 50 on as-fed basis) of naked oats and corn on milk yield and composition. In vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility and ruminal degradabilities of DM, N, and starch of naked oats were compared with those of covered oats. Twenty-seven multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by similar calving date and assigned to 9 replicates. All cows were fed a mixture of grass silage, protein supplement, concentrate, and a vitamin and mineral mix for ad libitum intake. Treatment diets were fed from 3 to 36 wk of lactation. Milk yield and composition, yield of 4% fat-corrected milk, and yield of protein and fat were similar among treatments. Ruminal effective degradabilities of DM were higher for naked oats than for covered oats, but the ruminal degradabilities of crude protein and starch were similar. The rapidly degradable fractions of DM, crude protein, and starch were greater for naked than covered oats; the potentially degradable fractions were less. In vitro DM digestibility of naked oats was higher than was that of covered oats. Naked oats may be a good alternative to corn for milk yield.

  2. Comparison of claw health and milk yield in dairy cows on elastic or concrete flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, P V; Nueske, S; Scholz, A M; Foerster, M

    2007-10-01

    This article reports on the effects of elastic (rubber) flooring compared with concrete flooring on claw health and milk yield in dairy cows. Milk yield and activity data of 53 complete lactations from 49 cows were recorded by an automatic milking system in the University of Munich Livestock Center dairy herd. Cows were kept in a loose housing system on concrete-slatted or rubber-matted slatted flooring. Claws were trimmed and measured linearly in combination with claw lesion diagnosis 3 times during one lactation period (including the transition phase). An automatic milking system recorded milk yield and activity. The net horn growth of the claws increased on elastic flooring. Therefore, correct and frequent claw trimming is at least as important for claw health in dairy herds kept on rubber flooring as for those on concrete-slatted flooring. Cows housed on rubber had an increased incidence of sole ulcers. Sole hemorrhages (except for hemorrhages associated with sole ulcers) occurred less frequently on rubber than on concrete. Results concerning digital dermatitis were difficult to assess, because manual manure scraping on rubber required sprinkling the flooring twice daily, which additionally moistened the digital skin of the cows. This might explain the greater incidence of digital dermatitis on elastic flooring. The incidence of clinically lame cows did not differ between flooring types. Cows showed greater activity on rubber, most likely caused by the more comfortable walking surface compared with the concrete-slatted flooring. The greater activity may indicate better overall health of high-yielding dairy cows on rubber flooring. Milk yield, however, did not differ between flooring types.

  3. Reduction in daily milk yield associated with subclinical bovine herpesvirus 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, J M E; Randall, L V; Archer, S C

    2015-10-03

    The aim of this observational cohort study was to investigate the potential economic impact of subclinical bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) infection in a commercial UK dairy herd in terms of milk yield depression. Infection status of cows (infected or not infected) was assigned from serology on a single occasion. A multi-level linear model was used to evaluate the impact of infection status on milk production, using milk records that were routinely collected over two years. BoHV-1 seropositive cows produced 2.6 kg/day less milk over the study period compared with cows that were seronegative. This result highlights the importance of appropriate management of risks associated with subclinical infection with BoHV-1 as part of proactive herd health and production management. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Genetic correlations between the cumulative pseudo-survival rate, milk yield, and somatic cell score during lactation in Holstein cattle in Japan using a random regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, O; Aihara, M; Nishiura, A; Takeda, H

    2017-09-01

    Trends in genetic correlations between longevity, milk yield, and somatic cell score (SCS) during lactation in cows are difficult to trace. In this study, changes in the genetic correlations between milk yield, SCS, and cumulative pseudo-survival rate (PSR) during lactation were examined, and the effect of milk yield and SCS information on the reliability of estimated breeding value (EBV) of PSR were determined. Test day milk yield, SCS, and PSR records were obtained for Holstein cows in Japan from 2004 to 2013. A random subset of the data was used for the analysis (825 herds, 205,383 cows). This data set was randomly divided into 5 subsets (162-168 herds, 83,389-95,854 cows), and genetic parameters were estimated in each subset independently. Data were analyzed using multiple-trait random regression animal models including either the residual effect for the whole lactation period (H0), the residual effects for 5 lactation stages (H5), or both of these residual effects (HD). Milk yield heritability increased until 310 to 351 d in milk (DIM) and SCS heritability increased until 330 to 344 DIM. Heritability estimates for PSR increased with DIM from 0.00 to 0.05. The genetic correlation between milk yield and SCS increased negatively to under -0.60 at 455 DIM. The genetic correlation between milk yield and PSR increased until 342 to 355 DIM (0.53-0.57). The genetic correlation between the SCS and PSR was -0.82 to -0.83 at around 180 DIM, and decreased to -0.65 to -0.71 at 455 DIM. The reliability of EBV of PSR for sires with 30 or more recorded daughters was 0.17 to 0.45 when the effects of correlated traits were ignored. The maximum reliability of EBV was observed at 257 (H0) or 322 (HD) DIM. When the correlations of PSR with milk yield and SCS were considered, the reliabilities of PSR estimates increased to 0.31-0.76. The genetic parameter estimates of H5 were the same as those for HD. The rank correlation coefficients of the EBV of PSR between H0 and H5 or HD were

  5. Effect of fortification of fresh cow milk with coconut milk on the proximate composition and yield of warankashi, a traditional cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Balogun, Mutiat Adebanke; Kolawole, Fausat Lola; J. K. Joseph; Adebisi, Taibat Tunrayo; Ogunleye, Opeyemi Toyin

    2016-01-01

    Cheese is a concentrated dairy product produced by acid or rennet coagulation or curdling of milk, stirring and heating the curd, draining off the whey, collecting and pressing the curd. The effect of partial substitution of fresh cow milk with coconut milk on the yield and proximate composition of cheese was examined. Extracted coconut milk was mixed with fresh raw cow milk at varying proportions of 5%: 95%, 10%: 90%, 15%: 85%, 20%: 80%, 25%:75%, 70%: 30% and the control (0%:100%) to produce...

  6. BDNF contributes to the genetic variance of milk fat yield in german holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Lea G; Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Tetens, Jens; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2011-01-01

    The gene encoding the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been repeatedly associated with human obesity. As such, it could also contribute to the regulation of energy partitioning and the amount of secreted milk fat during lactation, which plays an important role in milk production in dairy cattle. Therefore, we performed an association study using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of bulls and yield deviations of German Holstein dairy cattle to test the effect of BDNF on milk fat yield (FY). A highly significant effect (corrected p-value = 3.362 × 10(-4)) was identified for an SNP 168 kb up-stream of the BDNF transcription start. The association tests provided evidence for an additive allele effect of 5.13 kg of fat per lactation on the EBV for milk FY in bulls and 6.80 kg of fat of the own production performance in cows explaining 1.72 and 0.60% of the phenotypic variance in the analyzed populations, respectively. The analyses of bulls and cows consistently showed three haplotype groups that differed significantly from each other, suggesting at least two different mutations in the BDNF region affecting the milk FY. The FY increasing alleles also had low but significant positive effects on protein and total milk yield which suggests a general role of the BDNF region in energy partitioning, rather than a specific regulation of fat synthesis. The results obtained in dairy cattle suggest similar effects of BDNF on milk composition in other species, including man.

  7. Effect of Partial Substitution of Fresh Cow Milk with Bambaranut Milk on Nutritional Characteristics and Yield of Soft (‘Unripe’) Cheese-‘Warankashi’

    OpenAIRE

    S.U. Okorie; Adedokun, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition characteristics and percentage yield of cheese ‘warankashi’ with partial substitution of bambaranut milk was studied. Extracted bambaranut milk was blended with fresh raw cow milk using varying proportions of 5:95; 10:90; 15:85; 20:80; 30:70; 40:60 and 50:5050%, cheese analogue of 100% bambaranut and a control of whole cow milk cheese was produced. Samples of cheese from different mix and control were examined for nutritional characteristics and percentage cheese yield. Data obtaine...

  8. Genetic parameters for milk yield, age at first calving and interval between first and second calving in milk buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Aspilcueta Borquis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters for the relation between the traits of milk yield (MY, age at first calving (AFC and interval between first and second calving (IBFSC were estimated in milk buffaloes of the Murrah breed. In the study, data of 1578 buffaloes at first lactation, with calvings from 1974 to 2006 were analyzed. The MTDFREML system was used in the analyses with models for the MY, IBFSC traits which included the fixed effects of herd-year-season of calving, linear and quadratic terms of calving age as covariate and the random animal effects and error. The model for AFC consisted of the herd-year-season fixed effects of calving and the random effects of animal and error. Heritability estimates MY, AFC and IBFSC traits were 0.20, 0.07 and 0.14, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between the traits were: MY and AFC = -0.12 and -0.15, MY and IBFSC = 0.07 and 0.30, AFC and IBFSC = 0.35 and 0.37, respectively. Genetic correlation between MY and AFC traits showed desirable negative association, suggesting that the daughters of the bulls with high breeding value for MY could be physiological maturity to a precocious age. Genetic correlation between MY and IBFSC showed that the selection of the animals that increased milk yield is also those that tend to intervals of bigger calving.

  9. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: The Impact of Large Herd on Milk Yield and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the effect of large herd size (and land areas on walking distances and milking interval (MI, and their impact on milk yield and economic penalties when 50% of the total diets were provided from home grown feed either as pasture or grazeable complementary forage rotation (CFR in an automatic milking system (AMS. Twelve scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows, 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as ‘moderate’; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as ‘high’ and 2 rates of incorporation of grazeable complementary forage system (CFS: 0, 30%; CFS = 65% farm is CFR and 35% of farm is pasture were investigated. Walking distances, energy loss due to walking, MI, reduction in milk yield and income loss were calculated for each treatment based on information available in the literature. With moderate pasture utilisation and 0% CFR, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in an increase in total walking distances between the parlour and the paddock from 3.5 to 6.3 km. Consequently, MI increased from 15.2 to 16.4 h with increased herd size from 400 to 800 cows. High pasture utilisation (allowing for an increased stocking density reduced the total walking distances up to 1 km, thus reduced the MI by up to 0.5 h compared to the moderate pasture, 800 cow herd combination. The high pasture utilisation combined with 30% of the farm in CFR in the farm reduced the total walking distances by up to 1.7 km and MI by up to 0.8 h compared to the moderate pasture and 800 cow herd combination. For moderate pasture utilisation, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in more dramatic milk yield penalty as yield increasing from c.f. 2.6 and 5.1 kg/cow/d respectively, which incurred a loss of up to $AU 1.9/cow/d. Milk yield losses of 0.61 kg and 0.25 kg for every km increase in total walking distance

  10. Milk yield and rectal temperature in West African Dwarf goats as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate milk yield and rectal temperature in West African Dwarf (WAD) goats as affected by wattle and litter size. A total of 28 lactating does were used for the experiment. 13 does had wattle (bilateral) while 15 had no wattle. 14 does had twin birth while the other 14 had single birth. The goats ...

  11. The effect of milk yield on some reproductive parameters of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Short paper and poster abstracts: 38th Congress of the South African Society of Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 34. The effect of milk yield on some reproductive parameters of the Elsenburg Holstein and Jersey herds. C.J.C. Muller. #.

  12. Udder And Teat Traits As Possible Selection Markers For Milk Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out at the Research Farm of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria (October, 2003 – May, 2006) to investigate the effects of some factors (breed, stage of gestation, body condition score and stage of lactation) on udder and teat traits with their relationships with partial daily milk yield ...

  13. Effect of some disease stress on cow milk yield and features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In their review, Bertoni et al. (2003 have pointed out how in dairy cows milk yield and its characteristics are markedly modified during disease stress (general consequences of any disease. This mainly depends on secretion of cytokines, which determines anorexia, endocrine changes and diversion of some nutrients toward the immune system.

  14. The effect of supplementation on milk yield in Boer goat ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (grass-/bush community) was studied over a 12-week lactation period. An average of 625 g .... the average lactation curves and from the difference in milk yield between .... of additional active growth which could have provided 50% of the peak.

  15. The effect of subclinical mastitis on milk yield in dairy goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Werven, van T.; Schuiling, H.J.; Nielen, van M.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate milk yield (MY) losses associated with subclinical intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy goats and to assess if somatic cell count (SCC) can be used to estimate such MY losses. We used 2 data sets to study these questions. The first data set consisted of 5

  16. Short Communication: Genetic and environmental relationships between milk yield and kidding interval in dairy goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    First-parity 305-day milk yield and intervals between first and second kiddings from 1975 through 2005 were analyzed to estimate genetic and environmental parameters for U.S. Alpine, Nubian, Saanen, and Toggenburg dairy goats. The complete data set included information from 5,180 sires, 23,827 does ...

  17. Prediction of 305 d milk yield in Jersey Cattle Using ANN Modelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ozcan_eren

    Abstract. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been shown to be a powerful tool for system modelling in a wide range of .... neural networks have been applied to predict milk yield in dairy sheep (Salehi et al., 1988). Kominakis et al. ... It consists of the choice of ANN algorithm, the structure (number of layers and number of ...

  18. Effect of dry period length on milk yield over multiple lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, A; van Knegsel, A T M; van Middelaar, C E; Engel, B; Hogeveen, H; Kemp, B; de Boer, I J M

    2017-01-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) can improve the energy balance of dairy cows in early lactation through a decrease in milk yield after calving. Little is known about the effect of a short or no DP on milk yield over multiple lactations. Our objectives were (1) to assess the effect of DP length over multiple lactations on milk yield, and (2) to assess if the prediction of milk yield in response to DP length could be improved by including individual cow characteristics before calving. Lactation data (2007 to 2015) of 16 Dutch dairy farms that apply no or short DP were used to compute cumulative milk yield in the 60 d before calving (additional yield) and in the 305 d after calving (305-d yield), and the mean daily yield over the interval from 60 d before calving to 60 d before next calving (effective lactation yield). The DP categories were no (0 to 2 wk), short (3 to 5wk), standard (6 to 8 wk), and long (9 to 12 wk). The effect of current DP and previous DP on yields was analyzed with mixed models (n=1,420 lactations). The highest effective lactation yield of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) was observed for cows with a standard current DP (27.6kg per day); a daily decrease was observed of 0.6kg for a long DP, 1.0kg for a short DP, and 2.0kg for no DP. Previous DP did not significantly affect the effective lactation yield. Thus, cows can be managed with short or no DP over consecutive lactations without a change in quantity of milk losses. Cows that received no DP for consecutive lactations had a lower additional yield before calving (-172kg of FPCM), but a higher 305-d yield (+560kg of FPCM), compared with cows that received no DP for the first time. This could lessen the improvement of the energy balance in early lactation when no DP is applied a second time compared with the first time. For the second objective, a basic model was explored to predict effective lactation yield based on parity, DP length, and first-parity 305-d yield (n=2

  19. Effect of organic sources of minerals on fat-corrected milk yield of dairy cows in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Antonio Del Valle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of organic and inorganic sources of minerals in diets for mid-lactation dairy cows on milk yield and composition, intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances. Twenty Holstein cows averaging 146.83±67.34 days in milk and weighing 625.30±80.37 kg were used. The experimental design was a crossover. Diets were composed of corn silage (50%, ground grain corn, and soybean meal, differing with regard to the sources of trace minerals, plus an organic and inorganic mix. The organic mineral source increased milk fat and fat-corrected milk yield without changing milk yield, intake, or total apparent digestibility. Blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances were not affected by the sources of minerals. Organic sources of minerals improve milk fat yield without affecting other parameters.

  20. Composition, yield, and functionality of reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese: effects of using skim milk or a dry milk protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, I; Soto, S; Franco, M J; Meza-Nieto, M; Alfaro-Rodríguez, R H; Mateo, J

    2011-02-01

    The effect of adding either skim milk or a commercial dry milk protein concentrate (MPC) to whole milk on the composition, yield, and functional properties of Mexican Oaxaca cheese were investigated. Five batches of Oaxaca cheeses were produced. One batch (the control) was produced from whole milk containing 3.5% fat and 9% nonfat solids (SNF). Two batches were produced from milk standardized with skim milk to 2.7 and 1.8% fat, maintaining the SNF content at 9%. In the other 2 batches, an MPC (40% protein content) was used to standardize the milk to a SNF content of 10 and 11%, maintaining the milk fat content at 3.5%. The use of either skim milk or MPC caused a significant decrease in the fat percentage in cheese. The use of skim milk or MPC showed a nonsignificant tendency to lower total solids and fat recoveries in cheese. Actual, dry matter, and moisture-adjusted cheese yields significantly decreased with skim milk addition, but increased with MPC addition. However, normalized yields adjusted to milk fat and protein reference levels did not show significant differences between treatments. Considering skim milk-added and control cheeses, actual yield increased with cheese milk fat content at a rate of 1.34 kg/kg of fat (R=0.88). In addition, cheese milk fat and SNF:fat ratio proved to be strong individual predictors of cheese moisture-adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.90). Taking into account the results obtained from control and MPC-added cheeses, a 2.0-kg cheese yield increase rate per kg of milk MPC protein was observed (R=0.89), with TS and SNF being the strongest predictors for moisture adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.77). Reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese functionality differed from that of controls. In unmelted reduced-fat cheeses, hardness and springiness increased. In melted reduced-fat cheeses, meltability and free oil increased, but stretchability decreased. These changes were related to differences in cheese composition, mainly fat in dry matter and calcium in SNF

  1. Effects of suckling intensity on milk yield and piglet growth from lactation-enhanced gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, K M; Hurley, W L; Shanks, R D; Wheeler, M B

    2006-09-01

    The effects of suckling intensity on milk yield and piglet growth were determined when lactation capacity of the sow was enhanced through overexpression of a mammary-specific transgene, bovine alpha-lactalbumin. Lactational response to increased suckling stimulation was determined by fostering litters of the same age (d 1) or 7 d older (d 7) than the day of lactation to sows nontransgenic (control) or transgenic (TG) for bovine alpha-lactalbumin. Twenty first-parity gilts were allocated to 4 treatments dependent on gilt genotype and age of litter fostered (control d 1, control d 7, TG d 1, and TG d 7). Litters were standardized to 10 piglets within 24 h postpartum, and nonbirth piglets were fostered to gilts with an equal litter BW within age groups at 36 h postpartum. Milk yield was determined by the weigh-suckle-weigh method on d 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 of lactation. Mean daily milk yield was greater (P = 0.031) for TG gilts compared with control gilts and tended to be greater (P = 0.056) for all gilts with d-7 piglets compared with those with d-1 piglets. Daily milk yield of TG d 7 gilts increased rapidly to peak at d 9 and was greater than milk yield of all control gilts at d 9 (P Piglet BW gain between d 3 and 6 was greater (P piglets between the day of age at foster (d 1 vs. 7; P = 0.606) or between the control d 1 and control d 7 groups (P = 0.759). Accumulated BW gain of piglets suckling TG d 7 gilts from d 3 through 9 was greater (P piglets suckling TG d 1 gilts was no longer different (P = 0.40) from that of the TG d 7 group and was greater (P piglet growth.

  2. Effect of dietary inclusion of flaxseed on milk yield and composition of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Simonetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the effects of flaxseed inclusion on milk yield (MY, milk fat and protein contents and milk fatty acids (FA composition in dairy cows diets. Eight Italian Friesian primiparous cows were divided into two homogeneous groups and fed a control diet (based on corn silage, fescue hay and a concentrate or the same diet having 0.9 Kg DM concentrate replaced by coarsely grounded flaxseed for a 21 d experimental period. The groups were inverted in respect to the dietary treatments in a subsequent experimental period according to a change-over design. The flaxseed inclusion (4-5% DM had a positive effect on dry matter intake (DMI, 22.2 vs. 21.3Kg/d and significantly (P<0.01 increased the MY (26.9 vs. 26.1Kg/d and milk fat corrected yield (FCM, 27.7 vs. 26.7Kg/d. Milk fat and protein percentages (4.18 and 3.46%, respectively on average were not affected by flaxseed treatment. Results also indicated a significant (P<0.01 reduction of saturated fatty acid/unsaturated fatty acid ratio (SFA/UFA and an increase of n-3/n-6FA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA. Moreover a higher proportion of total C18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA was also observed for treated group.

  3. Effect of water restriction on milk yield and quality in Lacaune breed ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casamassima, D; Palazzo, M; Nardoia, M; D'Alessandro, A G; Vizzarri, F

    2017-10-13

    The effect of water restriction on body weight, body condition score, milk yield, and milk composition and rheological characteristics in intensively reared Lacaune ewes was evaluated. After 7 days of adaptation, the trial lasted 28 days. Thirty lactating ewes (48 ± 5 months of age; mean value ± standard deviation) at the beginning of third lactation month were divided into three groups (n = 10), corresponding to the following water restriction treatment: a group control received no drinking water restriction (W100), and two groups received water to the extent of 80% and 60% of W100 daily consumption (W80 and W60 group respectively). The effects of water restriction were assessed at the beginning of experiment (D0), at D14 and D28. The W60 group resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body condition score, milk yield and feed consumption of hay due to the experimental treatment; whereas a marked increase in both W60 and W80 groups of milk lactose, urea, sodium, sodium chloride content and titratable acidity was observed. Rheological parameters of milk, rennet coagulation time and curd-firming time were positively affected by water restriction treatments, with a decrease in both experimental groups of the time required for the formation of a stable and firm curd. Results highlight the importance of water consumption in dairy sheep. The scarce availability of water, significantly affecting ewes milk production, is worthy of particular attention in arid area where water stress-resistant breeds should be considered. This study underlines that milk yield, being closely linked to the availability of water of the breeding habitat due to its high water content (about 81%), could be reached in area where water is not a limiting factor without reducing the genetic expression of the animals. Less severe water restrictions, such as 20% of daily voluntary water intake, produce no detrimental effect on milk yield. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Quantification of milk yield and composition changes as affected by subclinical mastitis during the current lactation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí De Olives, Ana; Díaz, J R; Molina, M P; Peris, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify, on a half-udder basis, the changes in ewe milk yield and composition caused by unilateral subclinical mastitis within the current lactation. Fluctuations due to production level, infection severity, time from the onset of infection, and lactation curves were also studied. Yield and composition of milk from half-udders of unilateral infected ewes were compared between them and with a set of healthy halves using a mixed model. The experiment was completed with a whole-udder approach on the same animals. To test the effect of intramammary infection (IMI) in the 7 wk following the onset of infection, 20 ewes that acquired unilateral subclinical mastitis during lactation and 40 healthy ewes were used. Another group of 20 unilaterally infected ewes from wk 1 of lactation and other 40 healthy ewes were studied to test the effect of IMI on lactational milk yield and composition. The individual milk loss in ewes infected during lactation was 15% for the 7 wk following the onset of infection, and 6.6% more milk was produced by the uninfected half to compensate milk lost by the infected half. Lactational milk yield loss in ewes infected from wk 1 postpartum was 17%. The changes in milk yield were noticed from the week of infection diagnosis. The production level of animals influenced the milk yield changes caused by IMI in such a way that the more productive ewes lost more milk, although these losses were proportional to their production level. On the other hand, infection severity affected milk loss between glands, being more pronounced as somatic cell count increased. A clear decrease of lactose content and casein:protein ratio due to subclinical IMI was observed and it remained throughout the postinfection period. Improving udder health status is necessary to maintain milk production and quality in dairy ewes during lactation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of extruded corn on milk yield and composition and blood parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a 2x2 cross over design, fourteen Holstein dairy cows at 99±55 DIM were fed two diets containing 21.5% DM of either ground corn (GC or extruded corn (EC. Performance and metabolic profile were detected during the third week of each experimental period. DMI and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. Milk fat and protein percentage of EC diet were significantly (P<0.10 lower than those of GC diet. Probably the higher rumen degradability of starch from EC thesis modified the synthesis of specific fatty acids leading to a milk fat depression event. Diets did not influence blood parameters, except for lower values of total protein and glucose content in EC diet-fed cows. Results suggested that the dietary inclusion of extruded corn should not be used at the tested level of substitution.

  6. The effects of milking frequency in early lactation on milk yield, mammary cell turnover, and secretory activity in grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murney, R; Stelwagen, K; Wheeler, T T; Margerison, J K; Singh, K

    2015-01-01

    In dairy cows, short-term changes of milking frequency in early lactation have been shown to produce an immediate and a long-term effect on milk yield in stall-fed cows. The effect is controlled locally within mammary glands and could be a function of either secretory mammary epithelial cell number or activity. To resolve this and determine its applicability in other feed management systems, a unilateral milking frequency experiment was conducted with udder halves of 17 multiparous, pasture-fed dairy cows milked either 4 times (4×) or once a day (1×) for 14d from 5±2d in milk. Mean half-udder milk yield during the treatment period was higher from the 4× compared with 1× udder halves and continued to be higher until 200d in milk once returned to twice a day milking. Mammary biopsies were obtained on d 14 of treatment from both udder halves of 10 cows. Proliferation of mammary cells was higher in 4× udder halves compared with 1×, whereas no difference in apoptosis levels was detected. Abundance of αS1-casein, β-casein, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin mRNA was higher in tissue samples from 4× udder halves compared with 1×, whereas lactoferrin mRNA abundance was lower in 4× udder halves. In summary, change in milking frequency during early lactation affects proliferation of mammary cells as well as expression of the major milk protein genes, which both contribute to the observed changes in milk yield during and after unilateral milking frequency treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Freezing point of milk in a herd of high yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Golc Teger

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting the freezing point of milk in a herd of 200 Black and White cows with the average milk yield of 8 386 kg in the lactation and 8 328 kg in the standard lactation were examinated. Over the period of one year (2002 and based upon 1 773 individual monthly collected milk samples with the average contents of 3.91% fat, 3.26% protein, 4.54% lactose, 33.4 mg/100 ml urea and 331000 somatic cells per ml in milk were determined. The average freezing point of milk (n = 1 680 was estimated to be –0.527 ºC, with a range from -0.562 ºC to -0.423 ºC. In 210 (12.5% samples was higher than -0.515 ºC. The lowest freezing point (-0.532 ºC was found in the samples collected in the first month after calving and highest (-0.522 ºC in the samples of 12th month of lactation. The differences between the freezing point of milk after the first and the second calving (-0.530 ºC; P < 0.05 and those after the fifth calving (-0.523 ºC; P < 0.05 were also significant. The samples collected in month from January to April (-0.538 ºC to -0.532 ºC were significantly lower in comparison to samples collected in May and June (-0.517 ºC and -0.519 ºC. The following statistically significant correlation coefficients between cows' properties, milk composition and the freezing point of milk were found: month of lactation r = 0.233 (P < 0.001; lactation number r = 0.196 (P < 0.001; age of cows (years r = 0.231 (P < 0.001; month of the year r = 0.0253 (P < 0.001; milk yield per milking day r = -0.106 (P < 0.001; fat corrected milk content (FCM per milking day r = -0.234 (P < 0.001; lactose % r = -0.530 (P < 0.001; fat % r = -0.351 (P < 0.001; protein % r = 0.058 (P < 0.05; urea mg/100 mL r = 0.091 (P < 0.001 and somatic cell count r = 0.154 (P < 0.001. The sum of effects (month of the year, lactation lenght and fat, protein and lactose content of milk was found to account for about 70% variability of the total depression of milk freezing point (R2 = 0.698.

  8. Genome-wide association study of conformation and milk yield in mixed-breed dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Sebastian; Mrode, Raphael; Coffey, Mike; Kizilaslan, Mehmet; Desire, Suzanne; Conington, Joanne

    2017-12-28

    Identification of genetic markers that affect economically important traits is of high value from a biological point of view, enabling the targeting of candidate genes and providing practical benefits for the industry such as wide-scale genomic selection. This study is one of the first to investigate the genetic background of economically important traits in dairy goats using the caprine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. The aim of the project was to perform a genome-wide association study for milk yield and conformation of udder, teat, and feet and legs. A total of 137,235 milk yield records on 4,563 goats each scored for 10 conformation traits were available. Out of these, 2,381 goats were genotyped with the Illumina Caprine 50K BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). A range of pseudo-phenotypes were used including deregressed breeding values and pseudo-estimated breeding values. Genome-wide association studies were performed using the multi-locus mixed model (MLMM) algorithm implemented in SNP & Variation Suite v7.7.8 (Golden Helix Inc., Bozeman, MT). A genome-wise significant [-log10(P-value) > 5.95] SNP for milk yield was identified on chromosome 19, with additional chromosome-wise significant (-log10(P-value) > 4.46] SNP on chromosomes 4, 8, 14, and 29. Three genome-wise significant SNP for conformation of udder attachment, udder depth, and front legs were identified on chromosome 19, and chromosome-wise SNP were found on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 23, and 27. The proportion of variance explained by the significant SNP was between 0.4 and 7.0% for milk yield and between 0.1 and 13.8% for conformation traits. This study is the first attempt to identify SNP associated with milk yield and conformation in dairy goats. Two genome-wise significant SNP for milk yield and 3 SNP for conformation of udder attachment, udder depth, and front legs were found. Our results suggest that conformation traits have a polygenic

  9. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmand, C N; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, C F

    2015-01-01

    relations with characteristics of sow nutrition, litter size, farrowing, and composition of mammary secreta (independent variables). Litter size was positively related with both CY and MY in wk 1 to 4 (P protein concentration was negatively correlated with MY in all 4 wk (P ... indicated that high yielding sows were unable to maintain milk protein synthesis during lactation. Additionally, mean intake of ME prepartum (P MY and the BW of the sow on d 3 was included in the regression model for MY in wk 1 (P ... yield (MY; 36–60 h postpartum), and the mean MY in wk 1 to 4 of lactation. Therefore, the study investigated how factors related with sow nutrition, litter characteristics, farrowing characteristics, and composition of mammary secreta affected sow productivity. Data obtained from 5 previous sow...

  10. Yield gap analyses to estimate attainable bovine milk yields and evaluate options to increase production in Ethiopia and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Dianne; Ash, Andrew; Prestwidge, Di; Godde, Cécile M; Henderson, Ben; Duncan, Alan; Blummel, Michael; Ramana Reddy, Y; Herrero, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Livestock provides an important source of income and nourishment for around one billion rural households worldwide. Demand for livestock food products is increasing, especially in developing countries, and there are opportunities to increase production to meet local demand and increase farm incomes. Estimating the scale of livestock yield gaps and better understanding factors limiting current production will help to define the technological and investment needs in each livestock sector. The aim of this paper is to quantify livestock yield gaps and evaluate opportunities to increase dairy production in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, using case studies from Ethiopia and India. We combined three different methods in our approach. Benchmarking and a frontier analysis were used to estimate attainable milk yields based on survey data. Household modelling was then used to simulate the effects of various interventions on dairy production and income. We tested interventions based on improved livestock nutrition and genetics in the extensive lowland grazing zone and highland mixed crop-livestock zones of Ethiopia, and the intensive irrigated and rainfed zones of India. Our analyses indicate that there are considerable yield gaps for dairy production in both countries, and opportunities to increase production using the interventions tested. In some cases, combined interventions could increase production past currently attainable livestock yields.

  11. Genetics of heat tolerance for milk yield and quality in Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Stefani, G; El Faro, L

    2017-01-01

    Tropical and sub-tropical climates are characterized by high temperature and humidity, during at least part of the year. Consequently, heat stress is common in Holstein cattle and productive and reproductive losses are frequent. Our objectives were as follows: (1) to quantify losses in production and quality of milk due to heat stress; (2) to estimate genetic correlations within and between milk yield (MY) and milk quality traits; and (3) to evaluate the trends of genetic components of tolerance to heat stress in multiple lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows. Thus, nine analyses using two-trait random regression animal models were carried out to estimate variance components and genetic parameters over temperature-humidity index (THI) values for MY and milk quality traits (three lactations: MY×fat percentage (F%), MY×protein percentage (P%) and MY×somatic cell score (SCS)) of Brazilian Holstein cattle. It was demonstrated that the effects of heat stress can be harmful for traits related to milk production and milk quality of Holstein cattle even though most herds were maintained in a modified environment, for example, with fans and sprinklers. For MY, the effect of heat stress was more detrimental in advanced lactations (-0.22 to -0.52 kg/day per increase of 1 THI unit). In general, the mean heritability estimates were higher for lower THI values and longer days in milk for all traits. In contrast, the heritability estimates for SCS increased with increasing THI values in the second and third lactation. For each trait studied, lower genetic correlations (different from unity) were observed between opposite extremes of THI (THI 47 v. THI 80) and in advanced lactations. The genetic correlations between MY and milk quality trait varied across the THI scale and lactations. The genotype×environment interaction due to heat stress was more important for MY and SCS, particularly in advanced lactations, and can affect the genetic relationship between MY and milk quality

  12. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield, time for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadmand, C N; Krogh, U; Hansen, C F; Theil, P K

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the concurrent impact of sow and litter characteristics on sow productivity. Sow productivity was defined as colostrum yield (CY), onset of lactation (the time point when milk secretion increased steeply, approximately 31 h postpartum), transition milk yield (MY; 36-60 h postpartum), and the mean MY in wk 1 to 4 of lactation. Therefore, the study investigated how factors related with sow nutrition, litter characteristics, farrowing characteristics, and composition of mammary secreta affected sow productivity. Data obtained from 5 previous sow experiments were used. The variables describing sow productivity were all defined as dependent variables and Pearson coefficient of correlation was used to examine relations among dependent variables. The results showed that CY was positively correlated with transition MY and MY in wk 1 and 2 of lactation (P lactation was positively correlated with transition MY (P lactation (P lactation. Additionally, mean intake of ME prepartum ( lactation. In conclusion, when maximizing sow productivity in the future, it may be rewarding to pay attention to sow productivity in the colostrum period and around time for onset of lactation, and special attention should be given to dietary supplies of protein and essential AA.

  13. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p piglet serum (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p < 0.05), even though there was no difference in daily feed intake between the treatments. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during lactation, whereas soybean oil supplementation resulted in severe BW loss.

  14. Dairy cows fed on tropical legume forages: effects on milk yield, nutrients use efficiency and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Montoya, J M; García, R A; Ramos, R A; Flores, J M; Alas, E A; Corea, E E

    2018-01-02

    Two trials with multiparous dairy cows were conducted. Experiment 1 tested the effects of increasing forage proportion in the diet (500, 600, and 700 g/kg DM) when a mixed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and jackbean (Cannavalia ensiformis) silage was used as forage. Experiment 2 studied the substitution of sorghum silage and soybean meal by jackbean silage or fresh cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) forage in the diet. All diets were iso-energetic and iso-proteic. In each experiment, 30 cows were used and separated into three groups. In experiment 1, there were no differences in dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield (MY), or apparent total tract digestibility (aTTd) among the three diets, but milk fat content increased with increasing forage proportion, even though the similar neutral detergent fiber of all diets. Nitrogen use efficiency was highest in the diet containing 600 g forage/kg DM, and some evidence was observed for a better profitability with this forage proportion. In experiment 2, feeding legumes increased DMI despite no effects on aTTd. Milk yield increased in line with DMI, with a larger increase for the fresh cowpea. Nitrogen use efficiency and milk composition were not affected by the diets. The increased MY and lower feed costs increased the economic benefits when feeding legumes, particularly when feeding fresh cowpea. Feeding fresh cowpea or jackbean silage to dairy cows appears to be an alternative to soybean as protein source, ideally at a forage proportions of 600 g/kg DM, without altering milk yield and quality and increasing the farm profitability.

  15. Modeling homeorhetic trajectories of milk component yields, body composition and dry-matter intake in dairy cows: Influence of parity, milk production potential and breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J B; Friggens, N C; van Laar, H; Ingvartsen, K L; Sauvant, D

    2017-11-03

    The control of nutrient partitioning is complex and affected by many factors, among them physiological state and production potential. Therefore, the current model aims to provide for dairy cows a dynamic framework to predict a consistent set of reference performance patterns (milk component yields, body composition change, dry-matter intake) sensitive to physiological status across a range of milk production potentials (within and between breeds). Flows and partition of net energy toward maintenance, growth, gestation, body reserves and milk components are described in the model. The structure of the model is characterized by two sub-models, a regulating sub-model of homeorhetic control which sets dynamic partitioning rules along the lactation, and an operating sub-model that translates this into animal performance. The regulating sub-model describes lactation as the result of three driving forces: (1) use of previously acquired resources through mobilization, (2) acquisition of new resources with a priority of partition towards milk and (3) subsequent use of resources towards body reserves gain. The dynamics of these three driving forces were adjusted separately for fat (milk and body), protein (milk and body) and lactose (milk). Milk yield is predicted from lactose and protein yields with an empirical equation developed from literature data. The model predicts desired dry-matter intake as an outcome of net energy requirements for a given dietary net energy content. The parameters controlling milk component yields and body composition changes were calibrated using two data sets in which the diet was the same for all animals. Weekly data from Holstein dairy cows was used to calibrate the model within-breed across milk production potentials. A second data set was used to evaluate the model and to calibrate it for breed differences (Holstein, Danish Red and Jersey) on the mobilization/reconstitution of body composition and on the yield of individual milk components

  16. RESEARCH ON THE INFLLUENCE OF THE CALVING INTERVAL ON MILK YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to study the influence of the calving interval on milk yield for the Romanian Brown breed, using 950 lactations, of which: 573 lactations (60.31 % belonged to the over 400 days calving interval and 377 lactations (39.69% belonged to the 351-400 days calving interval. The calving interval varied between 446.41±18.94 days, the highest length for the 51 dairy cows which had parturition in September and 373.49 ±14.28 days, the shortest length for 53 cows which calved in October. The average calving interval for the cows with a calving interval longer than 400 days accounted for 425.58±14.10 days, while the average calving interval for the cows with this reproductionindicator between 351 and 400 days was 358.65±10.07 days. For the cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days, milk yield accounted for 4,682.5±124.92 while for the cows whose calving interval varied between 351 and 400 days registered 4,240.0±215.10 kg. The calculations revealed a gross product of Lei 6,087 per lactation in case of cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days and Lei 5,512 in case of the cows whose calving interval varied between 351-400 days. For an average difference of 66.93 days calving interval between the two calving interval size groups taken into consideration, the milk yield difference accounted for 442.50 kg in the benefit of the cows with the calving interval longer than 400 days. Also, a difference of Lei 575 was recorded in the favor of the cows with calving intervals longer than 400 days because they registered higher a milk yield. This means Lei 8.59 additional income per cow and calving interval day longer than 400 days.

  17. Relationship among the cheese yield, the characteristics of the curd and those of buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zicarelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Correlation coefficients were evaluated between the theoretical cheese yield (ThCY, the real yield at 4 (FCY and 28 h (28CY, the curd dry matter (CDM and the relationships with the percentage of proteins and milk characteristics. Milk samples were collected every 50 days from 60 buffaloes (326 samples that were half-sibs (through paternal or maternal lineage ascertained by DNA test, bred in two farms. Positive correlations were found between FCY and 28CY and the enzymatic phase of coagulation and with the milk content in DM, proteins, casein and lipids. Negative correlations were found with lactose and urea milk content. These yields increased when the percentage of DM, proteins and hash of the curd were lower and that of lipids was higher. The 28CY is correlated with ThCY (r = 0.762; P < 0.01 and with the CDM (r = 0.809; P < 0.01. A high 28CY was also characterized by a high 28CY/% proteins ratio and CDM/% proteins ratio. The CDM was higher when the DM of milk and its content in proteins, casein and lipids were higher and when the content in lactose was lower. A correlation (r = 0.501; P < 0.01 was observed between the CDM and the DM percentage of the curd. For the other components the correlations found were the same as for the 28CY. The 28CY/% proteins enhanced at the increasing lipid content of the milk (r = 0.417; P < 0.01 and at decreasing content in urea (r = - 0.317; P < 0.01 and freezing point (r = - 0.123; P < 0.01. The CDM /% proteins was positively influences by fat (r = 0.596; P < 0.01 and lactose (r = - 0.341; P < 0.01. The ThCY/28CY was negatively influenced by “R” and by the pH value and positively correlated with the lipid content of milk.

  18. Effect of hoof trimmer intervention in moderately lame cows on lameness progression and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, A; Singh, N; Leonardi, C; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hoof trimmer intervention (HTI) in moderately lame cows on lameness progression and milk yield. Two freestall Holstein herds were enrolled. Cows were milked 2 (herd A: 2,374 cows) or 3 (herd B: 2,800 cows) times a day. Within each dairy, moderately lame cows [locomotion score (LS) = 3 on a 5-point scale] were randomly assigned to control group (CON; herd A = 66, herd B = 84) or treatment group (HTI; evaluated and treated by the hoof trimmer under researchers' supervision; herd A = 73; herd B = 75). Enrollment criteria were 10 kg/d of milk yield, not selected for therapeutic trimming 2 mo before enrollment, and >14 observations of daily milk yield during the study period. Biweekly lameness scoring (LS ≤2, LS = 3, LS ≥4) was conducted up to 6 wk post-intervention. Lesion type and severity records were collected at intervention from HTI cows and up to 6 wk post-intervention from all enrolled cows identified as lame by farm employees. Daily milk yield data were collected from -1 to 6 wk relative to intervention using Afifarm (Afimilk Ltd., Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) records. No treatment effect was detected on the predicted probability of locomotion score, but the predicted probability of LS ≥3 decreased over time in herd B, whereas in herd A, it initially decreased but later increased. A tendency for a treatment by time interaction was observed in herd A; at 2 wk post-intervention, the predicted probability for LS ≥3 was higher for HTI (0.69) than for CON (0.43), but similar at 4 wk (0.41 HTI, 0.49 CON) and 6 wk (0.77 HTI, 0.73 CON). At intervention, most study cows had no lesions (41.2%), sole hemorrhages (28.4%), thin soles (8.8%), or vertical fissure (6.8%). During the 6 wk following intervention, a similar proportion of cows were identified as lame in CON (8.7%) and HTI (6.7%) groups. In herd A, milk yield (least squares means ± standard error) was similar for CON (42.0 ± 0.77 kg/d) and HTI (42.3

  19. Fluctuations in milk yield are heritable and can be used as a resilience indicator to breed healthy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgersma, G.G.; Jong, de G.; Linde, van der R.; Mulder, H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic milking systems record an enormous amount of data on milk yield and the cow itself. These type of big data are expected to contain indicators for health and resilience of cows. In this study, the aim was to define and estimate heritabilities for traits related with fluctuations in daily

  20. Leptin concentrations in relation to energy balance, milk yield, intake, live weight and estrus in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefers, S.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Delavaud, C.; Chilliard, Y.; Lende, van der T.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe fluctuations in leptin concentrations during late pregnancy and lactation and to investigate how those fluctuations are related to energy balance, milk yield, milk components, dry matter intake, live weight, first postpartum luteal activity, and first

  1. GENETIC GAINS OF MILK YIELD AND MILK COMPOSITION AS REALIZED RESPONSE TO DAIRY COW SELECTION IN BBPTU-HPT BATURRADEN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Rahayu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to estimate the heritabilities, examine the effects of dairy femaleselection and calculate the genetic gains on milk yield and milk composition in Baturraden Dairy CattleBreeding and Forage Centre (Balai Besar Perbibitan Ternak Unggul dan Hijauan Pakan Ternak /BBPTU–HPT Baturraden, Indonesia. The first lactation records of 221 dairy cows from 2006 to 2014were used. Heritabilities were estimated by paternal half-sib correlation. Comparison of averageperformances between daughter population (Ā and initial dam population before selection ( wereconducted by Z-test. Annual genetic gain was calculated as genetic gain per generation (the differencesbetween Ā dan divided by generation interval. Heritabilities for milk fat percentage (FP, milk fatyield (FY, milk protein percentage (PP and milk protein yield (PY were 0.46, 0.30, 0.28 and 0.17,respectively. A significant increase (P=0.025 in the total milk yield (TMY from the first generation(G1 to the second generation (G2 resulted in a high significant decrease in the FP (P=0.004. Geneticgains of TMY, FP and PP were 9.76 kg, -0.04% and -0.01% per year, respectively. It is concluded thatselection for higher TMY only negatively affect FP and PP. Selection can be applied based on FY to avoid the decrease of FP. Negative effects of genetic-environmental interaction resulted in slowergenetic gain because the imported cows needed time to adapt to the local environment.

  2. Bacterial subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk yield in low-input dairy goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelasakis, A I; Angelidis, A S; Giannakou, R; Filioussis, G; Kalamaki, M S; Arsenos, G

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to record the major pathogens associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM), (2) to calculate their incidence during the milking period, and (3) to estimate the effect of SCM on daily milk yield (DMY) for goats reared under low-input management schemes. Dairy goats (n=590) of Skopelos and indigenous Greek breeds from 4 herds were randomly selected for the study. The study included monthly monitoring, milk yield recording, and bacteriological analyses of milk of individual goats during the course of 2 successive milking periods. Incidence and cumulative incidence were calculated for SCM cases. Moreover, 2 mixed linear regression models were built to assess the effects of (1) SCM and (2) different pathogens isolated from SCM cases, on DMY. The estimated incidence and cumulative incidence of SCM for the first and the second year of the study were 69.5 and 96.4 new cases of SCM/1,000 goat-months, and 24.1 and 31.7%, respectively. A total of 755 milk samples were subjected to microbiological examination, resulting in 661 positive cultures. Coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 50.2 and 34.5% of the positive cultures, respectively. The incidence of infections (new infections per 1,000 goat-months) for the first and the second year of the study were 34 and 53 for coagulase-negative staphylococci, 23 and 28 for coagulase-positive staphylococci, 3 and 5 for Streptococcus/Enterococcus spp., and 5.5 and 9.1 for gram-negative bacteria. Goats with SCM had lower DMY when compared with goats without SCM (ca. 47g/d, corresponding to a 5.7% decrease in DMY). In particular, goats with SCM due to coagulase-positive staphylococci infection produced approximately 80g/d less milk (a reduction of ca. 9.7%) compared with uninfected ones, whereas SCM due to gram-negative bacteria resulted in approximately 15% reduction in DMY. Investigating the epidemiology of SCM and its effects on production traits is critical for

  3. Milk Production of Adapted Saudi Holstein Cows in Relation to Body Condition Scores across Different Stages of Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    F.S. Al-Hur

    2013-01-01

    Milk yield from adapted cows is facing problems due to varying climatic conditions and adaptability of imported animals. The main objective of study was to describe the relationships between body condition scores and daily milk yield across different days in milk. Genetic (co) variances between Body Condition Score (BCS) and test-day milk yield (TDMkkg) were estimated using a random regression animal model extended to multivariate analysis. A cubic random regression was sufficient to mo...

  4. Influence of raw milk quality on processed dairy products: How do raw milk quality test results relate to product quality and yield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steven C; Martin, Nicole H; Barbano, David M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the influence of raw milk quality on the quality of processed dairy products and offers a perspective on the merits of investing in quality. Dairy farmers are frequently offered monetary premium incentives to provide high-quality milk to processors. These incentives are most often based on raw milk somatic cell and bacteria count levels well below the regulatory public health-based limits. Justification for these incentive payments can be based on improved processed product quality and manufacturing efficiencies that provide the processor with a return on their investment for high-quality raw milk. In some cases, this return on investment is difficult to measure. Raw milks with high levels of somatic cells and bacteria are associated with increased enzyme activity that can result in product defects. Use of raw milk with somatic cell counts >100,000cells/mL has been shown to reduce cheese yields, and higher levels, generally >400,000 cells/mL, have been associated with textural and flavor defects in cheese and other products. Although most research indicates that fairly high total bacteria counts (>1,000,000 cfu/mL) in raw milk are needed to cause defects in most processed dairy products, receiving high-quality milk from the farm allows some flexibility for handling raw milk, which can increase efficiencies and reduce the risk of raw milk reaching bacterial levels of concern. Monitoring total bacterial numbers in regard to raw milk quality is imperative, but determining levels of specific types of bacteria present has gained increasing importance. For example, spores of certain spore-forming bacteria present in raw milk at very low levels (e.g., quality incentive programs in the United States but is used in other countries (e.g., the Netherlands). Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Buffalo milk composition, processing factors, whey constituents recovery and yield in manufacturing Mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cavalcanti SALES

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mozzarella cheese is typically from Italy and consumed in the whole world. The aim of this study was to characterize the manufacture of Mozzarella produced similarly to Italian in a Brazilian dairy industry regarding the milk composition usage, factors involved in the production process, use of raw materials and cheese yield. Was monitored the Mozzarella yield (MY, milk composition, manufacturing of Mozzarella cheese and recovery of whey constituents of 30 lots of Mozzarella cheese in a dairy brazilian industry. Overall, processing reached an adequate MY for this type of cheese, being below 5.0 L kg-1. We find values of 5.93 ± 1.87; 34.97 ± 2.70; 33.39 ± 2.85; 95.04 ± 4.18; 44.02 ± 2.00; and 66.82 ± 3.36 respectively for recovery of fat, protein, casein, lactose, total solids and solids-not-fat in whey. The milk used by the dairy industry had satisfactory physicochemical characteristics. The manufacturing of Mozzarella cheese was efficient.

  6. Responses to Starch Infusion on Milk Synthesis in Low Yield Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starch infusion on production, metabolic parameters and relative mRNA abundance was investigated in low yield lactating cows from 86 days in milk. Six Holstein cows fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were arranged into one of two complete 3×3 Latin squares and infused with a starch solution containing 800 grams starch for 16 days. The three treatments were: i ruminal and abomasal infusion with water (Control; ii ruminal infusion with cornstarch solution and abomasal infusion with water (Rumen; iii ruminal infusion with water and abomasal infusion with cornstarch solution (Abomasum. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 among the three treatments with low yield lactating cows in feed and energy intake, milk yield and composition, plasma metabolism, or even on gene expression. However, cows receiving starch through rumen performed better than directly through the abomasum during the glucose tolerance test procedure with a higher area under the curve (AUC; p = 0.08 and shorter half-time (t1/2; p = 0.11 of plasma insulin, therefore, it increased glucose disposal, which stated a lipid anabolism other than mobilization after energy supplementation. In conclusion, extra starch infusion at concentration of 800 g/d did not enhance energy supplies to the mammary gland and improve the lactating performance in low yield lactating cows.

  7. Relationship between genetic polymorphism of κ-casein and quantitative milk yield traits in cattle breeds and crossbreds in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đedović Radica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality and yield of milk, and therefore of dairy products as well, depends directly on their protein composition. Milk gene proteins represent structural locuses that are functionally associated with milk production. In cattle selection a special importance is attached to the variability of kappa casein (κ-CN as one of the four casein milk proteins. Genotypes of 21 Simmental breed cows, 20 crossbred cows obtained by crossing of Simmental and Red Holstein breed, and 25 cows of autochthonous Busha breed were determined for kappa casein by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR- RFLP of amplified DNA. The κ-CN genotype frequencies for Simmental breed were: 42.8; 47.6 and 9.6 % for AA, and BB genotype, for crossbreds: 75.0; 25.0 and 0.0% and for Busha individuals: 41.7; 50.0 and 8.3 %, respectively. Frequencies of A and B alleles, assessed on the basis of genotypic frequencies were 0.667 and 0.333 for Simmental breed, 0.875 and 0.125 for crossbreds and 0.667 and 0.333 for autochthonous Busha cattle breed, respectively. For confirming the phenotypic variability of milk yield in standard lactation, yield of milk fat and the content of milk fat per κ-CN genotypes within breeds observed the fixed model which included the breed effect, lactation in order and effect of κ-CN genotype (AA, and BB was used. The κ-CN genotype statistically significantly (p ≤0.05 influenced milk yield and highly significantly (p ≤0.01 milk fat yield, while the content of milk fat was not statistically significantly (p>0.05 influenced in examined animals.

  8. Association of rumination time and health status with milk yield and composition in early-lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E I; Asselstine, V H; LeBlanc, S J; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the associations of rumination time (RT) and health status with milk yield and milk composition. This study used 339 dairy cows from 4 commercial dairy farms in Ontario, Canada (first lactation, n = 107; second lactation, n = 112; ≥third lactation, n = 120). Rumination time was monitored (24 h/d) using an automated system from 1 to 28 d in milk (DIM). Cows were milked 3×/d on each farm, and 2 farms recorded milk weights at each milking to determine daily milk yield (n = 170). Cows were also monitored for milk composition (fat and protein content) 1×/wk. Last, subclinical ketosis (SCK) was diagnosed 1×/wk; cows with at least one blood sample with β-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.2 mmol/L postcalving were diagnosed with SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were also recorded. Cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy cows that had no SCK or any other health issue (HLT; n = 139); cows that were treated for at least one health issue other than SCK (HLT+; n = 50); SCK cows with no other health problems during transition (HYK; n = 97); or cows that had SCK and one or more other health problems (HYK+; n = 53). All data were summarized by week across cows, and the associations between rumination time and milk yield (n = 170) and milk composition (n = 339) were modeled. Across all lactations, and including all health categories, milk yield increased by week, whereas fat and protein content both decreased by week. A positive association was found between summarized RT and milk yield in first-lactation (+0.006 ± 0.003 kg/min of RT) and second-lactation (+0.015 ± 0.004 kg/min of RT) cows from 4 to 28 DIM, as well as in ≥third-lactation cows; however, the relationship between RT and milk yield differed across weeks in those cows. A negative association between RT and milk fat content was found in ≥third-lactation cows (-0.002 ± 0.00059 percentage points/min of RT). From

  9. An investigation into heterogeneity of variance for milk and fat yields of Holstein cows in Brazilian herd environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Claudio Napolis

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of variance in Brazilian herd environments was studied using first-lactation 305-day mature equivalent (ME milk and fat records of Holstein cows. Herds were divided into two categories, according to low or high herd-year phenotypic standard deviation for ME milk (HYSD. There were 330 sires with daughter records in both HYSD categories. Components of (covariance, heritability, and genetic correlations for milk and fat yields were estimated using a sire model from bivariate analyses with a restricted maximum likelihood (REML derivative-free algorithm. Sire and residual variances for milk yield in low HYSD herds were 79 and 57% of those obtained in high HYSD herd. For fat yield they were 67 and 60%, respectively. Heritabilities for milk and fat yields in low HYSD herds were larger (0.30 and 0.22 than in high HYSD herds (0.23 and 0.20. Genetic correlation between expression in low and high HYSD herds was 0.997 for milk yield and 0.985 for fat yield. Expected correlated response in low HYSD herds based on sires selected on half-sister information from high HYSD was 0.89 kg/kg for milk and 0.80 kg/kg for fat yield. Genetic evaluations in Brazil need to account for heterogeneity of variances to increase the accuracy of evaluations and the selection efficiency for milk and fat yields of Holstein cows. Selection response will be lower in low variance herds than in high variance herds because of reduced differences in daughter response and among breeding values of sires in low HYSD herds. Genetic investments in sire selection to improve production are more likely to be successful in high HYSD herds than in low HYSD Brazilian herds.

  10. Association of lameness with milk yield and lactation curves in Chios dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelasakis, Athanasios I; Arsenos, Georgios; Valergakis, Georgios E; Banos, Georgios

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study was twofold: (i) to quantify the differences in daily milk yield (DMY) and total milk yield (TMY) between lame and non-lame dairy ewes and (ii) to determine the shape of lactation curves around the lameness incident. The overall study was a prospective study of lameness for the surveyed sheep population, with a nested study including the selection of matching controls for each lame ewe separately. Two intensively reared flocks of purebred Chios ewes and a total of 283 ewes were used. Data, including gait assessment and DMY records, were collected on a weekly basis during on-farm visits across the milking period. A general linear model was developed for the calculation of lactation curves of lame and non-lame ewes, whereas one-way ANOVA was used for the comparisons between lame ewes and their controls. Lameness incidence was 12.4 and 16.8% on Farms A and B, respectively. Average DMY in lame ewes was significantly lower (213.8 g, P < 0.001) compared with the rest of the flock, where DMY averaged 1.340 g. The highest DMY reduction in lame ewes was observed during the week 16 of the milking period (P < 0.001), whereas the reduction of DMY, for lame ewes, remained significant at P < 0.001 level from week 8 to week 28 of milking. Comparisons between lame and controls revealed that at the week of lameness diagnosis a significant DMY reduction (P ≤ 0.001) was observed in lame ewes (about 32.5%), which was maximised 1 week later (35.8%, P ≤ 0.001) and continued for several weeks after recovery, resulting in 19.3% lower TMY for lame ewes for the first 210 d of the milking period (P < 0.01). Moreover, at flock level, TMY for non-lame and lame ewes, as calculated by the general linear model, was 318.9 and 268.0 kg, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate evidence of significant financial losses in dairy sheep due to lameness which, however, need to be accurately estimated in further, more detailed, analyses.

  11. Meta-analysis of relationships between enteric methane yield and milk fatty acid profile in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lingen, H J; Crompton, L A; Hendriks, W H; Reynolds, C K; Dijkstra, J

    2014-11-01

    Various studies have indicated a relationship between enteric methane (CH4) production and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cattle. However, the number of studies investigating such a relationship is limited and the direct relationships reported are mainly obtained by variation in CH4 production and milk FA concentration induced by dietary lipid supplements. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to quantify relationships between CH4 yield (per unit of feed and unit of milk) and milk FA profile in dairy cattle and to develop equations to predict CH4 yield based on milk FA profile of cows fed a wide variety of diets. Data from 8 experiments encompassing 30 different dietary treatments and 146 observations were included. Yield of CH4 measured in these experiments was 21.5 ± 2.46 g/kg of dry matter intake (DMI) and 13.9 ± 2.30 g/kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). Correlation coefficients were chosen as effect size of the relationship between CH4 yield and individual milk FA concentration (g/100g of FA). Average true correlation coefficients were estimated by a random-effects model. Milk FA concentrations of C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C16:0, and C16:0-iso were significantly or tended to be positively related to CH4 yield per unit of feed. Concentrations of trans-6+7+8+9 C18:1, trans-10+11 C18:1, cis-11 C18:1, cis-12 C18:1, cis-13 C18:1, trans-16+cis-14 C18:1, and cis-9,12 C18:2 in milk fat were significantly or tended to be negatively related to CH4 yield per unit of feed. Milk FA concentrations of C10:0, C12:0, C14:0-iso, C14:0, cis-9 C14:1, C15:0, and C16:0 were significantly or tended to be positively related to CH4 yield per unit of milk. Concentrations of C4:0, C18:0, trans-10+11 C18:1, cis-9 C18:1, cis-11 C18:1, and cis-9,12 C18:2 in milk fat were significantly or tended to be negatively related to CH4 yield per unit of milk. Mixed model multiple regression and a stepwise selection procedure of milk FA based on the Bayesian information

  12. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected

  13. Corn silage replacement with barley silage in dairy cows' diet does not change milk quality, cheese quality and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorati, Luciano; Boselli, Leonardo; Pirlo, Giacomo; Moschini, Maurizio; Masoero, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Considering that water availability for agricultural needs is being restricted, an alternative to corn in animal nutrition should be explored in the Po Valley. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of either a partial (Trial I) or a total (Trial II) corn silage substitution with barley silage in dairy cows' diet on milk yield and composition, its coagulation properties, cheese yield and the sensorial profile of 16-month-aged Grana Padano cheese. A partial or a total substitution of corn silage with barley silage had no effect on milk yield. Milk fat content in Trial I and milk urea content in both trials were higher with barley silage based diets than in corn silage based diets. No effects were observed concerning the lactodinamographic profile for milk aptitude to cheese-making, cheese yield and its organoleptic traits between feed treatments in Trials I and II. In both trials, hardness, friability and solubility scores were generally lower than reference values, whereas deformability, elasticity and stickiness scores were generally higher than reference values. A partial or a total substitution of corn silage with barley silage in diets for dairy cows did not induce any negative effects on animal performance, nor on milk-quality traits, cheese quality and yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Age-parity-season adjustment factors for milk and fat yields of dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, C M; Thompson, J R; Bradford, G E

    1984-08-01

    Dairy Herd Improvement records from 1976 through 1981 were used to obtain dairy goat age-parity-season adjustment factors for milk and fat yields. Only records from purebred and American Alpine, Nubian, Saanen, and Toggenburg does were used. Nubians were analyzed separately from other breeds. Factors were calculated for two parity groups, two seasons, and two regions. Mixed model equations were used to remove effects of doe, breed, and year. Only lactations of at least 120 days were used. Resulting curves showed maximum production between 24 and 50 mo of age. Does from the northeastern United States reached maximum production earlier than does from western states.

  15. Effect of fortification of fresh cow milk with coconut milk on the proximate composition and yield of warankashi, a traditional cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheese is a concentrated dairy product produced by acid or rennet coagulation or curdling of milk, stirring and heating the curd, draining off the whey, collecting and pressing the curd. The effect of partial substitution of fresh cow milk with coconut milk on the yield and proximate composition of cheese was examined. Extracted coconut milk was mixed with fresh raw cow milk at varying proportions of 5%: 95%, 10%: 90%, 15%: 85%, 20%: 80%, 25%:75%, 70%: 30% and the control (0%:100% to produce cheese. The control and the partially substituted cheeses were stored in a refrigerator and examined for sensory quality, percentage yield, total titrable acidity, and proximate analysis. The yield of cheese showed significant (p< 0.05 decrease from 26.71% (control sample to 13.55% as the level of coconut milk increased. The total titrable acidity of cheese was found to be between the ranges of 0.20% - 0.29% which displayed a significant increase from 0.20% - 0.29%. The protein content of the cow-coconut cheese blends showed a significant difference (p<0.05 and an increase of 14.05%-15.33% (at 5%-30% substitution of coconut milk, with the control sample having 13.75%. There was also an increase in fat content from 9.20% - 9.64% (5% - 30% substitution of coconut milk, with the control sample having 8.94%. There was a decrease in the carbohydrate content of the cheese blends which ranged between 8.23% -2.82%, with the control sample having 9.60%. There was a significant decrease (p<0.05 in the ash content of the cow-coconut cheese blends, with the control sample having 1.02%. Significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in the colour, aroma, taste, texture, and overall acceptability as influenced by varying proportions of added coconut milk. The blend with 5% coconut milk and 95% cow milk was most acceptable by panellists. The work showed the potential of coconut as an alternative source of milk in cheese making with improved nutritional value and consumer

  16. Strategies for estimating the parameters needed for different test-day models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misztal, I.; Strabel, T.; Jamrozik, J.; Mäntysaari, E.A.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    2000-01-01

    Currently, most analyses of parameters in test-day models involve two types of models: random regression, where various functions describe variability of (co)variances with regard to days in milk, and multiple traits, where observations in adjacent days in milk are treated as one trait. The

  17. Effects of direct-fed Bacillus pumilus 8G-134 on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, feed conversion, and health condition of pre- and postpartum Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, S; Duersteler, M; Galbraith, E A; Cardoso, F C

    2015-09-01

    The usage of direct-fed microbials (DFM) has become common in the dairy industry, but questions regarding choice of strain, mode of action, and efficacy remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a DFM (Bacillus pumilus 8G-134) on pre- and postpartum performance and incidence of subclinical ketosis in early lactation. Forty-three multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design; cows in the direct-fed microbial treatment (DFMt, n=21) received 5.0×10(9) cfu/cow of B. pumilus in 28 g of a maltodextrin carrier, whereas cows in the control treatment (CON, n=22) received 28 g of maltodextrin carrier alone. Treatments were top-dressed on the total mixed ration daily. Treatments were applied from 21 d before expected calving date to 154 d after calving. Cows on treatment DFMt tended to have lower serum haptoglobin concentration than CON cows on d 14. Cows on treatment DFMt had higher IgA concentrations in milk than CON cows during the first week after calving. Cows fed DFMt had higher yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein during the second week of lactation than CON; however, we found no differences between treatments on milk yield and milk components overall. Cows on DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and to have lower prevalence of subclinical ketosis (beta-hydroxybutyrate >1.2 mmol/L) on d 5 than cows fed CON. Dry matter intake, body weight, and body condition score were not affected by DFMt supplementation. Milk production efficiencies (calculated based on fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk) were higher by 0.1 kg of milk per kilogram of dry matter intake in cows that received DFMt compared with cows that received CON. In conclusion, cows receiving DFMt tended to have lower incidence of subclinical ketosis than cows receiving CON. Cows fed DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and evidence for greater immunity than CON

  18. Effect of Ruminally-protected leucine supplement on milk yield and plasma amino acids in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. KRÍZOVÁ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of leucine supplement in the form of rumen-protected tablets on milk yield and composition and plasma amino acids in four high-yielding lactating Holstein cows. The experiment was carried out as a cross-over procedure and was divided into 4 periods of 14 d (10 d preliminary period and 4 d experimental period. Cows were fed ad libitum a diet based on maize silage, lucerne hay and a supplemental mixture. The diet, defficient in methionine, lysine, and leucine, was supplemented with methionine+lysine (Control or methionine+lysine+leucine (Leu in rumen protected form. The dry matter intake, milk yield and milk yield expressed in energy corrected milk did not differ significantly between the treatments. Milk protein content and yield did not show statistically significant variation. The contents and yield of casein, fat, lactose and urea were unaffected by the treatment. Blood metabolites did not vary between the treatments. The introduction of Leu resulted in higher plasma levels of proline (p

  19. Genome-wide association analysis to identify genotype × environment interaction for milk protein yield and level of somatic cell score as environmental descriptors in German Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, M; Reinhardt, F; Thaller, G; Bennewitz, J

    2013-01-01

    Genotype by environment interaction (G × E) has been widely reported in dairy cattle. If the environment can be measured on a continuous scale, reaction norms can be applied to study G × E. The average herd milk production level has frequently been used as an environmental descriptor because it is influenced by the level of feeding or the feeding regimen. Another important environmental factor is the level of udder health and hygiene, for which the average herd somatic cell count might be a descriptor. In the present study, we conducted a genome-wide association analysis to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that affect intercept and slope of milk protein yield reaction norms when using the average herd test-day solution for somatic cell score as an environmental descriptor. Sire estimates for intercept and slope of the reaction norms were calculated from around 12 million daughter records, using linear reaction norm models. Sires were genotyped for ~54,000 SNP. The sire estimates were used as observations in the association analysis, using 1,797 sires. Significant SNP were confirmed in an independent validation set consisting of 500 sires. A known major gene affecting protein yield was included as a covariable in the statistical model. Sixty (21) SNP were confirmed for intercept with P ≤ 0.01 (P ≤ 0.001) in the validation set, and 28 and 11 SNP, respectively, were confirmed for slope. Most but not all SNP affecting slope also affected intercept. Comparison with an earlier study revealed that SNP affecting slope were, in general, also significant for slope when the environment was modeled by the average herd milk production level, although the two environmental descriptors were poorly correlated. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of paratuberculosis on milk yield--A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAloon, Conor G; Whyte, Paul; More, Simon J; Green, Martin J; O'Grady, Luke; Garcia, AnaBelen; Doherty, Michael L

    2016-02-01

    Bovine paratuberculosis is a disease characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis causing protein-losing enteropathy. Adverse effects on animal productivity are key drivers in the attempt to control paratuberculosis at the farm level. Economic models require an accurate estimation of the production effects associated with paratuberculosis. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of paratuberculosis on milk production. A total of 20 effect estimates from 15 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. Substantial between-study heterogeneity was observed. Subgroup analysis by case definition and study design was carried out to investigate heterogeneity. The majority of between-study variation was attributed to studies that defined cases on serology. Calculation of a pooled effect estimate was only appropriate for studies that defined cases by organism detection. A reduction in milk yield, corrected for lactation number and herd of origin of 1.87 kg/d, equivalent to 5.9% of yield, was associated with fecal culture or PCR positivity in individual cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Milk yield, udder health and reproductive performance in Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Nils; Emanuelson, Ulf

    2009-11-01

    Organic dairy farming is an expanding segment of the dairy sector where cow management differs from the conventional model in many respects. Thus, a comparative evaluation of disease and welfare status in organically and conventionally managed dairy cows is required. Assessment of milk yield, udder health and reproductive performance (RP) was done in 20 organically and 20 conventionally managed Swedish dairy herds. In accordance with earlier findings we confirmed lower milk yield in organic cows. Udder health and RP were chosen as indicators of animal health in view of their clinical relevance and the availability of appropriate data bases providing good background knowledge for further animal health assessment. No obvious differences were found in the investigations of somatic cell count (SCC) profiles or time to veterinary-treated cases of mastitis between organically and conventional managed cows. Pregnancy success at first insemination, an appropriate measurement of RP with biological interpretation and background, did not reveal any difference between management types, whereas the hazard rate-ratio (HR) of having a calving-interval was significantly lower (HR=0.71) in organically managed cows. The calving-interval is an important financial determinator in dairy production, but it is not considered an optimal indicator of biologic relevance as it partially reflects farmer decisions. In conclusion, the organically managed cows in this study did not differ from conventionally managed cows in udder health or RP, with the exception of calving interval.

  2. Association of total-mixed-ration chemical composition with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccamo, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Licitra, G.; Petriglieri, R.; Terra, La F.; Pozzebon, A.; Ferguson, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the chemical composition of a total mixed ration (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 for milk, fat, and protein yield curves for 27 herds in Ragusa, Sicily. Before this study, standard yield curves were generated on

  3. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tempel Stumpf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test, and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day, sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

  4. Short communication: Estimating lactation curves for highly inhomogeneous milk yield data of an F2 population (Charolais × German Holstein).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, N; Trißl, S; Nürnberg, G

    2017-11-01

    Fitting of lactation curves is a common tool to obtain the entire milk yield as well as to estimate the main curve characteristic (such as day of peak milk yield) for a lactation. These models are primarily designed for dairy cattle, but have been applied to nondairy cattle breeds and also for other species. In this study we considered milk yield data of 197 F2 crossbred cows of Charolais and German Holstein (founder breeds) for the first and the beginning of the second lactation. The F2 cows showed a high variability regarding the length of lactation, which varied between 7 and 406 d in milk for the first lactation. Thus, the data also show high variation regarding the daily and overall milk yield. To obtain complete lactation curves, we evaluated the lactation models of Ali-Schaeffer and Wilmink. To compare the 2 lactation models, we evaluated the goodness of fit using 6 evaluation criteria. The results show that the model of Ali-Schaeffer performs better on these highly inhomogeneous data, in contrast to the model of Wilmink. We discuss our findings from a statistical point of view and present possible biological reasons for the high variability regarding milk yield within the F2 population. Hence our findings may be helpful when milk yield data of crosses between dairy and beef cows (dual purpose) are investigated, whose lactation curves may not show the typical characteristics of dairy cattle. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  5. Milk yield and somatic cell count during the following lactation after selective treatment of cows at dry-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; Torres, Audrey H; Degraves, Fred J

    2011-11-01

    Selective dry cow therapy (SDCT) has received increasing attention in recent years owing to global concerns over agricultural use of antimicrobial drugs and development of antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of SDCT on milk yield and somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy herds in the USA. Cows in four Ohio dairy herds were categorized into two groups (low-SCC and high-SCC) at dry-off based on their SCC and clinical mastitis (CM) history during the lactation preceding the dry-off. Low-SCC cows were randomly assigned to receive or not to receive intramammary antibiotics at dry-off. Milk yield and SCC of these cows during the following lactation were compared using linear mixed effects models, adjusting for parity, calving season, stage of lactation, previous lactation milk yield and herd. Milk yield of untreated and treated low-SCC cows at dry-off did not differ significantly during the following lactation. Overall, treated low-SCC cows had 16% lower SCC (approximately 35 000 cells/ml, P = 0·0267) than the untreated cows during the following lactation; however, the effect was variable in different herds. Moreover the impact of treatment, or the lack thereof, on milk yield varied considerably between herds. The results suggested that in some herds treating all cows at dry-off may be beneficial while in other herds leaving healthy cows without antibiotic dry cow treatment has no negative impact on milk yield or milk quality (SCC), and in fact, may be beneficial. Further studies are needed to identify characteristics of herds where treating all cows routinely at dry-off may be needed for maintaining good udder health and where switching to selective treatment of cows at dry-off would be the optimal approach to achieve best results.

  6. Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk nutrient recovery in curd, and cheese yield, efficiency and daily production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Gasparotto, V; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about cheese-making efficiency at the individual cow level, so our objective was to study the effects of herd productivity, individual herd within productivity class and breed of cow within herd by producing, then analyzing, 508 model cheeses from the milk of 508 cows of six different breeds reared in 41 multi-breed herds classified into two productivity classes (high v. low). For each cow we obtained six milk composition traits; four milk nutrient (fat, protein, solids and energy) recovery traits (REC) in curd; three actual % cheese yield traits (%CY); two theoretical %CYs (fresh cheese and cheese solids) calculated from milk composition; two overall cheese-making efficiencies (% ratio of actual to theoretical %CYs); daily milk yield (dMY); and three actual daily cheese yield traits (dCY). The aforementioned phenotypes were analyzed using a mixed model which included the fixed effects of herd productivity, parity, days in milk (DIM) and breed; the random effects were the water bath, vat, herd and residual. Cows reared in high-productivity herds yielded more milk with higher nutrient contents and more cheese per day, had greater theoretical %CY, and lower cheese-making efficiency than low-productivity herds, but there were no differences between them in terms of REC traits. Individual herd within productivity class was an intermediate source of total variation in REC, %CY and efficiency traits (10.0% to 17.2%), and a major source of variation in milk yield and dCY traits (43.1% to 46.3%). Parity of cows was an important source of variation for productivity traits, whereas DIM affected almost all traits. Breed within herd greatly affected all traits. Holsteins produced more milk, but Brown Swiss cows produced milk with higher actual and theoretical %CYs and cheese-making efficiency, so that the two large-framed breeds had the same dCY. Compared with the two large-framed breeds, the small Jersey cows produced much less milk, but with greater actual

  7. Effects of Moringa oleifera silage on milk yield, nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical indexes of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, B; Sun, J J; Chen, T; Sun, B L; He, Q; Chen, X Y; Zhang, Y L; Xi, Q Y

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) as a partial substitute of alfalfa hay on milk yield, nutrient apparent digestibility and serum biochemical indexes of dairy cows. MO was harvested at 120 days post-seeding. Fresh MO was cut, mixed with chopped oat hay (425:575 on a DM basis), ensiled and stored for 60 days. Sixty healthy Holstein dairy cows were allocated to one of three groups: NM (no MO or control), LM (low MO; 25% alfalfa hay and 50% maize silage were replaced by MO silage) or HM (high MO; 50% alfalfa hay and 100% maize silage were replaced by MO silage). The feeding trial lasted 35 days. The LM and HM diets did not affect dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield or milk composition (lactose, milk fat, milk protein and somatic cell count). The apparent digestibility of DM and NDF was lower for HM group than NM group. Additionally, there were no significant differences in serum biochemical indexes between the LM and NM groups. The HM group had lower serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher serum concentrations of urea than the NM group. The partial replacement of alfalfa hay (≤50%) and maize silage with MO silage had no negative effects on milk yield, in vivo nutrient apparent digestibility or serum biochemical indexes of lactating cows. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Impact of NDF degradability of corn silage on the milk yield potential of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Spanghero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability of corn silage samples, measured in vitro (ivNDFd by a filter bag system, was used to examine (i the relationship between the ivNDFd and that calculated from acid detergent lignin (L content (NDFd and (ii the impact of ivNDFd variations on the predicted milk yield (MY of dairy cows fed corn silage based diets. A total of 173 samples of corn silage were collected during a period of three years (2001-03 in different dairy farms of the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Each sample was analysed for chemical composition and was also tested in triplicate for the ivNDFd using the DaisyII incubator (Ankom, Tech. Co., Fairport, NY, USA with incubation time of 48hs. Moreover, the NDFd of samples was calculated from the L contents, while the measured ivNDFd values were used to estimate the NEl, the potential dry matter intakes (DMI and to predict the MY of cows. Corn silage samples of the three years were similar for NDF and starch contents (44.2 and 30.7% DM, on average, respectively while samples from 2003, in comparison with 2001 and 2002, had lower crude protein (6.9 vs 8.3-8.4% DM, P<0.01 and L contents (3.3 vs 3.6-3.9% DM, P<0.01 and higher ivNDFd values (53.3 vs 45.6-47.8%, P<0.01. The relationship between ivNDFd and NDFd was weak (R2=0.09, not significant. The MY predicted from the NEl content and DMI of corn silage (5.5 MJ/kg DM and 8.9 kg/d minus the maintenance energy costs, was 11.5 kg/d on average (coefficient of variation 20%. Our simulations indicate that a variation of ivNDFd by +1.0% changes the NEl of corn silage to have an expected variation in milk yield of +0.15 kg/d. If the ivNDFd is also used to predict the corn silage DMI then a +1.0% variation in ivNDFd of corn silage produces an overall +0.23 kg/d MY variation. The present results indicate that ivNDFd is highly variable in corn silage populations and differences in this nutritional parameter have an appreciable impact on the predicted milk

  9. Effects of genetic selection for milk yield on energy balance, levels of hormones, and metabolites in lactating cattle, and possible links to reduced fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Beerda, B.; Lende, van der T.

    2003-01-01

    Selection for a higher milk yield increases metabolic load via a higher yield per se and/or via physiological processes that facilitate milk yield, and it is difficult to differentiate between these two. Here, we aim to identify important pathways that contribute to the reduction in fertility

  10. A decision-tree model to detect post-calving diseases based on rumination, activity, milk yield, BW and voluntary visits to the milking robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, M; Antler, A; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Maltz, E; Halachmi, I

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of post-calving health problems is critical for dairy operations. Separating sick cows from the herd is important, especially in robotic-milking dairy farms, where searching for a sick cow can disturb the other cows' routine. The objectives of this study were to develop and apply a behaviour- and performance-based health-detection model to post-calving cows in a robotic-milking dairy farm, with the aim of detecting sick cows based on available commercial sensors. The study was conducted in an Israeli robotic-milking dairy farm with 250 Israeli-Holstein cows. All cows were equipped with rumination- and neck-activity sensors. Milk yield, visits to the milking robot and BW were recorded in the milking robot. A decision-tree model was developed on a calibration data set (historical data of the 10 months before the study) and was validated on the new data set. The decision model generated a probability of being sick for each cow. The model was applied once a week just before the veterinarian performed the weekly routine post-calving health check. The veterinarian's diagnosis served as a binary reference for the model (healthy-sick). The overall accuracy of the model was 78%, with a specificity of 87% and a sensitivity of 69%, suggesting its practical value.

  11. Effect of chosen factors on milk yield, basic composition and somatic cell count of organic milk of Brown short-haired goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Králíčková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of stage of lactation (SL, parity (PA, litter size (LS and month of kidding (MK on daily milk yield, basic composition and somatic cell count of organic goat milk were evaluated using 32 goats of Brown short-haired breed which were reared on an organic farm in Olešenka. Goats were on the 1st (n = 15, 2nd (n = 10 and 3rd (n = 7 lactation; 15 of them gave birth to singles and 17 to twins. Kidding occurred in January (n = 5, February (n = 13 and March (n = 8. During the experiment all goats were reared on permanent pasture, in one flock and under the identical conditions. The PA had a significant effect on all monitored parameters; also the SL had a significant effect on all monitored parameters except SCC. Systematic factors LS and MK had a significant effect only on DMY and SCC; on the other hand, these factors had no significant effect on basic milk composition. The milk fat was the most variable component of the milk. On the other hand the lactose content was during lactation very well-balanced. SCCs were relatively low which indicates good health status of mammary gland. The highest DMY, SCC and contents of basic milk components, except lactose, were found in goats on PA2. The higher DMY was expected in goats with twins compared to goats with singles, but the opposite trend proved to be true.

  12. Correlation between the milk vein internal diameter surface andmilk yield in Simmental cows

    OpenAIRE

    GRACNER, DAMJAN; GILLIGAN, GERARD; GARVEY, NICKHOLAS; Moreira,Luis; Harvey, Patricia; TIERNEY, AMANDA; ZOBEL, Robert

    2015-01-01

    It is known that milk production is directly correlated with the blood flow through the mammary gland, and milk veins drain approximately 90% of the total blood passing through this organ. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between milk vein internal diameter surface and milk production in Simmental cows. The milk vein internal diameter was measured by ultrasonography in heifers during the 2nd month of the first gravidity, and again on day 50 following the second c...

  13. Models to Estimate Lactation Curves of Milk Yield and Somatic Cell Count in Dairy Cows at the Herd Level for the Use in Simulations and Predictive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2016-01-01

    of dairy herds. Data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to determine parity traits in milk production regarding milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Parity was stratified in first, second, and third and higher for milk, and first to sixth and higher for somatic cell count. Fitting....... The correlation between lactations for milk yield and somatic cell count was 0.2–0.6 and significant on more than 95% of farms. The variation in the daily milk yield was observed to be a source of variation to the somatic cell count, and the total somatic cell count was less correlated with the milk production...... than somatic cells per milliliter. A positive correlation was found between relative levels of the total somatic cell count and the milk yield. The variation of lactation and somatic cell count curves between farms highlights the importance of a herd level approach. The one-parameter per cow model...

  14. Effects of bovine mammary gland biopsy and increased milking frequency on post-procedure udder health, histology, and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J A M; Ruas, J R M; Vasconcelos, A C; Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Gheller, V A; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2016-05-01

    Sixteen cows in early lactation were randomly distributed into two groups in order to evaluate the effects of mammary biopsies and increased milking frequency on tissue characteristics, post-biopsy udder health and histology. One group was milked twice a day (2×) starting on the 2nd day after calving, until 28 days in milk (DIM). The other group was milked four times a day (4×) from two to 21 DIM, and twice a day (2×) from 22 to 28 DIM. On days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postpartum, one fragment of secretory tissue was collected from one mammary quarter at a time. Collections were alternated between the four mammary quarters per collection day. A total of 80 mammary tissue samples were collected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the tissues were conducted by histologic examination. Animal health was assessed by observation of feed intake behavior immediately after biopsy, and weight and body condition score before and one week after biopsy. Udder health was assessed daily from calving to 60 DIM with California Mastitis Test (CMT) and by noting alterations in the milk such as blood, milk clots, blood clots, clinical signs of mastitis. Milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC) were analyzed before and after the biopsies. Milk production was evaluated before biopsy, on the day of biopsy, and after the biopsy. An average of 10 fields at 40× magnification was obtained from each sample. There were no evident changes in mammary morphology as a result of milking two or four times/day at any of the evaluated time points. Biopsy wounds healed rapidly without infection. Intramammary bleeding and CMT alterations were observed in 96% and 75% of the biopsied mammary quarters, respectively. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed in 12% of the biopsied quarters. Different milking frequencies had no effect on the frequency and duration of post-biopsy alterations. Milk production decreased after biopsies done on days 2 for 2× and 4× groups, but it returned to pre-biopsy values

  15. Effect of feed supplements on dry season milk yield and profitability of crossbred cows in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Christoph; Peters, Michael; Möhring, Jens; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of dry season silage feeding on daily milk yield (MY) and dairying profitability in terms of income over feed cost (IOFC) was evaluated in dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras. MY records of 34 farms from two milk collection centres were collected over a 2-year period. Farms were surveyed to obtain information on the type, quantity and cost of supplemented feed, breed type and number of lactating cows in each month. Farms were classified in silage farms (SF, with a short silage supplementation period), non-silage farms (NSF) and prototype farms (PF, with an extended silage supplementation period). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model approach. PF had significantly higher MY than SF and NSF but, due to higher expenses for both concentrate and silage, similar IOFC compared to NSF. SF had similar MY but lower IOFC compared to NSF, due to higher feed expenses. The effect of silage feeding, particularly maize silage, on MY was significant and superior to that of other forage supplements. Silage supplementation contributed to the highest MY and IOFC on farms with crossbred cows of >62.5 % Bos taurus and to the second highest profitability on farms with >87.5 % Bos indicus share. It is concluded that silage can play an important role in drought-constrained areas of the tropics and can contribute to profitable dairying, irrespective of breed.

  16. Some compositional and health indicators of milk quality of dairy cows with higher milk yield at including of selected corn species into feeding ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pozdíšek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of economical reasons the substitution of maize by feed corn as wheat (Sulamit and triticale (Kitaro was revolved in concentrate part of dairy cow feeding rations. The design of mentioned replacement in feeding rations was carried out according to results of previous research (Pozdíšek and Vaculová, 2008 for nutrition experiment. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the possible effects of corn replacement in cow feeding rations on milk composition and properties. The expressively different variants of corn were selected for experiment in comparison to maize (reference. Dairy cows were fed by total mixed ration on the basis of maize and clover silage and hay. Otherwise the identical day feeding rations among cow groups differed only in concentrate portions ((K, control group maize 1.5 kg, wheat (P1 2.0 kg and triticale (P2 2.0 kg (experimental groups. Group feeding rations 1 (K, 2 (P1 and 3 (P2 had: NEL/kg dry (DM matter (6.524, 6.512 and 6.491; NL % in DM (17.9, 18.2 and 17.9; fibre % in DM (15.96, 15.74 and 15.72; PDIN/PDIE (1.189, 1.189 and 1.191. The experiment took six weeks, there were included 8, 9 and 9 cows (n = 26 of Czech Fleckvieh breed. Feed groups were well balanced in terms of milk yield, days in milk and number of lactation. The tie stable and pipeline milking equipment were used in experiment. Animals were milked twice a day and sampled at morning milking in intervals about seven days approximately. Cows were relatively healthy in terms of occurrence of milk secretion disorders. Within groups the individual milk samples (in total 182 in experiment were aggregated into bulk samples (n = 21 = 3 groups × 7 sampling periods, which were analysed on 45 milk indicators, 18 of them were evaluated in this paper. The differences in milk yield were significantly advantageous for K group (15.32 > 14.07 (wheat or 13.86 kg (triticale at morning milking, while fat (3.27 < 3.47 or 3.44 % was lower (P < 0.05. Lactose was not

  17. Effect of ground corn cobs as a fiber source in total mixed ration on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition in tropical lactating crossbred Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalong Wachirapakorn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ground corn cobs (GCC as a sole fiber source in total mixed ration (TMR on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition in tropical lactating crossbred Holstein cows. Four multiparous crossbreds Holstein Friesian dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW of 415.5 ± 26.20 kg were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments of TMR contained a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. The roughage source was used at different ratios of GCC to rice straw (RS at 100:0, 82.5:17.5, 67.5:32.5, and 50:50 for TMR1 to TMR4, respectively. The results revealed significant improvements in intake of dry matter, protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and metabolizable energy (ME for TMR1 and TMR2 (P  0.05. However, milk yield was significantly different among the GCC:RS ratios (P  0.05. The results imply that using GCC as a whole roughage source significantly improved nutrients intake and milk yield in dairy cows raised in tropical areas.

  18. Effect of β-lactoglobulin A and B whey protein variants on cheese yield potential of a model milk system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Nieto, M A; González-Córdova, A F; Piloni-Martini, J; Vallejo-Cordoba, B

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield mainly depends on the amount and proportion of milk constituents; however, genetic variants of the proteins present in milk may also have an important effect. The objective of this research was to study the effect of the variants A and B of β-lactoglobulin (LG) on cheese yield using a model system consisting of skim milk powder fortified with different levels of a mixture containing α-lactalbumin and β-LG genetic variants (A, B, or A-B) in a 1:2 ratio. Fortified milk samples were subjected to pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min. Miniature cheeses were made by acidifying (pH=5.9) fortified milk and incubating with rennet for 1h at 32 °C. The clot formed was cut, centrifuged at 2,600 × g for 30 min at 20 °C and drained for determining cheese yield. Cheese-yielding capacity was expressed as actual yield (grams of cheese curd per 100g of milk) and dry weight yield (grams of dried cheese curd per 100g of milk). Free-zone capillary electrophoresis was used for determining β-LG A or B recovery in the curd during rennet-induced coagulation. The presence of β-LG variant B resulted in a significantly higher actual and dried weight cheese yield than when A or A-B were present at levels ≤ 0.675% of whey protein (WP) addition. Results of free-zone capillary electrophoresis allowed us to infer that β-LG B associates with the casein micelles during renneting, as shown by an increase in the recovery of this variant in the curd when β-LG B was added up to a maximum at 0.45% (equivalent to 0.675% WP). In general, actual or dried weight cheese yield increased as WP addition was increased from 0.225 to 0.675%. However, when WP addition ranged from 0.675 to 0.90%, a drastic drop in cheese yield was observed. This behavior may be because an increase in the aggregation of casein micelles with a concomitant inclusion of whey protein in the gel occurs at low levels of WP addition, whereas once the association of WP with the casein micelles reach a saturation point

  19. Within-herd prevalence of intramammary infection caused by Mycoplasma bovis and associations between cow udder health, milk yield, and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Anri A E; Katholm, Jørgen; Petersen, Anders; Mõtus, Kerli; Kalmus, Piret

    2017-08-01

    Subclinical mastitis is one of the major health problems in dairy herds due to decreased milk production and reduced milk quality. The aim of this study was to examine the within-herd prevalence of subclinical intramammary infection caused by Mycoplasma bovis and to evaluate associations between M. bovis and cow daily milk yield, udder health, and milk composition. Individual cow composite milk samples (n = 522) were collected from all lactating dairy cows in 1 Estonian dairy farm in November 2014. Daily milk yield, days in milk, and parity were recorded. Collected milk samples were analyzed for somatic cell count, milk protein, fat, and urea content. The presence of M. bovis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis in the milk samples was confirmed by quantitative PCR analysis. The within-herd prevalence of M. bovis was 17.2% in the study herd. No association was observed between days in milk and parity to the presence of M. bovis in milk. According to linear regression analysis, the daily milk yield from cows positive for M. bovis was on average 3.0 kg lower compared with cows negative for M. bovis. In addition, the presence of M. bovis in milk samples was significantly associated with higher somatic cell count and lower fat and urea content compared with milk samples negative for M. bovis. In conclusion, subclinical M. bovis intramammary infection is associated with decreased milk yield and lower milk quality. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  20. Intra-herd production level variances for milk yield of Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluated, the effect of heterogeneous variances across herd production levels on genetic evaluation was investigated using lactation milk production records of Zimbabwean Holstein cows. A total of 12420 first lactation milk production records ...

  1. Association of total mixed ration particle fractions retained on the Penn State Particle Separator with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the cow level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccamo, M.; Ferguson, J.D.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Schadt, I.; Petriflieri, R.; Azzaro, G.; Pozzebon, A.; Licitra, G.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a larger project aiming to develop management evaluation tools based on results from test-day (TD) models, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of physical composition of total mixed rations (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 on milk, fat, and

  2. The effect of high-sugar grass on predicted nitrogen excretion and milk yield simulated using a dynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Parsons, A.J.; Rasmussen, S.; Edwards, G.R.; Kebreab, E.; France, J.

    2011-01-01

    High-sugar grass varieties have received considerable attention for their potential to reduce nitrogen (N) excretion and increase milk yield in cattle. However, considerable variation exists in the magnitude of response in published results. The purpose of this study is to explain the variation in

  3. Long term effect of reduced dietary phosphorus on feed intake and milk yield in dry and lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Lund, Peter; Liesegang, A.

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were used to study the long term effect of reducing dietary P concentration on intake of DM and milk yield, on blood levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi), Ca, vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as assessing bone turnover by the use of bone formation...

  4. Postpartum endocrine activities, metabolic attributes and milk yield are influenced by thermal stress in crossbred dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsanullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Suhail, Syed Muhammad; Akhtar, Sohail; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted on 30 freshly parturated multiparous crossbred dairy cows possessing three levels of Holstein Frisian genetic makeup (62.5, 75.0, and 87.5%). Data on temperature humidity index (THI) were classified into comfortable (≤ 71), mild stress (72-79), moderate stress (80-89), and stressful (≥90) zone. Results showed that serum cortisol concentration increased significantly ( P cows during stressful condition irrespective of genetic makeup compared to the other zones. Daily milk yield (DMY) was significantly ( P cows during stressful condition. Triglyceride was significantly higher in cows with genetic makeup 87.5% compared to the others, while total serum protein was significantly ( P cows during both moderate and stressful conditions. The mean concentration of cortisol and protein increased linearly from comfort to the stressful condition, while mean serum triglyceride, glucose, progesterone (P4), and luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased by moving from comfort to stressful conditions. Results also indicated that higher cortisol level in higher grade crossbred cows was adversely associated with LH concentration and milk yield under thermal stress conditions. Greater triglyceride in high-grade crossbred (87.5%) cows indicates higher fat mobilization reflecting a negative energy balance. We concluded that heat stress increased blood cortisol and protein, and reduced milk yield in dairy cows irresptive of the genetic makeup. In addition, there was no significant difference in blood metabolites and daily milk yield in the different levels of genetic makeup cows.

  5. The effect of routine hoof trimming on locomotion score, ruminating time, activity and milk yield of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertem, van T.; Parmet, Y.; Steensels, M.; Maltz, E.; Antler, A.; Schlageter Tello, A.A.; Lokhorst, C.; Romanini, C.E.B.; Viazzi, S.; Bahr, C.; Berckmans, D.; Halachmi, I.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of hoof trimming on cow behavior (ruminating time, activity, and locomotion score) and performance (milk yield) over time. Data were gathered from a commercial dairy farm in Israel where routine hoof trimming is done by a trained hoof trimmer

  6. Cubic-spline interpolation to estimate effects of inbreeding on milk yield in first lactation Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makram J. Geha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk yield records (305d, 2X, actual milk yield of 123,639 registered first lactation Holstein cows were used to compare linear regression (y = β0 + β1X + e ,quadratic regression, (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + e cubic regression (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + β3X3 + e and fixed factor models, with cubic-spline interpolation models, for estimating the effects of inbreeding on milk yield. Ten animal models, all with herd-year-season of calving as fixed effect, were compared using the Akaike corrected-Information Criterion (AICc. The cubic-spline interpolation model with seven knots had the lowest AICc, whereas for all those labeled as "traditional", AICc was higher than the best model. Results from fitting inbreeding using a cubic-spline with seven knots were compared to results from fitting inbreeding as a linear covariate or as a fixed factor with seven levels. Estimates of inbreeding effects were not significantly different between the cubic-spline model and the fixed factor model, but were significantly different from the linear regression model. Milk yield decreased significantly at inbreeding levels greater than 9%. Variance component estimates were similar for the three models. Ranking of the top 100 sires with daughter records remained unaffected by the model used.

  7. Cubic-spline interpolation to estimate effects of inbreeding on milk yield in first lactation Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geha, Makram J; Keown, Jeffrey F; Van Vleck, L Dale

    2011-07-01

    Milk yield records (305d, 2X, actual milk yield) of 123,639 registered first lactation Holstein cows were used to compare linear regression (y = β(0) + β(1)X + e), quadratic regression, (y = β(0) + β(1)X + β(2)X(2) + e) cubic regression (y = β(0) + β(1)X + β(2)X(2) + β(3)X(3) +e) and fixed factor models, with cubic-spline interpolation models, for estimating the effects of inbreeding on milk yield. Ten animal models, all with herd-year-season of calving as fixed effect, were compared using the Akaike corrected-Information Criterion (AICc). The cubic-spline interpolation model with seven knots had the lowest AICc, whereas for all those labeled as "traditional", AICc was higher than the best model. Results from fitting inbreeding using a cubic-spline with seven knots were compared to results from fitting inbreeding as a linear covariate or as a fixed factor with seven levels. Estimates of inbreeding effects were not significantly different between the cubic-spline model and the fixed factor model, but were significantly different from the linear regression model. Milk yield decreased significantly at inbreeding levels greater than 9%. Variance component estimates were similar for the three models. Ranking of the top 100 sires with daughter records remained unaffected by the model used.

  8. Estimation of genotype X environment interactions, in a grassbased system, for milk yield, body condition score,and body weight using random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    (Co)variance components for milk yield, body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change and BW change over different herd-year mean milk yields (HMY) and nutritional environments (concentrate feeding level, grazing severity and silage quality) were estimated using a random regression model.

  9. Non-invasive indicators associated with the milk yield response after anthelmintic treatment at calving in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschave, Sien H; Vercruysse, Jozef; Forbes, Andrew; Opsomer, Geert; Hostens, Miel; Duchateau, Luc; Charlier, Johannes

    2014-11-14

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are an important cause of reduced performance in cattle. Previous studies in Europe showed that after anthelmintic treatment an average gain in milk production of around 1 kg per day/cow can be expected. However, (1) these studies have mainly evaluated group-based anthelmintic treatments during the grazing season or at housing and (2) little is known about parameters affecting variations in the treatment response amongst cows. A better knowledge of such parameters could help to select animals that benefit most from treatment and thus lead to a more rational use of anthelmintics. Therefore, a randomized, non-blinded, controlled clinical trial was performed on 11 commercial dairy farms (477 animals) in Belgium, aiming (1) to study the effect of eprinomectin treatment at calving on milk production and (2) to investigate whether the milk yield response was related to non-invasive animal parameters such that these could be used to inform targeted selective treatment decisions. Analyses show that eprinomectin treatment around calving resulted in an average (± standard error) increase of 0.97 (±0.41) kg in daily milk yield that was followed up over 274 days on average. Milk yield responses were higher in multiparous compared to primiparous cows and in cows with a high (4(th) quartile) anti-O. ostertagi antibody level in a milk sample from the previous lactation. Nonetheless, high responses were also seen in animals with a low (1(st) quartile) anti-O. ostertagi antibody level. In addition, positive treatment responses were associated with higher faecal egg counts and a moderate body condition score at calving (2(nd) quartile). In conclusion, this study provides novel insights into the production response after anthelmintic treatment at calving and factors which influence this. The data could be used to support the development of evidence-based targeted selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cattle.

  10. Effects of feeding lutein on production performance, antioxidative status, and milk quality of high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C Z; Wang, H F; Yang, J Y; Wang, J H; Duan, Z Y; Wang, C; Liu, J X; Lao, Y

    2014-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the influences of supplementing different levels of an additive containing lutein in the diet of Chinese Holstein lactating cows on production performance, antioxidative plasma metabolites, and milk quality. This study was performed on 60 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in peak lactation. The cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 homogeneous treatments, with lutein preparation (extracted from marigolds; effective lutein content was 2%) added at levels of 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d per head, with the actual available amounts being 0, 2, 3, and 4 g of lutein/d per head, respectively. The experiment lasted for 13 wk, with the first week for adaptation. Milk yield and milk compositions were recorded weekly, and milk concentrations of lutein, dry matter intake, and antioxidative blood index were analyzed in the first, fourth, seventh, and thirteenth week of the study. The results showed that adding lutein in the diet had no effect on dry matter intake compared with the control group; however, it slowed down the trend of decline in milk yield, and had a linear incremental effect on milk yield with increasing concentration of lutein. Dietary lutein tended to quadratically increase the percentage of milk fat, and linearly increased milk lactose concentration, with the highest value when treated at 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head, and decreased somatic cell count, with the lowest values when treated with 150 and 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head. The concentration of lutein in milk linearly increased with the incorporation of the additive, with a value of 0.59, 0.70, 1.20, and 1.50 μg/100mL when treated with 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d, respectively. Total plasma antioxidant capacity tended to linearly increase in cows fed lutein preparation, whereas plasma superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities did not differ significantly. In conclusion, addition of lutein in the diet could improve the production

  11. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period

  12. Genetic parameters estimate for milk and mozzarella cheese yield, fat and protein percentage in dairy buffaloes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tonhati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was analyze the (covariance components and genetic and phenotypic relationships in the following traits: accumulated milk yield at 270 days (MY270, observed until 305 days of lactation; accumulated milk yield at 270 days (MY270/ A and at 305 days (MY305, observed until 335 days of lactation; mozzarella cheese yield (MCY and fat (FP and protein (PP percentage, observed until 335 days of lactation. The (covariance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood methodology in analyses single, two and three-traits using animal models. Heritability estimated for MY270, MY270/A, MY305, MCY, FP and PP were 0.22; 0.24, 0.25, 0.14, 0.29 and 0.40 respectively. The genetic correlations between MCY and the variables MY270, MY270/A, MY305, PP and FP was: 0.85; 1.00; 0.89; 0.14 and 0.06, respectively. This way, the selection for the production of milk in long period should increase MCY. However, in the search of animals that produce milk with quality, the genetic parameters suggest that another index should be composed allying these studied traits.

  13. Comparison of models for describing the lactation curve of latxa sheep and an analysis of factors affecting milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, R; Oregui, L M; Herrero, M

    2000-11-01

    The objectives of this work were 1) to compare the goodness-of-fit of empirical models of the lactation curve and 2) to analyze the factors affecting the shapes of the lactation curves, the parameters describing them, and the overall milk yield of Latxa dairy sheep. A total of 14,699 records from 2711 ewes, collected during three consecutive years (1995 to 1997) by the milk recording program of the Latxa ewe of the Basque Country (Spain), were used. Six mathematical models and three fitting procedures were compared. The estimation of model parameters by nonlinear fitting procedures was superior to that by linear regression methods. A nonlinear variable decay model fitted the data better than the other models, as judged by lower mean square prediction error, residual sums of squares, and a lack of first-order positive autocorrelation as assessed by the Durbin Watson coefficient. The effects of the flock, flock-year interaction, month of lambing, length of lactation nested within month of lambing, parity, and number of live lambs born had significant effects on the parameters of the model and the total milk yield (P < 0.01). The prediction of milk yield from the selected model was similar to the estimates obtained with the Fleischmann method currently used by the national breeding program for the Latxa breed.

  14. Análises da persistência na lactação de vacas da raça Holandesa, usando produção no dia do controle e modelo de regressão aleatória Analysis of persistency in the lactation of Holstein cows using test-day yield and random regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Araujo Cobuci

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 87.045 registros de produção de leite, na primeira lactação, de 11.023 vacas da raça Holandesa, obtidos nos anos de 1997 a 2001, em diferentes rebanhos distribuídos em dez núcleos do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram avaliados seis tipos de mensuração da persistência na lactação utilizando-se os valores genéticos da produção de leite, obtidos por meio do modelo de regressão aleatória - MRA. Utilizou-se a função de Wilmink na descrição dos efeitos aleatórios e fixos, pelo MRA. As estimativas de herdabilidade e de correlação genética, para as várias mensurações da persistência na lactação, variaram em decorrência da definição da persistência. As estimativas de herdabilidade para persistência na lactação variaram de 0,11 a 0,27 e as estimativas de correlação genética entre as mensurações da persistência na lactação e produção de leite até 305 dias, de -0,31 a 0,55, indicando que a persistência na lactação é uma característica de moderada herdabilidade e pouco correlacionada com a produção de leite até 305 dias. A seleção de animais para persistência na lactação, com o objetivo de alterar a forma da curva de lactação, pode ser eficiente.A total of 87,045 milk yield records of 11,023 first-parity Holstein cows was utilized, obtained from 1997 to 2001 from different herds of 10 Minas Gerais locations. Six types of persistency measures in lactation were evaluated using milk yield breeding values, obtained by means of Random Regression Model - RRM. The Wilmink function was used to describe the random and fixed effects by RRM. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations for various persistency measures in lactation were dependent on the definition of persistency. The heritability estimates for persistency in lactation ranged from 0.11 to 0.27 and the genetic variations among persistency measures in lactation and milk yield up to d 305 ranged from -0.31 to 0.55, showing that

  15. Effects of dietary cation-anion difference on intake, milk yield, and blood components of the early lactation cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P S; West, J W; Bernard, J K; Fernandez, J M

    2005-12-01

    Early lactation Holsteins cows (15 primiparous and 18 multiparous) were offered rations with dietary cation-anion difference, calculated as mEq (Na + K - Cl - S)/100 g of feed dry matter (DCAD:S), of 20, 35, or 50 mEq from d 0 (calving) to 42 d postpartum (August 20, 2000 to January 9, 2001) to determine the effects of increasing DCAD:S on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and blood metabolites. For DCAD:S of 20, 35, and 50, DMI was 3.30, 3.38, 2.96 kg/100 kg of body weight (BW); milk yield was 25.5, 24.2, and 22.4 kg/d, respectively. No differences were observed for concentration or yield of milk fat or milk protein. Serum Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, cation-anion difference, insulin, and glucose did not differ with DCAD. Serum HCO3- was 26.07, 25.88, and 27.64 mEq/L for 20, 35, and 50 DCAD:S. Serum Ca, Mg, Na, and K concentrations were greater for primiparous cows (9.52 mg/dL, 2.35 mg/dL, 140.03 mEq/L, 4.66 mEq/L, respectively) than for multiparous cows (9.27 mg/dL, 2.12 mg/dL, 137.63 mEq/L, 4.46 mEq/ L, respectively). A DCAD:S between 23 and 33 mEq/100 g of dry matter (DM) appears to be adequate during cool weather for the milk yield that occurred in the present study based on DMI (kg/100 kg of BW), whereas DCAD:S of 50 mEq/100 g of DM may be excessive and could be too alkaline or unpalatable, resulting in decreased DMI (kg/100 kg of BW).

  16. Genotype × environment interaction for fertility and milk yield traits in Canadian, Mexican and US Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. Montaldo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate genotype × environment  interaction (G×E between Canada, the United States and Mexico for fertility and milk yield traits using genetic correlations between countries estimated from genetic evaluations of sires. Genetic correlation between Mexican and Canadian Holsteins for age at first calving was ≤ 0.48 and lower than the simulated value obtained accounting for data structure and selection effects. For calving interval, genetic correlation between Mexico and Canada ranged from 0.48 to 0.69. Genetic correlation between calving interval in Mexico (multiplied by -1 and daughter pregnancy rate in the United States ranged from 0.64 to 0.73, and was lower than simulated and actual Canada-United States values. Genetic correlations between Mexico and Canada and the United States for milk yield traits were ≥ 0.83, similar to simulated genetic correlations, but lower than Canada-United States values (≥ 0.93. Heritability estimates for age at first calving, calving interval, milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat content, and protein content for the Mexican Holstein population were 0.06, 0.03, 0.18, 0.20, 0.19, 0.46, and 0.49, respectively. G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for age at first calving were high, whereas G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for calving interval and between daughter pregnancy rate in the United States and calving interval in Mexico were moderate. G×E interaction effects for milk yield traits between Canada or the United States with Mexico in registered Holsteins were low.

  17. Inclusion of crude glycerin in the diet of dairy cows on intake, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of crude glycerin (CG, corrected for protein with a byproduct of processing corn, mazoferm, on intake, production and composition of milk from Holstein cows. A total of 12 Holstein cows distributed in three Latin squares 4x4, with average production of 15 kg. The animals were fed four diets, protein and isocaloric, referring to four levels of replacement of corn grain by mixing PG-80, 0, 33.3, 66.6 and 100.0% based on the total dry matter, which corresponded respectively to 0, 40, 80 and 120 g of CG/kg dry matter. The cows were milked mechanically twice a day, making up the record of milk production of each experimental period and collected a sample of milk for evaluation of lactose, fat, protein, total solids and somatic cell count (SCC. Data were subjected to analysis of variance using the MIXED procedure of the Statistical Analysis System. The dry matter intake, the average milk production and milk production adjusted to 35 g fat / kg milk, were not affected (P>0.05 by the inclusion of GP-80 mixture in the diet. The nutritional composition of milk (fat, protein, lactose and total solids was not affected by treatments (P>0.05. The use of crude glycerin in diets to meet protein and energy requirements of animals does not compromise the dry matter intake, production, composition and milk quality for cows of low production.

  18. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, M.O.; Lund, Peter

    2015-01-01

    with whole cracked rapeseed (WCR), control supplemented with rumen protected vegetable fat (Lipmix 40/60, Lipitec, NLM Vantinge Aps, Ringe, Denmark) (RPF), and RPF supplemented with HMBi (MetaSmart, Adisseo, France) (RPFA). Rations contained 2.63%, 5.63%, 5.55%, and 5.59% crude fat on dry matter (DM) basis......, ECM and lactose, but decreased milk protein and urea concentrations compared to CON. No effects of HMBi on milk yield and composition were detected. Lactation persistency was improved for all fat supplemented treatments for multiparous cows, particularly with WCR. Fat supplemented rations decreased...... energy efficiency in Jersey cows but increased energy efficiency in Holstein cows. Because fat supplementation reduced dietary protein concentration and increased milk production, protein intake was lower and N efficiency was higher on WCR and RPF than on CON. Metabolite concentrations in jugular vein...

  19. Milk yield, composition and qua­li­ty of organic milk of ewes crossbreeds of Lacaune, East Friesian and Improved Wallachian during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Pokorná

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of milk yield, composition and quality of organic milk of crossbreeds of Lacaune (L, East Friesian (EF and Improved Wallachian (IW, (n = 10, L 50 EF 43.75 IW 6.25 during lactation was carried out on organic farm in Valašská Bystřice in 2007. All sheep were on the third lactation and during study they were reared on permanent pasture. The stage of lactation (SL had a highly significant effect on milk yield (MY and contents of total solids (TS, fat (F, protein (P, casein (C, lactose (L and urea (U. The SL had also a highly significant effect on pH and titrable acidity (TA, whereas on rennet clotting time (RCT the SL had a significant effect. On the other hand the SL had not a significant effect on somatic cell counts (SCC and rennet curd quality (RCQ. The highest contents of TS, F and C were found at the end of the lactation, whereas their lowest contents were found on the 120th day. Between the second and the last sampling the lactose content decreased. The content of U and RCT were the most variable indicators whithin the frame of our study. On the other hand SCCs were, during the whole lactation, very well-balanced and relatively low. Between pH and SCC was found positive correlation. TA gradually increased and RCT gradually prolonged with advanced lactation.

  20. Correlation between Body Condition Score, Blood Biochemical Metabolites, Milk Yield and Quality in Algerian Montbéliarde Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charef-Eddine Mouffok1,2,*, Toufik Madani1,2, Lounis Semara1, Nadhira Ayache1 and Amina Rahal1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the correlation between body condition score (BCS, blood biochemical metabolites, milk yield (MY and quality (Mfat in Montbéliarde cattle (31 cows reared in 5 farms of Algerian semi arid area. The BCS was measured in dry and peak of lactation (6 weeks after calving. Blood samples were taken at the time of body condition (BC measurement for determination of energy (Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and B-Hydroxybutyrate, nitrogen (urea and albumin and mineral (calcium metabolites. Milk yield was recorded in the 6th week of lactation (peak. A sample of milk for each cow was used to determinate milk fat, density and acidity. The results showed a significant decrease in postpartum BCS accompanied by an increase in cholesterol and B-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB concentration. The correlation analysis showed that BHB concentration in pre calving was negatively correlated with BCS (r=-0.321; P<0.05 and cholesterol (r=-0.308; P<0.05. In postpartum, BCS was negatively correlated with cholesterol (r=-0.416; P<0.05, urea (r=-0.366; P<0.05 and BHB (r=-0.487; P<0.05. However, the level of milk production decreased significantly with high glucose (r=-0.449; P<0.05 and BHB (r=-0.514; P<0.05. The fat content increased significantly with blood triglycerides (r=0.681; P<0.05 and BHB (r=0.522; P<0.05 concentration, indicating a high mobilization of body reserves used for the synthesis of milk fat. In conclusion, it can be assumed that the rate of BHB seems to be the best indicator of the nutritional status of dairy cows that determines their production level and quality.

  1. Effect of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with Moringa species leaves on milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Elfadıl E; Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Ghafoor, Kashif; Mohamed, H E; Abdoun, Khalid A

    2016-10-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate changes in milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes fed 25 % Moringa oleifera (MOD) or Moringa peregrina (MPD) leaf diets as a supplement to alfalfa hay diet (AHD). Thirty ewes (average 55 kg, 2 years old) were randomly sorted into three experimental groups with 10 animals each and were fed for a 6-week period with these diets (AHD, MOD, or MPD). Diets dry matter, crude protein, and crude fiber were comparable, while fat, nitrogen-free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), metabolizable energy (ME), total phenolic, and antioxidant activity varied (p ≤ 0.05) between the diets. Feeding ewes with MOD increased (p ≤ 0.05) the milk yield compared to those fed AHD while milk composition was similar (p ≤ 0.05) between treatments. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ewes' milk and serum was lower (p ≤ 0.05) for MOD, while the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, and vitamin C contents were increased (p ≤ 0.05). The serum cholesterol and glucose of the ewes were lower (p ≤ 0.05) for those fed MOD. Moringa diets increased (p ≤ 0.05) average daily weight gain of lambs compared to those fed alfalfa diets. The results obtained showed that the inclusion of Moringa, especially M. oleifera, in the diet of Najdi ewes can improve milk yield and quality.

  2. Genetic relationships among Body condition score, Body weight, Milk yield and Fertility in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving

  3. Intake and milk yield of Zebu cows fed Moringa forage ensiled with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor nutrition of Zebu cattle grazing low quality native pastures is still a major constraint to milk production in Nigeria. High protein Moringa oleifera silage fed to these animals has potential to improve local milk production. In this study, moringa forage (MF) was ensiled with cassava peel (CSP) at 30, 50 and 70 % inclusion ...

  4. The effect of supplementation on milk yield in Boer goat ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk samples were analysed on a weekly basis for protein, fat, total solids and lactose. Protein content was determined by the Macro-Kjeldahl technique (IDF,. 1962). Fat content was determined by the Gerber method, using a to,77 ml pipette on diluted milk samples. Lactose content was determined by the chloramine-T ...

  5. The Impact of Multifunctional Crop Rotation on the Yield of Milk Thistle Fruits in the Years 2012 – 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav HABÁN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk thistle can be an annual, rarely a biennial medicinal plant. Polyfactorial field experiment was established during the vegetation period of the years 2012–2015. Three evaluated factors were as follows: crop residues – intercrop – fertilization. Milk thistle was integrated to four crop rotation design with following order of crops: 1. common pea 2. winter wheat 3. milk thistle 4. maize. Milk thistle was subjected to the experimental treatments as follows: 1. K – straw of forecrop removed from the field, R – straw incorporated into soil, 2. M – white mustard as a freezing-out intercrop, B – no intercrop, 3. O – no fertilization, F – with fertilization, 4. experimental year (2012, 2013, 2014, 2015. The recalculated yield of Silybi mariani fructus ranged in the amount from 297 kg*ha-1 (RMO treatment – with crop residues, with intercrop and without the use of fertilizers, year 2015 to 745 kg*ha-1 (KMF treatment – without crop residues, with intercrop and the use of fertilizers, year 2013. Statistical testing of individual factors found highly significant effect of year and highly significant effect of fertilization, and statistically inconclusive effect of sowing intercrop and ploughing crop residues. In the experiment was found a statistically significant difference between yield on the treatments without fertilization and the use of mineral fertilizers.

  6. Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism and Its Association with Partial Cumulative Milk Yields of Holstein Friesian Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Misrianti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone gene (GH gene plays an important role in regulating body growth and in developing mammary gland, similar with its interaction to specific receptors. The GH gene has been considered as one of candidate gene associated with selection on lactation trait and milk production. This study was aimed to determine genetic polymorphism of the GH-AluI gene and to associate its genotype variants on various 15-d partial cumulative milk yields in Holstein Friesian (HF dairy cows. A number of 370 blood samples were collected from six HF populations, respectively from small dairy farmer under the supervision of the North Bandung Milk Cooperation (NBMC in Cilumber (98 and Pasir Kemis village (96, Dairy Cattle Breeding and Improvement Station (Cikole DCBIS Cikole (88, Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (Lembang AIC (17, Singosari Artificial Insemination Center (Singosari AIC (32, and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center (Cipelang LEC (40. A polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was used to identify variant genotypes of the GH gene using AluI restriction enzyme. Genotyping results produced only two genotypes, i.e. LL and LV genotypes, without VV genotype. Frequency of the former was dominant, whilst that was low for the latter (89% vs. 11%; leading to the frequency of L allele was very high (94% compared to that of V allele (6%. No significant association between variant genotypes (LL and LV and various 15-d partial cumulative milk yields.

  7. Relationships between physiological indicators in blood, and their yield, as well as chemical composition of milk obtained from organic dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowski, Tomasz; Kuczyńska, Beata; Puppel, Kamila; Metera, Ewa; Słoniewski, Krzysztof; Barszczewski, Jerzy

    2012-11-01

    The occurrence of metabolic overload in cows maintained in organic herds is very likely, because organic production promotes feeding with high roughage diets and discourages supplementation with concentrates supplementation. It has the potential to negatively affect milk quality. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of physiological indicators in blood, reflecting the energy metabolism and liver status of dairy cows kept in organic herds, on the content of bioactive components in milk and the influence of lactation stage and feeding season on changes in milk components. A significant positive correlation was found between β-hydroxybutyric acid and the daily milk yield of lactating cows. β-Hydroxybutyric acid was negatively correlated with lactation phase and polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as saturated fatty acids content in milk. A significant negative correlation was observed between average daily milk yield and alanine aminotransferase concentration in blood. A low level of production in organic farms had a positive impact on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (20% increase), vitamin A (21% increase) and vitamin E (11% increase). The study has shown significant correlations between metabolic profiles and milk yields, as well as milk composition. In addition, there is evidence that the intensity of the production system significantly influences the metabolic profile and chemical composition of cow's milk. It could even be concluded that the ecological system affects not only the quality of milk, but also the health of cows. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effect of Milk Yield on Economic Profitability of Holstein Friesian Cows under Intensive Production System in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. El-Awady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of productive and reproductive traits of 1961 of lactation records were obtained from 763 Dutch Friesian cows grew up at Wadi El-Sharkia farm, El-Salheia, Egypt. These data were analyzed to empirical comparison between the profitability of three herds under intensive production system in Egypt. The second herd (H2 produced average milk yield of 8619 kg/lactation, followed by first herd (H1 (5138 kg/lactation which was lower than the H2 by at least one standard deviation (SD = 2935 kg. The third herd (H3 produced high milk yield equal to the average of H2 plus at least one standard deviation. Traits studied were milk yield per day (M/D, kg, total milk yield (TMY, kg, lactation period (LP, day, dry period (DP, day, annual milk yield (AMY, kg, days open (DO, day, number of services per conception (NSPC, calving interval (CI, day, number of lactation completed (NLC and age at first calving (AFC. Least squares analysis of variance showed highly significant (P<0.01 effects of all factors on all traits studied except the effect of month and year of calving on NSPC that was non-significant. For comparing between the three herds, the deterministic model was used to estimate the annual gross margin and benefit/cost ratio as economic parameters. Prices of inputs and outputs were based on market and farm gate prices during the period from 1998 to 2007. DO, CI and NSPC were increased in H3 vs. H2 and H1, indicating poorer reproductive efficiency of high yielding herd. Moreover, H3 gave 1.03 and 1.5 parity less for each cow than that of H2 and H1, respectively. Economic evaluations indicated that the annual variable cost were (LE (Egyptian pound = 0.17 USD and = 0.13 EUR 5136, 6910 and 7845 of H1, H2 and H3, respectively. However, the annual gross margin of H3 was higher than that of H1 and H2 by 79 and 24%, respectively, and the benefit/cost ratio of H3 was 1.90 relative to 1.63 and 1.68 for H1 and H2, respectively. The profit per cow during the

  9. Comparison of Saanen x Hair Goat Crossbred (F1, G1 and Hair Goat Raised at The Farm Conditions in Terms of Milk Yield Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Tozlu Çelik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine milk yield characteristics and its effect on genotypes, years and ages Hair goat x Saanen crossbred and Hair goat breed between 2011-2012 years in private enterprise which is located in Amasya province Sarılar village. In this study, the effect of genotypes was found significant on average daily milk yield, lactation length and lactation milk yield in 2011 and 2012 years. In 2011, the effect of goat ages were determined on average daily milk yield (ADMY and lactation milk yield (LMY for all goat genotypes. In 2012, the effect of goat ages was determined on average daily milk yield and lactation length (LL for all goat genotypes. The effect of year F1 and Hair goat were found significant on ADMY, LMY, and LL. The effect of year was found significant on only LL for G1 genotype. As a result it can be say that Saanen goat x Hair goat crossbred F1 and G1 genotype milk yield was higher than Hair goat reared in farmer conditions.

  10. Postpartum endocrine activities, metabolic attributes and milk yield are influenced by thermal stress in crossbred dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsanullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Suhail, Syed Muhammad; Akhtar, Sohail; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted on 30 freshly parturated multiparous crossbred dairy cows possessing three levels of Holstein Frisian genetic makeup (62.5, 75.0, and 87.5%). Data on temperature humidity index (THI) were classified into comfortable (≤ 71), mild stress (72-79), moderate stress (80-89), and stressful (≥90) zone. Results showed that serum cortisol concentration increased significantly (P genetic makeup compared to the other zones. Daily milk yield (DMY) was significantly (P genetic makeup 87.5% compared to the others, while total serum protein was significantly (P genetic makeup. In addition, there was no significant difference in blood metabolites and daily milk yield in the different levels of genetic makeup cows.

  11. Characteristics of Aerococcus viridans isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk SCC, yield, and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Gao, Jian; Ali, Tariq; Yu, Dan; Zhang, Shiyao; Khan, Saeed U; Fanning, Séamus; Han, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Aerococcus viridians (A. viridans), an environmental Gram-positive bacterium, has been documented to be associated with bovine mastitis. However, its exact role in bovine mastitis and the changes it brings about in milk characteristics are not yet known. The objectives of the current study were to describe the antibiotic resistance of A. viridans from bovine mastitis as well as the correlation between existence of this pathogen in udders and the somatic cell counts (SCC), daily milk yield, and composition of individual cow. One-year sampling for subclinical mastitis composite milk was conducted based on monthly DHI data from September 2013 to August 2014, in a commercial herd located in Beijing, China. All samples were cultured and pathogens were identified using microbiology method. A. viridians isolates were further identified by API identification system and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing method. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to test the antibiotic resistance of A. viridians against kinds of antimicrobial substance. SCC, milk yield, and milk composition data were from monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) results. Results showed that a total of 279 (16.67%) A. viridans isolates were identified from among 1674 bacterial isolates cultured from milk samples with high SCC. The incidence of mastitis caused by A. viridans was the highest (48-53%) during the summer season. Majority of the isolates were susceptible to most of antimicrobial compounds tested, especially to β-lactams, but were found to be resistant (50-90%) to aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. The average SCC of the A. viridans infected cows was significantly higher (1000.0 × 10 3  cells/mL) (P  0.05) by 1.86 kg/day. Reductions were also observed in fat content (P > 0.05), lactose (P  0.05), whereas protein content increased significantly (P subclinical mastitis wherein it exerts an effect on SCC, milk yield, and composition.

  12. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  13. Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lunsin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH and rice bran oil (RBO on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1 control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C, (T2 Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH, (T3 Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO, and (T4 Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO. The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH2 (purchased as hydrated lime in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05. Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05. In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05 F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  14. Characteristics of dairy farms in the North-Eastern part of Italy: rations, milk yield and nutrients excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey was aimed to evaluate the characteristics of dairy farms in the North- Eastern part of Po valley in terms of ration composition, milk yield and N and P excretions. Eightynine farms, with Italian Holstein Friesian cows, were selected in order to cover different situations in term of farm size and milk yield (MY. MY and quality were obtained from the national database of functional controls. Each farm was visited in order to collect information about ingredients and chemical composition of rations used. Farms were classified in four groups differing for dietary crude protein density (LCP15.3% DM and for MY (LMY30 kg/d. N and P excretions were quantified by following a mass balance approach. Dietary crude protein content (CP was not correlated to milk yield (MY and quality. The estimated amounts of N excreted, discounted for 28% of N losses in atmosphere, were 78.5, 78.2, 87.2 and 89.1 kg/cow/year, and P excreted were 20.2, 18.6, 18.7 and 19.8 kg/cow/year for the LCPLMY, LCPHMY, HCPLMY, HCPHMY groups, respectively. On corn silage and cereals based rations, a dietary CP of 14.3% DM can support 31 kg MY/cow/day.

  15. Genetic Parameters of Milk β-Hydroxybutyric Acid and Acetone and Their Genetic Association with Milk Production Traits of Holstein Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeokHyun Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA and acetone concentration in milk by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with test-day milk production traits including fat %, protein % and milk yield based on monthly samples of milk obtained as part of a routine milk recording program in Korea. Additionally, the feasibility of using such data in the official dairy cattle breeding system for selection of cows with low susceptibility of ketosis was evaluated. A total of 57,190 monthly test-day records for parities 1, 2, and 3 of 7,895 cows with pedigree information were collected from April 2012 to August 2014 from herds enrolled in the Korea Animal Improvement Association. Multi-trait random regression models were separately applied to estimate genetic parameters of test-day records for each parity. The model included fixed herd test-day effects, calving age and season effects, and random regressions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Abundance of variation of acetone may provide a more sensitive indication of ketosis than many zero observations in concentration of milk BHBA. Heritabilities of milk BHBA levels ranged from 0.04 to 0.17 with a mean of 0.09 for the interval between 4 and 305 days in milk during three lactations. The average heritabilities for milk acetone concentration were 0.29, 0.29, and 0.22 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no clear genetic association of the concentration of two ketone bodies with three test-day milk production traits, even if some correlations among breeding values of the test-day records in this study were observed. These results suggest that genetic selection for low susceptibility of ketosis in early lactation is possible. Further, it is desirable for the breeding scheme of dairy cattle to include the records of milk acetone rather than the records of milk BHBA.

  16. Effects of health disorders on milk yield and calving interval in Italian Holstein cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. Gallo; G. Bittante; B. Contiero; E. Sturaro; F. Cesarini

    2011-01-01

    ...) increased the interest towards health traits. Recording diseases of economic significance helps in containing veterinary costs, milk losses and early replacement of cows, and is needed for developing management strategies able to promote health...

  17. Test-day models : breeding value estimation based on individual test-day records

    OpenAIRE

    Pool, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis were achieved within the graduate school Wageningen Institute of Animal Science (WIAS), carried out at the Institute for Animal Science and Health (ID-Lelystad BV) at the department of Genetics and Reproduction, and financially supported by the product division NRS of CR-DELTA.

    This thesis describes choices and decisions made to develop a random regression test-day model. Studies included were performed on Dutch dairy cattle data...

  18. Effects of replacing wheat bran by pistachio skins on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p < 0.05) and crude protein digestibility (p < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing PiS proportions in the diet. Increasing the proportion of PiS in the diet caused a quadratic increase in apparent digestibility of dry matter (p < 0.05), and tended (p = 0.05) to increase quadratically organic matter, and ether extract digestibility. Replacing wheat bran with PiS in the diet had no effects on milk yield, whereas milk fat concentration increased linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. As the dietary proportion of PiS increased, ruminal pH tended (p = 0.07) to increase linearly, whereas ammonia-N concentration declined in the rumen. Plasma concentrations of glucose and BUN remained unaffected, whereas triglycerides (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.01) concentrations increased linearly with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. It was concluded that PiS based on local ingredients can successfully replace wheat bran in diets of dairy goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell

  19. Effect of diets containing whole white lupin seeds on rabbit doe milk yield and milk fatty acid composition as well as the growth and health of their litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Z; Marounek, M; Volková, L; Kudrnová, E

    2014-05-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of white lupin seed (WLS) on the milk composition and yield of rabbit does as well as the performance of their litters was studied. Two lactation diets having identical digestible protein (DP):DE ratio and two weaning diets having identical DP:DE ratio were formulated. The first lactation diet (SL) contained soybean meal (SBM; 13.0%) and sunflower meal (5.0%) as the main CP sources, whereas the second lactation diet (LL) was based on WLS (25.0%). As a result, the LL diet had a greater ether extract (EE) content than did the SL diet. The first weaning diet (SW) included SBM (7.0%) as the main CP source, whereas the second weaning diet (LW) diet was based on WLS (12.0%). No additional fat was added to any of the diets. A total of 32 (16 per treatment) Hyplus PS 19 does (4,225 ± 607 g BW, at the second parturition) were fed 1 of the 2 lactation diets. The litters were standardized to 9 kits (564 ± 81 g BW) on the day of birth and were fed 1 of the 2 weaning diets from d 17 to 69 of age. At d 30 of age (weaning), 66 rabbits on each weaning diet (689 ± 71 g BW; 3 per cage) were used to evaluate performance. Feed intake and doe BW were not affected by the dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be higher between d 1 and 30 of lactation in does fed the LL diet (P = 0.094), a finding that is related to the higher dietary EE content and intake in the LL diet. When expressed per kilogram of metabolic weight, milk output (P < 0.05) and fat output (P < 0.05) were greater in these does. Improved G:F (P < 0.05) between d 1 and 21 of lactation and greater ADG (P = 0.072) and milk efficiency (P < 0.05) of litters was observed in does fed the LL diet. The milk of does fed the LL diet contained less linoleic acid (P < 0.05) and arachidonic acid (C 20:4n-6; P < 0.05) and more oleic acid (P < 0.05), α-linolenic acid (P < 0.05), and eicosapentaenic acid (P < 0.05), with a corresponding increase in the total PUFA n-3:C 20:4n-6 ratio (P < 0.05). The

  20. Systemic prepartum treatment of end-term dairy heifers with penethamate hydriodide: effect on udder health, milk yield, and culling until 120 days in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passchyn, P; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2013-10-01

    Prepartum intramammary treatment with antimicrobials of end-term dairy heifers has frequently been proposed as a practice to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) at calving. From a safety standpoint for both animal and administrator, systemic treatment is preferred. A clinical trial was conducted on heifers from 10 well-managed, commercial dairy farms with a low prevalence of heifer mastitis. The aim was to assess both the short- and long-term effects of a systemic prepartum therapy with penethamate hydriodide on udder health and milk production. Because it was hypothesized that some herds would benefit more from this treatment than others, specific herd-level information was collected before the start of the actual trial to screen for and explain potential herd-specific treatment effects. Further, the effect of treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococcal isolates was monitored. End-term heifers were either treated systemically (over 3 consecutive days) 2 wk before expected calving date with penethamate hydriodide (n=76) or remained untreated (n=73). Systemic prepartum treatment of end-term heifers with penethamate hydriodide resulted in fewer IMI in early lactation. However, all 6 cases of clinical mastitis in early lactation occurred in the treatment group [Streptococcus uberis (n=1), Corynebacterium bovis (n=1), Staphylococcus aureus (n=1); 1 sample was contaminated; 2 samples remained culture negative]. No long-term treatment effects (from 4 to 120 d in milk) on milk production, udder health, or culling hazard during later lactation were detected, although treated heifers belonging to herds classified as having low-yielding heifers out-produced the control heifers. Moreover, penicillin susceptibility of staphylococci isolated from milk samples of treated or control heifers did not differ. Herds with a low prevalence of heifer mastitis are not likely to benefit from prepartum systemic antimicrobial treatment of the end

  1. Production, yield and characteristics of Feta and Domiati type cheeses produced from goat´s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Drgalić

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Brined Feta and Domiati type cheeses were produced from whole goat´s milk. Different types of production were used; with and without goat´s milk acidification with citric acid. The effect of calcium chloride addition was also examined. Renneting of goat´s milk with 0.03% renilase was conducted at 40°C for Domiati type cheese and at 30°C for Feta type cheese. Additives (citric acid and calcium chloride presence had no effect on reneting time for Feta type cheeses while citric acid addition significantly reduced reneting time for Domiati type cheeses. Domiati type cheeses possessed softer consistency, lower acidity, lower protein and fat content than Feta type cheeses. The yield of Domiati type cheeses was approximately 18.37% higher than of Feta type cheeses. Ripening of both types of cheeses was conducted in the brine with 10% sodium chloride at 12°C for 14 days. All cheese samples had lower protein, fat and calcium content in comparison with quality of cheeses before ripening in a brine. This especially occurred in Feta type cheeses. Sensory evaluation of analysed type of cheese was determined at 7th and 14th day of ripening. Better sensory scores are obtained for both types of cheeses after 14 days of ripening, when flavour and taste improvements were significantly higher. The best scores were obtained for Domiati cheese samples from unacidified goat´s milk, regardles of calcium chloride addition.

  2. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance quantitative trait loci on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Naveen K; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Sahana, Goutam

    2015-12-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis and milk yield on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50K; Illumina, San Diego, CA), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both clinical mastitis and milk yield peaked in the 26- to 40-Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single-variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole-genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20-targeted region; however, an indication of differences in the causal factor(s) was observed across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone

  3. Supplementation with corn oil and palm kernel oil to grazing cows: ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Esteban Parales Girón

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of supplementation with corn oil (CO and its mixture with palm kernel oil (CO:PKO 75:25 to grazing cows on ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and its fatty acid (FA profile was evaluated. The treatments were: one control treatment (C without oil and two treatments with 720 g d−1/cow of CO or CO:PKO (ether extract: 22.7 g kg−1 for control treatment, 66 g kg−1 for CO, and 65 g kg−1 for CO:PKO. Six multiparous Holstein cows (6.3±1.8 yr, 597±11.5 kg body weight (BW, 160±29 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation were assigned to a double 3 × 3 × 3 Latin square design. Cows grazed (3 kg DM/100 kg BW a Cenchrus clandestinus (previously Pennisetum clandestinum pasture and were supplemented with 0.9 kg d−1 DM corn silage, 4.2 kg d−1 DM concentrate, and 9 g Cr2O3. The mixture of concentrate and oils was offered twice a day. The addition of oils increased milk yield (kg d−1 (C: 21.4, CO: 23.6, CO:PKO: 23.9 and milk fat concentration (g kg milk−1 (C: 31.5, CO: 34.0, CO:PKO: 34.0. Compared with control, conjugated linoleic acid (18:2c9 t11 CLA proportion (g 100 g−1 FA in milk fat was higher for oil treatments (C: 0.68, CO: 1.56, CO:PKO: 1.01. Voluntary intake and digestibility were not different among treatments. The molar ratio of acetate, propionate, and butyrate was not different among treatments, but the molar concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA was lower for CO and CO:PKO, resulting in a lower estimated methane (CH4 production (mL/100 mol VFA for CO and CO:PKO treatments. Supplementing CO and CO:PKO to grazing dairy cows increases milk yield without affecting voluntary intake or diet digestibility. The proportion of conjugated linoleic acid increases more for CO than for CO:PKO.

  4. Effects of exposure to artificial long days on milk yield, maternal insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and kid growth rate in subtropical goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Horacio; Flores, José Alfredo; Delgadillo, José Alberto; Fernández, Ilda G; Flores, Manuel de Jesús; Mejía, Ángel; Elizundia, José Manuel; Bedos, Marie; Ponce, José Luis; Ramírez, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to determine whether any relationship exists between exposure to artificial long days, milk yield, maternal plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, and kid growth rate in goats. One group of lactating goats was maintained under naturally decreasing day length (control group; n = 19), while in another one, they were kept under artificial long days (LD group; n = 19). Milk yield was higher in goats from the LD group than that in the control group (P goats from the LD group than the levels in the control group and were positively correlated with the total milk yields per goat at days 43 and 57 of lactation (r = 0.77 and r = 0.84, respectively; P goats to artificial long days increases milk yield, plasma IGF-1 maternal levels and the growth rate of the kids. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Genetic relationships of fertility traits with test‐day milk yield and fat‐to‐protein ratio in tropical smallholder dairy farms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buaban, Sayan; Duangjinda, Monchai; Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi; Masuda, Yutaka; Sanpote, Jureeratn; Kuchida, Keigo

    2016-01-01

    .... Therefore, genetic parameters for fertility traits, test‐day milk yield (TD‐MY) and TD‐FPR, as well as, their relationships during different stages of lactation, were estimated on data collected from 25...

  6. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS MASTITIS VACCINES ON THE MILK YIELD, FAT, PROTEIN AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SHAKOOR, M. ATHAR, G. MUHAMMAD, S. U. RAHMAN1, A. A. BUTT2, I. HUSSAIN1 AND R. AHMAD3

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Four Staph. aureus mastitis vaccines were evaluated in five different groups of non-mastitic healthy pregnant buffaloes. These vaccines [live attenuated (Group B1, simple bacterin (Group B2, dextran sulphate adjuvanted (Group B3 and oil adjuvanted (Group B4] were administered to 20 non-mastitic healthy pregnant buffaloes, while the group 5 was kept as unvaccinated control. Each vaccine was administered twice @ 5 ml IM at 60 and 30 days pre-partum. The effect of these vaccines on milk yield, fat, protein, and somatic cell count was studied till 4th month post partum. There was a significant difference in the milk yield, fat and protein percentage between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups, while difference of these parameters among the vaccinated groups of buffaloes was non significant. All the vaccines reduced the somatic cell count significantly as compared to control group. Linear somatic cell count scouring method indicated the highest milk loss/lactation in the control group (1086 litres, followed by bacterin (703 litres, dextran sulphate (549 litres, live attenuated (526 litres and oil based (577 litres vaccines.

  7. The effect of high-sugar grass on predicted nitrogen excretion and milk yield simulated using a dynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J L; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A; Parsons, A J; Rasmussen, S; Edwards, G R; Kebreab, E; France, J

    2011-06-01

    High-sugar grass varieties have received considerable attention for their potential to reduce nitrogen (N) excretion and increase milk yield in cattle. However, considerable variation exists in the magnitude of response in published results. The purpose of this study is to explain the variation in response using a dynamic mechanistic model to predict observed N and milk yield results from the literature, and from simulated data. Examined effects were (1) water-soluble carbohydrate [WSC; g/kg of dry matter (DM)] increase; (2) change in crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of the plant with WSC increase; and (3) the level of N fertilization. The database for evaluation of model N and milk yield predictions consisted of 4 published studies with 28 treatment means for which high-sugar grasses were being evaluated. Water-soluble carbohydrate content of the diets ranged from 95 to 248 g/kg of DM, CP content ranged from 115 to 263 g/kg of DM, and the NDF content ranged from 400 to 568 g/kg of DM. Urine N, milk N, and total N excretion were predicted well by the model and followed the directional pattern of observed values within each study. Simulation results showed that the N utilization ratio increased as the WSC content of the diet increased, but to varying degrees depending on the grass scenario examined. The greatest benefit in terms of N utilization ratio and urine N levels were seen when the WSC content of grass increased at the expense of CP, followed by a 50:50 CP and NDF mix, followed by a trade for NDF. Simulated milk yield decreased slightly when WSC increased at the expense of CP, increased slightly when it increased at the expense of a CP and NDF mix, and increased most when WSC increased at the expense of NDF. Results were amplified slightly under conditions of low-N fertilization and in the absence of grain feeding. Overall, modeling is useful as an explanatory tool. The variation from results in the literature with high-WSC grass

  8. Effect of Calving Interval on Milk Yield and Quality Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Baul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researches were made on 125 lactations from Romanian Black Spotted cows, aimed at studying the evolution of the interval between calving on milk quantity and quality. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA / MANOVA determining the average values and dispersion indices. Based on averages parameters of lactation curves were calculated using the mathematical model proposed by Wood, called the incomplete gamma function. The interval between calving significantly influenced (p < 0.05 lactation curve aspect for the percentage of dry defatted from milk for the daily growth rate (parameter c between calving interval 351 to 450 days and of over 450 days (0.00008. Also we’ve met significant differences (p < 0.05 for the initial concentration of the percentage of total solids in milk for parameter a from the interval between calving up to 350 days and calving interval 351-450 days (0.80101.

  9. Mammary specific transgenic over-expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) increases pig milk IGF-I and IGF binding proteins, with no effect on milk composition or yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Marcia H; Gronlund, Derek E; Bleck, Gregory T; Hurley, Walter L; Wheeler, Matthew B; Donovan, Sharon M

    2005-10-01

    IGF-I regulates lactation by stimulating mammary mitogenesis, inhibiting apoptosis, and partially mediating the effects of growth hormone on lactogenesis. Herein, lactation performance during first and second parity was assessed in transgenic swine (TG) that over-expressed human IGF-I in milk under the control of the bovine alpha-lactalbumin promoter, regulatory regions and signal peptide coding sequence. Milk samples were collected throughout lactation (farrowing to d24) from TG sows and non-transgenic littermates (CON) and IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP determined. Colostral (mature milk (d2-24 postpartum). There was no effect of parity on milk IGF-I content. Milk IGF-II concentration was unaffected by IGF-I over-expression. Low molecular weight IGFBP (IGFBP-2 and -5) in the milk of TG sows were higher (p=0.02) than CON in the early postpartum period, but did not differ in mature milk. Milk yield, determined by weigh-suckle-weigh, was similar in TG and CON as was litter weight gain. Milk nutrient composition was not significantly affected by IGF over-expression. Thus, mammary specific transgenic over-expression of IGF-I significantly increased milk IGF-I and IGFBP content, but did not impact lactation performance in swine.

  10. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  11. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2012-01-01

    from 7 to 15 mo after the estimated herd infection date, compared with that of first-parity cows in the same herds in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection date. Yield for parity 3+ cows was reduced by a mean of 3.0 kg (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 4.8) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo...

  12. Effect of a phase I Coxiella burnetii inactivated vaccine on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, L S-Ch; Borchardt, S; Ouellet, V; Heuwieser, W

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. The pathogen is prevalent in ruminants (goats, sheep, cows), which are the main sources of human infection. In the cattle industry around the world, animal (15 to 20%) and herd (38 to 72%) level prevalences of C. burnetii are high. Vaccination of ruminants against Q fever is considered important to prevent spreading of the disease and risk of infection in humans. However, published information on side effects of the Q fever vaccination under field conditions is limited for cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the phase I C. burnetii inactivated vaccine Coxevac on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows. In 2 experiments, a total of 508 cows were randomly divided into 2 groups to determine the effect of first vaccination on body temperature and milk yield. The C. burnetii serostatus of all cows was tested before vaccination with an indirect ELISA. The first experiment took place in the teaching and research barn of the Clinic of Animal Reproduction at the Freie Universität Berlin. Temperature was measured vaginally in 10 cows in a crossover design. The second experiment was conducted on a commercial dairy farm. Milk yield of 498 cows was measured 1 wk before and 1 wk after vaccination. In a subset of 41 cows, temperature was measured rectally. In both experiments, body temperature increased significantly after vaccination (1.0 ± 0.9°C and 0.7 ± 0.8°C). A significant difference was also found in body temperature between vaccinated and control cows. Thirty percent of the vaccinated animals in experiment 1 showed reversible swelling at the injection site as a reaction to the vaccination. The results indicate that vaccination against Q fever causes a transient increase of body temperature that peaks in the first 12 to 24h and declines after that. In experiment 2, vaccinated cows (26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d) produced significantly less milk than did control cows (28.2 ± 0.44 kg

  13. Incorporating mixed rations and formulated grain mixes into the diet of grazing cows: Effects on milk composition and coagulation properties, and the yield and quality of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auldist, M J; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Williams, R P W; Moate, P J; Wales, W J

    2016-06-01

    Effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the composition and coagulation properties of milk and the subsequent yield and quality of Cheddar cheese were measured. The experiment used milk from 72 Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45d in milk, fed according to 1 of 3 feeding strategies: (1) cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture [approximately 14kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day, to ground level] supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock (control); (2) same pasture and allowance as control, supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock (FGM); or (3) same pasture and allowance as control, supplemented with a partial mixed ration comprising the same formulated grain mix but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking (PMR). For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio (78:22, DM basis). Within each feeding strategy, milk was sampled from cows receiving either 8 or 16kg (DM) of supplement/cow per day. There were 2 replicated groups of 6 cows per supplement amount per dietary strategy; approximately 250L of milk was sampled from each for analyses of composition and coagulation properties and the manufacture of Cheddar cheese. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. For cows fed according to the control strategy, those fed 16kg/cow per day produced milk with lower concentrations of milk fat than cows fed 8kg/cow per day. This effect was not observed for cows fed according to the FGM and PMR strategies. Milk from cows fed 16kg of DM/cow per day according to the control strategy yielded less Cheddar cheese than milk from cows fed according to the PMR strategy, with cheese yields from FGM cows being intermediate. Amount of supplement offered had

  14. Quantifying the effect of heat stress on daily milk yield and monitoring dynamic changes using an adaptive dynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, G; Engel, B; Berentsen, P B M; Vellinga, Th V; Lansink, A G J M Oude

    2011-09-01

    Automation and use of robots are increasingly being used within dairy farming and result in large amounts of real time data. This information provides a base for the new management concept of precision livestock farming. From 2003 to 2006, time series of herd mean daily milk yield were collected on 6 experimental research farms in the Netherlands. These time series were analyzed with an adaptive dynamic model following a Bayesian method to quantify the effect of heat stress. The effect of heat stress was quantified in terms of critical temperature above which heat stress occurred, duration of heat stress periods, and resulting loss in milk yield. In addition, dynamic changes in level and trend were monitored, including the estimation of a weekly pattern. Monitoring comprised detection of potential outliers and other deteriorations. The adaptive dynamic model fitted the data well; the root mean squared error of the forecasts ranged from 0.55 to 0.99 kg of milk/d. The percentages of potential outliers and signals for deteriorations ranged from 5.5 to 9.7%. The Bayesian procedure for time series analysis and monitoring provided a useful tool for process control. Online estimates (based on past and present only) and retrospective estimates (determined afterward from all data) of level and trend in daily milk yield showed an almost yearly cycle that was in agreement with the calving pattern: most cows calved in winter and early spring versus summer and autumn. Estimated weekly patterns in terms of weekday effects could be related to specific management actions, such as change of pasture during grazing. For the effect of heat stress, the mean estimated critical temperature above which heat stress was expected was 17.8±0.56°C. The estimated duration of the heat stress periods was 5.5±1.03 d, and the estimated loss was 31.4±12.2 kg of milk/cow per year. Farm-specific estimates are helpful to identify management factors like grazing, housing and feeding, that affect the

  15. Milk yield and blood urea nitrogen in crossbred cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in a silvopastoral system in the Mexican tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B. Bottini-Luzardo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess milk yields, estimate the intake of crude protein (CP and determine the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN in early post-partum crossbred cows grazing irrigated Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena in a silvopastoral system relative to those in an irrigated grass monoculture.  Twenty-four multiparous cows were randomly allotted at calving on the basis of previous milk yields to 2 grazing treatments: grass monoculture system (MS of Cynodon nlemfuensis (n=12; and an intensive silvopastoral system (ISS composed of leucaena and C. nlemfuensis (n=12.  Cows were supplemented with sorghum grain (ISS or a conventional concentrate (MS during milking to ensure availability of metabolizable energy (ME and CP required for milk production.  Mean estimated intake of leucaena was 5.1±1.3 kg DM/d and estimated CP intakes were 1,479±3.3 and 1,258±3.3 g/d for ISS and MS, respectively (P>0.05, while estimated intakes of ME were 161±1.3 and 131±1.4 MJ/d for ISS and MS, respectively (P<0.05.  Milk yields were 13.5 and 14.5 kg/cow/d for cows on ISS and MS, respectively (P>0.05.  Concentrations of BUN were 19.1 mg/dL for cows in ISS and 15.3 mg/dL for cows in MS (P<0.05.  We conclude that intake of leucaena and sorghum grain in an irrigated silvopastoral system was sufficient to substitute for expensive concentrate in the diets of lactating cows grazing irrigated grass monoculture.  However, the higher levels of BUN found in ISS suggest a lower efficiency of N utilization in this treatment.  Restricting consumption of leucaena might be a means of improving efficiency of its use and this warrants investigation. Keywords: Cattle, crude protein, Cynodon nlemfuensis, leucaena, tropical pasturesDOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4159-167

  16. Effect of two treatment protocols for ketosis on the resolution, postpartum health, milk yield, and reproductive outcomes of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Kwan; Choi, In-Soo; Moon, Sung-Ho; Lee, Soo-Chan; Kang, Hyun-Gu; Jung, Young-Hun; Park, Soo-Bong; Kim, Ill-Hwa

    2017-09-25

    We determined the effect of ketosis treatment with propylene glycol (PG) or PG plus l-carnitine and methionine (Metabolase(®), Fatro, Bologna, Italy) on the resolution, postpartum health, milk yield, and reproductive performances of dairy cows. Blood from 475 Holstein cows was collected weekly until 4 weeks after calving to measure blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations. Cows with blood BHBA concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L were diagnosed with ketosis and were enrolled. One hundred and fifty cows diagnosed with ketosis were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (Day 0): (1) PG (300 g, PO) for 3 days (PG group, n = 50), (2) PG (300 g, PO) plus l-carnitine (1.25 g) plus methionine (5 g, IV) for 3 days (PG + CM group, n = 50), and (3) no treatment (control group, n = 50). On Day 3, blood was collected to evaluate whether the ketosis had resolved. Cows in the PG and PG + CM groups with blood BHBA ≥1.2 mmol/L were retreated for an additional 2 days, and then blood BHBA concentration was evaluated on Days 5 and 10. Blood glucose and haptoglobin concentrations, rumen fill score (RFS), and body condition score (BCS) were measured on Days 0, 3, 5, and 10. Postpartum complications, milk yield during the first 2 months, and reproductive outcomes were evaluated. The probability of resolution from ketosis was higher (P  0.05). In conclusion, treatment of dairy cows with PG plus l-carnitine and methionine improved the chances of resolution of ketosis and increased milk yield, while affecting neither the incidence of postpartum complications nor reproductive performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of different shapes of lactation curve for milk yield in dairy cattle by empirical mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macciotta, N P P; Vicario, D; Cappio-Borlino, A

    2005-03-01

    The study of relationships between mathematical properties of functions used to model lactation curves is usually limited to the evaluation of the goodness of fit. Problems related to the existence of different lactation curve shapes are usually neglected or solved drastically by considering shapes markedly different from the standard as biologically atypical. A deeper investigation could yield useful indications for developing technical tools aimed at modifying the lactation curve in a desirable fashion. Relationships between mathematical properties and lactation curve shapes were analyzed by fitting several common functions (Wood incomplete gamma, Wilmink's exponential, Ali and Schaeffer's polynomial regression, and fifth-order Legendre polynomials) to 229,518 test-day records belonging to 27,837 lactations of Italian Simmental cows. Among the best fits (adjusted r(2) higher than 0.75), the 3-parameter models (Wood and Wilmink) were able to detect 2 main groups of curve shape: standard and atypical. Five-parameter models (Ali and Schaeffer function and the Legendre polynomials) were able to recognize a larger number of curve shapes. The higher flexibility of 5-parameter models was accompanied by increased sensitivity to local random variation as evidenced by the bias in estimated test-day yields at the beginning and end of lactation (border effect). Meaning of parameters, range of their values and of their (co) variances are clearly different among groups of curves. Our results suggest that analysis based on comparisons between parameter values and (co)variances should be done carefully. Comparisons among parameter values and (co)variances could yield more robust, reliable, and easy to interpret results if performed within groups based on curve shape.

  18. A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency in early lactation and improved milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Feyera, Takele

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a new feeding concept composed of two dietary components fed daily throughout lactation could minimize sow weight loss and increase milk yield (MY) and piglet weight gain. In total, 14 sows were included in the experiment from parturition...... was recorded weekly. In addition, weekly milk samples and blood samples on d 3 and 17 were collected. Furthermore, sows were enriched with D2O (deuterated water) on d 2 and 28 after parturition to calculate body pools of fat and protein. Sows’ feed intake and weight loss interacted with diet regime across wk...... of DM (dry matter), fat and protein (P=0.99, 0.82 and 0.94). Milk lactose content was, however, higher for sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime (P=0.01). Sows on both dietary regimes were in negative energy balance throughout lactation. Sows fed the 1-diet regime were negative in N and Lys and reached...

  19. Effect of diets with different content of starch and protein fed to dairy cows in early lactation on milk yield and traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the effect on milk yield and its traits of 2 different levels of fermentable carbohydrates (LS: 25.5%, and HS: 29.5% DM combined with 2 protein levels (LP: 15.5% and HP: 16.5% DM, 4 Italian Friesian dairy cows in early lactation housed in a tied stall were used. The experimental diets were obtained adjusting in 4 supplements the proportion of high energy fibrous (beet pulp, soybean hull or starchy (corn meal feeds and of meal protein more (soybean meal or less (Soy-Pass®: xylose-treated soybean meal degradable. The highest DMI was observed in HSHP which showed also a low content of NDF. Milk yield resulted over 45 kg/d throughout the study and higher when HSHP diet was fed (46.1 kg. Milk fat was always at high level and the lowest value (3.89% with HSHP and the highest (4.08% with LSLP were observed. The diets did not modified milk protein (their average levels resulted of 3.25% and lactose content. Milk acidity and renneting traits were higher when HSLP was fed, and resulted at adequate levels when all the diets were fed. When the diets for dairy cow are formulated to cover the animal requirements and respect their digestion physiology, it is possible to reach high milk yield level and maintaining, at the same time, a high milk quality .

  20. Effects of bovine subclinical mastitis caused by Corynebacterium spp. on somatic cell count, milk yield and composition by comparing contralateral quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Tomazi, Tiago; Barreiro, Juliana Regina; Beuron, Daniele Cristine; Arcari, Marcos André; Lee, Sarah Hwa In; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; Araújo Junior, João Pessoa; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2016-03-01

    Subclinical mastitis caused by Corynebacterium spp. (as a group and at the species level) was investigated by evaluating contralateral (healthy and infected) mammary quarters for somatic cell count (SCC), milk yield and composition. Selection of cows with subclinical mastitis caused by Corynebacterium spp. was performed by microbiological culture of composite samples collected from 1242 dairy cows from 21 dairy herds. For each of the selected cows, milk yield was measured and milk samples were collected at the mammary quarter level (i.e., 1140 mammary samples collected from 285 cows) for analysis of milk composition and SCC. The identification of Corynebacterium spp. isolates was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. One hundred and eighty Corynebacterium spp. isolates were identified, of which 167 (92.77%) were C.bovis and eight (4.44%) non-C.bovis; for five of the Corynebacterium spp. isolates (2.77%), sequencing of 16S rRNA genes did not allow identification at the species level. Mammary quarters infected with Corynebacterium spp. as a group had a higher geometric mean SCC (197,900 cells/mL) than healthy contralateral mammary quarters (85,800 cells/mL). Species of Corynebacterium non-C.bovis were infrequently isolated and did not change SCC, milk yield or milk solid contents when evaluated at the contralateral quarter level. Although C.bovis infection showed no effect on milk yield, fat, protein, casein or total solids in milk, it increased SCC and decreased lactose and milk solids non-fat content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Signatures of selection identify loci associated with milk yield in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moioli, Bianca; Scatà, Maria Carmela; Steri, Roberto; Napolitano, Francesco; Catillo, Gennaro

    2013-09-03

    Identification of genomic regions that have been targets of selection for phenotypic traits is one of the most challenging areas of research in animal genetics, particularly in livestock where few annotated genes are available. In this study a genome-wide scan using the Illumina SNP50K Beadchip was performed in the attempt to identify genomic regions associated with milk productivity in sheep. The ovine genomic regions encoding putative candidate genes were compared with the corresponding areas in Bos taurus, as the taurine genome is better annotated. A total of 100 dairy sheep were genotyped on the Illumina OvineSNP50K Beadchip. The Fisher's exact test of significance of differences of allele frequency between each pair of the two tails of the distribution of top/worse milk yielders was performed for each marker. The genomic regions where highly divergent milk yielders showed different allele frequencies at consecutive markers was extracted from the OAR v3.1 Ovine (Texel) Genome Assembly, and was compared to the corresponding areas in Bos taurus, allowing the detection of two genes, the Palmdelphin and the Ring finger protein 145. These genes encoded non-synonymous mutations correlated with the marker alleles. The innovation of this study was to show that the DNA genotyping with the Illumina SNP50K Beadchip allowed to detect genes, and mutations in the genes, which have not yet been annotated in the livestock under investigation.

  2. Models to Estimate Lactation Curves of Milk Yield and Somatic Cell Count in Dairy Cows at the Herd Level for the Use in Simulations and Predictive Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    Typically, central milk recording data from dairy herds are recorded less than monthly. Over-fitting early in lactation periods is a challenge, which we explored in different ways by reducing the number of parameters needed to describe the milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Furthermore, we investigated how the parameters of lactation models correlate between parities and from dam to offspring. The aim of the study was to provide simple and robust models for cow level milk yield and somatic cell count for fitting to sparse data to parameterize herd- and cow-specific simulation of dairy herds. Data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to determine parity traits in milk production regarding milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Parity was stratified in first, second, and third and higher for milk, and first to sixth and higher for somatic cell count. Fitting of herd level parameters allowed for cow level lactation curves with three, two, or one parameters per lactation. Correlations of milk yield and somatic cell count were estimated between lactations and between dam and offspring. The shape of the lactation curves varied markedly between farms. The correlation between lactations for milk yield and somatic cell count was 0.2-0.6 and significant on more than 95% of farms. The variation in the daily milk yield was observed to be a source of variation to the somatic cell count, and the total somatic cell count was less correlated with the milk production than somatic cells per milliliter. A positive correlation was found between relative levels of the total somatic cell count and the milk yield. The variation of lactation and somatic cell count curves between farms highlights the importance of a herd level approach. The one-parameter per cow model using a herd level curve allows for estimating the cow production level from first the recording in the parity, while a two-parameter model requires more recordings for a credible

  3. Models to estimate lactation curves of milk yield and somatic cell count in dairy cows at the herd level for the use in simulations and predictive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Græsbøll

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Typically, central milk recording data from dairy herds are recorded less than monthly. Over-fitting early in lactation periods is a challenge, which we explored in different ways by reducing the number of parameters needed to describe the milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Furthermore, we investigated how the parameters of lactation models correlate between parities and from dam to offspring. The aim of the study was to provide simple and robust models for cow level milk yield and somatic cell count (SCC for fitting to sparse data to parameterise herd- and cow-specific simulation of dairy herds.Data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to determine parity traits in milk production regarding milk yield and SCC of individual cows. Parity was stratified in first, second and third and higher for milk, and first to sixth and higher for SCC. Fitting of herd level parameters allowed for cow level lactation curves with three, two or one-parameters per lactation. Correlations of milk yield and SCC were estimated between lactations and between dam and offspring.The shape of the lactation curves varied markedly between farms. The correlation between lactations for milk yield and SCC were 0.2-0.6 and significant on more than 95% of farms. The variation in the daily milk yield was observed to be a source of variation to the SCC, and the total SCC was less correlated with the milk production than somatic cells per ml. A positive correlation was found between relative levels of the total SCC and the milk yield.The variation of lactation and SCC curves between farms highlights the importance of a herd level approach. The one-parameter per cow model using a herd level curve allows for estimating the cow production level from first the recording in the parity, while a two-parameter model requires more recordings for a credible estimate, but may more precisely predict persistence, and given the independence of parameters, these can be

  4. Models to Estimate Lactation Curves of Milk Yield and Somatic Cell Count in Dairy Cows at the Herd Level for the Use in Simulations and Predictive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    Typically, central milk recording data from dairy herds are recorded less than monthly. Over-fitting early in lactation periods is a challenge, which we explored in different ways by reducing the number of parameters needed to describe the milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Furthermore, we investigated how the parameters of lactation models correlate between parities and from dam to offspring. The aim of the study was to provide simple and robust models for cow level milk yield and somatic cell count for fitting to sparse data to parameterize herd- and cow-specific simulation of dairy herds. Data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to determine parity traits in milk production regarding milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Parity was stratified in first, second, and third and higher for milk, and first to sixth and higher for somatic cell count. Fitting of herd level parameters allowed for cow level lactation curves with three, two, or one parameters per lactation. Correlations of milk yield and somatic cell count were estimated between lactations and between dam and offspring. The shape of the lactation curves varied markedly between farms. The correlation between lactations for milk yield and somatic cell count was 0.2–0.6 and significant on more than 95% of farms. The variation in the daily milk yield was observed to be a source of variation to the somatic cell count, and the total somatic cell count was less correlated with the milk production than somatic cells per milliliter. A positive correlation was found between relative levels of the total somatic cell count and the milk yield. The variation of lactation and somatic cell count curves between farms highlights the importance of a herd level approach. The one-parameter per cow model using a herd level curve allows for estimating the cow production level from first the recording in the parity, while a two-parameter model requires more recordings for a credible

  5. Effect of minor milk proteins in chymosin separated whey and casein fractions on cheese yield as determined by proteomics and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedholm, A; Møller, H S; Stensballe, A; Lindmark-Månsson, H; Karlsson, A H; Andersson, R; Andrén, A; Larsen, L B

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this work was to find regressions between minor milk proteins or protein fragments in the casein or sweet whey fraction and cheese yield because the effect of major milk proteins was evaluated in a previous study. Proteomic methods involving 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry in combination with multivariate data analysis were used to study the effect of variations in milk protein composition in chymosin separated whey and casein fractions on cheese yield. By mass spectrometry, a range of proteins significant for the cheese yield was identified. Among others, a C-terminal fragment of beta-casein had a positive effect on the cheese yield expressed as grams of cheese per 100 g of milk, whereas several other minor fragments of beta-, alpha(s1)-, and alpha(s2)-casein had positive effects on the transfer of protein from milk to cheese. However, the individual effect of each identified protein was relatively low. Therefore, further studies of the relations between different proteins/peptides in the rennet casein or sweet whey fractions and cheese yield are needed for advanced understanding and prediction of cheese yield.

  6. Effect of an intrajugular load of glucose or amino acid or their mix on cow milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Maianti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During the first stage of lactation of dairy cows the flux of nutrients is under an homeoretic control, which modifies the metabolism of body tissues and gives the priority of their utilisation to the mammary gland (Bauman and Currie, 1980. Nevertheless, while it is clear that the homeoretic control is not simply due to a lack of nutrients, it is not clear yet if this lack is the limit for mammary gland syntheses and which among nutrients is the more limiting, and if a larger nutrient availability could allows a higher yielding (Knight et al., 1994. Aim of our research was to study the milk yield and its composition changes as well as those of some blood metabolites and hormones, in dairy cows of low-average genetic merit,........

  7. Prepartum nutrition and solar radiation in beef cattle: II. Residual effects on postpartum milk yield, immunoglobulin, and calf growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, T M; Early, R J; Carpenter, J R; Buckley, B A

    1995-05-01

    Residual effects of nutrition and solar radiation during the last two-thirds of gestation on postpartum milk yield, immunoglobulin (Ig) G and M in both colostrum and calf serum, and calf growth were determined in beef cattle. Nineteen mature, multiparous crossbred cows (Bos taurus) at d 90 of pregnancy were assigned to either low (LO, 70% NRC total energy intake) or high (HI, 110% NRC total energy intake) nutritional level (sudangrass hay) and to either shade (S) or no shade (NS) treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. After parturition, all cows were moved into a large paddock and managed uniformly. Calf weights and calf serum were collected within 1 d postpartum, thereafter at 2-wk intervals for the next 12 wk, and then at 4-wk intervals until weaning. Colostrum samples were taken from the cow and milk yields were determined by the "weigh-suckle-weigh" technique. Neither prepartum nutrition nor environment influenced lactational performance of the dam. Concentrations of IgG were elevated in the colostrum of LO cows (15.3 vs 7.8 g/100 mL, LO vs HI, respectively; P calves from S cows than in those from NS cows. This difference in IgM profile did not seem to be due to any residual effect from prepartum treatments. Postnatal growth of calves from birth until weaning were similar across all prepartum treatments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Effects of glucose, propionic acid, and nonessential amino acids on glucose metabolism and milk yield in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemosquet, S; Delamaire, E; Lapierre, H; Blum, J W; Peyraud, J L

    2009-07-01

    Whole-body glucose rate of appearance (Ra) responses and milk lactose secretion were compared in dairy cows receiving duodenal infusions of glucose (Glc), a mixture of 5 nonessential amino acids (NEAAm), or ruminal infusions of propionic acid (C3). Four mid-lactation Holstein cows, fitted with both duodenum and rumen cannulas, were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Cows were fed a grass silage-based diet (Ctrl) that provided 88% of net energy of lactation and 122% of protein requirements. Concentrate was formulated with wheat (21.5%) and barley (20%) containing some starch. Isoenergetic infusions (5.15 Mcal/d of digestible energy) of Glc into the duodenum (7.7 mol/d), C3 into the rumen (14.1 mol/d), or NEAAm into the duodenum (in mol/d; Ala: 1.60; Asp: 0.60; Glu: 5.94; Gly: 1.22; Ser: 2.45) were given as a supplement to the Ctrl diet. During each period on d 13, [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose was infused into one jugular vein and blood samples were taken from the other jugular vein to measure glucose enrichment and determine Ra. Dry matter intake decreased slightly with the infusions (6%), but did not differ among them. Whole body glucose Ra averaged 502, 745, 600, and 576 mmol/h for Ctrl, Glc, C3, and NEAAm, respectively. It increased with the increase in energy supply (Ctrl vs. infusions) and differed according to the nutrients infused. The Ra response was higher with Glc and C3 than with NEAAm and higher with Glc than with C3. Plasma concentrations of insulin were not affected, but insulin-like growth factor 1 increased with infusions. Plasma glucagon increased with NEAAm, which could favor the increased Ra. Overall, milk lactose yield (137, 141, 142, and 130 mmol/h for Ctrl, Glc, C3, and NEAAm, respectively) was not modified by the infusions, but was lower with NEAAm compared with Glc and C3. Changes in lactose yield did not parallel the increase in Ra, and therefore the ratio of lactose yield to Ra decreased with the infusions and was lower in Glc

  9. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on milk yield and resolution of ketosis in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Ospina, P A; Oetzel, G R

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral propylene glycol (PG) administration on ketosis resolution and milk yield in cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK). Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 d in milk on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. Subclinical ketosis was defined as a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L, [corrected] and clinical ketosis was defined as ≥ 3.0 mmol/L. [corrected]. Cows with SCK were randomized to the treatment group (oral PG) or control group (no PG); treatment cows were drenched with 300 mL of PG once daily from the day they tested 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L [corrected] until the day they tested ketosis than control cows. Across the 3 herds measuring individual milk weights, treated cows produced 0.23 kg more milk per milking in the first 30 d of lactation than control cows, for a total difference of 0.69 kg/cow per day. After identification of a treatment by herd interaction, stratification by herd showed that treated cows produced more milk per milking on farm A (0.44 kg) and farm B (0.53 kg) in the first 30 d of lactation than control cows, for a total difference of 1.34 and 1.59 kg/d, respectively; milk production did not differ (0.02 kg per milking) between the 2 groups on farm D. These results show the positive effects of oral PG administration in fresh cows with SCK by helping to resolve SCK and preventing clinical ketosis. In addition, oral PG improves milk yield during early lactation in cows diagnosed with SCK. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preweaning milk replacer intake and effects on long-term productivity of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, F; Raffrenato, E; Everett, R W; Van Amburgh, M E

    2012-02-01

    The preweaning management of dairy calves over the last 30 yr has focused on mortality, early weaning, and rumen development. Recent studies suggest that nutrient intake from milk or milk replacer during the preweaning period alters the phenotypic expression for milk yield. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutrient intake from milk replacer and pre- and postweaning growth rate with lactation performance in the Cornell dairy herd and a commercial dairy farm. The analysis was conducted using traditional 305-d first-lactation milk yield and residual lactation yield estimates from a test-day model (TDM) to analyze the lactation records over multiple lactations. The overall objective of the calf nutrition program in both herds was to double the birth weight of calves by weaning through increased milk replacer and starter intake. First-lactation 305-d milk yield and residuals from the TDM were generated from 1,244 and 624 heifers from the Cornell herd and from the commercial farm, respectively. The TDM was used to generate lactation residuals after accounting for the effects of test day, calving season, days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, and year. In addition, lactation residuals were generated for cattle with multiple lactations to determine if the effect of preweaning nutrition could be associated with lifetime milk yield. Factors such as preweaning average daily gain (ADG), energy intake from milk replacer as a multiple of maintenance, and other growth outcomes and management variables were regressed on TDM milk yield data. In the Cornell herd, preweaning ADG, ranged from 0.10 to 1.58 kg, and was significantly correlated with first-lactation yield; for every 1 kg of preweaning ADG, heifers, on average, produced 850 kg more milk during their first lactation and 235 kg more milk for every Mcal of metabolizable energy intake above maintenance. In the commercial herd, for every 1 kg of preweaning ADG, milk yield increased

  11. Towards practical application of sensors for monitoring animal health: the effect of post-calving health problems on rumination duration, activity and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Machteld; Maltz, Ephraim; Bahr, Claudia; Berckmans, Daniel; Antler, Aharon; Halachmi, Ilan

    2017-05-01

    Three sources of sensory data: cow's individual rumination duration, activity and milk yield were evaluated as possible indicators for clinical diagnosis, focusing on post-calving health problems such as ketosis and metritis. Data were collected from a computerised dairy-management system on a commercial dairy farm with Israeli Holstein cows. In the analysis, 300 healthy and 403 sick multiparous cows were studied during the first 3 weeks after calving. A mixed model with repeated measurements was used to compare healthy cows with sick cows. In the period from 5 d before diagnosis and treatment to 2 d after it, rumination duration and activity were lower in the sick cows compared to healthy cows. The milk yield of sick cows was lower than that of the healthy cows during a period lasting from 5 d before until 5 d after the day of diagnosis and treatment. Differences in the milk yield of sick cows compared with healthy cows became greater from 5 to 1 d before diagnosis and treatment. The greatest significant differences occurred 3 d before diagnosis for rumination duration and 1 d before diagnosis for activity and milk yield. These results indicate that a model can be developed to automatically detect post-calving health problems including ketosis and metritis, based on rumination duration, activity and milk yield.

  12. Relationships of milk yield and quality from six breed groups of beef cows to preweaning average daily gain of their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Mays, A R; Turner, K E; Wu, J P; Brown, M A

    2015-04-01

    Milk yield and quality influence calf preweaning growth and ultimately the sale value of the calf at weaning. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships of milk production and quality of beef cows to calf preweaning ADG in beef cows sired by Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, and Romosinuano and from Brangus dams to determine whether the relationships were homogeneous across cow breed group. Approximately 50 cows/yr were milked monthly for 6 mo in each of the 7 yr of this study. Milk traits were included in models as linear and quadratic covariates along with interactions of the covariates with sire breed. Tests for curvilinearity and homogeneity of regression coefficients indicated the relationship of calf preweaning ADG to milk yield and quality was quadratic and homogeneous across Charolais and Gelbvieh; linear and homogeneous across Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano; and linear and different from other sire breeds in Herefords (P milk urea nitrogen (MUN). The relationship of calf preweaning ADG to SCC was quadratic in Brangus (P 0.05) of a relationship in Bonsmara, Charolais, Hereford, or Romosinuano. There was little evidence (P > 0.05) of a relationship of calf preweaning ADG to MUN in any of the sire breed groups. Results from this study confirmed the importance of the influence of milk yield and quality on calf preweaning growth but indicated this influence can depend on the breed composition of the cow. Furthermore, results suggest that breed origin or adaptation may have influenced the relationships of calf preweaning ADG to cow milk yield and quality.

  13. Effects of Alfalfa Particle Size and Soybean Oil on Digestibility, Chewing Activity, ‎Milk Yield and Compositions of Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kh Arjmandi

    2012-01-01

    Eight Holstein cows in early lactating stage were used in a 4×4 change-over design within 4 periods of 21-d to determine the effects of alfalfa hay particle size and soybean oil supplementation on intake, digestibility, ruminal and blood metabolites, chewing activity, milk yield and compositions. Four total mixed rations containing 20, 20 and 60% corn silage, alfalfa hay and concentrate respectively were fed to cows twice daily at 0800 and 2000 h. The rations were prepared based on differences in percentage of soybean oil in the concentrate and particle size of alfalfa hay: 1 0% soybean oil, long-cut alfalfa; 2 4% soybean oil, long-cut alfalfa; 3 4% soybean oil, alfalfa powder; 3 4 4% soybean, alfalfa powder. Soybean oil had no effect on DMI, but digestibility of NDF, ADF, EE and ash decreased and crude protein digestibility was increased. Reduction of hay particle size, increased DM, and OM intake but decreased the digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, ADF, EE and ash. Milk yield was increased, but milk fat and protein percentage decreased with addition of soybean oil. Reduction of particle size and addition of soybean oil, decreased time spent ruminating and total chewing activity. The addition of soybean oil to fine alfalfa had a synergism effect on decrease of intake time, rumination time and total chewing activity. Decreased particle size and addition of soybean oil declined rumen NH3-N concentration. Reduction of particle size significantly increased ruminal particulate passage rate, and decreased ruminal mean retention time, however, oil supplementation had no significant effect on passage rate, and ruminal mean retention time. Oil supplementation significantly increased milk yield, but decreased its fat and protein content. When particle size of hay decreased, with no effect on milk fat and protein content, milk yield significantly increased in treatments those contained oil supplementation. The oil supplementation in rations not only did not increase fat of milk

  14. Effects of buffering mineral mixtures on milk yield, milk composition, rumen pH and some blood biochemical parameters in heat stressed dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamović Milan

    2014-01-01

    group of cows, percentage of fat and dry substance in milk was significantly increased (p<0.05 and 0.01 respectively, while percentage of protein increase was insignificant. The substitution of magnesium oxide with bentonite had no impact on the values of examined parameters of metabolic profile, but it led to statistically significant increase of rumen contents pH values (p<0.05. From the obtained results it can be concluded that substitution of magnesium oxide with bentonite in feed mixtures that are used for feeding cows during summer period, can prevent rumen acidosis, which high yielding cows incline to under the conditions of elevated external temperatures. Besides that, this kind of substitution leads to improvement of milk composition, especially when percentage of fat and dry substance in milk is concerned. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003 i br. TR 34013

  15. Lameness in dairy heifers; impacts of hoof lesions present around first calving on future lameness, milk yield and culling risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Green, L E; Huxley, J N

    2016-10-01

    The importance of lameness in primiparous dairy heifers is increasingly recognised. Although it is accepted that clinical lameness in any lactation increases the risk of future lameness, the impact of foot lesions during the first lactation on long-term lameness risk is less clear. This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the impacts of foot lesions occurring around the time of first calving in heifers on future lameness risk, daily milk yield and survival within a dairy herd. Records were obtained for 158 heifers from one UK dairy herd. Heifers were examined in 2 month blocks from 2 months pre-calving through to 4 months post-calving. Sole lesions and white line lesions were scored on a zero to 10 scale and digital dermatitis on a zero to 3 scale. Outcomes investigated were; lameness risk based on weekly locomotion scores, average daily milk yield and culling risk. Mixed effect models were used to investigate associations between maximum lesion scores and outcomes. Lesion scores in the highest score categories for claw horn lesions (sole lesions and white line lesions) in the 2 to 4 month post-calving period were associated with an increased risk of future lameness; heifers with white line lesion scores ≥3 compared with scores zero to 1 and heifers with sole lesion scores ≥4 compared with score 2, at this time point, had a predicted increased risk of future lameness of 1.6 and 2.6 respectively. Sole lesions ≥4 were also associated with a reduction in average daily milk yield of 2.68kg. Managing heifers to reduce claw horn lesions during this time period post-calving may provide health, welfare and production benefits for the long-term future of those animals. A novel finding from the study was that mild lesion scores compared with scores zero to 1, were associated with a reduced risk of future lameness for white line lesions and sole lesions occurring in the pre-calving or 2 to 4 months post-calving periods respectively. Mild sole lesions in the

  16. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to predict cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits from unprocessed bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis of fresh unprocessed milk samples for predicting cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were obtained from 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows. Individual measurements of 7 new cheese yield-related traits were obtained from the laboratory cheese-making procedure, including the fresh cheese yield, total solid cheese yield, and the water retained in curd, all as a percentage of the processed milk, and nutrient recovery (fat, protein, total solids, and energy) in the curd as a percentage of the same nutrient contained in the milk. All individual milk samples were analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 over the spectral range from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). Two spectral acquisitions were carried out for each sample and the results were averaged before data analysis. Different chemometric models were fitted and compared with the aim of improving the accuracy of the calibration equations for predicting these traits. The most accurate predictions were obtained for total solid cheese yield and fresh cheese yield, which exhibited coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation (1-VR) of 0.95 and 0.83, respectively. A less favorable result was obtained for water retained in curd (1-VR=0.65). Promising results were obtained for recovered protein (1-VR=0.81), total solids (1-VR=0.86), and energy (1-VR=0.76), whereas recovered fat exhibited a low accuracy (1-VR=0.41). As FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid, cheap, high-throughput technique that is already used to collect standard milk recording data, these FTIR calibrations for cheese yield and nutrient recovery highlight additional potential applications of the technique in the dairy industry, especially for monitoring cheese

  17. Effect of including genetic Progress in milk yield on evaluating the use of sexed semen and other reproduction strategies in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan F.; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the importance of including genetic progress in milk yield when evaluating different reproductive strategies in a dairy herd by simulation modeling. The model used in this study was SimHerd V, a dynamic and mechanistic Monte Carlo simulation model...... of a dairy herd including young stock. A daily increasing trend describing genetic milk yield potential of the sire population was included in the model. The inaccuracy of assuming that replacement heifers have the same (milk yield) potential as the cows present in the herd was hereby dealt with. Improving...... estrus detection rate from 0.45 to 0.80 increased gross margin (GM) per cow-year by €20 when genetic progress was not included in the model. When genetic progress was included in the model, then the same improvement in estrus detection decreased the GM per cow-year by €7.4. This reduced effect...

  18. Proceedings of the 17th Dutch Testing Day: Testing Evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Timmer, Mark; Unknown, [Unknown

    These are the postproceedings of 17th Dutch Testing Day, held on the 29th of November 2011 at the - recently completely renovated - campus of the University of Twente. These postproceedings cover a selection of the material presented during the Dutch Testing Day. The synergy between academic and

  19. Association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with milk yield and body size in Chinese dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjuan Deng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with certain traits in 708 individuals of two Chinese dairy-goat breeds (Guanzhong and Xinong Saanen was investigated. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation. Two novel mutations were detected in the 5'-flanking region and in intron 4 of IGF-I gene, viz., g.1617 G > A and g.5752 G > C (accession D26119.2, respectively. The associations of the g.1617 G > A mutation with milk yield and the body size were not significant (p > 0.05. However, in the case of g.5752 G > C, Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CG genotype presented longer bodies (p C mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese dairy-goat breeding and genetics.

  20. The effect of supplementary formalin treated soya‐bean meal on feed intake, milk yield and live‐weight gain of dairy cows fed ensiled fodder beets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    1993-01-01

    to a traditional diet with fodder beets and ad libitum feeding with grass silage for a period of 12 weeks. The soya‐bean meal increased the daily intake of beet‐straw silage significantly from 13.1 to 14.1 kg DM (P ... to 400 g; P traditional diet, in which the total energy intake was close to that of the beet‐straw silage diets, milk and protein yield (but not milk fat yield) were lower by the beet‐straw silage feeding, although not significantly. However, this response seems to be typical...

  1. Effect of feeding fine maize particles on the reticular pH, milk yield and composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardi, R; Marchesini, G; Stefani, A-L; Barberio, A; Andrighetto, I; Segato, S

    2014-06-01

    The particle size of cereal grains has been found to modulate the rate of passage from the rumen and the digestibility of starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), but few studies have examined its impact on reticular pH. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding finely ground maize on the risk of ruminal acidosis, milk yield and composition. Twelve Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to a cross-over design. Diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous and were characterised by the same NDF and ADF, differing only in maize particle size. In the control diet (Ct), the maize meal was ground to 1.0 mm, whereas in the experimental diet, it was finely ground (Fg) to 0.5 mm. The pH and temperature of the reticulum were continuously measured in eight cows throughout the trial using indwelling sensors. Dry matter intake was higher in cows offered Fg diet than in Ct (19.0 vs. 20.3 kg/day; p = 0.067). However, milk yield (p = 0.855) and the 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) (p = 0.724) did not show any differences between the diets. Casein (2.48 vs. 2.57%; p = 0.035) and crude protein (CP) (3.18 vs. 3.31%; p = 0.021) resulted higher in Fg. Similarly, starch digestibility increased in animals offered Fg diet versus Ct (0.94 vs. 0.98; p = 0.078). Among the reticular parameters, the Fg-fed cows spent a significantly higher time below the 5.5 pH threshold (15 vs. 61 min/day; p = 0.047) and had an average daily variation in reticular pH characterised by a lower nadir pH (5.95 vs. 5.72; p < 0.001) and a higher pH range (0.79 vs. 0.94; p = 0.003). In this study, grain particle size affected the risk of the onset of ruminal acidosis. Therefore, it should be carefully considered when formulating rations. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Hot topic: Early postpartum treatment of commercial dairy cows with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs increases whole-lactation milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, A J; Ylioja, C M; Vargas, C F; Mamedova, L K; Mendonça, L G; Coetzee, J F; Hollis, L C; Gehring, R; Bradford, B J

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that postpartum administration of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) sodium salicylate can increase 305-d milk yield in older dairy cattle (parity 3 and greater). However, in this prior work, sodium salicylate was delivered to cows via the drinking water, a method that does not align well with current grouping strategies on commercial dairy farms. The objective of the current study was to replicate these results on a commercial dairy farm with a simplified treatment protocol and to compare sodium salicylate with another NSAID, meloxicam. Dairy cattle in their second lactation and greater (n=51/treatment) were alternately assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition, with treatments lasting for 3d. Experimental treatments began 12 to 36 h after parturition and were (1) 1 placebo bolus on the first day and 3 consecutive daily drenches of sodium salicylate (125 g/cow per day; SAL); (2) 1 bolus of meloxicam (675 mg/cow) and 3 drenches of an equal volume of water (MEL); or (3) 1 placebo bolus and 3 drenches of water (CON). Blood samples were collected on the first day of treatment, immediately following the last day of treatment, and 7d after the last day of treatment; plasma was analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids, haptoglobin, and paraoxonase. Milk production, body condition score, reproductive status, and retention in the herd were monitored for 365 d posttreatment, and effects of treatment, parity, days in milk, and interactions were evaluated in mixed effects models. Significance was declared at Pmilk and protein yields were greater in NSAID-treated cows, although 305-d fat production was not affected. There was a significant interaction of treatment and parity for plasma glucose concentration; MEL increased plasma glucose concentrations compared with CON and SAL in older cows. Sodium salicylate decreased plasma BHB concentration compared with MEL at 7d posttreatment, although no difference was

  3. Effective lactation yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Akke; Middelaar, van C.E.; Engel, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Kemp, B.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    To compare milk yields between cows or management strategies, lactations are traditionally standardized to 305-d yields. The 305-d yield, however, gives no insight into the combined effect of additional milk yield before calving, decreased milk yield after calving, and a possible shorter calving

  4. Organic and inorganic sources of zinc, copper and selenium in diets for dairy cows: intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simões Cortinhas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of feeding dairy cows with organic or inorganic sources of zinc (Zn, copper (Cu and selenium (Se on blood concentrations of these minerals, blood metabolic profiles, nutrient intake and milk yield and composition. Nineteen Holstein cows were selected and randomly assigned to two groups for receiving organic (n = 9 or inorganic (n = 10 sources of Zn, Cu and Se from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. Samples of feed, orts and milk were collected for analysis. Body condition score (BCS was determined and blood samples were collected for analysis of Zn, Cu and Se concentrations, as well as for metabolic profile. Supplying organic or inorganic sources of Zn, Cu, and Se did not affect dry matter and nutrient intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition, plasma concentration of these minerals, and BCS or change the BCS in cows from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. An effect of time was observed on all feed intake variables, plasma concentrations of Zn and Se, milk yield, milk protein content, BCS and change in BCS.

  5. Short communication: Partial replacement of ground corn with algae meal in a dairy cow diet: Milk yield and composition, nutrient digestibility, and metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, G G; Ferreira de Jesus, E; Takiya, C S; Del Valle, T A; da Silva, T H; Vendramini, T H A; Yu, Esther J; Rennó, F P

    2016-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of partially replacing dietary ground corn with a microalgae meal from Prototheca moriformis (composed of deoiled microalgae and soyhulls) on milk yield and composition, nutrient intake, total-tract apparent digestibility, and blood profile of lactating dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (57.7±49.4d in milk, 25.3±5.3 of milk yield, and 590±71kg of live weight at the start of experiment, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a cross-over design experiment, with 21-d periods. Diets were no microalgae meal (CON) or 91.8g/kg of microalgae meal partially replacing dietary ground corn (ALG). Cows showed similar milk yield and composition. The 3.5% fat-corrected milk production was 30.2±1.34kg/d for CON and 31.1±1.42kg/d for ALG. Despite cows having similar dry matter intake, ALG increased neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake. In addition, cows fed ALG exhibited higher ether extract digestibility. No differences were detected in glucose, urea, amino-aspartate transferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase blood concentrations. Feeding ALG increased the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein in blood compared with CON. The microalgae meal may partially replace ground corn in diets of lactating cows without impairing the animal's performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Production loss due to new subclinical mastitis in Dutch dairy cows estimated iwth a test-day model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halasa, T.; Nielen, M.; Roos, de S.; Hoorne, van R.; Jong, de G.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Werven, van T.; Hogeveen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Milk, fat, and protein loss due to a new subclinical mastitis case may be economically important, and the objective of this study was to estimate this loss. The loss was estimated based on test-day (TD) cow records collected over a 1-yr period from 400 randomly selected Dutch dairy herds. After

  7. Variation of milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, and nutrients recovery in curd of cows of different breeds before, during and after transhumance to highland summer pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, Francesco; Ramanzin, Maurizio; Cipolat-Gotet, Claudio; Sturaro, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    This paper aimed at evaluating the effect of summer transhumance to mountain pastures of dairy cows of different breeds on cheese-making ability of milk. Data were from 649 dairy cows of specialized (Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss) dual purpose (Simmental) and local (mostly Rendena and Alpine Grey) breeds. The Fourier-Transform Infra-Red Spectra (FTIRS) of their milk samples were collected before and after transhumance in 109 permanent dairy farms, and during transhumance in 14 summer farms (with multi-breeds herds) of the Trento Province, north-eastern Italy. A variety of 18 traits describing milk coagulation, curd firming, cheese yield and nutrients recovery in curd/loss in whey were predicted on the basis of FTIRS collected at the individual cow level. Moving the cows to summer farms improved curd firming traits but reduced cheese yields because of an increase of water and fat lost in the whey. During summer grazing, most of cheese-making traits improved, often non-linearly. The milk from summer farms supplementing cows with more concentrates showed better curd firming and cheese yield, because of lower fat lost in the whey. The breed of cows affected almost all the traits with a worst cheese-making ability for milk samples of Holsteins through all the trial, and interacted with concentrate supplementation because increasing compound feed tended to improve cheese-making traits for all breed, with the exception of local breeds for coagulation time and of Brown Swiss for curd firming time. In general, summer transhumance caused a favourable effect on cheese-making aptitude of milk, even though with some difference according to parity, initial days in milk, breed and concentrate supplementation of cows.

  8. Combined effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid, propionate, and acetate on milk fat yield and composition in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxin, G; Glasser, F; Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L; Rulquin, H

    2011-04-01

    Diets inducing milk fat depression (MFD) are known to alter ruminal lipid metabolism, leading to the formation of specific isomers [such as trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)] that inhibit milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows. However, ruminal outflow of these isomers does not fully account for the decreases in milk fat synthesis observed during diet-induced MFD. The high-concentrate diets inducing MFD also induce a greater production of propionate, suggesting a possible inhibition of milk fat by propionate associated with trans-10,cis-12-CLA during MFD. The present experiment aimed to study the combined effects of propionate and trans-10,cis-12-CLA (both inhibitors of milk fat synthesis) on milk fat secretion and the effects of the combination of 2 nutrients with opposite effects (acetate and propionate). Six Holstein cows were used in a 6×6 Latin square design with 21-d periods (14 d of nutrient infusion). The treatments were control; ruminal infusion of 1,500 g/d of acetate (A); ruminal infusion of 800 g/d of propionate (P); duodenal infusion of 1.60 g/d of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA); ruminal infusion of 750 g/d of acetate+400 g/d of propionate (A+P); and duodenal infusion of 1.60 g/d of trans-10,cis-12-CLA+ruminal infusion of 800 g/d of propionate (CLA+P). The amounts of nutrients infused were chosen to induce a similar variation in milk fat content. Treatments A and P decreased dry matter intake. Compared with the control, P and CLA treatments decreased milk fat content and yield by 9% and 15% on average. Treatment A increased milk fat content by 6.5% but did not modify milk fat yield (because of a decrease in milk yield). The effects of A and P, and CLA and P on milk fat and fatty acid percentages and yield were additive (A+P and CLA+P treatments). With a same dose of trans-10,cis-12-CLA, the additional supply of propionate induced a decrease in milk fat 40% higher than that induced by trans-10,cis-12-CLA alone. The milk fatty acid profile

  9. Evaluation of a continuous indicator for syndromic surveillance through simulation. application to vector borne disease emergence detection in cattle using milk yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Madouasse

    Full Text Available Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of

  10. Effects of feeding practices on milk yield and composition in peri-urban and rural smallholder dairy cow and pastoral camel herds in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashongwe, O B; Bebe, B O; Matofari, J W; Huelsebusch, C G

    2017-06-01

    Associations between feeding practices, milk yield, and composition were assessed in smallholder rural and peri-urban dairy cow (n = 97) and pastoral camel (n = 15) herds. A cross-sectional survey supplemented by follow-up collection of feed and milk samples for laboratory analyses was conducted. Data was analyzed using descriptive, correlation, and analysis of variance statistics. Feeding practices in rural smallholder dairy cows' herds were pastured based (87.7%) with napier grass (89.4%) and concentrates (93.9%) as forage and concentrate supplements. In smallholder peri-urban dairy cows' herds, it was napier grass based (68.4%) with concentrates (100%), oat forages (42.9%), and crop residues (28.6%). Pastoral camel herds were shrub browsing (53%), rangeland pasture grazing (20%), or Euphorbia tirucalli feeding (27%). Smallholder rural farmers offered more feeds (16.1 vs 15.3 kg/day) than peri-urban farmers, hence net energy for lactation (1.4 vs 1.3 Mcal/kg), crude protein (CP) (10 vs 12%), and milk yields (12 vs 9 kg/herd/day) was higher. Milk fat was higher in smallholder peri-urban (4.3%) than that of rural (3.9%). In pastoral camels, E. tirucalli feeding had higher daily milk yield/herd, fat, and CP (63 kg, 4.5 and 3.6%) than shrub browsing (35 kg, 4.2 and 3.0%) and grazing (23 kg yield, 2.6 and 2.7%). Five feeding practices out of 14 in smallholder dairy cattle herds resulted in more than 10 kg milk/cow/day because of low forage-to-concentrate ratio (2.5), inclusion of legume crop residue, or processing forages. They present opportunities for improved production in smallholder herds. In pastoral camel, E. tirucalli feeding showed the highest potential.

  11. Effects of exposure to artificial long days on milk yield, maternal insulin‐like growth factor 1 levels and kid growth rate in subtropical goats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernández, Horacio; Flores, José Alfredo; Delgadillo, José Alberto; Fernández, Ilda G; Flores, Manuel de Jesús; Mejía, Ángel; Elizundia, José Manuel; Bedos, Marie; Ponce, José Luis; Ramírez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    ...), while in another one, they were kept under artificial long days (LD group; n  = 19). Milk yield was higher in goats from the LD group than that in the control group ( P  < 0.05). Maternal IGF...

  12. Effect of dietary protein levels on rumen metabolism and milk yield in mid-lactating cows under hot and humid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, W.; Schonewille, J.T.; Yawongsa, A.; Rukkwamsuk, T.; Kanjanapruthipong, J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 levels of dietary Crude Protein (CP) in concentrates with similar proportions of Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP) on rumen metabolism, milk yield and composition in mid lactating cows in Thailand. Eight 87.5% Holsteinx12.5% indigenous

  13. Effect of dietary protein levels on rumen metabolism and milk yield in mid-lactating cows under hot and humid conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, W; Schonewille, Thomas; Yawongsa, A; Rukkwamsuk, T; Kanjanapruthipon, J; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 levels of dietary Crude Protein (CP) in concentrates with similar proportions of Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP) on rumen metabolism, milk yield and composition in mid lactating cows in Thailand. Eight 87.5% Holsteinx12.5% indigenous

  14. Associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbo, T; Ruegg, P L; Stocco, G; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Morgante, M; Pasotto, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits. Forty-one multibreed herds were selected for the study, and composite milk samples were collected from 1,508 cows belonging to 3 specialized dairy breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose breeds of Alpine origin (Simmental, Rendena, and Grey Alpine). Milk composition [i.e., fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, urea, and somatic cell count (SCC)] was analyzed, and separation of protein fractions was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven coagulation traits were measured: 5 traditional milk coagulation properties [time from rennet addition to milk gelation (RCT, min), curd-firming rate as the time to a curd firmness (CF) of 20 mm (k20, min), and CF at 30, 45, and 60 min from rennet addition (a30, a45, and a60, mm)], and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotical CF at an infinite time (CFP, mm), curd-firming instant rate constant (kCF, % × min(-1)), curd syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, % × min(-1)), modeled RCT (RCTeq, min), maximum CF value (CFmax, mm), and time at CFmax (tmax, min)]. We also measured 3 cheese yield traits, expressing the weights of total fresh curd (%CYCURD), dry matter (%CYSOLIDS), and water (%CYWATER) in the curd as percentages of the weight of the processed milk, and 4 nutrient recovery traits (RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY), representing the percentage ratio between each nutrient in the curd and milk. Milk samples with SCC > 100,000 cells/mL were subjected to bacteriological examination. All samples were divided into 7 clusters of udder health (UH) status: healthy (cows with milk SCC production was observed in the 2 UH status groups with the highest milk SCC (i.e., contagious IMI and culture-negative samples with high SCC), revealing a discrepancy between the

  15. Influence of ventilation regimen on micro-environment and on ewe welfare and milk yield in summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Caroprese

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ventilation regimen on air quality, and on the welfare and production performance of thirty-six Comisanaewes were assessed in a 6-week trial conducted during the summer of 2002. Animals were divided into three groups of12, and subjected to the following treatments: low ventilation regimen providing a mean ventilation rate (VR of 35 m3/hper ewe, split in 30 min ventilation cycles at an air speed of 2 m/s (LOV-30; moderate ventilation regimen (VR = 70m3/h per ewe split in 30 min ventilation cycles at an air speed of 4 m/s (MOV-30; moderate ventilation regimen (VR =70 m3/h per ewe split in 60 min ventilation cycles at an air speed of 2 m/s (MOV-60. Air concentrations of microorganisms,dust, and gaseous pollutants were measured twice weekly. Respiration rate (RR and rectal temperature (RTwere monitored throughout the trial at 0830 and at 1400. Behavioral traits of ewes were recorded twice per week from0900 to 1200 and from 1500 to 1800. Cell-mediated immune response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA and humoralimmune response to chicken egg albumin were determined. At d 37 ewes were injected with porcine ACTH, and subjectedto blood sampling for evaluation of cortisol concentrations immediately before and 1, 2 and 4 h after ACTH injection.Milk yield was recorded daily. Individual milk samples were analyzed for composition, renneting parameters, somaticcell count (SCC, and bacteriological characteristics. Averages of maximum THI were about 3 points higher in the LOV-30 and the MOV-30 than in the MOV-60 room, whereas no differences emerged in the air concentrations of dust, gaseouspollutants and microorganisms. Significant interactions of treatment x time (P and for the time the ewes spent lying, idling and eating in the afternoon during weeks 2 and 3 of the study period.Significant effects of ventilation regimen x time (P the LOV-30 ewes giving smaller volumes of milk with a deteriorated coagulating behavior than those of the MOV-60 group

  16. Standardization of milk using cold ultrafiltration retentates for the manufacture of Swiss cheese: effect of altering coagulation conditions on yield and cheese quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Martinelli, C; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2011-06-01

    Fortification of cheesemilk with membrane retentates is often practiced by cheesemakers to increase yield. However, the higher casein (CN) content can alter coagulation characteristics, which may affect cheese yield and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using ultrafiltration (UF) retentates that were processed at low temperatures on the properties of Swiss cheese. Because of the faster clotting observed with fortified milks, we also investigated the effects of altering the coagulation conditions by reducing the renneting temperature (from 32.2 to 28.3°C) and allowing a longer renneting time before cutting (i.e., giving an extra 5min). Milks with elevated total solids (TS; ∼13.4%) were made by blending whole milk retentates (26.5% TS, 7.7% CN, 11.5% fat) obtained by cold (cheeses were made from part-skim milk (11.5% TS, 2.5% CN, 2.8% fat). Three types of UF fortified cheeses were manufactured by altering the renneting temperature and renneting time: high renneting temperature=32.2°C (UFHT), low renneting temperature=28.3°C (UFLT), and a low renneting temperature (28.3°C) plus longer cutting time (+5min compared to UFLT; UFLTL). Cutting times, as selected by a Wisconsin licensed cheesemaker, were approximately 21, 31, 35, and 32min for UFHT, UFLT, UFLTL, and control milks, respectively. Storage moduli of gels at cutting were lower for the UFHT and UFLT samples compared with UFLTL or control. Yield stress values of gels from the UF-fortified milks were higher than those of control milks, and decreasing the renneting temperature reduced the yield stress values. Increasing the cutting time for the gels made from the UF-fortified milks resulted in an increase in yield stress values. Yield strain values were significantly lower in gels made from control or UFLTL milks compared with gels made from UFHT or UFLT milks. Cheese composition did not differ except for fat content, which was lower in the control compared with the UF

  17. Multiple-trait genomic evaluation for milk yield and milk quality traits using genomic and phenotypic data in buffalo in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspilcueta-Borquis, R R; Araujo Neto, F R; Santos, D J A; Hurtado-Lugo, N A; Silva, J A V; Tonhati, H

    2015-12-22

    The objective of this study was to compare the multi-trait model using pedigree information and a model using genomic information in addition to pedigree information. We used data from 5896 lactations of 2021 buffalo cows, of which 384 were genotyped using the Illumina Infinium(®) bovine HD BeadChip, considering seven traits related to milk yield (MY305), fat (FY305), protein (PY305), and lactose (LY305), percentages of fat (%F) and protein (%P), and somatic cell score (SCS). We carried out two analyses, one using phenotype and pedigree information (matrix A) and the other using the relationship matrix based on pedigree and genomics information (a single step, matrix H). The (co)variance components were estimated using multiple-trait analysis by the Bayesian inference method. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups (herd-year and calving season), and the age of cow at calving as (co)variables (quadratic and linear effect). The additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual effects were included as random effects in the model. The estimates of heritability using matrix A were 0.25, 0.22, 0.26, 0.25, 0.37, 0.42, and 0.17, while using matrix H the heritability values were 0.25, 0.24, 0.26, 0.26, 0.38, 0.47, and 0.18 for MY305, FY305, PY305, LY305, %F, %P, and SCS, respectively. The estimates of breeding values in the two analyses were similar for the traits studied, but the accuracies were greater when using matrix H (higher than 8% in the traits studied). Therefore, the use of genomic information in the analyses improved the accuracy.

  18. Colostrum immunoglobulin G concentration of multiparous Jersey cows at first and second milking is associated with parity, colostrum yield, and time of first milking, and can be estimated with Brix refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Del-Río, N; Rolle, D; García-Muñoz, A; Rodríguez-Jiménez, S; Valldecabres, A; Lago, A; Pandey, P

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate colostrum IgG concentration harvested at first and second milking from multiparous Jersey cows, the dam's lactation number, colostrum yield, and time of first milking. In addition, we validated the use of a Brix refractometer to estimate IgG concentration in colostrum from multiparous Jersey cows using radial immunodiffusion as the reference method. Colostrum samples and total weight of colostrum harvested at first (n = 134) and second (n = 68) milking were collected from 134 multiparous Jersey cows housed in a California herd. Fresh colostrum samples were analyzed for IgG concentration with Brix refractometry and frozen samples by radial immunodiffusion. A total of 90.4 and 42.7% of the samples from first and second milking met industry standards of quality for IgG concentration (>50 g/L). Second and third lactation cows had similar colostrum IgG concentration but lower than cows on their fourth and greater lactation. At second milking, 56.4% of cows on their fourth or greater lactation had colostrum IgG concentrations >50 g/L. When colostrum yield increased from low (6 kg), IgG concentration decreased. Higher IgG concentration was observed on colostrum harvested at 50 IgG g/L was 20.9% based on logit equations with Youden's index criterion and 18.0% based on accuracy criterion. For colostrum harvested at second milking, similar Brix thresholds were obtained, 19.2 and 19.0%, regardless of whether Youden's index or accuracy was used as the selection criterion. Our results indicate that the dam's lactation number, colostrum yield, and time of first milking relative to calving are associated with IgG concentration in colostrum from multiparous Jersey cows. Second milking colostrum from mature Jersey cows should be evaluated to extend colostrum supply on dairies especially during times of shortage. Readings of %Brix can be used to rapidly estimate IgG concentration in Jersey colostrum harvested at first and second milking

  19. Effect of polyherbal galactogogue supplementation on milk yield and quality as well as general health of Surti buffaloes of south Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Patel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A polyherbal galactogogue based on indigenous knowledge of tribles (Bhagats belonging to Patalkot (Madhya Pradesh, Dangs (Gujarat and Aravallis (Rajasthan was evaluated on lactating Surti buffaloes (medium sized buffalo breed of South Gujarat which is best suitable for small and marginal farmers as well as landless labourers/tribal with less input resources. Materials and Methods: A total of 22 lactating Surti buffaloes maintained at Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Gujarat, India were randomly allotted to treatment and control group (11 buffaloes in each group. Two polyherbal galactogogue biscuits (19 g each per day for initial 10 days of the month over a period of three months were supplemented to buffaloes in treatment group. The daily milk yield of all 22 buffaloes was recorded. Milk samples from all experimental buffaloes at fortnight interval were analyzed on automatic milk analyzer. The pooled gain/loss of BCS in all the buffaloes was worked out. DMI (% were also worked out by averaging all fortnight observations. Results: A significant higher (p<0.05 total milk yield (14.24 % of treatment group was recorded. The effect of polyherbal galactogogue biscuits was non-significant on milk compositions. Dry matter intake /100 kg body weight (DMI % was found significantly (p<0.01 better in treatment over control. The buffaloes of treatment group had lost significantly (p<0.01 lesser body condition scoring (BCS than control however, both groups had lost BCS from initial BCS. The net profit of treatment was Rs.339.90/animal/month higher than control and calculated cost-benefit ratio of treatment and control groups was 1:1.62 and 1:1.52 respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that supplementary feeding of polyherbal galactogogue to lactating Surti buffaloes is cost effectively beneficial for milk yield and general health condition. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 214-218

  20. Effects of replacing grass silage with forage pearl millet silage on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of grass silage (GS) with forage millet silages that were harvested at 2 stages of maturity [i.e., vegetative stage and dough to ripe seed (mature) stage] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included control (GS), vegetative millet silage (EM), and mature millet silage (MM) diets. Experimental silages comprised 24% of dietary dry matter (DM). Soybean meal and slow-release urea were added in millet diets to balance for crude protein (CP). Three additional ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Cows fed the GS diet consumed more DM (22.9 vs. 21.7 ± 1.02 kg/d) and CP (3.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.19 kg/d), and similar starch (4.9 ± 0.39 kg/d) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 8.0 ± 0.27 kg/d) compared with cows fed the MM diet. Replacing the EM diet with the MM diet did not affect DM, NDF, or CP intakes. Cows fed the MM diet produced less milk (26.1 vs. 29.1 ± 0.79 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (28.0 vs.30.5 ± 0.92 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (26.5 vs. 28.3 ± 0.92 kg/d) yields than cows fed the GS diet. However, cows fed diets with EM and GS produced similar yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk. Feed efficiency (milk yield:DM intake) was greater only for cows fed the GS diet than those fed the MM diet. Milk protein yield and concentration were greater among cows fed the GS diet compared with those fed the EM or MM diets. Milk fat and lactose concentrations were not influenced by diet. However, milk urea N was lower for cows fed the GS diet than for those fed the MM diet. Ruminal NH3-N was greater for cows fed the EM diet than for

  1. Coagulation properties of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Hallén, Elin

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of the different proteins in milk are important for the outcome of the coagulation processes which yield our dairy products, whereas total milk protein content is a poor indicator of coagulation properties of milk. In order to design the milk protein composition to meet dairy processing requirements, selection for genetic variants of milk proteins have been proposed. This work aimed to study genetic milk protein polymorphism and its association with the detailed milk protein co...

  2. Selectivity and stability of new herbicides and herbicide combinations for the seed yields of some field crops II. Effect at milk thistle (Silybum Marianum Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delchev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. During 2013 – 2015 on pellic vertisol soil type was conducted a field experiment. Under investigation was Bulgarian milk thistle cultivar Silmar (Silybum marianum Gaertn.. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check, 6 soil-applied herbicides – Tendar EC, Sharpen 33 EC, Merlin flex 480 SC, Smerch 24 ЕC, Raft 400 SC, Eagle 75 DF and 5 foliar-applied herbicides – Kalin flo, Eclipse 70 DWG, Sultan 500 SC, Granstar super 50 SG, Starane 250 EK. Factor C included no treated check and 1 antigraminaceous herbicide – Tiger platinium 5 EC. All herbicides, herbicide combinations and herbicide tank-mixtures were applied in a working solution of 200 l/ha. Mixing of foliar-applied herbicides was done in the tank on the sprayer. Soil-applied herbicides were treated during the period after sowing before emergence. Foliar-applied herbicides were treated during rosette stage of the milk thistle. Tank mixtures of antigraminaceous herbicide Tiger platinum with foliar herbicides Kalin flo, Eclipse, Sultan, Granstar super and Starane leads to obtaining high seed yields of milk thistle. High yields seeds are also obtained by foliar treatment with Tiger platinum after soil-applied herbicides Raft, Sharpen and Eagle. The use of the soil-applied herbicides Smerch, Merlin flex and Tendar does not increase the seed yield due to its higher phytotoxicity against milk thistle. Herbicide Tendar and herbicide combination Tendar + Tiger platinum are the most unstable, followed by herbicide Merlin flex. Herbicide tank-mixtures Kalin flo + Tiger platinum and Eclipse + Tiger platinum and herbicide combination Raft + Tiger platinum are technologically the most valuable. They combine high seed yield with high stability with relation to different years. Single application of soil-applied or foliar-applied herbicides have low estimate; due to that they must be combined for full control of weeds in milk thistle crops.

  3. Lowering rumen-degradable protein maintained energy-corrected milk yield and improved nitrogen-use efficiency in multiparous lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J D; Kassube, K R; Ríus, A G

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of reducing rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) proportions on feed intake, milk production, and N-use efficiency in primiparous and multiparous cows exposed to warm climates. Eighteen primiparous and 30 multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments formulated to contain 2 proportions of RDP (10 and 8%) and 2 proportions RUP (8 and 6%) of dry matter (DM) indicated as follows: (1) 10% RDP, 8% RUP; (2) 8% RDP, 8% RUP; (3) 10% RDP, 6% RUP; and (4) 8% RDP, 6% RUP. Protein sources were manipulated to obtain desired RDP and RUP proportions. Diets were isoenergetic and contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate (DM basis). Cows were individually fed the 10% RDP, 8% RUP diet 3 wk before treatment allocation. Cows were exposed to the prevailing Tennessee July and August temperature and humidity in a freestall barn with no supplemental cooling. Main effects and their interaction were tested using the Mixed procedure of SAS (least squares means ± standard error of the mean; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Observed values of nutrient intake and milk production were used to obtain NRC (2001) model predictions. Cows showed signs of heat stress throughout the study. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased dry matter intake (DMI; 0.9 kg/d) at 8% RUP, but increased DMI (2.6 kg/d) at 6% RUP in primiparous cows. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased milk yield (10%) at 8% RUP, but increased yield (14%) at 6% RUP. Treatments did not affect yield of energy-corrected milk. For multiparous cows, treatments did not affect DMI. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased yield of energy-corrected milk (3.4%) at 8% RUP, but increased yield (8.8%) at 6% RUP. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP and 8 to 6% RUP both increased N-use efficiency for primiparous and multiparous cows. The NRC

  4. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (Pvariables. Milk emission flow variables were similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Milking parameters were adequate in most of the farms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking showed a slight tendency

  5. Short communication. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake and blood parameters of Holstein cows fed ensiled apple pomace co-ensiled with broiler litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Azizi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ensiled mixed apple pomace and broiler litter (EAPBL on milk yield (MY and composition, dry matter intake (DMI and blood parameters at early lactation cow. Four multiparous early-lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design including 4 periods and 4 experimental diets. The cows were fed diets containing 0 (control, 15, 30 and 45% of EAPBL, respectively. The highest DMI (p<0.05 was observed in cows fed diets containing 15 and 30% of EAPBL. Milk production was lower (p<0.05 in cows fed 0% EAPBL than in the other experimental groups. Diet including 45% of EAPBL increased (p<0.05 blood glucose and blood urea nitrogen concentration. Inclusion of EAPBL on dairy cows rations might efficiently cause an improvement on MY, milk composition and DMI.

  6. Milk removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferneborg, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Milk from dairy cows is a staple dietary component for humans all over the world. Regardless of whether milk is consumed in its purest, unaltered form or as high-end products such as fine cheese or ice cream, it needs to be of high quality when taken from the cow, produced at a low price and produced in a system that consider aspects such as animal health, animal welfare and sustainability. This thesis investigated the role of milk removal and the importance of residual milk on milk yield...

  7. A bulk tank milk survey of Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in dairy herds in Prince Edward Island and their relationship with herd management factors and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Javier; Dohoo, Ian

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the relationship of the levels of antibodies to Ostertagia ostertagi in bulk-tank milk samples from Prince Edward Island (PEI) dairy farms to milk production and to herd-management practices potentially related to gastrointestinal nematode infections. The milk samples were obtained from 289 to 322 dairy farms during 2000; production and management data were available from 197 and 200 farms, respectively. Cow exposure to pasture and whole-herd anthelmintic treatment were the only herd management variables significantly associated with antibody levels in the fall of 2000. An increase in antibody levels from the observed 25th percentile to the 75th percentile (interquartile range) was associated with a drop in milk production of 1.2 kg/cow/day. The results of this study indicate that the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for O. ostertagi antibody is a potentially useful technique to measure parasite exposure in adult dairy cows and that parasite burdens in lactating cattle in PEI have an important impact on milk production.

  8. Comparative 2D-DIGE Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells during Lactation Reveals Protein Signatures for Lactation Persistency and Milk Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Singh, Surender; Jena, Manoj K.; Varshney, Nishant; Kola, Srujana; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai K.; Grover, Sunita; Dang, Ajay K.; Mukesh, Manishi; Prakash, B. S.; Mohanty, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end with alveoli which surrounds the lumen. These alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MEC) reflect the milk producing ability of farm animals. In this study, we have used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry to identify the protein changes in MEC during immediate early, peak and late stages of lactation and also compared differentially expressed proteins in MEC isolated from milk of high and low milk producing cows. We have identified 41 differentially expressed proteins during lactation stages and 22 proteins in high and low milk yielding cows. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a majority of the differentially expressed proteins are associated in metabolic process, catalytic and binding activity. The differentially expressed proteins were mapped to the available biological pathways and networks involved in lactation. The proteins up-regulated during late stage of lactation are associated with NF-κB stress induced signaling pathways and whereas Akt, PI3K and p38/MAPK signaling pathways are associated with high milk production mediated through insulin hormone signaling. PMID:25111801

  9. A supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces milk fat yield but does not alter organ weight or body fat deposition in lactating ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Liam A; Weerasinghe, Weerasinghe M P B; Wilkinson, Robert G; de Veth, Michael J; Bauman, Dale E

    2010-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis in ruminants, but effects on carcass composition and organ weight are unknown. Our objectives in this experiment were to determine the dose response of ruminally protected CLA on the performance, organ weight, and fatty acid (FA) composition of early lactation dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous dairy ewes were fed a basal diet for 10 wk that was supplemented with a lipid-encapsulated CLA at 1 of 3 levels: no CLA (control, CON), low CLA (L-CLA), or high CLA (H-CLA) to supply 0, 1.5, or 3.8 g/d, respectively, of both trans-10, cis-12 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Dry matter intake was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatment. Ewes fed H-CLA had a 13% higher milk yield compared with those receiving either CON or L-CLA. Compared with CON, milk fat yield (g/d) was 14 and 24% lower in ewes fed L-CLA or H-CLA, respectively. Supplementing ewes with CLA did not affect carcass or organ weights, carcass composition, or organ FA content. Compared with ewes receiving the CON diet, CLA supplementation had little effect on the FA composition of the Longissimus dorsi, although cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA were increased in ewes receiving H-CLA. The current findings are consistent with the view that the energy spared by the CLA reduction in milk fat content was mainly partitioned to milk yield and there was no evidence of organ hypertrophy or liver steatosis.

  10. Replacing corn silage with different forage millet silage cultivars: effects on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of corn silage (CS) with 2 cultivars of forage millet silages [i.e., regular millet (RM) and sweet millet (SM)] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a high-forage total mixed ration (68:32 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included CS (control), RM, and SM diets. Experimental silages constituted 37% of each diet DM. Three ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Relative to CS, RM and SM silages contained 36% more crude protein, 66% more neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 88% more acid detergent fiber. Cows fed CS consumed more dry matter (DM; 24.4 vs. 22.7 kg/d) and starch (5.7 vs. 3.7 kg/d), but less NDF (7.9 vs. 8.7 kg/d) than cows fed RM or SM. However, DM, starch and NDF intakes were not different between forage millet silage types. Feeding RM relative to CS reduced milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (35.8 vs. 38.0 kg/d) and SCM (32.7 vs. 35.3 kg/d). However, cows fed SM had similar milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk yields than cows fed CS or RM. Milk efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Milk protein concentration was greatest for cows fed CS, intermediate for cows fed SM, and lowest for cows fed RM. Milk concentration of solids-not-fat was lesser, whereas milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RM than for those fed CS. However, millet silage type had no effect on milk solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen levels. Concentrations of milk fat, lactose and total solids were not affected by silage type. Ruminal pH and ruminal NH3-N were greater for cows fed RM and SM than for cows fed CS. Total-tract digestibility of DM (average=67.9%), NDF (average=53

  11. Genetic parameters of linear conformation type traits and their relationship with milk yield throughout lactation in mixed-breed dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, A; Mucha, S; Mrode, R; Coffey, M; Conington, J

    2016-07-01

    Conformation traits are of interest to many dairy goat breeders not only as descriptive traits in their own right, but also because of their influence on production, longevity, and profitability. If these traits are to be considered for inclusion in future dairy goat breeding programs, relationships between them and production traits such as milk yield must be considered. With the increased use of regression models to estimate genetic parameters, an opportunity now exists to investigate correlations between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation in more detail. The aims of this study were therefore to (1) estimate genetic parameters for conformation traits in a population of crossbred dairy goats, (2) estimate correlations between all conformation traits, and (3) assess the relationship between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation. No information on milk composition was available. Data were collected from goats based on 2 commercial goat farms during August and September in 2013 and 2014. Ten conformation traits, relating to udder, teat, leg, and feet characteristics, were scored on a linear scale (1-9). The overall data set comprised data available for 4,229 goats, all in their first lactation. The population of goats used in the study was created using random crossings between 3 breeds: British Alpine, Saanen, and Toggenburg. In each generation, the best performing animals were selected for breeding, leading to the formation of a synthetic breed. The pedigree file used in the analyses contained sire and dam information for a total of 30,139 individuals. The models fitted relevant fixed and random effects. Heritability estimates for the conformation traits were low to moderate, ranging from 0.02 to 0.38. A range of positive and negative phenotypic and genetic correlations between the traits were observed, with the highest correlations found between udder depth and udder attachment (0.78), teat angle and teat placement (0

  12. Association between milk protein polymorphism and milk production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk production traits were chosen as milk yield, average daily milk yield and lactation length. These traits were associated with milk protein types. Genetic variants of milk protein were identified by starch gel electrophoresis containing mercaptoethanol and urea. The allele gene frequencies of A, B, and C of as1-Cn loci and ...

  13. Effects of parity, breed, herd-year, age, and month of kidding on the milk yield and composition of dairy goats in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoa-Mboé, A; Michaux, C; Detilleux, J C; Kebers, C; Farnir, F P; Leroy, P L

    1997-01-12

    Lactation records, collected from 1989 to 1995, for Belgian dairy goats were examined for effects of parity, breed, herd-year, age at kidding, and month of kidding on milk, fat and protein yields, and on fat and protein percentages. Total lactation yields were computed from test-day yields, using Fleischmann's method. For lactations longer than 250 days, yields were truncated at 250 days. Partial lactations (25 days minimum) were extended to 250 days, and fat and protein percentages were deducted from the yields. After editing a total of 2997 lactation records of 2562 does remained. The parity classifications were first and second or greater; kidding seasons were defined as December, January, February, March, April to July, and August to November. The breed groups were Anglo-Nubian, Chamoisee, Saanen, and crossbreeds. The data were analysed within parity with a fixed-effect model that included effects of herd-year, breed, month of kidding, and age at Kidding. All effects in the model were significant on the traits measured for parities, except the age effects on fat percentage and of month of kidding on protein percentage at first parity. Saanen had the highest milk yield at first parity; at later parities, the Chamoisee produced most. Yield increases were large between first and later parities. Does freshening in February produced more milk than those that freshened at other months. Monthly variations in fat and protein percentages across parities, although mostly significant, were small. Yields increased with age at first parity; for later parities, they increased until 25-30 months for milk and until 40 months for fat and protein, and then decreased. Fat and protein percentages increased up to 15-17 months of age, and then decreased to the lowest values around 25 months; this was followed by an increase around 32 months, which tended to stabilize until 50 months. The ranges of R(2) associated with effects were: for herd-year, 43-52% and 22-36%; for breed, 3

  14. An evaluation of casein hydrolyzate in combination with antibiotic for bacterial cure and subsequent increase in milk yield in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silanikove Nissim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A 3-yr study examined whether prepartum treatment with casein hydrolyzate in combination with antibiotic, as routinely used in Israel for dry cow therapy, improved bacterial cure and increased milk yield in subsequent lactations in comparison with treatment with antibiotic alone. The vast majority of bacterial isolates in samples collected prior to drying-off comprised coagulase-negative staphylococci, mostly as Staph. chromogenes. Results Bacterial cure associated with the combined treatment was 73.8% in cows, significantly higher than the 51.7% cure recorded when cows were treated only with antibiotic. During the study, the annual milk yield of non-casein hydrolyzate treated and treated control cows increased at ~2% per year, which is consistent with the national annual increase attributed to genetic selection. In cows treated with casein hydrolyzate the increase was 9% (above the 2% expected in the first lactation after the treatment, and 6.3% (above the 4% expected for 2 years in the second lactation after treatment. These increases were significantly higher than those in the controls and those expected through genetic improvement. Conclusions Treatment with casein hydrolyzate at dry-off was shown to be a viable mean to eliminate existing environmental bacterial infection, and to improve milk yield in the next lactation.

  15. Strategies for estimating the parameters needed for different test-day models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, I; Strabel, T; Jamrozik, J; Mäntysaari, E A; Meuwissen, T H

    2000-05-01

    Currently, most analyses of parameters in test-day models involve two types of models: random regression, where various functions describe variability of (co)variances with regard to days in milk, and multiple traits, where observations in adjacent days in milk are treated as one trait. The methodologies used for estimation of parameters included Bayesian via Gibbs sampling, and REML in the form of derivative-free, expectation-maximization, or average-information algorithms. The first method is simpler and uses less memory but may need many rounds to produce posterior samples. In REML, however, the stopping point is well established. Because of computing limitations, the largest estimations of parameters were on fewer than 20,000 animals. The magnitude and pattern of heritabilities varied widely, which could be caused by simplifications in the model, overparameterization, small sample size, and unrepresentative samples. Patterns of heritability differ among random regression and multiple-trait models. Accurate parameters for large multi-trait random regression models may be difficult to obtain at the present time. Parameters that are sufficiently accurate in practice may be obtained outside the complete prediction model by a constructive approach, where parameters averaged over the lactation would be combined with several typical curves for (co)variances for days in milk. Obtained parameters could be used for any model, and could also aid in comparison of models.

  16. Application of single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction with a multiple-lactation random regression test-day model for Japanese Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Toshimi; Gotoh, Yusaku; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Abe, Hayato; Masuda, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takayoshi

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a validation reliability of single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) with a multiple-lactation random regression test-day model and investigate an effect of adding genotyped cows on the reliability. Two data sets for test-day records from the first three lactations were used: full data from February 1975 to December 2015 (60 850 534 records from 2 853 810 cows) and reduced data cut off in 2011 (53 091 066 records from 2 502 307 cows). We used marker genotypes of 4480 bulls and 608 cows. Genomic enhanced breeding values (GEBV) of 305-day milk yield in all the lactations were estimated for at least 535 young bulls using two marker data sets: bull genotypes only and both bulls and cows genotypes. The realized reliability (R 2 ) from linear regression analysis was used as an indicator of validation reliability. Using only genotyped bulls, R 2 was ranged from 0.41 to 0.46 and it was always higher than parent averages. The very similar R 2 were observed when genotyped cows were added. An application of ssGBLUP to a multiple-lactation random regression model is feasible and adding a limited number of genotyped cows has no significant effect on reliability of GEBV for genotyped bulls. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Parameters for milk somatic cell score and relationships with production traits in primiparous dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, V; Finocchiaro, R; van Kaam, J B C H M; Portolano, B; Bovenhuis, H

    2007-04-01

    A total of 13,066 first-lactation test-day records of 2,277 Valle del Belice ewes from 17 flocks were used to estimate genetic parameters for somatic cell scores (SCS) and milk production traits, using a repeatability test-day animal model. Heritability estimates were low and ranged from 0.09 to 0.14 for milk, fat, and protein yields, and contents. For SCS, the heritability of 0.14 was relatively high. The repeatabilities were moderate and ranged from 0.29 to 0.47 for milk production traits. The repeatability for SCS was 0.36. Flock-test-day explained a large proportion of the variation for milk production traits, but it did not have a big effect on SCS. The genetic correlations of fat and protein yields with fat and protein percentages were positive and high, indicating a strong association between these traits. The genetic correlations of milk production traits with SCS were positive and ranged from 0.16 to 0.31. The results showed that SCS is a heritable trait in Valle del Belice sheep and that single-trait selection for increased milk production will also increase SCS.

  18. Coxiella burnetii: Serological reactions and bacterial shedding in primiparous dairy cows in an endemically infected herd-impact on milk yield and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freick, M; Enbergs, H; Walraph, J; Diller, R; Weber, J; Konrath, A

    2017-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) is the causative agent of Q fever both in humans and animals. The objectives of this study were to investigate seropositivity and bacterial shedding in heifers and primiparous cows in an endemically infected herd and to assess the effects on post-partum diseases, fertility and milk production. At the age of 9 months, 96 Holstein heifers were included. Sampling was performed reproduction-orientated: at the beginning of the study, at detection of first pregnancy, 3 weeks before expected calving date (blood serum), at parturition and after 21, 42, 100 and 150 days in milk (DIM) (blood serum, vaginal swabs and milk). Serum samples were investigated by a commercial ELISA for the presence of specific antibodies and vaginal swabs and milk samples by PCR to detect C. burnetii DNA. Individual animal data (calving ease, stillbirth, retained foetal membranes, puerperal metritis, endometritis after 42 DIM, presence of corpus luteum after 42 DIM, interval calving-first service, interval calving-conception, number of inseminations until 150 DIM, proportion of pregnant cows until 100 and 150 DIM, proportion of pregnant cows after first service and data of the dairy herd improvement test) were documented. All heifers were seronegative at the age of 9 months and 3 weeks before the expected calving date. Subsequently, the proportion of seropositive animals and the antibody score increased significantly towards 42 and 100 DIM, respectively. Vaginal C. burnetii shedding was highest at parturition (30.9%), while the most positive milk samples were detected after 100 DIM (15.3%). Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and shedding had no impact on parameters of reproduction. However, milk fat yield was declined in puerperal vaginal shedders and cows which seroconverted during their first 42 DIM, respectively. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Effects of total replacement of corn silage with sorghum silage on milk yield,composition, and quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M.Cattani N.Guzzo R.Mantovani L.Bailoni

    2017-01-01

    ...) have been forcing dairy farmers to consider alternative silages. Some experiments conducted on lactating cows have proven that the total replacement of corn silage with sorghum silage did not reduce milk...

  20. Effect of forage/concentrate ratio and soybean oil supplementation on milk yield and quality from dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Secchiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary energy level is a limiting factor of milk production mainly in early lactation goats. Energy intake may be increased by incorporation of fat in ration. Currently, rumen protected fat is mainly adopted in goats nutrition, since the several studies have clearly confirmed that supplies of protected fat markedly improved the fat percentage of goat milk (Schmidely and Sauvant, 2001; Chilliard et al., 2003.

  1. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference and dietary crude protein on milk yield, acid-base chemistry, and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, C D; West, J W; Bernard, J K

    2007-10-01

    Eight primiparous lactating Holstein cows (47 +/- 10 d in milk) fitted with ruminal cannulae were used to determine the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and dietary crude protein (CP) concentration on milk yield and composition, acid-base chemistry, and measures of N metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial in a randomized complete block design to provide 15 or 17% CP and DCAD of 25 or 50 mEq (Na + K - Cl)/100 g of feed dry matter [15 or 39 mEq (Na + K) - (Cl + S)/100 g of feed dry matter]. High DCAD improved dry matter intake, milk yield, and concentrations of milk fat and protein. An interaction of DCAD and CP was observed for uric acid excretion, an indicator of microbial protein yield. Uric acid excretion was higher for high DCAD than for low DCAD in low CP diets and was similar for low and high DCAD with high CP. Serum bicarbonate concentration, urinary bicarbonate excretion, blood pH, and serum Na were elevated for high DCAD compared with low DCAD. Fractional excretion of Na, K, Cl, and Ca increased for high DCAD. Blood urea N and urinary urea N were greater for high than for low CP diets. No differences due to DCAD were observed for these parameters. Results of this study suggest that, in early lactation cows, blood acid-base chemistry is altered by differences in DCAD that range between the high and low ends of the desired DCAD range. Modifications of acid-base chemistry and the corresponding changes in protein metabolism may allow for more efficient feeding of protein and better nutritional management of the lactating dairy cow.

  2. Array of Hall Effect Sensors for Linear Positioning of a Magnet Independently of Its Strength Variation. A Case Study: Monitoring Milk Yield during Milking in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristófol Peris

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we propose an electronic system for linear positioning of a magnet independent of its modulus, which could vary because of aging, different fabrication process, etc. The system comprises a linear array of 24 Hall Effect sensors of proportional response. The data from all sensors are subject to a pretreatment (normalization by row (position making them independent on the temporary variation of its magnetic field strength. We analyze the particular case of the individual flow in milking of goats. The multiple regression analysis allowed us to calibrate the electronic system with a percentage of explanation R2 = 99.96%. In our case, the uncertainty in the linear position of the magnet is 0.51 mm that represents 0.019 L of goat milk. The test in farm compared the results obtained by direct reading of the volume with those obtained by the proposed electronic calibrated system, achieving a percentage of explanation of 99.05%.

  3. Array of Hall Effect sensors for linear positioning of a magnet independently of its strength variation. a case study: monitoring milk yield during milking in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Sánchez-Quinche, Angel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; Peris, Cristófol

    2013-06-21

    In this study we propose an electronic system for linear positioning of a magnet independent of its modulus, which could vary because of aging, different fabrication process, etc. The system comprises a linear array of 24 Hall Effect sensors of proportional response. The data from all sensors are subject to a pretreatment (normalization) by row (position) making them independent on the temporary variation of its magnetic field strength. We analyze the particular case of the individual flow in milking of goats. The multiple regression analysis allowed us to calibrate the electronic system with a percentage of explanation R² = 99.96%. In our case, the uncertainty in the linear position of the magnet is 0.51 mm that represents 0.019 L of goat milk. The test in farm compared the results obtained by direct reading of the volume with those obtained by the proposed electronic calibrated system, achieving a percentage of explanation of 99.05%.

  4. Impact of cow strain and concentrate supplementation on grazing behaviour, milk yield and metabolic state of dairy cows in an organic pasture-based feeding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heublein, C; Dohme-Meier, F; Südekum, K-H; Bruckmaier, R M; Thanner, S; Schori, F

    2017-07-01

    As ruminants are able to digest fibre efficiently and assuming that competition for feed v. food use would intensify in the future, cereals and other field crops should primarily be destined to cover the dietary needs of humans and monogastric animals such as poultry and pigs. Farming systems with a reduced or absent concentrate supplementation, as postulated by organic agriculture associations, require adapted dairy cows. The aim of this experiment was to examine the impact of concentrate supplementation on milk production, grazing and rumination behaviour, feed intake, physical activity and blood traits with two Holstein-Friesian cow strains and to conclude the consequences for sustainable and organic farming. The experiment was a cross-over study and took place on an organic farm in Switzerland. In all, 12 Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH) cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ) cows, which were paired according to lactation number, days in milk and age for primiparous cows, were used. All cows grazed full time and were supplemented either with 6 kg/day of a commercial, organic cereal-grain mix or received no supplement. After an adaptation period of 21 days, a measurement period of 7 days followed, where milk yield and composition, pasture dry matter intake estimated with the n-alkane double-indicator technique, physical activity based on pedometer measurements, grazing behaviour recorded by automatic jaw movement recorder and blood samples were investigated. Non-supplemented cows had a lower milk yield and supplemented HCH cows produced more milk than supplemented HNZ cows. Grazing time and physical activity were greater for non-supplemented cows. Supplementation had no effect on rumination behaviour, but HNZ cows spent longer ruminating compared with HCH cows. Pasture dry matter intake decreased with the concentrate supplementation. Results of blood analysis did not indicate a strong negative energy balance for either non-supplemented or supplemented cows

  5. Short communication: Supplementing lysine and methionine in a lactation diet containing a high concentration of wet corn gluten feed did not alter milk protein yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, C R; Weber, D; Block, E; Smith, J F; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2013-08-01

    Primiparous (n=33) and multiparous (n=63) lactating Holstein cows (186±51 d in milk) were used to evaluate the effects of supplementing metabolizable amino acids using lysine in a matrix of Ca salts of fatty acids (Megamine-L, Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) and the isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (MetaSmart, Adisseo Inc., Antony, France) in diets containing >26% wet corn gluten feed (dry matter basis). Cows were blocked by production level, parity, and pregnancy status, then randomly assigned to 1 of 8 pens and allowed a 7-d adaption period before receiving dietary treatments for 28 d. Pens were assigned randomly to either of 2 diets formulated to differ by metabolizable amino acid supply. Dry matter intake and production were monitored daily and milk components analyzed 3d/wk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. The original design of the study consisted of a control diet predicted to be deficient in lysine and methionine; however, after ingredient nutrients were analyzed and modeled with animal requirements at dry matter intake [26.6±0.35 kg/d (mean ± SEM)] and milk production levels achieved during the study (40.1±0.46 kg/d), only marginal deficiencies were predicted for the control (-8.1g/d for lysine; -1g/d for methionine) according to the National Research Council method, whereas the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System 5.0 and 6.1 models indicated positive balances for these amino acids (25.9 and 21.8 g/d for lysine, 14.7 and 18.9 g/d for methionine, respectively). Supplementing 30 g/d of metabolizable lysine in a Ca soap matrix and 2.4 g/d of metabolizable methionine as 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid led to positive predicted lysine and methionine balances by all 3 models, and predicted metabolizable lysine-to-methionine ratios ranging from 2.9 to 3.1. No treatment effects were observed for dry matter intake, milk yield, milk component concentrations or yields, or energy

  6. Short communication: Associations between feed push-up frequency, feeding and lying behavior, and milk yield and composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2017-03-01

    Feeding management factors have great potential to influence activity patterns and feeding behavior of dairy cows, which may have implications for performance. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of feed push-up frequency on the behavioral patterns of dairy cows, and to determine associations between behavior and milk yield and composition. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 28, parity = 1.9 ± 1.1; mean ± SD) were housed in tiestalls, milked twice per day, and offered ad libitum access to water and a total mixed ration (containing, on a dry matter basis: 25% corn silage, 25% grass/alfalfa haylage, 30% high-moisture corn, and 20% protein/mineral supplement), provided twice per day. Cows were divided into 2 groups of 14 (balanced by days in milk, milk production, and parity) and individually exposed to each of 2 treatments in a crossover design with 21-d periods; treatment 1 had infrequent feed push-up (3×/d), whereas treatment 2 had frequent feed push-up (5×/d). During the last 7 d of each period, dry matter intake and milk production were recorded and lying behavior was monitored using electronic data loggers. During the last 2 d of each period, milk samples were collected for analysis of protein and fat content and feed samples of fresh feed and orts were collected for particle size analysis. The particle size separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Feed push-up frequency had no effect on lying time [11.4 ± 0.37 h/d; mean ± standard error (SE)], milk production (40.2 ± 1.28 kg/d) and composition (milk protein: 3.30 ± 0.048%; milk fat: 3.81 ± 0.077%), or feed sorting. Cows sorted against long particles (78.0 ± 2.2%) and for short (102.6 ± 0.6%) and fine (108.4 ± 0.9%) particles. Milk fat content decreased by 0

  7. Milk yield, milk composition, eating behavior, and lamb performance of ewes fed diets containing soybean hulls replacing coastcross (Cynodon species) hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, R C; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Mendes, C Q; Rodrigues, G H; Packer, I U; Eastridge, M L

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing coastcross hay NDF by soybean hull (SH) NDF on the lactation performance and eating behavior of ewes and also on the performance of their lambs. Fifty-six Santa Inês lactating ewes (56.1 +/- 6.8 kg of initial BW; mean +/- SD) were penned individually and used in a randomized complete block design with 14 blocks and 4 treatments. Diets were formulated to provide similar concentrations of NDF (56%) and CP (16%). The SH NDF replaced 33 (SH33), 67 (SH67), or 100% (SH100) of the NDF contributed by coastcross hay in a 70% forage-based diet (SH0), resulting in SH inclusion rates of 0, 25, 54, and 85% of the dietary DM. Once a week, from the second to the eighth week of lactation (weaning time), ewes were separated from their lambs, stimulated by a 6-IU i.v. oxytocin injection, and hand milked to empty the udder. After 3 h, milk production was obtained after the same procedure. Quadratic effect for milk production (142.4, 179.8, 212.6, and 202.9 g/3 h) and cubic effect for DMI (2.27, 2.69, 3.25, and 3.00 kg/d) were observed as SH inclusion increased from 0 to 85% of the dietary DM. Milk fat (7.59, 7.86, 7.59, and 7.74%), protein (4.53, 4.43, 4.40, and 4.55%), and total solids (18.24, 18.54, 18.39, and 18.64%) did not differ among the 70% forage-based diet and diets with SH NDF replacing 33, 67, or 100% of the NDF. A linear increase in lactose concentration was observed with SH inclusion. Ewe BW gain during the trial showed a cubic response (0.37, 0.03, 4.80, and 2.80 kg) with SH inclusion. The preweaning ADG of lambs increased linearly, and ADG of lambs after weaning decreased linearly with SH inclusion. Final BW of lambs (2 wk after weaning) did not differ among treatments. Eating behavior observations were conducted with 44 ewes. The same facilities, experimental design, dietary treatments, and feeding management were used. Observations were visually recorded every 5 min for a 24-h period when

  8. Short- and long-term effects of forage supplementation of calves during the preweaning period on performance, reproduction, and milk yield at first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2015-07-01

    Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. All calves were offered 6 L/d of milk replacer (MR) at 12% dry matter (DM) in 2 feedings until 28d of age, 3 L/d of MR at 12% DM in 2 feedings from 29 to 44d of age calves, and 1.5 L of MR at 12% DM in 1 feeding from 45 to 51d of age. Animals were weaned at 52d of age. Starter concentrate and forage intake were recorded daily and BW weekly until 65d of age. Two weeks after weaning, total-tract apparent digestibility was determined in 6 calves per treatment. Heifer BW was recorded at 10 mo of age. Breeding and milk yield at first lactation were also recorded. Starter concentrate intake was greater in OH compared with CON animals during the preweaning period. As a result, calves in the OH treatment had greater average daily gain (ADG) than CON animals during the preweaning period. After weaning, OH calves consumed more forage than CON animals, but we found no differences between treatments in ADG and starter concentrate intake. Similarly, total-tract apparent digestibility did not differ between treatments, and BW and ADG from 2wk after weaning to 10mo of age did not differ between treatments. Moreover, no differences in reproductive performance [age at first artificial insemination (AI), age at fertile insemination, conception rate at first AI, and number of AI] or milk yield at first lactation were observed between treatments, although a positive relationship between growth rate early in life and future energy-corrected milk yield was found. We

  9. Random regression models for milk, fat and protein in Colombian Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naudin Hurtado-Lugo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Covariance functions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects and, subsequently, genetic parameters for test-day milk (MY, fat (FY protein (PY yields and mozzarella cheese (MP in buffaloes from Colombia were estimate by using Random regression models (RRM with Legendre polynomials (LP. Materials and Methods. Test-day records of MY, FY, PY and MP from 1884 first lactations of buffalo cows from 228 sires were analyzed. The animals belonged to 14 herds in Colombia between 1995 and 2011. Ten monthly classes of days in milk were considered for test-day yields. The contemporary groups were defined as herd-year-month of milk test-day. Random additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual effects were included in the model. Fixed effects included the contemporary group, linear and quadratic effects of age at calving, and the average lactation curve of the population, which was modeled by third-order LP. Random additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were estimated by RRM using third- to- sixth-order LP. Residual variances were modeled using homogeneous and heterogeneous structures. Results. The heritabilities for MY, FY, PY and MP ranged from 0.38 to 0.05, 0.67 to 0.11, 0.50 to 0.07 and 0.50 to 0.11, respectively. Conclusions. In general, the RRM are adequate to describe the genetic variation in test-day of MY, FY, PY and MP in Colombian buffaloes.

  10. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P < 0.05) BCS score at the end of the trial (7.39 ± 0.1 vs. 7.14 ± 0.1 in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). The average milk yield/buffalo was higher (P < 0.05) in Group A compared to Group S (10.58 ± 0.1 vs. 10.39 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively) and this was mainly due to the higher milk production recorded in buffaloes at less than 75 d in milk (11.81 ± 0

  11. Risk assessment of postpartum uterine disease and consequences of puerperal metritis for subsequent metabolic status, reproduction and milk yield in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyves, László; Szenci, Ottó; Jurkovich, Viktor; Tegzes, Lászlóné; Tirián, Attila; Solymosi, Norbert; Gyulay, Gyula; Brydl, Endre

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine some metabolic and other factors predicting the risk of postpartum uterine disease (PUD), and the effects of puerperal metritis (PM) on metabolic status, reproduction and milk yield were analysed. A total of 105 Holstein-Friesian cows were included, and sampled on day or = 1 + ketonuria was present on day 4 postpartum, this indicated a higher probability of PUD [odds ratio (OR) 2.64; P 0.200 mmol/l on days or = 1.0 occurred between days cows with retained placenta. The risk of uterine diseases was lower in multiparous than in primiparous cows (OR: 0.29; P Cows affected with PM (PM+ cows) showed lower milk production on day 4 (kg; P cows.

  12. Feeding dairy cows with full fat extruded or toasted soybean seeds as replacement of soybean meal and effects on milk yield, fatty acid profile and CLA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of about 70% of soybean meal (SBM with extruded(ES or toasted (TS full-fat soybean seeds in diets for lactating cows on milk quality, fatty acid profile, and conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA content. Eighteen lactating cows were assigned to 3 groups which received a basal diet, supplementedwith 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 kg/head, respectively, of SBM, ES and TS. There was no significant effect on milk yield,calculated as the difference between daily yield during the experimental period and the mean of the last 5 days of adaptation(-1.65, -1.29 and -0.20 kg/d, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; P>0.10 and milk quality parameters (fat, protein,urea and cheese making parameters among treatments. In the ES group there was a decrease in the short chainFA content (from C4 to C13 in milk fat (9.2 vs 11.0 and 10.8 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, SBM and TS; PMedium chain FA (from C14 to C17 content in milk fat was lower for ES and TS groups compared with SBM (46.8 and48.0 vs 54.8 g/100 g lipids respectively; PSBM group compared to the others (34.3 vs 44.2 and 41.2 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; PThe replacement of SBM with ES enhanced oleic and linoleic acid and, particularly, CLA content. Intermediate values wereobserved for the TS group. CLA content (0.91, 0.62 and 0.56 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pincreased throughout the trial in all groups. ES also reduced the proportion of SFA with respect to SBM (65.2, 68.2 and70.9 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pin the same order; Pimproving the health-quality of milk. The various soybean products did not affect either metabolic profile (protein, urea,glucose, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides, liver parameters and mineral serum content or rumen parameters (pH, ammoniaand VFAs. The replacement of SBM with ES and TS permitted an improvement in the nutritional properties of milkwithout negatively

  13. Influence of breed, milk yield, and temperature-humidity index on dairy cow lying time, neck activity, reticulorumen temperature, and rumination behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, A E; Jones, B W; Becker, C A; Bewley, J M

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare weekly mean lying time (LT), neck activity (NA), reticulorumen temperature (RT), and rumination time (RU) among 3 breed groups, milk yield (MY), and temperature-humidity index (THI). Cows (n = 36; 12 Holstein, 12 crossbred, and 12 Jersey) were blocked by parity group (primiparous or multiparous), days in milk, and MY. Lying time, NA, RT, RU, and MY were recorded and averaged by day and then by week for each cow. For study inclusion, each cow was required to have 10 wk of LT, NA, RT, and RU data. Maximum THI were recorded and averaged daily. Mean (±SE) days in milk, LT, MY, RT, RU, NA, and maximum THI were 159.0 ± 6.0 d, 11.1 ± 0.1 h/d, 28.7 ± 0.5 kg/d, 38.8 ± 0.0°C, 6.4 ± 0.1 h/d, 323.8 ± 3.8 activity units, and 56.5 ± 0.6, respectively. The MIXED Procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) was used to evaluate fixed effects of breed, MY, parity, THI, and their interactions on LT, NA, RT, and RU with cow nested within breed as subject. All main effects remained in each model regardless of significance level. Stepwise backward elimination was used to remove nonsignificant interactions. The interactions of breed × parity group and maximum THI × parity group were associated with RT. Increasing THI coincided with increasing RT. Least squares means LT for multiparous cows was significantly greater than LT for primiparous cows (11.4 ± 0.3 and 10.5 ± 0.5 h/d, respectively). Least squares means NA for primiparous cows was greater than for multiparous cows of all breeds (372.1 ± 10.9 and 303.4 ± 7.8, respectively). The CORR Procedure of SAS was used to evaluate relationships among RT, RU, LT, NA, and MY. Rumination time was positively correlated with MY (r = 0.30) and negatively correlated with LT (r = -0.14). Reticulorumen temperature was negatively correlated with MY (r = -0.11). Rumination time was positively correlated with NA (r = 0.18) and negatively correlated with LT (r = -0.14). Lying time and NA were

  14. Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

    2014-05-01

    Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may

  15. Nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial abundances, and milk yield and composition in dairy goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber waste fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Huelva, M; Ramos-Morales, E; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2012-10-01

    The effects of replacing 35% of cereals-based concentrate with feed blocks (FB) containing waste fruits of tomato, cucumber, or barley grain in diets for lactating goats on nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial N flow to the duodenum, milk yield and quality, methane emissions, and abundances of total bacteria and methanogens were studied. Eight Murciano-Granadina goats (39.4 ± 5.39 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) in the middle of the third lactation were used and 4 diets were studied in a replicated 4×4 Latin square experimental design. Diets consisted of alfalfa hay (A) plus concentrate (C) in a 1:1 ratio (diet AC) or diets in which 35% of the concentrate was replaced with FB including wastes of tomato fruit, cucumber, or barley. In each period, 2 goats were randomly assigned to 1 of the dietary treatments. Intakes of FB including tomato, cucumber, and barley were 208 ± 65, 222 ± 52, and 209 ± 83 g of dry matter per animal and day, respectively. The replacement of 35% of concentrate with FB did not compromise nutrient apparent digestibility, total purine derivative urinary excretion, milk yield and composition, and total bacteria and methanogen abundances. Digestible energy and that in methane and urine were higher for AC than for FB-containing diets, whereas the metabolizable energy value was not affected by diet. The inclusion of tomato and cucumber fruits in FB decreased N in urine and CH(4) emissions compared with AC, which is environmentally relevant. However, tomato-based FB decreased microbial N flow in the rumen, whereas goats fed cucumber-based FB had the highest values for this measurement. Moreover, FB containing barley or tomato and cucumber led to lower rumen volatile fatty acid and NH(3)-N concentrations, respectively. Milk from goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber-based FB had higher linoleic, linolenic, and total polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations than that from goats fed AC. Overall, our study suggests that

  16. Feeding rumen-protected methionine pre- and postpartum increases milk protein content and yield in early lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to evaluate the effects of feeding rumen-protected methionine (MET) from 23 d (±12) before calving until 98 days in milk (DIM) on lactation performance, dry matter intake (DMI), body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) change of dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 223) ...

  17. Influence of carbohydrates on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk performance in high-yielding dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de H.

    1993-01-01

    Food for human consumption originates directly from plants, after processing, or indirectly by conversion of plant materials into food of animal origin through livestock. An important example of food of animal origin are dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt,

  18. Meta-analysis of relationships between enteric methane yield and milk fatty acid profile in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingen, van H.J.; Crompton, L.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Reynolds, C.K.; Dijkstra, J.

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have indicated a relationship between enteric methane (CH4) production and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cattle. However, the number of studies investigating such a relationship is limited and the direct relationships reported are mainly obtained by variation in CH4

  19. TEST DAY MODELS FOR PRODUCTION TRAITS IN DAIRY CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernice Mostert

    0.67 ± 0.007. 0.66 ± 0.003. 0.63 ± 0.002 0.62 ± 0.001. Protein. 0.53 ± 0.007. 0.46 ± 0.002. Table 2 Heritability estimates for Holsteins reported by countries participating in INTERBULL evaluations. Country. Model. Milk. Butterfat. Protein. Canada. MT-ML-RR-TD. 0.36-0.39. 0.33-0.37. 0.35-0.37. Estonia. ST-ML-FR-TD. 0.27.

  20. Estimation of the Effect Size of Lactation Sequence and Calving Season on 305-Day Lactation Milk Yield with Meta Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Küçükönder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the lactation sequence and the calving season, which are one of the factors influencing the milk yield in Holstein Friesian breed cows, were studied with meta-analysis method. Meta-analysis is a statistical technique that allows a re-evaluation of the studies conducted by other researchers for the same purpose by bringing them together. Meta-analysis combines and summarizes the results of the studies conducted on various fields, and contributes in making a common judgment among researchers. For these reasons, the studies of 7 different researchers that have been made in this field were brought together and it was aimed to create a common view about the studied parameters. In addition, the heterogeneity in this study was investigated by Chi-Square and I2 test statistics, and these values were found as ×^2=50.205 and I2= 88%, respectively. Therefore, for combining the studies, the fixed effect model wasn’t used in meta-analysis. In this study, the results of the researchers’ studies’ regarding the subject in question were scanned with meta-analytical screening method, and were combined by using the odds ratio (OR which is the effect size criterion in meta-analysis. As a result of the meta-analysis, the Odds ratio value was found as 0.759 and the effect level was determined middle. With this study conducted, as a result of this meta-analysis conducted, it was found that the contribution done by the lactation sequence on 305-day lactation milk yield in Holstein Friesian cattles in obtaining high milk yield was 0.759 times more compared to the calving season.

  1. Effects of water restriction following feeding on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water restriction following feeding under heat stress conditions on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and some blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows were evaluated. The design was completely randomized with 30 high producing lactating Holstein cows (80.8±40.5 DIM which were assigned to two treatment groups (15 cows per treatment. Treatments were free access to water (FAW and 2 h water restriction (2hWR following feeding. Average temperature-humidity index (THI in the farm was over 80 throughout the experiment which defines heat stress conditions. Neutral detergent fibre, organic matter and ether extract digestibilities increased by water restriction (P0.05. Water intake was recorded daily during the digestibility period and was not different between FAW and 2hWR group (P>0.05. Fat corrected milk was higher in 2hWR group than FAW group (P0.05. Somatic cell counts were greater in 2hWR than FAW group (P0.05. Blood prolactin and growth hormone were higher in 2hWR group than the FAW group (P<0.05. It is concluded that water restriction for 2 hours following feeding improved nutrient digestibility of some dietary components and increased milk fat percentage in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

  2. Determinação de fatores multiplicativos para estimar a produção de leite no dia do controle leiteiro, a partir da produção de leite da manhã ou da tarde Determination of multiplicative factors to estimate the milk production at the daily milk yield control, from the morning or afternoon milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio de Moraes Gonçalves

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar fatores multiplicativos para estimar a produção de leite (PD no dia do controle leiteiro, com base na produção de leite da ordenha da manhã (PM ou da tarde (PT, obtidos de 3632 lactações de 2143 vacas da raça Gir, filhas de 336 touros, de registros entre 1986 e 1996. Ano de parto (A, duração da lactação - linear (DL, idade ao parto - linear e quadrática (I e um fator K (possíveis interações duplas, triplas e quadrupla entre nível de manejo (baixo-alto, classe de ordem de parto (primíparas-multíparas, estação de parição (águas-seca e nove classes de intervalo do parto ao controle leiteiro foram considerados, no modelo, para se ajustarem aos fatores multiplicativos da manhã (FM e da tarde (FT. Foram observados efeitos significativos de A, I, DL e K sobre os fatores, à exceção do efeito da DL sobre FT, sugerindo o uso de fatores que considerem simultaneamente os efeitos contidos em K, além de A, I e DL, para se obterem estimativas mais precisas da produção de leite no dia do controle leiteiro. Os fatores multiplicativos da manhã diminuíram no decorrer da lactação, em ambas as estações, para multíparas e primíparas e animais criados em rebanhos de alto nível de manejo. No entanto, FT tendeu a aumentar, tanto para vacas como para primíparas, nas duas estações e em rebanhos que se encontram em ambos os níveis de manejo, exceto para vacas em rebanhos de baixo nível de manejo, na estação das águas, que não apresentaram comportamento constante.The objective of this work was to determine the multiplicative factors to estimate the milk production (DP based on the morning (MM or afternoon (AP milk yield and their were obtained of 3,632 lactations from 2,143 cows of the Gir breed, daughters of 335 sires, from 1993 to 1996 records. The calving year (Y lactation length - linear (LL, calving age - linear and quadratic (A and a factor K (the possible double, triple and

  3. The effect of non-nutritional factors on milk urea nitrogen levels in dairy cows in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunvipas, P; Dohoo, I R; VanLeeuwen, J A; Keefe, G P

    2003-05-30

    We determined the effects of non-nutritional factors such as breed, parity, days in milk (DIM), milk production, milk quality and milk components on milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration. A total of 177 dairy farms in Prince Edward Island containing 10,688 lactating dairy cows participated in the project. Individual-cow milk samples (n=68,158) were collected monthly from July 1999 to June 2000 from each farm. MUN was measured using a Fossomatic 4000 Milkoscan Analyzer at the PEI Milk Quality Laboratory. Descriptive statistics for MUN, parity, DIM, and test-day milk yield, fat and protein were calculated. Mixed linear-regression models were used; "cow" and "herd" were included as random effects to control for the effect of clustering of MUN test dates within cow, and clustering of cows within herd, respectively. The MUN was lower during the first month of lactation, peaked at 4 months of lactation, and decreased later in lactation. A positive relationship existed between MUN concentration and milk yield, while negative relationships with milk protein% and linear score were observed. A quadratic relationship existed between milk fat% and MUN concentration, with higher MUN occurring at mid-range fat percentages. The variation at the herd and cow levels in the model were 19.7 and 19.0%, respectively; while the variation at the test date level was 61.3%. The non-nutritional factors studied explained 13.3% of the variation in MUN.

  4. The effect of prestimulation on milking characteristics during machine milking of goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bašić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Goat milking is optimal if maximum milk yield is obtained in the minimum time frame. Prestimulation influences milk yield and other milking characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine optimal milking characteristics for different times spent on prestimulation during machine milking of goats. Prestimulation of 30 s was optimal to achieve maximum milk yield and flow in the shortest time. Longer milking interval resulted in higher milk yield, milk flow, but also in the longest milking time. Milking goats in 4th parity had higher average and peak flow rate, while goats in third parity had longer milking time, with higher milk yield. The results of this study show that prestimulation time longer than 30 s is not necessary to obtain optimum milking characteristics during machine milking of goats.

  5. Evaluation of the yield, molar mass of exopolysaccharides, and rheological properties of gels formed during fermentation of milk by Streptococcus thermophilus strains St-143 and ST-10255y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Som N; Lucey, John A

    2017-09-01

    The yield and chemical structures of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by many strains of Streptococcus thermophilus have been characterized. However, the kinetics (or production profile) for EPS during milk fermentation is not clear. In this study, we investigated whether any differences existed in the yield and molar mass of EPS when milk was fermented at the same acidification rate by 2 strains of S. thermophilus (St-143 and ST-10255y). The type of EPS produced by these 2 strains is different. Milk samples were analyzed for EPS concentration every 30 min during a fermentation period of 270 min (final pH 4.5) by using a modified quantification method, which was faster and validated for its recovery of added EPS. Rheological properties of milks during fermentation were also analyzed using small-strain dynamic oscillatory rheology. For the determination of molar mass, EPS extracts were isolated by ultrafiltration of whey obtained during fermentation of milk to pH values 5.2, 4.9, 4.7, and 4.5, and molar mass was analyzed using size-exclusion chromatography-multi-angle laser light scattering. During fermentation, both strains appeared to start producing significant amounts of EPS after about ∼150 min, which corresponded to pH ∼5.3, which was close to the point of gelation. During the remainder of the fermentation process (150-270 min), the EPS concentration from strains St-143 and ST-10255y significantly increased from 30 to 72 mg/L and from 26 to 56 mg/L, respectively. The quantity of EPS recovered by our modified method was estimated to represent ∼60% of the total EPS added to milk. The molar mass of EPS produced by both strains appeared to slightly decrease during fermentation. At pH 5.2, EPS from St-143 and ST-10255y had molar masses of 2.9 × 10(6) and 1.4 × 10(6) g/mol, respectively, which decreased to 1.6 × 10(6) and 0.8 × 10(6) g/mol, respectively, when the pH of milk was 4.5. Distinct differences were apparent in the rheological properties of gels

  6. Lactation Persistency as a Component Trait of the Selection Index and Increase in Reliability by Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Net Merit Defined as the First Five Lactation Milk Yields and Herd Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Togashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We first sought to clarify the effects of discounted rate, survival rate, and lactation persistency as a component trait of the selection index on net merit, defined as the first five lactation milks and herd life (HL weighted by 1 and 0.389 (currently used in Japan, respectively, in units of genetic standard deviation. Survival rate increased the relative economic importance of later lactation traits and the first five lactation milk yields during the first 120 months from the start of the breeding scheme. In contrast, reliabilities of the estimated breeding value (EBV in later lactation traits are lower than those of earlier lactation traits. We then sought to clarify the effects of applying single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP on net merit to improve the reliability of EBV of later lactation traits to maximize their increased economic importance due to increase in survival rate. Net merit, selection accuracy, and HL increased by adding lactation persistency to the selection index whose component traits were only milk yields. Lactation persistency of the second and (especially third parities contributed to increasing HL while maintaining the first five lactation milk yields compared with the selection index whose only component traits were milk yields. A selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency accounted for 99.4% of net merit derived from a selection index whose components were identical to those for net merit. We consider that the selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency is a practical method for increasing lifetime milk yield in the absence of data regarding HL. Applying SNP to the second- and third-lactation traits and HL increased net merit and HL by maximizing the increased economic importance of later lactation traits, reducing the effect of first-lactation milk yield on HL (genetic correlation (rG = −0.006, and by augmenting the effects of the second- and

  7. Lactation Persistency as a Component Trait of the Selection Index and Increase in Reliability by Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Net Merit Defined as the First Five Lactation Milk Yields and Herd Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, K.; Hagiya, K.; Osawa, T.; Nakanishi, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Nagamine, Y.; Lin, C.Y.; Matsumoto, S.; Aihara, M.; Hayasaka, K.

    2012-01-01

    We first sought to clarify the effects of discounted rate, survival rate, and lactation persistency as a component trait of the selection index on net merit, defined as the first five lactation milks and herd life (HL) weighted by 1 and 0.389 (currently used in Japan), respectively, in units of genetic standard deviation. Survival rate increased the relative economic importance of later lactation traits and the first five lactation milk yields during the first 120 months from the start of the breeding scheme. In contrast, reliabilities of the estimated breeding value (EBV) in later lactation traits are lower than those of earlier lactation traits. We then sought to clarify the effects of applying single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on net merit to improve the reliability of EBV of later lactation traits to maximize their increased economic importance due to increase in survival rate. Net merit, selection accuracy, and HL increased by adding lactation persistency to the selection index whose component traits were only milk yields. Lactation persistency of the second and (especially) third parities contributed to increasing HL while maintaining the first five lactation milk yields compared with the selection index whose only component traits were milk yields. A selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency accounted for 99.4% of net merit derived from a selection index whose components were identical to those for net merit. We consider that the selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency is a practical method for increasing lifetime milk yield in the absence of data regarding HL. Applying SNP to the second- and third-lactation traits and HL increased net merit and HL by maximizing the increased economic importance of later lactation traits, reducing the effect of first-lactation milk yield on HL (genetic correlation (rG) = −0.006), and by augmenting the effects of the second- and third

  8. Genome-wide association study for lactation characteristics, milk yield and age at first calving in a Thai multibreed dairy cattle population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimchanok Yodklaew

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A genome-wide association study was performed for milk yield per lactation (MY, initial yield (IY, peak yield (PY, persistency (PS and age at first calving (AFC in a Thai multibreed dairy cattle population. The dataset contained 1305 first-lactation cows raised on 188 farms located in Central, Northeastern and Southern Thailand. Cows were genotyped with GeneSeek Genomic Profiler low-density bead chips (8810 single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]; n = 1255 and with high-density bead chips (76,883 SNP; n = 50. The single SNP association analyses utilized 8096 SNPs in common between the low and high density GeneSeek chips. The mixed model contained the fixed effects of contemporary group, fraction of non-Holstein breeds, age at first calving and gene content, and the random effects of animal and residual. Computations were done with the QXPAK.5 software. The number of SNPs associated with MY, IY, PY, PS and AFC at the significant threshold level of p < 0.00001 were 75, 102, 145, 74 and 24, respectively. Of the 366 SNP markers significantly associated with the studied traits, 54 (14.75% were associated with two traits and 312 (85.25% with only one trait, and all but one of the 54 SNPs associated with two traits affected MY and lactation characteristics. Genetic improvement of Thai dairy cows for lactation characteristics, milk yield and age at first calving could be aided by selecting animals with the SNP markers found to be highly associated with genes influencing these traits.

  9. NÚMERO DE AMOSTRAGENS DA PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE PARA ESTIMATIVA DA PRODUÇÃO MÉDIA DIÁRIA DE LEITE EM VACAS CHAROLÊS NUMBER OF COLLECTIONS OF MILK YIELD TO ESTIMATE AVERAGE DAILY MILK YIELD OF CHAROLAIS BEEF COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Santana Pacheco

    2009-04-01

    ão suficientes para predizer com elevada precisão a produção média diária de leite.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Análise residual, lactação, regressão linear múltipla, seleção de variáveis independentes, técnicas de validação de modelos de regressão.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: análise residual, lactação, regressão linear múltipla, seleção de variáveis independentes, técnicas de validação de modelos de regressão

    The objective of the experiment was to evaluate different number of collections of milk yield to prediction of models to estimate average daily milk yield of Charolais beef cows until 217 days of lactation. The eight evaluations of milk yield were taken from 27 cows, by direct method through milking, at 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154, 182 days and weaning (217 days. For the selection of multiple linear regression models, with the objective to estimate the average daily milk yield according to number of milk collections, Stepwise procedure was used. The data were submitted to residual analysis by tests of heterocedasticity of variance (?² statistic, normality (W statistic of Shapiro-Wilk and diagnosis of outliers (three observations were excluded from original n=30, beyond multicolinearity diagnosis. For validation of the selected regression models, the prediction error sum of squares statistic (PRESS, was used. The selected days of milk yield collections were: day 98 for 1 collection; days 70 and 98 for 2 collections; days 14, 70, and 98 for 3 collections; days 14, 70, 98 and 154 for 4 collections; days 14, 70, 98, 154 and 182 for 5 collections; days 14, 42, 70, 98, 154 and 182 for 6 collections and days 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154 and 182 for 7 collections. The adjusted R² for models

  10. Effect of misting and wallowing cooling systems on milk yield, blood and physiological variables during heat stress in lactating Murrah buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat stress adversely affects the physiological and metabolic status, and the productive performance of buffalo. Methods The present study was conducted to explicate the effect of misting and wallowing cooling strategies during heat stress in lactating Murrah buffalo. The study was conducted for three months (May–July of which first two months were hot dry and last month was hot humid. Eighteen lactating buffaloes, offered the same basal diet, were blocked by days in milk, milk yield and parity, and then randomly allocated to three treatments: negative control (no cooling, cooling by misting, and cooling by wallowing. Results The results showed higher (P < 0.05 milk yield in buffaloes of misting and wallowing group compared to control during the experimental period however wallowing was found more (P < 0.05 effective during July (hot humid period. Both the treatments resulted into significant (P < 0.05 reduction in rectal temperature (RT and respiratory rate (RR compared to control animals during study period whereas wallowing was found to be effective on pulse rate (PR only during July. Both treatments were resulted in mitigating the heat stress mediated decrease in packed cell volume (PCV, lymphocytopnoea and neutrophilia whereas decrease in total erythrocyte count (TEC and monocytes was only mitigated by wallowing. Heat load induced alteration in serum creatinine and sodium concentration was significantly (P < 0.05 ameliorated by misting and wallowing whereas aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and superoxide dismutase activity, and reactive oxygen species concentration could be normalized neither by misting nor by wallowing. The significant (P < 0.05 increment in serum cortisol and prolactin levels observed in June and July period in control animals was significantly (P < 0.05 prevented by misting and wallowing. Conclusions It can be concluded that misting and wallowing were equally

  11. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  12. Risk Assessment and Consequences of Retained Placenta for Uterine Health, Reproduction and Milk Yield in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Könyves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the value of metabolic indicators characterising the energy and acid-base metabolism of dairy cows for predicting the risk of retained placenta (RP. The connection between RP and different factors analysed, and the effect of RP on the development of puerperal metritis (PM as well as on reproduction and milk production was studied. A total of 105 Holstein-Friesian cows were included and sampled between days -14–0 prepartum and then on days 4, 10–14, 28–35, 56–63 and 84–91 postpartum, for metabolic tests. From day 4, at times coinciding with the days of metabolic sampling, uterine involution and metritis were monitored by clinical examination, and from days 28–35 ovarian activity was monitored by ultrasonography. On days -14–0, the plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentration showed a positive Odds Ratio (OR 102.1, P P P P P < 0.0001. The RP alone did not exert an influence on the metabolic status, reproductive performance or milk production of cows.

  13. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  14. Increased feeding frequency increased milk fat yield and may reduce the severity of subacute ruminal acidosis in higher-risk cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, K; Gao, X; Oba, M

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether feeding behavior is different between cows at higher or lower risk for subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and whether increasing feeding frequency could be used to reduce the severity of SARA in higher-risk cows. In preliminary studies, 16 ruminally cannulated lactating cows were fed high-grain diets once per day to increase the risk of SARA. After a 17-d diet adaptation, ruminal pH was measured every 30 s over 24 h. Cows were classified as higher-risk (n = 7) or lower-risk (n = 9) for SARA based on an acidosis index (area of pH Rumen pH and feeding behavior were measured over 72 h. Behavior data were summarized separately for the 3 periods (0800 to 1500, 1500 to 2200, and 2200 to 0800 h). Four cows were categorized as higher-risk and 4 as lower-risk, based on their acidosis index. The 3× feeding reduced eating time between 0800 and 1500 h (99 vs. 145 min) and increased eating time between 2200 and 0800 h (76 vs. 43 min) for all cows, regardless of category, compared with 1× feeding. For higher-risk cows, 3× feeding reduced the area below pH 5.8 (51 vs. 98 pH × min/d), but it did not affect rumen pH for the lower-risk cows. Milk yield was not different between groups, but 3× feeding increased milk fat yield (1.22 vs. 1.08 kg/d) for all cows, regardless of category, compared to 1× feeding. Our results suggest that cows at higher risk for SARA eat less evenly throughout the day; increasing feeding frequency may reduce the severity of SARA in higher-risk cows and may also increase milk fat yield. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  15. Milk yield and lactation stage are associated with positive results to ELISA for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cows from Northern Antioquia, Colombia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Valencia, Nathalia María; Ramírez, Nicolás Fernando; Olivera, Martha; Fernández-Silva, Jorge Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Paratuberculosis is a slow-developing infectious disease characterized by chronic granulomatous enterocolitis. This disease has a variable incubation period from 6 months to over 15 years and is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Some studies have been conducted in cattle during the last decades in Colombia. However, those studies were designed using relatively small populations and were not aimed to establish prevalence. This study aimed to determine the MAP seroprevalence in selected dairy herds and to explore risk factors associated with the serology results. Serum samples and related data were collected from 696 randomly selected bovines in 28 dairy herds located in 12 different districts in one of the main dairy municipalities in Colombia (San Pedro de los Milagros). The samples were analyzed using a commercial ELISA kit. The information on risk factors was analyzed using a logistic regression. The apparent seroprevalence was 3.6 % (1/28) at the herd level and 2 % (14/696) at the animal level. The number of days in milk production between 100 and 200 days, and over 200 days as well as the daily milk production between 20 and 40 L/cow, and over 40 L/cow were associated with MAP seropositivity with odds ratios of 4.42, 3.45, 2.53, and 20.38, respectively. This study demonstrates the MAP seroprevalence in dairy herds from Antioquia, Colombia and the possible relationship between MAP seropositivity, milk yield, and lactation stage.

  16. Brown midrib corn silage fed during the peripartal period increased intake and resulted in a persistent increase in milk solids yield of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W C; Chase, L E; Overton, T R; Nestor, K E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate transition cow performance when brown midrib corn silage (BMRCS; Mycogen F2F444) was included in the diet during the transition period, and to determine if any production response occurring during the first 3 wk of lactation would persist from wk 4 to 15 when a common diet was fed. Seventy Holstein dairy cows were blocked by parity (either second or third and greater) and calving date and randomly assigned to the CCS (a mixture of varieties of conventional corn silage) or BMRCS treatment. Diets were formulated with the objective of keeping all ration parameters the same, with the exception of neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility values (30 h) for CCS and BMRCS averaged 56.8 and 73.8%, respectively. Prepartum rations contained 47% corn silage, 18% wheat straw, 7% alfalfa haylage, and 28% concentrate, and averaged 45% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Postpartum rations contained 40% corn silage, 15% alfalfa haylage, 1% straw, and 44% concentrate. Milk weights (3×/d) and dry matter intake were recorded daily, and milk composition was measured weekly. Cows fed BMRCS had higher dry matter intake during the 2-wk period before calving (14.3 vs. 13.2 kg/d) and the 3-wk period after calving (20.1 vs. 18.1 kg/d) than did cows fed CCS. Yields of milk, solids, and lactose were increased, whereas a trend was observed for a reduction in somatic cell counts and linear scores in the postpartum period for cows receiving BMRCS during the transition. A significant carryover effect of BMRCS was observed on production from wk 4 to 15 when the common diet was fed, with yields of protein (1.36 vs. 1.30 kg/d), lactose (2.24 vs. 2.12 kg/d), and solids (5.82 vs. 5.51 kg/d) increasing significantly, and yields of fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat tending to increase during this period for cows that had been fed BMRCS. The increased intakes during the last 2 wk of the prepartum period in

  17. A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency in early lactation and improved milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Feyera, Takele

    2016-01-01

    of DM (dry matter), fat and protein (P=0.99, 0.82 and 0.94). Milk lactose content was, however, higher for sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime (P=0.01). Sows on both dietary regimes were in negative energy balance throughout lactation. Sows fed the 1-diet regime were negative in N and Lys and reached...... a positive or zero balance in late lactation. For the 2-diet feeding regime sows’ N and Lys balance was positive throughout lactation, and N loss was higher for sows fed the 2-diet feeding regime. The concentration of urea in plasma was lower for sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime. In conclusion, feeding...

  18. NÚMERO DE COLETAS DA PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE NA PREDIÇÃO DE MODELOS PARA ESTIMATIVA DA PRODUÇÃO MÉDIA DIÁRIA DE LEITE DE VACAS NELORE NUMBER OF COLLECTIONS OF MILK YIELD ON PREDICTION OF MODELS TO ESTIMATE AVERAGE DAILY MILK YIELD OF NELLORE BEEF COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Santana Pacheco

    2009-04-01

    últipla, seleção de variáveis independentes, técnicas de validação de modelos de regressão.

    The objective of the experiment was to evaluate models with different number of collections of milk yield to estimate average daily milk yield in Nellore beef cows until 217 days of lactation. The eight evaluations of milk yield were taken from 29 cows, by direct method through milking, at 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154, 182 days and weaning (217 days. For the selection of multiple linear regression models, with objective of estimate the average daily milk yield according to number of milk collects, Stepwise procedure of SAS was used. The data were submitted to residual analysis by tests of heterocedasticity of variance (?² statistic, normality (W statistic of Shapiro-Wilk and diagnosis of outliers (three observations were excluded from original n=30, beyond multicolinearity diagnosis. For validation of the selected regression models, the prediction error sum of squares statistic (PRESS, was used. The selected days of milk yield collections were: 98 for 1 collection; 70 and 98 for 2 collections; 14, 70, and 98 for 3 collections; 14, 70, 98 and 154 for 4 collections; 14, 70, 98, 154 and 182 for 5 collections; 14, 42, 70, 98, 154 and 182 days for 6 collections and 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154 and 182 days for 7 collections. The adjusted R² for models with 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6 and 7 collections were, respectively, 0.7900; 0.8718; 0.9064; 0.9596; 0.9698; 0.9875 and 0.9972. All the predicted models were satisfactory to estimate average daily milk yield. In a possibility of to execute various collections of milk yield during lactation period, three milk collections chosen in strategic dates during lactation period were sufficient to estimate with high precision the average daily milk yield.

    KEY WORDS: Lactation, maternal phase, multiple linear regression, selection of independent variables, residual analysis, techniques of validation of regression models.

  19. Genetic parameters for test day somatic cell score in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C N; Santos, G G; Cobuci, J A; Thompson, G; Carvalheira, J G V

    2015-12-29

    Selection for lower somatic cell count has been included in the breeding objectives of several countries in order to increase resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters of somatic cell scores (SCS) were estimated from the first lactation test day records of Brazilian Holstein cows using random-regression models with Legendre polynomials (LP) of the order 3-5. Data consisted of 87,711 TD produced by 10,084 cows, sired by 619 bulls calved from 1993 to 2007. Heritability estimates varied from 0.06 to 0.14 and decreased from the beginning of the lactation up to 60 days in milk (DIM) and increased thereafter to the end of lactation. Genetic correlations between adjacent DIM were very high (>0.83) but decreased to negative values, obtained with LP of order four, between DIM in the extremes of lactation. Despite the favorable trend, genetic changes in SCS were not significant and did not differ among LP. There was little benefit of fitting an LP of an order >3 to model animal genetic and permanent environment effects for SCS. Estimates of variance components found in this study may be used for breeding value estimation for SCS and selection for mastitis resistance in Holstein cattle in Brazil.

  20. Genetic parameters of milk production traits and fatty acid contents in milk for Holstein cows in parity 1-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, C; Soyeurt, H; Gengler, N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of milk, fat, and protein yields, fat and protein contents, somatic cell count, and 17 groups and individual milk fatty acid (FA) contents predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry for first-, second- and third-parity Holstein cows. Edited data included records collected in the Walloon region of Belgium from 37,768 cows in parity 1,22,566 cows in parity 2 and 8221 in parity 3. A total of 69 (23 traits for three parities) single-trait random regression animal test-day models were run. Approximate genetic correlations among traits were inferred from pairwise regressions among estimated breeding values of cow having observations. Heritability and genetic correlation estimates from this study reflected the origins of FA: de novo synthetized or originating from the diet and the body fat mobilization. Averaged daily heritabilities of FA contents in milk ranged between 0.18 and 0.47. Average daily genetic correlations (averaged across days in milk and parities) among groups and individual FA contents in milk ranged between 0.31 and 0.99. The genetic variability of FAs in combination with the moderate to high heritabilities indicated that FA contents in milk could be changed by genetic selection; however, desirable direction of change in these traits remains unclear and should be defined with respect to all issues of importance related to milk FA. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Effect of increased milking frequency and residual milk removal on milk production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneborg, Sabine; Kovac, Lucia; Shingfield, Kevin J; Agenäs, Sigrid

    2017-11-01

    It has been well established that milk yield is affected both by milking frequency and due to the removal of residual milk, but the influence of a combination of these factors is unclear. In this study, four mid-lactation cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to test the hypothesis that the effects of more frequent milking and residual milk removal on milk yield and composition are additive and alter milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised two or four times daily milking in combination with (or without) residual milk removal over a 96 h interval preceded by a 2 d pretreatment period and followed by a 8 d washout in each 14 d experimental period. Milk was sampled at each milking for the analysis of gross composition and SCC. Samples of available and residual milk collected on the last milking during each treatment period were collected and submitted for fatty acid composition analysis. Increases in milking frequency and residual milk removal alone or in combination had no effect on milk yield or on the secretion of lactose and protein in milk. However, residual milk removal during more frequent milking increased milk fat yield. Milking treatments had no major influence on the fatty acid composition of available milk, but resulted in rather small changes in the relative abundance of specific fatty acids, with no evidence that the additive effects of treatments were due to higher utilisation of preformed fatty acids relative to fatty acid synthesis de novo. For all treatments, fat composition of available and residual milk was rather similar indicating a highly uniform fatty acid composition of milk fat within the mammary gland.

  2. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for milk production in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, R G; Thonney, M L

    2010-10-01

    A backcross pedigree using dairy East Friesian rams and non-dairy Dorset ewes was established specifically to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk production in sheep. Ninety nine microsatellite markers of an initial set of 120 were successfully genotyped and informative on 188 animals of this backcross pedigree. Test-day milk records on individual ewes were used to estimate several milk yield related traits, including peak milk yield and cumulative milk yield to 50 (MY50), 100 (MY100) and 250 days (MY250). These traits, as well as estimated breeding value of backcross ewes extracted from the genetic evaluation file of the entire flock, were used in interval mapping. Ovine chromosomes 2, 12, 18, 20 and 24 were identified to harbour putative QTL for different measures of milk production. The QTL on Ovis aries chromosomes (OAR) 2 and 20 mapped to locations where similar trait QTL have already been mapped in other studies, whereas QTL on OAR 12, 18 and 24 were unique to our backcross pedigree and have not been reported previously. In addition, all identified QTL regions were syntenic with bovine chromosomal segments revealed to harbour QTL affecting milk production traits, providing supporting evidence for the QTL identified here. © 2010 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Genetic evaluation of Alpine goats using different milk control intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F G; Torres, R A; Brito, L F; Silva, L P; Menezes, G R O; Brito, L C; Euclydes, R F; Rodrigues, M T

    2013-07-24

    The objective of this study was to compare the results of genetic evaluations by using different milk control intervals to reduce the cost of milk yield controls without harming the quality of genetic evaluation of the animals. We analyzed test day milk yield data from the Goat Sector of Universidade Federal de Viçosa. After editing and checking for errors in the database, there were 20,710 records of test day milk yield for the 667 first lactations of Alpine goats, constituting the complete file, with 7-day control intervals. Information on specific weeks was excluded from the complete file to create files with data on control intervals of 15, 21, and 28 days. The RENPED program was used to recode the pedigree and data files and correct pedigree errors; the WOMBAT program was used for genetic evaluations of the 4 files. The following comparison criteria of analysis results were used: logarithm of the function of the restricted maximum likelihood, length of the analyses in seconds, Pearson and Spearman correlations, and common elimination percentage among the areas below the regression curve of the genetic values of the animals. Overall, it is recommended that a 7-day interval among milk controls should be used in breeding programs and farms with a high technical level. Intervals of 14 and 21 days can achieve satisfactory results combined with a lower data collection cost for farms with an average-to-low technical level, less effective size, and genetic variability that depend on external genetic material for genetic improvement.

  4. Estimação de parâmetros genéticos em caprinos leiteiros por meio de análise de regressão aleatória utilizando-se a Amostragem de Gibbs Estimation of genetic parameters for milk yield of dairy goats by random regression analysis using Gibbs Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Mariano Lessa de Assis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Modelos de regressão aleatória foram utilizados neste estudo para estimar parâmetros genéticos da produção de leite no dia do controle (PLDC em caprinos leiteiros da raça Alpina, por meio da metodologia Bayesiana. As estimativas geradas foram comparadas às obtidas com análise de regressão aleatória, utilizando-se o REML. As herdabilidades encontradas pela análise Bayesiana variaram de 0,18 a 0,37, enquanto, pelo REML, variaram de 0,09 a 0,32. As correlações genéticas entre dias de controle próximos se aproximaram da unidade, decrescendo gradualmente conforme a distância entre os dias de controle aumentou. Os resultados obtidos indicam que: a estrutura de covariâncias da PLDC em caprinos ao longo da lactação pode ser modelada adequadamente por meio da regressão aleatória; a predição de ganhos genéticos e a seleção de animais geneticamente superiores é viável ao longo de toda a trajetória da lactação; os resultados gerados pelas análises de regressão aleatória utilizando-se a Amostragem de Gibbs e o REML foram semelhantes, embora as estimativas das variâncias genéticas e das herdabilidades tenham sido levemente superiores na análise Bayesiana, utilizando-se a Amostragem de Gibbs.Random regression models were used to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk yield (PLDC of Alpine dairy goats, implemented by Bayesian methods with Gibbs Sampling. The estimates were compared with those obtained by random regression analysis, using REML. Heritability estimates obtained by Bayesian analysis ranged from 0.18 to 0.37, while those obtained by REML ranged from 0.09 to 0.32. Genetic correlations between yields of close test days approached the unit, but decreased gradually as the interval between test days increased. Results indicated that random regression models are appropriate to model the covariance structure of PLDC and to predict genetic gains and select animals along the lactation trajectory of dairy goats

  5. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  6. Genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, A; Miglior, F; Jamrozik, J; Kelton, D F; Schenkel, F S

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic associations of ketosis and displaced abomasum with milk production traits in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins. Health data recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yields were obtained from the routine milk recoding scheme. Ketosis and displaced abomasum were defined as binary traits (0 = healthy; 1 = sick) based on whether or not the cow had at least 1 case of the respective disease in the period from calving to 100 d after calving. Mean frequencies of ketosis and displaced abomasum were 4.1 and 2.7%, respectively. The following milk production traits were considered: milk yield, fat percentage (Fat%), protein percentage (Prot%), fat-to-protein (F:P) ratio, and F:P ratio >1.5. The trait F:P ratio >1.5 was scored as 1 or 0, based on whether or not the cow had an F:P ratio >1.5. For milk production traits, the first (5-30 d in milk) and the second (31-60 d in milk) test days were considered. Data were analyzed using bivariate linear animal models. Average heritabilities of 0.02 and 0.04 were obtained for ketosis and displaced abomasum, respectively. For milk production traits, the lowest heritabilities were obtained for F:P >1.5 (0.04 to 0.08), whereas the highest estimates were found for Prot% (0.27 to 0.38). Ketosis and displaced abomasum were genetically uncorrelated with milk yield in early lactation. Moderate favorable correlations were found between metabolic diseases and milk composition traits. Ketosis was significantly correlated with Fat% (0.33), F:P ratio (0.30), and F:P ratio >1.5 (0.35) at the first test day, whereas all genetic correlations with milk composition traits at the second test day were not significant and close to zero. Significant favorable genetic correlations were also found between displaced abomasum and F:P ratio (0.26), F:P ratio >1.5 (0.25) and Prot% (-0.19) at the first test

  7. New functions to estimate 305-days milk production of Gir cows : Novas Funções para Estimar a Produção de Leite, em 305 Dias de Lactação, de Vacas da Raça Gir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reboucas, G.F.; Moraes Goncalves, de T.; Martines, M.L.; Azevedo Junior, J.; Koops, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to calculate new accumulated and daily functions based on the Michaelis-Menten equation to estimate the 305-days production of Gir cows using test day milk yields. Data consisted of 7,412 lactation records of 3,416 Gir cows (Bos indicus) collected from 1987 to 2004 in 51 herds

  8. Modelos de dimensão finita para a estimação de parâmetros genéticos para a produção de leite de primeiras lactações de vacas da raça Holandesa Finite dimension models to estimate genetic parameters for first lactation milk yields of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaiza Braga Bignardi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimados parâmetros genéticos para produção de leite acumulada até 305 dias (P305 e produção de leite no dia do controle (PLDC de 50.171 controles mensais de 9.281 primeiras lactações de vacas da raça Holandesa. A P305 e as PLDC foram analisadas por meio de modelo animal uni e bicaracterísticas. Para a P305 o modelo incluiu como aleatório, o efeito genético e como efeitos fixos o grupo de contemporâneos e a covariável idade da vaca ao parto. Para as PLDC foi usado o mesmo modelo descrito para a P305, incluindo como covariável o número de dias em lactação. Os componentes de variância foram estimados pelo Método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita. As estimativas de herdabilidade (h² para as PLDC oscilaram entre 0,07 e 0,19 em análises unicaracterísticas e, de 0,12 a 0,22 nas bicaracterísticas. Para a P305, as h² resultantes das análises uni-característica e bicaracterística foram 0,26 e 0,27, respectivamente. As correlações genéticas das PLDC com a P305 foram todas positivas e elevadas, variando de 0,63 a 1,00. As correlações genéticas entre as PLDC variaram de 0,30 a 1,00. A seleção para a P305 parece ser o melhor critério de seleção a ser adotado, uma vez que proporciona maiores ganhos genéticos para as produções de leite em, praticamente, todos os controles da lactação.Genetic parameters for 50,171 first lactation test-day milk yields and 305 day milk yield (Y305 of 9,281 Holstein cows were estimated, applying uni and bi-trait animal models. The model for Y305 included the additive genetic effect as random and the fixed effects of contemporary group and age of cow at calving as covariable. For TDMY the same animal model described for Y305 was used, including days in milk as covariable. Variance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood. Heritability estimates obtained for TDMY ranged from 0.07 to 0.19 and from 0.12 to 0.22 by uni-trait and bi-trait analysis, respectively

  9. Genetic analysis of milk β-hydroxybutyrate and its association with fat-to-protein ratio, body condition score, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, A; Jamrozik, J; Schenkel, F S; Moore, R K; Lefebvre, D M; Kelton, D F; Miglior, F

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in early first lactation of Canadian Holstein cows and to examine its genetic association with indicators of energy balance (fat-to-protein ratio and body condition score) and metabolic diseases (clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum). Data for milk BHBA recorded between 5 and 100 d in milk was obtained from Valacta (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada), the Canadian Dairy Herd Improvement organization responsible for Québec and Atlantic provinces. Test-day milk samples were analyzed by mid-infrared spectrometry using previously developed calibration equations for milk BHBA. Test-day records of fat-to-protein ratio were obtained from the routine milk recording scheme. Body condition score records were available from the routine type classification system. Data on clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Data were analyzed using linear animal models. Heritability estimates for milk BHBA at different stages of early lactation were between 0.14 and 0.29. Genetic correlations between milk BHBA were higher between adjacent lactation intervals and decreased as intervals were further apart. Correlations between breeding values for milk BHBA and routinely evaluated traits revealed that selection for lower milk BHBA in early lactation would lead to an improvement of several health and fertility traits, including SCS, calving to first service, number of services, first service to conception, and days open. Also, lower milk BHBA was associated with a longer herd life, better conformation, and better feet and legs. A higher genetic merit for milk yield was associated with higher milk BHBA, and, therefore, a greater susceptibility to hyperketonemia. Milk BHBA at the first test-day was moderately genetically correlated with fat-to-protein ratio (0.49), body condition score (-0.35), and

  10. Effects of milk yield, feed composition, and feed contamination with aflatoxin B1 on the aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cows’ milk investigated using Monte Carlo simulation modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der Ine; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical

  11. Estimates of genetic parameters and eigenvector indices for milk production of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savegnago, R P; Rosa, G J M; Valente, B D; Herrera, L G G; Carneiro, R L R; Sesana, R C; El Faro, L; Munari, D P

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to estimate genetic parameters of monthly test-day milk yield (TDMY) of the first lactation of Brazilian Holstein cows using random regression (RR), and to compare the genetic gains for milk production and persistency, derived from RR models, using eigenvector indices and selection indices that did not consider eigenvectors. The data set contained monthly TDMY of 3,543 first lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows calving between 1994 and 2011. The RR model included the fixed effect of the contemporary group (herd-month-year of test days), the covariate calving age (linear and quadratic effects), and a fourth-order regression on Legendre orthogonal polynomials of days in milk (DIM) to model the population-based mean curve. Additive genetic and nongenetic animal effects were fit as RR with 4 classes of residual variance random effect. Eigenvector indices based on the additive genetic RR covariance matrix were used to evaluate the genetic gains of milk yield and persistency compared with the traditional selection index (selection index based on breeding values of milk yield until 305 DIM). The heritability estimates for monthly TDMY ranged from 0.12 ± 0.04 to 0.31 ± 0.04. The estimates of additive genetic and nongenetic animal effects correlation were close to 1 at adjacent monthly TDMY, with a tendency to diminish as the time between DIM classes increased. The first eigenvector was related to the increase of the genetic response of the milk yield and the second eigenvector was related to the increase of the genetic gains of the persistency but it contributed to decrease the genetic gains for total milk yield. Therefore, using this eigenvector to improve persistency will not contribute to change the shape of genetic curve pattern. If the breeding goal is to improve milk production and persistency, complete sequential eigenvector indices (selection indices composite with all eigenvectors) could be used with higher economic

  12. Milking Efficiency – A Milkability Trait for Automatically Milked Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Lassen, Jan; Chagunda, M G G

    Data from an experimental herd with automatic milkings from 486 first lactation cows were used to study alternative measures of milkability. One trait was milking efficiency, (kg milk per minute used in robot) the other “residual milking box time” using a linear regression to adjust daily time...... for daily fat and protein corrected yield. Both traits were moderate to highly heritable and closely correlated (ra = 0.85). The two traits differed by milking efficiency being correlated to yield (ra = 0.48). Residual box time was closely correlated to milking time (ra = 0.93) compared to milking...... efficiency which showed only intermediate correlation. Both traits had weak correlations to somatic cell counts. It is concluded that either trait will be effective in selecting for cows giving more milk per minute occupying the milking robot, without increasing risk of mastitis...

  13. Review Random regression test-day model for the analysis of dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jannes

    Abstract. Genetic evaluation of dairy cattle using test-day models is now common internationally. In South. Africa a fixed regression test-day model is used to generate breeding values for dairy animals on a routine basis. The model is, however, often criticized for erroneously assuming a standard lactation curve for cows.

  14. Random regression test-day model for the analysis of dairy cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic evaluation of dairy cattle using test-day models is now common internationally. In South Africa a fixed regression test-day model is used to generate breeding values for dairy animals on a routine basis. The model is, however, often criticized for erroneously assuming a standard lactation curve for cows in similar ...

  15. Predicting omasal flow of nonammonia N and milk protein yield from in vitro-determined utilizable crude protein at the duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlund, H; Vaga, M; Ahvenjärvi, S; Rinne, M; Ramin, M; Huhtanen, P

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between utilizable crude protein (uCP) at the duodenum estimated in vitro and omasal flow of crude protein (CP; omasal flow of nonammonia N × 6.25) measured in lactating dairy cows. In vivo data were obtained from previous studies estimating omasal digesta flow using a triple-marker method and 15N as microbial marker. A total of 34 different diets based on grass and red clover silages were incubated with buffered rumen fluid previously preincubated with carbohydrates for 3 h. The buffer solution was modified to contain 38 g of NaHCO3 and 1 g of (NH4)HCO3 in 1,000 mL of distilled water. Continuous sampling of the liquid phase for determination of ammonia-N was performed at 0.5, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 30 h after the start of incubation. The ammonia N concentrations after incubation were used to calculate uCP. The natural logarithm of uCP [g/kg of dry matter (DM)] at time points 0.5, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 30 h of incubation was plotted against time to estimate the concentration of uCP (g/kg of DM) at time points 16, 20, and 24 h using an exponential function. Fixed model regression analysis and mixed model regression analysis with random study effect were used to evaluate the relationships between predicted uCP (supply and concentration) and observed omasal CP flow and milk protein yield. Residual analysis was also conducted to evaluate whether any dietary factors influenced the relationships. The in vitro uCP method ranked the diets accurately in terms of total omasal CP flow (kg/d) or omasal CP flow per kilogram of DM intake. We also noted a close relationship between estimated uCP supply and adjusted omasal CP flow, as demonstrated by a coefficient of determination of 0.87, although the slope of 0.77 indicated that estimated uCP supply (kg/d) was greater than the value determined in vivo. The linear bias with mixed model analysis indicated that uCP supply overestimated the difference in omasal CP flow between the diets within a study

  16. Uso de modelos de regressão aleatória para descrever a variação genética da produção de leite na raça Holandesa Random regressions models to describe the genetic variation of milk yield in Holstein breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Vieira de Araújo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Registros de produção de leite de 68.523 controles leiteiros de 8.536 vacas da raça Holandesa, com parições nos anos de 1996 a 2001, foram utilizados na comparação entre modelos de regressão aleatória para estimação de componentes de variância. Os registros de controle leiteiro foram analisados como características múltiplas, considerando cada controle uma característica distinta. Os mesmos registros de controle leiteiro foram analisados como dados longitudinais, por meio de modelos de regressão aleatória, que diferiram entre si pela função utilizada para descrever a trajetória da curva de lactação dos animais. As funções utilizadas foram a exponencial de Wilmink, a função de Ali e Schaeffer e os polinômios de Legendre de segundo e quarto graus. A comparação entre modelos foi realizada com base nos seguintes critérios: estimativas de componentes de variância, obtidas no modelo multicaractístico e por regressão aleatória; valores da variância residual; e valores do logaritmo da função de verossimilhança. As estimativas de herdabilidade obtidas por meio dos modelos de características múltiplas variaram de 0,110 a 0,244. Para os modelos de regressão aleatória, esses valores oscilaram de 0,127 a 0,301, observando-se as maiores estimativas nos modelos com maior número de parâmetros. Verificou-se que os modelos de regressão aleatória que utilizaram os polinômios de Legendre descreveram melhor a variação genética da produção de leite.Data comprising 68,523 test day milk yield of 8,536 cows of the Holstein breed, calving from 1996 to 2001, were used to compare random regression models, for estimating variance components. Test day records (TD were analyzed as multiple traits, considering each TD as a different trait. The test day records were analyzed as longitudinal traits by different random regression models regarding the function used to describe the trajectory of the lactation curve of the animals

  17. Comparative analysis of milk yield and reproductive traits of Holstein-Friesian cows born in Turkey or imported from Italy and kept on farms under the Turkish-ANAFI project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Akbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the milk yield, reproductive traits and productive life of Holstein-Friesian cows born in Turkeyor imported from Italy and raised on farms involved in the Turkish-ANAFI Project. A total of 2600 records for age at firstcalving, 4733 completed lactation records from 2080 cows, and 1130 productive life (from first calving to disposalrecords from 50 farms in the provinces of I•zmir, Manisa and Aydın under the Turkish-ANAFI Project were evaluated. Leastsquares means for age at first calving, 305-day milk yield, lactation milk yield, lactation duration, days open, days dry,and productive life were 28.2 months, 6232 kg, 6829 kg, 336.0 days, 138.0 days, 78.3 days, and 28.9 months, respectively.Corresponding least squares means for cows born in Turkey and imported from Italy were 28.8 and 27.6 months(P0.05, 6761 and 6897 kg (Pdays (P0.10, and 21.6 and 36.1 months (Pof Holstein-Friesian cows in herd-book herds under the project in the Aegean Region was satisfactory. However, therewere reproductive problems as shown by the length of days open. Shorter productive life of cows born in Turkey comparedto cows from Italy suggested that breeders tended to cull locally born cows at a younger age but that they tendedto keep imported cows in the herd for a longer period unless serious problems occurred.

  18. The 9-MilCA method as a rapid, partly automated protocol for simultaneously recording milk coagulation, curd firming, syneresis, cheese yield, and curd nutrients recovery or whey loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Stocco, G; Bittante, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and test a new laboratory cheesemaking procedure [9-mL milk cheesemaking assessment (9-MilCA)], which records 15 traits related to milk coagulation, curd firming, syneresis, cheese yield, and curd nutrients recovery or whey loss. This procedure involves instruments found in many laboratories (i.e., heaters and lacto-dynamographs), with an easy modification of the sample rack for the insertion of 10-mL glass tubes. Four trials were carried out to test the 9-MilCA procedure. The first trial compared 8 coagulation and curd firming traits obtained using regular or modified sample racks to process milk samples from 60 cows belonging to 5 breeds and 3 farms (480 tests). The obtained patterns exhibited significant but irrelevant between-procedure differences, with better repeatability seen for 9-MilCA. The second trial tested the reproducibility and repeatability of the 7 cheesemaking traits obtained using the 9-MilCA procedure on individual samples from 60 cows tested in duplicate in 2 instruments (232 tests). The method yielded very repeatable outcomes for all 7 tested cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits (repeatability >98%), with the exception of the fresh cheese yield (84%), which was affected by the lower repeatability (67%) of the water retained in the curd. In the third trial (96 tests), we found that using centrifugation in place of curd cooking and draining (as adopted in several published studies) reduced the efficiency of whey separation, overestimated all traits, and worsened the repeatability. The fourth trial compared 9-MilCA with a more complex model cheese-manufacturing process that mimics industry practices, using 1,500-mL milk samples (72 cows, 216 tests). The average results obtained from 9-MilCA were similar to those obtained from the model cheeses, with between-method correlations ranging from 78 to 99%, except for the water retained in the curd (r=54%). Our results indicate that new 9-MilCA method is a

  19. Is there a feeding strategy to increase milk casein content?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Because more than 60% of milk produced in Italy is transformed into cheese, milk economical value strongly depends on cheese yield. Among the factors that influence cheese yield, milk casein and fat content plays a major role: when milk is converted into Grana Padano and Parmigiano reggiano, three grams of seasoned cheese are produced from one gram of milk casein.....

  20. Uso de funções ortogonais para descrever a produção de leite no dia de controle por meio de modelos de regressão aleatória Genetic modelling of daily milk yield using orthogonal polynomials in random regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Vieira de Araújo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Registros de produção de leite de 68.523 controles leiteiros de 8.536 vacas da raça Holandesa, filhas de 537 reprodutores, distribuídas em 266 rebanhos, com parições nos anos de 1996 a 2001, foram utilizados na comparação de modelos de regressão aleatória, para estimação de componentes de variância. Os modelos de regressão aleatória diferiram entre si pelo grau do polinômio de Legendre utilizado para descrever a trajetória da curva de lactação dos animais. Os modelos incluíram os efeitos rebanho-mês-ano do controle, composição genética dos animais, freqüência de ordenhas diárias, regressão polinomial em cada classe de idade-estação de parto para descrever a parte fixa da lactação e regressão polinomial aleatória relacionadas aos efeitos genético direto e de ambiente permanente. As estimativas de herdabilidade obtidas oscilaram de 0,122 a 0,291. Verificou-se que o modelo de regressão aleatória que utilizou a maior ordem para os polinômios de Legendre descreveu melhor a variação genética da produção de leite, de acordo com o critério de Akaike.Data comprising 68,523 test day milk yield of 8,536 cows of the Holstein breed, daughters of 537 sires, distributed in 266 herds, calving from 1996 to 2001, were used to compare random regression models, for estimating variance. Test day records (TD were analyzed by different random regression models regarding the function used to describe the trajectory of the lactation curve of the animals. Legendre orthogonal polynomials function of second, third and fourth order were used. The random regression models included the effects of herd-month-year of the control, genetic group of the animals; the frequency of the daily milk; regression coefficients for each class of age-season (in order to describe the fixed part of the lactation curve and random regression coefficients related to the direct genetic and the permanent environmental effects. The heritability estimates