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Sample records for test theory ctt

  1. The Relationship between CTT and IRT Approaches in Analyzing Item Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedalaziz, Nabeel; Leng, Chin Hai

    2013-01-01

    Most of the tests and inventories used by counseling psychologists have been developed using CTT; IRT derives from what is called latent trait theory. A number of important differences exist between CTT- versus IRT-based approaches to both test development and evaluation, as well as the process of scoring the response profiles of individual…

  2. Relationships among Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory Frameworks via Factor Analytic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Nidhi; Koran, Jennifer; Henn, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    There are well-defined theoretical differences between the classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) frameworks. It is understood that in the CTT framework, person and item statistics are test- and sample-dependent. This is not the perception with IRT. For this reason, the IRT framework is considered to be theoretically superior…

  3. An empirical comparison of Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Progar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on nonlinear models between the measured latent variable and the item response, item response theory (IRT enables independent estimation of item and person parameters and local estimation of measurement error. These properties of IRT are also the main theoretical advantages of IRT over classical test theory (CTT. Empirical evidence, however, often failed to discover consistent differences between IRT and CTT parameters and between invariance measures of CTT and IRT parameter estimates. In this empirical study a real data set from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS 1995 was used to address the following questions: (1 How comparable are CTT and IRT based item and person parameters? (2 How invariant are CTT and IRT based item parameters across different participant groups? (3 How invariant are CTT and IRT based item and person parameters across different item sets? The findings indicate that the CTT and the IRT item/person parameters are very comparable, that the CTT and the IRT item parameters show similar invariance property when estimated across different groups of participants, that the IRT person parameters are more invariant across different item sets, and that the CTT item parameters are at least as much invariant in different item sets as the IRT item parameters. The results furthermore demonstrate that, with regards to the invariance property, IRT item/person parameters are in general empirically superior to CTT parameters, but only if the appropriate IRT model is used for modelling the data.

  4. Measuring Student Involvement: A Comparison of Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory in the Construction of Scales from Student Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkness, Jessica; DeAngelo, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the psychometric utility of Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) for scale construction with data from higher education student surveys. Using 2008 Your First College Year (YFCY) survey data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program at the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA, two scales…

  5. Banco CTT : managing a major strategic move

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Catarina Isabel Mação

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present dissertation is to explore the concept of “Diversification Strategy” and the main challenges of planning, implementing and managing it in the first years of operations. To address this strategy, a specific example of a Portuguese postal services’ incumbent, CTT – Correios de Portugal, S.A., that diversifies its business with the creation of a postal bank is covered. With the information on the international experience in this type of diversification an...

  6. Using classical test theory, item response theory, and Rasch measurement theory to evaluate patient-reported outcome measures: a comparison of worked examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Jennifer; Cano, Stefan J; McLeod, Lori D; Coon, Cheryl D

    2015-01-01

    To provide comparisons and a worked example of item- and scale-level evaluations based on three psychometric methods used in patient-reported outcome development-classical test theory (CTT), item response theory (IRT), and Rasch measurement theory (RMT)-in an analysis of the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VFQ-25). Baseline VFQ-25 data from 240 participants with diabetic macular edema from a randomized, double-masked, multicenter clinical trial were used to evaluate the VFQ at the total score level. CTT, RMT, and IRT evaluations were conducted, and results were assessed in a head-to-head comparison. Results were similar across the three methods, with IRT and RMT providing more detailed diagnostic information on how to improve the scale. CTT led to the identification of two problematic items that threaten the validity of the overall scale score, sets of redundant items, and skewed response categories. IRT and RMT additionally identified poor fit for one item, many locally dependent items, poor targeting, and disordering of over half the response categories. Selection of a psychometric approach depends on many factors. Researchers should justify their evaluation method and consider the intended audience. If the instrument is being developed for descriptive purposes and on a restricted budget, a cursory examination of the CTT-based psychometric properties may be all that is possible. In a high-stakes situation, such as the development of a patient-reported outcome instrument for consideration in pharmaceutical labeling, however, a thorough psychometric evaluation including IRT or RMT should be considered, with final item-level decisions made on the basis of both quantitative and qualitative results. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Theory-Testing With Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hak (Tony); J. Dul (Jan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTheory-testing with cases is ascertaining whether the empirical evidence in a case or in a sample of cases either supports or does not support the theory. There are two methodologies for theory-testing with cases, (a) testing in a single case (‘theory-testing single case study’), and (b)

  8. Symmetrical central tegmental tract (CTT) hyperintense lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shoko; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Akira [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Aida, Noriko [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Okano, Souzo; Matsushita, Hiroko [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko; Yoshida, Naoko; Hirota, Haruyo [St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    The central tegmental tract (CTT) is mainly the extrapyramidal tract connecting between the red nucleus and the inferior olivary nucleus. There are only a few case reports describing CTT abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children. Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency of CTT lesions and their characteristics on MRI, and to correlate the MR imaging findings with clinical features. We reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 392 children (215 boys and 177 girls) ranging in age from 1 to 6 years. To evaluate symmetrical CTT hyperintense lesions, we defined a CTT lesion as an area of bilateral symmetrical hyperintensity in the tegmentum pontis on both T2-weighted images and diffusion-weighted images in more than two slices. We measured the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) values of symmetrical CTT hyperintensity, and compared them with those of children without CTT abnormality. CTT lesions were detected in 20 (5.1%) of the 392 children. The mean ADC value for these 20 children was significantly lower than that of the normal CTT (p<0.001). On MR imaging, other than CTT lesions, associated parenchymal lesion included: none (n=6); other abnormalities, including periventricular leukomalacia (n=3); thin corpus callosum (n=3); ventricular dilatation (n=2); encephalopathy (n=2). Clinically, cerebral palsy was the most frequent clinical diagnosis (n=6), accounting for 30%, which was significantly more frequent than the prevalence of cerebral palsy among children without CTT lesions (13%) (n<0.05). CTT lesions were detected in 5.1% of all the children examined. Cerebral palsy was the most frequent clinical diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Preparation and Characterization of a Novel Chimeric Protein VEGI-CTT in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiping Cai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial cell growth inhibitor (VEGI is a recently identified antiangiogenic cytokine that belongs to the TNF superfamily, and could effectively inhibit endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Synthetic peptide CTT (CTTHWGFTLC has been found to suppress invasion and migration of both tumor and endothelial cells by potent and selective inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9. To prepare chimeric protein VEGI-CTT for more potent antitumor therapy, the recombinant expression vector pET-VEGI-CTT was constructed. This fusion protein was expressed in inclusion bodies in E. coli BL21 (DE3, and was refolded and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography using His-tag. Purified VEGI-CTT protein was characterized by proliferation assays of the endothelial cells and casein degradation assay in vitro. The results demonstrated that chimeric protein VEGI-CTT had a potent activity of antiangiogenesis through inhibiting the proliferation of endothelial cells, and could effectively reduce the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. The preliminarily in vivo study demonstrated that chimeric protein VEGI-CTT had more potent antitumor activity than VEGI and/or CTT peptide against CA46 human lymphoma xenografts in nude mice. Thus, these facts that are derived from the present study suggest that the chimeric protein VEGI-CTT may be used for tumor therapy in the future.

  10. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  11. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  12. The Examination of Reliability of Vee Diagrams According to Classical Test Theory and Generalizability Theory

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    Betül POLAT DEMİR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate reliability of score obtained from vee diagrams. Therefore in this study, the Classical test theory and generalizability theory were used. The study was carried out with descriptive research model. The participants of this research were composed of 32 students at 7th and 8th grades in Niğde. The responses given to the vee diagrams were scored through the holistic rubric. In CTT, Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient and Kendall’s concordance coefficient for interrater reliability; in G theory, Ep2 (G and Ф (Phi coefficients with univariate model were computed. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients estimated were 0,77, 0,76, and 0,76 for each rater, respectively. For determination of interrater consistency, Kendall’s concordance coefficient was calculated as W=0,959 for the first vee diagram, W= 0,924 for the second one, W=0,963 for the third one, W=0,954 for the fourth one. For the purpose of estimating variances and percent of variances in G study, fully crossed design was applied. Generalizability coefficient for vee diagram scores was 0,918 and phi coefficient was 0,899. As a result of the G study, it was determined that the variance component estimated for the student (s main effect accounted for 42,4% of the total variance, and it was the variance component that had the highest value. The variance component estimated for raters (p main effect, which is the lowest variance component in all main effect, accounted for 0,1% of the total variance. According to all results, it was seen that vee diagram was reliable for determination of students’ mathematics achievement.

  13. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  14. Generalizability Theory and Classical Test Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Broadly conceived, reliability involves quantifying the consistencies and inconsistencies in observed scores. Generalizability theory, or G theory, is particularly well suited to addressing such matters in that it enables an investigator to quantify and distinguish the sources of inconsistencies in observed scores that arise, or could arise, over…

  15. A Developmental Test of Mertonian Anomie Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Carefully reviewed Merton's writings on anomie theory to construct a more complete and rigorous test of the theory for respondents in early, middle, and late adolescence. Concluded that misspecified models of strain theory have underestimated the predictive power of strain theory in general and of anomie theory in particular. (JBJ)

  16. Testing string theory at LHC?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    A theory with such mathematical beauty cannot be wrong: this is one of the main arguments in favour of string theory, which unifies all known physical theories of fundamental interactions in a single coherent description of the universe. But no one has ever observed strings, not even indirectly, nor the space of extra dimensions where they live. However there are good reasons to believe that the 'hidden' dimensions of string theory may be much larger than what we thought in the past and that they may be within experimental reach in the near future - together with the strings themselves. In my talk, I will give an elementary introduction of string theory and describe the main experimental predictions.Organiser(s): Jasper Kirkby / EP DivisionNote: Tea & coffee will be served at 16.00 hrs.

  17. Statistical test theory for the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    de Gruijter, Dato N M

    2007-01-01

    Since the development of the first intelligence test in the early 20th century, educational and psychological tests have become important measurement techniques to quantify human behavior. Focusing on this ubiquitous yet fruitful area of research, Statistical Test Theory for the Behavioral Sciences provides both a broad overview and a critical survey of assorted testing theories and models used in psychology, education, and other behavioral science fields. Following a logical progression from basic concepts to more advanced topics, the book first explains classical test theory, covering true score, measurement error, and reliability. It then presents generalizability theory, which provides a framework to deal with various aspects of test scores. In addition, the authors discuss the concept of validity in testing, offering a strategy for evidence-based validity. In the two chapters devoted to item response theory (IRT), the book explores item response models, such as the Rasch model, and applications, incl...

  18. SLAC physicists develop test for string theory

    CERN Multimedia

    Yajnik, Juhi

    2006-01-01

    "Under certain conditions, string theory solves many of the questions wracking the minds of physicists, but until recently it had one major flaw - it could not be tested. SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) scientists have found a way to test this revolutionary theory, which posits that there are 10 or 11 dimensions in our universe" (1 page)

  19. Detailed topology mapping reveals substantial exposure of the "cytoplasmic" C-terminal tail (CTT sequences in HIV-1 Env proteins at the cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Steckbeck

    Full Text Available Substantial controversy surrounds the membrane topology of the HIV-1 gp41 C-terminal tail (CTT. While few studies have been designed to directly address the topology of the CTT, results from envelope (Env protein trafficking studies suggest that the CTT sequence is cytoplasmically localized, as interactions with intracellular binding partners are required for proper Env targeting. However, previous studies from our lab demonstrate the exposure of a short CTT sequence, the Kennedy epitope, at the plasma membrane of intact Env-expressing cells, the exposure of which is not observed on viral particles. To address the topology of the entire CTT sequence, we serially replaced CTT sequences with a VSV-G epitope tag sequence and examined reactivity of cell- and virion-surface Env to an anti-VSV-G monoclonal antibody. Our results demonstrate that the majority of the CTT sequence is accessible to antibody binding on the surface of Env expressing cells, and that the CTT-exposed Env constitutes 20-50% of the cell-surface Env. Cell surface CTT exposure was also apparent in virus-infected cells. Passive transfer of Env through cell culture media to Env negative (non-transfected cells was not responsible for the apparent cell surface CTT exposure. In contrast to the cell surface results, CTT-exposed Env was not detected on infectious pseudoviral particles containing VSV-G-substituted Env. Finally, a monoclonal antibody directed to the Kennedy epitope neutralized virus in a temperature-dependent manner in a post-attachment neutralization assay. Collectively, these results suggest that the membrane topology of the HIV gp41 CTT is more complex than the widely accepted intracytoplasmic model.

  20. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, enjoys canonicity for the natural numbers type, and is conjectured to support decidable type-checking. Our new type theory, guarded cubical type theory (GCTT), provides a computational interpretation of extensionality......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  1. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    types. This further expands the foundations of CTT as a basis for formalisation in mathematics and computer science. We present examples to demonstrate the expressivity of our type theory, all of which have been checked using a prototype type-checker implementation, and present semantics in a presheaf......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  2. Nursing intellectual capital theory: testing selected propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-11-01

    To test the selected propositions of the middle-range theory of nursing intellectual capital. The nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes nursing knowledge's influence on patient and organizational outcomes. The theory proposes nursing human capital, nurses' knowledge, skills and experience, is related to the quality of patient care and nurse recruitment and retention of an inpatient care unit. Two factors in the work environment, nurse staffing and employer support for nurse continuing professional development, are proposed to influence nursing human capital's association with patient and organizational outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design. The study took place in 2008 in six Canadian acute care hospitals. Financial, human resource and risk data were collected from hospital departments and unit managers. Clearly specified empirical indicators quantified the study variables. The propositions of the theory were tested with data from 91 inpatient care units using structural equation modelling. The propositions associated with the nursing human capital concept were supported. The propositions associated with the employer support for nurse continuing professional development concept were not. The proposition that nurse staffing's influences on patient outcomes was mediated by the nursing human capital of an inpatient unit, was partially supported. Some of the theory's propositions were empirically validated. Additional theoretical work is needed to refine the operationalization and measurement of some of the theory's concepts. Further research with larger samples of data from different geographical settings and types of hospitals is required to determine if the theory can withstand empirical scrutiny. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Consistency of the counting talk test for exercise prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, Brant D; Christiansen, Ann M; Smolczyk, Jill E; Roberts, Kelsey L; Budziszewska, Anna; Hollatz, Crystal G; Norman, Joseph F

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the consistency of the counting talk test (CTT) method for estimating exercise intensity across various modes of exercise in healthy young adults. Thirty-six individuals completed the study, which required participation in 3 separate sessions within a 2-week time period. During the first session, the individuals completed a maximal effort treadmill test from which each individual's heart rate reserve (HRR) was calculated. During the second and third sessions, the subjects participated in 2 modes of exercise in each session for a total of 4 different modes of exercise. The individuals exercised at 40% HRR, 50% HRR, 60% HRR, 75% HRR, and 85% HRR. The heart rate (HR), CTT, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at each workload. Based on the individual's resting CTT (CTT(rest)), the %CTT for each exercise stage was then calculated. Pearson correlations demonstrated moderate to good correlations between the CTT and HRR methods and the CTT and RPE methods for estimating exercise intensity. This study found that for the individuals with CTT(rest) exercise as recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine HRR guidelines could be achieved by exercising at a level of 40-50% CTT(rest). Individuals with a CTT(rest) ≥25, exercising at a level of 30-40% CTT(rest) would place them in the moderate to vigorous exercise intensity range. A high degree of reliability was demonstrated using the CTT method across the various modes of aerobic exercise. As such, independent of the exercise mode, the CTT was found to be an easy and consistent method for prescribing moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise intensity.

  4. Threshold Theory Tested in an Organizational Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo T.; Hartmann, Peter V. W.; Hedegaard Rasmussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A large sample of leaders (N = 4257) was used to test the link between leader innovativeness and intelligence. The threshold theory of the link between creativity and intelligence assumes that below a certain IQ level (approximately IQ 120), there is some correlation between IQ and creative...... potential, but above this cutoff point, there is no correlation. Support for the threshold theory of creativity was found, in that the correlation between IQ and innovativeness was positive and significant below a cutoff point of IQ 120. Above the cutoff, no significant relation was identified, and the two...

  5. The nutrition for sport knowledge questionnaire (NSKQ): development and validation using classical test theory and Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Gina Louise; Forsyth, Adrienne; Hoye, Russell; Belski, Regina

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate dietary intake can have a significant influence on athletic performance. There is a growing consensus on sports nutrition and professionals working with athletes often provide dietary education. However, due to the limitations of existing sports nutrition knowledge questionnaires, previous reports of athletes' nutrition knowledge may be inaccurate. An updated questionnaire has been developed based on a recent review of sports nutrition guidelines. The tool has been validated using a robust methodology that incorporates relevant techniques from classical test theory (CTT) and Item response theory (IRT), namely, Rasch analysis. The final questionnaire has 89 questions and six sub-sections (weight management, macronutrients, micronutrients, sports nutrition, supplements, and alcohol). The content and face validity of the tool have been confirmed based on feedback from expert sports dietitians and university sports students, respectively. The internal reliability of the questionnaire as a whole is high (KR = 0.88), and most sub-sections achieved an acceptable internal reliability. Construct validity has been confirmed, with an independent T-test revealing a significant (p < 0.001) difference in knowledge scores of nutrition (64 ± 16%) and non-nutrition students (51 ± 19%). Test-retest reliability has been assured, with a strong correlation (r = 0.92, p < 0.001) between individuals' scores on two attempts of the test, 10 days to 2 weeks apart. Three of the sub-sections fit the Rasch Unidimensional Model. The final version of the questionnaire represents a significant improvement over previous tools. Each nutrition sub-section is unidimensional, and therefore researchers and practitioners can use these individually, as required. Use of the questionnaire will allow researchers to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of nutrition education programs, and differences in knowledge across athletes of varying ages, genders, and athletic calibres.

  6. Hypothesis testing in hydrology: Theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, James; Pfister, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Well-posed hypothesis tests have spurred major advances in hydrological theory. However, a random sample of recent research papers suggests that in hydrology, as in other fields, hypothesis formulation and testing rarely correspond to the idealized model of the scientific method. Practices such as "p-hacking" or "HARKing" (Hypothesizing After the Results are Known) are major obstacles to more rigorous hypothesis testing in hydrology, along with the well-known problem of confirmation bias - the tendency to value and trust confirmations more than refutations - among both researchers and reviewers. Hypothesis testing is not the only recipe for scientific progress, however: exploratory research, driven by innovations in measurement and observation, has also underlain many key advances. Further improvements in observation and measurement will be vital to both exploratory research and hypothesis testing, and thus to advancing the science of hydrology.

  7. Training Materials and Data Requirements for Combat Training Theater (CTT) Training Test Support Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    lANK MOTION TURRET CONTROLS M1 STAB POWER + S + POWER + MANUAL PERISCOPE TTS LEAD OUTPUT COMPUTER LRF FUNCTION + + + + MALFUNCTION + + A-4 FIRE DELIVERY...FIRING TANK CONDITIONS CONTROLS POWER____ MANUAL__ IR COMPUTER PRIMARY SIGHT SRI FUNCTION + + ___ + MALFUNCTION________+ ___ C-4 FIRE DELIVERY METHOD...BATTLESIGHT ENGAGEMENT CATEGORY: 4 FIRING TANK CONDITIONS CONTROLS POWER •+ MANUAL ___ IR COMPTER PRIMARY SIGHT SRI FUNCTION + + MALFUNCTION + + NOTES

  8. Development of a Distributed Watershed Contaminant Transport, Transformation and Fate (CTT&F) Sub-Module for Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    photolysis is calculated by CTT&F from the absorption rate and the quantum yield for chemical in each phase. = j jjajpht fkk φ (13) where kpht...phase ∑= j jjajpht fkk φ “One ERDC….Providing Technologies for the Transformed Army” E n v i r o n m e n t a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y

  9. Solar-System Tests of Gravitational Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    2005-01-01

    This research is aimed at testing gravitational theory, primarily on an interplanetary scale and using mainly observations of objects in the solar system. Our goal is either to detect departures from the standard model (general relativity) - if any exist within the level of sensitivity of our data - or to support this model by placing tighter bounds on any departure from it. For this project, we have analyzed a combination of observational data with our model of the solar system, including planetary radar ranging, lunar laser ranging, and spacecraft tracking, as well as pulsar timing and pulsar VLBI measurements.

  10. Further tests of belief-importance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, K V; Furnham, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Belief-importance (belimp) theory hypothesizes that personality traits confer a propensity to perceive convergences or divergences between the belief that we can attain certain goals and the importance that we place on these goals. Belief and importance are conceptualized as two coordinates, together defining the belimp plane. We tested fundamental aspects of the theory using four different planes based on the life domains of appearance, family, financial security, and friendship as well as a global plane combining these four domains. The criteria were from the areas of personality (Big Five and trait emotional intelligence) and learning styles. Two hundred and fifty eight participants were allocated into the four quadrants of the belimp plane (Hubris, Motivation, Depression, and Apathy) according to their scores on four reliable instruments. Most hypotheses were supported by the data. Results are discussed with reference to the stability of the belimp classifications under different life domains and the relationship of the quadrants with the personality traits that are hypothesized to underpin them.

  11. Further tests of belief-importance theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Petrides

    Full Text Available Belief-importance (belimp theory hypothesizes that personality traits confer a propensity to perceive convergences or divergences between the belief that we can attain certain goals and the importance that we place on these goals. Belief and importance are conceptualized as two coordinates, together defining the belimp plane. We tested fundamental aspects of the theory using four different planes based on the life domains of appearance, family, financial security, and friendship as well as a global plane combining these four domains. The criteria were from the areas of personality (Big Five and trait emotional intelligence and learning styles. Two hundred and fifty eight participants were allocated into the four quadrants of the belimp plane (Hubris, Motivation, Depression, and Apathy according to their scores on four reliable instruments. Most hypotheses were supported by the data. Results are discussed with reference to the stability of the belimp classifications under different life domains and the relationship of the quadrants with the personality traits that are hypothesized to underpin them.

  12. a Test to Prove Cloud Whitening THEORY!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science researchers believe our planet can possibly tolerate twice the present carbon dioxide levels with no upwards temperature change, IF we could increase the amount of energy reflected back out into space by about 2.0%. (c)Cloudtec basically alters a blend of seawater and applies heat derived from magma to it at a temperature exceeding 2,000 degrees F. The interaction of seawater and magma displaces the oxygen, causing the volume of water to vaporize and expand over 4,000 times - transforming billions of tons of seawater into thousands of cubic miles of white, maritime, stratocumulus clouds to reflect the incident Sun's rays back out into space. A 6 month test to prove Cloud Whitening Theory will cost 6 million dollars. (No profit added.) This study will enable everyone on the planet with a computer the transparency to use satellite imagery and check out for themselves - if and when Cloud Whitening is occurring. If Cloud Whitening Theory is validated, (c)Cloudtec's innovation can strategically create the clouds we need to reflect the Sun's rays back out into space and help neutralize the projected 3.6 degrees F rise in temperature. Based on reasonable calculations of anthropogenic global warming: this one move alone would be comparable to slashing global carbon dioxide emissions by over 60% over the next 40 years.

  13. Four empirical tests of Unconscious Thought Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, H.M.; Wetzels, R.; van Ravenzwaaij, D.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2012-01-01

    According to Unconscious Thought Theory, people make better decisions after unconscious than after conscious thought (Dijksterhuis, Bos, Nordgren, & van Baaren, 2006a). Unconscious Thought Theory yields four specific predictions. First, an exact replication of Dijksterhuis et al. (2006a) study

  14. Clinical outcome measurement: Models, theory, psychometrics and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimans, Leah; Browne, John; Cano, Stefan

    In the last decade much has been made of the role that models play in the epistemology of measurement. Specifically, philosophers have been interested in the role of models in producing measurement outcomes. This discussion has proceeded largely within the context of the physical sciences, with notable exceptions considering measurement in economics. However, models also play a central role in the methods used to develop instruments that purport to quantify psychological phenomena. These methods fall under the umbrella term 'psychometrics'. In this paper, we focus on Clinical Outcome Assessments (COAs) and discuss two measurement theories and their associated models: Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Rasch Measurement Theory. We argue that models have an important role to play in coordinating theoretical terms with empirical content, but to do so they must serve: 1) as a representation of the measurement interaction; and 2) in conjunction with a theory of the attribute in which we are interested. We conclude that Rasch Measurement Theory is a more promising approach than CTT in these regards despite the latter's popularity with health outcomes researchers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Testing and verifying nursing theory by confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kääriäinen, Maria; Kanste, Outi; Elo, Satu; Pölkki, Tarja; Miettunen, Jouko; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the use of confirmatory factor analysis to test nursing theory. Theory testing is an important phase in nursing theory development. Testing of theory is intended to give more information about concepts and their usefulness in nursing practice. Confirmatory factor analysis is commonly used in instrument development in nursing science studies, but also in theory testing. However, there has been little discussion of its use in theory testing in nursing science research. Multidisciplinary methodological and research publications from 1990 to 2009 were used. The aim of confirmatory factor analysis is to test nursing theory that has already been established, i.e. researchers have an a priori hypothesis based on theoretical knowledge or empirical indications. Analysis is represented as three phases: preparation, model testing and reporting the results. Preparation involves data screening and preliminary analyses. Model testing is divided into model specification, model identification, model estimation, model evaluation and model modification. The results are reported with standardized regression coefficients of the items related to the latent variables, squared multiple correlations (R²) related to error terms and the model's goodness of fit indexes. Implications for nursing. Testing of theory is intended to give more valid information about the concepts and their usefulness in nursing practice. Confirmatory factor analysis is a good method to test the structure of theory, for example to test the concepts built by concept synthesis or analysis. Tested theories are needed to develop nursing science itself. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Tests of alternative quantum theories with neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponar, S.; Durstberger-Rennhofer, K.; Badurek, G.; Hasegawa, Y. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Klepp, J. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna (Austria); Schmitzer, C.; Bartosik, H. [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland)

    2014-12-04

    According to Bell’s theorem, every theory based on local realism is at variance with certain predictions of quantum mechanics. A theory that maintains realism but abandons reliance on locality, which has been proposed by Leggett, is incompatible with experimentally observable quantum correlations. In our experiment correlation measurements of spin-energy entangled single-neutrons violate a Leggett-type inequality by more than 7.6 standard deviations. The experimental data falsify the contextual realistic model and are fully in favor of quantum mechanics.

  17. Educational measurement for applied researchers theory into practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Margaret; Jen, Tsung-Hau

    2016-01-01

    This book is a valuable read for a diverse group of researchers and practitioners who analyze assessment data and construct test instruments. It focuses on the use of classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT), which are often required in the fields of psychology (e.g. for measuring psychological traits), health (e.g. for measuring the severity of disorders), and education (e.g. for measuring student performance), and makes these analytical tools accessible to a broader audience. Having taught assessment subjects to students from diverse backgrounds for a number of years, the three authors have a wealth of experience in presenting educational measurement topics, in-depth concepts and applications in an accessible format. As such, the book addresses the needs of readers who use CTT and IRT in their work but do not necessarily have an extensive mathematical background. The book also sheds light on common misconceptions in applying measurement models, and presents an integrated approach to differ...

  18. How to Test String Theory: On Turing Machines / M-Theory Duality

    OpenAIRE

    coyle, dylan

    2017-01-01

    We introduce how Turing and vector machines are branes and strings, letting us use insight from game theory to test M-theory. We can test the antimater bias between converging systems, the cis-matter bias between diverging systems, a federated multiverse hypothesis, lower noise from heavy leptons, and the construction of 'black holes' with heavy leptonic atoms.

  19. Tests of Chiral perturbation theory with COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Jan M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS experiment at CERN accesses pion-photon reactions via the Primakoff effect., where high-energetic pions react with the quasi-real photon field surrounding the target nuclei. When a single real photon is produced, pion Compton scattering is accessed and from the measured cross-section shape, the pion polarisability is determined. The COMPASS measurement is in contradiction to the earlier dedicated measurements, and rather in agreement with the theoretical expectation from ChPT. In the same experimental data taking, reactions with neutral and charged pions in the final state are measured and analyzed in the context of chiral perturbation theory.

  20. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Arnold, F.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management,

  1. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  2. Quantitative Penetration Testing with Item Response Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  3. Early Tests of Piagetian Theory Through World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beins, Bernard C

    2016-01-01

    Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed. Nonetheless, the theory ultimately gained traction to become the bedrock of developmental psychology. Reasons for its persistence may include a possible lack of awareness by psychologists about the lack of empirical support, its breadth and complexity, and a lack of a viable alternate theory. As a result, the theory still exerts influence in psychology even though its dominance has diminished.

  4. Testing four competing theories of health-protective behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, N D

    1993-07-01

    Four competing theories of health-protective behavior are reviewed: the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action, protection motivation theory, and subjective expected utility theory. In spite of their commonalities, these models are seldom tested against one another. The review points out the similarities and differences among these theories and the data and analyses needed to compare them. In addition to describing the content of the models, their conceptualization of key variables, and the combinatorial rules used to make predictions, some general problems in theory development and testing for health behaviors are examined. The article's goal is to help investigators design studies that will clarify the strengths and weaknesses of these models, leading toward a better understanding of health behavior.

  5. Proposed experimental test of the theory of hole superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    The theory of hole superconductivity predicts that in the reversible transition between normal and superconducting phases in the presence of a magnetic field there is charge flow in direction perpendicular to the normal-superconductor phase boundary. In contrast, the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity predicts no such charge flow. Here we discuss an experiment to test these predictions.

  6. A Test of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide in Primitive Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1992-01-01

    Classified primitive societies as high, moderate, or low on independent measures of social integration and social regulation to test Durkheim's theory of suicide. Estimated frequency of suicide did not differ between those societies predicted to have high, moderate, and low suicide rates. Durkheim's theory was not confirmed. (Author/NB)

  7. Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptijn, R.; Thomése, F.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Silverstein, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers–Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the

  8. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  9. Using a Celestial Sphere to Test Scientific Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Karl C.; Stewart, Bruce R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an astronomy activity in which students use an apparatus to illustrate the various positions and movements of the sun, earth, planets, stars, and constellations. A test of the heliocentric theory of the solar system is included. (CW)

  10. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  11. Testing prospect theory in students’ performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Galdón, Patricia; Nicolau, Juan Luis

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests the existence of ‘reference dependence’ and ‘loss aversion’ in students’ academic performance. Accordingly, achieving a worse than expected academic performance would have a much stronger effect on students’ (dis)satisfaction than obtaining a better than expected grade. Although loss aversion is a well-established finding, some authors have demonstrated that it can be moderated – diminished, to be precise–. Within this line of research, we also examine whether the students’ e...

  12. Experimental tests of relativistic gravitation theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental tests were studied for determining the potential uses of future deep space missions in studies of relativistic gravity. The extensions to the parametrized post-Newtonian framework to take explicit account of the solar system's center of mass relative to the mean rest frame of the Universe is reported. Discoveries reported include the Machian effects of motion relative to the universal rest frame. Summaries of the JPL research are included.

  13. The evolution of genomic imprinting: theories, predictions and empirical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, M M; Ross, L; Curley, J P; Queller, D C; Bonduriansky, R; Wolf, J B

    2014-08-01

    The epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting has motivated the development of numerous theories for its evolutionary origins and genomic distribution. In this review, we examine the three theories that have best withstood theoretical and empirical scrutiny. These are: Haig and colleagues' kinship theory; Day and Bonduriansky's sexual antagonism theory; and Wolf and Hager's maternal-offspring coadaptation theory. These theories have fundamentally different perspectives on the adaptive significance of imprinting. The kinship theory views imprinting as a mechanism to change gene dosage, with imprinting evolving because of the differential effect that gene dosage has on the fitness of matrilineal and patrilineal relatives. The sexual antagonism and maternal-offspring coadaptation theories view genomic imprinting as a mechanism to modify the resemblance of an individual to its two parents, with imprinting evolving to increase the probability of expressing the fitter of the two alleles at a locus. In an effort to stimulate further empirical work on the topic, we carefully detail the logic and assumptions of all three theories, clarify the specific predictions of each and suggest tests to discriminate between these alternative theories for why particular genes are imprinted.

  14. Experimental testing of constructivism and related theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelman, U

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to show that experimental scientific methods can be applied to explain how the analytic mechanism of the left cerebral hemisphere and the synthetic mechanism of the right one create complex cognitive constructions like ontology and mathematics. Nominalism and ordinal mathematical concepts are related to the analytic left hemisphere while Platonism and cardinal mathematical concepts are related to the synthetic right one. Thus persons with a dominant left hemisphere tend to prefer nominalist ontology and have more aptitude for ordinal mathematics than for cardinal mathematics, while persons with a dominant right hemisphere tend to prefer platonist ontology and have more aptitude for cardinal mathematics than for ordinal mathematics. It is further explained how the Kantism temporal mode of perceiving experience can be related to the left hemisphere while the Kantian spatial mode of perceiving experience can be related to the right hemisphere. This relation can be tested experimentally, thus the Kantian source of constructivism, and through it constructivism itself, can be tested experimentally.

  15. The Prediction of Item Parameters Based on Classical Test Theory and Latent Trait Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Duygu

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the prediction power of the item characteristics based on the experts' predictions on conditions try-out practices cannot be applied was examined for item characteristics computed depending on classical test theory and two-parameters logistic model of latent trait theory. The study was carried out on 9914 randomly selected students…

  16. Testing evolutionary theories of discriminative grandparental investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptijn, Ralf; Thomese, Fleur; Liefbroer, Aart C; Silverstein, Merril

    2013-05-01

    This study tests two evolutionary hypotheses on grandparental investments differentiated by the child's sex: the paternity uncertainty hypothesis and the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Data are from two culturally different countries: the Dutch Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n=2375) and the Chinese Anhui Survey (n=4026). In the Netherlands, grandparental investments are biased towards daughters' children, which is in accordance with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. But in China, grandparental investments are biased towards sons' children, which is in conflict with the paternity uncertainty hypothesis. This study found no support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. These results raise doubts over the relevance of paternity uncertainty as an explanation of a grandparental investment bias towards daughters' children that is often found in Western populations. The results suggest that discriminative grandparental investments are better understood as the outcome of cultural prescriptions and economic motives.

  17. [Study of dental model testing tool based on robot theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B; Song, Y; Cheng, L

    1999-09-01

    A new three dimensional testing and analysing system of dental model is discussed It is designed based on the motion theory of robots. The system is capable of not only measuring the three dimensional sizes of dental models, but also saving and outputing the tested data. The construction of the system is briefly introduced here.

  18. Validity Theory: Reform Policies, Accountability Testing, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Educational policies such as Race to the Top in the USA affirm a central role for testing systems in government-driven reform efforts. Such reform policies are often referred to as the global education reform movement (GERM). Changes observed with the GERM style of testing demand socially engaged validity theories that include consequential…

  19. An introduction to item response theory and Rasch models for speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, Carolyn; Hula, William; Donovan, Neila J; Doyle, Patrick J; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2011-08-01

    To present a primarily conceptual introduction to item response theory (IRT) and Rasch models for speech-language pathologists (SLPs). This tutorial introduces SLPs to basic concepts and terminology related to IRT as well as the most common IRT models. The article then continues with an overview of how instruments are developed using IRT and some basic principles of adaptive testing. IRT is a set of statistical methods that are increasingly used for developing instruments in speech-language pathology. While IRT is not new, its application in speech-language pathology to date has been relatively limited in scope. Several new IRT-based instruments are currently emerging. IRT differs from traditional methods for test development, typically referred to as classical test theory (CTT), in several theoretical and practical ways. Administration, scoring, and interpretation of IRT instruments are different from methods used for most traditional CTT instruments. SLPs will need to understand the basic concepts of IRT instruments to use these tools in their clinical and research work. This article provides an introduction to IRT concepts drawing on examples from speech-language pathology.

  20. QTest: Quantitative Testing of Theories of Binary Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Lim, Shiau Hong; Guo, Ying; Popova, Anna; Zwilling, Chris; Cha, Yun-Shil; Messner, William

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to make modeling and quantitative testing accessible to behavioral decision researchers interested in substantive questions. We provide a novel, rigorous, yet very general, quantitative diagnostic framework for testing theories of binary choice. This permits the nontechnical scholar to proceed far beyond traditionally rather superficial methods of analysis, and it permits the quantitatively savvy scholar to triage theoretical proposals before investing effort into complex and specialized quantitative analyses. Our theoretical framework links static algebraic decision theory with observed variability in behavioral binary choice data. The paper is supplemented with a custom-designed public-domain statistical analysis package, the QTest software. We illustrate our approach with a quantitative analysis using published laboratory data, including tests of novel versions of "Random Cumulative Prospect Theory." A major asset of the approach is the potential to distinguish decision makers who have a fixed preference and commit errors in observed choices from decision makers who waver in their preferences.

  1. Probability Spaces, Hilbert Spaces, and The Axioms of Test Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Donald W.

    1975-01-01

    Classical test theory findings can be derived from the concepts of conditional expectation, conditional independence, and related notions. It is shown that these concepts provide precisely the formalism needed to obtain the classical results with minimal assumptions and with greatest economy in the methods of proof. (RC)

  2. Methodological issues in testing the marginal productivity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.T. Gottschalk (Peter); J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractPrevious tests of the marginal productivity theory have been criticized on several grounds reviewed by the authors. One important deficiency has been the small number of factor inputs entered in the production functions. In 1978 Gottschalk suggested a method to estimate production

  3. Applications of decision theory to test-based decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of Bayesian decision theory to solve problems in test-based decision making is discussed. Four basic decision problems are distinguished: (1) selection; (2) mastery; (3) placement; and (4) classification, the situation where each treatment has its own criterion. Each type of decision can be

  4. Learning Styles and Adaptive Flexibility: Testing Experiential Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainemelis, Charalampos; Boyatzis, Richard E.; Kolb, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Uses three instruments derived from experiential learning theory--the Learning Style Inventory, the Adaptive Style Inventory, and the Learning Skills Profile--to test hypotheses about the differences between balanced and specialized learning styles in a sample of 198 part-time and full-time MBA students. (Contains 81 references.) (Author/YDS)

  5. Educational differentials in the Netherlands : Testing rational action theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Need, Ariana; Jong, Uulkje de

    In this paper, we test how well Rational Action Theory, as developed to explain educational differentials, applies in the Dutch situation. The question we address is the extent to which the mechanisms assumed to be at work can explain class and gender differentials in participation in higher

  6. Applications of Bayesian decision theory to sequential mastery testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to formulate optimal sequential rules for mastery tests. The framework for the approach is derived from Bayesian sequential decision theory. Both a threshold and linear loss structure are considered. The binomial probability distribution is adopted as the psychometric

  7. Beyond "g": Putting Multiple Intelligences Theory to the Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Beth A.; Ashton, Michael C.; Vernon, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated Gardner's "Theory of Multiple Intelligences" in a sample of 200 adults. For each of the hypothesized eight "intelligence" domains--Linguistic, Logical/Mathematical, Spatial, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Musical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Naturalistic--we selected two tests based on Gardner's description of its content. Factor analysis…

  8. QTest: Quantitative Testing of Theories of Binary Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Lim, Shiau Hong; Guo, Ying; Popova, Anna; Zwilling, Chris; Cha, Yun-Shil; Messner, William

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to make modeling and quantitative testing accessible to behavioral decision researchers interested in substantive questions. We provide a novel, rigorous, yet very general, quantitative diagnostic framework for testing theories of binary choice. This permits the nontechnical scholar to proceed far beyond traditionally rather superficial methods of analysis, and it permits the quantitatively savvy scholar to triage theoretical proposals before investing effort into co...

  9. Testing Game Theory in the Field: Swedish LUPI Lottery Games

    OpenAIRE

    Östling, Robert; Wang, Joseph Tao-yi; Chou, Eileen; Camerer, Colin F.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory is usually difficult to test precisely in the field because predictions typically depend sensitively on features that are not controlled or observed. We conduct one such test using field data from the Swedish lowest unique positive integer (LUPI) game. In the LUPI game, players pick positive integers and whoever chose the lowest unique number wins a fixed prize. Theoretical equilibrium predictions are derived assuming Poisson- distributed uncertainty about the numbe...

  10. Communicative competence and theory of mind in autism: a test of relevance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, F G

    1993-08-01

    Sperber and Wilson's (1986) relevance theory makes explicit the role of the comprehension of intentions in human communication. Autistic people have been hypothesized to suffer from a specific and characteristic impairment in the ability to attribute such mental states (e.g., beliefs, intentions); a lack of "theory of mind". According to relevance theory, then, autistic people should have specific difficulties with the use of language for communication. Relevance theory allows precise predictions about the levels of communicative competence that should be possible with either no, first-order only, or second-order theory of mind ability. Three experiments are reported which tested predictions following from the analysis of figurative language in terms of relevance and theory of mind, in able autistic and normal young subjects. The results lend support to relevance theory. In addition, the findings suggest that some autistic subjects are eventually able to attribute mental states. Lastly, the results demonstrate close links between social and communicative understanding in autism and normal development.

  11. Tests of Cumulative Prospect Theory with graphical displays of probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Birnbaum

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research reported evidence that contradicts cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic. The same body of research also violates two editing principles of original prospect theory: cancellation (the principle that people delete any attribute that is the same in both alternatives before deciding between them and combination (the principle that people combine branches leading to the same consequence by adding their probabilities. This study was designed to replicate previous results and to test whether the violations of cumulative prospect theory might be eliminated or reduced by using formats for presentation of risky gambles in which cancellation and combination could be facilitated visually. Contrary to the idea that decision behavior contradicting cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic would be altered by use of these formats, however, data with two new graphical formats as well as fresh replication data continued to show the patterns of evidence that violate cumulative prospect theory, the priority heuristic, and the editing principles of combination and cancellation. Systematic violations of restricted branch independence also contradicted predictions of ``stripped'' prospect theory (subjectively weighted additive utility without the editing rules.

  12. Testing the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide in Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keith G; Heenan, Adam; Kowal, John; Henderson, Peter R; McWilliams, Lachlan A; Castillo, Dyana

    2017-08-01

    The interpersonal theory of suicide offers a conceptual framework for understanding suicidal ideation (SI) that may be applicable to individuals with chronic pain. The theory emphasizes the importance of 2 interpersonal constructs as precursors to SI: perceived burdensomeness (the belief that one has become a burden to others) and thwarted belongingness (a lack of social integration or connection). Our objective was to test the interpersonal theory of suicide in people with chronic pain. Hierarchical regression analysis was used in a cross-sectional study of 282 patients of an interdisciplinary pain clinic. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation was the criterion measure of SI, and independent variables included both general and pain-specific predictors. After adjusting for other known or putative risk factors related to pain and mental health, perceived burdensomeness significantly predicted SI, whereas thwarted belongingness did not. As expected according to theory, the interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness was also significant; perceived burdensomeness was a strong predictor of SI at high levels of thwarted belongingness, but only marginally at low levels. Other independent predictors were male sex, number of prior suicide attempts, and hopelessness. These findings are in line with some, but not all, of the major predictions of the interpersonal theory of suicide. In general, however, they support the relevance of the theory for individuals with chronic pain.

  13. Testing THEMIS wave measurements against the cold plasma theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubenschuss, Ulrich; Santolik, Ondrej; Le Contel, Olivier; Bonnell, John

    2016-04-01

    The THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) mission records a multitude of electromagnetic waves inside Earth's magnetosphere and provides data in the form of high-resolution electric and magnetic waveforms. We use multi-component measurements of whistler mode waves and test them against the theory of wave propagation in a cold plasma. The measured ratio cB/E (c is speed of light in vacuum, B is magnetic wave amplitude, E is electric wave amplitude) is compared to the same quantity calculated from cold plasma theory over linearized Faraday's law. The aim of this study is to get estimates for measurement uncertainties, especially with regard to the electric field and the cold plasma density, as well as evaluating the validity of cold plasma theory inside Earth's radiation belts.

  14. Applications of Generalizability Theory and Their Relations to Classical Test Theory and Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vispoel, Walter P; Morris, Carrie A; Kilinc, Murat

    2017-01-23

    Although widely recognized as a comprehensive framework for representing score reliability, generalizability theory (G-theory), despite its potential benefits, has been used sparingly in reporting of results for measures of individual differences. In this article, we highlight many valuable ways that G-theory can be used to quantify, evaluate, and improve psychometric properties of scores. Our illustrations encompass assessment of overall reliability, percentages of score variation accounted for by individual sources of measurement error, dependability of cut-scores for decision making, estimation of reliability and dependability for changes made to measurement procedures, disattenuation of validity coefficients for measurement error, and linkages of G-theory with classical test theory and structural equation modeling. We also identify computer packages for performing G-theory analyses, most of which can be obtained free of charge, and describe how they compare with regard to data input requirements, ease of use, complexity of designs supported, and output produced. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Towards a Theory for Testing Non-terminating Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotlieb, Arnaud; Petit, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    Non-terminating programs are programs that legally perform unbounded computations. Though they are ubiquitous in real-world applications, testing these programs requires new theoretic developments as usual definitions of test data adequacy criteria ignore infinite paths. This paper develops...... a theory of program-based structural testing based on operational semantics. Reasoning at the program semantics level permits to cope with infinite paths (and non-feasible paths) when defining test data adequacy criteria. As a result, our criteria respect the first Weyuker’s property on finite...... applicability, even for non-terminating programs. We discuss the consequences of this re-interpretation of test data adequacy criteria w.r.t. existing test coverage criteria....

  16. On the Relationship between Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory: From One to the Other and Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2016-01-01

    The frequently neglected and often misunderstood relationship between classical test theory and item response theory is discussed for the unidimensional case with binary measures and no guessing. It is pointed out that popular item response models can be directly obtained from classical test theory-based models by accounting for the discrete…

  17. PENGEMBANGAN DAN ANALISIS SOAL ULANGAN KENAIKAN KELAS KIMIA SMA KELAS X BERDASARKAN CLASSICAL TEST THEORY DAN ITEM RESPONSE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr Nahadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is title “Test Development and Analysis of First Grade Senior High School Final Examination in chemistry Based on Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory”. This research is conducted to develop a standard test instrument for final examination in senior high school at first grade using analysis based on classical test theory and item response theory. The test is a multiple choice test which consists of 75 items. Each item has five options. The research method is research and development method to get a product of test items which fulfill item criterion such as validity, reliability, item discrimination, item difficulty and distracting options quality based on classical test theory and validity, reliability, item discrimination, item difficulty and pseudo-guessing based on item response theory. The three parameter item response theory model is used in this research. Research and development method is conducted until preliminary field test to 102 first grade students in senior high school. Based on the research result, the test fulfills criterion as a good instrument based on classical test theory and item response theory. The final examination test items have vary of item quality so that some of them need a revision to make them better either for the stem and the options. From the total of 75 test items, 21 test items are declined and 54 test items are accepted.

  18. Development and validation of the conceptions of scientific theories test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotham, Joseph C.; Smith, Edward L.

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument for use with elementary and secondary teachers of science that would have the following characteristics: 1) sensitivity to alternative conceptions of particular philosophic aspects of scientific theories, and 2) applicability in inferring understanding of the tentative and revisionary conception of the nature of science. This conception, which has educational and social importance, may be a significant influence in the teaching of science as inquiry. Thus, concern with teachers' conceptions of the nature of science and their teaching served as justification for this study. The instrument, which was applied to samples of preservice elementary teachers, college philosophy of science students, and college chemistry students, consisted of items that were adapted to the contexts of particular scientific theories by prefacing them with a brief description of a theory and episodes drawn from its history. Items were written to discriminate between alternative conceptions of the following philosophic aspects of scientific theories: testing, generation, ontological implications, and choice. Evidence in support of the validity of the instrument constructs was obtained using two approaches: discrimination between contrasting groups and the multi-trait and multi-method matrix of Campbell and Fiske. Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients and standard errors of measurement were computed for the instrument and its subtests. Reliability data indicates that an adequate degree of accuracy may be attributed to instrument scores.

  19. The Role of Binary Pulsars in Testing Gravity Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possenti, Andrea; Burgay, Marta

    Radio pulsars are neutron stars (NSs) which emit collimated beams of radio waves, observed as pulses, once per rotation of the NS. A subgroup of the radio pulsars behave as highly stable clocks and monitoring the times of arrival of their radio pulses can provide an accurate determination of their positional, rotational, and orbital parameters, as well as indications on the properties of their space-time environment. In this chapter, we focus on the so-called relativistic binary pulsars, recycled NSs orbiting around a compact companion star. Some of them can be used as unique tools to test general relativity and other gravitational theories. The methodology for exploiting these sources as laboratories for gravity theories is first explained and then some of the most relevant recent results are reviewed.

  20. Intoxicated witnesses: Testing the validity of the Alcohol Myopia Theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Crossland, Deborah; Kneller, Wendy; Wilcock, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In an assessment of the Alcohol Myopia Theory, the effects of alcohol on an eyewitness’s recall of high and low salience details were investigated. In laboratory study 1, participants watched a staged videoed theft whilst either sober (control or placebo), above (MBAC=0.09%) or below (MBAC=0.06%) the UK drink-drive limit. A week later a free-recall and recognition test were completed. Intoxication was not found to reduce recall accuracy using either recall task. In Study 2, while on a night o...

  1. Testing gravity with EG: mapping theory onto observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, C. Danielle; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Heymans, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    We present a complete derivation of the observationally motivated definition of the modified gravity statistic EG. Using this expression, we investigate how variations to theory and survey parameters may introduce uncertainty in the general relativistic prediction of EG. We forecast errors on EG for measurements using two combinations of upcoming surveys, and find that theoretical uncertainties may dominate for a futuristic measurement. Finally, we compute predictions of EG under modifications to general relativity in the quasistatic regime, and comment on the pros and cons of using EG to test gravity with future surveys.

  2. Transformational leadership in nursing service. A test of theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, C; Wolf, G A

    1992-02-01

    What are the leadership dimensions that result in low turnover or work satisfaction? Intellectual stimulation, charisma, and individual consideration constitute aspects of transformational leadership that are suggested to enhance retention and staff satisfaction. In this study, the authors tested transformational leadership theory in one nursing department with an executive, 11 midlevel administrators, and 77 staff registered nurses. Findings support the predictions. Composed of teachable components, transformational factors are similar to leadership qualities described in magnet hospitals, offering positive implications for nursing administration and professional nursing practice.

  3. Testing Theories of Transfer Using Error Rate Learning Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R; Yudelson, Michael V; Pavlik, Philip I

    2016-07-01

    We analyze naturally occurring datasets from student use of educational technologies to explore a long-standing question of the scope of transfer of learning. We contrast a faculty theory of broad transfer with a component theory of more constrained transfer. To test these theories, we develop statistical models of them. These models use latent variables to represent mental functions that are changed while learning to cause a reduction in error rates for new tasks. Strong versions of these models provide a common explanation for the variance in task difficulty and transfer. Weak versions decouple difficulty and transfer explanations by describing task difficulty with parameters for each unique task. We evaluate these models in terms of both their prediction accuracy on held-out data and their power in explaining task difficulty and learning transfer. In comparisons across eight datasets, we find that the component models provide both better predictions and better explanations than the faculty models. Weak model variations tend to improve generalization across students, but hurt generalization across items and make a sacrifice to explanatory power. More generally, the approach could be used to identify malleable components of cognitive functions, such as spatial reasoning or executive functions. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Debates—Hypothesis testing in hydrology: Theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Laurent; Kirchner, James W.

    2017-03-01

    The basic structure of the scientific method—at least in its idealized form—is widely championed as a recipe for scientific progress, but the day-to-day practice may be different. Here, we explore the spectrum of current practice in hypothesis formulation and testing in hydrology, based on a random sample of recent research papers. This analysis suggests that in hydrology, as in other fields, hypothesis formulation and testing rarely correspond to the idealized model of the scientific method. Practices such as "p-hacking" or "HARKing" (Hypothesizing After the Results are Known) are major obstacles to more rigorous hypothesis testing in hydrology, along with the well-known problem of confirmation bias—the tendency to value and trust confirmations more than refutations—among both researchers and reviewers. Nonetheless, as several examples illustrate, hypothesis tests have played an essential role in spurring major advances in hydrological theory. Hypothesis testing is not the only recipe for scientific progress, however. Exploratory research, driven by innovations in measurement and observation, has also underlain many key advances. Further improvements in observation and measurement will be vital to both exploratory research and hypothesis testing, and thus to advancing the science of hydrology.

  5. Experimental test of escape theory: accessibility to implicit suicidal mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junhua; Wu, Shengjun; Miao, Danmin

    2013-08-01

    This study tested the Escape Theory prediction that individuals blaming themselves for failure experience increased accessibility to implicit suicidal mind. One hundred and thirty-eight undergraduate medical students were randomly assigned to three groups: failure-related priming, success-related priming, and control. Following experimental conditions, participants completed a death/suicide Implicit Association Test. Results revealed significant differences between groups in accessibility to implicit suicidal mind. Furthermore, priming manipulation interacted with individual differences in locus of control (LOC). Significant differences in accessibility to implicit suicidal mind were observed in individuals with internal LOC, while effects of priming manipulation were eliminated in individuals with external LOC. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  6. Test-particle motion in the nonsymmetric gravitation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, J. W.

    1987-06-01

    A derivation of the motion of test particles in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory (NGT) is given using the field equations in the presence of matter. The motion of the particle is governed by the Christoffel symbols, which are formed from the symmetric part of the fundamental tensor gμν, as well as by a tensorial piece determined by the skew part of the contracted curvature tensor Rμν. Given the energy-momentum tensor for a perfect fluid and the definition of a test particle in the NGT, the equations of motion follow from the conservation laws. The tensorial piece in the equations of motion describes a new force in nature that acts on the conserved charge in a body. Particles that carry this new charge do not follow geodesic world lines in the NGT, whereas photons do satisfy geodesic equations of motion and the equivalence principle of general relativity. Astronomical predictions, based on the exact static, spherically symmetric solution of the field equations in a vacuum and the test-particle equations of motion, are derived in detail. The maximally extended coordinates that remove the event-horizon singularities in the static, spherically symmetric solution are presented. It is shown how an inward radially falling test particle can be prevented from forming an event horizon for a value greater than a specified critical value of the source charge. If a test particle does fall through an event horizon, then it must continue to fall until it reaches the singularity at r=0.

  7. A modified Lorentz theory as a test theory of special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T.; Torr, D. G.; Gagnon, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Attention has been given recently to a modified Lorentz theory (MLT) that is based on the generalized Galilean transformation. Some explicit formulas within the framework of MLT, dealing with the one-way velocity of light, slow-clock transport, and the Doppler effect are derived. A number of typical experiments are analyzed on this basis. Results indicate that the empirical equivalence between MLT and special relativity is still maintained to second order terms. The results of previous works that predict that the MLT might be distinguished from special relativity at the third order by Doppler centrifuge tests capable of a fractional frequency detection threshold of 10 to the -15th are confirmed.

  8. Aerodynamic Theory and Tests of Strut Forms-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R H

    1930-01-01

    This report presents the second of two studies under the same title. In this part five theoretical struts are developed from distributed sources and sinks and constructed for pressure and resistance tests in a wind tunnel. The surface pressures for symmetrical inviscid flow are computed for each strut from theory and compared with those found by experiment. The theoretical and experimental pressures are found to agree quantitatively near the bow, only qualitatively over the suction range, the experimental suctions being uniformly a little low, and not at all near the stern. This study is the strut sequel to Fuhrmann's research on airship forms, the one being a study in two dimensions, the other in three. A comparison of results indicates that the agreement between theory and experiment is somewhat better for bodies of revolution than for cylinders when both are shaped for slight resistance. The consistent deficiency of the experimental suctions which is found in the case of struts was not found in the case of airships, for which the experimental suctions were sometimes above sometimes below their theoretical values.

  9. Angry drivers: a test of state-trait theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Richards, Tracy L; Filetti, Linda B; Lynch, Rebekah S

    2005-08-01

    Tested hypotheses from state-trait theory applied to anger while driving. College student drivers high in trait driving anger were compared to drivers low in trait driving anger. High anger drivers were more frequently angered in day-to-day driving (frequency hypothesis). They reported more intense anger in their most angering driving situations, when visualizing provocative driving events, and in day-to-day driving (intensity hypothesis). Driving diaries and surveys showed they engaged in more aggressive behavior and expressed their anger through more verbal, physical, and vehicular means (aggression hypothesis). They reported handling of their anger less well when visualizing provocative events and on the Adaptive/Constructive Expression scale (reduced adaptive expression hypothesis). They engaged in risky behavior (risky behavior hypothesis) and experienced more moving violations, close calls, and losses of concentration, but not more major or minor accidents (partial support for crash-related outcomes hypothesis). High anger drivers were more generally angry and impulsive and employed more negative, less controlled forms of general anger expression. Results supported state-trait theory and added to the literature showing that high anger drivers have some other psychological and behavioral characteristics that may interact negatively with anger behind the wheel.

  10. Children's memories of removal: a test of attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinder, Annika; Baugerud, Gunn Astrid; Ovenstad, Kristianne Stigsdatter; Goodman, Gail S

    2013-02-01

    We report a study of parents' attachment orientations and children's autobiographical memory for an experience that according to Bowlby's (1982) attachment theory should be particularly threatening-children's forced separation from their parents. It was hypothesized that individual differences in parents' attachment orientations would be associated with children's distress and memory for this highly traumatic event. Children (n = 28) were observed during forced removal from home or school by Child Protective Services due to allegations of child maltreatment. Children's memory for the removal was tested 1 week later, and biological parents (n = 28) completed an adult attachment measure. Parental attachment anxiety significantly predicted children's distress during less stressful phases of the removal, R(2) = .25, and parents' attachment-related avoidance predicted fewer correct memory reports from the children (i.e., fewer hits to open-ended questions, R(2) = .16, and fewer hits to direct questions, R(2) = .27). The findings indicate that attachment theory provides important guidance for understanding children's autobiographical memory for traumatic events. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  11. Testing Turing’s theory of morphogenesis in chemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Nathan; Li, Ning; Girabawe, Camille; Heymann, Michael; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Epstein, Irving R.; Fraden, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Alan Turing, in “The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis” [Turing AM (1952) Philos Trans R Soc Lond 237(641):37–72], described how, in circular arrays of identical biological cells, diffusion can interact with chemical reactions to generate up to six periodic spatiotemporal chemical structures. Turing proposed that one of these structures, a stationary pattern with a chemically determined wavelength, is responsible for differentiation. We quantitatively test Turing’s ideas in a cellular chemical system consisting of an emulsion of aqueous droplets containing the Belousov–Zhabotinsky oscillatory chemical reactants, dispersed in oil, and demonstrate that reaction-diffusion processes lead to chemical differentiation, which drives physical morphogenesis in chemical cells. We observe five of the six structures predicted by Turing. In 2D hexagonal arrays, a seventh structure emerges, incompatible with Turing’s original model, which we explain by modifying the theory to include heterogeneity. PMID:24616508

  12. Using Experimental Data To Test And Improve Susy Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, T

    2004-01-01

    There are several pieces of evidence that our world is described by a supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. In this thesis, I assume this is the case and study how to use experimental data to test and improve supersymmetric standard models. Several experimental signatures and their implications are covered in this thesis: the result of the branching ratio of b → sγ is used to put constraints on SUSY models; the measured time-dependent CP asymmetry in the B → &phis;KS process is used to test unification scale models; the excess of positrons from cosmic rays helps us to test the property of the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle and the Cold Dark Matter production mechanisms; the LEP higgs search results are used to classify SUSY models; SUSY signatures at the Tevatron are used to distinguish different unification scale models; by considering the μ problem, SUSY theories are improved. Due to the large unknown parameter space, all of the above inputs should be used ...

  13. Performances on Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Color Trails Test, and modified Stroop test in a healthy, elderly Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    for different age groups. For SDMT and CTT1, Danish Adult Reading Test (DART) score also had a significant impact on test performances. The incongruent version of the modified Stroop test was significantly correlated to education. Moderate and significant correlations were found between the three tests. Even...

  14. Using Prosopagnosia to Test and Modify Visual Recognition Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander M

    2018-02-01

    Biederman's contemporary theory of basic visual object recognition (Recognition-by-Components) is based on structural descriptions of objects and presumes 36 visual primitives (geons) people can discriminate, but there has been no empirical test of the actual use of these 36 geons to visually distinguish objects. In this study, we tested for the actual use of these geons in basic visual discrimination by comparing object discrimination performance patterns (when distinguishing varied stimuli) of an acquired prosopagnosia patient (LB) and healthy control participants. LB's prosopagnosia left her heavily reliant on structural descriptions or categorical object differences in visual discrimination tasks versus the control participants' additional ability to use face recognition or coordinate systems (Coordinate Relations Hypothesis). Thus, when LB performed comparably to control participants with a given stimulus, her restricted reliance on basic or categorical discriminations meant that the stimuli must be distinguishable on the basis of a geon feature. By varying stimuli in eight separate experiments and presenting all 36 geons, we discerned that LB coded only 12 (vs. 36) distinct visual primitives (geons), apparently reflective of human visual systems generally.

  15. The cross-national pattern of happiness. Test of predictions implied in three theories of happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); J.J. Ehrhardt (Joop)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT. Predictions about level and dispersion of happiness in nations are derived from three theories of happiness: comparison-theory, folklore-theory and livability-theory. The predictions are tested on two cross national data-sets: a comparative survey among university students in

  16. Chlamydia testing and treatment in community pharmacies: findings and lessons learned from setting out to evaluate an unexpectedly short lived service in Lothian, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia

    2013-01-01

    Genital chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection. In August 2008, the Scottish government directed its health boards to involve community pharmacies in providing chlamydia testing and treatment for young people. Lothian Health Board envisaged a pharmacy-based chlamydia testing and treatment (CT&T) service to be able to reach deprived population. This research project set out to evaluate the implementation of the CT&T in Lothian, Scotland. Howev...

  17. Experimentally Testing the Mulitverse/Many-Worlds Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Many-Worlds quantum mechanics is NOT experimentally equivalent to standard quantum mechanics. I shall demonstrate this fact and investigate its consequences. I first show the Schrödinger equation is a special case of the classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation, with |Ψ|2 being most naturally interpreted as a quantity proportional to the density of universes in the multiverse. I then show that with this interpretation for |Ψ|2, we can test the multiverse theory, because in the multiverse theory, the Born Interpretation is derived from this assumption, not merely assumed as in standard quantum theory, and the derivation gives us a means of computing how fast |Ψ|2 will build up from individual particles in an experiment, a computation I shall show cannot be done in standard quantum mechanics. In some types of experiments, the observed pattern will approach the final Born pattern as 1/N1/2, and in other types of experiments, the approach will be as 1/N, where N is the number of observed “particles.” The multiverse meaning of has other advantages over the standard probability amplitude meaning, because if is a universe density amplitude, need not be restricted to being a Hilbert space function. In particular, delta functions and plane waves are NOT functions in any Hilbert space, but they are both used extensively in quantum mechanics, though disallowed by the axioms of standard quantum mechanics. Finally, I shall show that multiverse experiments have important implications for cosmology. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation for quantum gravity, applied to a spatially closed Friedman radiation universe in conformal time, is mathematically the Schrödinger equation for a simple harmonic oscillator. I show that if the wave function of the universe were a delta function at the initial singularity — I show that the universes being exactly classical now implies such a universal wave function — then we are overwhelmingly likely to find ourselves in a closed universe that is

  18. Evaluation of standardized endodontic paper point tear test in New Zealand white rabbits and comparison between corneal sensitivity followed tear tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leandro; Lange, Rogério Ribas; Turner-Giannico, Amália; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate endodontic paper point tear test (PPTT) in rabbits and compare changes in corneal touch threshold (CTT) induced by Schirmer tear test (STT) and PPTT. Normal corneal sensitivity recovery time after both tear tests was also measured. Also, mean PPTT and STT values were obtained. Tear production of 20 eyes, from 10 rabbits, was evaluated using STT and the PPTT. Central corneal touch threshold was measured by a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer before any tear test was performed (zero time), immediately after the test (1 min), and consecutively at 6, 11, 16, and 26 min. Tests were conducted on three consecutive days: Day 1 - control condition, no tear tests performed only the CTT; Day 2 - CTT before and after PPTT; and Day 3 - CTT before and after STT. CTT values were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Corneal touch threshold was significantly increased for at least 16 min after STT, indicating STT causes corneal discomfort. No difference was found between CTT following PPTT and controls, indicating PPTT caused minimal corneal discomfort. The mean (±SD) value for STT was 5.2 ± 1.0 mm/min and for PPTT was 13.8 ± 1.5 mm/min. The aqueous fraction of rabbit's tears can be successfully measured by PPTT. This report established reference values for PPTT in rabbits. Additionally, the absence of a significant difference in CTT after PPTT compared with controls shows that PPTT is well tolerated by rabbits. Considering the improved comfort (compared with STT), accuracy, and low cost, PPTT is a bona fide method of measuring aqueous tear production in rabbits. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Testing f(R-Theories by Binary Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariafelicia De Laurentis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the Post-Keplerian parameters to obtain, in the Minkowskian limit we obtain constraints on f(R-theories of gravity from the first time derivative of the orbital period of a sample of binary stars. In the approximation in which the theory is Taylor expandable, we can estimate the parameters of an an analytic f(R-theory, and fullling the gap between the General Relativity prediction and the one cames from observation, we show that the theory is not ruled out.

  20. Testing the cultural theory of risk in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nuclaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Marris, C. [Economie-Humanisme, Lyon (France)

    1998-12-01

    Cultural Theory, as developed by Mary Douglas, argues that differing risk perceptions can be explained by reference to four distinct cultural biases: hierarchy, egalitarianism, individualism, and fatalism. This paper presents empirical results from a quantitative survey based on a questionnaire devised by Karl Dake to measure these cultural biases. A large representative sample was used to test this instrument in the French social context. Correlations between cultural biases and perceptions of 20 social and environmental risks were examined. These correlations were very weak, but were statistically significant: cultural biases explained 6%, at most, of the variance in risk perceptions. Standard socio-demographic variables were also weakly related to risk perceptions (especially gender, social class, and education), and cultural biases and socio-demographic variables were themselves intercorrelated (especially with age, social class, and political outlook). The authors compare these results with surveys conducted in other countries using the same instrument and conclude that new methods, more qualitative and contextual, still need to be developed to investigate the cultural dimensions of risk perceptions. The paper also discusses relationships between perceptions of personal and residual risk, and between perceived risk and demand for additional safety measures. These three dimensions were generally closely related, but interesting differences were observed for some risk issues. Included in the list of risk perceptions were pollution, hazardous materials, and radioactive wastes.

  1. Rigorously testing multialternative decision field theory against random utility models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitsch, Nicolas A J; Scheibehenne, Benjamin; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive models of decision making aim to explain the process underlying observed choices. Here, we test a sequential sampling model of decision making, multialternative decision field theory (MDFT; Roe, Busemeyer, & Townsend, 2001), on empirical grounds and compare it against 2 established random utility models of choice: the probit and the logit model. Using a within-subject experimental design, participants in 2 studies repeatedly choose among sets of options (consumer products) described on several attributes. The results of Study 1 showed that all models predicted participants' choices equally well. In Study 2, in which the choice sets were explicitly designed to distinguish the models, MDFT had an advantage in predicting the observed choices. Study 2 further revealed the occurrence of multiple context effects within single participants, indicating an interdependent evaluation of choice options and correlations between different context effects. In sum, the results indicate that sequential sampling models can provide relevant insights into the cognitive process underlying preferential choices and thus can lead to better choice predictions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Testing neoclassical competitive market theory in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, John A

    2002-11-26

    This study presents results from a pilot field experiment that tests predictions of competitive market theory. A major advantage of this particular field experimental design is that my laboratory is the marketplace: subjects are engaged in buying, selling, and trading activities whether I run an exchange experiment or am a passive observer. In this sense, I am gathering data in a natural environment while still maintaining the necessary control to execute a clean comparison between treatments. The main results of the study fall into two categories. First, the competitive model predicts reasonably well in some market treatments: the expected price and quantity levels are approximated in many market rounds. Second, the data suggest that market composition is important: buyer and seller experience levels impact not only the distribution of rents but also the overall level of rents captured. An unexpected result in this regard is that average market efficiency is lowest in markets that match experienced buyers and experienced sellers and highest when experienced buyers engage in bargaining with inexperienced sellers. Together, these results suggest that both market experience and market composition play an important role in the equilibrium discovery process.

  3. Testing neoclassical competitive market theory in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, John A.

    2002-01-01

    This study presents results from a pilot field experiment that tests predictions of competitive market theory. A major advantage of this particular field experimental design is that my laboratory is the marketplace: subjects are engaged in buying, selling, and trading activities whether I run an exchange experiment or am a passive observer. In this sense, I am gathering data in a natural environment while still maintaining the necessary control to execute a clean comparison between treatments. The main results of the study fall into two categories. First, the competitive model predicts reasonably well in some market treatments: the expected price and quantity levels are approximated in many market rounds. Second, the data suggest that market composition is important: buyer and seller experience levels impact not only the distribution of rents but also the overall level of rents captured. An unexpected result in this regard is that average market efficiency is lowest in markets that match experienced buyers and experienced sellers and highest when experienced buyers engage in bargaining with inexperienced sellers. Together, these results suggest that both market experience and market composition play an important role in the equilibrium discovery process. PMID:12432103

  4. A test of stress theory: relief workers in refugee camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hussein H; Gillespie, David F

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply a stress model drawn from the literature to the relief and social service workers who have been active in refugee camps for a prolonged period of time. Working in difficult environments, social service workers deliver essential services to refugee populations around the world. A model of four work-stress determinants--tasks, management, appreciation and collaboration--was tested on 274 social workers in five regions of the Middle East (Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, as well as the occupied Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank). Statistical fit indices were adequate but two relationships were statistically insignificant. The collaboration variable was dropped to create a modified model with tasks indirectly and management and appreciation directly affecting work-related stress. The five direct relationships and two indirect relationships of this modified model are consistent with stress theory, and all relationships--direct and indirect--are statistically significant. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  5. Predicted Outcome Value and Uncertainty Reduction Theories: A Test of Competing Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnafrank, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Tests several contrasting predictions from uncertainty reduction theory and predicted outcome value theory. Finds strong support for the predicted outcome value perspective and its claim that uncertainty reduction processes are subservient to outcome maximization goals in initial interactions. (SR)

  6. Integrated Moral Conviction Theory of Student Cheating: An Empirical Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Foster; Thomas, Christopher H.; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Ammeter, Anthony; Garner, Bart; Johnson, Paul; Popoola, Ifeoluwa

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we develop an "integrated moral conviction theory of student cheating" by integrating moral conviction with (a) the dual-process model of Hunt-Vitell's theory that gives primacy to individual ethical philosophies when moral judgments are made and (b) the social cognitive conceptualization that gives primacy to moral…

  7. Testing Neoclassical Competitive Theory in Multilateral Decentralized Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Walrasian tatonnement has been a fundamental assumption in economics ever since Walras' general equilibrium theory was introduced in 1874. Nearly a century after its introduction, Vernon Smith relaxed the Walrasian tatonnement assumption by showing that neoclassical competitive market theory explains the equilibrating forces in "double-auction"…

  8. Testing the Link Between Empathy and Lay Theories of Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullett, Alexa M; Plaks, Jason E

    2016-09-20

    Happiness is a topic that ignites both considerable interest and considerable disagreement. Thus far, however, there has been little attempt to characterize people's lay theories about happiness or explore their consequences. We examined whether individual differences in lay theories of happiness would predict empathy. In Studies 1a and 1b, we validated the Lay Theories of Happiness Scale (LTHS), which includes three dimensions: flexibility, controllability, and locus. In Study 2, higher dispositional empathy was predicted by the belief that happiness is flexible, controllable, and internal. In Studies 3 and 4, higher empathy toward a specific target was predicted by the belief that happiness is flexible, uncontrollable, and external In conjunction, Studies 2, 3, and 4 provide evidence that trait and state empathy are separable and can have opposing relationships with people's lay theories. Overall, these findings highlight generalized beliefs that may guide empathic reactions to the unhappiness of others. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Problems with Contingency Theory: Testing Assumptions Hidden within the Language of Contingency "Theory".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonhoven, Clausia Bird

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems in contingency theory, which relates organizational structure to the tasks performed and the information needed. Analysis of data from 17 hospitals suggests that traditional contingency theory underrepresents the complexity of relations among technological uncertainty, structure, and organizational effectiveness. (Author/RW)

  10. Money Buys Financial Security and Psychological Need Satisfaction: Testing Need Theory in Affluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ryan T.; Kurai, Mark; Tam, Leona

    2013-01-01

    The most prominent theory to explain the curvilinear relationship between income and subjective well-being (SWB) is need theory, which proposes that increased income and wealth can lead to increased well-being in poverty because money is used to satisfy basic physiological needs. The present study tests the tenets of need theory by proposing that…

  11. Help-Seeking Decisions of Battered Women: A Test of Learned Helplessness and Two Stress Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauchope, Barbara A.

    This study tested the learned helplessness theory, stress theory, and a modified stress theory to determine the best model for predicting the probability that a woman would seek help when she experienced severe violence from a male partner. The probability was hypothesized to increase as the stress of the violence experienced increased. Data were…

  12. How to test gravitation theories by means of gravitational-wave measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, K. S.

    1974-01-01

    Gravitational-wave experiments are a potentially powerful tool for testing gravitation theories. Most theories in the literature predict rather different polarization properties for gravitational waves than are predicted by general relativity; and many theories predict anomalies in the propagation speeds of gravitational waves.

  13. A Test for Theoretical Integration: Systems Theory Framework and Dialogical Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlveen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Theory Framework (STF) is presented as an integrating and organising concept for the predominant theories of career. In order to test the integrative capacity of the STF, this research merges the STF's theoretical element of story with the Theory of Dialogical Self's model of personality. Implications for the practice of career…

  14. Testing Error Management Theory: Exploring the Commitment Skepticism Bias and the Sexual Overperception Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, David Dryden; Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller

    2010-01-01

    Research on error management theory indicates that men tend to overestimate women's sexual interest and women underestimate men's interest in committed relationships (Haselton & Buss, 2000). We test the assumptions of the theory in face-to-face, stranger interactions with 111 man-woman dyads. Support for the theory emerges, but potential boundary…

  15. Sex ratios under asymmetrical local mate competition : Theory and a test with parasitoid wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shuker, D.M.; Pen, I.R.; Duncan, A.B.; Reece, S.E.; West, S.A.

    Sex ratio theory allows unparalleled opportunities for testing how well animal behavior can be predicted by evolutionary theory. For example, Hamilton's theory of local mate competition (LMC) is well understood and can explain variation in sex allocation across numerous species. This allows more

  16. Maximizing measurement efficiency of behavior rating scales using Item Response Theory: An example with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2016-04-01

    Measurement efficiency is an important consideration when developing behavior rating scales for use in research and practice. Although most published scales have been developed within a Classical Test Theory (CTT) framework, Item Response Theory (IRT) offers several advantages for developing scales that maximize measurement efficiency. The current study provides an example of using IRT to maximize rating scale efficiency with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale (SSIS - TRS), a measure of student social skills frequently used in practice and research. Based on IRT analyses, 27 items from the Social Skills subscales and 14 items from the Problem Behavior subscales of the SSIS - TRS were identified as maximally efficient. In addition to maintaining similar content coverage to the published version, these sets of maximally efficient items demonstrated similar psychometric properties to the published SSIS - TRS. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tests of sex allocation theory in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schärer, Lukas

    2009-06-01

    Sex allocation is a crucial life-history parameter in all sexual organisms. Over the last decades a body of evolutionary theory, sex allocation theory, was developed, which has yielded capital insight into the evolution of optimal sex allocation patterns and adaptive evolution in general. Most empirical work, however, has focused on species with separate sexes. Here I review sex allocation theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites and summarize over 50 empirical studies, which have aimed at evaluating this theory in a diversity of simultaneous hermaphrodites spanning nine animal phyla. These studies have yielded considerable qualitative support for several predictions of sex allocation theory, such as a female-biased sex allocation when the number of mates is limited, and a shift toward a more male-biased sex allocation with increasing numbers of mates. In contrast, many fundamental assumptions, such as the trade-off between male and female allocation, and numerous predictions, such as brooding limiting the returns from female allocation, are still poorly supported. Measuring sex allocation in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals remains experimentally demanding, which renders evaluation of more quantitative predictions a challenging task. I identify the main questions that need to be addressed and point to promising avenues for future research.

  18. A Cross-Cultural Test of Implicit Leadership Theory

    OpenAIRE

    McKie, David S.

    2003-01-01

    This research builds on Implicit Leadership Theory, which suggests that a leader’s performance is likely to be higher when there is congruence between a follower’s prototype of what a leader should be and his or her perception of the leader’s behaviour. The essence of effective leadership, according to this theory, is being seen as a leader by others. Data were collected from 196 leaders and 1,738 followers from 23 countries within Cargill Incorporated, a US food and agricul...

  19. A Field Test of Festinger's Substitute Locomotion Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lea P.; Gudykunst, William B.

    1986-01-01

    Provides evidence for rejecting Festinger's Substitute Locomotion Theory of organizational communication. Demonstrates a clear difference between formal and informal channels of upward communication. Indicates that high mobility individuals communicate significantly more with their supervisors than low mobility individuals and that males…

  20. Testing static tradeoff theory against pecking order models of capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By using ordinary least square multiple regression methods, we aim at establishing which of the two theories has the best explanatory power for Nigerian firms. The analysis of the outcomes led to the conclusion that both of them appears to be a good description of the financing policies of those firms for the period under ...

  1. Reliability of Test Scores in Nonparametric Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Klaas; Molenaar, Ivo W.

    1987-01-01

    Three methods for estimating reliability are studied within the context of nonparametric item response theory. Two were proposed originally by Mokken and a third is developed in this paper. Using a Monte Carlo strategy, these three estimation methods are compared with four "classical" lower bounds to reliability. (Author/JAZ)

  2. ON THE TEST ABILITY OF THEORIES OF LANGUAGE EVOLUTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Theories of the evolution of human language express by their very nature claims of a historical sort: claims about why, when, where or how language emerged and/or developed in some distant past. I. An essential feature of these claims is that they are made in the absence of sufficient historical evidence about ...

  3. Tests of the Arbitrage Pricing Theory using Macroeconomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT), using four macroeconomic variables; namely, exchange rate, an index of industrial production, nominal money supply and price of oil within the context of the Nigerian stock market. Two methods were used in the analysis along with descriptive statistics. First, factor ...

  4. Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands : Testing integrated threat theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco González, Karina; Verkuyten, Maykel; Weesie, Jeroen; Poppe, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    This study uses integrated threat theory to examine Dutch adolescents’ (N ¼ 1; 187) prejudice towards Muslim minorities. One out of two participants was found to have negative feelings towards Muslims. Perceived symbolic and realistic threat and negative stereotypes were examined as mediators

  5. Test of arbitrage pricing theory using macroeconomic variables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    The paper examines Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT), using four macroeconomic variables; namely, exchange rate, an index of industrial production, nominal money supply and price of oil within the context of the Nigerian stock market. Two methods were used in the analysis along with descriptive statistics. First, factor.

  6. An Empirical Test of Erikson's Theory of Ego Identity Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, James E.; Levine, Charles G.

    1989-01-01

    This study explores interrelationships among the following components of Erik Erikson's theory of ego identity formation: (1) the identity crisis; (2) the institutionalized moratoria; (3) the ego-superego struggle for dominance of the personality; and (4) the value orientation stages. Humanistically oriented adolescents are more likely to have a…

  7. Measurement Theory in Language Testing: Past Traditions and Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    A good test is one that has at least three qualities: reliability, or the precision with which a test measures what it is supposed to measure; validity, i.e., if the test really measures what it is supposed to measure, and practicality, or if the test, no matter how sound theoretically, is practicable in reality. These are the sine qua non for any…

  8. Testing the renormalisation group theory of cooperative transitions at the lambda point of helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, J. A.; Li, Q.; Chui, T. C. P.; Marek, D.

    1988-01-01

    The status of high resolution tests of the renormalization group theory of cooperative phase transitions performed near the lambda point of helium is described. The prospects for performing improved tests in space are discussed.

  9. Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) Applications and Item Response Theory Models for Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybek, Eren Can; Demirtasli, R. Nukhet

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to provide a theoretical framework for computerized adaptive tests (CAT) and item response theory models for polytomous items. Besides that, it aims to introduce the simulation and live CAT software to the related researchers. Computerized adaptive test algorithm, assumptions of item response theory models, nominal response…

  10. Causes of School Bullying: Empirical Test of a General Theory of Crime, Differential Association Theory, and General Strain Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; Hwang, Hye-Won; McCluskey, John D.

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of studies indicate the ubiquity of school bullying: It is a global concern, regardless of cultural differences. Little previous research has examined whether leading criminological theories can explain bullying, despite the commonality between bullying and delinquency. The current investigation uses longitudinal data on 655…

  11. Testing the O-ring theory for FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Engemann, Martina; Lindemann, Henrike

    2013-01-01

    Modern production processes often involve several sequential stages which are performed in many different countries. This pattern of vertical specialization does not only affect trade between countries but it is also of importance for foreign direct investment (FDI). In this paper, we therefore adopt the idea of Kremer (1993) and Costinot et al. (2011) of a sequential production process which is subject to mistakes to the theory of FDI. Using firm-level panel data on German outward FDI, we sh...

  12. An empirical test of combined theory of juvenile delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkani Z

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile delinquency is a social problem disturbing families, social institutions and government agencies. Delinquent juveniles lose valuable opportunities concerning their education and occupation. This paper, has undertaken a field research on the causes of delinquency among juveniles arrested in the greater Tehran. The theoretical framework was established by combining the social control theory of Hirschi and the differential association theory of Sutherland and Cressy. The resultant theory made it possible to take account of both internal and external forces leading to delinquency. From 140 boys and 15 girls of under 18 arrested in 1992 in the greater Tehran, ninety boys and all girls were randomly chosen for interview. Four variables showing delinqueint acts and 81 independent variables concerning their personal characteristics, living environment and migrations, family support, beliefs and practices, association with criminals and pass-time activities and hobbies were measured. A factor analysis were applied to reduce the size of data matrix. Thus, one factor was found as a response variable representing the intensity of youth's delinquency. The independent variables were reduced to 28 factors. A multiple regression analysis showed that only 3 factors were enough to explain the intensity of delinquency. Those factors are the "attachment", "beliefs and attitudes" and "association with criminals"

  13. Halbwachs and Durkheim: a test of two theories of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, R

    1990-06-01

    The social integration hypothesis forms the basis of this study. It was first asserted by Durkheim in late nineteenth-century France and many of his assumptions are based on a social disorganizational model. This model tended to equate social change with the breakdown of social control and many of Durkheim's notions about anomie are derived from this view of industrial society. Halbwachs, on the other hand, proposed a social psychological theory of suicide. His model specifies more clearly the conditions under which lack of social integration may induce suicide. This study shows that among a population in transition, the Alaska Natives, the suicide rate was explained by the Halbwachsian model at least as well as the Durkheimian one and sometimes better. The Durkheimian model is shown to reflect a Cartesian dualism, which accounts only for that which is observable, thus making for biased studies of suicide. Moreover, psychopathological research confirms the Halbwachsian model. These findings restore the social isolation theory, once long neglected, to its rightful place among theories of suicide and opens up an important field for researchers seeking to understand high rates of suicide.

  14. Intelligent Testing: Integrating Psychological Theory and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, James C., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The field of intelligence testing has been revolutionized by Alan S. Kaufman. He developed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) with David Wechsler, and his best-selling book, Intelligent Testing with the WISC-R, introduced the phrase "intelligent testing." Kaufman, with his wife, Nadeen, then created his own…

  15. Conceptualizing Essay Tests' Reliability and Validity: From Research to Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjadi, Nour El Imane

    2013-01-01

    The current paper on writing assessment surveys the literature on the reliability and validity of essay tests. The paper aims to examine the two concepts in relationship with essay testing as well as to provide a snapshot of the current understandings of the reliability and validity of essay tests as drawn in recent research studies. Bearing in…

  16. Theory and Practice of Cavity RF Test Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Powers

    2006-08-28

    Over the years Jefferson Lab staff members have performed about 2500 cold cavity tests on about 500 different superconducting cavities. Most of these cavities were later installed in 73 different cryomodules, which were used in three different accelerators. All of the cavities were tested in our vertical test area. About 25% of the cryomodules were tested in our cryomodule test facility and later commissioned in an accelerator. The remainder of the cryomodules were tested and commissioned after they were installed in their respective accelerator. This paper is an overview which should provide a practical background in the RF systems used to test the cavities as well as provide the mathematics necessary to convert the raw pulsed or continuous wave RF signals into useful information such as gradient, quality factor, RF-heat loads and loaded Q?s. Additionally, I will provide the equations necessary for determining the measurement error associated with these values.

  17. An empirical test of reference price theories using a semiparametric approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz

      In this paper we estimate and empirically test different behavioral theories of consumer reference price formation. Two major theories are proposed to model the reference price reaction: assimilation contrast theory and prospect theory. We assume that different consumer segments will use...... different reference prices. The study builds on earlier research by Kalyanaram and Little (1994); however, in contrast to their work, we use parametric and semiparametric approaches to detect the structure of the underlying data sets. The different models are tested using a program module in GAUSS...

  18. Integrating mediation and moderation to advance theory development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Armstrong, Bridget; Janicke, David M; Darling, Katherine E

    2014-03-01

    The concepts and associated analyses of mediation and moderation are important to the field of psychology. Although pediatric psychologists frequently incorporate mediation and moderation in their theories and empirical research, on few occasions have we integrated mediation and moderation. In this article, conceptual reasons for integrating mediation and moderation are offered. We illustrate a model that integrates mediation and moderation. In our illustration, the strength of an indirect or a mediating effect varied as a function of a moderating variable. Clinical implications of the integration of mediation and moderation are discussed, as is the potential of integrated models to advance research programs in pediatric psychology.

  19. An online study combining the constructs from the theory of planned behaviour and protection motivation theory in predicting intention to test for chlamydia in two testing contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rachael; Pattison, Helen M; Francis, Jill J

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection that has potentially serious consequences unless detected and treated early. The health service in the UK offers clinic-based testing for chlamydia but uptake is low. Identifying the predictors of testing behaviours may inform interventions to increase uptake. Self-tests for chlamydia may facilitate testing and treatment in people who avoid clinic-based testing. Self-testing and being tested by a health care professional (HCP) involve two contrasting contexts that may influence testing behaviour. However, little is known about how predictors of behaviour differ as a function of context. In this study, theoretical models of behaviour were used to assess factors that may predict intention to test in two different contexts: self-testing and being tested by a HCP. Individuals searching for or reading about chlamydia testing online were recruited using Google Adwords. Participants completed an online questionnaire that addressed previous testing behaviour and measured constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Protection Motivation Theory, which propose a total of eight possible predictors of intention. The questionnaire was completed by 310 participants. Sufficient data for multiple regression were provided by 102 and 118 respondents for self-testing and testing by a HCP respectively. Intention to self-test was predicted by vulnerability and self-efficacy, with a trend-level effect for response efficacy. Intention to be tested by a HCP was predicted by vulnerability, attitude and subjective norm. Thus, intentions to carry out two testing behaviours with very similar goals can have different predictors depending on test context. We conclude that interventions to increase self-testing should be based on evidence specifically related to test context.

  20. Alternative Tests of Quarkonium Production Theory Using Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Yiannis

    In this thesis I discuss an alternative approach for investigating quarkonium production in hadron colliders. I present a complete framework for developing observables for studies of charmonium states produced within a jet. My work is based on the use of effective field theories of quantum chromodynamics that allow for the approximate factorization of jet cross sections in perturbative calculable terms and universal non-perturbative functions that are extracted from data. Particularly in this thesis I explore the factorization approach of non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics and soft-collinear effective theory. The fragmenting jet functions play central role in factorization theorems for cross sections for identified hadrons within jets. This cross sections can depend on the hadron-jet energy ratio and possibly on other jet observables. I expand this concept to jet-shape observables known as angularities and introduce the transverse momentum dependent fragmenting jet functions. Applications of these advanced methods to J/upsilon production from gluon fragmentation in electron-positron annihilation are presented and I develop the tools for expanding this work in hadron colliders. Additionally, I compare predictions for J/upsilon production in jets, based on the framework of fragmenting jet functions, against recent experimental data from the LHCb collaboration.

  1. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Therefore, penetration testing has thus far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management,

  2. Quantitative Penetration Testing with Item Response Theory (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, F.; Pieters, W.; Stoelinga, M.I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  3. Dynamics of test bodies in scalar-tensor theory and equivalence principle

    CERN Document Server

    Obukhov, Yuri N

    2016-01-01

    How do test bodies move in scalar-tensor theories of gravitation? We provide an answer to this question on the basis of a unified multipolar scheme. In particular, we give the explicit equations of motion for pointlike, as well as spinning test bodies, thus extending the well-known general relativistic results of Mathisson, Papapetrou, and Dixon to scalar-tensor theories of gravity. We demonstrate the validity of the equivalence principle for test bodies.

  4. Validation of a measure of knowledge about human papillomavirus (HPV) using item response theory and classical test theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jo; Ostini, Remo; Marlow, Laura A V; McCaffery, Kirsten; Zimet, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Public understanding of HPV is important to ensure informed participation in cervical cancer prevention programmes. While many studies have measured HPV knowledge, none has developed a validated measure for use across countries. We aimed to develop and validate such a measure. Items tapping knowledge of HPV, HPV testing and HPV vaccination were developed from previous literature and with expert consultation. The 29-item measure was administered via the internet to 2409 adults in the UK, US and Australia in 2011. Classical test theory and item response theory were used to establish the measure's psychometric properties. Total scale reliability was very good (α = 0.838), as was internal consistency for a 16-item general HPV knowledge subset (α = 0.849). Subsets of HPV testing and vaccination items showed reasonable test-retest reliability (r(test-retest) = 0.62 and 0.69) but moderate internal consistency (α = 0.52 and 0.56). Dimensionality analyses suggested that one item was not measuring the same construct as the remainder of the questionnaire. A 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model was fitted to the remaining 28 scale items. A structurally coherent set of items covering a range of important HPV knowledge was developed. Responses indicated a reliable questionnaire, which allowed the fitting of an IRT model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Backbones of evolutionary history test biodiversity theory for microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, James P; Kembel, Steven W; Sharpton, Thomas J

    2015-07-07

    Identifying the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that determine biological diversity is a central question in ecology. In microbial ecology, phylogenetic diversity is an increasingly common and relevant means of quantifying community diversity, particularly given the challenges in defining unambiguous species units from environmental sequence data. We explore patterns of phylogenetic diversity across multiple bacterial communities drawn from different habitats and compare these data to evolutionary trees generated using theoretical models of biodiversity. We have two central findings. First, although on finer scales the empirical trees are highly idiosyncratic, on coarse scales the backbone of these trees is simple and robust, consistent across habitats, and displays bursts of diversification dotted throughout. Second, we find that these data demonstrate a clear departure from the predictions of standard neutral theories of biodiversity and that an alternative family of generalized models provides a qualitatively better description. Together, these results lay the groundwork for a theoretical framework to connect ecological mechanisms to observed phylogenetic patterns in microbial communities.

  6. The effect of test specifications review on improving the quality of a test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Zandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reviewing the test specifications to improve the quality of language tests may be a routine process in professional testing systems. However, there is a paucity of research about the effect of specifications review on improving the quality of small-scale tests. The purpose of the present study was twofold: how specifications review could help improve the validity of a test in the context of assessment for learning (AFL and to what extent qualitative review of items can identify poor ones. To this end, a group of trained test specifications reviewers (No = 7 provided feedback on the specifications of a test and the quality of the items. Analysis of feedback showed that pedagogical concerns naturally emerged during the specifications review and led to concrete suggestions on how the specifications could be revised so that the resulting test could become more useful in a classroom context. Moreover, the test items were administered to a group of (No = 40 test-takers and a set of quantitative item analyses was carried out. Comparison of the results of qualitative judgment of reviewers with the quantitative analyses showed about 38 % of the items suggested for revision by the reviewers were also identified as poor by the classical test theory (CTT analysis. The findings highlight the potential of specifications review as part of the a priori validation of tests in small-scale assessments where conducting statistical analysis is not usually feasible.

  7. Testing Moral Foundation Theory: Are Specific Moral Emotions Elicited by Specific Moral Transgressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Helen; Hess, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    Moral foundation theory posits that specific moral transgressions elicit specific moral emotions. To test this claim, participants (N = 195) were asked to rate their emotions in response to moral violation vignettes. We found that compassion and disgust were associated with care and purity respectively as predicted by moral foundation theory.…

  8. Affective Dynamics of Leadership: An Experimental Test of Affect Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Tobias; Scholl, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Affect Control Theory (ACT; Heise 1979, 2007) states that people control social interactions by striving to maintain culturally shared feelings about the situation. The theory is based on mathematical models of language-based impression formation. In a laboratory experiment, we tested the predictive power of a new German-language ACT model with…

  9. A Test and Reformulation of Reference Group and Role Correlates of Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Roger W.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Propositions concerned with reference group and role correlates of Ira Reiss' premarital sexual permissiveness theory were tested. Reiss' basic propositions are only partially supported. Closeness to mother's sexual standards is considerably more predictive of self-permissiveness than was obvious in Reiss' theory. Closeness to friends' and peers'…

  10. Experimental Aeroelastic Models Design and Wind Tunnel Testing for Correlation with New Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of experimental model designs, wind tunnel tests and correlation with new theory are presented in this paper. The goal is not only to evaluate a new theory, new computational method or new aeroelastic phonomenon, but also to provide new insights into nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena, flutter, limit cycle oscillation (LCO and gust response.

  11. Self-Control, Social Factors, and Delinquency: A Test of the General Theory of Crime among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W. T.; Cheung, Yuet W.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the predictive power of self-control theory for delinquency in a Chinese context, and to explore if social factors as predicted in social bonding theory, differential association theory, general strain theory, and labeling theory have effects on delinquency in the presence of self-control. Self-report data…

  12. Learning the Game of Formulating and Testing Hypotheses and Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, David P.; Masters, Mark F.

    2010-01-01

    Physics is not immune to questioning by supporters of nonscientific propositions such as "intelligent design" and "creationism." The supporters of these propositions use phrases such as "it's just a theory" to influence those unfamiliar with or even fearful of science, making it increasingly important that all students and in particular science students (since it is often assumed that science students have an innate understanding of science in contradiction to all evidence) learn about the nature of science. Indeed, for at least a century one of the major objectives of science instruction has been to help students develop a sense of the nature of scientific investigation.2-5 In physics, the laboratory experiences are often used as a method to teach the nature of the scientific endeavor. Unfortunately, all too often these experiences are simply directed demonstrations that do no more than teach students to follow directions. In this situation, the scientific processes involved are simply ignored, even among science majors, and this omission is exacerbated when dealing with non-science majors in general education science courses, where the students may have a fear or dislike of science.

  13. Testing Turing's Theory of Morphogenesis in Chemical Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Nathan; Li, Ning; Girabawe, Camille; Heymann, Michael; Ermentrout, G. Bard; Epstein, Irving; Fraden, Seth

    2015-03-01

    Alan Turing's 1952 paper ``The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis'' described how reaction-diffusion dynamics could create six spatiotemporal patterns including a stationary pattern that could lead to physical morphogenesis (which now bears his name). This stationary ``Turing pattern'' has been observed in continuous media of various chemical systems but never in diffusively coupled discrete reactors as Turing theorized. We have created a system of microfluidically produced chemical compartments containing the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction that are designed to fulfill the assumptions of Turing's theoretical system. This system demonstrates all six spatiotemporal patterns that Turing predicted. In particular, we observe the stationary case that bears Turing's name where the cells create a pattern of oxidized and reduced states. As Turing predicted, this chemical heterogeneity gives rise to physical heterogeneity by driving an osmotic flow, swelling the reduced cells and shrinking the oxidized cells. In addition to the six patterns and physical morphogenesis predicted by Turing we observe a seventh pattern of mixed stationary/oscillatory states that is not predicted by Turing. This seventh pattern requires modifying Turing's theory to include slight heterogeneity to match experiments.

  14. How Experts Practice: A Novel Test of Deliberate Practice Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Edward K.; Williams, A. Mark; McRobert, Allistair P.; Ford, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Performance improvement is thought to occur through engagement in deliberate practice. Deliberate practice is predicted to be challenging, effortful, and not inherently enjoyable. Expert and intermediate level Gaelic football players executed two types of kicks during an acquisition phase and pre-, post-, and retention tests. During acquisition,…

  15. Urbanism and Racial Attitudes: A Test of Some Urban Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    1984-01-01

    National survey data are used to test the relationship between urbanism and racial attitudes among Whites, and a liberalizing effect of urbanism is found. It appears that urbanism liberalizes racial attitudes by increasing equal-status, cooperative, and relatively personal contact between members of racial subcultures. (Author/RDN)

  16. Fixed Wing Performance. Theory and Flight Test Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    muay he chbtdined within 1,000 ft of the desired test altitude. e. Some airplanes (mainly propeller driven) exhibit d 4 fferent tdrning charam-teristics...aikpline ý:Rt tude at. slower- airspeeds thai ; from static cont’"ol ~s~.Teairplane will US\\alIsv 󈧮 .:OcflIC airborn( with full aft stic~k. After bernmtnj

  17. Independent test assessment using the extreme value distribution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Marcio; Blondell, Lucy; Peralta, Juan M; Kent, Jack W; Jun, Goo; Teslovich, Tanya M; Fuchsberger, Christian; Wood, Andrew R; Manning, Alisa K; Frayling, Timothy M; Cingolani, Pablo E; Sladek, Robert; Dyer, Thomas D; Abecasis, Goncalo; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Blangero, John

    2016-01-01

    The new generation of whole genome sequencing platforms offers great possibilities and challenges for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits. With a very high number of sequence variants, a naïve multiple hypothesis threshold correction hinders the identification of reliable associations by the overreduction of statistical power. In this report, we examine 2 alternative approaches to improve the statistical power of a whole genome association study to detect reliable genetic associations. The approaches were tested using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19) whole genome sequencing data. The first tested method estimates the real number of effective independent tests actually being performed in whole genome association project by the use of an extreme value distribution and a set of phenotype simulations. Given the familiar nature of the GAW19 data and the finite number of pedigree founders in the sample, the number of correlations between genotypes is greater than in a set of unrelated samples. Using our procedure, we estimate that the effective number represents only 15 % of the total number of independent tests performed. However, even using this corrected significance threshold, no genome-wide significant association could be detected for systolic and diastolic blood pressure traits. The second approach implements a biological relevance-driven hypothesis tested by exploiting prior computational predictions on the effect of nonsynonymous genetic variants detected in a whole genome sequencing association study. This guided testing approach was able to identify 2 promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 1 for each trait, targeting biologically relevant genes that could help shed light on the genesis of the human hypertension. The first gene, PFH14, associated with systolic blood pressure, interacts directly with genes involved in calcium-channel formation and the second gene, MAP4, encodes a microtubule-associated protein and had already been

  18. Comparing integral and incidental emotions: Testing insights from emotions as social information theory and attribution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrandt, Annika; Barclay, Laurie J

    2017-05-01

    Studies have indicated that observers can infer information about others' behavioral intentions from others' emotions and use this information in making their own decisions. Integrating emotions as social information (EASI) theory and attribution theory, we argue that the interpersonal effects of emotions are not only influenced by the type of discrete emotion (e.g., anger vs. happiness) but also by the target of the emotion (i.e., how the emotion relates to the situation). We compare the interpersonal effects of emotions that are integral (i.e., related to the situation) versus incidental (i.e., lacking a clear target in the situation) in a negotiation context. Results from 4 studies support our general argument that the target of an opponent's emotion influences the degree to which observers attribute the emotion to their own behavior. These attributions influence observers' inferences regarding the perceived threat of an impasse or cooperativeness of an opponent, which can motivate observers to strategically adjust their behavior. Specifically, emotion target influenced concessions for both anger and happiness (Study 1, N = 254), with perceived threat and cooperativeness mediating the effects of anger and happiness, respectively (Study 2, N = 280). Study 3 (N = 314) demonstrated the mediating role of attributions and moderating role of need for closure. Study 4 (N = 193) outlined how observers' need for cognitive closure influences how they attribute incidental anger. We discuss theoretical implications related to the social influence of emotions as well as practical implications related to the impact of personality on negotiators' biases and behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Test of the second order asymptotic theory with low degree solar gravity modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, C.T.; Rosenwald, R.D.; Gu, Y.; Hill, H.A

    1988-01-01

    Further testing of first and second order asymptotic theory predictions for solar gravity modes is possible with the work of gu and Hill in which the number of classified low-degree gravity mode multiplets was increased from 31 to 53. In an extension of the work where the properties of 31 multiplets were analyzed in the framework of first order asymptotic theory, a new analysis has been performed using the properties of the 53 classified multiplets. The result of this analysis again shows the inadequacy of first order asymptotic theory for describing the eigenfrequency spectrum and clearly demonstrates the necessity of using second order asymptotic theory. 30 refs.

  20. An empirical test of the Theory of Planned Behaviour applied to contraceptive use in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Hopwood, Sarah; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2014-12-01

    There is a high unmet need for contraceptives in developing countries such as Uganda, with high population growth, where efforts are needed to promote family planning and contraceptive use. Despite this high need, little research has investigated applications of health-behaviour-change theories to contraceptive use among this population. This study tested the Theory of Planned Behaviour's ability to predict contraceptive-use-related behaviours among post-partum women in rural Uganda. Results gave modest support to the theory's application and suggest an urgent need for improved theory-based interventions to promote contraceptive use in the populations of developing countries. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. CLOSE PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS AT WORK AND WITH KIN: TESTING AN URBAN SUBCULTURE THEORY MODEL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gretchen J. Hill

    1987-01-01

    .... Based on this theory, and findings supporting it, a model predicting strength of kinship ties was constructed to test its usefulness in predicting the inclusion of kin among individuals' closest personal relationships...

  2. A superconducting gyroscope to test Einstein's general theory of relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, C. W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Schiff (1960) proposed a new test of general relativity based on measuring the precessions of the spin axes of gyroscopes in earth orbit. Since 1963 a Stanford research team has been developing an experiment to measure the two effects calculated by Schiff. The gyroscope consists of a uniform sphere of fused quartz 38 mm in diameter, coated with superconductor, electrically suspended and spinning at about 170 Hz in vacuum. The paper describes the proposed flight apparatus and the current state of development of the gyroscope, including techniques for manufacturing and measuring the gyro rotor and housing, generating ultralow magnetic fields, and mechanizing the readout.

  3. Optimum testing of multiple hypotheses in quantum detection theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, H. P.; Kennedy, R. S.; Lax, M.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of specifying the optimum quantum detector in multiple hypotheses testing is considered for application to optical communications. The quantum digital detection problem is formulated as a linear programming problem on an infinite-dimensional space. A necessary and sufficient condition is derived by the application of a general duality theorem specifying the optimum detector in terms of a set of linear operator equations and inequalities. Existence of the optimum quantum detector is also established. The optimality of commuting detection operators is discussed in some examples. The structure and performance of the optimal receiver are derived for the quantum detection of narrow-band coherent orthogonal and simplex signals. It is shown that modal photon counting is asymptotically optimum in the limit of a large signaling alphabet and that the capacity goes to infinity in the absence of a bandwidth limitation.

  4. Statistical tests for quantum state reconstruction I: Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Moroder, Tobias [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Innsbruck (Austria); Monz, Thomas; Schindler, Philipp [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Blatt, Rainer [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Innsbruck (Austria); Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    2012-07-01

    In quantum state tomography and similar schemes, the measured data is usually not used directly but rather becomes subject of a sophisticated reconstruction procedure that squeezes the data into a quantum state. In general such techniques are only admissible if the statistical error - as due to low sampling - dominates over the systematical errors, such as misaligned measurement bases. We here present tests that allow to detect situations in which a state reconstruction will become statistically inadmissible. In particular, the positivity of the density operator and the linear dependencies that occur in overcomplete tomography lead to strong conditions on the measured data. Furthermore, we argue, that certain unphysical properties of naive reconstruction schemes are merely statistical effects and hence can be safely ignored in many situations.

  5. Testing ‘cultural reproduction theory’ against relative risk aversion theory – some remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin David; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research note is to discuss inherent limitations in certain established, but problematic, conventions for operationalizing and testing Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction. These conventions entail a selective focus on the concept of capital at the expense of the conc......The aim of this research note is to discuss inherent limitations in certain established, but problematic, conventions for operationalizing and testing Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction. These conventions entail a selective focus on the concept of capital at the expense...... of the concept of habitus. Our point is that blinding out the important concept of habitus amputates the theory, and that a test built upon this limitation is not a test of Bourdieu’s theory as a whole, but rather a straw man construction ignoring important parts of the theory. This has strong implications when...... seeking to test statistically the viability of Bourdieu’s theory, particularly vis-a-vis rational choice alternatives, and especially where these limitations are not adequately reflected in the interpretation of results and in conclusions....

  6. Theory testing in prehistoric North America: fruits of one of the world's great archeological natural laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Paul M; Souza, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper has several interconnected goals. First and most generally, we will review the project represented by the papers in this dedicated issue and the SAA Symposium (2012) on Social Complexity and the Bow. This project centers on the ever-stronger and broader theory testing now becoming feasible in archeology and anthropology, in this case exploiting the unique natural laboratory represented by what we refer to as the North American Neolithic transitions. Second, we will strive to synopsize the papers in this issue as opportunities to falsify two general theories of the cause of increases in social complexity associated with the North American Neolithic: warfare and social coercion theories.(1) We argue that, though much work remains to be done, the current evidence supports one of the central predictions of both these theories, that the local arrival of elite bow technology was a central driver of local transitions to increased social complexity. This conclusion, if ultimately verified, has profound implications for the possibility of general theories of history. Third, we will argue that several important details of this evidence falsify warfare theory and support (fail to falsify) social coercion theory (the authors' favored perspective). Moreover, several potential falsifications of social coercion theory are amenable to alternative interpretations, leading to new falsifiable predictions. Finally, we discuss how interactions with our colleagues in this project produced new insights into several details of the predictions of social coercion theory, improving our interpretative capacity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Five roles for using theory and evidence in the design and testing of behavior change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, L Kay; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2011-01-01

    The prevailing wisdom in the field of health-related behavior change is that well-designed and effective interventions are guided by theory. Using the framework of intervention mapping, we describe and provide examples of how investigators can effectively select and use theory to design, test, and report interventions. We propose five roles for theory and evidence about theories: a) identification of behavior and determinants of behavior related to a specified health problem (i.e., the logic model of the problem); b) explication of a causal model that includes theoretical constructs for producing change in the behavior of interest (i.e., the logic model of change); c) selection of intervention methods and delivery of practical applications to achieve changes in health behavior; d) evaluation of the resulting intervention including theoretical mediating variables; and e) reporting of the active ingredients of the intervention together with the evaluation results. In problem-driven applied behavioral or social science, researchers use one or multiple theories, empiric evidence, and new research, both to assess a problem and to solve or prevent a problem. Furthermore, the theories for description of the problem may differ from the theories for its solution. In an applied approach, the main focus is on solving problems regarding health behavior change and improvement of health outcomes, and the criteria for success are formulated in terms of the problem rather than the theory. Resulting contributions to theory development may be quite useful, but they are peripheral to the problem-solving process.

  8. [Modern testing theory and its application in the field of health measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Da-rong

    2012-03-01

    This paper briefly introduces item response theory (IRT) as a typical representation of modern testing theory (MTT), and systematically reviews the processes and contents of the application of IRT in the area of health measurement, including, for example, item bank development, scale revision and computerized adaptive testing. The author presents the potential benefits and the notable problems during health measuring by IRT. Then, the author asserts the need for thorough assessment of feasibility when using the IRT in patient-reported outcome research. Further research based on IRT and computerized adaptive testing in health measurement will be carried out in the field of medical care including traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine.

  9. Test Anxiety: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. The Series in Clinical and Community Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Charles D., Ed.; Vagg, Peter R., Ed.

    It is not surprising that a broad array of treatment programs have been developed to reduce test anxiety, since the consequences can be serious. The contributions in this volume review and evaluate the theory of test anxiety, its measurement, its manifestations, and possible treatments and their outcomes. The following chapters are included: (1)…

  10. Adaptive mastery testing using a multidimensional IRT model and Bayesian sequential decision theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Vos, Hendrik J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on a version of sequential mastery testing (i.e., classifying students as a master/nonmaster or continuing testing and administering another item or testlet) in which response behavior is modeled by a multidimensional item response theory (IRT) model. First, a general theoretical

  11. Implicit theories of intelligence, perceived academic competence, and school achievement: testing alternative models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonida, Eleftheria; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris; Leondari, Angeliki

    2006-01-01

    In the present study 3 alternative causal models concerning the relationships between implicit theories of intelligence, perceived academic competence, and school achievement were tested. The direction of changes in implicit theories and perceived competence during early adolescence also was examined. A total of 187 fifth and sixth graders were tested and retested a year later, when they were sixth and seventh graders, respectively. Cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that school achievement determined the adoption of a particular implicit theory through the mediation of perceived competence. Implicit theories were found to change toward the adoption of more incremental beliefs and perceived academic competence declined; however, high achievers, as compared with their low- and middle-level classmates, adopted more incremental beliefs and had significantly higher perceived competence.

  12. An empirical test of Rogers' original and revised theory of correlates in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarcheski, A; Mahon, N E

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Rogers' original and revised theory of correlates in adolescents. The correlates were measured by Perceived Field Motion, Human Field Rhythms, Creativity, Sentience, Fast Tempo, and Waking Periods. The original theory was tested with data obtained from samples of early (n = 116), middle (n = 116), and late (n = 116) adolescents. The revised theory was tested in a fourth selectively combined sample of adolescents, aged 12 to 21 (n = 89). Data were collected in classroom settings. Although the findings did not support either theory, they did indicate that: (1) four of the six correlates studied performed as correlates when examined in three discrete phases of adolescence, as determined by chronological age, (2) the means of the individual correlates increased slightly in frequency levels developmentally, and (3) the correlates emerged at different frequency levels when examined in adolescents, aged 12 to 21.

  13. A theory of motion for test particles in relativistic celestial mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechin, L. M.

    Zel'manov's (1976) monad formalism is used to develop a theory of motion for test particles in the solar system as they are observed by a terrestrial observer. Relativistic additions are made to Zel'manov's calculations which are connected with transformations to planetary reference system, and to all four classical effects of Einstein's gravitational theory. It is found that a correct description of the real system of reference leads to greater conformity between theoretical conclusions and experimental results.

  14. A test of self-determination theory in school physical education

    OpenAIRE

    Standage, Martyn; Joan L. Duda; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2005-01-01

    Background. Contemporary research conducted in the context of school physical education (PE) has increasingly embraced various tenets of selfdetermination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991). Despite this increase in research attention, some postulates of the framework remain unexplored (e.g. impact of a need-supportive climate). As such, the present study sought to provide a more comprehensive test of self-determination theory. The present work also examined Deci and Ryan’s claim that the motiv...

  15. An Empirical Test of the Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Contraceptive Use in Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M.; Hopwood, Sarah; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.

    2013-01-01

    There is a high unmet need for contraceptives in developing countries such as Uganda, with high population growth, where efforts are needed to promote family planning and contraceptive use. Despite this high need, little research has investigated applications of health behaviour change theories to contraceptive use amongst this population. The present study tested the Theory of Planned Behaviour’s ability to predict contraceptive use-related behaviours among postpartum women in rural Uganda. Results gave modest support to the theory’s application and suggest an urgent need for improved theory-based interventions to promote contraceptive use in the populations of developing countries. PMID:23928989

  16. Comparative Analysis of Theory of Mind Tests in First Episode Psychosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Alexandra; Garakh, Zhanna; Bendova, Marie; Zaytseva, Yuliya

    2017-09-01

    The research is based on comparative analysis of 'Hinting Task', 'Faux Pas', and 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' tests sensitivity in detection of Theory of Mind deficits. The study included 20 subjects with schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with the first episode of psychosis. Every subject performed the three proposed tests. It was shown that success rate of the three tests differed significantly. The non-verbal test 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' caused the most difficulties. The success rate percentage of this test performance correlated negatively with the severity of psychopathological symptoms evaluated according to the PANSS scale. Thus, 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test is the most sensitive out of the three to Theory of Mind deficits detection, which may be used for diagnostic purposes.

  17. A general test of self-control theory: has its importance been exaggerated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretacci, Michael A

    2008-10-01

    Self-control theory has been tested for 2 decades. However, mixed results and measurement problems have made it difficult to ascertain its true utility. This study addresses recent concerns and includes variables such as risk, consequences, criminal opportunity, an interaction term, and bond controls in one complete test. It also addresses self-control's ability to explain different forms of crime and whether the support that it has garnered has been exaggerated. Results of both cross-sectional and semilongitudinal tests indicate that self-control significantly predicts a higher probability of involvement in property and drug crime but is virtually silent in its ability to explain violence. Furthermore, it can be tentatively stated that support for the theory wanes over time. Finally, neglected concepts such as opportunity, risk, consequences, and bond controls may be important to the theory's ability to explain crime, and further negligence of these concepts may hamper a true understanding of its impact.

  18. Theories of coalition formation: An empirical test using data from Danish local government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjæveland, Asbjørn; Serritzlew, Søren; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Theories of coalition formation represent a diverse set of arguments about why some government coalitions form while others do not. In this article, the authors present a systematic empirical test of the relative importance of the various arguments. The test is designed to avoid a circularity...... problem present in many coalition studies - namely that the theories are tested on data of national government coalitions in postwar Europe: the very data that gave rise to the theories in the first place. Instead, the authors focus on government coalitions at the municipal level. They base their analysis...... on office and policy motives. At the same time, the analysis raises the question of whether actors really seek minimal coalitions....

  19. Gender, general theory of crime and computer crime: an empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; McCluskey, John D; McCluskey, Cynthia P; Lee, Sangwon

    2013-04-01

    Regarding the gender gap in computer crime, studies consistently indicate that boys are more likely than girls to engage in various types of computer crime; however, few studies have examined the extent to which traditional criminology theories account for gender differences in computer crime and the applicability of these theories in explaining computer crime across gender. Using a panel of 2,751 Korean youths, the current study tests the applicability of the general theory of crime in explaining the gender gap in computer crime and assesses the theory's utility in explaining computer crime across gender. Analyses show that self-control theory performs well in predicting illegal use of others' resident registration number (RRN) online for both boys and girls, as predicted by the theory. However, low self-control, a dominant criminogenic factor in the theory, fails to mediate the relationship between gender and computer crime and is inadequate in explaining illegal downloading of software in both boy and girl models. Theoretical implication of the findings and the directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Some Preliminary Notes on an Empirical Test of Freud’s Theory on Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates that empirical researchers have difficulty translating Freud’s theory on depression into appropriate research questions and hypotheses. In their attempt to do so, the level of complexity in Freud’s work is often lost. As a result, what is empirically tested is no more than a caricature of the original theory. To help researchers avoid such problems, this study presents a conceptual analysis of Freud’s theory of depression as it is presented in Mourning and Melancholia (Freud, 1917). In analyzing Freud’s theory on the etiology of depression, it is essential to differentiate between (1) an identification with the satisfying and frustrating aspects of the love object, (2) the inter- and an intrapersonal loss of the love object, and (3) conscious and unconscious dynamics. A schematic representation of the mechanism of depression is put forward and a research design by which this schema can be empirically investigated is outlined. PMID:23675357

  1. Some Preliminary Notes on an Empirical Test of Freud’s Theory on Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias eDesmet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature indicates that empirical researchers have difficulty translating Freud’s theory on depression into appropriate research questions and hypotheses. In their attempt to do so, the level of complexity in Freud’s work is often lost. As a result, what is empirically tested is no more than a caricature of the original theory. To help researchers avoid such problems, this study presents a conceptual analysis of Freud’s theory of depression as it is presented in Mourning and Melancholia (Freud, 1917. In analyzing Freud’s theory on the etiology of depression, it is essential to differentiate between (1 an identification with the satisfying and frustrating aspects of the love object, (2 the inter- and an intrapersonal loss of the love object, and (3 conscious and unconscious dynamics. A schematic representation of the mechanism of depression is put forward and a research design by which this schema can be empirically investigated is outlined.

  2. Mood As Cumulative Expectation Mismatch: A Test of Theory Based on Data from Non-verbal Cognitive Bias Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille M. C. Raoult

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective states are known to influence behavior and cognitive processes. To assess mood (moderately long-term affective states, the cognitive judgment bias test was developed and has been widely used in various animal species. However, little is known about how mood changes, how mood can be experimentally manipulated, and how mood then feeds back into cognitive judgment. A recent theory argues that mood reflects the cumulative impact of differences between obtained outcomes and expectations. Here expectations refer to an established context. Situations in which an established context fails to match an outcome are then perceived as mismatches of expectation and outcome. We take advantage of the large number of studies published on non-verbal cognitive bias tests in recent years (95 studies with a total of 162 independent tests to test whether cumulative mismatch could indeed have led to the observed mood changes. Based on a criteria list, we assessed whether mismatch had occurred with the experimental procedure used to induce mood (mood induction mismatch, or in the context of the non-verbal cognitive bias procedure (testing mismatch. For the mood induction mismatch, we scored the mismatch between the subjects’ potential expectations and the manipulations conducted for inducing mood whereas, for the testing mismatch, we scored mismatches that may have occurred during the actual testing. We then investigated whether these two types of mismatch can predict the actual outcome of the cognitive bias study. The present evaluation shows that mood induction mismatch cannot well predict the success of a cognitive bias test. On the other hand, testing mismatch can modulate or even inverse the expected outcome. We think, cognitive bias studies should more specifically aim at creating expectation mismatch while inducing mood states to test the cumulative mismatch theory more properly. Furthermore, testing mismatch should be avoided as much as possible

  3. Analysis of North Korea's Nuclear Tests under Prospect Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Ryu, Jae Soo; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Jun, Eunju; Kim, Mi Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    North Korea has chosen nuclear weapons as the means to protect its sovereignty. Despite international society's endeavors and sanctions to encourage North Korea to abandon its nuclear ambition, North Korea has repeatedly conducted nuclear testing. In this paper, the reason for North Korea's addiction to a nuclear arsenal is addressed within the framework of cognitive psychology. The prospect theory addresses an epistemological approach usually overlooked in rational choice theories. It provides useful implications why North Korea, being under a crisis situation has thrown out a stable choice but taken on a risky one such as nuclear testing. Under the viewpoint of prospect theory, nuclear tests by North Korea can be understood as follows: The first nuclear test in 2006 is seen as a trial to escape from loss areas such as financial sanctions and regime threats; the second test in 2009 was interpreted as a consequence of the strategy to recover losses by making a direct confrontation against the United States; and the third test in 2013 was understood as an attempt to strengthen internal solidarity after Kim Jong-eun inherited the dynasty, as well as to enhance bargaining power against the United States. Thus, it can be summarized that Pyongyang repeated its nuclear tests to escape from a negative domain and to settle into a positive one. In addition, in the future, North Korea may not be willing to readily give up its nuclear capabilities to ensure the survival of its own regime.

  4. What Explains Criminal Violence in Mexico City? A Test of Two Theories of Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vilalta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There are competing theories of what drives crime in cities and neighbourhoods. Two widely cited theoretical approaches focused on social disorganization and institutional anomie propose different explanations for the causes and dynamics of criminality. Yet these theories are seldom empirically tested, much less acknowledged, outside of North America and Western Europe. This article considers their applicability in Mexico’s capital, a sprawling metropolis of more than 20 million people. The authors administer spatial and general statistical tests to explain the geographical patterns of crime rates across multiple forms of criminality. The assessment demonstrates that both theories accurately predict the spatial distribution of crime. The article concludes with a host of policy conclusions, emphasizing social crime prevention over more traditional law and order measures. and consolidating families, parents and childcare.

  5. Analysis Of Covariance Structure Tests Of A Criterial Referents Theory Of Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlinger, F N

    1980-10-01

    To test a criterial referents theory of social attitudes, data obtained in the 1960's and 1970's from factor analyses of social attitudes scales administered to students in the U. S. and Europe and to a random sample of Dutch citizens were reanalyzed using an analysis of covariance structure approach. The two-factor model of the basic hypothesis of the theory -- two relatively orthogonal second-order factors, liberalism (L) and conservatism (C), underlie social attitudes -- was tested against the one-factor model of the assumption of attitude bipolarity -- attitudes have positive and negative poles (L versus C). Although the results of the separate tests of the fit of the two models were mixed, contrast tests of the two models favored the two-factor (dualistic) hypothesis.

  6. Advances in the application of decision theory to test-based decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    This paper reviews recent research in the Netherlands on the application of decision theory to test-based decision making about personnel selection and student placement. The review is based on an earlier model proposed for the classification of decision problems, and emphasizes an empirical

  7. Personality trait development during the transition to parenthood : A test of social investment theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Scheppingen, M.A.; Jackson, J.J.; Specht, J.; Hutteman, R.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Bleidorn, Wiebke

    2016-01-01

    Social investment theory (SIT) proposes that the transition to parenthood triggers positive personality trait change in early adulthood. Using data from a representative sample of first-time parents compared to nonparents, the results of rigorous tests do not support the propositions of SIT.

  8. Testing the theory of emissions trading : Experimental evidence on alternative mechanisms for global carbon trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Ger; Nentjes, Andries; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Simulation models and theory prove that emission trading converges to market equilibrium. This paper sets out to test these results using experimental economics. Three experiments are conducted for the six largest carbon emitting industrialized regions. Two experiments use auctions, the first a

  9. General Strain Theory and School Bullying: An Empirical Test in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; McCluskey, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite recognition of bullying as a serious school and social problem with negative effects on students' well-being and safety, and the overlap between aggressive bullying acts and delinquent behavior, few empirical studies test the applicability of criminological theories to explaining bullying. This limitation in research is especially evident…

  10. Longitudinal Test of Self-Determination Theory's Motivation Mediation Model in a Naturally Occurring Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyungshim; Kim, Eun Joo; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2012-01-01

    This study provides the first longitudinally designed, classroom-based empirical test of self-determination theory's motivation mediation model. Measures of perceived autonomy support, motivation (autonomy need satisfaction), engagement, and achievement were collected from 500 (257 females, 243 males) 8th-grade students in Korea in a 3-wave…

  11. A Direct Test of the Theory of Comparative Advantage: The Case of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhofen, Daniel M.; Brown, John C.

    2004-01-01

    We exploit Japan's sudden and complete opening up to international trade in the 1860s to test the empirical validity of one of the oldest and most fundamental propositions in economics: the theory of comparative advantage. Historical evidence supports the assertion that the characteristics of the Japanese economy at the time were compatible with…

  12. Competition for light between phytoplankton species : Experimental tests of mechanistic theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.; Jonker, R.R.; Zonneveld, C.; Weissing, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    According to recent competition theory, the population dynamics of phytoplankton species in monoculture can be used to make a priori predictions of the dynamics and outcome of competition for light. The species with lowest "critical light intensity" should be the superior light competitor. To test

  13. Routes to Reading and Spelling: Testing the Predictions of Dual-Route Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriston, Lee; Critten, Sarah; Jones, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Dual-route theory, which emphasizes the importance of lexical and nonlexical routes, makes specific predictions about the kinds of strategies that young students might adopt when attempting to correctly read and spell regular and irregular words. The current study tests these predictions by assessing strategy choice on regular, irregular, and…

  14. A Partial Test of Oscar Lewis's Culture of Poverty Theory in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David B.

    In an effort to test certain aspects of Oscar Lewis's "Culture of Poverty Theory" in the rural South, an investigation was made of the differences in participation patterns of the rural poor, those factors associated with participation patterns of the rural poor, and the relationship between the social participation patterns of one…

  15. A Classical Test Theory Analysis of the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory National Study Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlingman, Wayne M.; Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin S.; Brissenden, Gina; Rudolph, Alexander L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of investigations into the data from the recent national study using the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI). In this paper, we use classical test theory to form a framework of results that will be used to evaluate individual item difficulties, item discriminations, and the overall reliability of the…

  16. State Anxiety and Working Memory in Children: A Test of Processing Efficiency Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Julie A.; Brogan, Joanna; Stevenson, Jim

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of individual differences in state anxiety on tasks tapping the central executive, phonological, and visuo-spatial components of working memory (WM). It was designed to test Eysenck and Calvo's processing efficiency theory (PET) which suggests that the phonological and executive components of WM may be important…

  17. Surprise, Memory, and Retrospective Judgment Making: Testing Cognitive Reconstruction Theories of the Hindsight Bias Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.

    2009-01-01

    Hindsight bias has been shown to be a pervasive and potentially harmful decision-making bias. A review of 4 competing cognitive reconstruction theories of hindsight bias revealed conflicting predictions about the role and effect of expectation or surprise in retrospective judgment formation. Two experiments tested these predictions examining the…

  18. Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate…

  19. The Theory of Planned Behavior: Predicting Teachers' Intentions and Behavior during Fitness Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanec, Amanda D. Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The twofold purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument that assessed teachers' intentions, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control to administer fitness tests effectively, and to determine how well the instrument could predict teachers' intentions and actual behavior based on Ajzen's (1985, 1991) theory of…

  20. Scatter hoarding by the Central American agouti : a test of optimal cache spacing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvez, Dumas; Kranstauber, Bart; Kays, Roland W.; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal cache spacing theory predicts that scatter-hoarding animals store food at a density that balances the gains of reducing cache robbery against the costs of spacing out caches further. We tested the key prediction that cache robbery and cache spacing increase with the economic value of food:

  1. Scatter hoarding by the Central American agouti: a test of optimal cache spacing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gálvez, D.; Kranstauber, B.; Kays, R.W.; Jansen, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal cache spacing theory predicts that scatter-hoarding animals store food at a density that balances the gains of reducing cache robbery against the costs of spacing out caches further. We tested the key prediction that cache robbery and cache spacing increase with the economic value of food:

  2. Psychological tensions found in suicide notes: a test for the strain theory of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Lester, David

    2008-01-01

    As a comprehensive and parsimonious theory explaining the socio-psychological mechanism prior to suicidal behavior, strain theory of suicide postulates that conflicting and competing pressures in an individual's life usually precede a suicide. The theory proposes four sources of strain leading to suicide: (1) value strain from conflicting values, (2) aspiration strain from the discrepancy between aspiration and reality, (3) deprivation strain from relative deprivation such as poverty, and (4) coping strain from deficient coping skills in the face of a crisis. This research has content-analyzed 40 suicide notes (20 by suicide completers and 20 by suicide attempters) and found strong support for the strain theory of suicide. Although little difference is found in the number and pattern of strains between the completers and attempters, both groups have many aspirations and coping strains and few value and deprivation strains. Also, the older a suicidal victim is, the more he/she feels deprived and lacks coping skills and feels less bothered with value conflicts. Although the study has offered some support for the new theory, future research with more rigorous quantitative data needs to be conducted to further test the theory on a more comprehensive level.

  3. Predicting epistasis: an experimental test of metabolic control theory with bacterial transcription and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, R C

    2010-03-01

    Epistatic interactions between mutations are thought to play a crucial role in a number of evolutionary processes, including adaptation and sex. Evidence for epistasis is abundant, but tests of general theoretical models that can predict epistasis are lacking. In this study, I test the ability of metabolic control theory to predict epistasis using a novel experimental approach that combines phenotypic and genetic perturbations of enzymes involved in gene expression and protein synthesis in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These experiments provide experimental support for two key predictions of metabolic control theory: (i) epistasis between genes involved in the same pathway is antagonistic; (ii) epistasis becomes increasingly antagonistic as mutational severity increases. Metabolic control theory is a general theory that applies to any set of genes that are involved in the same linear processing chain, not just metabolic pathways, and I argue that this theory is likely to have important implications for predicting epistasis between functionally coupled genes, such as those involved in antibiotic resistance. Finally, this study highlights the fact that phenotypic manipulations of gene activity provide a powerful method for studying epistasis that complements existing genetic methods.

  4. Social Psychological Consequences of Interpersonal Relations: A Confirmatory Approach to Testing Deutsch's Theory of Cooperation and Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quahwu

    This study tested M. Deutsch's theory of cooperation and conflict resolution using an intervention project at an inner city alternative high school in New York City. The study was designed to test the theory by confirmatory structural modeling and by evaluating the intervention. The procedure involved a pre- and post-test procedure administered…

  5. Testing techniques and comparisons between theory and test for vibration modes of ring stiffened truncated-cone shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    Vibration tests were carried out on truncated-cone shells with widely spaced ring stiffeners. The models were excited by an air shaker for LF modes and by small electrodynamic shakers for HF modes. The Novozhilov thin shell theory according to which a ring is an assembly of an arbitrary number of segments, each being a short truncated-cone shell of uniform thickness, is used in the analysis of the results. A mobile, noncontacting, displacement-sensitive sensor system developed by the author was used in the tests. Tests results are given for a free-free 60-deg cone and for a clamped-free 60-deg cone. The tests are characterized as having considerable value for the classification of prevalent multimode responses in shells of this type.

  6. Comparison of Impact Duration Between Experiment and Theory From Charpy Impact Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Said N.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the comparison of impact duration between experiment and theory from impact signal through a Charpy test. Recently, the number of accidents on the highway has been increased and it depends on the impact duration of material that have the ability to provide adequate protection to passengers from harmful and improve occupant survivability during crash event. Charpy impact test was implemented on different material and thickness but at the same striker velocity. Impact signal is obtained through the strain gauge that has been installed to striker hammer and connected to frequency data acquisition system. Collected signal is then analysed to identify the time period during impact before fractured. Result from both experiment and theory shows an increment to the impact duration as thickness is increased. Charpy test shows that aluminium 6061-T6 has a higher impact duration compared to carbon steel 1050.

  7. Evaluation of the theory of mind in autism spectrum disorders with the Strange Stories test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Lima Velloso

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the theory of mind in autism spectrum disorders (ASD and control individuals by applying the Strange Stories test that was translated and adapted to the Portuguese language. Method Twenty-eight children with ASD and 56 controls who were all male and aged between 6 and 12 years participated in the study. Results There were significant differences between the median scores of the groups for each of the 12 stories of the test and for the sum total of all the median scores. The median scores for all stories were significantly greater in the control group than those in the experimental group (children with ASD. In addition, the protocol had excellent internal consistency. Conclusion The theory of mind skills assessed with the Strange Stories test indicated alterations in children with ASD compared with children in the control group.

  8. Factors Related to Regular Undergoing Pap-smear Test: Application of Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Farzad; Emdadi, Shohreh

    2011-11-04

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the world and the most common cancer in developing countries. Pap smear is and effective tool that can prevent death due to cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to doing regular Pap-smear test based on the theory of planned behavior. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Hamadan County, the west of Iran, during 2009, a total of 400 women's aged 20 to 70 years old, were ran-domly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire including the expanded theory of planned behavior components. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level. Almost 63.8% of the participants had already done Pap-smear test at least once. About 28.3% of volunteers had followed a regular Pap-smear pro-gram. There was a significant correlation (PPap-smear test. In addition, there was a significant correlation (PPap-smear test. The best predictor for regular Pap-smear testing was subjective norms with odds ratio estimate of 1.14 [95% CI: 1.04, 1.23]. Based on our findings, subjective norms may be one of the most effective factors among women for doing regular Pap-smear test.

  9. The Measurement and Functional Properties of Reinforcer Value in Single-Alternative Responding: A Test of Linear System Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallery, Jesse; McDowell, J. J.; Soto, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    Matching theory and linear system theory make different predictions about how the y-asymptote, k, of Herrnstein's (1970) hyperbola varies with reinforcer value. The present experiment tested both these predictions and linear system theory's account of how reinforcement rate and reinforcer value jointly govern response rate. Eight rats served as…

  10. Explaining Extremity in Evaluation of Group Members: Meta-Analytic Tests of Three Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, B Ann; Manning, Mark; Molix, Lisa; Schlegel, Rebecca; Eidelman, Scott; Biernat, Monica

    2016-02-01

    A meta-analysis that included more than 1,100 effect sizes tested the predictions of three theoretical perspectives that explain evaluative extremity in social judgment: complexity-extremity theory, subjective group dynamics model, and expectancy-violation theory. The work seeks to understand the ways in which group-based information interacts with person-based information to influence extremity in evaluations. Together, these three theories point to the valence of person-based information, group membership of the evaluated targets relative to the evaluator, status of the evaluators' ingroup, norm consistency of the person-based information, and incongruency of person-based information with stereotype-based expectations as moderators. Considerable support, but some limiting conditions, were found for each theoretical perspective. Implications of the results are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Putting the Alzheimer's cognitive test to the test II: Rasch Measurement Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobart, Jeremy; Cano, Stefan; Posner, Holly; Selnes, Ola; Stern, Yaakov; Thomas, Ronald; Zajicek, John

    2013-02-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Behavior section (ADAS-Cog) is the most widely used measure of cognitive performance in AD clinical trials. This key role has rightly brought its performance under increased scrutiny with recent research using traditional psychometric methods, questioning the ADAS-Cog's ability to adequately measure early-stage disease. However, given the limitations of traditional psychometric approaches, herein we use the more sophisticated Rasch Measurement Theory (RMT) methods to fully examine the strengths and weaknesses of the ADAS-Cog, and identify potential paths toward its improvement. We analyzed AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) ADAS-Cog data (675 measurements across four time-points over 2 years) from the AD participants. RMT analysis was undertaken to examine three broad areas: adequacy of scale-to-sample targeting; degree to which, taken together, the ADAS-Cog items adequately perform as a measuring instrument; and how well the scale measured the subjects in the current sample. The 11 ADAS-Cog components mapped-out a measurement continuum, worked together adequately, and were stable across different time-points and samples. However, the scale did not prove to be a good match to the patient sample supporting previous research. RMT analysis also identified problematic "gaps" and "bunching" of the components across the continuum. Although the ADAS-Cog has the building blocks of a good measurement instrument, this sophisticated analysis confirms limitations with potentially serious implications for clinical trials. Importantly, and unlike traditional psychometric methods, our RMT analysis has provided important clues aimed at solving the measurement problems of the ADAS-Cog. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential Functional Embedding Theory at the Correlated Wave Function Level. 2. Error Sources and Performance Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian; Dieterich, Johannes M; Carter, Emily A

    2017-03-14

    Quantum mechanical embedding theories partition a complex system into multiple spatial regions that can use different electronic structure methods within each, to optimize trade-offs between accuracy and cost. The present work incorporates accurate but expensive correlated wave function (CW) methods for a subsystem containing the phenomenon or feature of greatest interest, while self-consistently capturing quantum effects of the surroundings using fast but less accurate density functional theory (DFT) approximations. We recently proposed two embedding methods [for a review, see: Acc. Chem. Res. 2014 , 47 , 2768 ]: density functional embedding theory (DFET) and potential functional embedding theory (PFET). DFET provides a fast but non-self-consistent density-based embedding scheme, whereas PFET offers a more rigorous theoretical framework to perform fully self-consistent, variational CW/DFT calculations [as defined in part 1, CW/DFT means subsystem 1(2) is treated with CW(DFT) methods]. When originally presented, PFET was only tested at the DFT/DFT level of theory as a proof of principle within a planewave (PW) basis. Part 1 of this two-part series demonstrated that PFET can be made to work well with mixed Gaussian type orbital (GTO)/PW bases, as long as optimized GTO bases and consistent electron-ion potentials are employed throughout. Here in part 2 we conduct the first PFET calculations at the CW/DFT level and compare them to DFET and full CW benchmarks. We test the performance of PFET at the CW/DFT level for a variety of types of interactions (hydrogen bonding, metallic, and ionic). By introducing an intermediate CW/DFT embedding scheme denoted DFET/PFET, we show how PFET remedies different types of errors in DFET, serving as a more robust type of embedding theory.

  13. Playing off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilalić, Merim

    2014-01-01

    Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes.

  14. The TECO theory and lawful dependency in successive episodic memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikström, S

    2000-08-01

    A large number of experiments in successive tests of episodic memory have focused on an experimental paradigm called recognition failure of recallable words. In this paradigm, a cued recall test follows a recognition test. Large amounts of data have revealed a lawful moderate dependence between recognition and cued recall. TECO (Sikström, 1996b), a general connectionist theory of memory, has been applied for the phenomenon of recognition failure. This paper makes a strong claim that all possible pairwise combinations of successive tests between recognition, cued recognition, cued recall, and free recall follow a lawful relationship. The quantitative degree of the dependency predicted between these tests can be summarized in one function. Four experiments were conducted to test this claim. In line with the predictions, the results show that all pairwise combinations of these tests fit reasonably well with the proposed function. The TECO theory suggests theoretical insights into how recognition and recall may be divided into a recollection component, a familiarity component, and a cue-target integration component.

  15. Utilizing constructivism learning theory in collaborative testing as a creative strategy to promote essential nursing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Barbara T; Satre, Maria E

    2014-01-01

    In nursing education, students participate in individual learner testing. This process follows the instructionist learning theory of a system model. However, in the practice of nursing, success depends upon collaboration with numerous people in different capacities, critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and the ability to communicate with others. Research has shown that collaborative testing, a constructivism learning activity and a form of collaborative learning, enhances students' abilities to master these areas. Collaborative testing is a clear, creative strategy which constructivists would say supports the socio-linguistic base of their learning theory. The test becomes an active implementation of peer-mediated learning where individual knowledge is enhanced through problem solving or defense of an individual position with the collaborative method. There is criticism for the testing method's potential of grade inflation and for students to receive grade benefits with little effort. After a review of various collaborative testing methods, this nursing faculty implemented a collaborative testing format that addresses both the positive and negative aspects of the process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistical testing of the full-range leadership theory in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanste, Outi; Kääriäinen, Maria; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to test statistically the structure of the full-range leadership theory in nursing. The data were gathered by postal questionnaires from nurses and nurse leaders working in healthcare organizations in Finland. A follow-up study was performed 1 year later. The sample consisted of 601 nurses and nurse leaders, and the follow-up study had 78 respondents. Theory was tested through structural equation modelling, standard regression analysis and two-way anova. Rewarding transformational leadership seems to promote and passive laissez-faire leadership to reduce willingness to exert extra effort, perceptions of leader effectiveness and satisfaction with the leader. Active management-by-exception seems to reduce willingness to exert extra effort and perception of leader effectiveness. Rewarding transformational leadership remained as a strong explanatory factor of all outcome variables measured 1 year later. The data supported the main structure of the full-range leadership theory, lending support to the universal nature of the theory.

  17. Breastfeeding structure as a test of parental investment theory in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracer, David P

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary parental investment theory predicts that parents invest preferentially in offspring best able to translate investments into fitness payoffs. It has also been proposed that where the reproductive prospects of offspring are directly correlated with parental investment and variance in fertility is higher for males than females, parents in better condition should bias investment toward males while those in poorer condition should bias investment toward females. Lactation is arguably among the costliest forms of investment expended by mothers and is thus expected to be allocated in ways consistent with fitness payoffs. Quantitative data collected among 110 Papua New Guinean mother-infant pairs during 470 h of focal follows on nursing frequency and duration and responses to infant demands by maternal and offspring characteristics are presented to provide empirically-based descriptions of infant care and tests of evolutionary parental investment theory. Results indicate that mothers show very high levels of investment in offspring. However, although breastfeeding in developing countries is often characterized as on-demand, fussing and crying by infants were only attended to with breastfeeding about 30% of the time. Contrary to expectations of parental investment theory that parents should invest less in poorer quality offspring, mothers increased investment in offspring in poorer condition. The expectation that mothers in better condition would bias investment toward male offspring was also not supported; better nourished mothers biased investment toward female offspring. This study illustrates how infant feeding data may be used for testing larger evolutionary questions such as those derived from parental investment theory.

  18. The Mach number of the cosmic flow - A critical test for current theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Suto, Yusushi

    1990-01-01

    A new cosmological, self-contained test using the ratio of mean velocity and the velocity dispersion in the mean flow frame of a group of test objects is presented. To allow comparison with linear theory, the velocity field must first be smoothed on a suitable scale. In the context of linear perturbation theory, the Mach number M(R) which measures the ratio of power on scales larger than to scales smaller than the patch size R, is independent of the perturbation amplitude and also of bias. An apparent inconsistency is found for standard values of power-law index n = 1 and cosmological density parameter Omega = 1, when comparing values of M(R) predicted by popular models with tentative available observations. Nonstandard models based on adiabatic perturbations with either negative n or small Omega value also fail, due to creation of unacceptably large microwave background fluctuations.

  19. Peres experiment using photons: No test for hypercomplex (quaternionic) quantum theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2017-06-01

    Assuming the standard axioms for quaternionic quantum theory and a spatially localized scattering interaction, the S matrix in quaternionic quantum theory is complex valued, not quaternionic. Using the standard connections between the S matrix, the forward scattering amplitude for electromagnetic wave scattering, and the index of refraction, we show that the index of refraction is necessarily complex, not quaternionic. This implies that the recent optical experiment of Procopio et al. [Nat. Commun. 8, 15044 (2017), 10.1038/ncomms15044] based on the Peres proposal does not test for hypercomplex or quaternionic quantum effects arising within the standard Hilbert space framework. Such a test requires looking at near zone fields, not radiation zone fields.

  20. Multicollinearity and Measurement Error in Structural Equation Models: Implications for Theory Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Rajdeep Grewal; Joseph A. Cote; Hans Baumgartner

    2004-01-01

    The literature on structural equation models is unclear on whether and when multicollinearity may pose problems in theory testing (Type II errors). Two Monte Carlo simulation experiments show that multicollinearity can cause problems under certain conditions, specifically: (1) when multicollinearity is extreme, Type II error rates are generally unacceptably high (over 80%), (2) when multicollinearity is between 0.6 and 0.8, Type II error rates can be substantial (greater than 50% and frequent...

  1. School truancy among Turkish high school students: A test of General Strain Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgur Solakoglu; Ugur Orak

    2016-01-01

    School absenteeism is a complicated problem with a variety of causes. It has been shown to be one of the main predictors of school drop-outs as well as leading to delinquency and criminal behavior in adulthood. This study examines the applicability of General Strain Theory on educational factors by considering truancy as a risk behavior. In this empirical study, we test the explanatory powers of certain kinds of strain, including school strain, economic deprivation, negative life events, ange...

  2. TESTING SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY FOR THE CAUSES OF INDEX (MAJOR) CRIME INCIDENCE AMONG TURKISH JUVENILES

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAM, Taner

    2014-01-01

    Testing social disorganization theory for the causes of index (major) crime incidence among Turkish juveniles is the subject of this study. Delinquency rates are quite high and it is an important problem for every society.  It is needed to know the causes of delinquency to find appropriate solution ways and to decrease the delinquency rate. Thus, this article was prepared by utilizing data belongs to 205 incarcerated juveniles from different juvenile correction facilities in Turkey in 2007. B...

  3. Framing Effects are Robust to Linguistic Disambiguation: A Critical Test of Contemporary Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chick, Christina F.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Corbin, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical accounts of risky choice framing effects assume that decision makers interpret framing options as extensionally equivalent, such that if 600 lives are at stake, saving 200 implies that 400 die. However, many scholars have argued that framing effects are caused, instead, by filling in pragmatically implied information. This linguistic ambiguity hypothesis is grounded in neo-Gricean pragmatics, information leakage, and schema theory. In two experiments, we conducted a critical test ...

  4. How the Laser Helped to Improve the Test of Special Theory of Relativity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satya Pal

    2013-01-01

    In this paper of I have reviewed the test done for validating the special theory of relativity using masers and lasers in last one century. Michelson-Morley did the first experimental verification for the isotropy of space for the propagation of light in 1887. It has an accuracy of 1/100th of a fringe shift. The predicted fringe shift on the basis…

  5. Testing Alcohol Myopia Theory: Examining the effects of alcohol intoxication on simultaneous central and peripheral attention.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayless, Sarah; Harvey, Alistair, J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention was examined as a test of Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT). Previous research has supported AMT in the context of visual attention, but few studies have examined the effects of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention. The study followed a 2 (alcohol treatment) × 2 (array size) × 2 (task type) mixed design. Forty-one participants (placebo or intoxicated) viewed an array of four or six colored circles, while simu...

  6. Using information theory to identify redundancy in common laboratory tests in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon; Maslove, David M

    2015-07-31

    Clinical workflow is infused with large quantities of data, particularly in areas with enhanced monitoring such as the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Information theory can quantify the expected amounts of total and redundant information contained in a given clinical data type, and as such has the potential to inform clinicians on how to manage the vast volumes of data they are required to analyze in their daily practice. The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to quantify the amounts of redundant information associated with common ICU lab tests. We analyzed the information content of 11 laboratory test results from 29,149 adult ICU admissions in the MIMIC II database. Information theory was applied to quantify the expected amount of redundant information both between lab values from the same ICU day, and between consecutive ICU days. Most lab values showed a decreasing trend over time in the expected amount of novel information they contained. Platelet, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine measurements exhibited the most amount of redundant information on days 2 and 3 compared to the previous day. The creatinine-BUN and sodium-chloride pairs had the most redundancy. Information theory can help identify and discourage unnecessary testing and bloodwork, and can in general be a useful data analytic technique for many medical specialties that deal with information overload.

  7. Foundational Tests of the Need-Support Model: A Framework for Bridging Regulatory Focus Theory and Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Leigh Ann

    2017-03-01

    This article introduces the need-support model, which proposes that regulatory focus can affect subjective support for the needs proposed by self-determination theory (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), and support of these needs can affect subjective labeling of experiences as promotion-focused and prevention-focused. Three studies tested these hypotheses ( N = 2,114). Study 1 found that people recall more need support in promotion-focused experiences than in prevention-focused experiences, and need support in their day yesterday (with no particular regulatory focus) fell in between. Study 2 found that experiences of higher need support were more likely to be labeled as promotion-focused rather than prevention-focused, and that each need accounted for distinct variance in the labeling of experiences. Study 3 varied regulatory focus within a performance task and found that participants in the promotion condition engaged in need-support inflation, whereas participants in the prevention condition engaged in need-support deflation. Directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Strain, Attribution, and Traffic Delinquency among Young Drivers: Measuring and Testing General Strain Theory in the Context of Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwanger, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    This article enhances our knowledge of general strain theory (GST) by applying it to the context of traffic delinquency. It does so by first describing and confirming the development of a social-psychological measure allowing for a test of GST. Structural regression analysis is subsequently employed to test the theory within this context across a…

  9. A critical experimental test of synchrotron radiation theory with 3rd generation light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    A recent ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS apparently demonstrated that after a microbunched electron beam is kicked on a large angle compared to the divergence of the FEL radiation, the microbunching wave front is readjusted along the new direction of motion of the kicked beam. Therefore, coherent radiation from an undulator placed after the kicker is emitted along the kicked direction without suppression. This strong emission of coherent undulator radiation in the kicked direction cannot be explained in the framework of conventional synchrotron radiation theory. In a previous paper we explained this puzzle. We demonstrated that, in accelerator physics, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of results from particle dynamics treated according to the absolute time convention and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell equations treated according to the standard (Einstein) synchronization convention. Here lies the misconception which led to the strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiment. After the ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS, it became clear that the conventional theory of synchrotron radiation cannot ensure the correct description of coherent and spontaneous emission from a kicked electron beam, nor the emission from a beam with finite angular divergence, in an undulator or a bending magnet. However, this result requires further experimental confirmation. In this publication we propose an uncomplicated and inexpensive experiment to test synchrotron radiation theory at 3rd generation light sources.

  10. The Children's Attributional Style Interview: developmental tests of cognitive diathesis-stress theories of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, C S; Haines, B A; Hilt, L M; Metalsky, G I

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents an initial assessment of the Children's Attributional Style Interview (CASI), a newly designed measure for assessing attributional style in young children (age 5 and up). The CASI was used to conduct prospective tests of the reformulated helplessness and the integrated hopelessness/self-esteem theories of depression in a sample of 147 5-10-year-old children. For comparison, the same tests were also conducted with the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised, a commonly used measure for assessing attributional style in older children (age 8 and up). The CASI evidenced support of the reformulated helplessness theory and partial support of the integrated hopelessness/self-esteem theory. The CASI also demonstrated good internal consistency. Thus, our findings provide initial support for the CASI as a methodologically sound measure of attributional style for children as young as 5 years old. Although preliminary, our findings also suggest possible developmental differences in how attributional style interacts with self-esteem and negative life stress. The CASI should prove to be a useful tool in furthering the understanding of the origins and development of attributional style in childhood, as well as its contribution to the understanding of the development and prevention of depressive symptomatology in children.

  11. Body shape shifting during growth permits tests that distinguish between competing geometric theories of metabolic scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Glazier, Douglas S.; Atkinson, David

    2014-01-01

    the size dependence of metabolism is derived from material transport across external surfaces, or through internal resource-transport networks. We show that when body shape changes during growth, these models make opposing predictions. These models are tested using pelagic invertebrates, because...... these animals exhibit highly variable intraspecific scaling relationships for metabolic rate and body shape. Metabolic scaling slopes of diverse integument-breathing species were significantly positively correlated with degree of body flattening or elongation during ontogeny, as expected from surface area...... theory, but contradicting the negative correlations predicted by resource-transport network models. This finding explains strong deviations from predictions of widely adopted theory, and underpins a new explanation for mass-invariant metabolic scaling during ontogeny in animals and plants...

  12. Testing Ecological Theories of Offender Spatial Decision Making Using a Discrete Choice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shane D; Summers, Lucia

    2015-04-01

    Research demonstrates that crime is spatially concentrated. However, most research relies on information about where crimes occur, without reference to where offenders reside. This study examines how the characteristics of neighborhoods and their proximity to offender home locations affect offender spatial decision making. Using a discrete choice model and data for detected incidents of theft from vehicles (TFV), we test predictions from two theoretical perspectives-crime pattern and social disorganization theories. We demonstrate that offenders favor areas that are low in social cohesion and closer to their home, or other age-related activity nodes. For adult offenders, choices also appear to be influenced by how accessible a neighborhood is via the street network. The implications for criminological theory and crime prevention are discussed.

  13. Applying cognitive acuity theory to the development and scoring of situational judgment tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, J Peter

    2017-11-09

    The theory of cognitive acuity (TCA) treats the response options within items as signals to be detected and uses psychophysical methods to estimate the respondents' sensitivity to these signals. Such a framework offers new methods to construct and score situational judgment tests (SJT). Leeds (2012) defined cognitive acuity as the capacity to discern correctness and distinguish between correctness differences among simultaneously presented situation-specific response options. In this study, SJT response options were paired in order to offer the respondent a two-option choice. The contrast in correctness valence between the two options determined the magnitude of signal emission, with larger signals portending a higher probability of detection. A logarithmic relation was found between correctness valence contrast (signal stimulus) and its detectability (sensation response). Respondent sensitivity to such signals was measured and found to be related to the criterion variables. The linkage between psychophysics and elemental psychometrics may offer new directions for measurement theory.

  14. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  15. A Test of Stimulus-Response Versus a Power-Oriented Cognitive Theory of Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Richard E; Tedeschi, James T

    1978-10-01

    A basic postulate of reinforcement theories of attraction is that association of reward with a neutral stimulus person induces liking. The strongest support for this association principle is a study by Griffitt and Guay in which Ss' liking for an evaluator and a third party observer was directly related to the positive or negative nature of the evaluations. An alternative interpretation of these results is that actors like persons who perceive them as competent, because such esteem serves as a power base for future influence. A test of the competing hypotheses was carried out in a 2 × 2 factorial design in which Ss (N = 60 male undergraduates) received positive or negative evaluations in the presence of a third party who either did or did not observe the evaluations. The results clearly supported a power resource theory of attraction.

  16. A test of the theory of nonrenewable resources. Controlling for exploration and market power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malischek, Raimund [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Tode, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2015-05-15

    Despite the central role of the Hotelling model within the theory of nonrenewable resources, tests of the model are rarely found. If existent, these tests tend to ignore two key features, namely market power and exploration. We therefore suggest an extension of the basic Hotelling framework to incorporate exploration activity and market power and propose an implicit price behavior test of the model to indicate whether firms undergo inter-temporal optimization. When applied to a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry, the null hypothesis of the firm optimizing inter-temporally is rejected in all settings. However, parameter estimates of the model still yield valuable information on cost structure, resource scarcity and market power. Our results suggest that the shadow price of the resource in situ is comparably small and may be overshadowed by market power, which may serve as an explanation for the firm failing to optimize inter-temporally.

  17. Predictors of Iranian women's intention to first papanicolaou test practice: An application of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdari, T; Hassani, L; Shojaeizadeh, D; Hajizadeh, E; Nedjat, S; Abedini, M

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of papanicolaou (Pap) test in the early detection and timely treatment of cervical cancer, present study was designed to determine predictors of a sample of Iranian women's intention to first Pap test practice based on the protection motivation theory (PMT) variables. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 240 women referral to the 30 primary health care clinics were selected. They completed a developed scale based on PMT variables including intention, perceived vulnerability and severity, fear, response costs, response efficacy and self-efficacy. Path analysis was used to determine the association between predictive factors and intention. The results showed that PMT had goodness of fit with a χ2/df = 2.37, df = 28, P= 0.001 and RMSEA = 0.076. PMT explained 42% of the variance in women's intention to get first Pap smear test. Self-efficacy (b = 0.55, Ptesting among women.

  18. Roll Damping Derivatives from Generalized Lifting-Surface Theory and Wind Tunnel Forced-Oscillation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pototzky, Anthony S; Murphy, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Improving aerodynamic models for adverse loss-of-control conditions in flight is an area being researched under the NASA Aviation Safety Program. Aerodynamic models appropriate for loss of control conditions require a more general mathematical representation to predict nonlinear unsteady behaviors. As more general aerodynamic models are studied that include nonlinear higher order effects, the possibility of measurements that confound aerodynamic and structural responses are probable. In this study an initial step is taken to look at including structural flexibility in analysis of rigid-body forced-oscillation testing that accounts for dynamic rig, sting and balance flexibility. Because of the significant testing required and associated costs in a general study, it makes sense to capitalize on low cost analytical methods where possible, especially where structural flexibility can be accounted for by a low cost method. This paper provides an initial look at using linear lifting surface theory applied to rigid-body aircraft roll forced-oscillation tests.

  19. Learners Test Performance and Gardner`s MI Theory: Intercorrelation in a Bilingual Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Azarmi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although decisions and inferences made based on test scores depend both on the characteristics of test takers and testing environment, the former seems to have the most overriding importance. The present study which was conducted in a bilingual environment is in line with this assumption and is aimed at investigating intelligence as one of the test taker characteristics. First, it aimed at finding the possible correlation between any of the eight types of intelligences in Gardner`s MI theory and EAP test performance. Second, it intended to survey the intercorrelation
    among the eight types of intelligences themselves. To that end, 122 male bilingual EFL learners who were all sophomore university students were chosen as the participants of the study. They sat for the final EAP exam and filled the questionnaire on multiple intelligence. The test takers' scores on EAP exam were correlated with their multiple intelligences. The result did not demonstrate any statistically significant go-togetherness between EAP test performance and any types of intelligence; however, a significantly positive correlation was observed among the eight types of
    intelligences themselves showing that all types of intelligences are equally important and ought to be equally dealt with in EFL context.

  20. A global test for gene‐gene interactions based on random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Christopher I.; Moore, Jason H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Statistical interactions between markers of genetic variation, or gene‐gene interactions, are believed to play an important role in the etiology of many multifactorial diseases and other complex phenotypes. Unfortunately, detecting gene‐gene interactions is extremely challenging due to the large number of potential interactions and ambiguity regarding marker coding and interaction scale. For many data sets, there is insufficient statistical power to evaluate all candidate gene‐gene interactions. In these cases, a global test for gene‐gene interactions may be the best option. Global tests have much greater power relative to multiple individual interaction tests and can be used on subsets of the markers as an initial filter prior to testing for specific interactions. In this paper, we describe a novel global test for gene‐gene interactions, the global epistasis test (GET), that is based on results from random matrix theory. As we show via simulation studies based on previously proposed models for common diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes, and breast cancer, our proposed GET method has superior performance characteristics relative to existing global gene‐gene interaction tests. A glaucoma GWAS data set is used to demonstrate the practical utility of the GET method. PMID:27386793

  1. Exact and conceptual repetition dissociate conceptual memory tests: problems for transfer appropriate processing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, K B; Roediger, H L

    1996-03-01

    Three experiments examined whether a conceptual implicit memory test (specifically, category instance generation) would exhibit repetition effects similar to those found in free recall. The transfer appropriate processing account of dissociations among memory tests led us to predict that the tests would show parallel effects; this prediction was based upon the theory's assumption that conceptual tests will behave similarly as a function of various independent variables. In Experiment 1, conceptual repetition (i.e., following a target word [e.g., puzzles] with an associate [e.g., jigsaw]) did not enhance priming on the instance generation test relative to the condition of simply presenting the target word once, although this manipulation did affect free recall. In Experiment 2, conceptual repetition was achieved by following a picture with its corresponding word (or vice versa). In this case, there was an effect of conceptual repetition on free recall but no reliable effect on category instance generation or category cued recall. In addition, we obtained a picture superiority effect in free recall but not in category instance generation. In the third experiment, when the same study sequence was used as in Experiment 1, but with instructions that encouraged relational processing, priming on the category instance generation task was enhanced by conceptual repetition. Results demonstrate that conceptual memory tests can be dissociated and present problems for Roediger's (1990) transfer appropriate processing account of dissociations between explicit and implicit tests.

  2. Learners Test Performance and Gardner`s Multiple Inteligence Theory: Intercorrelation in a Bilingual Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Azarmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although decisions and inferences made based on test scores depend both on the characteristics of test takers and testing environment, the former seems to have the most overridingimportance. The present study which was conducted in a bilingual environment is in line with this assumption and is aimed at investigating intelligence as one of the test taker characteristics. First, it aimed at finding the possible correlation between any of the eight types of intelligences in Gardner`s MI theory and EAP test performance. Second, it intended to survey the intercorrelationamong the eight types of intelligences themselves. To that end, 122 male bilingual EFL learners who were all sophomore university students were chosen as the participants of the study. They satfor the final EAP exam and filled the questionnaire on multiple intelligence. The test takers' scores on EAP exam were correlated with their multiple intelligences. The result did not demonstrate anystatistically significant go-togetherness between EAP test performance and any types of intelligence; however, a significantly positive correlation was observed among the eight types of intelligences themselves showing that all types of intelligences are equally important and ought to be equally dealt with in EFL context.

  3. Numerical Analysis of Flattened Brazilian Disc Test Based on the Cusp Catastrophe Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian disc test is a simple and useful technique to determine the tensile strength of rock materials. By using FLAC3D, 63 numerical simulations in total were performed when flattened Brazilian disc coefficient and Poisson’s ratio were different. Based on Griffith theory, the corresponding FISH language was compiled to record the Griffith equivalent stress. Through analysis of numerical simulation results, it is indicated that fracture plane was not the plane going through center of the Brazilian disc, which was in good agreement with the references. In addition, the flattened Brazilian disc coefficients had greater influence on tensile strength than Poisson’s ratio. Based on cusp catastrophe theory, the flattened Brazilian disc coefficient should not exceed 0.035 for the flattened Brazilian disc tests. Consequently, a tensile strength empirical formula considering flattened Brazilian disc coefficient by utilizing the flattened Brazilian disc test was established, which was σt=0.9993 exp (-11.65ε2p/πDt, ε≤0.035.

  4. Experimental Test of the “Special State” Theory of Quantum Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence S. Schulman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of the “special state” theory of quantum measurement is proposed. It should be feasible with present-day laboratory equipment and involves a slightly elaborated Stern–Gerlach setup. The “special state” theory is conservative with respect to quantum mechanics, but radical with respect to statistical mechanics, in particular regarding the arrow of time. In this article background material is given on both quantum measurement and statistical mechanics aspects. For example, it is shown that future boundary conditions would not contradict experience, indicating that the fundamental equal-a-priori-probability assumption at the foundations of statistical mechanics is far too strong (since future conditioning reduces the class of allowed states. The test is based on a feature of this theory that was found necessary in order to recover standard (Born probabilities in quantum measurements. Specifically, certain systems should have “noise” whose amplitude follows the long-tailed Cauchy distribution. This distribution is marked by the occasional occurrence of extremely large signals as well as a non-self-averaging property. The proposed test is a variant of the Stern–Gerlach experiment in which protocols are devised, some of which will require the presence of this noise, some of which will not. The likely observational schemes would involve the distinction between detection and non-detection of that “noise”. The signal to be detected (or not would be either single photons or electric fields (and related excitations in the neighborhood of the ends of the magnets.

  5. The Change Delineator Theory: A Test With a Case Study of an Innovation in School-Community Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lensch, John E.

    1999-01-01

    The Change Delineator Theory, a theory of change developed by the researcher, is proposed and tested for validity against an identified case of change. In the theory's propositions, the researcher describes the roles individuals play in the process of change and reform, and suggests how these roles may also impact the process of change as it occurs on organizational and societal levels. By proposing this perspective on the process of change, it is the intent of the researcher to assist lead...

  6. An empirical test of Maslow's theory of need hierarchy using hologeistic comparison by statistical sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Sharts, J

    1986-10-01

    Maslow's hierarchy of basic human needs provides a major theoretical framework in nursing science. The purpose of this study was to empirically test Maslow's need theory, specifically at the levels of physiological and security needs, using a hologeistic comparative method. Thirty cultures taken from the 60 cultural units in the Health Relations Area Files (HRAF) Probability Sample were found to have data available for examining hypotheses about thermoregulatory (physiological) and protective (security) behaviors practiced prior to sleep onset. The findings demonstrate there is initial worldwide empirical evidence to support Maslow's need hierarchy.

  7. Code switching and sexual orientation: a test of Bernstein's sociolinguistic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumby, M E

    1976-01-01

    Bernstein's theory was tested in the homosexual's "closed" community to determine code-switching ability and its relationship to jargon. Subjects told a story based on homoerotic photographs where knowledge of sexual orientation was varied. Rather than finding the restricted code associated with in-group communication, an analysis of data trends (since all hypotheses were rejected) suggests that homosexual hemophyly encouraged elaboration, and status differentiation resulted in a more restricted code. Story length was the most significant variable across groups. Some of Bernstein's theoretical explanations require modification to account for subjects' behavior in stigmatized social groups.

  8. THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF ASSIMILATION: TESTING IMPLICATIONS OF SEGMENTED ASSIMILATION THEORY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Greenman, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Segmented assimilation theory has been a popular explanation for the diverse experiences of assimilation among new waves of immigrants and their children. While the theory has been interpreted in many different ways, we emphasize its implications for the important role of social context: both processes and consequences of assimilation should depend on the local social context in which immigrants are embedded. We derive empirically falsifiable hypotheses about the interaction effects between social context and assimilation on immigrant children's well-being. We then test the hypotheses using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our empirical analyses yield two main findings. First, for immigrant adolescents living in non-poverty neighborhoods, we find assimilation to be positively associated with educational achievement and psychological well-being but also positively associated with at-risk behavior. Second, there is little empirical evidence supporting our hypotheses derived from segmented assimilation theory. We interpret these results to mean that future research would be more fruitful focusing on differential processes of assimilation rather than differential consequences of assimilation. PMID:21572546

  9. The social context of assimilation: testing implications of segmented assimilation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Greenman, Emily

    2011-05-01

    Segmented assimilation theory has been a popular explanation for the diverse experiences of assimilation among new waves of immigrants and their children. While the theory has been interpreted in many different ways, we emphasize its implications for the important role of social context: both processes and consequences of assimilation should depend on the local social context in which immigrants are embedded. We derive empirically falsifiable hypotheses about the interaction effects between social context and assimilation on immigrant children's well-being. We then test the hypotheses using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our empirical analyses yield two main findings. First, for immigrant adolescents living in non-poverty neighborhoods, we find assimilation to be positively associated with educational achievement and psychological well-being but also positively associated with at-risk behavior. Second, there is little empirical evidence supporting our hypotheses derived from segmented assimilation theory. We interpret these results to mean that future research would be more fruitful focusing on differential processes of assimilation rather than differential consequences of assimilation.

  10. A Test of Spielberger’s State-Trait Theory of Anger with Adolescents: Five Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Colleen A.; Rollock, David; Vrana, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Spielberger’s state-trait theory of anger was investigated in adolescents (n = 201, ages 10–18, 53% African American, 47% European American, 48% female) using Deffenbacher’s five hypotheses formulated to test the theory in adults. Self-reported experience, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) responses to anger provoking imagery scripts found strong support for the application of this theory to adolescents. Compared to the low trait anger (LTA) group, adolescents with high trait anger (HTA) produced increased HR, SBP and DBP, and greater self-report of anger to anger imagery (intensity hypothesis) but not greater self-report or cardiovascular reactivity to fear or joy imagery (discrimination hypothesis). The HTA group also reported greater frequency and duration of anger episodes and had longer recovery of SBP response to anger (elicitation hypothesis). The HTA group was more likely to report negative health, social, and academic outcomes (consequence hypothesis). Adolescents with high hostility reported more maladaptive coping with anger, with higher anger-in and anger-out than adolescents with low hostility (negative expression hypothesis). The data on all five hypotheses supported the notion that trait anger is firmly entrenched by the period of adolescence, with few developmental differences noted from the adult literature. PMID:24040882

  11. A test of Spielberger's state-trait theory of anger with adolescents: five hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Colleen A; Rollock, David; Vrana, Scott R

    2014-02-01

    Spielberger's state-trait theory of anger was investigated in adolescents (n = 201, ages 10-18, 53% African American, 47% European American, 48% female) using Deffenbacher's five hypotheses formulated to test the theory in adults. Self-reported experience, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) responses to anger provoking imagery scripts found strong support for the application of this theory to adolescents. Compared with the low trait anger (LTA) group, adolescents with high trait anger (HTA) produced increased HR, SBP, and DBP, and greater self-report of anger to anger imagery (intensity hypothesis) but not greater self-report or cardiovascular reactivity to fear or joy imagery (discrimination hypothesis). The HTA group also reported greater frequency and duration of anger episodes and had longer recovery of SBP response to anger (elicitation hypothesis). The HTA group was more likely to report negative health, social, and academic outcomes (consequence hypothesis). Adolescents with high hostility reported more maladaptive coping with anger, with higher anger-in and anger-out than adolescents with low hostility (negative expression hypothesis). The data on all five hypotheses supported the notion that trait anger is firmly entrenched by the period of adolescence, with few developmental differences noted from the adult literature. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. Testing an intervention based on the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, E J; Mullan, B A; Butow, P

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) based intervention to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. The extent to which fruit and vegetable consumption and change in intake could be explained by the TPB was also examined. Participants were randomly assigned to two levels of intervention frequency matched for intervention content (low frequency n=92, high frequency n=102). Participants received TPB-based email messages designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, messages targeted attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Baseline and post-intervention measures of TPB variables and behaviour were collected. Across the entire study cohort, fruit and vegetable consumption increased by 0.83 servings/day between baseline and follow-up. Intention, attitude, subjective norm and PBC also increased (pTPB successfully modelled fruit and vegetable consumption at both time points but not behaviour change. The increase of fruit and vegetable consumption is a promising preliminary finding for those primarily interested in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. However, those interested in theory development may have concerns about the use of this model to explain behaviour change in this context. More high quality experimental tests of the theory are needed to confirm this result. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal Changes in Education Gradients of ‘Preventable’ Mortality: A Test of Fundamental Cause Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ryan K.; Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo C.

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental cause theory explains persisting associations between socioeconomic status and mortality in terms of personal resources such as knowledge, money, power, prestige, and social connections, as well as disparate social contexts related to these resources. We review evidence concerning fundamental cause theory and test three central claims using the National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality Files 1986-2004. We then examine cohort-based variation in the associations between a fundamental social cause of disease, educational attainment, and mortality rates from heart disease, other “preventable” causes of death, and less preventable causes of death. We further explore race/ethnic and gender variation in these associations. Overall, findings are consistent with nearly all features of fundamental cause theory. Results show, first, larger education gradients in mortality risk for causes of death that are under greater human control than for less preventable causes of death, and, second, that these gradients grew more rapidly across successive cohorts than gradients for less preventable causes. Results also show that relative sizes and cohort-based changes in the education gradients vary substantially by race/ethnicity and gender. PMID:25556675

  14. Trends in education gradients of 'preventable' mortality: a test of fundamental cause theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ryan K; Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo C

    2015-02-01

    Fundamental cause theory explains persisting associations between socioeconomic status and mortality in terms of personal resources such as knowledge, money, power, prestige, and social connections, as well as disparate social contexts related to these resources. We review evidence concerning fundamental cause theory and test three central claims using the National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality Files 1986-2004. We then examine cohort-based variation in the associations between a fundamental social cause of disease, educational attainment, and mortality rates from heart disease, other "preventable" causes of death, and less preventable causes of death. We further explore race/ethnic and gender variation in these associations. Overall, findings are consistent with nearly all features of fundamental cause theory. Results show, first, larger education gradients in mortality risk for causes of death that are under greater human control than for less preventable causes of death, and, second, that these gradients grew more rapidly across successive cohorts than gradients for less preventable causes. Results also show that relative sizes and cohort-based changes in the education gradients vary substantially by race/ethnicity and gender. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Are white evangelical Protestants lower class? A partial test of church-sect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadel, Philip

    2014-07-01

    Testing hypotheses derived from church-sect theory and contemporary research about changes in evangelical Protestants' social status, I use repeated cross-sectional survey data spanning almost four decades to examine changes in the social-class hierarchy of American religious traditions. While there is little change in the social-class position of white evangelical Protestants from the early 1970s to 2010, there is considerable change across birth cohorts. Results from hierarchical age-period-cohort models show: (1) robust, across-cohort declines in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and liberal Protestants, affiliates of "other" religions, and the unaffiliated, (2) stability in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and moderate, Pentecostal, and nondenominational Protestants, (3) moderate across-cohort growth in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and Catholics, and (4) these patterns vary across indicators of social class. The findings in this article provide partial support for church-sect theory as well as other theories of social change that emphasize the pivotal role of generations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Testing simulation theory with cross-modal multivariate classification of fMRI data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joset A Etzel

    Full Text Available The discovery of mirror neurons has suggested a potential neural basis for simulation and common coding theories of action perception, theories which propose that we understand other people's actions because perceiving their actions activates some of our neurons in much the same way as when we perform the actions. We propose testing this model directly in humans with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI by means of cross-modal classification. Cross-modal classification evaluates whether a classifier that has learned to separate stimuli in the sensory domain can also separate the stimuli in the motor domain. Successful classification provides support for simulation theories because it means that the fMRI signal, and presumably brain activity, is similar when perceiving and performing actions. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of the technique by showing that classifiers which have learned to discriminate whether a participant heard a hand or a mouth action, based on the activity patterns in the premotor cortex, can also determine, without additional training, whether the participant executed a hand or mouth action. This provides direct evidence that, while perceiving others' actions, (1 the pattern of activity in premotor voxels with sensory properties is a significant source of information regarding the nature of these actions, and (2 that this information shares a common code with motor execution.

  17. Testing simulation theory with cross-modal multivariate classification of fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzel, Joset A; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons has suggested a potential neural basis for simulation and common coding theories of action perception, theories which propose that we understand other people's actions because perceiving their actions activates some of our neurons in much the same way as when we perform the actions. We propose testing this model directly in humans with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) by means of cross-modal classification. Cross-modal classification evaluates whether a classifier that has learned to separate stimuli in the sensory domain can also separate the stimuli in the motor domain. Successful classification provides support for simulation theories because it means that the fMRI signal, and presumably brain activity, is similar when perceiving and performing actions. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of the technique by showing that classifiers which have learned to discriminate whether a participant heard a hand or a mouth action, based on the activity patterns in the premotor cortex, can also determine, without additional training, whether the participant executed a hand or mouth action. This provides direct evidence that, while perceiving others' actions, (1) the pattern of activity in premotor voxels with sensory properties is a significant source of information regarding the nature of these actions, and (2) that this information shares a common code with motor execution.

  18. Interpreting gains and losses in conceptual test using Item Response Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lamine, Brahim

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual tests are widely used by physics instructors to assess students' conceptual understanding and compare teaching methods. It is common to look at students' changes in their answers between a pre-test and a post-test to quantify a transition in student's conceptions. This is often done by looking at the proportion of incorrect answers in the pre-test that changes to correct answers in the post-test -- the gain -- and the proportion of correct answers that changes to incorrect answers -- the loss. By comparing theoretical predictions to experimental data on the Force Concept Inventory, we shown that Item Response Theory (IRT) is able to fairly well predict the observed gains and losses. We then use IRT to quantify the student's changes in a test-retest situation when no learning occurs and show that $i)$ up to 25\\% of total answers can change due to the non-deterministic nature of student's answer and that $ii)$ gains and losses can go from 0\\% to 100\\%. Still using IRT, we highlight the conditions tha...

  19. Towards a Theory for Integration of Mathematical Verification and Empirical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Boyd, Mark; Kulkarni, Deepak

    1998-01-01

    From the viewpoint of a project manager responsible for the V&V (verification and validation) of a software system, mathematical verification techniques provide a possibly useful orthogonal dimension to otherwise standard empirical testing. However, the value they add to an empirical testing regime both in terms of coverage and in fault detection has been difficult to quantify. Furthermore, potential cost savings from replacing testing with mathematical verification techniques cannot be realized until the tradeoffs and synergies can be formulated. Integration of formal verification with empirical testing is also difficult because the idealized view of mathematical verification providing a correctness proof with total coverage is unrealistic and does not reflect the limitations imposed by computational complexity of mathematical techniques. This paper first describes a framework based on software reliability and formalized fault models for a theory of software design fault detection - and hence the utility of various tools for debugging. It then describes a utility model for integrating mathematical and empirical techniques with respect to fault detection and coverage analysis. It then considers the optimal combination of black-box testing, white-box (structural) testing, and formal methods in V&V of a software system. Using case studies from NASA software systems, it then demonstrates how this utility model can be used in practice.

  20. [The interpretation of attachment in the Szondi test and in the questionnaire processes of attachment theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török I, András; Vincze, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    [corrected] The Szondi-test is widely applied in clinical diagnostics in Hungary too, and the evidence resulting from the theory is that we can get information about attachment during its interpreting. Its validity is proven by empirical research and clinical experiences. By analyzing the modern attachment theory more thoroughly, it becomes clear in what ways the Szondi-test constellations regarding attachment are different from the classificationbased on questionnaires, allowing the discrete measurement of the attachment style. With the Szondi-test the classification to attachment style is more insecure, but if it is completed with exploration, it is more informative in vector C (vector of relation, attachment information), while short questionnaires make the classification to attachment style possible. In our empirical analysis we represent the integration of the above mentioned clinical and theoretical experiences. In the present analysis we compare the vector C and S constellation of the two-profile Szondi-test of 80 persons with the dimensions of ECR-R questionnaire and with Collins and Read's questionnaire classification regarding attachment style. The statistical results refer to the fact that there is a legitimacy to compare questionnaire processes allowing the discrete classification of attachment and the Szondi-test's information content regarding attachment. With applying the methods together, we get a unique, complementary section of the information relating to attachment. Comparing the two methods (projective and questionnaire) establishes the need of theoretical integration as well. We also make an attempt to explain Fraley's evolutionary non-adaptivity of avoidant attachment, in the case of whose presence adaptivity of early attachment, counterbalancing the exploration and security need, and providing closeness--farness loses its balance.

  1. Testing the theory of holism: A study of family systems and adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Valerie; Pickett, William; King, Nathan; Davison, Colleen

    2016-12-01

    Holism is an ancient theory that can be applied contemporarily to adolescent health and its determinants. This theory suggests that there is value in considering factors that influence health together as integrated wholes, in addition to consideration of individual components. Characteristics of families are fundamental determinants of health and provide opportunity for exploration of this theory. In a "proof-of-concept" analysis we therefore: (1) developed a multidimensional, composite (holistic) measure to be used to characterize family systems; and (2) related this measure and its individual components to adolescent health outcomes, in order to test the theory of holism. Cross-sectional analyses of survey reports from the 2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (weighted n = 19,333) were performed. Factor analysis was used to confirm the psychometric properties of the holistic measure to describe a family system (the "holistic measure"). Associations between this holistic measure, its individual components, and various indicators of health were examined descriptively and using binomial regression. The holistic measure (4 items, α = 0.62; RMSEA = .04; SRMR = 0.01; AGFI = 0.99) included components describing family: material wealth, meal practices, neighbourhood social capital, and social connections. It was consistently associated with various health behaviours, and social and emotional health outcomes. In 22/24 comparisons, this holistic measure related to positive health outcomes more strongly than did its individual components; for negative health outcomes this occurred in 20/24 comparisons. Study findings suggest that it is possible to assess family systems holistically. Such systems are strongly associated with adolescent health outcomes, and there is etiological and theoretical value in considering family systems as integrated wholes.

  2. Measurement of e/sup +/e/sup -/. --> mu. /sup +/. mu. /sup -/: A test of electroweak theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Becker, U.; Becker-Szendy, R.; Berdugo, J.; Boehm, A.; Branson, J.G.; Burger, J.D.; Capell, M.; Cerrada, M.; Chang, C.C.

    1985-08-12

    We use the reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/..--> mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/, in the Mark J detector at the DESY high-energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ collider PETRA, to test the standard electroweak theory and find good agreement. We also set limits on the parameters of several extended gauge theories.

  3. Gender Inequality, Violence Against Women, and Fear: A Cross-National Test of the Feminist Theory of Violence Against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodanis, Carrie L.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a cross-national test of the feminist theory of violence against women. Combining data from the International Crime Victims Survey (ICVS) with United Nations statistics, the findings support the theory. Specifically, the results indicate that the educational and occupational status of women in a country is related to the…

  4. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck's Model with Returning to School Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette

    2005-01-01

    This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…

  5. Suicidal Desire and the Capability for Suicide: Tests of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Bender, Theodore W.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (T. E. Joiner, 2005) proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless he or she has both the desire to die by suicide and the ability to do so. Three studies test the theory's hypotheses. In Study 1, the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness…

  6. Using Deterministic, Gated Item Response Theory Model to detect test cheating due to item compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhan; Henson, Robert; Luecht, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Deterministic, Gated Item Response Theory Model (DGM, Shu, Unpublished Dissertation. The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2010) is proposed to identify cheaters who obtain significant score gain on tests due to item exposure/compromise by conditioning on the item status (exposed or unexposed items). A "gated" function is introduced to decompose the observed examinees' performance into two distributions (the true ability distribution determined by examinees' true ability and the cheating distribution determined by examinees' cheating ability). Test cheaters who have score gain due to item exposure are identified through the comparison of the two distributions. Hierarchical Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used as the model's estimation framework. Finally, the model is applied in a real data set to illustrate how the model can be used to identify examinees having pre-knowledge on the exposed items.

  7. Comparison of experimental tests and theory for a rectangular two-channel dielectric wakefield accelerator structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Shchelkunov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are reported for test beam acceleration and deflection in a two-channel, cm-scale, rectangular dielectric-lined wakefield accelerator structure energized by a 14-MeV drive beam. The dominant waveguide mode of the structure is at ∼30  GHz, and the structure is configured to exhibit a high transformer ratio (∼12∶1. Accelerated bunches in the narrow secondary channel of the structure are continuously energized via Cherenkov radiation that is emitted by a drive bunch moving in the wider primary channel. Observed energy gains and losses, transverse deflections, and changes in the test bunch charge distribution compare favorably with predictions of theory.

  8. Developing a short form of Benton's Judgment of Line Orientation Test: an item response theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamia, Matthew; Markon, Kristian; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    The Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) test was developed to be, in Arthur Benton's words, "as pure a measure of one aspect of spatial thinking, as could be conceived" (Benton, 1994, p. 53). The JLO test has been widely used in neuropsychological practice for decades. The test has a high test-retest reliability (Franzen, 2000), as well as good neuropsychological construct validity as shown through neuroanatomical localization studies (Tranel, Vianna, Manzel, Damasio, & Grabowski, 2009). Despite its popularity and strong psychometric properties, the full-length version of the test (30 items) has been criticized as being unnecessarily long (Straus, Sherman, & Spreen, 2006). There have been many attempts at developing short forms; however, these forms have been limited in their ability to estimate scores accurately. Taking advantage of a large sample of JLO performances from 524 neurological patients with focal brain lesions, we used techniques from item response theory (IRT) to estimate each item's difficulty and power to discriminate among various levels of ability. A random item IRT model was used to estimate the influence of item stimulus properties as predictors of item difficulty. These results were used to optimize the selection of items for a shorter method of administration that maintained comparability with the full form using significantly fewer items. This effectiveness of this method was replicated in a second sample of 82 healthy elderly participants. The findings should help broaden the clinical utility of the JLO and enhance its diagnostic applications.

  9. An alternative test of the trade-off theory of capital structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Canarella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the stochastic behavior of corporate debt ratios utilizing a balanced panel of 2,556 publicly traded U.S. firms during the period 1997-2010. We partition the panel into ten economic sectors and perform panel unit root tests on each sector employing book value and market value measures of debt ratio. First-generation panel unit root tests provide consistent evidence that debt ratios are mean reverting, which supports the trade-off theory. However, these tests rely on the assumption that the debt ratios are cross-sectionally independent, but tests of cross-sectional independence fail to uphold this assumption. Thus, utilizing a second-generation panel unit root test that controls for cross-sectional dependence, we uncover evidence showing that debt ratios are not mean reverting, which contradicts the trade-off hypothesis. We find that the recent macroeconomic developments triggered by the financial crisis and the Great Recession have considerable explanatory power over the dynamics of the debt ratios. In fact, when we exclude the years of the recent global financial crisis, the unit root hypothesis is rejected in one half of the sectors. We interpret these results as indicative that the recent global events may have produced in these sectors a structural change in the underlying data generation process (DGP. Overall, then, we find mixed evidence on the stationarity of debt ratios.

  10. Life Stress, Strain, and Deviance Across Schools: Testing the Contextual Version of General Strain Theory in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinwu; Liu, Jianhong; Wang, Xin; Zou, Anquan

    2017-08-01

    General Strain Theory delineates different types of strain and intervening processes from strain to deviance and crime. In addition to explaining individual strain-crime relationship, a contextualized version of general strain theory, which is called the Macro General Strain Theory, has been used to analyze how aggregate variables influence aggregate and individual deviance and crime. Using a sample of 1,852 students (Level 1) nested in 52 schools (Level 2), the current study tests the Macro General Strain Theory using Chinese data. The results revealed that aggregate life stress and strain have influences on aggregate and individual deviance, and reinforce the individual stress-deviance association. The current study contributes by providing the first Macro General Strain Theory test based on Chinese data and offering empirical evidence for the multilevel intervening processes from strain to deviance. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  11. Reading ability and print exposure: item response theory analysis of the author recognition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mariah; Gordon, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    In the author recognition test (ART), participants are presented with a series of names and foils and are asked to indicate which ones they recognize as authors. The test is a strong predictor of reading skill, and this predictive ability is generally explained as occurring because author knowledge is likely acquired through reading or other forms of print exposure. In this large-scale study (1,012 college student participants), we used item response theory (IRT) to analyze item (author) characteristics in order to facilitate identification of the determinants of item difficulty, provide a basis for further test development, and optimize scoring of the ART. Factor analysis suggested a potential two-factor structure of the ART, differentiating between literary and popular authors. Effective and ineffective author names were identified so as to facilitate future revisions of the ART. Analyses showed that the ART is a highly significant predictor of the time spent encoding words, as measured using eyetracking during reading. The relationship between the ART and time spent reading provided a basis for implementing a higher penalty for selecting foils, rather than the standard method of ART scoring (names selected minus foils selected). The findings provide novel support for the view that the ART is a valid indicator of reading volume. Furthermore, they show that frequency data can be used to select items of appropriate difficulty, and that frequency data from corpora based on particular time periods and types of texts may allow adaptations of the test for different populations.

  12. Reading Ability and Print Exposure: Item Response Theory Analysis of the Author Recognition Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mariah; Gordon, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    In the Author Recognition Test (ART) participants are presented with a series of names and foils and are asked to indicate which ones they recognize as authors. The test is a strong predictor of reading skill, with this predictive ability generally explained as occurring because author knowledge is likely acquired through reading or other forms of print exposure. This large-scale study (1012 college student participants) used Item Response Theory (IRT) to analyze item (author) characteristics to facilitate identification of the determinants of item difficulty, provide a basis for further test development, and to optimize scoring of the ART. Factor analysis suggests a potential two factor structure of the ART differentiating between literary vs. popular authors. Effective and ineffective author names were identified so as to facilitate future revisions of the ART. Analyses showed that the ART is a highly significant predictor of time spent encoding words as measured using eye-tracking during reading. The relationship between the ART and time spent reading provided a basis for implementing a higher penalty for selecting foils, rather than the standard method of ART scoring (names selected minus foils selected). The findings provide novel support for the view that the ART is a valid indicator of reading volume. Further, they show that frequency data can be used to select items of appropriate difficulty and that frequency data from corpora based on particular time periods and types of text may allow test adaptation for different populations. PMID:25410405

  13. Psychological motives and online games addiction: a test of flow theory and humanistic needs theory for Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-06-01

    Obviously, the negative impact of online games has received much attention as well as having become a popular research topic. This research explored, from flow theory and humanistic needs theory, the psychological motivations of Taiwanese adolescents who are addicted to online games. The purpose of Study 1 was to investigate the relationship between players' flow state and their online games addiction. The results indicated that flow state was negatively correlated with addictive inclination and it was not a significant predictor for players' subsequent additive inclination. Findings also revealed that the addicts' flow state was significantly lower than the nonaddicts. Thus, flow state might not be the key psychological mechanism of players' addiction. In Study 2, the results showed that the psychological needs of players of online games were close to the two-factor theory which depicts satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions. Addicted players' need-gratification was similar to the feature of dissatisfactory factor. That is, the absence of playing online games is more likely to generate sense of dissatisfaction; the addicts' compulsive use of online games seems to stem from the relief of dissatisfaction rather than the pursuit of satisfaction. In contrast, online games tend to provide the nonaddicts with a sense of satisfaction rather than a sense of dissatisfaction.

  14. A test of evolutionary policing theory with data from human societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kümmerli

    Full Text Available In social groups where relatedness among interacting individuals is low, cooperation can often only be maintained through mechanisms that repress competition among group members. Repression-of-competition mechanisms, such as policing and punishment, seem to be of particular importance in human societies, where cooperative interactions often occur among unrelated individuals. In line with this view, economic games have shown that the ability to punish defectors enforces cooperation among humans. Here, I examine a real-world example of a repression-of-competition system, the police institutions common to modern human societies. Specifically, I test evolutionary policing theory by comparing data on policing effort, per capita crime rate, and similarity (used as a proxy for genetic relatedness among citizens across the 26 cantons of Switzerland. This comparison revealed full support for all three predictions of evolutionary policing theory. First, when controlling for policing efforts, crime rate correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens. This is in line with the prediction that high similarity results in higher levels of cooperative self-restraint (i.e. lower crime rates because it aligns the interests of individuals. Second, policing effort correlated negatively with the similarity among citizens, supporting the prediction that more policing is required to enforce cooperation in low-similarity societies, where individuals' interests diverge most. Third, increased policing efforts were associated with reductions in crime rates, indicating that policing indeed enforces cooperation. These analyses strongly indicate that humans respond to cues of their social environment and adjust cheating and policing behaviour as predicted by evolutionary policing theory.

  15. The ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) as a model for testing food-value theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Scholtens, Brian; Monroe, Adrian; Andersen, David

    2013-01-01

    Food-value theory states that territorial animals space themselves such that each territory contains adequate food for rearing young. The ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) is often cited as a species for which this hypothesis is supported because ovenbird territory size is inversely related to ground-invertebrate abundance within territories. However, little is known about juvenile ovenbird diet and whether food availability is accurately assessed using ground-sampling methods. We examined the relationship between ground-litter food availability and juvenile ovenbird diet in mixed northern hardwood-coniferous forests of north-central Minnesota. We sampled food availability with pitfall traps and litter samples, and concurrently sampled diet of juvenile ovenbirds from stomach samples. We found that juvenile ovenbirds were fed selectively from available food resources. In addition, we found that both ground-sampling methods greatly under-sampled forest caterpillars and snails, which together comprised 63% of juvenile ovenbird diet by mass. Combined with recent radio-telemetry findings that spot-mapping methods can poorly estimate territory size for forest songbirds, our results suggest that comparisons of spot-mapped ovenbird territories with ground-sampled invertebrate availability may not be reliable tests of food-value theory.

  16. Engagement and disengagement in mutual-help addiction recovery housing: a test of affective events theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Christopher R; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-06-01

    This study tested an affective events theory (AET) model in the Oxford House network of recovery homes. Residents' congruence with their home (P-E fit) was hypothesized to directly influence behavior that supported the house and other residents-citizenship behavior. We further hypothesized P-E fit would be related to member intentions to leave, with attitudes toward the home mediating that relationship. To assess this, we administered a cross-sectional national survey to 296 residents of 83 randomly selected Oxford Houses. Although the AET model demonstrated good fit with the data, an alternative model fit better. This alternative model suggested an additional indirect relationship between P-E fit and citizenship mediated by attitudes. Results suggested affective experiences such as feeling like one fits with a community may influence engagement and disengagement. There appears to be a direct influence of fit on citizenship behavior and an indirect influence of fit through recovery home attitudes on both citizenship and intentions to leave the home. We conclude affective experiences could be important for community engagement and disengagement but AET may need to integrate cognitive dissonance theory.

  17. A test of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide among arrested domestic violence offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Brem, Meagan J; Elmquist, JoAnna; Florimbio, Autumn Rae; Smith, Phillip N; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about risk factors for suicide ideation and attempts among domestic violence offenders. Guided by the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, this cross-sectional study examined risk factors for suicide ideation and attempts among 312 men and 84 women arrested for domestic violence and mandated to attend batterer intervention programs. Men reported greater capability for suicide, but no gender differences were found in perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. After controlling for correlates of suicide ideation, perceived burdensomeness-but not thwarted belongingness or its interaction with perceived burdensomeness-associated with suicide ideation. Suicide attempters exhibited greater perceived burdensomeness, drug use and problems, borderline personality disorder symptoms, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation, but not capability for suicide, than nonattempters. Gender did not moderate the associations of the IPTS constructs with suicide ideation and attempts. These findings parallel tests of the interpersonal-psychological theory in other samples. Additional work is needed to identify factors that distinguish risk for suicide ideation from risk for suicide attempts among domestic violence offenders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tests of the Electroweak Theory with the DELPHI detector at LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, M.

    1995-04-01

    In this thesis, precision tests of the electroweak theory with the DELPHI detector at LEP are presented. Two main areas of experimental investigation have been pursed. In the first, the Z{sup o} resonance parameters were determined through precise measurements of the cross section for Z{sup o} production and decay into hadronic and leptonic final states at several collision energies close to the peak of the resonance. Precise measurements of the resonance parameter (the mass, the width, and the peak cross section) provide interesting constraints on the electroweak theory. In particular, the width and the peak cross section depend on the number of neutrino species in nature. The LEP data showed that the number of neutrinos is three. In the second main area of investigation the longitudinal polarisation of tau leptons produced in Z{sup o} decays was determined. The polarisation and its dependence on the production polar angle was deduced from an analysis of the kinematics of the tau decay products. About 40x10{sup 3} tau pair events from Z{sup o} decays were analysed. Assuming electron-tau universality the results of the measurement can be expressed in terms of the effective weak mixing angle. 74 refs.

  19. An empirical test of ecodevelopmental theory in predicting HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Bandiera, Frank; Schwartz, Seth J; de la Vega, Pura; Brown, C Hendricks; Pantin, Hilda

    2010-02-01

    Ecodevelopmental theory is a theoretical framework used to explain the interplay among risk and protective processes associated with HIV risk behaviors among adolescents. Although ecodevelopmentally based interventions have been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth, this theory has not yet been directly empirically tested through a basic research study in this population. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to empirically evaluate an ecodevelopmentally based model using structural equation modeling, with substance use and early sex initiation as the two outcomes of the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships. The sample consisted of 586 Hispanic youth (M age = 13.6; SD = 0.75) and their primary caregivers living in Miami, Florida. Adolescent, parent, and teacher reports were used. The results provided strong support for the theoretical model. More specifically, the parent-adolescent acculturation gap is indirectly related both to early sex initiation and to adolescent substance use through family functioning, academic functioning, perceived peer sexual behavior, and perceived peer substance use. Additionally, parent's U.S. orientation is associated with adolescent substance use and adolescent sex initiation through social support for parents, parental stressors, family functioning, academic functioning, and perceived peer sexual behavior and substance use. These findings suggest that HIV risk behaviors may best be understood as associated with multiple and interrelated ecological determinants.

  20. Childhood abuse and criminal behavior: testing a general strain theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stephen J; McNulty, Thomas L

    2013-10-01

    This article draws on general strain theory (GST) to develop and test a model of the childhood abuse-crime relationship. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health),(1) we find that early childhood physical and sexual abuse are robust predictors of offending in adolescence, for the full sample and in equations disaggregated by gender. GST is partially supported in that the effects of childhood physical abuse on offending for both females and males are mediated by an index of depression symptoms, whereas the effect of sexual abuse among females appears to be mediated largely by closeness to mother. The effect of childhood sexual abuse among males, however, is more robust than among females and it persists despite controls for low self-control, ties to delinquent peers, school attachment, and closeness to mother. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. Testing the theory of reasoned action in explaining sexual behavior among African American young teen girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doswell, Willa M; Braxter, Betty J; Cha, Eunseok; Kim, Kevin H

    2011-12-01

    This study tested the Theory of Reasoned Action to examine the prediction of early sexual behavior among African American young teen girls. Baseline data from a longitudinal randomized clinical trial were used. Between 2001 and 2005, 198 middle-school girls aged 11 to 14 years were recruited. As girls aged, they held more permissive attitudes toward engaging in early sexual behavior and had a higher intention to engage in early sexual behavior. Intention was a significant predictor to explain sexual behavior among the girls. There is a need to develop strategies that promote intention related to delay and prevention of early sexual behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonmetric test of the minimax theory of two-person zerosum games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B

    1987-04-01

    As an experimental test of the minimax theory for two-person zerosum games, subjects played a game that was especially easy for them to understand and whose minimax-prescribed solution did not depend on quantitative assumptions about their utilities for money. Players' average relative frequencies for the moves and their proportions of wins were almost exactly as predicted by minimax, but subject-to-subject variability was too high. These results suggest that people can deviate somewhat from minimax play since their opponents have limited information-processing ability and are imperfect record keepers, but they do not stray so far that the difference will be noticed and their own payoffs will be diminished.

  3. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Patricia Díaz Heredia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025 and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000. Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops.

  4. Dissociation between wanting and liking for alcohol and caffeine: A test of the Incentive Sensitisation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulkadacham, Lilani J; Richardson, Ben; Staiger, Petra K; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; O'Donnell, Renée L; Ling, Mathew

    2017-07-01

    Limited human studies have directly tested the dissociation between wanting and liking with human substance users, a core tenet of the Incentive Sensitisation Theory (IST). The aim of this study is to test the dissociation between wanting and liking in humans across two commonly used licit substances, alcohol and caffeine. The STRAP-R (Sensitivity To Reinforcement of Addictive and other Primary Rewards) questionnaire was administered to 285 alcohol users (mean age=33.30, SD= 8.83) and 134 coffee users (mean age=33.05, SD=8.10) ranging in their levels of substance use to assess wanting and liking. Findings showed that in high risk alcohol users wanting may drive alcohol consumption more so than liking, compared with low risk alcohol users. However, wanting and liking did not significantly dissociate as alcohol consumption increased. These findings partially support IST. Additionally, IST was not supported in coffee users. It is possible that caffeine functions differently at the neurological level compared with alcohol, perhaps explaining the lack of dissociation emerging in coffee users as caffeine use increased. Nevertheless, the current study makes several contributions to IST research. Future studies should focus on utilising the STRAP-R with a clinically dependent sample to test the dissociation between wanting and liking.

  5. Testing the integrated theory of health behaviour change for postpartum weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Polly; Weiss, Marianne; Traxel, Nicole; Brondino, Michael

    2011-09-01

    This is a report of a correlational study to test the Integrated Theory of Health Behaviour Change within the context of postpartum weight self-management including the impact of race/ethnicity and weight classification. Women experiencing childbirth face increasing challenges to manage their weight postpartum. Little is known about women's weight self-management during the complex physiological and psychosocial transition of the postpartum period. Data were collected during the birth hospitalization and 4 months postbirth during 2005 and 2006. A quota sample of 250 postpartum women using two strata, race/ethnicity and prepregnant weight classification, were enrolled; 179 women completed the follow-up survey. A survey questionnaire measured concepts from the Integrated Theory of Health Behaviour Change concepts, including knowledge and beliefs (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and goal congruence), self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation (social support and social influence) and the proximal outcome of weight retention. Factor analysis identified 5 factors consistent with the theoretical concepts that accounted for 47·1% of total survey variance. Model testing using path analysis explored the relationship among factors. The final model explained 25·7% of the variance in self regulation at 4 months, but did not explain weight retention. The contribution of select concepts to total variance was different for Caucasian and African American women, but not by weight classification. Findings support use of theoretical concepts and relationships to understand postpartum weight self-management. The different relationships among concepts in Caucasian and African American women should be considered in planning targeted postpartum weight self-management interventions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Testing the water-energy theory on American palms (Arecaceae using geographically weighted regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf L Eiserhardt

    Full Text Available Water and energy have emerged as the best contemporary environmental correlates of broad-scale species richness patterns. A corollary hypothesis of water-energy dynamics theory is that the influence of water decreases and the influence of energy increases with absolute latitude. We report the first use of geographically weighted regression for testing this hypothesis on a continuous species richness gradient that is entirely located within the tropics and subtropics. The dataset was divided into northern and southern hemispheric portions to test whether predictor shifts are more pronounced in the less oceanic northern hemisphere. American palms (Arecaceae, n = 547 spp., whose species richness and distributions are known to respond strongly to water and energy, were used as a model group. The ability of water and energy to explain palm species richness was quantified locally at different spatial scales and regressed on latitude. Clear latitudinal trends in agreement with water-energy dynamics theory were found, but the results did not differ qualitatively between hemispheres. Strong inherent spatial autocorrelation in local modeling results and collinearity of water and energy variables were identified as important methodological challenges. We overcame these problems by using simultaneous autoregressive models and variation partitioning. Our results show that the ability of water and energy to explain species richness changes not only across large climatic gradients spanning tropical to temperate or arctic zones but also within megathermal climates, at least for strictly tropical taxa such as palms. This finding suggests that the predictor shifts are related to gradual latitudinal changes in ambient energy (related to solar flux input rather than to abrupt transitions at specific latitudes, such as the occurrence of frost.

  7. An Investigation of Invariance Properties of One, Two and Three Parameter Logistic Item Response Theory Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Awopeju

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the invariance properties of one, two and three parame-ter logistic item response theory models. It examined the best fit among one parameter logistic (1PL, two-parameter logistic (2PL and three-parameter logistic (3PL IRT models for SSCE, 2008 in Mathematics. It also investigated the degree of invariance of the IRT models based item difficulty parameter estimates in SSCE in Mathematics across different samples of examinees and examined the degree of invariance of the IRT models based item discrimination estimates in SSCE in Mathematics across different samples of examinees. In order to achieve the set objectives, 6000 students (3000 males and 3000 females were drawn from the population of 35262 who wrote the 2008 paper 1 Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE in Mathematics organized by National Examination Council (NECO. The item difficulty and item discrimination parameter estimates from CTT and IRT were tested for invariance using BLOG MG 3 and correlation analysis was achieved using SPSS version 20. The research findings were that two parameter model IRT item difficulty and discrimination parameter estimates exhibited invariance property consistently across different samples and that 2-parameter model was suitable for all samples of examinees unlike one-parameter model and 3-parameter model.

  8. Psycholinguistic factors in testing children’s theory of mind: false belief in their own words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel

    Symposium presented by Nathalie Nader-Grosbois, Valerie Plumet, Edy Veneziano, Koviljka Barisnikov, discussant: Koviljka Barisnikov. How does Theory of mind explain social skills? What is the impact of communicative and linguistic factors on Theory of mind?...

  9. A Control-Value Theory Approach: Relationships between Academic Self-Concept, Interest, and Test Anxiety in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Annette; Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on test anxiety of elementary school children has mainly focused on prevalence rates and gender differences. Less work has addressed predictors of test anxiety in elementary school children. According to the control-value theory developed by Pekrun ("Educ Psychol Rev" 18:315-341. doi: 10.1007/s10648-006-9029-9,…

  10. Gravity from Poincare Gauge Theory of the Fundamental Particles. II : Equations of Motion for Test Bodies and Various Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji, HAYASHI; Takeshi, SHIRAFUJI; Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo; Physics Department, Saitama University

    1980-01-01

    We study the equations of motion for test bodies and various limits in Poincare gauge theory with linear and quadratic Lagrangians. The classical equations of motion are derived both for spin-1/2 particles and for macroscopic test bodies. It is also shown that various limits can be taken, including General Relativity and New General Relativity.

  11. An Exploratory Study of the Applicability of Item Response Theory Methods to the Graduate Management Admission Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Neal; And Others

    A necessary prerequisite to the operational use of item response theory (IRT) in any testing program is the investigation of the feasibility of such an approach. This report presents the results of such research for the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT). Despite the fact that GMAT data appear to violate a basic assumption of the…

  12. HSCT Ref-H Transonic Flap Data Base: Wind-Tunnel Test and Comparison with Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijgen, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    In cooperation with personnel from the Boeing ANP Laboratory and NASA Langley, a performance test was conducted using the Reference-H 1.675% model ("NASA Modular Model") without nacelles at the NASA Langley 16-Ft Transonic Tunnel. The main objective of the test was to determine the drag reduction achievable with leading-edge and trailing-edge flaps deflected along the outboard wing span at transonic Mach numbers (M = 0.9 to 1.2) for purpose of preliminary design and for comparison with computational predictions. The obtained drag data with flap deflections for Mach numbers of 1.07 to 1.20 are unique for the Reference H wing. Four leading-edge and two trailing-edge flap deflection angles were tested at a mean-wing chord-Reynolds number of about 5.7 million. An outboard-wing leading-edge flap deflection of 81 provides a 4.5 percent drag reduction at M = 1.2 A = 0.2), and much larger values at lower Mach numbers with larger flap deflections. The present results for the baseline (no flaps deflected) compare reasonably well with previous Boeing and NASA Ref-H tunnel tests, including high-Reynolds number NTF results. Viscous CFD simulations using the OVERFLOW thin-layer N.S. method properly predict the observed trend in drag reduction at M = 1.2 as function of leading-edge flap deflection. Modified linear theory properly predicts the flap effects on drag at subsonic conditions (Aero2S code), and properly predicts the absolute drag for the 40 and 80 leading-edge deflection at M = 1.2 (A389 code).

  13. Using Neural Data to Test A Theory of Investor Behavior: An Application to Realization Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, Cary; Barberis, Nicholas; Camerer, Colin; Bossaerts, Peter; Rangel, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    We use measures of neural activity provided by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the "realization utility" theory of investor behavior, which posits that people derive utility directly from the act of realizing gains and losses. Subjects traded stocks in an experimental market while we measured their brain activity. We find that all subjects exhibit a strong disposition effect in their trading, even though it is suboptimal. Consistent with the realization utility explanation for this behavior, we find that activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area known to encode the value of options during choices, correlates with the capital gains of potential trades; that the neural measures of realization utility correlate across subjects with their individual tendency to exhibit a disposition effect; and that activity in the ventral striatum, an area known to encode information about changes in the present value of experienced utility, exhibits a positive response when subjects realize capital gains. These results provide support for the realization utility model and, more generally, demonstrate how neural data can be helpful in testing models of investor behavior.

  14. Organizational and media stress among professional football players: testing an achievement goal theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, E; Halvari, H; Roberts, G C

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate media and coach-athlete stress experienced by professional football players and their relationship to motivational variables by testing an achievement goal theory (AGT) stress model. In order to do so, we developed scales specifically designed to assess media and coach-athlete stress. Eighty-two elite football players (M(age) =25.17 years, SD=5.19) completed a series of questionnaires. Correlations and bootstrapping were used as primary statistical analyses, supplemented by LISREL, to test the hypotheses. Results revealed that a mastery climate was directly and negatively associated with coach-athlete stress, while a performance climate was directly and positively associated with coach-athlete stress. In addition, an indirect positive path between the performance climate and media stress was revealed through ego orientation. These findings support some of the key postulates of AGT; a mastery climate reduces the perception of stress among athletes, and the converse is true for a performance climate. Coaches of elite footballers are advised to try to reduce the emphasis on performance criteria because of its stress-reducing effects. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Massive-Scale Gene Co-Expression Network Construction and Robustness Testing Using Random Matrix Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Sven; Luo, Feng; Feltus, Frank A.; Smith, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    The study of gene relationships and their effect on biological function and phenotype is a focal point in systems biology. Gene co-expression networks built using microarray expression profiles are one technique for discovering and interpreting gene relationships. A knowledge-independent thresholding technique, such as Random Matrix Theory (RMT), is useful for identifying meaningful relationships. Highly connected genes in the thresholded network are then grouped into modules that provide insight into their collective functionality. While it has been shown that co-expression networks are biologically relevant, it has not been determined to what extent any given network is functionally robust given perturbations in the input sample set. For such a test, hundreds of networks are needed and hence a tool to rapidly construct these networks. To examine functional robustness of networks with varying input, we enhanced an existing RMT implementation for improved scalability and tested functional robustness of human (Homo sapiens), rice (Oryza sativa) and budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We demonstrate dramatic decrease in network construction time and computational requirements and show that despite some variation in global properties between networks, functional similarity remains high. Moreover, the biological function captured by co-expression networks thresholded by RMT is highly robust. PMID:23409071

  16. Race, Offense Type, and Suicide Ideation: Tests of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory in Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cero, Ian; Zuromski, Kelly L; Witte, Tracy K; Fix, Rebecca L; Burkhart, Barry

    2017-08-22

    This study evaluated the synergy hypothesis of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS), which argues thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are positively interactive in their association with suicide ideation, in a group of juvenile offenders. It also examined whether this prediction is differentially applicable across race/ethnicity or offense type. Participants included 590 adjudicated and confined male juveniles. Regression was used to test the association between suicide ideation and thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and their interaction term. Subsequent analyses included tests of group interactions related to race/ethnicity and offense type. No interaction between thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness was observed, despite adequate power. No significant group interactions were observed for race/ethnicity or offense type. However, results did show significant linear relationships between thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and ideation, highlighting their potential utility as intervention targets in this at-risk population. Thus, although the current results are the first to show the basic IPTS risk factors generalize across race/ethnicity and offense type, they also failed to support that those factors were interactive, a primary IPTS claim. The absence of an interaction between thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness suggests their role in suicide ideation for juvenile offenders may be more parsimonious than the IPTS proposes. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  17. Interpretations of Directed Information in Portfolio Theory, Data Compression, and Hypothesis Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Permuter, Haim H; Weissman, Tsachy

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the role of Massey's directed information in portfolio theory, data compression, and statistics with causality constraints. In particular, we show that directed information is an upper bound on the increment in growth rates of optimal portfolios in a stock market due to {causal} side information. This upper bound is tight for gambling in a horse race, which is an extreme case of stock markets. Directed information also characterizes the value of {causal} side information in instantaneous compression and quantifies the benefit of {causal} inference in joint compression of two stochastic processes. In hypothesis testing, directed information evaluates the best error exponent for testing whether a random process $Y$ {causally} influences another process $X$ or not. These results give a natural interpretation of directed information $I(Y^n \\to X^n)$ as the amount of information that a random sequence $Y^n = (Y_1,Y_2,..., Y_n)$ {causally} provides about another random sequence $X^n = (X_1,X_2,...,X_...

  18. Loneliness, social integration and consumption of sugar-containing beverages: testing the social baseline theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Ekeberg Henriksen

    Full Text Available Social Baseline Theory (SBT proposes that close relationships aid in metabolic resource management and that individuals without significant relationships may experience more demands on their own neural metabolic resources on a daily basis when solving problems, remaining vigilant against potential threats and regulating emotional responses. This study tests a hypothesised consequence derived from SBT: relative social isolation leads to increased levels of sugar intake.Based on cross-sectional, self-reported data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (N = 90 084, information on social integration and the consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened sodas and juices was obtained from a large number of women in early pregnancy. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess whether loneliness, marital status, relationship satisfaction, advice from others than partner, and cohesion at work is associated with consumption of sodas and juices.Perceived loneliness was associated with elevated intake of all sugary beverages, while relationship satisfaction was negatively associated with all sugary beverages. Being married or cohabitating, having supportive friends, and having a sense of togetherness at work were associated with lower intake of two out of three sugar-containing beverages. These associations were significant, even after controlling for factors such as body mass index, weight related self-image, depression, physical activity, educational level, age and income. In comparison, a statistically significant relationship emerged between relationship satisfaction and artificially sweetened cola. No other predictor variables were significantly associated with any type of artificially sweetened beverage.This study indicates that loneliness and social integration influence the level of consumption of sugary beverages. The results support the hypothesis derived from the Social Baseline Theory that relative social

  19. AExaCTT – Aerobic Exercise and Consecutive Task-specific Training for the upper limb after stroke: Protocol for a randomised controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Valkenborghs

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor function may be enhanced if aerobic exercise is paired with motor training. One potential mechanism is that aerobic exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which is important in neuroplasticity and involved in motor learning and motor memory consolidation. This study will examine the feasibility of a parallel-group assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial investigating whether task-specific training preceded by aerobic exercise improves upper limb function more than task-specific training alone, and determine the effect size of changes in primary outcome measures. People with upper limb motor dysfunction after stroke will be allocated to either task-specific training or aerobic exercise and consecutive task-specific training. Both groups will perform 60 hours of task-specific training over 10 weeks, comprised of 3 × 1 hour sessions per week with a therapist and 3 × 1 hours of home-based self-practice per week. The combined intervention group will also perform 30 minutes of aerobic exercise (70–85%HRmax immediately prior to the 1 hour of task-specific training with the therapist. Recruitment, adherence, retention, participant acceptability, and adverse events will be recorded. Clinical outcome measures will be performed pre-randomisation at baseline, at completion of the training program, and at 1 and 6 months follow-up. Primary clinical outcome measures will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT. If aerobic exercise prior to task-specific training is acceptable, and a future phase 3 randomised controlled trial seems feasible, it should be pursued to determine the efficacy of this combined intervention for people after stroke.

  20. A Comparison of the Approaches of Generalizability Theory and Item Response Theory in Estimating the Reliability of Test Scores for Testlet-Composed Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guemin; Park, In-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Previous assessments of the reliability of test scores for testlet-composed tests have indicated that item-based estimation methods overestimate reliability. This study was designed to address issues related to the extent to which item-based estimation methods overestimate the reliability of test scores composed of testlets and to compare several…

  1. Developing Items to Measure Theory of Planned Behavior Constructs for Opioid Administration for Children: Pilot Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Catherine; Riley, Barth B; Wilkie, Diana J

    2015-12-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) is useful to direct nursing research aimed at behavior change. As proposed in the TpB, individuals' attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived behavior control predict their intentions to perform a behavior and subsequently predict their actual performance of the behavior. Our purpose was to apply Fishbein and Ajzen's guidelines to begin development of a valid and reliable instrument for pediatric nurses' attitudes, perceived norms, perceived behavior control, and intentions to administer PRN opioid analgesics when hospitalized children self-report moderate to severe pain. Following Fishbein and Ajzen's directions, we were able to define the behavior of interest and specify the research population, formulate items for direct measures, elicit salient beliefs shared by our target population and formulate items for indirect measures, and prepare and test our questionnaire. For the pilot testing of internal consistency of measurement items, Cronbach alphas were between 0.60 and 0.90 for all constructs. Test-retest reliability correlations ranged from 0.63 to 0.90. Following Fishbein and Ajzen's guidelines was a feasible and organized approach for instrument development. In these early stages, we demonstrated good reliability for most subscales, showing promise for the instrument and its use in pain management research. Better understanding of the TpB constructs will facilitate the development of interventions targeted toward nurses' attitudes, perceived norms, and/or perceived behavior control to ultimately improve their pain behaviors toward reducing pain for vulnerable children. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness between Test-Taking Motivation and Listening Test Score: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating effect of listening metacognitive awareness on the relationship between expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score. According to the results, test takers’ listening scores can be predicted by expectancy, interest, and listening anxiety significantly. The relationship between expectancy, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score was mediated by listening metacognitive awareness. The findings have implications for test takers to improve their test taking motivation and listening metacognitive awareness, as well as for L2 teachers to intervene in L2 listening classrooms.

  3. [Objective assessment of transfusion-related knowledge of nurses using modern test theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajki, Veronika; Deutsch, Tibor; Csóka, Mária; Mészáros, Judit

    2015-09-13

    Clinical practice requires knowledge of health professionals for the application of problem solving of different tasks in various clinical settings. Therefore, a set of reliable measurement tools is required to assess various components of the professional knowledge including factual knowledge, skills and competence as outcomes of nursing education and training. Traditional questionnaires and test methods do not allow the measurement of these characteristics properly, as these tools typically provide overall scores without relevant insight into areas in which nurses perform well, and those where their knowledge and/or skills should be improved substantially. The aim of this nationwide survey conducted among nurses between November 2014 and February 2015 was to determine how the teaching/training objectives have been achieved in the nurses' transfusion practice. The authors attempted to exceed the capabilities of classical test theory and acquire a detailed picture about what the nurses know about transfusion therapy and how they are involved and behave in routine clinical practice. The knowledge and skills of 657 participants were assessed using a validated instrument consisting of a set of questions covering every aspects of transfusion therapy. The answers to these items were evaluated on a binary (good or bad) scale. Recorded answers of the participants were analysed using hierarchical cluster analysis and item response theory tools such as the one-parametric Rasch model suitable for dichotomous data. Data analysis was performed with the SPSS program and the ltm module of the R statistical program. The paper presents the distribution of correct and incorrect answers to various questions about transfusion therapy along with the corresponding logit values and odds ratios, respectively. The characteristic curves of each item were determined on the basis of the number of correct answers that have been recorded. These curves highlight which questions were answered

  4. Frozen Gaussian series representation of the imaginary time propagator theory and numerical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong H; Shao, Jiushu; Pollak, Eli

    2009-07-28

    Thawed Gaussian wavepackets have been used in recent years to compute approximations to the thermal density matrix. From a numerical point of view, it is cheaper to employ frozen Gaussian wavepackets. In this paper, we provide the formalism for the computation of thermal densities using frozen Gaussian wavepackets. We show that the exact density may be given in terms of a series, in which the zeroth order term is the frozen Gaussian. A numerical test of the methodology is presented for deep tunneling in the quartic double well potential. In all cases, the series is observed to converge. The convergence of the diagonal density matrix element is much faster than that of the antidiagonal one, suggesting that the methodology should be especially useful for the computation of partition functions. As a by product of this study, we find that the density matrix in configuration space can have more than two saddle points at low temperatures. This has implications for the use of the quantum instanton theory.

  5. The distinctive sequelae of children's coping with interparental conflict: Testing the reformulated emotional security theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T; Martin, Meredith J; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Ripple, Michael T; Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-10-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about the distinctive psychological consequences of children's patterns of responding to interparental conflict. In Study 1, 174 preschool children (M = 4.0 years) and their mothers participated in a cross-sectional design. In Study 2, 243 preschool children (M = 4.6 years) and their parents participated in 2 annual measurement occasions. Across both studies, multiple informants assessed children's psychological functioning. Guided by the reformulated version of emotional security theory, behavioral observations of children's coping with interparental conflict assessed their tendencies to exhibit 4 patterns based on their function in defusing threat: secure (i.e., efficiently address direct instances of threat), mobilizing (i.e., react to potential threat and social opportunities), dominant (i.e., directly defeat threat), and demobilizing (i.e., reduce salience as a target of hostility). As hypothesized, each profile predicted unique patterns of adjustment. Greater security was associated with lower levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and greater social competence, whereas higher dominance was associated with externalizing problems and extraversion. In contrast, mobilizing patterns of reactivity predicted more problems with self-regulation, internalizing symptoms, externalizing difficulties, but also greater extraversion. Finally, higher levels of demobilizing reactivity were linked with greater internalizing problems and lower extraversion but also better self-regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Life satisfaction and its correlates among college students in China: a test of social reference theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Sibo; Lester, David; Zhou, Chengchao

    2014-08-01

    To study life satisfaction and to test the role of social reference in determining the degree of life satisfaction, we examined a large sample of undergraduate students in China for the correlates of campus life satisfaction. A questionnaire survey was administered at a university and the final sample consisted of 439 respondents aged between 17 and 24 years, from all over the country, and studying different subjects. It was found that freshman students tended to score higher on their life satisfaction than students in other grades and the college students' life satisfaction was positively related to female gender, self-esteem, social support, and the liberal attitudes on female gender roles, but negatively correlated with depression and suicidal ideation. Contrary to common beliefs, students from an urban area or from better-off families were not necessarily more satisfied with current life than those students coming from the countryside or low income families. The findings were accounted for by the social reference theory and in this case college students' campus life satisfaction is basically affected by their pre-college life quality as a reference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Testing the Predictions of Random Matrix Theory in Low Loss Wave Chaotic Scattering Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jen-Hao; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Wave chaos is a field where researchers apply random matrix theory (RMT) to predict the statistics of wave properties in complicated wave scattering systems. The RMT predictions have successfully demonstrated universality of the distributions of these wave properties, which only depend on the loss parameter of the system and the physical symmetry. Examination of these predictions in very low loss systems is interesting because extreme limits for the distribution functions and other predictions are encountered. Therefore, we use a wave-chaotic superconducting cavity to establish a low loss environment and test RMT predictions, including the statistics of the scattering (S) matrix and the impedance (Z) matrix, the universality (or lack thereof) of the Z- and S-variance ratios, and the statistics of the proper delay times of the Wigner-Smith time-delay matrix. We have applied an in-situ microwave calibration method (Thru-Reflection-Line method) to calibrate the cryostat system, and we also applied the random coupling model to remove the system-specific features. Our experimental results of different properties agree with the RMT predictions. This work is funded by the ONR/Maryland AppEl Center Task A2 (contract No. N000140911190), the AFOSR under grant FA95500710049, and Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials.

  8. Valence evaluation with approaching or withdrawing cues: directly testing valence-arousal conflict theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Mei; Li, Ting; Li, Lin

    2017-07-19

    The valence-arousal conflict theory assumes that both valence and arousal will trigger approaching or withdrawing tendencies. It also predicts that the speed of processing emotional stimuli will depend on whether valence and arousal trigger conflicting or congruent motivational tendencies. However, most previous studies have provided evidence of the interaction between valence and arousal only, and have not provided direct proof of the interactive links between valence, arousal and motivational tendencies. The present study provides direct evidence for the relationship between approach-withdrawal tendencies and the valence-arousal conflict. In an empirical test, participants were instructed to judge the valence of emotional words after visual-spatial cues that appeared to be either approaching or withdrawing from participants. A three-way interaction (valence, arousal, and approach-withdrawal tendency) was observed such that the response time was shorter if participants responded to a negative high-arousal stimulus after a withdrawing cue, or to a positive low-arousal stimulus after an approaching cue. These findings suggest that the approach-withdrawal tendency indeed plays a crucial role in valence-arousal conflict, and that the effect depends on the congruency of valence, arousal and tendency at an early stage of processing.

  9. Anxiety, anticipation and contextual information: A test of attentional control theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Adam J; Jackson, Robin C; Bishop, Daniel T; Williams, A Mark

    2016-09-01

    We tested the assumptions of Attentional Control Theory (ACT) by examining the impact of anxiety on anticipation using a dynamic, time-constrained task. Moreover, we examined the involvement of high- and low-level cognitive processes in anticipation and how their importance may interact with anxiety. Skilled and less-skilled tennis players anticipated the shots of opponents under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Participants viewed three types of video stimuli, each depicting different levels of contextual information. Performance effectiveness (response accuracy) and processing efficiency (response accuracy divided by corresponding mental effort) were measured. Skilled players recorded higher levels of response accuracy and processing efficiency compared to less-skilled counterparts. Processing efficiency significantly decreased under high- compared to low-anxiety conditions. No difference in response accuracy was observed. When reviewing directional errors, anxiety was most detrimental to performance in the condition conveying only contextual information, suggesting that anxiety may have a greater impact on high-level (top-down) cognitive processes, potentially due to a shift in attentional control. Our findings provide partial support for ACT; anxiety elicited greater decrements in processing efficiency than performance effectiveness, possibly due to predominance of the stimulus-driven attentional system.

  10. Foundational Tests of the Need-Support Model: A Framework for Bridging Regulatory Focus Theory and Self-Determination Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Ann Vaughn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This dataset includes data from the three studies reported in my paper on Foundational Tests of the Need-Support Model [6]. I collected these data in 2014, 2015, and 2016 from over 2,100 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers in the United States and Canada. The dataset contains the measures described in the paper, as well as participants’ writing about the experiences they brought to mind in these studies. The data are stored on the Open Science Framework, and they could be used for exploratory research, meta-analyses, and research on replication. I also welcome collaborative research involving re-analyses of these data.

  11. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  12. Maximum Likelihood Item Easiness Models for Test Theory without an Answer Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Stephen L.; Batchelder, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural consensus theory (CCT) is a data aggregation technique with many applications in the social and behavioral sciences. We describe the intuition and theory behind a set of CCT models for continuous type data using maximum likelihood inference methodology. We describe how bias parameters can be incorporated into these models. We introduce…

  13. Opportunities for Environmental Crime: A Test of Situational Crime Prevention Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, W.; van Erp, J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Situational Crime Prevention Theory (SCPT) has been proposed as an alternative to offender-based theories of white-collar crime. This paper uses the results of a cross-case analysis of 23 criminal investigations of environmental crime in the Netherlands to explore the fruitfulness of SCPT

  14. Fixation-Dependent Memory for Natural Scenes: An Experimental Test of Scanpath Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Many modern theories propose that perceptual information is represented by the sensorimotor activity elicited by the original stimulus. Scanpath theory (Noton & Stark, 1971) predicts that reinstating a sequence of eye fixations will help an observer recognize a previously seen image. However, the only studies to investigate this are…

  15. Inducing Resistance to Conspiracy Theory Propaganda: Testing Inoculation and Metainoculation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, John A.; Miller, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the boundaries of inoculation theory by examining how inoculation can be applied to conspiracy theory propaganda as well as inoculation itself (called metainoculation). A 3-phase experiment with 312 participants compared 3 main groups: no-treatment control, inoculation, and metainoculation. Research questions explored…

  16. A Partial Test of Agnew's General Theory of Crime and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Day, George; Cao, Liqun

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, Agnew introduced a new integrated theory, which he labels a general theory of crime and delinquency. He proposes that delinquency is more likely to occur when constraints against delinquency are low and motivations for delinquency are high. In addition, he argues that constraints and motivations are influenced by variables in five life…

  17. Situational Action Theory: Cross-Sectional and Cross-Lagged Tests of its Core Propositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, G.; Pauwels, L.; Weerman, F.; Bernasco, W.

    2015-01-01

    Situational Action Theory (SAT) is a recently developed general action theory of crime that integrates and synthesizes existing individual and ecological explanations. SAT explicitly states that the individual’s propensity for criminal behaviour (morality and self-control) and exposure to

  18. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Testing Simulation Theory with Cross-Modal Multivariate Classification of fMRI Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etzel, Joset A.; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons has suggested a potential neural basis for simulation and common coding theories of action perception, theories which propose that we understand other people's actions because perceiving their actions activates some of our neurons in much the same way as when we

  20. The psychometric properties of the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test: an item response theory (IRT) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio; Vellante, Marcello; Petretto, Donatella R

    2017-05-01

    The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test (hereafter: Eyes Test) is considered an advanced task of the Theory of Mind aimed at assessing the performance of the participant in perspective-takingthat is, the ability to sense or understand other people's cognitive and emotional states. In this study, the item response theory analysis was applied to the adult version of the Eyes Test. The Italian version of the Eyes Test was administered to 200 undergraduate students of both genders (males = 46%). Modified parallel analysis (MPA) was used to test unidimensionality. Marginal maximum likelihood estimation was used to fit the 1-, 2-, and 3-parameter logistic (PL) model to the data. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) due to gender was explored with five independent methods. MPA provided evidence in favour of unidimensionality. The Rasch model (1-PL) was superior to the other two models in explaining participants' responses to the Eyes Test. There was no robust evidence of gender-related DIF in the Eyes Test, although some differences may exist for some items as a reflection of real differences by group. The study results support a one-factor model of the Eyes Test. Performance on the Eyes Test is defined by the participant's ability in perspective-taking. Researchers should cease using arbitrarily selected subscores in assessing the performance of participants to the Eyes Test. Lack of gender-related DIF favours the use of the Eyes Test in the investigation of gender differences concerning empathy and social cognition.

  1. Life stress, anger and anxiety, and delinquency: an empirical test of general strain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseltine, R H; Gore, S; Gordon, J

    2000-09-01

    General strain theory (Agnew 1992) departs from traditional strain theories by emphasizing the role of the individual's affective responses to negative life experiences in fostering deviant behavior. In this analysis, we examine the central hypotheses of general strain theory using data from a three-wave panel study of high school youths in the Boston metropolitan area (N = 939). Covariance structure models reveal that anger and hostility in response to negative life events do play a causal role in fostering more aggressive forms of delinquency, but are not significantly related to either nonaggressive delinquency or marijuana use. Furthermore, the conditional effects predicted by general strain theory, in which the impact of strain on delinquency varies by youths' personal and social resources, are inconsistent. Discussion centers on the prospect of increasing the utility of general strain theory by further imbuing it with concepts and perspectives from the sociology of mental illness.

  2. Competitive testing of health behavior theories: how do benefits, barriers, subjective norm, and intention influence mammography behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caitlin C; Vernon, Sally W; Diamond, Pamela M; Tiro, Jasmin A

    2014-02-01

    Competitive hypothesis testing may explain differences in predictive power across multiple health behavior theories. We tested competing hypotheses of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to quantify pathways linking subjective norm, benefits, barriers, intention, and mammography behavior. We analyzed longitudinal surveys of women veterans randomized to the control group of a mammography intervention trial (n = 704). We compared direct, partial mediation, and full mediation models with Satorra-Bentler χ (2) difference testing. Barriers had a direct and indirect negative effect on mammography behavior; intention only partially mediated barriers. Benefits had little to no effect on behavior and intention; however, it was negatively correlated with barriers. Subjective norm directly affected behavior and indirectly affected intention through barriers. Our results provide empiric support for different assertions of HBM and TRA. Future interventions should test whether building subjective norm and reducing negative attitudes increases regular mammography.

  3. Towards an I/O Conformance Testing Theory for Software Product Lines based on Modal Interface Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Luthmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an adaptation of input/output conformance (ioco testing principles to families of similar implementation variants as appearing in product line engineering. Our proposed product line testing theory relies on Modal Interface Automata (MIA as behavioral specification formalism. MIA enrich I/O-labeled transition systems with may/must modalities to distinguish mandatory from optional behavior, thus providing a semantic notion of intrinsic behavioral variability. In particular, MIA constitute a restricted, yet fully expressive subclass of I/O-labeled modal transition systems, guaranteeing desirable refinement and compositionality properties. The resulting modal-ioco relation defined on MIA is preserved under MIA refinement, which serves as variant derivation mechanism in our product line testing theory. As a result, modal-ioco is proven correct in the sense that it coincides with traditional ioco to hold for every derivable implementation variant. Based on this result, a family-based product line conformance testing framework can be established.

  4. Competitive testing of health behavior theories: how do benefits, barriers, subjective norm, and intention influence mammography behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caitlin C.; Vernon, Sally W.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Tiro, Jasmin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Competitive hypothesis testing may explain differences in predictive power across multiple health behavior theories. Purpose We tested competing hypotheses of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to quantify pathways linking subjective norm, benefits, barriers, intention, and mammography behavior. Methods We analyzed longitudinal surveys of women veterans randomized to the control group of a mammography intervention trial (n=704). We compared direct, partial mediation, and full mediation models with Satorra-Bentler χ2 difference testing. Results Barriers had a direct and indirect negative effect on mammography behavior; intention only partially mediated barriers. Benefits had little to no effect on behavior and intention; however, it was negatively correlated with barriers. Subjective norm directly affected behavior and indirectly affected intention through barriers. Conclusions Our results provide empiric support for different assertions of HBM and TRA. Future interventions should test whether building subjective norm and reducing negative attitudes increases regular mammography. PMID:23868613

  5. Financial Strain and Regional Unemployment as Barriers to Job Search Self-Efficacy: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahling, Jason J.; Melloy, Robert; Thompson, Mindi N.

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) emphasizes the potential impact of contextual barriers on vocational self-efficacy, interests, and goals. However, most tests of SCCT to date have focused exclusively on person-level, perceptual barriers rather than objective, macroeconomic barriers that may influence large groups of people. In this study, we…

  6. Autonomy Support, Need Satisfaction, and Motivation for Support among Adults with Intellectual Disability: Testing a Self-Determination Theory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frielink, Noud; Schuengel, Carlo; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.

    2018-01-01

    The tenets of self-determination theory as applied to support were tested with structural equation modelling for 186 people with ID with a mild to borderline level of functioning. The results showed that (a) perceived autonomy support was positively associated with autonomous motivation and with satisfaction of need for autonomy, relatedness, and…

  7. Do Children with Autism Have a Theory of Mind? A Non-Verbal Test of Autism vs. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism have delays in the development of theory of mind. However, the sub-group of children with autism who have little or no language have gone untested since false belief tests (FB) typically involve language. FB understanding has been reported to be intact in children with specific language impairment (SLI). This raises the…

  8. Population Validity and Cross-Validity: Applications of Distribution Theory for Testing Hypotheses, Setting Confidence Intervals, and Determining Sample Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Applications of distribution theory for the squared multiple correlation coefficient and the squared cross-validation coefficient are reviewed, and computer programs for these applications are made available. The applications include confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and sample size selection. (Contains 2 tables.)

  9. Threshold Theory Tested in an Organizational Setting: The Relation between Perceived Innovativeness and Intelligence in a Large Sample of Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bo T.; Hartmann, Peter V. W.; Rasmussen, Thomas Hedegaard

    2017-01-01

    A large sample of leaders (N = 4257) was used to test the link between leader innovativeness and intelligence. The threshold theory of the link between creativity and intelligence assumes that below a certain IQ level (approximately IQ 120), there is some correlation between IQ and creative potential, but above this cutoff point, there is no…

  10. A Comprehensive Test of General Strain Theory: Key Strains, Situational- and Trait-Based Negative Emotions, Conditioning Factors, and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; McCluskey, Cynthia Perez; Hwang, Hye-Won

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on South Korean youth, the authors addressed limitations of previous tests of general strain theory (GST), focusing on the relationships among key strains, situational- and trait-based negative emotions, conditioning factors, and delinquency. Eight types of strain previously shown most likely to result in delinquency,…

  11. The use of predicted values for item parameters in item response theory models: An application in intelligence tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matteucci, M.; S. Mignani, Prof.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2012-01-01

    In testing, item response theory models are widely used in order to estimate item parameters and individual abilities. However, even unidimensional models require a considerable sample size so that all parameters can be estimated precisely. The introduction of empirical prior information about

  12. Self-Control, Native Traditionalism, and Native American Substance Use: Testing the Cultural Invariance of a General Theory of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gregory D.; Wood, Peter B.; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of White and Native American high school students, the authors provide a test of (a) self-control theory's invariance thesis and (b) native traditionalism as an explanation of Native American substance use. Self-control significantly influenced all forms of substance use when controlling for race and in race-specific analyses.…

  13. Testicular Self-Examination: A Test of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenahan, Carol; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Bennett, Cara; O'Neill, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the utility and efficiency of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the health belief model (HBM) in predicting testicular self-examination (TSE) behaviour. A questionnaire was administered to an opportunistic sample of 195 undergraduates aged 18-39 years. Structural equation modelling indicated that, on the…

  14. Construction and Validation of the Dalton Vocational Importance Questionnaire: A Test of Ginzberg's Theory of Occupational Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Joseph C.; Dalton, Donald H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and field test an instrument to measure the importance of interests, capacities, and values to a population of 1220 students, grades 5-12. Specifically, it sought to examine the middle (tentative) stage of Ginzberg's three-stage developmental theory of occupational decision-making. (Author/SJL)

  15. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  16. The Effects of Academic and Interpersonal Stress on Dating Violence among College Students: A Test of Classical Strain Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brandon; Smithey, Martha

    2012-01-01

    This study examines Merton's Classical Strain Theory (1938) as a causative factor in intimate partner violence among college students. We theorize that college students experience general life strain and cumulative strain as they pursue the goal of a college degree. We test this strain on the likelihood of using intimate partner violence. Strain…

  17. Towards an I/O Conformance Testing Theory for Software Product Lines based on Modal Interface Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Luthmann; Stephan Mennicke; Malte Lochau

    2015-01-01

    We present an adaptation of input/output conformance (ioco) testing principles to families of similar implementation variants as appearing in product line engineering. Our proposed product line testing theory relies on Modal Interface Automata (MIA) as behavioral specification formalism. MIA enrich I/O-labeled transition systems with may/must modalities to distinguish mandatory from optional behavior, thus providing a semantic notion of intrinsic behavioral variability. In particular, MIA con...

  18. Trinity amputation and prosthesis experience scales: a psychometric assessment using classical test theory and rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Pamela; Franchignoni, F; Giordano, A; MacLachlan, M

    2010-06-01

    To perform a detailed psychometric analysis using both classical test theory and Rasch analysis of the three main scales of the Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales (TAPES) in people with a lower-limb amputation. A sample of 498 persons who were prosthesis users with a lower-limb amputation was retrospectively studied, pooled from a number of studies undertaken across the United Kingdom and Ireland in the past decade in which the TAPES had been completed as part of a postal survey. Both factor analysis techniques and Rasch analysis were performed on TAPES data. Dimensionality, item fit to the model, response category performance, and internal construct validity were assessed. Category collapsing and item removal were considered to improve the questionnaire. The analyses suggested to restructure the TAPES as follows: (a) three psychosocial adjustment subscales with a four-point rating scale (and a reworded item); (b) an activity restriction scale based on ten items with their original three-point rating scale; and (c) two satisfaction with the prosthesis subscales using a three-point rating scale. All scales and subscales showed acceptable internal consistency and ability to define a distinct hierarchy of persons along the measured construct. This study empirically identified a revised version of the TAPES (TAPES-R) with a simplified general structure and psychometrically suitable for assessing the complex experience of amputation and adjustment to a lower-limb prosthesis. Additional studies are needed to confirm and further explore its measurement properties in other samples, thereby adding clinical validity to the instrument.

  19. Wolf in sheep's clothing: Model misspecification undermines tests of the neutral theory for life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authier, Matthieu; Aubry, Lise M; Cam, Emmanuelle

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the processes behind change in reproductive state along life-history trajectories is a salient research program in evolutionary ecology. Two processes, state dependence and heterogeneity, can drive the dynamics of change among states. Both processes can operate simultaneously, begging the difficult question of how to tease them apart in practice. The Neutral Theory for Life Histories (NTLH) holds that the bulk of variations in life-history trajectories is due to state dependence and is hence neutral: Once previous (breeding) state is taken into account, variations are mostly random. Lifetime reproductive success (LRS), the number of descendants produced over an individual's reproductive life span, has been used to infer support for NTLH in natura. Support stemmed from accurate prediction of the population-level distribution of LRS with parameters estimated from a state dependence model. We show with Monte Carlo simulations that the current reliance of NTLH on LRS prediction in a null hypothesis framework easily leads to selecting a misspecified model, biased estimates and flawed inferences. Support for the NTLH can be spurious because of a systematic positive bias in estimated state dependence when heterogeneity is present in the data but ignored in the analysis. This bias can lead to spurious positive covariance between fitness components when there is in fact an underlying trade-off. Furthermore, neutrality implied by NTLH needs a clarification because of a probable disjunction between its common understanding by evolutionary ecologists and its translation into statistical models of life-history trajectories. Irrespective of what neutrality entails, testing hypotheses about the dynamics of change among states in life histories requires a multimodel framework because state dependence and heterogeneity can easily be mistaken for each other.

  20. Sense of Coherence and Physical Health. Testing Antonovsky’'s Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Flensborg-Madsen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper, we argued that the original 29-item sense of coherence (SOC scale developed by Aaron Antonovsky (1923–1994 was insufficient according to its reflection of SOC. The purpose of this study was to create a new version of the original 29-item SOC scale in order to test his hypothesis of a causal link between SOC and physical health. This shorter version was built on the exact same idea, theory, and conceptualization used by Antonovsky, which resulted in a SOC scale containing only 9 abstract questions. These nine questions, in addition to two questions about physical and psychological health, made up a questionnaire answered by 100 people at the entrance hall of the University Medical Center (Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen. According to Antonovsky’s famous hypothesis, a strong association should be found between SOC and physical health, but surprisingly, we found that the new scale was falsifying the hypothesis, with a correlation between SOC and physical health of only r = 0.044 (NS. However, a highly significant correlation was found with psychological health with r = 0.502 (p = <0.0005. The authors are in a predicament since we strongly believe in Antonovsky’s famous idea of the relationship between SOC and health. However, we believe that it is our emotional aspects that primarily determine our physical health, which we will demonstrate in a subsequent study, but the reason we did not find any significant correlation in this study was the fact that our nine-item SOC scale was very mental (mental in the sense of applying to conscious cognition and attitude. We consider the mental aspects to determine our psychological health and the emotional aspects to determine our physical health. Our conclusion is that the original 29-item SOC scale mixed a few emotional aspects into the otherwise mental construct, which is the reason for the relatively low correlations found until now, when using the original scale.

  1. A report on the gravitational redshift test for non-metric theories of gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The frequencies of two atomic hydrogen masers and of three superconducting cavity stabilized oscillators were compared as the ensemble of oscillators was moved in the Sun's gravitational field by the rotation and orbital motion of the Earth. Metric gravitation theories predict that the gravitational redshifts of the two types of oscillators are identical, and that there should be no relative frequency shift between the oscillators; nonmetric theories, in contrast, predict a frequency shift between masers and SCSOs that is proportional to the change in solar gravitational potential experienced by the oscillators. The results are consistent with metric theories of gravitation at a level of 2%.

  2. Matching of individuals for start-ups : a test of the O-ring theory

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I analyse how individuals match for for the purpose of setting up a new firm. As a theoretical basis I use the O-ring theory introduced by Kremer (1993) and applied to new firms by Fabel (2004). The O-ring theory predicts that individuals segregate between firms according to their level of ability. Further, the theory implies that a higher average ability level within firms is positively related to both the number of individuals and capital per head. Using a rich employer-employ...

  3. Testing a Longitudinal Integrated Self-Efficacy and Self-Determination Theory Model for Physical Activity Post-Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Shane N; Fortier, Michelle S; Strachan, Shaelyn M; Blanchard, Chris M; Boulay, Pierre

    2014-01-13

    Self-determination theory and self-efficacy theory are prominent theories in the physical activity literature, and studies have begun integrating their concepts. Sweet, Fortier, Strachan and Blanchard (2012) have integrated these two theories in a cross-sectional study. Therefore, this study sought to test a longitudinal integrated model to predict physical activity at the end of a 4-month cardiac rehabilitation program based on theory, research and Sweet et al.'s cross-sectional model. Participants from two cardiac rehabilitation programs (N=109) answered validated self-report questionnaires at baseline, two and four months. Data were analyzed using Amos to assess the path analysis and model fit. Prior to integration, perceived competence and self-efficacy were combined, and labeled as confidence. After controlling for 2-month physical activity and cardiac rehabilitation site, no motivational variables significantly predicted residual change in 4-month physical activity. Although confidence at two months did not predict residual change in 4-month physical activity, it had a strong positive relationship with 2-month physical activity (β=0.30, Pself-determination and self-efficacy theory were still partially supported. Because the model had good fit, this study demonstrated that theoretical integration is feasible.

  4. Semantic network mapping of religious material: testing multi-agent computer models of social theories against real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin E

    2015-11-01

    Agent-based modeling allows researchers to investigate theories of complex social phenomena and subsequently use the model to generate new hypotheses that can then be compared to real-world data. However, computer modeling has been underutilized in regard to the understanding of religious systems, which often require very complex theories with multiple interacting variables (Braxton et al. in Method Theory Study Relig 24(3):267-290, 2012. doi: 10.1163/157006812X635709 ; Lane in J Cogn Sci Relig 1(2):161-180, 2013). This paper presents an example of how computer modeling can be used to explore, test, and further understand religious systems, specifically looking at one prominent theory of religious ritual. The process is continuous: theory building, hypothesis generation, testing against real-world data, and improving the model. In this example, the output of an agent-based model of religious behavior is compared against real-world religious sermons and texts using semantic network analysis. It finds that most religious materials exhibit unique scale-free small-world properties and that a concept's centrality in a religious schema best predicts its frequency of presentation. These results reveal that there adjustments need to be made to existing models of religious ritual systems and provide parameters for future models. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for a new multi-agent model of doctrinal ritual behaviors as well as propositions for further interdisciplinary research concerning the multi-agent modeling of religious ritual behaviors.

  5. The protest intentions of skilled immigrants with credentialing problems: a test of a model integrating relative deprivation theory with social identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peter R

    2008-12-01

    Currently in Canada, there is a widespread underemployment among foreign-trained immigrants. This is because potential employers often have to evaluate unfamiliar foreign qualifications that, regrettably, are often misunderstood and undervalued. This questionnaire study tested a model that integrates relative deprivation theory with social identity theory to predict the degree to which skilled migrants from Asia and Africa with credentialing problems protest this systemic discriminatory barrier (N=180). In the model, the strength of cultural and national identifications are conceptualized as opposing motivational forces that, along with collective relative deprivation (CRD), directly impact protest intentions. As well, the model specifies that the so-called 'affective' component of CRD consists of an attribution of blame (perceived discrimination) and associated emotions. Structural equation modelling shows that the model is a good fit to the data. As hypothesized, significant path coefficients show that the strength of cultural identity increases and the strength of Canadian identity decreases the degree to which the respondents feel that immigrants suffer discrimination which, in-turn, influenced their intentions to take protest actions. The implications of these findings for the integration of relative deprivation and social identity theories are discussed.

  6. Testing the difficulty theory of the SON-R 512 –17, a non-verbal test of intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Hanneke; Laros, Jacob A.; Tellegen, Peter J.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Fischer's (1973) linear logistic test model can be used to test hypotheses regarding the effect of covariates on item difficulty and to predict the difficulty of newly constructed test items. However, its assumptions of equal discriminatory power across items and a perfect prediction of item

  7. THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF ASSIMILATION: TESTING IMPLICATIONS OF SEGMENTED ASSIMILATION THEORY*

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yu; Greenman, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Segmented assimilation theory has been a popular explanation for the diverse experiences of assimilation among new waves of immigrants and their children. While the theory has been interpreted in many different ways, we emphasize its implications for the important role of social context: both processes and consequences of assimilation should depend on the local social context in which immigrants are embedded. We derive empirically falsifiable hypotheses about the interaction effects between s...

  8. Contemporaneous and Lagged Effects of Life Domains and Substance Use: A Test of Agnew's General Theory of Crime and Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawn T. Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a partial test of Agnew’s general theory of crime and delinquency. Relying on a sample of adolescents and employing measures of the self, family, school, and peers domains, this study examines the contemporaneous and lagged effects of these four life domains on the likelihood of consuming alcohol and using marijuana. This study also assesses the contemporaneous and lagged effects of the life domain variables on themselves and on one another. Overall, the results lend support for Agnew’s general theory. The results also reveal several notable puzzles and underscore the complexity of this potentially important contemporary theoretical perspective.

  9. An Alternative To Test Independence Between Expectations And Disconfirmation Versus The Positive Version Of The Assimilation Theory. An Application To The Case Of Cultural/Heritage Tourism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José-María Montero; Gema Fernández-Avilés

    2010-01-01

    .... This is why they are revisited by presenting an alternative for testing independence between expectations and disconfirmation versus what we call the positive version of the assimilation theory...

  10. Testing a self-determination theory model of children’s physical activity motivation: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding children’s physical activity motivation, its antecedents and associations with behavior is important and can be advanced by using self-determination theory. However, research among youth is largely restricted to adolescents and studies of motivation within certain contexts (e.g., physical education). There are no measures of self-determination theory constructs (physical activity motivation or psychological need satisfaction) for use among children and no previous studies have tested a self-determination theory-based model of children’s physical activity motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of scores derived from scales adapted to measure self-determination theory constructs among children and test a motivational model predicting accelerometer-derived physical activity. Methods Cross-sectional data from 462 children aged 7 to 11 years from 20 primary schools in Bristol, UK were analysed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of adapted behavioral regulation and psychological need satisfaction scales. Structural equation modelling was used to test cross-sectional associations between psychological need satisfaction, motivation types and physical activity assessed by accelerometer. Results The construct validity and reliability of the motivation and psychological need satisfaction measures were supported. Structural equation modelling provided evidence for a motivational model in which psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with intrinsic and identified motivation types and intrinsic motivation was positively associated with children’s minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions The study provides evidence for the psychometric properties of measures of motivation aligned with self-determination theory among children. Children’s motivation that is based on enjoyment and inherent satisfaction of physical activity is

  11. Testing a self-determination theory model of children's physical activity motivation: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Edwards, Mark J; Thompson, Janice L

    2013-09-26

    Understanding children's physical activity motivation, its antecedents and associations with behavior is important and can be advanced by using self-determination theory. However, research among youth is largely restricted to adolescents and studies of motivation within certain contexts (e.g., physical education). There are no measures of self-determination theory constructs (physical activity motivation or psychological need satisfaction) for use among children and no previous studies have tested a self-determination theory-based model of children's physical activity motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of scores derived from scales adapted to measure self-determination theory constructs among children and test a motivational model predicting accelerometer-derived physical activity. Cross-sectional data from 462 children aged 7 to 11 years from 20 primary schools in Bristol, UK were analysed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of adapted behavioral regulation and psychological need satisfaction scales. Structural equation modelling was used to test cross-sectional associations between psychological need satisfaction, motivation types and physical activity assessed by accelerometer. The construct validity and reliability of the motivation and psychological need satisfaction measures were supported. Structural equation modelling provided evidence for a motivational model in which psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with intrinsic and identified motivation types and intrinsic motivation was positively associated with children's minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The study provides evidence for the psychometric properties of measures of motivation aligned with self-determination theory among children. Children's motivation that is based on enjoyment and inherent satisfaction of physical activity is associated with their objectively-assessed physical

  12. eHealth literacy in chronic disease patients: An item response theory analysis of the eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R; Krieger, Janice L; Stellefson, Michael; Alber, Julia M

    2017-02-01

    Chronic disease patients are affected by low computer and health literacy, which negatively affects their ability to benefit from access to online health information. To estimate reliability and confirm model specifications for eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) scores among chronic disease patients using Classical Test (CTT) and Item Response Theory techniques. A stratified sample of Black/African American (N=341) and Caucasian (N=343) adults with chronic disease completed an online survey including the eHEALS. Item discrimination was explored using bi-variate correlations and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. A categorical confirmatory factor analysis tested a one-factor structure of eHEALS scores. Item characteristic curves, in-fit/outfit statistics, omega coefficient, and item reliability and separation estimates were computed. A 1-factor structure of eHEALS was confirmed by statistically significant standardized item loadings, acceptable model fit indices (CFI/TLI>0.90), and 70% variance explained by the model. Item response categories increased with higher theta levels, and there was evidence of acceptable reliability (ω=0.94; item reliability=89; item separation=8.54). eHEALS scores are a valid and reliable measure of self-reported eHealth literacy among Internet-using chronic disease patients. Providers can use eHEALS to help identify patients' eHealth literacy skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms That Link Parenting Practices to Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior: A Test of Six Competing Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride

    2016-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.

  14. Testing the recent theories for the origin of the hermaphrodite flower by comparison of the transcriptomes of gymnosperms and angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Raquel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different theories for the origin of the angiosperm hermaphrodite flower make different predictions concerning the overlap between the genes expressed in the male and female cones of gymnosperms and the genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of angiosperms. The Mostly Male (MM theory predicts that, of genes expressed primarily in male versus female gymnosperm cones, an excess of male orthologs will be expressed in flowers, excluding ovules, while Out Of Male (OOM and Out Of Female (OOF theories predict no such excess. Results In this paper, we tested these predictions by comparing the transcriptomes of three gymnosperms (Ginkgo biloba, Welwitschia mirabilis and Zamia fisheri and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, using EST data. We found that the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms flower is significantly higher than the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms vegetative tissues, which shows that the approach is correct. However, we detected no significant differences between the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the male cone and in the angiosperms flower and the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the female cone and in the angiosperms flower. Conclusions These results do not support the MM theory prediction of an excess of male gymnosperm genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of the angiosperms and seem to support the OOM/OOF theories. However, other explanations can be given for the 1:1 ratio that we found. More abundant and more specific (namely carpel and ovule expression data should be produced in order to further test these theories.

  15. Testing the recent theories for the origin of the hermaphrodite flower by comparison of the transcriptomes of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Raquel; Cagnon, Mathilde; Negrutiu, Ioan; Mouchiroud, Dominque

    2010-08-03

    Different theories for the origin of the angiosperm hermaphrodite flower make different predictions concerning the overlap between the genes expressed in the male and female cones of gymnosperms and the genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of angiosperms. The Mostly Male (MM) theory predicts that, of genes expressed primarily in male versus female gymnosperm cones, an excess of male orthologs will be expressed in flowers, excluding ovules, while Out Of Male (OOM) and Out Of Female (OOF) theories predict no such excess. In this paper, we tested these predictions by comparing the transcriptomes of three gymnosperms (Ginkgo biloba, Welwitschia mirabilis and Zamia fisheri) and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa), using EST data. We found that the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms flower is significantly higher than the proportion of orthologous genes expressed in the reproductive organs of the gymnosperms and in the angiosperms vegetative tissues, which shows that the approach is correct. However, we detected no significant differences between the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the male cone and in the angiosperms flower and the proportion of gymnosperm orthologous genes expressed in the female cone and in the angiosperms flower. These results do not support the MM theory prediction of an excess of male gymnosperm genes expressed in the hermaphrodite flower of the angiosperms and seem to support the OOM/OOF theories. However, other explanations can be given for the 1:1 ratio that we found. More abundant and more specific (namely carpel and ovule) expression data should be produced in order to further test these theories.

  16. Online dating in Japan: a test of social information processing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, James; Gavin, Jeff

    2009-08-01

    This study examines the experiences of past and present members of a popular Japanese online dating site in order to explore the extent to which Western-based theories of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and the development of online relationships are relevant to the Japanese online dating experience. Specifically, it examines whether social information processing theory (SIPT) is applicable to Japanese online dating interactions, and how and to what extent Japanese daters overcome the limitations of CMC through the use of contextual and other cues. Thirty-six current members and 27 former members of Match.com Japan completed an online survey. Using issue-based procedures for grounded theory analysis, we found strong support for SIPT. Japanese online daters adapt their efforts to present and acquire social information using the cues that the online dating platform provides, although many of these cues are specific to Japanese social context.

  17. Combination of poroelasticity theory and constant strain rate test in modelling land subsidence due to groundwater extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tien Hung; Rühaak, Wolfram; Sass, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Extensive groundwater extraction leads to a drawdown of the ground water table. Consequently, soil effective stress increases and can cause land subsidence. Analysis of land subsidence generally requires a numerical model based on poroelasticity theory, which was first proposed by Biot (1941). In the review of regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction, Galloway and Burbey (2011) stated that more research and application is needed in coupling of stress-dependent land subsidence process. In geotechnical field, the constant rate of strain tests (CRS) was first introduced in 1969 (Smith and Wahls 1969) and was standardized in 1982 through the designation D4186-82 by American Society for Testing and Materials. From the reading values of CRS tests, the stress-dependent parameters of poroelasticity model can be calculated. So far, there is no research to link poroelasticity theory with CRS tests in modelling land subsidence due to groundwater extraction. One dimensional CRS tests using conventional compression cell and three dimension CRS tests using Rowe cell were performed. The tests were also modelled by using finite element method with mixed elements. Back analysis technique is used to find the suitable values of hydraulic conductivity and bulk modulus that depend on the stress or void ratio. Finally, the obtained results are used in land subsidence models. Biot, M. A. (1941). "General theory of three-dimensional consolidation." Journal of applied physics 12(2): 155-164. Galloway, D. L. and T. J. Burbey (2011). "Review: Regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction." Hydrogeology Journal 19(8): 1459-1486. Smith, R. E. and H. E. Wahls (1969). "Consolidation under constant rates of strain." Journal of Soil Mechanics & Foundations Div.

  18. A Pilot Test of a Graduate Course in Suicide Theory, Risk Assessment, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.; Bryson, Claire N.; Stroud, Caroline H.; Ridge, Brittany E.

    2016-01-01

    The present discussion outlines the design and initial implementation of a semester-long graduate course in suicide theory, risk assessment, and management. While the structure of the course is adaptable in light of various considerations (e.g., targeted group of students and availability of resources), we review suicide risk assessment core…

  19. A Test of Two Theories: Elkind and Lapsley on the Imaginary Audience and Personal Fable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buis, Joyce M.; Thompson, Dennis N.

    A study investigated: (1) whether the distribution of eighth graders' scores on measures of the strength of imaginary audience and personal fable across levels of cognitive development would support Elkind's cognitive theory; and (2) whether such students' level of interpersonal understanding would support Lapsley's contention that interpersonal…

  20. Managing conflict in Dutch organizations: A test of the relevance of DeutschUs cooperation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Tjosvold, D.

    1997-01-01

    Deutsch's theory of cooperative and competitive conflict may be usefully extended to Dutch people. Results of LISREL analyses on data collected from interviews of Dutch employees in 2 companies indicate that competitive goals interfered with the open, constructive discussion of opposing views.

  1. A Test of Cognitive Dissonance Theory to Explain Parents' Reactions to Youths' Alcohol Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Terese; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that parents reduce control and support in response to youths' drinking. Why they react this way, however, is still unknown. From cognitive dissonance theory, we derived hypotheses about parents' reactions. We used a longitudinal, school-based sample of 494 youths (13 and 14 years, 56% boys) and their parents. General Linear…

  2. A Test of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Kristine D.; Levinson, Edward M.; Palmer, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of J. L. Holland's (1997) theory of vocational personalities and work environments. The sample consisted of 241 randomly selected members of the National Association of School Psychologists, each of whom completed a demographic data form, the Self-Directed Search-Revised (SDS-R; J. L. Holland, 1994) and a…

  3. A Test of Self-Determination Theory in School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2005-01-01

    Background: Contemporary research conducted in the context of school physical education (PE) has increasingly embraced various tenets of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991). Despite this increase in research attention, some postulates of the framework remain unexplored (e.g. impact of a need-supportive climate). As such, the…

  4. Religion as reassurance? Testing the insecurity theory in 26 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, T.; van Tubergen, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we extend insecurity theory by examining the influence of various kinds of insecurities on religiosity. Religiosity is operationalized in terms of a public dimension (church attendance) and a private dimension (subjective religiosity). Using data from four rounds of the European

  5. Testing the Theory of Successful Intelligence in Teaching Grade 4 Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Jarvin, Linda; Birney, Damian P.; Naples, Adam; Stemler, Steven E.; Newman, Tina; Otterbach, Renate; Parish, Carolyn; Randi, Judy; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed whether prior successes with educational interventions grounded in the theory of successful intelligence could be replicated on a larger scale as the primary basis for instruction in language arts, mathematics, and science. A total of 7,702 4th-grade students in the United States, drawn from 223 elementary school classrooms in…

  6. Understanding Photos, Models and Beliefs: A Test of the Modularity Thesis of Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Tony; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    1995-01-01

    Explores the dissociation between the performance by children with autism on false belief tasks, on which they do poorly, and false photograph, false map, and false drawing tasks, on which they do well. Suggesting domain specificity in the development of representational system, the results supported the modularity of theory of mind and the…

  7. Test Reliability and the Kuder-Richardson Formulas: Derivation from Probability Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Donald W.

    1972-01-01

    Although a great deal of attention has been devoted over a period of years to the estimation of reliability from item statistics, there are still gaps in the mathematical derivation of the Kuder-Richardson results. The main purpose of this paper is to fill some of these gaps, using language consistent with modern probability theory. (Author)

  8. Tests of the equivalence principle and gravitation theory using solar system bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtvedt, K., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The M sub g/M sub i ratio (ratio of body acceleration to gravitation field) of celestial bodies was measured. Deep probes of the post-Newtonian structure of gravitational theories are indicated. Kepler's third law is considered for the Sun-Jupiter system.

  9. Corporate social and financial performance : An extended stakeholder theory, and empirical test with accounting measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.; van Ees, H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    Although agreement on the positive sign of the relationship between corporate social and financial performance is observed in the literature, the mechanisms that constitute this relationship are not yet well-known. We address this issue by extending management's stakeholder theory by adding insights

  10. Testing the Utility of Person-Environment Correspondence Theory with Instructional Technology Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkmen, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the validity and usefulness of the person-environment correspondence theory with instructional technology students in Turkey. The participants included 211 students and three teachers. Results revealed that instructional technology students value achievement most and that they believe that entering a…

  11. A Test of Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory of Crime in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Crosswhite, Jennifer M.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable empirical support exists for "The General Theory of Crime". However, little work has been completed on members of minority populations in the United States. The current investigation examined whether low self-control predicted deviance in a sample of African American adolescents (n = 661; 55.1 percent female; mean age = 15.7 years).…

  12. Functional Dysphonia during Mental Imagery: Testing the Trait Theory of Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mersbergen, Miriam; Patrick, Christopher; Glaze, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has proposed that persons with functional dysphonia (FD) present with temperamental traits that predispose them to their voice disorder. We investigated this theory in a controlled experiment and compared them with social anxiety (SA) and healthy control (HC) groups. Method: Twelve participants with FD, 19 participants…

  13. A Regional and Local Item Response Theory Based Test Item Bank System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Walter; And Others

    This report describes the development, operation, maintenance, and future prospects of the item banks pioneered by the Portland (Oregon) School District. At the time of this report, there were 3,500 mathematics, 2,200 reading, and 2,300 language usage items calibrated under the fixed parameter model of item response theory (IRT) for Grades 3-8.…

  14. Predicting College Students' Intention to Graduate: A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Nate; Paulson, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined whether it is possible to increase college students' intention to earn a four-year degree with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Three research questions were examined: (1) Can the TPB predict traditional undergraduates' graduation intention? (2) Does graduation intention differ by traditional students' year of…

  15. Testing the Water–Energy Theory on American Palms (Arecaceae) Using Geographically Weighted Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Bjorholm, Stine; Svenning, J.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Water and energy have emerged as the best contemporary environmental correlates of broad-scale species richness patterns. A corollary hypothesis of water–energy dynamics theory is that the influence of water decreases and the influence of energy increases with absolute latitude. We report the fir...

  16. Students Working Online for Group Projects: A Test of an Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eddie W. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model that specified factors affecting students' intentions to collaborate online for group work. Past behaviour, past experience and actual behavioural control were incorporated in the extended TPB model. The mediating roles of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural…

  17. Helping Crisis Managers Protect Reputational Assets: Initial Tests of the Situational Crisis Communication Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, W. Timothy; Holladay, Sherry J.

    2002-01-01

    Explains a comprehensive, prescriptive, situational approach for responding to crises and protecting organizational reputation: the situational crisis communication theory (SCCT). Notes undergraduate students read two crisis case studies from a set of 13 cases and responded to questions following the case. Validates a key assumption in SCCT and…

  18. First test of Verlinde's theory of Emergent Gravity using Weak Gravitational Lensing measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Margot M.; Visser, Manus R.; Dvornik, Andrej; Hoekstra, Henk; Kuijken, Konrad; Valentijn, Edwin A.; Bilicki, Maciej; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Buddelmeijer, Hugo; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Klaes, Dominik; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; McFarland, John; Nakajima, Reiko; Sifón, Cristóbal; Taylor, Edward N.

    2016-01-01

    Verlinde (2016) proposed that the observed excess gravity in galaxies and clusters is the consequence of Emergent Gravity (EG). In this theory the standard gravitational laws are modified on galactic and larger scales due to the displacement of dark energy by baryonic matter. EG gives an estimate of

  19. Testing sex ratio theory with the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum in natural and experimental infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Allison T; Schall, Jos J

    2014-04-01

    The malaria parasite (Plasmodium) life history accords well with the assumptions of local mate competition (LMC) of sex ratio theory. Within a single meal of the blood-feeding vector, sexually dimorphic gametocyte cells produce gametes (females produce one, males several) that mate and undergo sexual recombination. The theory posits several factors drive the Plasmodium sex ratio: male fecundity (gametes/male gametocyte), number and relative abundance of parasite clones, and gametocyte density. We measured these traits for the lizard malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, with a large sample of natural infections and infections from experiments that manipulated clonal diversity. Sex ratio in single-clone infections was slightly female-biased, but matched predictions of theory for this low-fecundity species. Sex ratio was less female-biased in clonally diverse infections as predicted by LMC for the experimental, but not natural infections. Gametocyte density was not positively related to sex ratio. These results are explained by the P. mexicanum life history of naturally low clonal diversity and high gametocyte production. This is the first study of a natural malaria system that examines all traits relevant to LMC in individual vertebrate hosts and suggests a striking example of sex ratio theory having significance for human public health. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Testing a theory of aircraft noise annoyance : A structural equation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, B.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has stressed the relevance of nonacoustical factors in the perception of aircraft noise. However, it is largely empirically driven and lacks a sound theoretical basis. In this paper, a theoretical model which explains noise annoyance based on the psychological stress theory is

  1. A critical rationalist approach to organizational learning: testing the theories held by managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faran, Doron; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The common wisdom is that Popper's critical rationalism, a method aimed at knowledge validation through falsification of theories, is inadequate for managers in organizations. This study falsifies this argument in three phases: first, it specifies the obstructers that prevent the method from being

  2. Developmental Predictors of Violent Extremist Attitudes : A Test of General Strain Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nivette, Amy; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the influence of collective strain on support for violent extremism among an ethnically diverse sample of Swiss adolescents. This study explores two claims derived from general strain theory: (1) Exposure to collective strain is associated with higher support for

  3. Rhetorical Dissent as an Adaptive Response to Classroom Problems: A Test of Protection Motivation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2016-01-01

    Protection motivation theory (PMT) explains people's adaptive behavior in response to personal threats. In this study, PMT was used to predict rhetorical dissent episodes related to 210 student reports of perceived classroom problems. In line with theoretical predictions, a moderated moderation analysis revealed that students were likely to voice…

  4. Testing Separability and Independence of Perceptual Dimensions with General Recognition Theory: A Tutorial and New R Package (grtools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian A. Soto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining whether perceptual properties are processed independently is an important goal in perceptual science, and tools to test independence should be widely available to experimental researchers. The best analytical tools to test for perceptual independence are provided by General Recognition Theory (GRT, a multidimensional extension of signal detection theory. Unfortunately, there is currently a lack of software implementing GRT analyses that is ready-to-use by experimental psychologists and neuroscientists with little training in computational modeling. This paper presents grtools, an R package developed with the explicit aim of providing experimentalists with the ability to perform full GRT analyses using only a couple of command lines. We describe the software and provide a practical tutorial on how to perform each of the analyses available in grtools. We also provide advice to researchers on best practices for experimental design and interpretation of results when applying GRT and grtools

  5. Undermining Quality Teaching and Learning: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Richard M.; Weinstein, Netta

    2009-01-01

    Using tests to compare nations, states, school districts, schools, teachers, and students has increasingly become a basis for educational reform around the globe. Although tests can be informative, "high-stakes testing" (HST) is an approach to reform that applies rewards and sanctions contingent on test outcomes. Results of HST reforms indicate a…

  6. Modeling Local Item Dependence in Cloze and Reading Comprehension Test Items Using Testlet Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…

  7. Using Testlet Response Theory to Examine Local Dependence in C-Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Thomas; Baghaei, Purya

    2015-01-01

    C-tests are gap-filling tests widely used to assess general language proficiency for purposes of placement, screening, or provision of feedback to language learners. C-tests consist of several short texts in which parts of words are missing. We addressed the issue of local dependence in C-tests using an explicit modeling approach based on testlet…

  8. Testing Components of a Self-Management Theory in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verchota, Gwen; Sawin, Kathleen J

    The role of self-management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus is not well understood. The purpose of the research was to examine the relationship of key individual and family self-management theory, context, and process variables on proximal (self-management behaviors) and distal (hemoglobin A1c and diabetes-specific health-related quality of life) outcomes in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. A correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted to identify factors contributing to outcomes in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes and examine potential relationships between context, process, and outcome variables delineated in individual and family self-management theory. Participants were 103 adolescent-parent dyads (adolescents ages 12-17) with Type 1 diabetes from a Midwest, outpatient, diabetes clinic. The dyads completed a self-report survey including instruments intended to measure context, process, and outcome variables from individual and family self-management theory. Using hierarchical multiple regression, context (depressive symptoms) and process (communication) variables explained 37% of the variance in self-management behaviors. Regimen complexity-the only significant predictor-explained 11% of the variance in hemoglobin A1c. Neither process variables nor self-management behaviors were significant. For the diabetes-specific health-related quality of life outcome, context (regimen complexity and depressive symptoms) explained 26% of the variance at step 1; an additional 9% of the variance was explained when process (self-efficacy and communication) variables were added at step 2; and 52% of the variance was explained when self-management behaviors were added at Step 3. In the final model, three variables were significant predictors: depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and self-management behaviors. The individual and family self-management theory can serve as a cogent theory for understanding key concepts, processes, and outcomes essential to self

  9. Erratum to "Proposed experimental test of the theory of hole superconductivity" [Physica C 525-526, 44-47 (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    2018-01-01

    The paper was in error in assuming that no voltage drop would be expected in direction parallel to the normal-superconductor phase boundary in the absence of hole current perpendicular to the phase boundary (figure 4 of original paper). In fact, the same voltage should result whether or not a hole current is present [1]. Thus, this measurement would not provide a test of the theory.

  10. From Theory-Inspired to Theory-Based Interventions: A Protocol for Developing and Testing a Methodology for Linking Behaviour Change Techniques to Theoretical Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Carey, Rachel N; Johnston, Marie; Rothman, Alexander J; de Bruin, Marijn; Kelly, Michael P; Connell, Lauren E

    2016-07-11

    Understanding links between behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and mechanisms of action (the processes through which they affect behaviour) helps inform the systematic development of behaviour change interventions. This research aims to develop and test a methodology for linking BCTs to their mechanisms of action. Study 1 (published explicit links): Hypothesised links between 93 BCTs (from the 93-item BCT taxonomy, BCTTv1) and mechanisms of action will be identified from published interventions and their frequency, explicitness and precision documented. Study 2 (expert-agreed explicit links): Behaviour change experts will identify links between 61 BCTs and 26 mechanisms of action in a formal consensus study. Study 3 (integrated matrix of explicit links): Agreement between studies 1 and 2 will be evaluated and a new group of experts will discuss discrepancies. An integrated matrix of BCT-mechanism of action links, annotated to indicate strength of evidence, will be generated. Study 4 (published implicit links): To determine whether groups of co-occurring BCTs can be linked to theories, we will identify groups of BCTs that are used together from the study 1 literature. A consensus exercise will be used to rate strength of links between groups of BCT and theories. A formal methodology for linking BCTs to their hypothesised mechanisms of action can contribute to the development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions. This research is a step towards developing a behaviour change 'ontology', specifying relations between BCTs, mechanisms of action, modes of delivery, populations, settings and types of behaviour.

  11. How do physicians become medical experts? A test of three competing theories: distinct domains, independent influence and encapsulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violato, Claudio; Gao, Hong; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Grier, David; Shen, E

    2017-07-12

    The distinction between basic sciences and clinical knowledge which has led to a theoretical debate on how medical expertise is developed has implications for medical school and lifelong medical education. This longitudinal, population based observational study was conducted to test the fit of three theories-knowledge encapsulation, independent influence, distinct domains-of the development of medical expertise employing structural equation modelling. Data were collected from 548 physicians (292 men-53.3%; 256 women-46.7%; mean age = 24.2 years on admission) who had graduated from medical school 2009-2014. They included (1) Admissions data of undergraduate grade point average and Medical College Admission Test sub-test scores, (2) Course performance data from years 1, 2, and 3 of medical school, and (3) Performance on the NBME exams (i.e., Step 1, Step 2 CK, and Step 3). Statistical fit indices (Goodness of Fit Index-GFI; standardized root mean squared residual-SRMR; root mean squared error of approximation-RSMEA) and comparative fit [Formula: see text] of three theories of cognitive development of medical expertise were used to assess model fit. There is support for the knowledge encapsulation three factor model of clinical competency (GFI = 0.973, SRMR = 0.043, RSMEA = 0.063) which had superior fit indices to both the independent influence and distinct domains theories ([Formula: see text] vs [Formula: see text] [[Formula: see text

  12. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz

    2016-06-07

    to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. demonstrar as relações entre vulnerabilidade, autotranscendência e bem-estar na população adulta jovem e o efeito de cada uma destas variáveis na adoção de condutas de baixo risco de consumo. estudo quantitativo, transversal do tipo correlacional que utilizou a análise estatística de Equações Estruturais para comprovar a relação entre as variáveis. evidenciou-se uma relação inversa entre a vulnerabilidade ao consumo do álcool e a transcendência espiritual (β-0.123, p 0.025) e uma relação direta positiva entre a transcendência espiritual e o bem-estar psicossocial (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusões: as relações das variáveis transcendência espiritual, vulnerabilidade ao consumo do álcool e bem-estar psicossocial, fundamentadas na Teoria de Reed, são confirmadas no grupo populacional de jovens adultos universitários, concluindo que é possível alcançar o bem-estar psicossocial quando se incrementa a transcendência espiritual, enquanto a vulnerabilidade ao consumo do álcool se reduz. demostrar las relaciones entre

  13. Fear of death and the judgment of social transgressions: a multidimensional test of terror management theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, V; Mikulincer, M

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of the research was to integrate a multidimensional approach to fear of personal death with terror management theory. In Study 1, 190 students were divided according to the manipulation of death salience and the intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects of fear of death and were asked to judge transgressions that have either intrapersonal or interpersonal consequences. Study 2 was a conceptual replication of Study 1, with the exception that the manipulation of mortality salience included conditions that made salient either intrapersonal or interpersonal aspects of death. Findings indicate that the effects of mortality salience depend on the aspect of death that is made salient, the aspect of death that individuals most fear, and the type of the judged transgression. More severe judgments of transgressions after death salience manipulation were found mainly when there was a fit between these 3 factors. Findings are discussed in light of terror management theory.

  14. Testing the theory of threshold concepts in a context of dental education. Preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, M

    2013-05-08

    This paper reports on the pilot phase of a phenomenographic study which explores the relationship between teachers' and students' perceptions of the curriculum and theory of threshold concepts, which claims that there are concepts in all disciplines which must be understood, if learners are to progress to a more advanced level of understanding. It is suggested that threshold concepts may represent ways of thinking and practising within disciplines. In this study consideration is given to the troublesome aspects of knowledge as described by David Perkins (1999) and further developed by Meyer and Land (2003). Researcher's intention is to investigate if students experience any conceptual difficulties and what the nature of these might be. Students' and teachers' accounts of how they perceive the dental curriculum might help to verify if there is a relationship between the curriculum and the theory of threshold concepts. Analysis of the troublesome aspects of knowledge may lead to the identification of threshold concepts in the dental curriculum.

  15. What is the Ability Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) good for? An evaluation using item response theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiori, Marina; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Mikolajczak, Moira; Luminet, Olivier; Hansenne, Michel; Rossier, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    ...). However, there is scarcity of tests measuring EI as a form of intelligence. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, or MSCEIT, is among the few available and the most widespread measure of EI as an ability...

  16. The Neuromatrix Theory of Pain and Angina during Exercise Stress Testing: Results from the PIMI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    pain through memory (Melzack, 2001). As such, a memorable past experience of anginal pain would influence the interpretation of any nociceptive...clinical events associated with atherosclerotic heart disease. Circulation, 62(6 Pt 2), V3-V13. McCaffery, M. (1968). Nursing practice theories...related to cognition, bodily pain, and man-environment . Los Angeles: UCLA Student Store. Melzack, R. (1993). Pain: past, present and future. Canadian

  17. Further test of internal-conversion theory with a measurement in Pt197

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, N.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Goodwin, J.; Balonek, C.; Hernberg, M.; Nolan, J.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.

    2009-12-01

    We have measured the K-shell internal conversion coefficient, αK, for the 346.5-keV M4 transition in Pt197 to be 4.23(7). This result differs from a previous value, which disagreed significantly from theory. Our new value agrees well with Dirac-Fock calculations and removes the earlier discrepancy as a source of concern.

  18. Single-photon test of hyper-complex quantum theories using a metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Lorenzo M; Rozema, Lee A; Wong, Zi Jing; Hamel, Deny R; O'Brien, Kevin; Zhang, Xiang; Dakić, Borivoje; Walther, Philip

    2017-04-21

    In standard quantum mechanics, complex numbers are used to describe the wavefunction. Although this has so far proven sufficient to predict experimental results, there is no theoretical reason to choose them over real numbers or generalizations of complex numbers, that is, hyper-complex numbers. Experiments performed to date have proven that real numbers are insufficient, but the need for hyper-complex numbers remains an open question. Here we experimentally probe hyper-complex quantum theories, studying one of their deviations from complex quantum theory: the non-commutativity of phases. We do so by passing single photons through a Sagnac interferometer containing both a metamaterial with a negative refractive index, and a positive phase shifter. To accomplish this we engineered a fishnet metamaterial to have a negative refractive index at 780 nm. We show that the metamaterial phase commutes with other phases with high precision, allowing us to place limits on a particular prediction of hyper-complex quantum theories.

  19. Comment on "Peres experiment using photons: No test for hypercomplex (quaternionic) quantum theories"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Lorenzo M.; Rozema, Lee A.; Dakić, Borivoje; Walther, Philip

    2017-09-01

    In his recent article [Phys. Rev. A 95, 060101(R) (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.060101], Adler questions the usefulness of the bound found in our experimental search for genuine effects of hypercomplex quantum mechanics [Nat. Commun. 8, 15044 (2017), 10.1038/ncomms15044]. Our experiment was performed using a black-box (instrumentalist) approach to generalized probabilistic theories; therefore, it does not assume a priori any particular underlying mechanism. From that point of view our experimental results do indeed place meaningful bounds on the possible effects of "postquantum theories," including quaternionic quantum mechanics. In his article, Adler compares our experiment to nonrelativistic and Möller formal scattering theories within quaternionic quantum mechanics. With a particular set of assumptions, he finds that quaternionic effects would likely not manifest themselves in general. Although these assumptions are justified in the nonrelativistic case, a proper calculation for relativistic particles is still missing. Here, we provide a concrete relativistic example of Klein-Gordon scattering wherein the quaternionic effects persist. We note that when the Klein-Gordon equation is formulated using a Hamiltonian formalism it displays a so-called "indefinite metric," a characteristic feature of relativistic quantum wave equations. In Adler's example this is directly forbidden by his assumptions, and therefore our present example is not in contradiction to his work. In complex quantum mechanics this problem of an indefinite metric is solved in a second quantization. Unfortunately, there is no known algorithm for canonical field quantization in quaternionic quantum mechanics.

  20. An experimental test of CSR theory using a globally calibrated ordination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanzhi; Shipley, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Can CSR theory, in conjunction with a recently proposed globally calibrated CSR ordination ("StrateFy"), using only three easily measured leaf traits (leaf area, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content) predict the functional signature of herbaceous vegetation along experimentally manipulated gradients of soil fertility and disturbance? To determine this, we grew 37 herbaceous species in mixture for five years in 24 experimental mesocosms differing in factorial levels of soil resources (stress) and density-independent mortality (disturbance). We measured 16 different functional traits and then ordinated the resulting vegetation within the CSR triangle using StrateFy. We then calculated community-weighted mean (CWM) values of the competitor (CCWM), stress-tolerator (SCWM) and ruderal (RCWM) scores for each mesocosm. We found a significant increase in SCWM from low to high stress mesocosms, and an increase in RCWM from lowly to highly disturbed mesocosms. However, CCWM did not decline significantly as intensity of stress or disturbance increased, as predicted by CSR theory. This last result likely arose because our herbaceous species were relatively poor competitors in global comparisons and thus no strong competitors in our species pool were selectively favoured in low stress and low disturbed mesocosms. Variation in the 13 other traits, not used by StrateFy, largely argeed with the predictions of CSR theory. StrateFy worked surprisingly well in our experimental study except for the C-dimension. Despite loss of some precision, it has great potential applicability in future studies due to its simplicity and generality.

  1. Experimental test of social norms theory in a real-world drinking environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark B

    2012-09-01

    Social norms theory articulates that behavior is influenced by perceptions of behavioral norms. Social norms interventions attempt to modify perceptions of what behavior is normative as a means of influencing actual behavior. Social norms interventions have been widely used on college campuses to reduce the level of student drinking. The effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed. A social norms program might fail because the intervention operations failed to sufficiently implement social norms theory in the real world or because of the theory's limitations. Our research involves an experimental examination of the impact of social norms information on actual drinking behavior within a real-world drinking environment. Nearly 3,000 participants were interviewed and randomly assigned to one of nine social norms feedback conditions before heading to bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. These same participants were resampled, interviewed again, and subjected to breath alcohol analysis when they returned to the United States. We found that persons whose perceptions of normative drinking changed (became more accurate) during their visit to Tijuana consumed relatively less alcohol. We also found that providing participants with social norms feedback produced more accurate perceived norms. However, the effect sizes were too small to produce statistically significant results showing that social norms feedback could effectively reduce drinking via changing normative perceptions. Our research demonstrated that providing social norms feedback changed perceived drinking norms and that changes in perceived norms were correlated with reduced drinking. Effect sizes, however, were quite small.

  2. On Nomological Validity and Auxiliary Assumptions: The Importance of Simultaneously Testing Effects in Social Cognitive Theories Applied to Health Behavior and Some Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2017-01-01

    Tests of social cognitive theories provide informative data on the factors that relate to health behavior, and the processes and mechanisms involved. In the present article, we contend that tests of social cognitive theories should adhere to the principles of nomological validity, defined as the degree to which predictions in a formal theoretical network are confirmed. We highlight the importance of nomological validity tests to ensure theory predictions can be disconfirmed through observation. We argue that researchers should be explicit on the conditions that lead to theory disconfirmation, and identify any auxiliary assumptions on which theory effects may be conditional. We contend that few researchers formally test the nomological validity of theories, or outline conditions that lead to model rejection and the auxiliary assumptions that may explain findings that run counter to hypotheses, raising potential for 'falsification evasion.' We present a brief analysis of studies (k = 122) testing four key social cognitive theories in health behavior to illustrate deficiencies in reporting theory tests and evaluations of nomological validity. Our analysis revealed that few articles report explicit statements suggesting that their findings support or reject the hypotheses of the theories tested, even when findings point to rejection. We illustrate the importance of explicit a priori specification of fundamental theory hypotheses and associated auxiliary assumptions, and identification of the conditions which would lead to rejection of theory predictions. We also demonstrate the value of confirmatory analytic techniques, meta-analytic structural equation modeling, and Bayesian analyses in providing robust converging evidence for nomological validity. We provide a set of guidelines for researchers on how to adopt and apply the nomological validity approach to testing health behavior models.

  3. Suicide Risk across Latent Class Subgroups: A Test of the Generalizability of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jennifer S; Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Han, Jin

    2018-01-06

    It remains unclear whether the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner, ) is generalizable to the population or holds more explanatory power for certain subgroups compared to others. The aim of this study was to (1) identify subgroups of individuals who endorsed suicide ideation in the past month based on a range of mental health and demographic variables, (2) compare levels of the IPTS constructs within these subgroups, and (3) test the IPTS predictions for suicide ideation and suicide attempt for each group. Latent class, negative binomial, linear, and logistic regression analyses were conducted on population-based data obtained from 1,321 adults recruited from Facebook. Among participants reporting suicide ideation, four distinct patterns of risk factors emerged based on age and severity of mental health symptoms. Groups with highly elevated mental health symptoms reported the highest levels of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Tests of the IPTS interactions provided partial support for the theory, primarily in young adults with elevated mental health symptoms. Lack of support found for the IPTS predictions across the subgroups and full sample in this study raise some questions around the broad applicability of the theory. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.

  4. Using signal detection theory to test the impact of negative emotion on sub-clinical paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Stefan; Lincoln, Tania M

    2010-06-01

    A novel experimental paradigm for measuring state paranoia by means of signal detection theory was evaluated. A liberal response bias, indicating the tendency to recognize facial expressions as threatening, was expected to reflect paranoia. Against theoretical expectations, heightened paranoia questionnaire scores were associated with a non-liberal bias, which was not affected by negative emotion per se. However, subsequent analyses revealed that, if anxious, participants with heightened paranoia adopted a comparatively more liberal response bias. These findings corroborate the eminent role of anxiety in paranoia and demonstrate that state paranoia can be captured with the presented paradigm.

  5. Chinese multinationals in Denmark: Testing the eclectic framework and internalization theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Stucchi, Tamara; Visholm, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explain in detail the strategic asset-seeking OFDIs of Chinese firms in Denmark through a theoretical lens that combines the updated OLI (Ownership, Location, Internalization) paradigm and the internalization theory. Meanwhile, the authors hope to unveil...... investment in Denmark. Primary data were collected by semi-structured interviews in English at various locations in late 2009 and early 2010. The three Chinese firms in this study share a common primary objective in their strategic orientation of OFDIs. That is to seek strategic assets that are complementary...

  6. The Shape Trail Test: application of a new variant of the Trail making test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhua Zhao

    Full Text Available The Trail making test (TMT is culture-loaded because of reliance on the Latin alphabet, limiting its application in Eastern populations. The Shape Trail Test (STT has been developed as a new variant. This study is to examine the applicability of the STT in a senile Chinese population and to evaluate its potential advantages and disadvantages.A total of 2470 participants were recruited, including 1151 cognitively normal control (NC, 898 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, and 421 mild Alzheimer disease (AD patients. Besides the STT, the Mini mental state examination and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery involving memory, language, attention, executive function and visuospatial ability were administered to all the participants. In a subgroup of 100 NC and 50 AD patients, both the STT and the Color Trail Test (CTT were performed.In NC, the time consumed for Part A and B (STT-A and STT-B significantly correlated with age and negatively correlated with education (p<0.01. STT-A and B significantly differed among the AD, aMCI and NC. The number that successfully connected within one minute in Part B (STT-B-1 min correlated well with STT-B (r = 0.71, p<0.01 and distinguished well among NC, aMCI and AD. In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the AUCs (area under the curve for STT-A, STT-B, and STT-B-1min in identifying AD were 0.698, 0.694 and 0.709, respectively. The STT correlated with the CTT, but the time for completion was longer.The TMT is a sensitive test of visual search and sequencing. The STT is a meaningful attempt to develop a "culture-fair" variant of the TMT in addition to the CTT.

  7. Diamond-winged variants of the Müller-Lyer figure: a test of Virsu's (1971) centroid theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, P R; Longmire, S P; Kennish, J

    1994-03-01

    Diamond-winged variants of the Müller-Lyer figure were used to test predictions of Virsu's (1971) theory of the Müller-Lyer illusion based on efferent readiness for eye movements toward the figure's center of gravity. A Müller-Lyer figure with diamond-shaped wings resulted in a greater center-of-gravity distance than the corresponding, conventional Müller-Lyer figure, but fin length and the rest of the figure remained constant; in Virus's study, fin length and center-of-gravity distance covaried. Results were consistent with Virus's data when we used the stimulus conditions that he reported. Results from a wide range of stimuli challenge Virsu's theory, and thus are consistent with the conclusions of Brigell, Uhlarik, and Goldhorn (1977).

  8. Attempts to test an alternative electrodynamic theory of superconductors by low-temperature scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peronio, Angelo; Giessibl, Franz J.

    2016-09-01

    We perform an experiment to test between two theories of the electrodynamics of superconductors: the standard London theory and an alternative proposed by J. E. Hirsch [Phys. Rev. B 69, 214515 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevB.69.214515]. The two alternatives give different predictions with respect to the screening of an electric field by a superconductor, and we try to detect this effect using atomic force microscopy on a niobium sample. We also perform the reverse experiment, where we demonstrate a superconductive tip mounted on a qPlus force sensor. Due to limited accuracy, we are able neither to prove nor to disprove Hirsch's hypothesis. Within our accuracy of 0.17 N/m, the superconductive transition does not alter the atomic-scale interaction between tip and sample.

  9. Attributional versus preattributional variables in self-esteem and depression: a comparison and test of learned helplessness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, C R; Furnham, A

    1986-05-01

    Predictions made according to the attributional reformulation of learned helplessness theory concerning the cognitive determinants of low self-esteem and depression were tested in two samples of undergraduates; real and hypothetical life events were used. As predicted, internal attributions for hypothetical success and failure were correlated with self-esteem, but there was an unexpected correlation with global attributions for negative outcomes. Two "preattributional" variables, consensus and consistency judgments, were also related to self-esteem and depression. In contrast to learned helplessness theory, a path analysis indicated that these variables were not attributionally mediated. Consensus judgment was as strong a predictor of depression as the number of recent distressing life events that subjects had experienced. Other evidence that links depression to perceived low consensus is described, and a possible etiological role for this variable is outlined.

  10. Using meta-analytic path analysis to test theoretical predictions in health behavior: An illustration based on meta-analyses of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Chan, Derwin K C; Protogerou, Cleo; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2016-08-01

    Synthesizing research on social cognitive theories applied to health behavior is an important step in the development of an evidence base of psychological factors as targets for effective behavioral interventions. However, few meta-analyses of research on social cognitive theories in health contexts have conducted simultaneous tests of theoretically-stipulated pattern effects using path analysis. We argue that conducting path analyses of meta-analytic effects among constructs from social cognitive theories is important to test nomological validity, account for mediation effects, and evaluate unique effects of theory constructs independent of past behavior. We illustrate our points by conducting new analyses of two meta-analyses of a popular theory applied to health behaviors, the theory of planned behavior. We conducted meta-analytic path analyses of the theory in two behavioral contexts (alcohol and dietary behaviors) using data from the primary studies included in the original meta-analyses augmented to include intercorrelations among constructs and relations with past behavior missing from the original analysis. Findings supported the nomological validity of the theory and its hypotheses for both behaviors, confirmed important model processes through mediation analysis, demonstrated the attenuating effect of past behavior on theory relations, and provided estimates of the unique effects of theory constructs independent of past behavior. Our analysis illustrates the importance of conducting a simultaneous test of theory-stipulated effects in meta-analyses of social cognitive theories applied to health behavior. We recommend researchers adopt this analytic procedure when synthesizing evidence across primary tests of social cognitive theories in health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Distinguishing between learning and motivation in behavioral tests of the reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, Luke D; Dalgleish, Len I; Jackson, Chris J

    2007-04-01

    According to Gray's (1973) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and a Behavioral Activation System (BAS) mediate effects of goal conflict and reward on behavior. BIS functioning has been linked with individual differences in trait anxiety and BAS functioning with individual differences in trait impulsivity. In this article, it is argued that behavioral outputs of the BIS and BAS can be distinguished in terms of learning and motivation processes and that these can be operationalized using the Signal Detection Theory measures of response-sensitivity and response-bias. In Experiment 1, two measures of BIS-reactivity predicted increased response-sensitivity under goal conflict, whereas one measure of BAS-reactivity predicted increased response-sensitivity under reward. In Experiment 2, two measures of BIS-reactivity predicted response-bias under goal conflict, whereas a measure of BAS-reactivity predicted motivation response-bias under reward. In both experiments, impulsivity measures did not predict criteria for BAS-reactivity as traditionally predicted by RST.

  12. Understanding family health information seeking: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    Although a family health history can be used to assess disease risk and increase health prevention behaviors, research suggests that few people have collected family health information. Guided by the Theory of Motivated Information Management, this study seeks to understand the barriers to and facilitators of interpersonal information seeking about family health history. Individuals who were engaged to be married (N = 306) were surveyed online and in person to understand how factors such as uncertainty, expectations for an information search, efficacy, and anxiety influence decisions and strategies for obtaining family health histories. The results supported the Theory of Motivated Information Management by demonstrating that individuals who experienced uncertainty discrepancies regarding family heath history had greater intention to seek information from family members when anxiety was low, outcome expectancy was high, and communication efficacy was positive. Although raising uncertainty about family health history may be an effective tool for health communicators to increase communication among family members, low-anxiety situations may be optimal for information seeking. Health communication messages must also build confidence in people's ability to communicate with family to obtain the needed health information.

  13. Moldauer's sum rule as a test of the consistency of transmission coefficients in Hauser Feshbach theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Nobre, Gustavo; Herman, Michal

    2017-09-01

    For neutron induced reactions below 20 MeV incident energy, the Unresolved Resonance Region (URR) connects the fast neutron region with the Resolved Resonance Region (RRR). The URR is problematic since resonances are not resolvable experimentally yet the fluctuations in the neutron cross sections play a discernible and technologically important role - the URR in a typical nucleus is in the 100 keV - 2 MeV window where the typical fission spectrum peaks. The URR also represents the transition between R-matrix theory used to describe isolated resonances and Hauser-Feshbach theory which accurately describes the average cross sections. In practice, only average or systematic features of the resonances in the URR are known and are tabulated in evaluations in a nuclear data library such as ENDF/B-VII.1. Here we apply Moldauer's ``sum rule for resonance reactions'' to compute the effective transmission coefficients for reactions in the RRR and URR regions. We compare these to the transmission coefficients used in the fast region in the EMPIRE Hauser-Feshbach code, demonstrating the consistency (or lack thereof) between these different physical regimes. This work suggests a better approach to evaluating the URR average parameters using the results from the fast region modeling. This material is based upon work supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704 (BNL).

  14. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF DESIGNING COURSES ON LANGUAGE TESTING AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Kvasova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the theoretical underpinnings and practices of designing courses on language testing and assessment for pre-service FL teacher training. The author analyses definitions of assessment literacy offered in the studies of world experts including teaching content and objectives of such long implemented courses. She further reasons the urgent need in introducing courses on language testing and assessment in Ukrainian universities; specifies the goal of the courses which lies in training student teachers in developing quality tests and administering assessments on the outset of their teaching career; outlines the content area to be covered in the course placing emphasis on its being based on professional needs; specifies course objectives such as building students’ awareness of key concepts and principles of language testing, developing ability to critically analyze available ready-made tests and make decisions about their fitting particular assessment needs, building skills to develop own or adapt ready-made tests and tailor them to the educational context; discusses preconditions of efficient running and attaining good outcomes of such courses which, in her view, are predetermined by traditionally high standards of teaching language pedagogy in Ukraine. An innovative structure of the course based on principles of testing cycle as well as interactive and constructivist methods of teaching language testing and assessment to student teachers are offered in the article.

  15. Investigating Score Dependability in English/Chinese Interpreter Certification Performance Testing: A Generalizability Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao

    2016-01-01

    As a property of test scores, reliability/dependability constitutes an important psychometric consideration, and it underpins the validity of measurement results. A review of interpreter certification performance tests (ICPTs) reveals that (a) although reliability/dependability checking has been recognized as an important concern, its theoretical…

  16. A test of self-determination theory with wheelchair basketball players with and without disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Stephane; Vallarand, Robert J

    2007-10-01

    Guided by Self-Determination Theory (SDT), the present study examined the sport motivation and coping skills of male and female wheelchair basketball players with and without disability (N = 72). In line with SDT, results showed that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as well as amotivation was found to be present in this sample of wheelchair basketball players. Results also demonstrated that the participants surveyed in the present study scored higher on self-determined types of motivation than non self-determined types of motivation, thus replicating past research with athletes without disability. Furthermore, wheelchair basketball players with and without disability did not differ significantly with respect to sport motivation and coping skills, suggesting that they are more alike than dissimilar. Finally, results revealed that self-determined motivation is associated with enhanced psychological functioning.

  17. Black holes in many dimensions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider: testing critical string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, JoAnne L; Lillie, Ben; Rizzo, Thomas G

    2005-12-31

    We consider black hole production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in a generic scenario with many extra dimensions where the standard model fields are confined to a brane. With approximately 20 dimensions the hierarchy problem is shown to be naturally solved without the need for large compactification radii. We find that in such a scenario the properties of black holes can be used to determine the number of extra dimensions, . In particular, we demonstrate that measurements of the decay distributions of such black holes at the LHC can determine if is significantly larger than 6 or 7 with high confidence and thus can probe one of the critical properties of string theory compactifications.

  18. Experiences gained in testing a theory for modelling groundwater flow in heterogeneous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; R.L., Cooley

    2003-01-01

    Usually, small-scale model error is present in groundwater modelling because the model only represents average system characteristics having the same form as the drift and small-scale variability is neglected. These errors cause the true errors of a regression model to be correlated. Theory...... and an example show that the errors also contribute to bias in the estimates of model parameters. This bias originates from model nonlinearity. In spite of this bias, predictions of hydraulic head are nearly unbiased if the model intrinsic nonlinearity is small. Individual confidence and prediction intervals...... are accurate if the t-statistic is multiplied by a correction factor. The correction factor can be computed from the true error second moment matrix, which can be determined when the stochastic properties of the system characteristics are known....

  19. Black holes in many dimensions at the CERN large Hadron collider testing critical string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J L; Rizzo, T G; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Lillie, Ben; Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2005-01-01

    We consider black hole production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in a generic scenario with many extra dimensions where the standard model fields are confined to a brane. With ~20 dimensions the hierarchy problem is shown to be naturally solved without the need for large compactification radii. We find that in such a scenario the properties of black holes can be used to determine the number of extra dimensions, n. In particular, we demonstrate that measurements of the decay distributions of such black holes at the LHC can determine if n is significantly larger than 6 or 7 with high confidence and thus can probe one of the critical properties of string theory compactifications.

  20. Exploring the plexus of context and consequences: an empirical test of a theory of disaster vulnerability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, M.; Frerks, G.; Birkmann, J.

    2015-01-01

    What determines the disaster vulnerability of countries? In this study a theoretical model was tested, linking disaster vulnerability to physical hazards and cultural and historical factors. Associations between the World Vulnerability Index and Hofstede's cultural dimensions scores were explored

  1. Exploring the plexus of context and consequences : An empirical test of a theory of disaster vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, Michel; Frerks, Georg; Birkmann, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    What determines the disaster vulnerability of countries? In this study a theoretical model was tested, linking disaster vulnerability to physical hazards and cultural and historical factors. Associations between the World Vulnerability Index and Hofstede's cultural dimensions scores were explored

  2. The Impact of Levene’s Test of Equality of Variances on Statistical Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Gastwirth, Joseph L.; Gel, Yulia R.; Miao, Weiwen

    2009-01-01

    In many applications, the underlying scientific question concerns whether the variances of $k$ samples are equal. There are a substantial number of tests for this problem. Many of them rely on the assumption of normality and are not robust to its violation. In 1960 Professor Howard Levene proposed a new approach to this problem by applying the $F$-test to the absolute deviations of the observations from their group means. Levene's approach is powerful and robust to nonnormality and became a v...

  3. Scaling up from traits to communities to ecosystems across broad climate gradients: Testing Metabolic Scaling Theories predictions for forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, B. J.; Michaletz, S. T.; Buzzard, V.

    2015-12-01

    Key insights in global ecology will come from mechanistically linking pattern and process across scales. Macrosystems ecology specifically attempts to link ecological processes across spatiotemporal scales. The goal s to link the processing of energy and nutrients from cells all the way ecosystems and to understand how shifting climate influences ecosystem processes. Using new data collected from NSF funded Macrosystems project we report on new findings from forests sites across a broad temperature gradient. Our study sites span tropical, temperate, and high elevation forests we assess several key predictions and assumptions of Metabolic Scaling Theory (MST) as well as several other competing hypotheses for the role of climate, light, and plant traits on influencing forest demography and forest ecosystems. Specifically, we assess the importance of plant size, light limitation, size structure, and various climatic factors on forest growth, demography, and ecosystem functioning. We provide some of the first systematic tests of several key predictions from MST. We show that MST predictions are largely upheld and that new insights from assessing theories predictions yields new observations and findings that help modify and extend MST's predictions and applicability. We discuss how theory is critically needed to further our understanding of how to scale pattern and process in ecology - from traits to ecosystems - in order to develop a more predictive global change biology.

  4. (13)C-Breath testing in animals: theory, applications, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Welch, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    The carbon isotope values in the exhaled breath of an animal mirror the carbon isotope values of the metabolic fuels being oxidized. The measurement of stable carbon isotopes in carbon dioxide is called (13)C-breath testing and offers a minimally invasive method to study substrate oxidation in vivo. (13)C-breath testing has been broadly used to study human exercise, nutrition, and pathologies since the 1970s. Owing to reduced use of radioactive isotopes and the increased convenience and affordability of (13)C-analyzers, the past decade has witnessed a sharp increase in the use of breath testing throughout comparative physiology--especially to answer questions about how and when animals oxidize particular nutrients. Here, we review the practical aspects of (13)C-breath testing and identify the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches including the use of natural abundance versus artificially-enriched (13)C tracers. We critically compare the information that can be obtained using different experimental protocols such as diet-switching versus fuel-switching. We also discuss several factors that should be considered when designing breath testing experiments including extrinsic versus intrinsic (13)C-labelling and different approaches to model nutrient oxidation. We use case studies to highlight the myriad applications of (13)C-breath testing in basic and clinical human studies as well as comparative studies of fuel use, energetics, and carbon turnover in multiple vertebrate and invertebrate groups. Lastly, we call for increased and rigorous use of (13)C-breath testing to explore a variety of new research areas and potentially answer long standing questions related to thermobiology, locomotion, and nutrition.

  5. What is the Ability Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) good for? An evaluation using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Marina; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Mikolajczak, Moira; Luminet, Olivier; Hansenne, Michel; Rossier, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    The ability approach has been indicated as promising for advancing research in emotional intelligence (EI). However, there is scarcity of tests measuring EI as a form of intelligence. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, or MSCEIT, is among the few available and the most widespread measure of EI as an ability. This implies that conclusions about the value of EI as a meaningful construct and about its utility in predicting various outcomes mainly rely on the properties of this test. We tested whether individuals who have the highest probability of choosing the most correct response on any item of the test are also those who have the strongest EI ability. Results showed that this is not the case for most items: The answer indicated by experts as the most correct in several cases was not associated with the highest ability; furthermore, items appeared too easy to challenge individuals high in EI. Overall results suggest that the MSCEIT is best suited to discriminate persons at the low end of the trait. Results are discussed in light of applied and theoretical considerations.

  6. What is the Ability Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT good for? An evaluation using item response theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fiori

    Full Text Available The ability approach has been indicated as promising for advancing research in emotional intelligence (EI. However, there is scarcity of tests measuring EI as a form of intelligence. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, or MSCEIT, is among the few available and the most widespread measure of EI as an ability. This implies that conclusions about the value of EI as a meaningful construct and about its utility in predicting various outcomes mainly rely on the properties of this test. We tested whether individuals who have the highest probability of choosing the most correct response on any item of the test are also those who have the strongest EI ability. Results showed that this is not the case for most items: The answer indicated by experts as the most correct in several cases was not associated with the highest ability; furthermore, items appeared too easy to challenge individuals high in EI. Overall results suggest that the MSCEIT is best suited to discriminate persons at the low end of the trait. Results are discussed in light of applied and theoretical considerations.

  7. An evaluation of iced bridge hanger vibrations through wind tunnel testing and quasi-steady theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstrup, Henrik; Georgakis, Christos T.; Larsen, A.

    2012-01-01

    for wind perpendicular to the cylinder at velocities below 30 m/s and for temperatures between -5C and -1C. Aerodynamic drag, lift and moment coefficients are obtained from the static tests, whilst mean and fluctuating responses are obtained from the dynamic tests. The influence of varying surface...... roughness is also examined. The static force coefficients are used to predict parameter regions where aerodynamic instability of the iced bridge hanger might be expected to occur, through use of an adapted theoretical 3- DOF quasi-steady galloping instability model, which accounts for sectional axial...

  8. An optimal controller for an electric ventricular-assist device: theory, implementation, and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klute, G. K.; Tasch, U.; Geselowitz, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the development and testing of an optimal position feedback controller for the Penn State electric ventricular-assist device (EVAD). The control law is designed to minimize the expected value of the EVAD's power consumption for a targeted patient population. The closed-loop control law is implemented on an Intel 8096 microprocessor and in vitro test runs show that this controller improves the EVAD's efficiency by 15-21%, when compared with the performance of the currently used feedforward control scheme.

  9. Null hypothesis significance tests. A mix-up of two different theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2015-01-01

    criticisms raised against NHST. As practiced, NHST has been characterized as a ‘null ritual’ that is overused and too often misapplied and misinterpreted. NHST is in fact a patchwork of two fundamentally different classical statistical testing models, often blended with some wishful quasi......-Bayesian interpretations. This is undoubtedly a major reason why NHST is very often misunderstood. But NHST also has intrinsic logical problems and the epistemic range of the information provided by such tests is much more limited than most researchers recognize. In this article we introduce to the scientometric community...

  10. Theory-based design and field-testing of an intervention to support women choosing surgery for breast cancer: BresDex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivell, S.; Marsh, W.; Edwards, A.; Manstead, A.S.; Clements, A.; Elwyn, G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Design and undertake usability and field-testing evaluation of a theory-guided decision aid (BresDex) in supporting women choosing surgery for early breast cancer. METHODS: An extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Common Sense Model of Illness Representations (CSM) guided the

  11. Using NIF to Test Theories of High-Pressure, High-Rate Plastic Flow in Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Robert E.; Arsenlis, A.; Cavallo, R. M.; Huntington, C. M.; McNaney, J. M.; Park, H. S.; Powell, P.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Remington, B. A.; Swift, D.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Yang, L.

    2017-10-01

    Precisely controlled plasmas are playing key roles both as pump and probe in experiments to understand the strength of solid metals at high energy density (HED) conditions. In concert with theoretical advances, these experiments have enabled a predictive capability to model material strength at Mbar pressures and high strain rates. Here we describe multiscale strength models developed for tantalum starting with atomic bonding and extending up through the mobility of individual dislocations, the evolution of dislocation networks and so on until the ultimate material response at the scale of an experiment. Experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) probe strength in metals ramp compressed to 1-8 Mbar. The model is able to predict 1 Mbar experiments without adjustable parameters. The combination of experiment and theory has shown that solid metals can behave significantly differently at HED conditions. We also describe recent studies of lead compressed to 3-5 Mbar. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA273.

  12. How soccer players head the ball: a test of Optic Acceleration Cancellation theory with virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Peter; Reed, Nick; Gilson, Stuart; Glennerster, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    We measured the movements of soccer players heading a football in a fully immersive virtual reality environment. In mid-flight the ball's trajectory was altered from its normal quasi-parabolic path to a linear one, producing a jump in the rate of change of the angle of elevation of gaze (alpha) from player to ball. One reaction time later the players adjusted their speed so that the rate of change of alpha increased when it had been reduced and reduced it when it had been increased. Since the result of the player's movement was to regain a value of the rate of change close to that before the disturbance, the data suggest that the players have an expectation of, and memory for, the pattern that the rate of change of alpha will follow during the flight. The results support the general claim that players intercepting balls use servo control strategies and are consistent with the particular claim of Optic Acceleration Cancellation theory that the servo strategy is to allow alpha to increase at a steadily decreasing rate.

  13. On the validity of the effective field theory approach to SM precision tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contino, Roberto [EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques; CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Theoretical Physics Dept.; Falkowski, Adam [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique; Goertz, Florian; Riva, Francesco [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Theoretical Physics Dept.; Grojean, Christophe [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    We discuss the conditions for an effective field theory (EFT) to give an adequate low-energy description of an underlying physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). Starting from the EFT where the SM is extended by dimension-6 operators, experimental data can be used without further assumptions to measure (or set limits on) the EFT parameters. The interpretation of these results requires instead a set of broad assumptions (e.g. power counting rules) on the UV dynamics. This allows one to establish, in a bottom-up approach, the validity range of the EFT description, and to assess the error associated with the truncation of the EFT series. We give a practical prescription on how experimental results could be reported, so that they admit a maximally broad range of theoretical interpretations. Namely, the experimental constraints on dimension-6 operators should be reported as functions of the kinematic variables that set the relevant energy scale of the studied process. This is especially important for hadron collider experiments where collisions probe a wide range of energy scales.

  14. Transition strengths in 21 , 22 , 23Mg as tests of ab initio theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jack; Ruotsalainen, Panu; Hackman, Greg; Experiment S1480 Team; Experiment S1624 Team; Experiment S1646 Team

    2017-09-01

    Effective charges compensate for insufficiencies arising from truncations of the nuclear model-space by performing a crude inflation of nucleon charges to account for missing electric-quadrupole (E 2) transition strength. Recent theoretical developments in ab initio nuclear theory might allow for the calculation of this strength using evolved effective-operators arising from first-principles, removing the need for effective charges and enhancing predictive power. To that end, Coulomb excitation measurements were performed of neutron-deficient 21 , 22 , 23Mg at TRIUMF-ISAC, with the goal of extracting precision E 2 strengths for comparison with state-of-the-art models. Results will be presented and compared with ab initio in-medium similarity renormalization group (IM-SRG) and symplectic no-core shell-model calculations, as well as phenomenological shell-model results. Results will also be presented in the context of mirror-pairs in the sd -shell, providing a systematic evaluation of the reproduction of E 2 strength with respect to isospin.

  15. Life satisfaction and degree of suicide intent: A test of the strain theory of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yanzheng; Sun, Long

    2017-04-01

    Various factors contribute to suicide. Psychological strains are hypothesized to precede suicidal thought and attempt. Life satisfaction can be a measure of relative deprivation strain and aspiration-reality strain. This study was to compare the suicide attempters with various levels of life satisfaction and find out how life satisfaction affects the degree of suicide intent among medically serious suicide attempters. Subjects for study were recruited in some rural counties in China. Interview data were from hospital emergency rooms with medically serious attempters of suicide (n=791). The subjects were aged between 15 and 54years and 293 males and 498 females. Face to face interview was conducted for each suicide attempter with a semi-structural protocol including life satisfaction, physical health, demographic, sociological, and psychological measures, as well as psychological strains. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that mental disorder, aspiration strain and relative deprivation strain were significant risk factors for high intent of suicide among suicide attempters. The interaction between the two psychological strains also indicated that both failed aspiration and self-perceived low economic status in village play an important role in suicidal intent. Low level of life satisfaction is associated with strong intent for suicide. Lack of life satisfaction is exemplified by relative deprivation perceived by the individuals and the discrepancy between an individual's aspiration for life and his/her reality. The findings from the suicide attempt data in rural China support the Strain Theory of Suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Why assessment in medical education needs a solid foundation in modern test theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauber, Stefan K; Hecht, Martin; Nouns, Zineb M

    2017-03-16

    Despite the frequent use of state-of-the-art psychometric models in the field of medical education, there is a growing body of literature that questions their usefulness in the assessment of medical competence. Essentially, a number of authors raised doubt about the appropriateness of psychometric models as a guiding framework to secure and refine current approaches to the assessment of medical competence. In addition, an intriguing phenomenon known as case specificity is specific to the controversy on the use of psychometric models for the assessment of medical competence. Broadly speaking, case specificity is the finding of instability of performances across clinical cases, tasks, or problems. As stability of performances is, generally speaking, a central assumption in psychometric models, case specificity may limit their applicability. This has probably fueled critiques of the field of psychometrics with a substantial amount of potential empirical evidence. This article aimed to explain the fundamental ideas employed in psychometric theory, and how they might be problematic in the context of assessing medical competence. We further aimed to show why and how some critiques do not hold for the field of psychometrics as a whole, but rather only for specific psychometric approaches. Hence, we highlight approaches that, from our perspective, seem to offer promising possibilities when applied in the assessment of medical competence. In conclusion, we advocate for a more differentiated view on psychometric models and their usage.

  17. Delinquency, androgens, and the family: a test of evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Das, Shyamal

    2013-08-01

    There is little doubt that family factors can influence involvement in delinquency, although the full nature and extent of their influences remain unclear. In recent decades, testosterone has been increasingly implicated as a contributor to adolescent offending. The present study sought to determine whether two important types of familial factors--parental socioeconomic status and amicable parent-child relationships--are interacting with testosterone (and possibly other androgens) to affect delinquency. A large sample of North American college students self-reported their involvement in eight categories of delinquency along with self-ratings of various androgen-promoted traits (e.g., muscularity and low-deep voice), parental social status, and the quality of the relationships they had with parents. In both sexes, parent-child relationships and androgens were significantly associated with delinquency but parental social status was not. Factor analysis revealed that the authors' measures of all four categories of variables exhibited strong loadings onto their respective factors. Androgens and amicable parent-child relationships were associated with delinquency but parental social status was not. About one third of the influence of parent-child relationships on delinquency appeared to be attributable to androgens. Findings are discussed from the perspective of the evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory of delinquent and criminal behavior.

  18. Theory of Mind and embedding of perspective: A psychological test of a literary "sweet spot"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D H; Zunshine, Lisa; Holquist, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) has been proposed to explain social interactions, with real people but also with fictional characters, by interpreting their mind as well as our own. "Perspective embedding" exploits ToM by placing events in characters' minds (e.g., "he remembered she was home"). Three levels of embedment, common in literature, may be a "sweet spot" that provides enough information about a character's motivation, but not a confusing over-abundance. Here, we use short vignettes with 1 or 3 characters and 0-5 levels of perspective embedding in two reading studies to see whether these preferences might be related to processing ease. Self-paced readers were fastest with one level of embedment, increasingly slower as embedment increased; vignettes without embedment were approximately as slow as level 4. With both self-paced and imposed timing, error rates on probe questions increased only at the fifth level. Readers seem to prefer literary texts in which ToM operations are obvious due to embedding of perspectives within the narrative but still somewhat challenging.

  19. Putting Theory to the Test: Modeling a Multidimensional, Developmentally-Based Approach to Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Carter, Alice S.; Burns, James L.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There is increasing emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, but empirical evidence of their utility is just emerging. In particular, although a range of multidimensional models have been proposed, the relative fit of competing models has rarely been tested. Furthermore, developmental considerations have received…

  20. Visuo-Spatial Processing in Autism--Testing the Predictions of Extreme Male Brain Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christine M.; Plaisted, Kate C.; Davis, Greg

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that autism is an extreme version of the male brain, caused by high levels of prenatal testosterone (Baron-Cohen 1999). To test this proposal, associations were assessed between three visuo-spatial tasks and prenatal testosterone, indexed in second-to-fourth digit length ratios (2D:4D). The study included children with…

  1. A knowledge-based theory of rising scores on "culture-free" tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2013-08-01

    Secular gains in intelligence test scores have perplexed researchers since they were documented by Flynn (1984, 1987). Gains are most pronounced on abstract, so-called culture-free tests, prompting Flynn (2007) to attribute them to problem-solving skills availed by scientifically advanced cultures. We propose that recent-born individuals have adopted an approach to analogy that enables them to infer higher level relations requiring roles that are not intrinsic to the objects that constitute initial representations of items. This proposal is translated into item-specific predictions about differences between cohorts in pass rates and item-response patterns on the Raven's Matrices (Flynn, 1987), a seemingly culture-free test that registers the largest Flynn effect. Consistent with predictions, archival data reveal that individuals born around 1940 are less able to map objects at higher levels of relational abstraction than individuals born around 1990. Polytomous Rasch models verify predicted violations of measurement invariance, as raw scores are found to underestimate the number of analogical rules inferred by members of the earlier cohort relative to members of the later cohort who achieve the same overall score. The work provides a plausible cognitive account of the Flynn effect, furthers understanding of the cognition of matrix reasoning, and underscores the need to consider how test-takers select item responses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Benchmark Databases for Nonbonded Interactions and Their Use To Test Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Truhlar, Donald G

    2005-05-01

    We present four benchmark databases of binding energies for nonbonded complexes. Four types of nonbonded interactions are considered:  hydrogen bonding, charge transfer, dipole interactions, and weak interactions. We tested 44 DFT methods and 1 WFT method against the new databases; one of the DFT methods (PBE1KCIS) is new, and all of the other methods are from the literature. Among the tested methods, the PBE, PBE1PBE, B3P86, MPW1K, B97-1, and BHandHLYP functionals give the best performance for hydrogen bonding. MPWB1K, MP2, MPW1B95, MPW1K, and BHandHLYP give the best performances for charge-transfer interactions, and MPW3LYP, B97-1, PBE1KCIS, B98, and PBE1PBE give the best performance for dipole interactions. Finally, MP2, B97-1, MPWB1K, PBE1KCIS, and MPW1B95 give the best performance for weak interactions. Overall, MPWB1K is the best of all the tested DFT methods, with a relative error (highly averaged) of only 11%, and MPW1K, PBE1PBE, and B98 are the best of the tested DFT methods that do not contain kinetic energy density. Moving up the rungs of Jacob's ladder for nonempirical DFT, PBE improves significantly over the LSDA, and TPSS improve slightly over PBE (on average) for nonbonded interactions.

  3. Testing the Self-Efficacy-Performance Linkage of Social-Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allison W.; Rainer, R. Kelly, Jr.; Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Thompson, Kenneth R.

    1997-01-01

    Briefly reviews Albert Bandura's Self-Efficacy Performance Model (ability to perform a task is influenced by an individual's belief in their capability). Tests this model with a sample of 776 university employees and computer-related knowledge and skills. Results supported Bandura's thesis. Includes statistical tables and a discussion of related…

  4. Establishing an Online Vocabulary Levels Test by Using Flash Incorporating COPS Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Kazumi; Iso, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to demonstrate how the estimation of vocabulary size might be affected by two neglected factors in vocabulary size tests. The first factor is randomization of question sequence, as opposed to the traditional high-to-low frequency sequencing. The second factor is learners' confidence in choosing the correct meaning for a…

  5. Whatever Works: A Test of the "Division of Labor" Component of Uses and Gratifications Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, John

    The 1974 book, "The Uses of Mass Communication: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research" introduced the concept of a "division of labor"--that certain media work better than others in meeting audience gratifications. Since the division of labor concept has not been subjected to empirical testing, a study elaborated an…

  6. [Development and testing of theories of population dynamics]. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, W.W.; Bence, J.R.; McCauley, E.; Nisbet, R.M.

    1990-03-15

    We report new analyses to test competing models of the Daphnia/algal interaction. Our model is good at predicting equilibrium algal densities, and if our new insights can account for stability in this system across a wide range of natural environments, this may contribute to understanding predator-prey dynamics in general.

  7. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkuzie, Alemnesh H; Sisay, Mitike M; Moland, Karen Marie; Astrøm, Anne N

    2011-08-18

    To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining actual HIV testing. This low explanatory power of TPB was mainly due to the large proportion of low intenders that ended up being tested

  8. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining actual HIV testing. This low explanatory power of TPB was mainly due

  9. Bayesian integrated testing strategy to assess skin sensitization potency: from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna; Dancik, Yuri; Kern, Petra; Gerberick, Frank; Natsch, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    Frameworks to predict in vivo effects by integration of in vitro, in silico and in chemico information using mechanistic insight are needed to meet the challenges of 21(st) century toxicology. Expert-based approaches that qualitatively integrate multifaceted data are practiced under the term 'weight of evidence', whereas quantitative approaches remain rare. To address this gap we previously developed a methodology to design an Integrated Testing Strategy (ITS) in the form of a Bayesian Network (BN). This study follows up on our proof of concept work and presents an updated ITS to assess skin sensitization potency expressed as local lymph node assay (LLNA) potency classes. Modifications to the ITS structure were introduced to include better mechanistic information. The parameters of the updated ITS were calculated from an extended data set of 124 chemicals. A detailed validation analysis and a case study were carried out to demonstrate the utility of the ITS for practical application. The improved BN ITS predicted correctly 95% and 86% of chemicals in a test set (n = 21) for hazard and LLNA potency classes, respectively. The practical value of using the BN ITS is far more than a prediction framework when all data are available. The BN ITS can develop a hypothesis using subsets of data as small as one data point and can be queried on the value of adding additional tests before testing is commenced. The ITS represents key steps of the skin sensitization process and a mechanistically interpretable testing strategy can be developed. These features are illustrated in the manuscript via practical examples. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A Test of Social Cognitive Theory to Explain Men's Physical Activity During a Gender-Tailored Weight Loss Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Myles D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in men. Social-cognitive theories may improve physical activity (PA) interventions by identifying which variables to target to maximize intervention impact. This study tested the utility of Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain men's PA during a 3-month weight loss program. Participants were 204 overweight/obese men (M [SD] age = 46.6 [11.3] years; body mass index = 33.1 [3.5] kg/m2). A longitudinal, latent variable structural equation model tested the associations between SCT constructs (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, intention, and social support) and self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and examined the total PA variance explained by SCT. After controlling for Time 1 cognitions and behavior, the model fit the data well (χ2 = 73.9, degrees of freedom = 39, p weight loss interventions for men may benefit by targeting self-efficacy and intention, but the utility of targeting social support and outcome expectations requires further examination. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. What's in a voice? Prosody as a test case for the Theory of Mind account of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Coralie; Noveck, Ira; Happé, Francesca; Wilson, Deirdre

    2011-02-01

    The human voice conveys a variety of information about people's feelings, emotions and mental states. Some of this information relies on sophisticated Theory of Mind (ToM) skills, whilst others are simpler and do not require ToM. This variety provides an interesting test case for the ToM account of autism, which would predict greater impairment as ToM requirements increase. In this paper, we draw on psychological and pragmatic theories to classify vocal cues according to the amount of mindreading required to identify them. Children with a high functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder and matched controls were tested in three experiments where the speakers' state had to be extracted from their vocalizations. Although our results confirm that people with autism have subtle difficulties dealing with vocal cues, they show a pattern of performance that is inconsistent with the view that atypical recognition of vocal cues is caused by impaired ToM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel reaction control techniques for redundant space manipulators: Theory and simulated microgravity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocuzza, Silvio; Pretto, Isacco; Debei, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents two novel redundancy resolution schemes aimed at locally minimizing the reaction torque transferred to the spacecraft during manipulator manoeuvres. The subject is of particular interest in space robotics because reduced reactions result in reduced energy consumption and longer operating life of the attitude control system. The first presented solution is based on a weighted Jacobian pseudoinverse and is derived by using Lagrangian multipliers. The weight matrix is defined by means of the inertia matrix which appears in the spacecraft reaction torque dynamics. The second one is based on a least squares formulation of the minimization problem. In this formulation the linearity of the forward kinematics and of the reaction torque dynamics equations with respect to the joint accelerations is used. A closed-form solution is derived for both the presented methods, and their equivalence is proven analytically. Moreover, the proposed solutions, which are suitable for real-time implementation, are extended in order to take into account the physical limits of the manipulator joints directly inside the solution algorithms. A software simulator has been developed in order to simulate the performance of the presented solutions for the selected test cases. The proposed solutions have then been experimentally tested using a 3D free-flying robot previously tested in an ESA parabolic flight campaign. In the test campaign the 3D robot has been converted in a 2D robot thanks to its modularity in order to perform planar tests, in which the microgravity environment can be simulated without time constraints. Air-bearings are used to sustain the links weight, and a dynamometer is used to measure the reaction torque. The experimental validation of the presented inverse kinematics solutions, with an insight on the effect of joint flexibility on their performance, has been carried out, and the experimental results confirmed the good performance of the proposed methods

  13. Situational judgement tests in medical education and training: Research, theory and practice: AMEE Guide No. 100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Fiona; Zibarras, Lara; Ashworth, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Why use SJTs? Traditionally, selection into medical education professions has focused primarily upon academic ability alone. This approach has been questioned more recently, as although academic attainment predicts performance early in training, research shows it has less predictive power for demonstrating competence in postgraduate clinical practice. Such evidence, coupled with an increasing focus on individuals working in healthcare roles displaying the core values of compassionate care, benevolence and respect, illustrates that individuals should be selected on attributes other than academic ability alone. Moreover, there are mounting calls to widen access to medicine, to ensure that selection methods do not unfairly disadvantage individuals from specific groups (e.g. regarding ethnicity or socio-economic status), so that the future workforce adequately represents society as a whole. These drivers necessitate a method of assessment that allows individuals to be selected on important non-academic attributes that are desirable in healthcare professionals, in a fair, reliable and valid way. What are SJTs? Situational judgement tests (SJTs) are tests used to assess individuals' reactions to a number of hypothetical role-relevant scenarios, which reflect situations candidates are likely to encounter in the target role. These scenarios are based on a detailed analysis of the role and should be developed in collaboration with subject matter experts, in order to accurately assess the key attributes that are associated with competent performance. From a theoretical perspective, SJTs are believed to measure prosocial Implicit Trait Policies (ITPs), which are shaped by socialisation processes that teach the utility of expressing certain traits in different settings such as agreeable expressions (e.g. helping others in need), or disagreeable actions (e.g. advancing ones own interest at others, expense). Are SJTs reliable, valid and fair? Several studies, including good

  14. Using information Theory in Optimal Test Point Selection for Health Management in NASA's Exploration Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Ali Farhang; Tumer, Irem

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we will present a new methodology that measures the "worth" of deploying an additional testing instrument (sensor) in terms of the amount of information that can be retrieved from such measurement. This quantity is obtained using a probabilistic model of RLV's that has been partially developed in the NASA Ames Research Center. A number of correlated attributes are identified and used to obtain the worth of deploying a sensor in a given test point from an information-theoretic viewpoint. Once the information-theoretic worth of sensors is formulated and incorporated into our general model for IHM performance, the problem can be formulated as a constrained optimization problem where reliability and operational safety of the system as a whole is considered. Although this research is conducted specifically for RLV's, the proposed methodology in its generic form can be easily extended to other domains of systems health monitoring.

  15. Using potential performance theory to test five hypotheses about meta-attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafimow, David; Hunt, Gayle; Rice, Stephen; Geels, Kasha

    2011-01-01

    Based on I. Kant's (1991) distinction between perfect and imperfect duties and the attribution literature pertaining to that distinction, the authors proposed and tested 5 hypotheses about meta-attribution. More specifically, violations of perfect duties have been shown to arouse both more negative affect and stronger correspondent inferences than do violations of imperfect duties (e.g., D. Trafimow, I. K. Bromgard, K. A. Finlay, & T. Ketelaar, 2005). But when it comes to making meta-attributions-that is, guessing the attributions others would make-is the affect differential an advantage or a disadvantage? In addition to the null hypothesis of no effect, the authors proposed and tested additional hypotheses about how negative affect might increase or decrease the effectiveness of people's meta-attribution strategies and how even if there is no effect on strategy effectiveness, negative affect could increase or decrease the consistencies with which these strategies could be used.

  16. A test for asymptotic giant branch evolution theories: planetary nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, P.; Stanghellini, L.; Dell'Agli, F.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Di Criscienzo, M.

    2015-10-01

    We used a new generation of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stellar models that include dust formation in the stellar winds to find the links between evolutionary models and the observed properties of a homogeneous sample of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) planetary nebulae (PNe). Comparison between the evolutionary yields of elements such as CNO and the corresponding observed chemical abundances is a powerful tool to shed light on evolutionary processes such as hot bottom burning (HBB) and third dredge-up (TDU). We found that the occurrence of HBB is needed to interpret the nitrogen-enriched (log (N/H) + 12 > 8) PNe. In particular, N-rich PNe with the lowest carbon content are nicely reproduced by AGB models of mass M ≥ 6 M⊙, whose surface chemistry reflects the pure effects of HBB. PNe with log (N/H) + 12 HBB, with initial mass below ˜3 M⊙. Some of these stars show very large carbon abundances, owing to the many TDU episodes experienced. We found from our LMC PN sample that there is a threshold to the amount of carbon accumulated at AGB surfaces, log (C/H) + 12 < 9. Confirmation of this constraint would indicate that, after the C-star stage is reached, AGBs experience only a few thermal pulses, which suggests a rapid loss of the external mantle, probably owing to the effects of radiation pressure on carbonaceous dust particles present in the circumstellar envelope. The implications of these findings for AGB evolution theories and the need to extend the PN sample currently available are discussed.

  17. Findlay-Grubert versus Rybczynski : Testing Growth Hypotheses in Classic Trade Theories Using Singapore's Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kee, Hiau Looi

    2009-01-01

    In the classic literature of multi-sector small open economy, there are two, competing hypotheses on growth. Findlay and Grubert (1959) showed that productivity growth in one sector affects the factor intensity of all sectors. Rybczynski (1955) presents the long run growth effects of endowment accumulations. Focusing on the most open small economy, this paper tests the two hypotheses directly by estimating the relative contributions at the industry level for Singapore. Results suggest that pr...

  18. LEADERSHIP STYLE AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: TEST OF A THEORY IN TURKISH BANKING SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    IBRAHIM SANI MERT; NURZAHIT KESKIN; TÜRKER BAS

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of leadership on organizational commitment in general and to question the role played by transactional and transformational leadership in improving organizational commitment of branch employees. The study is designed to develop and test a structural equation model of the relationship between transactional and transformational leadership styles and the organizational commitment of banking staff. Data were collected from 242 offices of Halkbank in...

  19. Further Test of Internal-conversion Theory with a Measurement in 119Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, N.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.

    2014-06-01

    Precise measurements are being used to test theoretical K-shell internal conversion coefficients (ICCs): in particular, our program has focused on examining whether the atomic K-vacancy formed during the conversion process must be incorporated into the calculations. We report here a measurement on the 65.66-keV, M4 isomeric transition in 119Sn. Our preliminary result is αK = 1610 (27), which confirms the importance of including the vacancy in the ICC calculations.

  20. Standing on the Shoulders of Giants? Exploring Consensus on the Validity Status of Mintzberg’s Configuration Theory After a Negative Test

    OpenAIRE

    Tommy Krabberød

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the degree of consensus on the validity status of Mintzberg’s configuration theory following a test in which the theory was refuted. The 218 articles that have cited the award-winning article by Doty, Glick, and Huber, and 89 articles and 12 books published by Mintzberg after the test, are reviewed. None of the reviewed articles contained any discussion about the implications for Mintzberg’s theor...

  1. Concerns regarding a call for pluralism of information theory and hypothesis testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, P.M.; Thompson, W.L.; Kendall, W.L.; Gould, W.R.; Doherty, P.F.; Burnham, K.P.; Anderson, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    1. Stephens et al . (2005) argue for `pluralism? in statistical analysis, combining null hypothesis testing and information-theoretic (I-T) methods. We show that I-T methods are more informative even in single variable problems and we provide an ecological example. 2. I-T methods allow inferences to be made from multiple models simultaneously. We believe multimodel inference is the future of data analysis, which cannot be achieved with null hypothesis-testing approaches. 3. We argue for a stronger emphasis on critical thinking in science in general and less reliance on exploratory data analysis and data dredging. Deriving alternative hypotheses is central to science; deriving a single interesting science hypothesis and then comparing it to a default null hypothesis (e.g. `no difference?) is not an efficient strategy for gaining knowledge. We think this single-hypothesis strategy has been relied upon too often in the past. 4. We clarify misconceptions presented by Stephens et al . (2005). 5. We think inference should be made about models, directly linked to scientific hypotheses, and their parameters conditioned on data, Prob(Hj| data). I-T methods provide a basis for this inference. Null hypothesis testing merely provides a probability statement about the data conditioned on a null model, Prob(data |H0). 6. Synthesis and applications. I-T methods provide a more informative approach to inference. I-T methods provide a direct measure of evidence for or against hypotheses and a means to consider simultaneously multiple hypotheses as a basis for rigorous inference. Progress in our science can be accelerated if modern methods can be used intelligently; this includes various I-T and Bayesian methods.

  2. Planar biaxial testing of heart valve cusp replacement biomaterials: Experiments, theory and material constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Michel R; Jafar, Reza; Ngu, Janet; Boodhwani, Munir

    2016-11-01

    Aortic valve (AV) repair has become an attractive option to correct aortic insufficiency. Yet, cusp reconstruction with various cusp replacement materials has been associated with greater long-term repair failures, and it is still unknown how such materials mechanically compare with native leaflets. We used planar biaxial testing to characterize six clinically relevant cusp replacement materials, along with native porcine AV leaflets, to ascertain which materials would be best suited for valve repair. We tested at least six samples of: 1) fresh autologous porcine pericardium (APP), 2) glutaraldehyde fixed porcine pericardium (GPP), 3) St Jude Medical pericardial patch (SJM), 4) CardioCel patch (CC), 5) PeriGuard (PG), 6) Supple PeriGuard (SPG) and 7) fresh porcine AV leaflets (PC). We introduced efficient displacement-controlled testing protocols and processing, as well as advanced convexity requirements on the strain energy functions used to describe the mechanical response of the materials under loading. The proposed experimental and data processing pipeline allowed for a robust in-plane characterization of all the materials tested, with constants determined for two Fung-like hyperelastic, anisotropic strain energy models. Overall, CC and SPG (respectively PG) patches ranked as the closest mechanical equivalents to young (respectively aged) AV leaflets. Because the native leaflets as well as CC, PG and SPG patches exhibit significant anisotropic behaviors, it is suggested that the fiber and cross-fiber directions of these replacement biomaterials be matched with those of the host AV leaflets. The long-term performance of cusp replacement materials would ideally be evaluated in large animal models for AV disease and cusp repair, and over several months or more. Given the unavailability and impracticality of such models, detailed information on stress-strain behavior, as studied herein, and investigations of durability and valve dynamics will be the best surrogates

  3. Ontogenetic scaling of metabolism, growth, and assimilation: testing metabolic scaling theory with Manduca sexta larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Katie E; Kerkhoff, Andrew J; Messerman, Arianne; Itagaki, Haruhiko

    2012-01-01

    Metabolism, growth, and the assimilation of energy and materials are essential processes that are intricately related and depend heavily on animal size. However, models that relate the ontogenetic scaling of energy assimilation and metabolism to growth rely on assumptions that have yet to be rigorously tested. Based on detailed daily measurements of metabolism, growth, and assimilation in tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, we provide a first experimental test of the core assumptions of a metabolic scaling model of ontogenetic growth. Metabolic scaling parameters changed over development, in violation of the model assumptions. At the same time, the scaling of growth rate matches that of metabolic rate, with similar scaling exponents both across and within developmental instars. Rates of assimilation were much higher than expected during the first two instars and did not match the patterns of scaling of growth and metabolism, which suggests high costs of biosynthesis early in development. The rapid increase in size and discrete instars observed in larval insect development provide an ideal system for understanding how patterns of growth and metabolism emerge from fundamental cellular processes and the exchange of materials and energy between an organism and its environment.

  4. The Two-Systems Account of Theory of Mind: Testing the Links to Social- Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Daum, Moritz M; Meinhardt, Günter; Persike, Malte

    2018-01-01

    According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM), understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009). To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative strengths of a social-perceptual (face processing related) and reflexive-cognitive (language and reasoning related) path in predicting ToM ability. The two paths accounted for 58% of ToM variance, thus validating a general two-systems framework. Testing specific predictor paths revealed language and face recognition as strong and significant predictors of ToM. For reasoning, there were neither direct nor mediated effects, albeit reasoning was strongly associated with language. Holistic face perception also failed to show a direct link with ToM ability, while there was a mediated effect via face recognition. These results highlight the respective roles of face recognition and language for the social brain, and contribute closer empirical specification of the general two-systems account.

  5. Analytic treatment of leading-order parton evolution equations: Theory and tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Martin M.; Durand, Loyal; McKay, Douglas W.

    2009-01-01

    We recently derived an explicit expression for the gluon distribution function G(x,Q2)=xg(x,Q2) in terms of the proton structure function F2γp(x,Q2) in leading-order (LO) QCD by solving the LO Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi equation for the Q2 evolution of F2γp(x,Q2) analytically, using a differential-equation method. We showed that accurate experimental knowledge of F2γp(x,Q2) in a region of Bjorken x and virtuality Q2 is all that is needed to determine the gluon distribution in that region. We rederive and extend the results here using a Laplace-transform technique, and show that the singlet quark structure function FS(x,Q2) can be determined directly in terms of G from the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi gluon evolution equation. To illustrate the method and check the consistency of existing LO quark and gluon distributions, we used the published values of the LO quark distributions from the CTEQ5L and MRST2001 LO analyses to form F2γp(x,Q2), and then solved analytically for G(x,Q2). We find that the analytic and fitted gluon distributions from MRST2001LO agree well with each other for all x and Q2, while those from CTEQ5L differ significantly from each other for large x values, x≳0.03-0.05, at all Q2. We conclude that the published CTEQ5L distributions are incompatible in this region. Using a nonsinglet evolution equation, we obtain a sensitive test of quark distributions which holds in both LO and next-to-leading order perturbative QCD. We find in either case that the CTEQ5 quark distributions satisfy the tests numerically for small x, but fail the tests for x≳0.03-0.05—their use could potentially lead to significant shifts in predictions of quantities sensitive to large x. We encountered no problems with the MRST2001LO distributions or later CTEQ distributions. We suggest caution in the use of the CTEQ5 distributions.

  6. The core mass-radius relation for giants - A new test of stellar evolution theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joss, P. C.; Rappaport, S.; Lewis, W.

    1987-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that the measurable properties of systems containing degenerate dwarfs can be used as a direct test of the core mass-radius relation for moderate-mass giants if the final stages of the loss of the envelope of the progenitor giant occurred via stable critical lobe overflow. This relation directly probes the internal structure of stars at a relatively advanced evolutionary state and is only modestly influenced by adjustable parameters. The measured properties of six binary systems, including such diverse systems as Sirius and Procyon and two millisecond pulsars, are utilized to derive constraints on the empirical core mass-radius relation, and the constraints are compared to the theoretical relation. The possibility that the final stages of envelope ejection of the giant progenitor of Sirius B occurred via critical lobe overflow in historical times is considered.

  7. Crack propagation through disordered materials as a depinning transition: A critical test of the theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponson, Laurent; Pindra, Nadjime

    2017-05-01

    The dynamics of a planar crack propagating within a brittle disordered material is investigated numerically. The fracture front evolution is described as the depinning of an elastic line in a random field of toughness. The relevance of this approach is critically tested through the comparison of the roughness front properties, the statistics of avalanches, and the local crack velocity distribution with experimental results. Our simulations capture the main features of the fracture front evolution as measured experimentally. However, some experimental observations such as the velocity distribution are not consistent with the behavior of an elastic line close to the depinning transition. This discrepancy suggests the presence of another failure mechanism not included in our model of brittle failure.

  8. Emotional vitality in caregivers: application of Rasch Measurement Theory with secondary data to development and test a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbic, Skye P; Bartlett, Susan J; Mayo, Nancy E

    2015-07-01

    To describe the practical steps in identifying items and evaluating scoring strategies for a new measure of emotional vitality in informal caregivers of individuals who have experienced a significant health event. The psychometric properties of responses to selected items from validated health-related quality of life and other psychosocial questionnaires administered four times over a one-year period were evaluated using Rasch Measurement Theory. Community. A total of 409 individuals providing informal care at home to older adults who had experienced a recent stroke. Rasch Measurement Theory was used to test the ordering of response option thresholds, fit, spread of the item locations, residual correlations, person separation index, and stability across time. Based on a theoretical framework developed in earlier work, we identified 22 candidate items from a pool of relevant psychosocial measures available. Of these, additional evaluation resulted in 19 items that could be used to assess the five core domains. The overall model fit was reasonable (χ(2) = 202.26, DF = 117, p = 0.06), stable across time, with borderline evidence of multidimensionality (10%). Items and people covered a continuum ranging from -3.7 to +2.7 logits, reflecting coverage of the measurement continuum, with a person separation index of 0.85. Mean fit of caregivers was lower than expected (-1.31 ±1.10 logits). Established methods from the Rasch Measurement Theory were applied to develop a prototype measure of emotional vitality that is acceptable, reliable, and can be used to obtain an interval level score for use in future research and clinical settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Are lichens and cyanobacteria suitable candidates to test the theory of lithopanspermia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Martinez Frías, Jesús; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Sanchez Iñigo, Francisco Javier; García Sancho, Leopoldo; Horneck, Gerda

    2010-05-01

    Lichens, endolithic- and endoevaporitic communities of cyanobacteria and bacteria has been exposed to real- and simulated space conditions to demonstrate likelihood of the lithopanspermia hypothesis, that postulates a viable transport of microorganisms between planets by means of meteorites, i.e. impact expelled rocks from a planets surface, which serve as vehicles for spreading living material from one planet or solar system to another (Nicholson et al. 2000, Benardini et al. 2003, Cockell 2008, Horneck et al. 2008, Valtonen et al. 2009). Three experiments (LICHENS, Foton M2 mission, 2005, and LITHOPANSPERMIA, Foton-M3 satellite, 2007), have been performed in space, the first two on a short mission, onboard of Biopan of the Foton-M satellite recoverable capsule, and the third one in a long-term mission on the Expose facility of the ISS to test the survival of prokaryotic- and eukaryotic symbiotic organisms in relation to lithopanspermia. The first two experiments allowed for the first time the demonstration- and intercomparison of the high survival capacity of eukaryotic- and prokaryotic symbiotic organisms in space (the epilithic lichen species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, endoevaporitic microbial communities, epilithic microbial communities with cyanobacterial akinetes of Anabaena, and a vagrant lichen species, Aspicilia fruticulosa). Exposure to different UV-conditions of a low Earth orbit (LEO, 300 km) were performed: solar extraterrestrial UV radiation, Mars simulated UV-climate, UV-B radiation and PAR, space vacuum at 10-6 mbar, microgravity and temperatures between -23°C and +16°C. To check the resistance of the selected organisms to space before these missions, space simulation experiments were performed at INTA (Spasolab) and DLR (Institute of Aerospace Medicine), which were decisive to show the high survival capacity of these species to space vacuum (10-4 - 10-6 mbar), space UV radiation (200-400 nm) and extreme temperatures. The

  10. Description of near-tip fracture processes in strain hardening cementitious composites using image-based analysis and the compact tension test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.

    2013-01-01

    , was characterized under eccentric tensile loading using the Compact Tension Test (CTT). The present research further extends this investigation, with particular emphasis on cementitious composites reinforced with multiple types of fibers. The experimental tensile load-displacement results are discussed and compared...... are discussed, with special emphasis on the topology of the cracks obtained near the crack tip and on the description of the fracture process zone....

  11. Parental hostility and its sources in psychologically abusive mothers: a test of the three-factor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik-Oberstein, M; Koers, A J; Cohen, L

    1995-01-01

    A revised version of the three-factor theory of child abuse (Lesnik-Oberstein, Cohen, & Koers, 1982) is presented. Further, we report on a research designed to test three main hypotheses derived from Factor I (1) (a high level of hostility in abusive parents) and its sources. The three main hypotheses are: (1) that psychologically abusive mothers have a high level of hostile feelings (Factor I); (2) that the high level of hostile feelings in abusive mothers is associated with low marital coping skills (resulting in affectionless, violent marriages), a negative childhood upbringing (punitive, uncaring, over controlling), a high level of stress (objective stress), and a high level of strain (low self-esteem, depression, neurotic symptoms, social anxiety, feelings of being wronged); and (3) that maternal psychological child abuse is associated with low marital coping skills, a negative childhood upbringing, a high level of stress and a high level of strain. Forty-four psychologically abusing mothers were compared with 128 nonabusing mothers on a variety of measures and were matched for age and educational level. All the mothers had children who were hospitalized for medical symptoms. The three hypotheses were supported, with the exception of the component of hypothesis 2 concerning the association between objective stress and maternal hostility. The positive results are consistent with the three-factor theory.

  12. The Effects of Life Domains, Constraints, and Motivations on Academic Dishonesty: A Partial Test and Extension of Agnew's General Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, John K

    2017-08-01

    Recently, Robert Agnew introduced a new general theory of crime and delinquency in which he attempted to corral the vast array of theoretical "causes" of criminal conduct into a more parsimonious statement organized into one of five life domains: self, family, peers, school, and work as well as constraints against crime and motivation for it. These domains are depicted as the source of constraints and motivations and whose effects are, in part, mediated by these constraints and motivations. Based on self-report data on academic dishonesty from a sample of college students, the present study attempts to test this general theory. While several of the life domain variables had significant effects of cheating in the baseline model, all of these effects were fully mediated by constraints and motivations. In the final model, academic dishonesty was observed to be most significantly affected by the perceived severity of formal sanction threats, the number of credit hours enrolled, the frequency of skipping classes, and pressure from friends.

  13. Acceptance- and imagery-based strategies can reduce chocolate cravings: A test of the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sophie; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2017-06-01

    The elaborated-intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a two-stage process whereby initial intrusions about a desired target are subsequently elaborated with mental imagery. The present study tested whether the craving reduction strategies of cognitive defusion and guided imagery could differentially target the intrusion and elaboration stages, respectively, and thus differentially impact the craving process. Participants were randomly assigned to a cognitive defusion, a guided imagery or a mind-wandering control condition. Pre- and post-intervention chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery, craving intensity, and chocolate consumption were compared. Experiment 1 recruited a general sample of young women (n = 94), whereas Experiment 2 recruited a sample of chocolate cravers who wanted to reduce their chocolate consumption (n = 97). Across both experiments, cognitive defusion lowered intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery and craving intensity. Guided imagery reduced chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness, vividness and craving intensity for chocolate cravers (Experiment 2), but not for the general sample (Experiment 1). There were no group differences in chocolate consumption in either experiment. Results add to existing evidence supporting the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire in the food domain, and suggest that acceptance- and imagery-based techniques have potential for use in combatting problematic cravings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Art Gallery Test: A Preliminary Comparison between Traditional Neuropsychological and Ecological VR-Based Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gamito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecological validity should be the cornerstone of any assessment of cognitive functioning. For this purpose, we have developed a preliminary study to test the Art Gallery Test (AGT as an alternative to traditional neuropsychological testing. The AGT involves three visual search subtests displayed in a virtual reality (VR art gallery, designed to assess visual attention within an ecologically valid setting. To evaluate the relation between AGT and standard neuropsychological assessment scales, data were collected on a normative sample of healthy adults (n = 30. The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neuropsychological measures [Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, and Color Trails Test (CTT] along with the outcomes from the three subtests of the AGT. The results showed significant correlations between the AGT subtests describing different visual search exercises strategies with global and specific cognitive measures. Comparative visual search was associated with attention and cognitive flexibility (CTT; whereas visual searches involving pictograms correlated with global cognitive function (MoCA.

  15. The Art Gallery Test: A Preliminary Comparison between Traditional Neuropsychological and Ecological VR-Based Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Alghazzawi, Daniyal; Fardoun, Habib; Rosa, Pedro; Sousa, Tatiana; Maia, Ines; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Brito, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Ecological validity should be the cornerstone of any assessment of cognitive functioning. For this purpose, we have developed a preliminary study to test the Art Gallery Test (AGT) as an alternative to traditional neuropsychological testing. The AGT involves three visual search subtests displayed in a virtual reality (VR) art gallery, designed to assess visual attention within an ecologically valid setting. To evaluate the relation between AGT and standard neuropsychological assessment scales, data were collected on a normative sample of healthy adults (n = 30). The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neuropsychological measures [Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Color Trails Test (CTT)] along with the outcomes from the three subtests of the AGT. The results showed significant correlations between the AGT subtests describing different visual search exercises strategies with global and specific cognitive measures. Comparative visual search was associated with attention and cognitive flexibility (CTT); whereas visual searches involving pictograms correlated with global cognitive function (MoCA). PMID:29204128

  16. The Art Gallery Test: A Preliminary Comparison between Traditional Neuropsychological and Ecological VR-Based Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Alghazzawi, Daniyal; Fardoun, Habib; Rosa, Pedro; Sousa, Tatiana; Maia, Ines; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Brito, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Ecological validity should be the cornerstone of any assessment of cognitive functioning. For this purpose, we have developed a preliminary study to test the Art Gallery Test (AGT) as an alternative to traditional neuropsychological testing. The AGT involves three visual search subtests displayed in a virtual reality (VR) art gallery, designed to assess visual attention within an ecologically valid setting. To evaluate the relation between AGT and standard neuropsychological assessment scales, data were collected on a normative sample of healthy adults (n = 30). The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neuropsychological measures [Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Color Trails Test (CTT)] along with the outcomes from the three subtests of the AGT. The results showed significant correlations between the AGT subtests describing different visual search exercises strategies with global and specific cognitive measures. Comparative visual search was associated with attention and cognitive flexibility (CTT); whereas visual searches involving pictograms correlated with global cognitive function (MoCA).

  17. Standing on the Shoulders of Giants? Exploring Consensus on the Validity Status of Mintzberg’s Configuration Theory After a Negative Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Krabberød

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the degree of consensus on the validity status of Mintzberg’s configuration theory following a test in which the theory was refuted. The 218 articles that have cited the award-winning article by Doty, Glick, and Huber, and 89 articles and 12 books published by Mintzberg after the test, are reviewed. None of the reviewed articles contained any discussion about the implications for Mintzberg’s theory. It is then discussed whether the test was exhaustive and whether the lack of debate should be interpreted as tacit agreement with Doty et al. Normative aspects of a silent research community are also discussed. It is argued that it has not been proved beyond reasonable doubt that the test is exhaustive and that there are sociological explanations for the lack of debate other than “silence implies agreement.” Finally, it is argued that it would have been fruitful if the test had stirred debate.

  18. Modelling welded material for ultrasonic testing using MINA: Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysan, J.; Corneloup, G.; Chassignole, B.; Gueudré, C.; Ploix, M. A.

    2012-05-01

    Austenitic steel multi-pass welds exhibit a heterogeneous and anisotropic structure that causes difficulties in the ultrasonic testing. Increasing the material knowledge is a long term research field for LCND laboratory and EDF Les Renardières in France. A specific model has been developed: the MINA model (Modelling an Isotropy from Notebook of Arc welding). Welded material is described in 2D for flat position arc welding with shielded electrode (SMAW) at a functional scale for UT modeling. The grain growth is the result of three physical phenomena: epitaxial growth, influence of temperature gradient, and competition between the grains. The model uses phenomenological rules to combine these three phenomena. A limited number of parameters is used to make the modelling possible from the information written down in a notebook of arc welding. We present all these principles with 10 years' hindsight. To illustrate the model's use, we present conclusions obtained with two recent applications. In conclusion we give also insights on other research topics around this model : inverse problem using a F.E.M. code simulating the ultrasonic propagation, in position welding, 3D prospects, GTAW.

  19. Testing a Revised Interpersonal Theory of Depression Using a Laboratory Measure of Excessive Reassurance Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeremy G; Harkness, Kate L

    2017-03-01

    This study tested whether core beliefs with themes of abandonment and rejection moderated the link between trait and behavioral excessive reassurance seeking (ERS) and interpersonal rejection. Participants were 118 women with high (n = 43; mean [M]age = 18.58, standard deviation [SD]age = 1.24) and low (n = 75; Mage = 18.58, SDage = 1.24) levels of depression symptoms and their male romantic partners. Couples reported their depression, ERS, abandonment/rejection cognitions, and relationship quality. We also coded women's reassurance-seeking behavior during an audiotaped discussion task. Among women with high levels of depression symptoms and low levels of abandonment/rejection core beliefs, behavioral ERS was associated with lower partner-reported relationship quality. Self-reported ERS was significantly associated with partner relationship quality, but the effect was not moderated by depression or core beliefs. ERS is a potent predictor of stress and subsequent depression. Our findings underscore the need to better understand factors (e.g., cognitions, partner characteristics) that may determine whether ERS behaviors beget interpersonal stress and rejection. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An empirical test of the independence between declarative and procedural working memory in Oberauer's (2009) theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Corbin, Lucie; Dagry, Isabelle; Camos, Valérie

    2015-08-01

    It has recently been suggested that working memory could be conceived as two symmetrical subsystems with analogous structure and processing principles: a declarative working memory storing objects of thought available for cognitive operations, and a procedural working memory holding representations of what to do with these objects (Oberauer, Psychology of learning and motivation 51: 45-100, 2009). Within this theoretical framework, the two subsystems are thought to be independent and fueled by their own capacity. The present study tested this hypothesis through two experiments using a complex span task in which participants were asked to maintain consonants for further recall while performing response selection tasks. In line with Oberauer's conception, the load of the procedural working memory was varied by manipulating the number of stimulus-response mappings of the response selection task. Increasing the number of these mappings had a strong detrimental effect on recall performance. Besides contradicting Oberauer's proposal, this finding supports models that assume a resource-sharing between processing and storage in working memory.

  1. Impaired recognition of negative basic emotions in autism: a test of the amygdala theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Chris; Chapman, Emma; Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Autism and Asperger Syndrome are autism spectrum conditions (ASC) characterized by deficits in understanding others' minds, an aspect of which involves recognizing emotional expressions. This is thought to be related to atypical function and structure of the amygdala, and performance by people with ASC on emotion recognition tasks resembles that seen in people with acquired amygdala damage. In general, emotion recognition findings in ASC have been inconsistent, which may reflect low numbers of participants, low numbers of stimuli and trials, heterogeneity of symptom severity within ASC groups, and ceiling effects on some tasks. The present study tested 39 male adults with ASC and 39 typical male controls on a task of basic emotion recognition from photographs, in two separate experiments. On a control face discrimination task the group with ASC were not impaired. People with ASC were less accurate on the emotion recognition task compared to controls, but only for the negative basic emotions. This is discussed in the light of similar findings from people with damage to the amygdala.

  2. Testing aspects of Carl Rogers's theory of creative environments: child-rearing antecedents of creative potential in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, D M; Block, J H; Block, J

    1987-04-01

    Longitudinal data involving 106 children and their parents were used to test preschool child-rearing implications of Carl Rogers's theory of creativity-fostering environments (Rogers, 1954). Indices were developed for each parent and for each mother-father combination that reflected the degree to which the parents' child-rearing practices and interactions with their preschool children matched the recommendations implicit in Rogers's description of a creativity-fostering environment. The three indices of Rogers-prescribed child-rearing practices each correlated positively (rs = .38 to .46) and significantly (all ps less than .001) with a composite index of creative potential in early adolescence, 7 to 11 years later. Rogers-prescribed preschool child-rearing practices also emerged as significant antecedents of adolescent creative potential in regression/path analyses that held constant the influence of sex, preschool intelligence, and preschool creative potential. Theoretical and methodological aspects of the study are discussed.

  3. Examining the career development of Mexican American middle school students: A test of social cognitive career theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rachel Leah

    This study tested portions of Lent, Brown, and Hackett's (1994) Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) in the domain of mathematics and science with a sample of Mexican American middle school students. Results supported a modified path model. This study's findings supported several SCCT propositions regarding the positive relationships among background contextual affordances, learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, and goals. However, findings suggested that the influence of person inputs (i.e., gender and generational status) and some background contextual affordances (i.e., acculturation level) on learning experiences may be not be direct; instead, an indirect effect via a relationship with other background contextual affordances (i.e., perceived social support and social class) was found. Furthermore, results supported direct effects of gender on self-efficacy and learning experiences on goal intentions---two relationships not posited in SCCT. Implications for future research and counseling with Mexican American adolescents are discussed.

  4. Stress and coping in HIV-positive former plasma/blood donors in China: A test of cognitive appraisal theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S.; Wang, Jianping; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Hao; Poppen, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, many villagers in rural China were infected with HIV through commercial plasma/blood donation. These former plasma/blood donors (FPDs) experienced many HIV-related stressors. This study tested a cognitive appraisal model of stress and coping in a sample of HIV-positive adult FPDs. Participants (N = 207) from multiple villages completed a battery of questionnaires assessing HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, cognitive appraisal, coping behaviors, and psychological distress. Participants reported high levels of HIV-related stress, depression, and anxiety. In a structural equation model, greater HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, and threat appraisal were directly associated with psychological distress. HIV-related stress was also indirectly associated with psychological distress through threat appraisal. In a second model, coping was found to mediate the relationship between challenge appraisal and psychological distress. Results support the utility of cognitive appraisal theory. Stress management interventions targeting HIV-positive FPDs in China are indicated. PMID:19127424

  5. Exploring the social-environmental determinants of well- and ill-being in dancers: a test of basic needs theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quested, Eleanor; Duda, Joan L

    2010-02-01

    Grounded in the basic needs mini-theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), this study examined the interplay among perceptions of the social environment manifested in vocational dance schools, basic need satisfaction, and indices of elite dancers' well- and ill-being. The hypothesized mediating role of need satisfaction was also tested. Dancers (N = 392) completed a questionnaire tapping the targeted variables. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which perceptions of task-involving dance environments positively predicted need satisfaction. Perceived ego-involving climates negatively corresponded with competence and relatedness. Perceptions of autonomy support were positively related to autonomy and relatedness. Need satisfaction positively predicted positive affect. Competence and relatedness satisfaction corresponded negatively to reported negative affect. Emotional and physical exhaustion was not related to need satisfaction. Partial support emerged for the assumed mediation of the needs. Results highlight the relevance of task-involving and autonomy-supportive dance climates for elite dancers' need satisfaction and healthful engagement in vocational dance.

  6. Psychosocial factors associated with young elementary school children's intentions to consume legumes: a test of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Sara C; Bell, Rick; Economos, Christina; Landers, Stewart; Goldberg, Jeanne P

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the utility of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in explaining young elementary school children's intention to consume legumes. A survey was conducted with children in an urban, multicultural community in Massachusetts. A total of 336 children participated. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the relationship between attitude and subjective norm and intention. Although attitude was significantly associated with intention, the pseudo-R2 for the regression model that included only the TRA constructs was extremely low (.01). Adding demographic factors and preference improved the model's predictive ability, but attitude was no longer significant. The results of this study do not provide support for the predictive utility of the TRA with young elementary school children for this behavior, when demographic factors are accounted for. Hedonic factors, rather than reasoned judgments, may help drive children's intentions.

  7. A Test of Basic Psychological Needs Theory in a Physical-Activity-Based Program for Underserved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, Lindley; McDonough, Meghan H; Blankenship, Bonnie T; LeBreton, James M

    2017-02-01

    This study used a randomized controlled design to test the pathways in basic psychological needs theory, where social relationships characterized by autonomy support, involvement, and structure foster psychological need satisfaction and well-being. Participants were recruited from a physical-activity-based youth program. A new staff training was implemented to manipulate the use of each interpersonal characteristic by program staff (N = 24 observed) and perceptions of each interpersonal characteristic, psychological needs, hope, and self-worth in youth (N = 379 surveyed pre- and postprogram). Staff in the intervention condition used greater overall observed autonomy support, involvement, and structure. Condition assignment did not lead to differences in youth perceptions, but observed staff behaviors positively predicted youth perceptions of staff and perceptions of staff positively predicted change in well-being. Findings indicate that the training manipulated how staff engaged youth, and autonomy support, involvement, and structure are useful strategies to foster well-being in youth.

  8. A Short-Term, Prospective Test of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Ideation in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Leichtweis, Richard N

    2016-06-01

    The present prospective study tested a portion of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) in an adolescent clinical sample. Participants were 143 adolescents consecutively admitted to a partial hospitalization program who completed assessments at intake and discharge from the program. Results partially supported the IPTS and suggest that (1) perceived burdensomeness may be an important socially based cognition for understanding concurrent risk for suicidal ideation (SI); (2) thwarted belongingness affects depression symptom severity over time, which indirectly predicts SI over a short follow-up time frame; and (3) the IPTS constructs may function differently in a high-risk clinical adolescent sample, compared to adults, although findings are preliminary. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  9. Effects of Hurricane Katrina and Other Adverse Life Events on Adolescent Female Offenders: A Test of General Strain Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela R; Stein, Judith A; Schaefer-Rohleder, Lacey

    2010-11-01

    This study tested Agnew's General Strain Theory (GST) by examining the roles of anger, anxiety, and maladaptive coping in mediating the relationship between strain and three outcomes (serious delinquency, minor delinquency, and continued involvement in the juvenile justice system) among adolescent female offenders (N = 261). Strains consisted of adverse life events and exposure to Hurricane Katrina. Greater exposure to Hurricane Katrina was directly related to serious delinquency and maladaptive coping. Hurricane Katrina also had an indirect effect on minor delinquency and Post-Katrina juvenile justice involvement mediated through maladaptive coping. Adverse life events were associated with increased anger, anxiety, and maladaptive coping. Anger mediated the relationship between adverse life events and serious delinquency. Anxiety mediated the relationship between adverse life events and minor delinquency. Maladaptive coping strategies were associated with minor delinquency and juvenile justice involvement. Findings lend support to GST.

  10. Does exceptional human longevity come with a high cost of infertility? Testing the evolutionary theories of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A; Semyonova, Victoria G; Evdokushkina, Galina N

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the prediction of the evolutionary theory of aging that human longevity comes with the cost of impaired reproductive success (higher infertility rates). Our validation study is based on the analysis of particularly reliable genealogical records for European aristocratic families using a logistic regression model with childlessness as a dependent (outcome) variable, and woman's life span, year of birth, age at marriage, husband's age at marriage, and husband's life span as independent (predictor) variables. We found that the woman's exceptional longevity did not increase her chances of being infertile. It appears that the previous reports by other authors of high infertility among long-lived women (up to 50% infertility) are related to incomplete data, that is, births of children not reported. Thus, the concept of the high cost of infertility for human longevity is not supported by the data when these data are carefully cross-checked, cleaned, and reanalyzed.

  11. Tests of the elaborated intrusion theory of craving and desire: Features of alcohol craving during treatment for an alcohol disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, David J; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie

    2009-09-01

    We tested predictions from the elaborated intrusion (EI) theory of desire, which distinguishes intrusive thoughts and elaborations, and emphasizes the importance of imagery. Secondarily, we undertook preliminary evaluations of the Alcohol Craving Experience (ACE) questionnaire, a new measure based on EI Theory. Participants (N = 232) were in correspondence-based treatment trials for alcohol abuse or dependence. The study used retrospective reports obtained early in treatment using the ACE, and daily self-monitoring of urges, craving, mood and alcohol consumption. The ACE displayed high internal consistency and test - retest reliability and sound relationships with self-monitored craving, and was related to Baseline alcohol dependence, but not to consumption. Imagery during craving was experienced by 81%, with 2.3 senses involved on average. More frequent imagery was associated with longer episode durations and stronger craving. Transient intrusive thoughts were reported by 87% of respondents, and were more common if they frequently attempted to stop alcohol cognitions. Associations between average daily craving and weekly consumption were seen. Depression and negative mood were associated with more frequent, stronger and longer lasting desires for alcohol. Results supported the distinction of automatic and controlled processes in craving, together with the importance of craving imagery. They were also consistent with prediction of consumption from cross-situational averages of craving, and with positive associations between craving and negative mood. However, this study's retrospective reporting and correlational design require that its results be interpreted cautiously. Research using ecological momentary measures and laboratory manipulations is needed before confident inferences about causality can be made.

  12. Why do I dread looking old?: A test of social identity theory, terror management theory, and the double standard of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonody, Jill M; Teater, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    Outward appearance is one of the means by which age is determined, and fear of looking old may stem from fears about social identity and death. This study explored how social identity theory and terror management theory may help to explain the dread of looking old. University students from the United States, England, and Australia (N = 1,042) completed a questionnaire regarding their attitudes about aging and older adults. Results indicated that sex, age, beliefs about personal aging, and death anxiety explained 30.4% of the variance for participants' dread of looking old. Theoretical hypotheses were supported by our findings.

  13. Motivation, treatment engagement and psychosocial outcomes in outpatients with severe mental illness: a test of Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochems, Eline C; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; van Dam, Arno; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Mulder, Cornelis L

    2017-09-01

    Currently, it is unclear whether Self-Determination Theory (SDT) applies to the mental health care of patients with severe mental illness (SMI). Therefore, the current study tested the process model of SDT in a sample of outpatients with SMI. Participants were 294 adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of a psychotic disorder or a personality disorder and their clinicians (n = 57). Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesized relationships between autonomy support, perceived competence, types of motivation, treatment engagement, psychosocial functioning and quality of life at two time points and across the two diagnostic groups. The expected relations among the SDT variables were found, but additional direct paths between perceived competence and clinical outcomes were needed to obtain good model fit. The obtained process model was found to be stable across time and different diagnostic patient groups, and was able to explain 18% to 36% of variance in treatment engagement, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. It is concluded that SDT can be a useful basis for interventions in the mental health care for outpatients with SMI. Additional experimental research is needed to confirm the causality of the relations between the SDT constructs and their ability to influence treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Protective Factors, Coping Appraisals, and Social Barriers Predict Mental Health Following Community Violence: A Prospective Test of Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J; Felix, Erika D; Benight, Charles C; Jones, Russell T

    2017-06-01

    This study tested social cognitive theory of posttraumatic adaptation in the context of mass violence, hypothesizing that pre-event protective factors (general self-efficacy and perceived social support) would reduce posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression severity through boosting post-event coping self-efficacy appraisals (mediator). We qualified hypotheses by predicting that post-event social support barriers would disrupt (moderate) the health-promoting indirect effects of pre-event protective factors. With a prospective longitudinal sample, we employed path models with bootstrapping resampling to test hypotheses. Participants included 70 university students (71.4% female; 40.0% White; 34.3% Asian; 14.3% Hispanic) enrolled during a mass violence event who completed surveys one year pre-event and 5-6 months post-event. Results revealed significant large effects in predicting coping self-efficacy (mastery model, R2 = .34; enabling model, R2 = .36), PTSS (mastery model, R2 = .35; enabling model, R2 = .41), and depression severity (mastery model, R2 = .43; enabling model, R2 = .46). Overall findings supported study hypotheses, showing that at low levels of post-event social support barriers, pre-event protective factors reduced distress severity through boosting coping self-efficacy. However, as post-event social support barriers increased, the indirect, distress-reducing effects of pre-event protective factors were reduced to nonsignificance. Study implications focus on preventative and responsive intervention. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  15. Testing and Contrasting Road Safety Education, Deterrence, and Social Capital Theories: A Sociological Approach to the Understanding of Male Drink-Driving in Chile's Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Three theories offer different explanations to the understanding of male drink-driving. In order to test road safety education, deterrence, and social capital theories, logistic regression analysis was applied to predict respondents' statements of having or not having engaged in actual drink-driving (DD). Variable for road safety education theory was whether a driver had graduated from a professional driving school or not. Deterrence theory was operationalized with a variable of whether a driver had been issued a traffic ticket or not. Social capital theory was operationalized with two variables, having children or not and having religion identification or not. Since both variables 'years of formal education' and 'years of driving experience' have been reported to be correlated to alcohol consumption and DD respectively, these were introduced as controls. In order to assess the significance of each variable statistically, Wald tests were applied in seven models. Results indicate on the one hand that road safety education variable is not statistically significant; and on the other, deterrence theory variable and social capital theory variable 'having children' were both statistically significant at the level of .01. Findings are discussed in reference to Chile's context. Data were taken from the "Road Users Attitudes and Behaviors towards Traffic Safety" survey from the National Commission of Road Safety of the Government of Chile (2005). The sample size was reported to be 2,118 (N of male drivers was 396). This survey was representative of Chile's Metropolitan Region road users' population.

  16. Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate, Self-Esteem, and Autonomous Motivation in Young Athletes: Testing Propositions from Achievement Goal and Self-Determination Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. O'Rourke; Smith, Ronald E.; Smoll, Frank L.; Cumming, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions with parents are known to have a significant impact on children's self-esteem. In this study, designed to test propositions derived from Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, we assessed the influence of perceived parent-initiated mastery and ego motivational climates on self-esteem and self-esteem change in competitive youth swimmers over the course of a 32-week sport season. At each of three measurement points (early, mid, and late season), mastery climate scor...

  17. Equipping community pharmacy workers as agents for health behaviour change: developing and testing a theory-based smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Liz; Sohanpal, Ratna; James, Wai-Yee; Rivas, Carol; Jumbe, Sandra; Chater, Angel; Todd, Adam; Edwards, Elizabeth; Macneil, Virginia; Macfarlane, Fraser; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Griffiths, Chris; Eldridge, Sandra; Taylor, Stephanie; Walton, Robert

    2017-08-11

    To develop a complex intervention for community pharmacy staff to promote uptake of smoking cessation services and to increase quit rates. Following the Medical Research Council framework, we used a mixed-methods approach to develop, pilot and then refine the intervention. Phase I : We used information from qualitative studies in pharmacies, systematic literature reviews and the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour framework to inform design of the initial version of the intervention. Phase II : We then tested the acceptability of this intervention with smoking cessation advisers and assessed fidelity using actors who visited pharmacies posing as smokers, in a pilot study. Phase III : We reviewed the content and associated theory underpinning our intervention, taking account of the results of the earlier studies and a realist analysis of published literature. We then confirmed a logic model describing the intended operation of the intervention and used this model to refine the intervention and associated materials. Eight community pharmacies in three inner east London boroughs. 12 Stop Smoking Advisers. Two, 150 min, skills-based training sessions focused on communication and behaviour change skills with between session practice. The pilot study confirmed acceptability of the intervention and showed preliminary evidence of benefit; however, organisational barriers tended to limit effective operation. The pilot data and realist review pointed to additional use of Diffusion of Innovations Theory to seat the intervention in the wider organisational context. We have developed and refined an intervention to promote smoking cessation services in community pharmacies, which we now plan to evaluate in a randomised controlled trial. UKCRN ID 18446, Pilot. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Interpersonal trust across six Asia-Pacific countries: testing and extending the 'high trust society' and 'low trust society' theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Ward

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trust is regarded as a necessary component for the smooth running of society, although societal and political modernising processes have been linked to an increase in mistrust, potentially signalling social and economic problems. Fukuyama developed the notion of 'high trust' and 'low trust' societies, as a way of understanding trust within different societies. The purpose of this paper is to empirically test and extend Fukuyama's theory utilising data on interpersonal trust in Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Australia and Thailand. This paper focuses on trust in family, neighbours, strangers, foreigners and people with a different religion. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in 2009-10, with an overall sample of 6331. Analyses of differences in overall levels of trust between countries were undertaken using Chi square analyses. Multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify socio-demographic predictors of trust in each country. RESULTS: Our data indicate a tripartite trust model: 'high trust' in Australia and Hong Kong; 'medium trust' in Japan and Taiwan; and 'low trust' in South Korea and Thailand. Trust in family and neighbours were very high across all countries, although trust in people with a different religion, trust in strangers and trust in foreigners varied considerably between countries. The regression models found a consistent group of subpopulations with low trust across the countries: people on low incomes, younger people and people with poor self-rated health. The results were conflicting for gender: females had lower trust in Thailand and Hong Kong, although in Australia, males had lower trust in strangers, whereas females had lower trust in foreigners. CONCLUSION: This paper identifies high, medium and low trust societies, in addition to high and low trusting population subgroups. Our analyses extend the seminal work of Fukuyama, providing both corroboration and

  19. Exceptional F(4) higher-spin theory in AdS{sub 6} at one-loop and other tests of duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günaydin, Murat [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos Physics Department, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Skvortsov, Evgeny [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Theresienstr. 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany); Lebedev Institute of Physics, Leninsky ave. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tran, Tung [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2016-11-28

    We study the higher-spin gauge theory in six-dimensional anti-de Sitter space AdS{sub 6} that is based on the exceptional Lie superalgebra F(4). The relevant higher-spin algebra was constructed in http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.2185. We determine the spectrum of the theory and show that it contains the physical fields of the Romans F(4) gauged supergravity. The full spectrum consists of an infinite tower of unitary supermultiplets of F(4) which extend the Romans multiplet to higher spins plus a single short supermultiplet. Motivated by applications to this novel supersymmetric higher-spin theory as well as to other theories, we extend the known one-loop tests of AdS/CFT duality in various directions. The spectral zeta-function is derived for the most general case of fermionic and mixed-symmetry fields, which allows one to test the Type-A and B theories and supersymmetric extensions thereof in any dimension. We also study higher-spin doubletons and partially-massless fields. While most of the tests are successfully passed, the Type-B theory in all even dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes presents an interesting puzzle: the free energy as computed from the bulk is not equal to that of the free fermion on the CFT side, though there is some systematics to the discrepancy.

  20. Development and Pilot Test of the Workplace Readiness Questionnaire, a Theory-Based Instrument to Measure Small Workplaces' Readiness to Implement Wellness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Peggy A; Helfrich, Christian D; Chan, K Gary; Allen, Claire L; Hammerback, Kristen; Kohn, Marlana J; Parrish, Amanda T; Weiner, Bryan J; Harris, Jeffrey R

    2017-01-01

    To develop a theory-based questionnaire to assess readiness for change in small workplaces adopting wellness programs. In developing our scale, we first tested items via "think-aloud" interviews. We tested the revised items in a cross-sectional quantitative telephone survey. The study setting comprised small workplaces (20-250 employees) in low-wage industries. Decision-makers representing small workplaces in King County, Washington (think-aloud interviews, n = 9), and the United States (telephone survey, n = 201) served as study subjects. We generated items for each construct in Weiner's theory of organizational readiness for change. We also measured workplace characteristics and current implementation of workplace wellness programs. We assessed reliability by coefficient alpha for each of the readiness questionnaire subscales. We tested the association of all subscales with employers' current implementation of wellness policies, programs, and communications, and conducted a path analysis to test the associations in the theory of organizational readiness to change. Each of the readiness subscales exhibited acceptable internal reliability (coefficient alpha range, .75-.88) and was positively associated with wellness program implementation ( p theory of organizational readiness to change, except change efficacy did not predict change-related effort. We developed a new questionnaire to assess small workplaces' readiness to adopt and implement evidence-based wellness programs. Our findings also provide empirical validation of Weiner's theory of readiness for change.