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Sample records for test site kazakhstan

  1. CTBTO tests its on-site inspection regime in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The former Soviet Union's nuclear test site at Semipalatinsk in the east of today's Kazakhstan was closed down after Kazakhstan became an independent State in 1991. This region in the Kazakh steppe is deserted and pockmarked by countless craters, remnants of over 450 nuclear explosions that were detonated there. In September 2008, the area will start brimming with activity. Scientists, diplomats and journalists will arrive from all over the world to witness an endeavour in the Kazakh steppe that is of great significance for the safety of our planet. The organization that monitors the comprehensive ban on nuclear testing will conduct a large scale exercise to test one of the key elements of its global alarm system - on-site inspections.

  2. Studies of Health Effects from Nuclear Testing near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Grosche

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear bomb testing conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan is of great importance for today’s radiation protection research, particularly in the area of low dose exposures. This type of radiation is of particular interest due to the lack of research in this field and how it impacts population health. In order to understand the possible health effects of nuclear bomb testing, it is important to determine what studies have been conducted on the effects of low dose exposure and dosimetry, and evaluate new epidemiologic data and biological material collected from populations living in proximity to the test site. With time, new epidemiological data has been made available, and it is possible that these data may be linked to biological samples. Next to linking existing and newly available data to examine health effects, the existing dosimetry system needs to be expanded and further developed to include residential areas, which have not yet been taken into account. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of previous studies evaluating the health effects of nuclear testing, including some information on dosimetry efforts, and pointing out directions for future epidemiologic studies.

  3. Studies of Health Effects from Nuclear Testing near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosche, Bernd; Zhunussova, Tamara; Apsalikov, Kazbek; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear bomb testing conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan is of great importance for today's radiation protection research, particularly in the area of low dose exposures. This type of radiation is of particular interest due to the lack of research in this field and how it impacts population health. In order to understand the possible health effects of nuclear bomb testing, it is important to determine what studies have been conducted on the effects of low dose exposure and dosimetry, and evaluate new epidemiologic data and biological material collected from populations living in proximity to the test site. With time, new epidemiological data has been made available, and it is possible that these data may be linked to biological samples. Next to linking existing and newly available data to examine health effects, the existing dosimetry system needs to be expanded and further developed to include residential areas, which have not yet been taken into account. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of previous studies evaluating the health effects of nuclear testing, including some information on dosimetry efforts, and pointing out directions for future epidemiologic studies.

  4. Ongoing research experiments at the former Soviet nuclear test site in eastern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, William S.; Kluchko, Luke J.; Konovalov, Vladimir; Vouille, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    Degelen mountain, located in EasternKazakhstan near the city of Semipalatinsk, was once the Soviets most active underground nuclear test site. Two hundred fifteen nuclear tests were conducted in 181 tunnels driven horizontally into its many ridges--almost twice the number of tests as at any other Soviet underground nuclear test site. It was also the site of the first Soviet underground nuclear test--a 1-kiloton device detonated on October 11, 1961. Until recently, the details of testing at Degelen were kept secret and have been the subject of considerable speculation. However, in 1991, the Semipalatinsk test site became part of the newly independent Republic of Kazakhstan; and in 1995, the Kazakhstani government concluded an agreement with the U.S. Department of Defense to eliminate the nuclear testing infrastructure in Kazakhstan. This agreement, which calls for the "demilitarization of the infrastructure directly associated with the nuclear weapons test tunnels," has been implemented as the "Degelen Mountain Tunnel Closure Program." The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency, in partnership with the Department of Energy, has permitted the use of the tunnel closure project at the former nuclear test site as a foundation on which to support cost-effective, research-and-development-funded experiments. These experiments are principally designed to improve U.S. capabilities to monitor and verify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), but have provided a new source of information on the effects of nuclear and chemical explosions on hard, fractured rock environments. These new data extends and confirms the results of recent Russian publications on the rock environment at the site and the mechanical effects of large-scale chemical and nuclear testing. In 1998, a large-scale tunnel closure experiment, Omega-1, was conducted in Tunnel 214 at Degelen mountain. In this experiment, a 100-ton chemical explosive blast was used to test technologies for monitoring the

  5. Childhood cancer incidence in relation to distance from the former nuclear testing site in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaridze, D G; Li, N; Men, T; Duffy, S W

    1994-11-15

    Rates of childhood cancer between 1981 and 1990 in the 4 administrative zones of Kazakhstan were studied to assess the relationship, if any, with distance from nuclear testing sites. Risk of various cancers among children aged 14 years or younger were estimated in relation to distance from (1) a site where testing in air was performed before 1963, (2) a site where underground testing took place thereafter, and (3) a reservoir, known as "Atom Lake," created by 4 nuclear explosions in 1965. Risk of acute leukaemia rose significantly with increasing proximity of residence to the testing areas, although the absolute value of the risk gradient was relatively small. The relative risk for those living less than 200 km from the air-testing site was 1.76 compared with those living 400 km or more away from the site. Similar relative risks were observed for the underground site and "Atom Lake." There was also some evidence of increased risk of brain tumours in association with proximity to the test sites. In 2 of the 4 zones studied, there was substantial regional variation in acute leukaemia rates which was not attributable to distance from the test site. The findings may be affected by potential confounders, notably urban/rural status and ethnic factors.

  6. Initial evaluation of the radioecological situation at the Semipalatinsk Test Site in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, G.; Semiochkina, N. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz

    1998-12-31

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) located in the Republic of Kazakhstan (Figure 1.1) was one of the major nuclear weapon test sites of the former Soviet Union. At the site, four hundred fifty six nuclear explosions took place between 1949 and 1989 within the STS (Mikhailov et al. 1996; Dubasov et al. 1994a), resulting in radioactive contamination both within and around the STS. Incidences of radiation related illnesses in such areas may be higher than normal levels (Burkhart 1996). Published estimates of the resulting dose to the public vary according to the source, but an independent study (Grosche 1996) indicated that as many as 30,000-40,000 people could have been exposed to an average dose of 1.6 Sv (160 rem) or more (mainly due to short-lived radionuclides such as {sup 131}I). A detailed international assessment of the impact of these tests on the local population has not yet been undertaken. A current investigation under the acronym, RADTEST, includes an evaluation of Semipalatinsk as part of a broad review of internal and external doses to people arising from nuclear tests at many different sites in the world. In the context of the European Commission funded project RESTORE (Restoration Strategy for Radioactive Contaminated Ecosystems) an attempt is being made to assess the present radiolecological situation in the STS. This initial report collates currently available data published in Russian-language literature and internal CIS reports, reports from Europe and the USA, and other international literature. In this initial evaluation, only an overview of published data made available to the RESTORE project is provided and briefly discussed. In addition, further assessments including experimental work are suggested. Additional sources of data will be pursued and will be integrated with experimental results in the final evaluation report. (orig.)

  7. Initial evaluation of the radioecological situation at the Semipalatinsk Test Site in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Semiochkina, N.

    1998-01-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) located in the Republic of Kazakhstan (Figure 1.1) was one of the major nuclear weapon test sites of the former Soviet Union. At the site, four hundred fifty six nuclear explosions took place between 1949 and 1989 within the STS (Mikhailov et al. 1996; Dubasov et al. 1994a), resulting in radioactive contamination both within and around the STS. Incidences of radiation related illnesses in such areas may be higher than normal levels (Burkhart 1996). Published estimates of the resulting dose to the public vary according to the source, but an independent study (Grosche 1996) indicated that as many as 30,000-40,000 people could have been exposed to an average dose of 1.6 Sv (160 rem) or more (mainly due to short-lived radionuclides such as 131 I). A detailed international assessment of the impact of these tests on the local population has not yet been undertaken. A current investigation under the acronym, RADTEST, includes an evaluation of Semipalatinsk as part of a broad review of internal and external doses to people arising from nuclear tests at many different sites in the world. In the context of the European Commission funded project RESTORE (Restoration Strategy for Radioactive Contaminated Ecosystems) an attempt is being made to assess the present radiolecological situation in the STS. This initial report collates currently available data published in Russian-language literature and internal CIS reports, reports from Europe and the USA, and other international literature. In this initial evaluation, only an overview of published data made available to the RESTORE project is provided and briefly discussed. In addition, further assessments including experimental work are suggested. Additional sources of data will be pursued and will be integrated with experimental results in the final evaluation report. (orig.)

  8. Thyroid nodule prevalence and radiation dose from fallout near the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.; Luckyanov, N.K.; Simon, S.L.; Zhumadilov, Z.; Gusev, B.I.; Hartshorne, M.N.; Carr, Z.A.

    2003-01-01

    Thyroid nodule prevalence was use as a biomarker for radiation-related thyroid cancer risk associated with dose from internal and external radiation sources in fallout from the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in Kazakhstan. Ultrasound scans were done on the thyroid glands of 1990 current residents of 7 villages near the STS, all members of a defined study cohort established in the 1960s, and all juveniles at some time during 1949-1962. Questionnaire-guided interviews focused on residential history and childhood consumption of milk and milk products. A refined dose reconstruction algorithm, developed jointly by experts from Russia and the US, was applied to the resulting data to calculate individual estimates of thyroid dose from external and internal sources of fallout-related radiation. Individual radiation dose estimates ranged from zero to 20 Gy for total dose (0-1.7 Gy and 0-20 Gy for dose from external and internal sources, respectively). The ratio of internal to external dose generally increased with increasing distance, reflecting a shift towards smaller particle sizes at greater distances and more effective transfer of small particles through the foodchain. Dose-response analysis was focused on variation of nodule prevalence by sex, age at screening, measured thyroid volume, and reconstructed thyroid dose from external (mainly gamma-ray) and internal (mainly 131 I) radiation sources. Nodule prevalence was markedly higher among women and increased significantly with increasing age at screening and with thyroid volume. Highly significant dose responses were observed for nodule prevalence as a function of total thyroid dose and, in a separate analysis, of doses from internal and external sources as distinct independent variables; dose response was linear for total dose 131 I cf. x ray with respect to thyroid cancer as an endpoint, based on theoretical, experimental, and epidemiological data

  9. A full-text english database of testimonies of those exposed to radiation near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Masatsugu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Hirabayashi, Kyoko; Tooka, Yasuyuki; Apsalikov, Kazbek Negamatovich; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2004-01-01

    The present paper is a sequel to the initial report (Kawano et al 2003a) of the project for a full-text Japanese database of the testimonies of those exposed to radiation near the nuclear test site of Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan. 139 testimonies were gathered in four villages near Semipalatinsk in 2002. We translated them into English from Russian and Kazakh, and created a full-text database by using a Latin script text retrieval program, TERESA. The present paper attempts at essentially the sa...

  10. [Assessment of modern radioecological situation at nuclear explosion "Chagan" (Balapan Site, Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Umarov, M A; Sergeeva, I Iu; Sergeev, V Iu

    2008-01-01

    Results on estimation of modern radioecological situation at nuclear explosion "Chagan" based on large-scale cartographic studies (1:25000) of a test area (4 km2) are presented. Maximum gamma-irradiation doses were observed at bulk of ground surrounded a crater and at radioactive fall-outs extended to the North-East and to the SouthWest from the crater. Based on data on artificial radionuclide specific activity most part of soil samples were attributed to radioactive wastes according to IAEA (1996) and OSPORB (1999). Natural decrease of soil radioactivity up to safety level due to 60Co, 137Cs, 90Sr, 152Eu, 154Eu radioactive decay and 241Am accumulation-decay will not take place within the next 60 years at the studied area.

  11. Space Nuclear Facility test capability at the Baikal-1 and IGR sites Semipalatinsk-21, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T. J.; Stanley, M. L.; Martinell, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    The International Space Technology Assessment Program was established 1/19/92 to take advantage of the availability of Russian space technology and hardware. DOE had two delegations visit CIS and assess its space nuclear power and propulsion technologies. The visit coincided with the Conference on Nuclear Power Engineering in Space Nuclear Rocket Engines at Semipalatinsk-21 (Kurchatov, Kazakhstan) on Sept. 22-25, 1992. Reactor facilities assessed in Semipalatinski-21 included the IVG-1 reactor (a nuclear furnace, which has been modified and now called IVG-1M), the RA reactor, and the Impulse Graphite Reactor (IGR), the CIS version of TREAT. Although the reactor facilities are being maintained satisfactorily, the support infrastructure appears to be degrading. The group assessment is based on two half-day tours of the Baikals-1 test facility and a brief (2 hr) tour of IGR; because of limited time and the large size of the tour group, it was impossible to obtain answers to all prepared questions. Potential benefit is that CIS fuels and facilities may permit USA to conduct a lower priced space nuclear propulsion program while achieving higher performance capability faster, and immediate access to test facilities that cannot be available in this country for 5 years. Information needs to be obtained about available data acquisition capability, accuracy, frequency response, and number of channels. Potential areas of interest with broad application in the U.S. nuclear industry are listed.

  12. Kazakhstan-Japan joint study on health effects of radiation in residents in and around former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiaki Ogiu; Yoshiro Aoki; Sadayoshi Kobayashi; Shizuyo Kusumi; Jiro Inaba; Kenzhina, G.; Berezin, S.; Zhotabaev, Zh.; Berezina, M.; Sekerbayev, A.; Lukashenko, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC RK) and the Radiation Effects Association (REA, Japan) are now jointly carrying out 'Study on Health Effects of Radiation in Residents in and around the Former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (STS)' commissioned by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japanese Government. This joint study between Kazakhstan and Japan was initiated in 2001 in response to the request from the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and to the resolution of the 53rd United Nations General Assembly in 1998 for providing the Kazakhstan with medical, environmental, economical and humanitarian assistance to the residents in and around Semipalatinsk Test Site. The purpose of the study is to obtain scientific evidence on the health effects of chronic and repeated long-term exposure to low level mixed (external and internal) radiation in residents in and around Semipalatinsk Test Site, and thereby to provide fundamental scientific information on the nature and extent of health effects that might have been incurred by such exposures. The mode of this type of exposure (chronic long-term mixed radiation) is conceivable in the current situation of exposure such as occupational exposure, but different from those of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan where the exposure was mainly acute and external. In this study, exposed populations are consisting of residents of Dolon, Znamenka, Karaul, and Kainar (Semipalatinsk population - 1) and that of Southern Beskaragai Region including Mostik, Cheremushki, Bol'shaya Vladimirovka, Malaya Vladimirovka, Budene, Semenovka, etc. (Semipalatinsk population - 2). Control populations are consisting of residents of Kenzhekol, Kenes and Zhanaaul (Pavlodar Population - 1) and that of Kachiry, Irtyshsk and Sherbakty (Pavlodar Population - 2). As of the end of July, 2008, personal data (date of birth, gender, race, etc.) were collected for 117,300 persons

  13. A summary of evidence on radiation exposures received near to the Semipalatinsk nuclear weapons test site in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Baverstock, Keith F; Lindholm, Carita

    2003-06-01

    The presently available evidence about the magnitude of doses received by members of the public living in villages in the vicinity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test in Kazakhstan, particularly with respect to external radiation, while preliminary, is conflicting. The village of Dolon, in particular, has been identified for many years as the most highly exposed location in the vicinity of the test site. Previous publications cited external doses of more than 2 Gy to residents of Dolon while an expert group assembled by the WHO in 1997 estimated that external doses were likely to have been less than 0.5 Gy. In 2001, a larger expert group workshop was held in Helsinki jointly by the WHO, the National Cancer Institute of the United States, and the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland, with the expressed purpose to acquire data to evaluate the state of knowledge concerning doses received in Kazakhstan. This paper summarizes evidence presented at that workshop. External dose estimates from calculations based on sparse physical measurements and bio-dosimetric estimates based on chromosome abnormalities and electron paramagnetic resonance from a relatively small sample of teeth do not agree well. The physical dose estimates are generally higher than the biodosimetric estimates (1 Gy or more compared to 0.5 Gy or less). When viewed in its entirety, the present body of evidence does not appear to support external doses greater than 0.5 Gy; however, research is continuing to try and resolve the difference in dose estimates from the different methods. Thyroid doses from internal irradiation, which can only be estimated via calculation, are expected to have been several times greater than the doses from external irradiation, especially where received by small children.

  14. Effects of chronic exposure in populations of Koeleria gracilis Pers. from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, S A; Oudalova, A A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S; Mozolin, E M; Hinton, T; Spiridonov, S I; Copplestone, D; Garnier-Laplace, J

    2012-02-01

    Morphological and cytogenetic abnormalities were examined in crested hairgrass (Koeleria gracilis Pers.) populations inhabiting the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS), Kazakhstan. Sampling of biological material and soil was carried out during 3 years (2005-2007) at 4 sites within the STS. Activity concentrations of 10 radionuclides and 8 heavy metals content in soils were measured. Doses absorbed by plants were estimated and varied, depending on the plot, from 4 up to 265 mGy/y. The frequency of cytogenetic alterations in apical meristem of germinated seeds from the highly contaminated plot significantly exceeded the level observed at other plots with lower levels of radioactive contamination during all three years of the study. A significant excess of chromosome aberrations, typical for radiation exposure, as well as a dependence of the frequency of these types of mutations on dose absorbed by plants were revealed. The results indicate the role radioactive contamination plays in the occurrence of cytogenetic effects. However, no radiation-dependent morphological alterations were detected in the progeny of the exposed populations. Given that the crested hairgrass populations have occupied the radioactively contaminated plots for some 50 years, adaptation to the radiation stress was not evident. The findings obtained were in agreement with the benchmark values proposed in the FASSET and ERICA projects to restrict radiation impacts on biota. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Radiobiological effects on plants and animals within Semipalatinsk Test Site (Kazakhstan)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozolin, E M; Geras'kin, S A; Minkenova, K S

    2008-01-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) was the main place of nuclear devices tests in the former Soviet Union. From 1949 to 1989 about 460 nuclear explosions have been carried out at STS. Radioactive contamination of STS territory has the extremely non-uniform character. The main dose-forming radionuclides are 137Cs, 90Sr, 152Eu, as well as 154Eu, 60CO, 239,240Pu and 241Am. The greatest specific activity of 137Cs and 239,240Pu in ground are n x 10(3) kBk/kg, 152Eu - 96 kBk/kg, 154Eu - 10.4 kBk/kg, 60Co - 20.5 kBk/kg, 241Am - 15 kBk/kg. However, up to now, within STS sites exists where gamma-dose rate comes to 60 microGy/h, that is enough for induction reliable biological effects in animals and plants. Inhabiting territory of STS plants and animals are characterized by increased level of mutagenesis, changes of morpho-anatomic indices and parameters of peripheral blood, by the increase of asymmetry bilateral indices, change of composition and structure of communities.

  16. Effects of chronic exposure in populations of Koeleria gracilis Pers. from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geras'kin, S.A.; Oudalova, A.A.; Dikarev, V.G.; Dikareva, N.S.; Mozolin, E.M.; Hinton, T.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Copplestone, D.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2012-01-01

    Morphological and cytogenetic abnormalities were examined in crested hairgrass (Koeleria gracilis Pers.) populations inhabiting the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS), Kazakhstan. Sampling of biological material and soil was carried out during 3 years (2005–2007) at 4 sites within the STS. Activity concentrations of 10 radionuclides and 8 heavy metals content in soils were measured. Doses absorbed by plants were estimated and varied, depending on the plot, from 4 up to 265 mGy/y. The frequency of cytogenetic alterations in apical meristem of germinated seeds from the highly contaminated plot significantly exceeded the level observed at other plots with lower levels of radioactive contamination during all three years of the study. A significant excess of chromosome aberrations, typical for radiation exposure, as well as a dependence of the frequency of these types of mutations on dose absorbed by plants were revealed. The results indicate the role radioactive contamination plays in the occurrence of cytogenetic effects. However, no radiation-dependent morphological alterations were detected in the progeny of the exposed populations. Given that the crested hairgrass populations have occupied the radioactively contaminated plots for some 50 years, adaptation to the radiation stress was not evident. The findings obtained were in agreement with the benchmark values proposed in the FASSET and ERICA projects to restrict radiation impacts on biota. - Highlights: ► Morphological and cytogenetic abnormalities were examined in plants from the STS. ► Annual doses absorbed by plants varied from 4 up to 265 mGy. ► Cytogenetic alterations in plants from the explosions epicenter exceeded the control. ► No radiation-dependent morphological alterations were detected in the progeny. ► Radio-adaptation in plant populations in 50 years of chronic exposure was not evident.

  17. Uranium isotopes in well water samples as drinking sources in some settlements around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Tomita, Junpei; Sakaguchi, Aya; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hoshi, Masaharu; Apsalikov, Kazbek N

    Radiochemical results of U isotopes ( 234 U, 235 U and 238 U) and their activity ratios are reported for well waters as local sources of drinking waters collected from the ten settlements around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS), Kazakhstan. The results show that 238 U varies widely from 3.6 to 356 mBq/L (0.3-28.7 μg/L), with a factor of about 100. The 238 U concentrations in some water samples from Dolon, Tailan, Sarzhal and Karaul settlements are comparable to or higher than the World Health Organization's restrictive proposed guideline of 15 μg (U)/L. The 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios in the measured water samples are higher than 1, and vary between 1.1 and 7.9, being mostly from 1.5 to 3. The measured 235 U/ 238 U activity ratios are around 0.046, indicating that U in these well waters is of natural origin. It is probable that the elevated concentration of 238 U found in some settlements around the SNTS is not due to the close-in fallout from nuclear explosions at the SNTS, but rather to the intensive weathering of rocks including U there. The calculated effective doses to adults resulting from consumption of the investigated waters are in the range 1.0-18.7 μSv/y. Those doses are lower than WHO and IAEA reference value (100 μSv/y) for drinking water.

  18. A Study of Small Magnitude Seismic Events During 1961-1989 on and near the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalturin, V. I.; Rautian, T. G.; Richards, P. G.

    - Official Russian sources in 1996 and 1997 have stated that 340 underground nuclear tests (UNTs) were conducted during 1961-1989 at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in Eastern Kazakhstan. Only 271 of these nuclear tests appear to have been described with well-determined origin time, coordinates and magnitudes in the openly available technical literature. Thus, good open documentation has been lacking for 69 UNTs at STS.The main goal of our study was to provide detections, estimates of origin time and location, and magnitudes, for as many of these previously undocumented events as possible. We used data from temporary and permanent seismographic stations in the former USSR at distances from 500km to about 1500km from STS. As a result, we have been able to assign magnitude for eight previously located UNTs whose magnitude was not previously known. For 31 UNTs, we have estimated origin time an d assigned magnitude - and for 19 of these 31 we have obtained locations based on seismic signals. Of the remaining 30 poorly documented UNTs, 15 had announced yields that were less than one ton, and 13 occurred simultaneously with another test which was detected. There are only two UNTs, for which the announced yield exceeds one ton and we have been unable to find seismic signals.Most of the newly detected and located events were sub-kiloton. Their magnitudes range from 2.7 up to 5.1 (a multi-kiloton event on 1965 Feb. 4 that was often obscured at teleseismic stations by signals from an earthquake swarm in the Aleutians).For 17 small UNTs at STS, we compare the locations (with their uncertainties) that we had earlier determined in 1994 from analysis of regional seismic waves, with ground-truth information obtained in 1998. The average error of the seismically-determined locations is only about 5km. The ground-truth location is almost alw ays within the predicted small uncertainty of the seismically-determined location.Seismically-determined yield estimates are in good

  19. Assessment of the current internal dose due to 137Cs and 90Sr for people living within the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiochkina, N; Voigt, G; Mukusheva, M; Bruk, G; Travnikova, I; Strand, P

    2004-02-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan was one of the major sites used by the USSR for testing nuclear weapons for more than 40 y. Since the early 1990's, responsibility for the site has passed to the Kazakh authorities. There has been a gradual re-establishment of agricultural use such as horse and sheep farming. Therefore, it has become important to evaluate the current and future risk to people living on and using the contaminated area. Internal dose assessment is one of the main components of the total dose when deriving risk factors for population living within the test site. Internal doses based on food monitoring and whole body measurements were calculated for adults and are in the range of 13-500 microSv y(-1) due to radiocesium and radiostrontium.

  20. Communication dated 29 June 2009 received from the Permanent Mission of Kazakhstan with regard to a press release to note a commemorative meeting of the 20th anniversary of shutting down of the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 29 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of Kazakhstan, transmitting the text of a press release to note a commemorative meeting of the 20th anniversary of shutting down of the Semipalatinsk nuclear testing site, which was held in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan on 18 June 2009. As requested in that communication, the abovementioned press release is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States

  1. Development of nuclear technologies and conversion of nuclear weapon testing system infrastructure in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu.; Takibaev, Zh.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of the work done by the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan in development of nuclear technology and conversion of nuclear weapon testing infrastructure in Kazakhstan. Content and trends of works are as follows: 1. Peaceful use of all physical facilities, created earlier for nuclear tests in Kazakhstan; 2. Development of methods and technologies for safe nuclear reactors use; 3. Examination of different materials in field of great neutron flow for thermonuclear reactor's first wall development; 4. Liquidation of all wells, which were formed in the results of underground nuclear explosions in Degelen mountain massif of former Semipalatinsk test site; 5. Study of consequences of nuclear tests in West Kazakhstan (territory of Azgir test site and Karachaganak oil field); 6. Study of radiological situation on the Semipalatinsk test site and surrounding territories; 7. Search of ways for high-level radioactive wastes disposal; 8. Construction of safe nuclear power plants in Kazakhstan

  2. Reconstruction of local fallout composition and gamma-ray exposure in a village contaminated by the first USSR nuclear test in the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kawai, Kenta; Sakaguchi, Aya; Hoshi, Masaharu; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Apsalikov, Kazbek

    2010-11-01

    After the disintegration of the USSR in end of 1991, it became possible for foreign scientists to visit Kazakhstan, in order to investigate the radiological consequences of nuclear explosions that had been conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). Since the first visit in 1994, our group has been continuing expeditions for soil sampling at various areas around SNTS. The current level of local fallout at SNTS was studied through γ-spectrometry for (137)Cs as well as α-spectrometry for (239,240)Pu. Average values of soil inventory from wide areas around SNTS were 3,500 and 3,700 Bq m(-2) for (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu, respectively, as of January 1, 2000. The average level of (137)Cs is comparable to that in Japan due to global fallout, while the level of (239,240)Pu is several tens of times larger than that in Japan. Areas of strong contamination were found along the trajectories of radioactive fallout, information on which was declassified after the collapse of the USSR. Our recent efforts of soil sampling were concentrated on the area around the Dolon village heavily affected by the radioactive plume from the first USSR atomic bomb test in 1949 and located 110 km east from ground zero of the explosion. Using soil inventory data, retrospective dosimetry was attempted by reconstructing γ-ray exposure from fission product nuclides deposited on the ground. Adopting representative parameters for the initial (137)Cs deposition (13 kBq m(-2)), the refractory/volatile deposition ratio (3.8) and the plume arrival time after explosion (2.5 h), an absorbed dose in air of 600 mGy was obtained for the 1-year cumulative dose in Dolon village, due to the first bomb test in 1949. Considering possible ranges of the parameters, 350 and 910 mGy were estimated for high and low cases of γ-ray dose in air, respectively. It was encouraging that the deduced value was consistent with other estimations using thermal luminescence and archived monitoring data. The present

  3. A study of small explosions and earthquakes during 1961--1989 near the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalturin, V.I.; Rautian, T.G.; Richards, P.G.; Columbia Univ., New York, NY

    1994-03-01

    Several Russian sources have stated that 343 underground nuclear explosions were conducted during 1961--1989 at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. However, only 282 of them appear to have been described, in the openly available technical literature, with well-determined coordinates; and only 272 have both good locations and magnitudes. The authors have used regional data from 52 stations to study 65 seismic sources initially thought to be in or near the Semipalatinsk region, additional to the 272 underground nuclear explosions with known locations and magnitudes. Of these 65 events, the authors believe 8 are not explosions on the test site, namely: two earthquakes close to the test site; three earthquakes or chemical explosions 100--300 km from the test site; and three events at greater distances from Semipalatinsk. Of the remaining 57 events: 10 were known to be underground nuclear explosions with known locations and the authors have supplied magnitudes where none were previously available; one was a chemical explosion at Degelen; they believe 21 were underground nuclear explosions; 13 were chemical explosions at Balapan; 8 were chemical explosions elsewhere on the test site; three were either nuclear or chemical explosions; and one was either a chemical explosion or a cavity collapse. The largest magnitude of their 44 possible underground nuclear explosions is around 5 (February 4, 1965, obscured at many teleseismic stations by a large Aleutian earthquake). Others lie in the magnitude range 3.5--4.5, and clearly most have sub kiloton yields. Their data set of small events is important for purposes of evaluating the detection capability of teleseismic arrays, and the detection and identification capability of regional stations

  4. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 9q22.3 in microdissected basal cell carcinomas around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kenji; Takamura, Noboru; Nakashima, Masahiro; Alipov, Gabit; Mine, Mariko; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Yoshiura, Koichiro; Prouglo, Yuriy; Sekine, Ichiro; Katayama, Ichiro; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2004-04-01

    A high incidence of skin cancers has been noted around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan. Recently, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) susceptibility genes, human homolog of the Drosophila pathed gene (PTCH), and the xeroderma pigmentosa group A-complementing gene (XPA), have been cloned and localized on chromosome 9q22.3. To clarify the effect of low-dose irradiation on the occurrence of BCC, we used microdissection and polymerase chain reaction to identify loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 9q22.3 using BCC samples obtained from this region. Ten Japanese samples were analyzed as controls. LOH with at least 1 marker was identified in 5 of 14 cases from around SNTS, whereas only 1 case with 1 marker was identified among the 10 Nagasaki cases. The total number of LOH alleles from SNTS (8 of 45) was significantly higher than the number from Nagasaki (1 of 26) (P = 0.03). The higher incidence of LOH on 9q22.3 in BCC from around SNTS suggests involvement of chronic low-dose irradiation by fallout from the test site as a factor in the cancers.

  5. Tritium in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the East Kazakhstan Oblast of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Peter I; Vintró, Luis León; Omarova, Aigul; Burkitbayev, Mukhambetkali; Nápoles, Humberto Jiménez; Priest, Nicholas D

    2005-06-01

    The concentration of tritium has been determined in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal, Tel'kem, Balapan and Degelen Mountains areas of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The data show that levels of tritium in domestic well waters within the settlement of Sarzhal are extremely low at the present time with a median value of 4.4 Bq dm(-3) (95% confidence interval:4.1-4.7 Bq dm(-3)). These levels are only marginally above the background tritium content in surface waters globally. Levels in the atomic craters at Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 are between one and two orders of magnitude higher, while the level in Lake Balapan is approximately 12,600 Bq dm(-3). Significantly, levels in streams and test-tunnel waters sourced in the Degelen Mountains, the site of approximately 215 underground nuclear tests, are a further order of magnitude higher, being in the range 133,000--235,500 Bq dm(-3). No evidence was adduced which indicates that domestic wells in Sarzhal are contaminated by tritium-rich waters sourced in the Degelen massif, suggesting that the latter are not connected hydrologically to the near-surface groundwater recharging the Sarzhal wells. Annual doses to humans arising from the ingestion of tritium in these well waters are very low at the present time and are of no radiological significance.

  6. Tritium in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the East Kazakhstan Oblast of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Peter I [Department of Experimental Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Vintro, Luis Leon [Department of Experimental Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Omarova, Aigul [Department of Experimental Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Burkitbayev, Mukhambetkali [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Napoles, Humberto Jimenez [Department of Experimental Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Priest, Nicholas D [School of Health and Social Sciences, Middlesex University, Enfield EN3 4SA (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    The concentration of tritium has been determined in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal, Tel'kem, Balapan and Degelen Mountains areas of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The data show that levels of tritium in domestic well waters within the settlement of Sarzhal are extremely low at the present time with a median value of 4.4 Bq dm{sup -3} (95% confidence interval: 4.1-4.7 Bq dm{sup -3}). These levels are only marginally above the background tritium content in surface waters globally. Levels in the atomic craters at Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 are between one and two orders of magnitude higher, while the level in Lake Balapan is approximately 12 600 Bq dm{sup -3}. Significantly, levels in streams and test-tunnel waters sourced in the Degelen Mountains, the site of approximately 215 underground nuclear tests, are a further order of magnitude higher, being in the range 133 000-235 500 Bq dm{sup -3}. No evidence was adduced which indicates that domestic wells in Sarzhal are contaminated by tritium-rich waters sourced in the Degelen massif, suggesting that the latter are not connected hydrologically to the near-surface groundwater recharging the Sarzhal wells. Annual doses to humans arising from the ingestion of tritium in these well waters are very low at the present time and are of no radiological significance.

  7. Behavior and food consumption pattern of the population exposed in 1949-1962 to fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Schonfeld, Sara; Akimzhanov, Kuat; Aldyngurov, Daulet; Land, Charles E; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Potischman, Nancy; Schwerin, Michael J; Semenova, Yulia; Tokaeva, Alma; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between radiation exposure from nuclear weapons testing fallout and thyroid disease in a group of 2,994 subjects has been the subject of study by the US National Cancer Institute. In that study, radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated for residents of villages in Kazakhstan possibly exposed to deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear testing conducted by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan between 1949 and 1962. The study subjects included individuals of both Kazakh and Russian origin who were exposed during childhood and adolescence. An initial dose reconstruction used for the risk analysis of Land et al. (Radiat Res 169:373-383, 2008) was based on individual information collected from basic questionnaires administered to the study population in 1998. However, because data on several key questions for accurately estimating doses were not obtained from the 1998 questionnaires, it was decided to conduct a second data collection campaign in 2007. Due to the many years elapsed since exposure, a well-developed strategy was necessary to encourage accurate memory recall. In our recent study, a focus group interview data collection methodology was used to collect historical behavioral and food consumption data. The data collection in 2007 involved interviews conducted within four-eight-person focus groups (three groups of women and one group of men) in each of four exposed villages where thyroid disease screening was conducted in 1998. Population-based data on relevant childhood behaviors including time spent in- and outdoors and consumption rates of milk and other dairy products were collected from women's groups. The data were collected for five age groups of children and adolescents ranging from less than 1 year of age to 21 years of age. Dairy products considered included fresh milk and other products from cows, goats, mares, and sheep. Men's focus group interviews pertained to construction materials of

  8. Behavior and food consumption pattern of the population exposed in 1949–1962 to fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Sara; Akimzhanov, Kuat; Aldyngurov, Daulet; Land, Charles E.; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Potischman, Nancy; Schwerin, Michael J.; Semenova, Yulia; Tokaeva, Alma; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between radiation exposure from nuclear weapons testing fallout and thyroid disease in a group of 2,994 subjects has been the subject of study by the U.S. National Cancer Institute. In that study, radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated for residents of villages in Kazakhstan possibly exposed to deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear testing conducted by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan between 1949 and 1962. The study subjects included individuals of both Kazakh and Russian origin who were exposed during childhood and adolescence. An initial dose reconstruction used for the risk analysis of Land et al. (2008) was based on individual information collected from basic questionnaires administered to the study population in 1998. However, because data on several key questions for accurately estimating doses was not obtained from the 1998 questionnaires it was decided to conduct a second data collection campaign in 2007. Due to the many years elapsed since exposure, a well developed strategy was necessary to encourage accurate memory recall. In our recent study, a focus group interview data collection methodology was used to collect historical behavioral and food consumption data. The data collection in 2007 involved interviews conducted within four eight-person focus groups (three groups of women and one group of men) in each of four exposed villages where thyroid disease screening was conducted in 1998. Population-based data on relevant childhood behaviors, including time spent in- and outdoors and consumption rates of milk and other dairy products were collected from women’s groups. The data were collected for five age groups of children and adolescents ranging from less than 1 year of age to 21 years of age. Dairy products considered included fresh milk and other products from cows, goats, mares, and sheep. Men’s focus group interviews pertained to construction materials of houses and schools

  9. Study of cleft lip and palate deformities among the residents of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilova, A.; Sultanova, A.; Shabanbaeva, Zh.; Ergalieva, U.; Utulenova, G.; Abralina, Sh.; Okamoto, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between long-term radiation exposure and the high prevalence of cleft lip and palate anomalies among the residents from exposed areas and to compare to non-exposed areas. A retrospective study of 716 case reports was carried out on cleft lip and palate deformities patients (1978-1998). The case reports were screened and studied for frequency of cleft lip and palate by gender and number of patients, including epidemiological studies of cleft lip and palate anomalies cases in 1000 newborns in the three zones of radiation risk where the hospitalized patients resided. The statistical analyses of the retrospective study of cleft lip and palate patients were estimated by X 2 -test and performed with the Stat View 5.0 statistical analysis program. 5,10 cases of cleft lip and palate patients per 1000 live births were calculated in the zone of maximum radiation risk, which is extremely high, and 2,30 cases of the anomalies per 1000 among the newborns in the zone of heightened radiation risk and both were significantly higher than those in the zone of minimum risk. The incidence varied in different years, from 5,66 per 1000 live births in 1978-1988 (at the time of nuclear testing) to 4,14 per 1000 live births in 1990-1998 (after the nuclear testing was stopped) in the area of maximum radiation risk and showed that the number of cleft lip and palate anomalies cases was significantly higher in both periods of time compare to the zones of heightened and minimum radiation risk. This study suggests that the high prevalence cleft lip and palate anomalies among the newborns from the exposed areas was due to the long-term radiation exposure.

  10. Political aspects of nuclear test effects at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydykov, E.B.; Panin, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes tense struggle of Kazakhstan people for closure of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site. It reveals major foreign policy aspects and nuclear test effects for both Kazakhstan and the world community. (author)

  11. Cancer Mortality in Populations in Kazakhstan Subjected to Irradiation from Nuclear Weapons Testing in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Districts of Semipalatinsk Province, located 900-1,100 km away from the Chinese Test Site . The contamination levels varied within very wide ranges. The...Figure 1 presents a map showing the locations of the Lop Nor and Semipalatinsk Test Sites as well as the three population points of Makanchy... Semipalatinsk Test Site with the direct participation of employees of the Kazakhstan NRIRME (National Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology

  12. Delayed effects of low level acute irradiation and chronic environmental radioactive contamination on DNA lymphocytes of people living in Dolon, a settlement located in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenal, C.; Legue, F.; Nourgalieva, K. [UMR CNRS 6553 ' Ecobio' , Equipe Radiations Environnement Adaptation. Universite de RENNES 1, Campus de Beaulieu, Bat 14, RENNES Cedex F 35042 (France)

    2006-10-01

    During 42 years several hundred nuclear tests were performed by the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS, Kazakhstan), of which more than 100 were done in the atmosphere. We report here the late genetic damage of external exposure to radiation and environmental radioactive contamination in people living in Dolon, a small settlement situated in the vicinity of the STS. The comet assay was applied on DNA lymphocytes of 20 exposed women and 32 non-exposed women living at 500 km from the STS. We observed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups for mean tail moment (MTM) and DNA% in the tail. The mean values of all comet assay parameters (MTM, DNA% in the tail and score) were higher in the group of women born before 1949 as compared to those born after 1950, which could reflect an effect of external irradiation in 1949 due to the most contaminating explosion. These results suggest that people exposed 50 years ago to relatively small doses of external irradiation and/or still living in an environment contaminated by small amounts of long life radionuclides, still present DNA damage which is in agreement with other cytogenetical studies performed at the same site, on the same population. (author)

  13. Delayed effects of low level acute irradiation and chronic environmental radioactive contamination on DNA lymphocytes of people living in Dolon, a settlement located in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (Kazakhstan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenal, C.; Legue, F.; Nourgalieva, K.

    2006-01-01

    During 42 years several hundred nuclear tests were performed by the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS, Kazakhstan), of which more than 100 were done in the atmosphere. We report here the late genetic damage of external exposure to radiation and environmental radioactive contamination in people living in Dolon, a small settlement situated in the vicinity of the STS. The comet assay was applied on DNA lymphocytes of 20 exposed women and 32 non-exposed women living at 500 km from the STS. We observed a statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups for mean tail moment (MTM) and DNA% in the tail. The mean values of all comet assay parameters (MTM, DNA% in the tail and score) were higher in the group of women born before 1949 as compared to those born after 1950, which could reflect an effect of external irradiation in 1949 due to the most contaminating explosion. These results suggest that people exposed 50 years ago to relatively small doses of external irradiation and/or still living in an environment contaminated by small amounts of long life radionuclides, still present DNA damage which is in agreement with other cytogenetical studies performed at the same site, on the same population

  14. The new technologies and infrastructure conversion of nuclear testing in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.

    1999-01-01

    It is known, that in August, 1991, in accordance with Decree by the Kazakhstan President, the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was shut down, and practical works on its conversion were initiated. In 1991 the decision on creation of the Kazakhstan National Nuclear Center (KNNC) on a base of the test site scientific and industrial enterprises and Inst. of Nuclear Physics was taken. In 1993 within frame KNNC three new institutes (Inst. of Atomic Energy, Inst. of Geophysical Research, Inst. of Radiation Safety and Ecology) were created. Owing to this, at the condition of USSR disintegration and liquidation of military division in test site territory, high-qualified personnel was saved, the facilities that represent nuclear danger were left under operation and surveillance, and the full-scale program of STS conversion was developed and put into life. At present guidelines for the major research activities at KNNC on conversion program are as follows: liquidation of consequences of nuclear tests; liquidation of technological structure used before for preparation and implementation of nuclear weapons tests; creation of technology, equipment and locations for receipt and storage of radioactive wastes; working out the concept of nuclear power development in Kazakhstan; investigation of the behaviour of melted reactor core in view of potential heavy accidents at nuclear power plants; development of technique and means for detection of nuclear test in the world, continuous control for nuclear explosions; experimental works on investigation of behaviour of the materials-candidates for role of constructional materials for the thermonuclear reactor ITER; creation of high-technology industries. These and other activities undertaken in this respect allow to attract considerable foreign investments, to create in Kurchatov city hundreds of additional working places.The Government support rendered to KNNC in future will allow to expand substantially this area of activities as well as to

  15. [Radiation ecological environment in the Republic of Kazakhstan in the vicinity of the reactors and on the territory of the Semipalatinsk Test Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D S

    2012-01-01

    The results of research into the environmental conditions in the regions of location of the pressurized water reactor WWR-K, fast neutron breeder BN-350 and on the territory of the Semipalatinsk Test Site are represented. The effects of the exposure to aerosol emissions from WWR-K and BN-350 reactors on the environment are summarized. We present some arguments in favor of the safe operation of fission reactors in compliance with the rules and norms of nuclear and radiation protection and the efficient disposal of radioactive waste on the territory of the Republic.

  16. Americium, plutonium and uranium contamination and speciation in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; Omarova, A; Burkitbayev, M; Jiménez Nápoles, H; Priest, N D

    2009-04-01

    New data are reported on the concentrations, isotopic composition and speciation of americium, plutonium and uranium in surface and ground waters in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and an adjacent area including the settlement of Sarzhal. The data relate to filtered water and suspended particulate from (a) streams originating in the Degelen Mountains, (b) the Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 atomic craters, and (c) wells on farms located within the study area and at Sarzhal. The measurements show that (241)Am, (239,240)Pu and (238)U concentrations in well waters within the study area are in the range 0.04-87mBq dm(-3), 0.7-99mBq dm(-3), and 74-213mBq dm(-3), respectively, and for (241)Am and (239,240)Pu are elevated above the levels expected solely on the basis of global fallout. Concentrations in streams sourced in the Degelen Mountains are similar, while concentrations in the two water-filled atomic craters are somewhat higher. Suspended particulate concentrations in well waters vary considerably, though median values are very low, at 0.01mBq dm(-3), 0.08mBq dm(-3) and 0.32mBq dm(-3) for (241)Am, (239,240)Pu and (238)U, respectively. The (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio in almost all well and stream waters is slightly elevated above the 'best estimate' value for natural uranium worldwide, suggesting that some of the uranium in these waters is of test-site provenance. Redox analysis shows that on average most of the plutonium present in the microfiltered fraction of these waters is in a chemically reduced form (mean 69%; 95% confidence interval 53-85%). In the case of the atomic craters, the proportion is even higher. As expected, all of the americium present appears to be in a reduced form. Calculations suggest that annual committed effective doses to individual adults arising from the daily ingestion of these well waters are in the range 11-42microSv (mean 21microSv). Presently, the ground water feeding these wells would not appear to be contaminated with

  17. Americium, plutonium and uranium contamination and speciation in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Vintro, L. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)], E-mail: luis.leon@ucd.ie; Mitchell, P.I.; Omarova, A. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Burkitbayev, M. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Al-Faraby Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Jimenez Napoles, H. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Priest, N.D. [School of Health and Social Sciences, Middlesex University, Enfield, EN3 4SA (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    New data are reported on the concentrations, isotopic composition and speciation of americium, plutonium and uranium in surface and ground waters in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and an adjacent area including the settlement of Sarzhal. The data relate to filtered water and suspended particulate from (a) streams originating in the Degelen Mountains, (b) the Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 atomic craters, and (c) wells on farms located within the study area and at Sarzhal. The measurements show that {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 238}U concentrations in well waters within the study area are in the range 0.04-87 mBq dm{sup -3}, 0.7-99 mBq dm{sup -3}, and 74-213 mBq dm{sup -3}, respectively, and for {sup 241}Am and {sup 239,240}Pu are elevated above the levels expected solely on the basis of global fallout. Concentrations in streams sourced in the Degelen Mountains are similar, while concentrations in the two water-filled atomic craters are somewhat higher. Suspended particulate concentrations in well waters vary considerably, though median values are very low, at 0.01 mBq dm{sup -3}, 0.08 mBq dm{sup -3} and 0.32 mBq dm{sup -3} for {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 238}U, respectively. The {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotopic ratio in almost all well and stream waters is slightly elevated above the 'best estimate' value for natural uranium worldwide, suggesting that some of the uranium in these waters is of test-site provenance. Redox analysis shows that on average most of the plutonium present in the microfiltered fraction of these waters is in a chemically reduced form (mean 69%; 95% confidence interval 53-85%). In the case of the atomic craters, the proportion is even higher. As expected, all of the americium present appears to be in a reduced form. Calculations suggest that annual committed effective doses to individual adults arising from the daily ingestion of these well waters are in the range 11-42 {mu}Sv (mean 21 {mu

  18. Kazakhstan without nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abishev, M.A.; Iskakova, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    Kazakhstan have great heritage of the USSR military industry in form of test sites and scientific and technological complexes of different kind of weapons developments. The Republic of Kazakstan possesses of most large number of nuclear sites per head of the population. Developed industry of mining, processing of uranium ores demands solution of radioactive wastes handling problems. Therefore regime of non-proliferation and defense conversion are strategic priorities of state policy. For Kazakhstan ideals of non-proliferation of mass destruction weapon have particular meaning. Consequences of nuclear weapon tests of territory of Kazakhstan reflected on population health and on ecological balance of the region. Wide public support helps forms policy in sphere of non-proliferation of nuclear weapon. Kazakhstan executes obligations of Lisbon Protocol and consolidates the frameworks of strategic security

  19. Genetic polymorphisms and expression of minisatellite mutations in a 3-generation population around the Semipalatinsk nuclear explosion test-site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolegenova, N K; Bekmanov, B O; Djansugurova, L B; Bersimbaev, R I; Salama, S A; Au, W W

    2009-11-01

    We have reported previously that a population near the Semipalatinsk nuclear explosion test site had significantly increased minisatellite mutations (MM), suggesting increased germ-line mutation rates from the exposure in 3 generations. We hypothesize that the MM can be used as a surrogate biomarker for functional genetic alterations, e.g. gene mutations and chromosome aberrations. Therefore, we have investigated the influence of polymorphisms in genes on the expression of MM in the same two populations (247 and 172 individuals, for exposed and control, respectively, in 3 generations), and their relationships with radiation exposure. We have chosen the analyses of three polymorphic DNA - repair genes (XRCC1, XRCC1 and XRCC3) and two xenobiotic detoxification genes (GSTT1 and GSTM1). Among the exposed and in comparison with the wild-type gene, the functionally active XRCC1 Arg194Trp was significantly associated with low MM and over-represented in the exposed compared with the control populations. In a similar analysis, the functionally deficient XRCC1 Arg399Glu and XRCC3 Trp241Met were associated with increased and significantly reduced MM, respectively, but these variant genes were under-represented in the exposed population. Both GSTT1 and GSTM1 nulls were significantly associated with increased MM. The former was under-represented but the latter was significantly over-represented in the exposed compared with the control populations. In summary, the data indicate that the expected enzymatic functions of the polymorphic genes are consistent with the MM expression, except the XRCC1 Arg399Glu variant gene. In addition, the variant genes were retained in the three generations in association with their useful function, except for the GSTM1 null. However, the MM frequencies in the exposed were not consistently and significantly higher than those in the control populations, radiation exposure may therefore not have been the only cause for the high MM frequency among the

  20. Proposal for health effects studies related to nuclear weapon testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.E.; Weinberg, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    Populations that resided and who now resid in and the Semipalatinsk Test Site have emained there for decades and experienced little in and out migration. Semipalatinsk City was literally a secret city until the dissolution of the USSR. The urban population of the city of Semipalatinsk has steadily grown from several hundred thousand to about 1 million people in the area. Although current urban and rural levels of exposure from environmental radiocontamination are not markedly increased beyond natural background, there are many villagers who resided near the Semipalatinsk Test Site whose cumulative lifetime doses are on the order of 0.8-2 Sv. Over the course of 40 years, more than 470 nuclear weapons were tested at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakhstan. From 1949 to 1963, 38 detonations occured on the ground and 128 in the air. Radionuclides emanating from there tests resulted in atmospheric and enviromental contamination leading to varios levels of acute and chronic radiation exposure. The medical, scientific and social ramifications of the nuclear testing pose serius challenges to the Kazakhstan Repubic and its scientific and health care systems. The release of radionuclides over a long period of time and their spread in the enveronment posed major problems to the Kazakhstan authorities. Efforts to study the association between fallout radiation and radiation-induced health effects were prevented by official decree until 1980. Initially, efforts to address the medical and scientific challenges of the radioactive contamination which was classified in the FSU. After the dissolution of the FSU, efforts to study populations aroud STS were hampered and further encumbered by the political and social changes that increased sharply in the FSU soon after test suspension

  1. Nuclear site in the Semipalatinsk and Kazakhstan population health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshkevich, V.S.; Atchabarov, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    It is noted, that during underground nuclear weapons tests (1963-1991) in inhabitants living in areas adjoining to Semipalatinsk test site a set of pathologies were revealed. Children illness rate in 2-3 times is higher than in the control regions, blood circulation organs in adults in the 3 times higher, skin diseases in 2.5 times higher, blood diseases and immunity reduction in 2 times frequently, etc

  2. Radiological problems in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Lukashenko, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Kazakhstan historical development and available mineral resources have pre-determined a scale of radiological problems in the state. Kazakhstan keeps leading positions in the world in explored uranium resources and hydrocarbon raw. More than five hundred nuclear explosions were performed in various regions of Kazakhstan. There is necessity to carry out remediation actions at the former test sites of Kazakhstan, especially at the Semipalatinsk test-site (STS). But because of the high cost of such actions it should be expedient to carry out them only in case of emergency and inclusion of the former test sites lands to the national economic activity, as in general, under conditions of competent policy of inhabitants, STS doesn't represent a hazard. At the same time, we ought not to lose an invaluable scientific material of test-sites. It is necessary to keep some areas of Semipalatinsk test-site as a rarities, reflected the important stages of the human evolution. Test-sites should be considered as world laboratory for studies of artificial radionuclides behaviour in natural medium. Illustrations of radiation-hazardous objects, of used technologies and procedures, under the Kazakhstan Republic instance, show that main power industries lead to the common increase of radioactivity materials in human environment. Mankind certainly will become aware of fact that industrial activities, under the current level of science and technologies development, will lead to the common increase of radioactivity materials in human environment. Solving of radioecological problems is possible only when people review their approach to a radioactivity, as a whole. Not only specialists involved in this field, but also all local population have to know rules of radiation safety and how reasonable manage with radioactive materials

  3. Finish-Kazakhstan cooperation on an aerosols sampling - testing of a new methods for nuclear monitoring improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvajnen, M.; Akhmetov, M.A.; Ptitskaya, L.D.; Osintsev, A.Yu.; Zhantikin, T.M.; Eligbaeva, G.

    2001-01-01

    The aerosols sampling is the powerful method of air radioactivity monitoring both the natural and artificial origin. Up to the today the IAEA does not engage of aerosols sampling study. To study of possibility of this method examination for radiation monitoring - the state authorities of Finland and the Republic of Kazakhstan - Department of Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Stuck) and Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee - jointly carried out the field tests in Kazakhstan. The test was began in the Kurchatov in April 2000 - at the desire of IAEA working team on Iraq - close to former Semipalatinsk test site and was ended in Astana in August of 2001. The main aim of the field test was study of possibility and appropriateness of concept and technology of aerosols sampling developed for the complete condition of environment. In the paper the role of participating sides in the field test and main results and conclusions are discussed as well. The gained experience will allow developing the method aerosols sampling for IAEA international safeguard measures strengthening application

  4. Integration of HIV testing in tuberculosis drug resistance surveillance in Kazakhstan and Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, E.; van den Hof, S.; Tursynbayeva, A.; Kipruto, H.; Wahogo, J.; Pak, S.; Kutwa, A.; L'Herminez, R.

    2012-01-01

    In Kenya and Kazakhstan, integration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing results into the routine surveillance of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) proved feasible and useful. The integration process improved overall data quality and data validation capacity, and integrated data

  5. Human suffering effects of nuclear tests at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan. Established on the basis of questionnaire surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Noriyuki; Hirabayashi, Kyoko; Taooka, Yasuyuki; Hiraoka, Takashi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Matsuo, Masatsugu; Apsalikov, K.N.; Moldagaliev, T.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to explore the effects of radiation exposure on the inhabitants near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Tests Site (SNTS), Kazakhstan. Our research team of the Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, started in 2002 to conduct a field research study using questionnaire surveys. The present paper attempts to clarify health effects and mental problems on the inhabitants by using our questionnaire surveys. Among the responses to our survey, the present paper focuses upon responses to the questions concerning their health and mental problems. The data in Semipalatinsk have been compared with the results obtained in a similar survey conducted by Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. The results show: 33% of the residents replied that they felt bad or had very bad health conditions. 70% of the residents strongly recognized a causal relationship between their bad health conditions and the nuclear tests. The diseases that over 30% of respondents possessed are arthralgia/lower back pain/arthritis, high-blood pressure, heart disease and digestive system disease. Acute radiation injuries from 1949 to 1962 that over 20% of respondents experienced were headaches and general malaise. Concerning their mental condition, 22% of respondents felt easily frustrated and agitated and 21% experienced nightmare. (author)

  6. Conversion of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu. S.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion of the former defense enterprises of STS (Semipalatinsk Test Sate) started under very difficult conditions, when not only research and production activity, but all social life of Kurchatov city were conversed which was caused by a fast curtailment and restationing of Russian military units from the test site. A real risk of a complete destruction of the whole research and production structure of the city existed. From this point of view, the decision of the Republic of Kazakhstan Government to create the National Nuclear Center on the base of the test site research enterprises was actual and timely. During 1993, three research institutes of NNC RK - Institute of Atomic Energy, Institute of Geophysics Research and Institute of Radiation Safety and Environment were established. This decision, under conditions of the Ussr disintegration and liquidation of the test site military divisions, allowed to preserve the qualified personnel, to provide and follow-up the operation of nuclear dangerous facilities, to develop and start the realization of the full scale conversion program.At present time, directions and structure of basic research work in NNC RK are as follows: - liquidation of nuclear explosions consequences; - liquidation of technological infrastructure used for preparation and conduction of nuclear weapon testing; - creation of technology, equipment and places for acceptance and storage of radioactive wastes; - working out of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan; - study of reactor core melt behavior under severe accidents in NPP; - development of methods and means of nuclear testing detection, continuous monitoring of nuclear explosions; - experimental work on a study of structure materials behavior of ITER thermonuclear reactor; - creation of industries requiring a lage implementation of science

  7. Population Health in Regions Adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Inhabitants of several Kazakhstan regions were contaminated in different years by radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site...

  8. Semipalatinsk test site: 10 years after shutting down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.

    2001-01-01

    The paper consists the historical materials and chronology of events on the Semipalatinsk test site before and after it shutdown. The main part of the paper is focused on the activity on the former nuclear site after it shutdown. The first of all activity is related with coming into being and development of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

  9. Struggle for test site shut down. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Main events related with nuclear test site shut down have been developed in end of 80s. In 1989, February 12 a release of radioactive gases on surface after next underground explosion took place. In two days after the explosion in settlement Chagan in 100 km from epicentre was fixed increase of radiation background up to 4,000 μR/h. This event was one of main jolt to formation of anti-nuclear movement in Republic. First mass anti-nuclear meeting was hold in 1989, February 28. Chairman of Kazakhstan Writer's Union, public figure, poet O. Sulemenov read at the meeting Appeal to all public, creative and religious organizations of country, Peace Committee of Soviet Union, to Green peace International Organization , to International Committee of Mankind Survive Fund, to supporters of movement for ban of nuclear tests in Nevada State (USA) and demand ban nuclear tests in Kazakhstan. The anti-nuclear movement had international character and it was called Nevada-Semipalatinsk and was headed by Mr. Luan B. Chairman of International organization of World Doctor for Nuclear War Prevention and Mr. Sulemenov O. The movement unites all regions of Kazakhstan and includes of thousands of supporters. In 1991, August 29 after crush of USSR due to democratic transformation and glasnost in sovereign Kazakhstan President of Kazakhstan signed Decree On shut down of Semipalatinsk test nuclear site

  10. Ore levels in Paleozoic of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaliev, G.Kh.; Myasnikov, A.K.; Fomichev, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    The regularity of the deposition of main mineralization of industrial types within Semipalatinsk test site proves and here and there defines more exactly location of the ore levels in Eastern Kazakhstan. Two mega levels, namely: Cambrian-Ordovician (siliceous-basalt, island-arc) and Carboniferous (especially carbonaceous-tarragons) ones are the most perspective for localizing the leading gold mineralization in the region

  11. What Prevents Central Asian Migrant Workers from Accessing HIV Testing? Implications for Increasing HIV Testing Uptake in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Terloyeva, Dina; Primbetova, Sholpan; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-08-01

    Several barriers prevent key populations, such as migrant workers, from accessing HIV testing. Using data from a cross-sectional study among Central Asian migrant workers (n = 623) in Kazakhstan, we examined factors associated with HIV testing. Overall, 48% of participants had ever received an HIV test. Having temporary registration (AOR 1.69; (95% CI [1.12-2.56]), having an employment contract (AOR 2.59; (95% CI [1.58-4.23]), being able to afford health care services (AOR 3.61; (95% CI [1.86-7.03]) having a medical check-up in the past 12 months (AOR 1.85; 95% CI [1.18-2.89]), and having a regular doctor (AOR 2.37; 95% CI [1.20-4.70]) were associated with having an HIV test. HIV testing uptake among migrants in Kazakhstan falls far short of UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals. Intervention strategies to increase HIV testing among this population may include initiatives that focus on improving outreach to undocumented migrants, making health care services more affordable, and linking migrants to health care.

  12. The influence of the Lop Nor Nuclear Weapons Test Base to the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, Kassym, E-mail: kassym@hiroshima-u.ac.j [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Ivannikov, Alexander [Medical Radiological Research Center, Korolev str. 4, Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Zharlyganova, Dinara [Astana Medical University, Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Stepanenko, Valeriy [Medical Radiological Research Center, Korolev str. 4, Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay [Nazarbayev University, Life Science Center, Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Apsalikov, Kazbek [Kazakh Scientific-Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology, Semey 071400 (Kazakhstan); Toyoda, Shin [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Endo, Satoru [Department of Quantum Energy Applications, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Tanaka, Kenichi [Division of Physics, Department of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Center of Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, South 1, West 17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Miyazawa, Chuzou [School of Dentistry, Ohu University, 31-1, Aza-Misumido, Tomita-machi, Koriyama-shi, Fukushima Pref. 963-8611 (Japan); Okamoto, Tetsuji [Department of Molecular Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery, Division of Frontier Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University (Japan); Hoshi, Masaharu [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    The method of electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry was applied to human tooth enamel to obtain estimates of individual absorbed dose for residents of Makanchi, Urdzhar and Taskesken settlements located near the Kazakhstan-Chinese border (about 400 km to the South-East, from the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) and about 1000 km from the Lop Nor Nuclear Weapons Test Base, China). Since the ground and atmospheric nuclear tests (1964-1981) at Lop Nor, the people residing in these settlements are believed to have been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout. Tooth samples had been extracted for medical reasons during the course of ordinary dental treatment. The village of Kokpekty, located 400 km to the South-east of the SNTS, was chosen as the control group since it has not been subjected to any radioactive contamination. The mean excess doses in tooth enamel obtained after subtraction of the contribution of natural background radiation do not exceed 62 {+-} 28 mGy, 64 {+-} 30 mGy, 49 {+-} 27 mGy and -19 {+-} 36 mGy for all ages of the residents of Makanchi, Urdzhar, Taskesken and the control village of Kokpekty, respectively.

  13. Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: History of building and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergazina, G.M.; Balmukhanov, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    A vast materials on history of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site creation and it building and function are presented. Authors with big reliability report one page of Kazakhstan's history. In steppe on naked place thousands of soldiers and officers, construct and military specialists have built the nuclear site on which during 40 years were conducting nuclear tests . Prolonged chronic radiation on population living near by site results to tragedy which is confessed by General Assembly of United Nations. In the book aspects of test site conversion and rehabilitation of injured population are considered. The book consists of introduction, three chapters and conclusion. The book is intended to wide circle of readers. (author)

  14. Perceived risks from radiation and nuclear testing near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan: a comparison between physicians, scientists, and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L; Werner, Cynthia A; Frank, Irene

    2007-04-01

    Determining the difference in perception of risk between experts, or more educated professionals, and laypeople is important so that a potential hazard can be effectively communicated to the public. Many surveys have been conducted to better understand the difference between expert and public opinions, and often laypeople exhibit higher perceptions of risk to hazards in comparison to experts. This is especially true when health risk is due to radiation, nuclear power, and nuclear waste. This article focuses on one section of a risk perception survey given to two groups of individuals with a more specialized education (scientists and physicians) and laypeople (villagers) in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakhstan. All of these groups live near the former Soviet nuclear test site. Originally, it was expected that the scientists and physicians would have similar perceptions of radiation risk, while the public perceptions would be higher, but this was not always the case. For example, when perceptions of risk pertain to the health impacts of nuclear testing or the dose-response nature of radiation exposure, the physicians tend to agree with the laypeople, not the scientists. The villagers are always the most risk-averse group, followed by the physicians and then the scientists. These differences are likely due to different frames of reference for each of the populations.

  15. Monitoring the Effectiveness of Measures to Contain the Primary Sources of Mercury Pollution on the Site of a Former Chlor-Akali Plant in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extensive sampling campaign was conducted in 2005-2007 to monitor the effectiveness of remedial measures to contain mercury pollution at the site of a former mercury cell chlor-alkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan. Containment measures consisted of cutoff walls and capping of ...

  16. Geopolitics. Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Hoedt, R.

    2009-09-15

    Kazakhstan is eager to create a new route for oil to Europe that bypasses Russia and thereby finally break the Kremlin's stranglehold on Kazakh oil transport. In natural gas, however, the Kazakhs remain closely tied to the Russian bear. The article is followed by an interview with Maksat Idenov, vice-president of KazMunayGaz In Kazakhstan. Western oil majors managed to gain hold of some of the world's largest oil and gas fields. But the Kazakh government is taking back what it says belongs to them. Kazakhstan wants a fair deal and equal treatment to create income.

  17. Social problems on Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Zhdanov, N.A.; Tumenova, B.N.

    2000-01-01

    In the report main stages of National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan activity in the field of scientific information obtain about consequences of conducted nuclear tests, radioecological and medical and biological researches, restoration of natural environment and people's health in Republic of Kazakhstan are reflected. Chronicle and results of joint works within frameworks of international programs in these field are given as well. Analysis of up-to-date social problems of population of the region is carried out

  18. Layout of the objects of underground nuclear tests at the Balapan test field of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, V.E.; Gryaznov, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated research of practical and scientific interest is conducted at the Balapan test field of the Semipalatinsk test site. The lack of the reliable locations for features associated with nuclear testing causes considerable difficulties while carrying out the research. To fill this gap the authors present data available at the Institute of Geophysical Research of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. (author)

  19. Techniques to eliminate nuclear weapons testing infrastructure at former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erofeev, I.E.; Kovalev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    It was at the former Semipalatinsk Test Site where for the first time in the world the nuclear weapons testing infrastructure elimination was put into practice. Fundamentally new procedures for blasting operations have been developed by specialists of the Kazakh State Research and Production Center of Blasting Operations (KSCBO), National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC) and Degelen Enterprise to enhance reliability and provide safety during elimination of various objects and performance of large-scale experiments. (author)

  20. The Kashagan Field: A Test Case for Kazakhstan's Governance of Its Oil and Gas Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campaner, N.; Yenikeyeff, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the factors behind Kazakhstan's decision to renegotiate the terms of the existing Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) with International Oil Companies (IOCs), in the context of the development of the huge Kashagan oil field. The development of Kashagan, one of the largest and most recently discovered oil fields in Kazakhstan, is crucial for Kazakhstan's ambitions of becoming a global oil producer. Kazakhstan, which has the largest oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region, is the second largest regional producer after Russia in the former Soviet Union. The country's potential for oil exports is also strategically significant as a future source of non- OPEC supplies. Amongst the CIS states, Kazakhstan is considered one of the most open countries for foreign investments. International projects in the form of Joint Ventures, Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) or exploration/field concessions have brought foreign investments into the country's natural resources sector, particularly in the oil and gas industry. However, new developments have recently taken place, which have marked a shift in the Kazakh government's approach towards foreign investment in its energy sector. This study will therefore examine the following issues: - Kazakhstan's plans to abandon the practice of attracting foreign investments in its energy sector through new PSAs. - The recent entry of state-controlled KazMunaiGaz into the consortium operating over the Kashagan field and its impact on IOCs. - The impact of high oil prices on the negotiating power of producer states in the context of Kazakhstan's new stance on PSAs. Specifically, this study will focus on the following key factors, which will seek to further explain the changes in Kazakhstan's attitude toward the Kashagan PSA2: - Operational factors - management of the project, development strategy, cost estimates, levels of production and export markets. - Consortium factors - the relative strength of the investment

  1. Retaining of botanical diversity of steppe ecosystems at the Semipalatinsk test site area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanova, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear tests conducted on the STS area have an effect on steppe biome. Regime of military secrecy allowed retaining extensive diversity of steppe vegetation at the area of the former Semipalatinsk test site, although the vegetation was liquidated in the most part of Kazakhstan. Unique biologic diversity of the steppe vegetation requires status of particularly secured vegetation of the STS area. (author)

  2. CTBT calibration explosions at the Semipalatinsk test site (1997-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, W.; Kluchko, L.J.; Knowles, C.P.; Linger, D.A.; Gabriel, L.; Belyashova, N.N.; Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.; Demin, V.N.; Konovalov, V.E.

    2000-01-01

    The article shows the results of experiments, conducted together by American and Kazakhstan researchers at the Semipalatinsk test site during 6 chemical calibration explosions and preparation of the seventh between 1997 and 2000. The main goal of the experiments is calibration of International Monitoring System for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and development of understanding of explosions as seismic sources. (author)

  3. Ecological assessment of oil-gas producing area in Kazakhstan zone of Caspian sea and using the bioremediation technology for cleaning of high level oil polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaliev, A.A.; Ishanova, N.E.; Bijazheva, S.M.; Novikova, A.; Bigaliev, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    A significant part of mineral raw material resources of Kazakhstan placed in the depth of the Caspian region, where more than 90% extracting of oil and natural gas, 100% balance store rare ground, 3.2% uranium, ore 0.3%, 90.5% sawn store concentrated. Last years, it takes intensive works by extraction of carbon raw materials in Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian sea. It brought to exceeding of coastal pollution at the North and middle the Caspian coastal pollution with oil products in average till 0.282 mg/l. Maximum meaning oil product pollution reaches 0.56 mg/l (which means exceeding of limited concentration on 11 times). How much money need to cover cost of remediation in real sites? Develop of assessment and monitoring procedures based on fate mechanisms for most of representative hydrocarbons in polluted soils. Step 1 - Collection of heavily polluted portions of soils, separation of hydrocarbons by cost efficient mechanical procedures and send HC rich material (HC>95%) to prepare of alternative fuel. Return of low HC content sand to project area (HC<5.0%). Step 2 - Development of low cost bioremediation procedures in areas transformed to moderately polluted site (HC<5% after removing of heavily polluted portions) with uniform HC content. We are needed to develop of coast efficiency approach for cleaning of high level oily polluted sites around urban areas in Kazakhstan new methodology to estimate polluted area and recover of pollution history, low cost bioremediation

  4. The main directions of prospective cohort study of population living around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    OpenAIRE

    ZHUNUSSOVA T.; GROSCHE B.; APSALIKOV K.; BELIKHINA T.; PIVINA L.; MULDAGALIEV T.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper we have presented the possibilities of prospective cohort study of health status in the radiation exposed population living around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. It was substantiated the necessity of international cooperation of scientists from Kazakhstan, Europe, Japan and the United States for long-term study of radiation effects for the people and the environment.

  5. Minisatellite mutations and retrospective biodosimetry of population living close to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, C.; Bersimbaev, R.I.; Dubrova, Y.E. EI KAUP; EI MAATA

    2003-01-01

    During the period between 1949 and 1989 nuclear weapon testing carried out at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (STS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, East Kazakhstan and Pavlodar districts of Kazakhstan and Altai region of Russia. The Semipalatinsk nuclear polygon in Kazakhstan has been the site for 470 nuclear tests, including 26 tests performed on the ground and 87 in the atmosphere. More than 1.5 million people living in the vicinity of the test site were repeatedly exposed to ionizing radiation. The paper reviews the study where the main objectives are: (1) to establish a biosample database of blood samples of families in three generations living close to the STS and control families in three generations from clean areas, (2) to determine the minisatellite mutation rates in the three generations of exposed people and the control families of the same ethinic origin living in non-contaminated areas, and (3) to determine the chromosomal translocation frequencies by FISH chromosome painting in the lymphocytes of the exposed and the control people in order to determine the radiation exposure. The aim of the study was to select the population living near to the STS and subjected to the greatest radiation exposure. Of particular interest was the first test of 29th of August 1949, as this was reported to have caused heavy fallout along a narrow trajectory extending north-east from Polygon, also covering parts of the Altai region of Russia and parts of Pavlodar and Karaganda regions in Kazakhstan

  6. No evidence of radiation risk for thyroid gland among schoolchildren around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Aiko; Takamura, Noboru; Meirmanov, Serik; Alipov, Gabit; Mine, Mariko; Ensebaev, Ruslan; Sagandikova, Sagadat; Ohashi, Toshinori; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2003-02-01

    To assess thyroid status among the schoolchildren around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), Kazakhstan, and to evaluate the current status of iodine deficiency in this area, we performed medical screening of schoolchildren in two villages, Kaynar and Karaul villages, East Kazakhstan Region, Republic of Kazakhstan, located within 100 km of SNTS. A total of 196 schoolchildren were chosen at random. Control groups comprised 250 schoolchildren from Nagasaki, an iodine-rich area, and 100 schoolchildren from Gomel, an iodine-deficient area contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. Ultrasound screening of thyroid revealed three cases of benign thyroid disease (two cases of goiter and one single cyst), but no cases suspicious of malignancy. The urinary iodine (UI) concentrations of subjects in Kaynar and Karaul ranged from 21.8 to 735.8 microg/L, 4.3% of whom showed low UI concentrations (tests carried out in SNTS.

  7. Integrated Study of Seismic and Infrasonic Signals From Sources in Southern Siberia, Eastern Kazakhstan and Western China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richards, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Our Final Report has two parts. The first part is a draft of a paper, submitted for publication, entitled "A study of small magnitude seismic events during 1961-1989 on and near the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan...

  8. The National Fund of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NFRK): From accumulation to stress-test to global future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyuzhnova, Yelena, E-mail: y.kaluyzhnova@reading.ac.uk [Centre for Euro Asian Studies, University of Reading, P.O. Box 218, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWF) have different titles, goals and rules, but they share the underlying objective of helping governments deal with the problems created by large and variable revenues (mainly from energy or other commodity related sectors). In Kazakhstan, such a fund (the National Fund of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NFRK)) was established in 2000. This fund operates as both a stabilisation and a savings fund. The first test for the NFRK was 2007-2009 financial crisis, where the NFRK 'saved' the economy and guarantied its speedy recovery. The paper analyses the NFRK's operation up to 2007 and during the crisis years 2007-9, before drawing conclusions and implications for the future. Between 2001 and 2007 the NFRK conservatively accumulated assets, which proved to be useful in limiting the impact of the post-2007 crisis. However, the pre-2007 experience indicated structural weaknesses associated with discretionary executive authority and non-transparency. The paper concludes by observing that this history has created significant challenges for the future. - Highlights: > Expenditures of resource revenues should be consistent with the government's long-term plan to save for the future. > A system of indicators for the non-resource deficit is required. > Domestic investment provides more stability and economic resilience. > A transparent and accountable governance structure of the NFRK is required.

  9. The National Fund of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NFRK): From accumulation to stress-test to global future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyuzhnova, Yelena

    2011-01-01

    Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWF) have different titles, goals and rules, but they share the underlying objective of helping governments deal with the problems created by large and variable revenues (mainly from energy or other commodity related sectors). In Kazakhstan, such a fund (the National Fund of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NFRK)) was established in 2000. This fund operates as both a stabilisation and a savings fund. The first test for the NFRK was 2007-2009 financial crisis, where the NFRK 'saved' the economy and guarantied its speedy recovery. The paper analyses the NFRK's operation up to 2007 and during the crisis years 2007-9, before drawing conclusions and implications for the future. Between 2001 and 2007 the NFRK conservatively accumulated assets, which proved to be useful in limiting the impact of the post-2007 crisis. However, the pre-2007 experience indicated structural weaknesses associated with discretionary executive authority and non-transparency. The paper concludes by observing that this history has created significant challenges for the future. - Highlights: → Expenditures of resource revenues should be consistent with the government's long-term plan to save for the future. → A system of indicators for the non-resource deficit is required. → Domestic investment provides more stability and economic resilience. → A transparent and accountable governance structure of the NFRK is required.

  10. Population dose near the Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, R; Hill, P; Bouisset, P; Calmet, D; Kluson, J; Seisebaev, A; Smagulov, S

    1998-10-01

    To determine the consequences of atmospheric atomic bomb tests for the population in the surroundings of the former nuclear weapons test site near Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan, a pilot study was performed by an international cooperation between Kazakh, French, Czech and German institutions at two villages, Mostik and Maisk. Together with Kazakh scientists, eight experts from Europe carried out a field mission in September 1995 to assess, within the framework of a NATO supported project, the radiological situation as far as external doses, environmental contamination and body burden of man were concerned. A summary of the results obtained is presented. The actual radiological situation near the test site is characterized by fallout contaminations. Cs was found in upper soil layers in concentrations similar to those of the global fallout. Also Sr, Am and Co were observed. The resulting present dose to the population is low. Mean external doses from soil contamination for Maisk and Mostik (0.60-0.63 mSv/year) presently correspond to mean external doses in normal environments. Mean values of the annual internal doses observed in these two villages are below 2 microSv/year for 90Sr. For other radionuclides the internal doses are also negligible.

  11. Population dose near the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.; Hill, P.; Kluson, J.; Seisebaev, A.; Smagulov, S.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the consequences of atmospheric atomic bomb tests for the population in the surroundings of the former nuclear weapons test site near Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan, a pilot study was performed by an international cooperation between Kazakh, French, Czech and German institutions at two villages, Mostik and Maisk. Together with Kazakh scientists, eight experts from Europe carried out a field mission in September 1995 to assess, within the framework of a NATO supported project, the radiological situation as far as external doses, environmental contamination and body burden of man were concerned. A summary of the results obtained is presented. The actual radiological situation near the test site is characterized by fallout contaminations. Cs was found in upper soil layers in concentrations similar to those of the global fallout. Also Sr, Am and Co were observed. The resulting present dose to the population is low. Mean external doses from soil contamination for Maisk and Mostik (0.60-0.63 mSv/ year) presently correspond to mean external doses in normal environments. Mean values of the annual internal doses observed in these two villages are below 2 μSv/year for 90 Sr. For other radionuclides the internal doses are also negligible. (orig.)

  12. Research Programs in the Field of Nuclear Power Engineering and Technologies in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu. S.; Takibaev, Zh. S.

    2000-01-01

    In 1991 the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) was closed under the decree of President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, N.A. Nazarbayev. Later, the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC RK) was established under President's decree 779 dated May 15 1992. A range of NNC RK activity was specified in the decree: ' To create National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the basis of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site and appropriate scientific organizations and facilities situated in the Republic of Kazakhstan with a view to conduct work on radiation safety and ecology, investigation of problems related to utilization and radioactive waste disposal, development work in the field of nuclear technology and nuclear power engineering'. Tasks outlined in this decree, later on, became the work program of NNC RK

  13. Application of Geophysical Techniques in Identifying UNE Signatures at Semipalatinsk Test Site (for OSI Purposes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyashov, A.; Shaitorov, V.; Yefremov, M.

    2014-03-01

    This article describes geological and geophysical studies of an underground nuclear explosion area in one of the boreholes at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan. During these studies, the typical elements of mechanical impact of the underground explosion on the host medium—fracturing of rock, spall zones, faults, cracks, etc., were observed. This information supplements to the database of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology and can be applied in fulfilling on-site inspection tasks under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

  14. Perspectives of investigation and development of Semipalatinsk Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Lukashenko, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Since the Semipalatinsk Test Site has been stopped and up until now, National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC RK) in cooperation with other specialist from Kazakhstan and international scientific community have accumulated large scope of information about current radiological situation at Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) and adjacent territories. There were revealed all important spots of radioactive contamination, identified main pathways and mechanisms for present and potential proliferation of radioactive substances. Obtained data assure us that present-day SNTS provides no negative impact on population on adjacent to the Site territories excluding people in the water basin of the river Shagan. Compliance with regulatory requirements and special rules for SNTS territory assures radiation safety at commercial activities on the Site. At the same time, the radiological situation does not remain stable; there were revealed the processes of radionuclide migration what requires regular monitoring of radiological situation at SNTS. Taking into account the scale of the Site and the variety of tests performed there, the information available about SNTS can not be completely exhaustive but enables us to propose a scientifically grounded plan for further research and practical measures aimed at remediation and reclamation of lands. implementation of such measures should return up to 80% of the lands to commercial use. SNTS is one of the world largest nuclear test sites with decisive contribution to creation and development of nuclear weapon. To considerable extent, these were works at SNTS which established nuclear parity between the superpowers one of the crucial factors in the history of human civilization in the 20 century. Also taking into account the interest to SNTS paid by international organizations, it is reasonable to initiate a procedure and recognize SNTS as a landmark including it in the UNESCO List of Cultural and Nature

  15. Radiation endocrinology as science and its tasks in Republic Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylaev, Zh.A.

    1997-01-01

    It is known, that radiation endocrinology as science was formed comparatively not long ago and it is developing at the turn of endocrinology, medical radiology, radiobiology and immunology. Tasks of clinic radiation endocrinology for scientists of Kazakhstan are related with following problems: - radiation effects in condition of Semipalatinsk test site (Semipalatinsk, Karaganda, Pavlodar, East-Kazakhstan regions); - with definition of radiation factors (related with nuclear explosions) in ecologic systems for solution of national problems; - with contamination of Kazakhstan territory, associated with industrial radioactive materials handling ; - with goiter enemy in districts with unfavorable radiation situation; - with mass character of injuries of both the radiation exposure and the iodine deficit on territory of Republic. It was emphasised, that there is principle problem of population rehabilitation through systems of mass measures including prevention of endocrine complication in late time

  16. National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the system of nuclear terrorism counteractions at Kazakhstan territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.; Zhotabayev, Zh.R.; Azarov, V.A.; Silayev, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: After collapse of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Kazakhstan has inherited a wealthy nuclear legacy from the former superpower. The Kazakhstan enterprises were actively engaged into a closed nuclear fuel cycle existing in the USSR. In addition, the Kazakhstan territory housed strategic nuclear forces defense bases, nuclear weapon test-sites, and research institutions engaged in studying and developing of nuclear technologies including these for defense and space purposes. After gaining its independence, the Republic of Kazakhstan made efforts to rid itself of many components of this system: military bases were closed; nuclear weapon was withdrawn from Kazakhstan territory; nuclear test-sites were closed; many fuel cycle enterprises having lost orders for their products had to reduce their output or close down; scientific and research institutions were re-oriented to perform operations in the field of peaceful nuclear and radiation technologies use. All these actions were not only appreciated by the international politics thus promoting the integration of the newly independent state into the international economy, but have also created the necessary prerequisites for qualitative change of the ecological conditions at Kazakhstan territory. However, there are negative consequences of an old political system collapse also. One of them is a significant reduction of control over nuclear and radioactive materials located at Kazakhstan territory. In the end of the last millennium and with the beginning of the new one, numerous radical terrorist organizations have livened up their activities. The situation arisen in Kazakhstan may be used by such organizations to acquire nuclear and radioactive materials for the purposes of terrorist acts and threats. It is likely that some organizations acquire such materials to sell to third parties or foreign terrorist organizations rather than use them in any acts within Kazakhstan. Due to structural reorganization of force

  17. Collection and use of individual behavioral and consumption rate data to improve reconstruction of thyroid doses from nuclear weapons tests in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Schonfeld, Sara; Bouville, Andre; Land, Charles; Luckyanov, Nick; Simon, Steven L.; Schwerin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Historical behavioral and consumption rate data were collected from residents of Kazakhstan exposed to nuclear weapons testing fallout using a focus group data collection strategy. These data will enable improved thyroid dose estimation in a radiation epidemiological study being carried out the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The study on the relationship of radiation exposure from weapons testing fallout and thyroid disease in a cohort of 2,994 subjects is now in a stage of improving earlier dose estimates based on individual information collected from a basic questionnaire administered to the study population in 1998. The study subjects of both Kazakh and Russian origin were exposed during childhood to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site between 1949 and 1962. Due to the long time since exposure, a well developed strategy is necessary to encourage accurate memory recall. Limitations of the data collected in 1998 suggested the need to obtain reliable information that is tailored specific to the requirements of the dose reconstruction algorithm and to the evaluation of individual dose uncertainties. Focus group data collection in Kazakhstan in 2007 involved four 8-person focus groups (three of women and one of men) in each of four exposed settlements where thyroid disease screening was conducted in 1998. Age-specific data on relevant childhood behaviour, including time spent indoors and consumption of milk and other dairy products from cows, goats, horses, and sheep, were collected from women's groups. Men's focus groups were interviewed about construction materials of houses and schools as well as animal grazing patterns and supplemental feed to animals. Information obtained from the focus groups are being used to derive the settlement-, ethnicity-, age-, and gender-specific (where appropriate) probability density distributions on individual consumption rates of milk and dairy products

  18. National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.

    2001-01-01

    The fact that the 20th century became a thing of the past was important for Kazakhstan from the view of territory and state establishment. This year the Republic of Kazakhstan celebrates 10 years of independence. After the USSR breakup in 1991, Kazakh SSR became a sovereign state that inherited the unique test complex Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, the pride of the entire Soviet people in the past. For the first time in the history of nuclear weapon (one of mass destruction types) creation, development and partial elimination the test site created for testing such weapons was eliminated. The Republic of Kazakhstan declared itself a non-nuclear state and started solving such complicated problems as the possibility to use the territory of the former nuclear test site in the national economy. For this it was necessary to start work on nuclear test infrastructure elimination and this work commenced. Great assistance in conduction of such work has been and is rendered by the specialists from the USA, different international organizations, for example, IAEA, NATO etc. In order to determine whether it's possible to transfer the test site territory to national economy it is necessary not only to eliminate tests infrastructure but also to obtain reliable data on the dimensions and degree of radioactive contamination of the territory within and outside the test site borders. National Nuclear Center specialists working in close cooperation with many Kazakhstan and International Organizations contributed much to studies on radioecological situation at the former STS territory and regions adjoining it, as well as to radiation parameter data obtaining process. The problems of Semipalatinsk test site are in focus of the State. At the Second UN General Assembly, the President of Kazakhstan pointed out this problem and appealed to the International Community to solve it in cooperation. In order to implement Resolution 52/169M of UN General Assembly 'on international cooperation

  19. Radiation exposure of inhabitants around Semipalatinsk nuclear weapon test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1997-01-01

    This paper described and reviewed the data reported by Russia and Kazakhstan and authors' studies on the exposed doses as follows. History of nuclear explosion tests in Semipalatinsk: From 1949 to 1989 in old Russia, 459 explosion tests involving 26 on the ground, 87 in the air and 346 in underground were performed, of which TNT equivalence was 0.6 Mt, 6 Mt and 11 Mt, respectively. A mystery in the reports of radiation doses by Russia and Kazakhstan. Present status of the regions after the end of nuclear weapon tests: Environment radiation doses in μSv/h in following regions were 0.06 in Mostik, 0.1 in Dolon and Semipalatinsk, 0.07 in Izvyestka and Znamenka, 0.08 in Tchagan and 21 in Atomic Lake. Evaluation of external exposure dose of the living regions with thermoluminescence method: External exposure dose was estimated to be about 90 cGy in a certain village and 40 cGy in Semipalatinsk which being 150 km far from the test site. (K.H.)

  20. Nuclear and radiation safety in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Major factors by which the radiation situation in Kazakhstan is formed are: enterprises of nuclear fuel cycle, including uranium mining and milling activity and geological exploration of uranium; nuclear power plant and research reactors; residues of atmospheric and underground nuclear explosions, which were conducted for military and peaceful purposes at different test sites; mining and milling of commercial minerals accompanied by radioactive substances; use of radioactive sources in industry, medicine, agriculture and scientific research. Since 1991, after getting sovereignty, creation was started of an own legislative basis of the country for the field of atomic energy use. It includes laws, regulations and standards for nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear installations, personnel, involved in the activity with using of atomic energy, population and environment. An applicable system of state regulation in this area (including a central regulatory body in the field of atomic energy use) and various ministries, agencies and committees, was created. As a result of these reforms, regulatory activities were improved in the country. This paper presents the current matters of nuclear and radiation safety in Kazakhstan and some difficulties which Kazakhstan encountered during the transition to an independent state. (author)

  1. GIS Modelling of Radionuclide Transport from the Semipalatinsk Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakay, L.; Zakarin, E.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the software complex GIS-project MigRad (Migration of Radionuclide) was developed, tested and applied for the territory of the Semipalatinsk test site/ polygon (Republic of Kazakhstan), where since 1961, in total 348 underground nuclear explosions were conducted. The MigRad is oriented on integration of large volumes of different information (mapping, ground-based, and satellite-based survey): and also includes modeling on its base local redistribution of radionuclides by precipitation and surface waters and by long-range transport of radioactive aerosols. The existing thermal anomaly on territory of the polygon was investigated in details, and the object-oriented analysis was applied for the studied area. Employing the RUNOFF model, the simulation of radionuclides migration with surface waters was performed. Employing the DERMA model, the simulation of long-term atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition patterns for cesium was conducted from 3 selected locations (Balapan, Delegen, and Experimental Field). Employing geoinformation technology, the mapping of the of the high temperature zones and epicenters of radioactive aerosols transport for the territory of the test site was carried out with post-processing and integration of modelling results into GIS environment. Contamination levels of pollution due to former nuclear explosions for population and environment of the surrounding polygon territories of Kazakhstan as well as adjacent countries were analyzed and evaluated. The MigRad was designed as instrument for comprehensive analysis of complex territorial processes influenced by former nuclear explosions on the territory of Semipalatinsk test site. It provides possibilities in detailed analyses for (i) extensive cartographic material, remote sensing, and field measurements data collected in different level databases; (ii) radionuclide migration with flows using accumulation and redistribution of soil particles; (iii) thermal anomalies

  2. Radiation exposure due to local fallout from Soviet atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in Kazakhstan: solid cancer mortality in the Semipalatinsk historical cohort, 1960-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne; Gusev, Boris I; Pivina, Ludmila M; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Grosche, Bernd

    2005-10-01

    Little information is available on the health effects of exposures to fallout from Soviet nuclear weapons testing and on the combined external and internal environmental exposures that have resulted from these tests. This paper reports the first analysis of the Semipalatinsk historical cohort exposed in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, Kazakhstan. The cohort study, which includes 19,545 inhabitants of exposed and comparison villages of the Semipalatinsk region, was set up in the 1960s and comprises 582,750 person-years of follow-up between 1960 and 1999. Cumulative effective radiation dose estimates in this cohort range from 20 mSv to approximately 4 Sv. Rates of mortality and cancer mortality in the exposed group substantially exceeded those of the comparison group. Dose-response analyses within the exposed group confirmed a significant trend with dose for all solid cancers (P sites, a significant trend with dose was observed for lung cancer (P = 0.0001), stomach cancer (P = 0.0050), and female breast cancer (P = 0.0040) as well as for esophagus cancer in women (P = 0.0030). The excess relative risk per sievert for all solid cancers combined was 1.77 (1.35; 2.27) based on the total cohort data, yet a selection bias regarding the comparison group could not be entirely ruled out. The excess relative risk per sievert based on the cohort's exposed group was 0.81 (0.46; 1.33) for all solid cancers combined and thus still exceeds current risk estimates from the Life Span Study. Future epidemiological assessments based on this cohort will benefit from extension of follow-up and ongoing validation of dosimetric data.

  3. Computer-Based Testing: Test Site Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gerald A.

    Computer-based testing places great burdens on all involved parties to ensure test security. A task analysis of test site security might identify the areas of protecting the test, protecting the data, and protecting the environment as essential issues in test security. Protecting the test involves transmission of the examinations, identifying the…

  4. Personal dosimetry in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvoshnyanskaya, I.R.; Vdovichenko, V.G.; Lozbin, A.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    KATEP-AE Radiation Laboratory is the first organization in Kazakhstan officially licensed by the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee to provide individual dosimetry services. The Laboratory was established according to the international standards. Nowadays it is the largest company providing personal dosimetry services in the Republic of Kazakhstan. (author)

  5. Radiation heritage of the past in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.; Mukusheva, M.K.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Akhmetov, M.A.; Baldov, A.N.; Zhantikin, T.M.

    2002-01-01

    For the whole period of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) operation 456 nuclear tests were conducted not only for the purpose of developing nuclear weapons but also as 'peaceful' underground nuclear explosions. Apart from STS in Kazakhstan there are several testing sites where nuclear explosions were conducted for peaceful purposes. These are explosions of Batolit, Meridian, Region series, as well as Azgir and Lira sites. In Kazakhstan there is great number of plants which have been involved in the development of nuclear weapons. Kazakhstan mining industry was the main supplier of natural uranium and nonferrous metals necessary for production of nuclear-rocket weapons. Along with extraction of uranium ore there were complexes dealing with the development of nuclear technologies. For instance, the complex of unique reactor facilities situated at the former Semipalatinsk Test Site where nuclear rocket engines were tested. High-technological industrial BN-350 reactor complex belongs to a new generation of fast breeding reactors. BN-350 reactor is designed mainly for development of new nuclear technologies. This paper contains generalized results of radiation investigations carried out in regions where nuclear experiments were conducted and nuclear facilities are located. (author)

  6. Semipalatinsk test site is the object of ISTC extra attention on the way of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genisaretskaya, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to analysis of international ecological projects carried out by ISTC. The project to a greater or lesser extent touch upon Semipalatinsk nuclear test site from the point of view of sustainable development. The report provides us with statistics on ISTC projects and projects managed by scientists of National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan as well. There is also brief description of the given projects. (author)

  7. Open-field test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoda, Koichi; Shinozuka, Takashi

    1995-06-01

    An open-field test site with measurement equipment, a turn table, antenna positioners, and measurement auxiliary equipment was remodelled at the CRL north-site. This paper introduces the configuration, specifications and characteristics of this new open-field test site. Measured 3-m and 10-m site attenuations are in good agreement with theoretical values, and this means that this site is suitable for using 3-m and 10-m method EMI/EMC measurements. The site is expected to be effective for antenna measurement, antenna calibration, and studies on EMI/EMC measurement methods.

  8. Immunological condition in population living near Semipalatinsk tests site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Ueda, Masafumi.

    1992-01-01

    This is the brief introduction of the immunological survey at Pavlodar, Kazakhstan SSR, a 300 km away from the Semipalatinsk test site, originally reported by Beysembaev E.A.,Valivach M.N. (Course of Clinical Immunology in Pavlodar Dzerzhynsky str., 166), Molochanov N.E. (Pavlodar Regional Hospital), Kazakav, V.M. (Radiologist Lab. of Regional Sanitary and Epidemiology Station), Ounusov B.A. and Osorodnikova O.P. (Clinical Immunology Centre in Pavlodar). The comparative investigations on (1) 150 preschool age children in Pavlodar before and 6 months after the cessation of nuclear tests, (2) 25 children suffering from frequent respiratory infections before the cessation and 25 analogous children after the cessation, and (3) 69 children (age 1 - 7) and 70 adults (age 28 - 58) inhabitants of Maysky district, where radioactivity is especially high, and 50 children and 50 adults of Pavlodar inhabitants, are reported. Erythrocyte rosette-forming cells, immunoglobulins G, A, and M, etc. are tested. (A.Y.)

  9. Conversion, ecological and social aspects of the research on mineral resources at the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.; Belyashova, N.N.; Nedbaev, I.N.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the history of the Semipalatinsk test site in nuclear weapons testing, this territory is of interest for geologic exploration and utilization of mineral resources. The prospect for minerals on this territory was already known before the beginning of tests. Nowadays several companies work on the territory. Positive experience of using Kara Zhira coal deposit, refinement of local gabbros and stone-cutting plant, and preparation of gold mining at Naimanzhal deposit, allow us to hope that these mineral and raw material resources of the Semipalatinsk test site can become an important economic factor for development of the Eastern Kazakhstan region. (author)

  10. SP-100 Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    Preparatory activities are well under way at Hanford to convert the 309 Containment Building and its associated service wing to a 2.5 MWt nuclear test facility for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Preliminary design is complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system to enclose the high temperature reactor, a test assembly cell and handling system, control and data processing systems, and safety and auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 75% complete. The facility has been cleared of obstructing equipment from its earlier reactor test. Current activities are focusing on definitive design and preparation of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) aimed at procurement and construction approvals and schedules to achieve reactor criticality by January 1992. 6 refs

  11. Nuclear-physical methods in macro- and microanalytical investigations of contamination with radionuclides at Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, V.P.

    2005-01-01

    A complex of nuclear-physical methods developed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Kazakhstan National Nuclear Center for the investigations of the rate, character and peculiarities of contamination with radionuclides of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) is presented. The developed method combines both macroinvestigations (radionuclide analysis, NAA, XRFA, ESR- and NGR-spectroscopy) and microinvestigations (MS, micro-PIXE, electron microscopy). The results of the investigations at the main SNTS test sites 'Opytnoye pole' and 'Degelen' are presented. (author)

  12. Underground Nuclear Testing Program, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) continues to conduct an underground nuclear testing program which includes tests for nuclear weapons development and other tests for development of nuclear explosives and methods for their application for peaceful uses. ERDA also continues to provide nuclear explosive and test site support for nuclear effects tests sponsored by the Department of Defense. This Supplement extends the Environmental Statement (WASH-1526) to cover all underground nuclear tests and preparations for tests of one megaton (1 MT) or less at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during Fiscal Year 1976. The test activities covered include numerous continuing programs, both nuclear and non-nuclear, which can best be conducted in a remote area. However, if nuclear excavation tests or tests of yields above 1 MT or tests away from NTS should be planned, these will be covered by separate environmental statements

  13. Environmental radiation measurements at the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and surrounding villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebell, P.; Hutter, A.R.

    1996-07-01

    Two scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Measurements Laboratory served as scientific experts to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Mission to Kazakhstan: Strengthening Radiation and Nuclear Safety Infrastructures in Countries of the former USSR, Special Task - Preassessment of the radiological situation in the Semipalatinsk and western areas of Kazakhstan. The former Soviet Union's largest nuclear test site was located near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, and following Kazakhstan's independence, the IAEA committed to studying the environmental contamination and the resulting radiation exposure risk to the population due to 346 underground, 87 atmospheric and 26 surface nuclear detonations performed at the site between 1949 and 1989. As part of an 11-member team, environmental radiation measurements were performed during 2 weeks in July 1994. Approximately 30 sites were visited both within the boundaries of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site as well as in and around surrounding villages. Specifically, the objectives of the EML team were to apply independent methods and equipment to assess potential current radiation exposures to the population. Towards this end, the EML scientists collected in-situ gamma-ray spectra, performed external gamma dose rate measurements using pressurized ionization chambers, and collected soil samples in order to estimate the inventory and to determine the depth distribution of radionuclides of interest. With the exception of an area near an open-quotes atomic lakeclose quotes and a 1 km 2 area encompassing ground zero, all the areas visited by the team had external dose rates that were within typical environmental levels. The measurements taken within a 15 km radius of ground zero had elevated levels of 137 Cs as well as the activation products 152 Eu and 60 Co, The dose rate within a 1 km radius of ground zero ranged from 500 to 30000 nGy h -1

  14. The Kashagan Field: A Test Case for Kazakhstan's Governance of Its Oil and Gas Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campaner, N.; Yenikeyeff, S.

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on the factors behind Kazakhstan's decision to renegotiate the terms of the existing Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) with International Oil Companies (IOCs), in the context of the development of the huge Kashagan oil field. The development of Kashagan, one of the largest and most recently discovered oil fields in Kazakhstan, is crucial for Kazakhstan's ambitions of becoming a global oil producer. Kazakhstan, which has the largest oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region, is the second largest regional producer after Russia in the former Soviet Union. The country's potential for oil exports is also strategically significant as a future source of non- OPEC supplies. Amongst the CIS states, Kazakhstan is considered one of the most open countries for foreign investments. International projects in the form of Joint Ventures, Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) or exploration/field concessions have brought foreign investments into the country's natural resources sector, particularly in the oil and gas industry. However, new developments have recently taken place, which have marked a shift in the Kazakh government's approach towards foreign investment in its energy sector. This study will therefore examine the following issues: - Kazakhstan's plans to abandon the practice of attracting foreign investments in its energy sector through new PSAs. - The recent entry of state-controlled KazMunaiGaz into the consortium operating over the Kashagan field and its impact on IOCs. - The impact of high oil prices on the negotiating power of producer states in the context of Kazakhstan's new stance on PSAs. Specifically, this study will focus on the following key factors, which will seek to further explain the changes in Kazakhstan's attitude toward the Kashagan PSA2: - Operational factors - management of the project, development strategy, cost estimates, levels of production and export markets. - Consortium factors - the

  15. Safeguards Implementation in Kazakhstan: Experience and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhantikin, T.

    2015-01-01

    Experience of Kazakhstan joined the NPT in 1993, just after desintegration of USSR, and enforced Safeguards Agreement in 1995 can be interesting in implementation of safeguards in non-standard cases. Having weapon materials and test infrastructure legacy, the country together with IAEA and several donor countries found acceptable approaches to meet NPT provisions. One of challenges was to provide protection of sensitive information that could be accidentally disclosed in safeguards activities. With support of several weapon countries in close cooperation with the IAEA Kazakhstan liquidated test infrastructure in Semipalatinsk, implemented projects on elimination and minimization of use of HEU in civil sector, decommissioning of BN-350 fast breeder reactor. Now the IAEA LEU Bank is going to be established in Kazakhstan, and more challenges are coming in implementation of safeguards. Some technical and organizational details will be described from the experience of Kazakhstan in these projects. (author)

  16. ICBMs and the environment: Assessments at a base in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzko, J.R.; Butler, B.

    1999-01-01

    A paper by two U.S. scientists explores the environmental/health hazard posed by abandoned missile launch sites and control facilities (dismantled by 1998 as part of the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program) at an ICBM base in north-central Kazakhstan. It summarizes the findings of Environmental Site Assessment Reports based on a program of water and soil sampling at the sites, with a particular focus on testing for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls, various toxic metals, and radiation. The study is important in that it documents levels of contamination (and describes abatement measures) at a former Soviet missile base.

  17. African Journals Online: Kazakhstan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Home > African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  18. Briefing notes on Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document gives an overview of nuclear activities and atomic energy related infrastructure of Kazakhstan. Former USSR norms, standards and codes of practice are used in Kazakhstan. Assistance and training are seeked for radiation protection and handling problems due to radioactive contamination

  19. Revelation and registration of geological heritage on the test sites territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakova, Yu.I.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of geotypes in Kazakhstan are carrying out from 1993. 'Geological heritage of Kazakhstan' data base incorporating more than 400 objects is developed. The geotypes classification by a diverse features was worked out. The showing up and accounting system of geotype objects diversity was demonstrated and approved on the international symposia on geological heritage protection (ProGeo-97 and ProGeo-98). But this work does not conducted on the test sites yet. At present these territories have been more available but data about geotypes within its boundaries are fragmentary yet. Among its there are locations of interesting dinosaur remains (Baikanur space site), ancient mine working, petroglyphic drawings, agate manifestations, picturesque landscapes (Semipalatinsk test site). Within test zones there are such interesting antropogenic noticeably object as places of nuclear explosions including the famous Atomic Lake. There are a lot interest object on the territories adjoint to test sites (stratigraphical open-casts of the universal importance, paleontological remains and others) gives basis for to suggest that on the closed earlier territories there are a lot of interesting geotypes. At present these sites are entering to rehabilitation stage. At that one of the important measure must be study of geotypes situated within its limits

  20. Some aspects of beryllium disposal in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestakov, V.; Chikhray, Y.; Shakhvorostov, Yr.

    2004-01-01

    Historically in Kazakhstan all disposals of used beryllium and beryllium wasted materials were stored and recycled at JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant''. Since Ulba Metallurgical Plant (beside beryllium and tantalum production) is one of the world largest complex producers of fuel for nuclear power plants as well it has possibilities, technologies and experience in processing toxic and radioactive wastes related with those productions. At present time only one operating Kazakhstan research reactors (EWG1M in Kurchatov) contains beryllium made core. The results of current examination of that core allow using it without replacement long time yet (at least for next five-ten years). Nevertheless the problem how to utilize such irradiated beryllium becomes actual issue for Kazakhstan even today. Since Kazakhstan is the member of ITER/DEMO Reactors Projects and is permanently considered as possible provider of huge amount of beryllium for those reactors so that is the reason for starting studies of possibilities of large scale processing/recycling of such disposed irradiated beryllium. It is clear that the Ulba Metallurgical Plant is considered as the best site for it in Kazakhstan. The draft plan how to organize experimental studies of irradiated beryllium disposals in Kazakhstan involving National Nuclear Center, National University (Almaty), JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant'' (Ust-Kamenogorsk) would be presented in this paper as well as proposals to arrange international collaboration in that field through ISTC (International Science Technology Center, Moscow). (author)

  1. Nevada Test Site closure program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use

  2. Thyroid nodules, polymorphic variants in DNA repair and RET-related genes, and interaction with ionizing radiation exposure from nuclear tests in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Alice J.; Land, Charles E.; Bhatti, Parveen; Pineda, Marbin; Brenner, Alina; Carr, Zhanat; Gusev, Boris I.; Zhumadilov, Zhaxibay; Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Rutter, Joni L.; Ron, Elaine; Struewing, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors for thyroid cancer remain largely unknown except for ionizing radiation exposure during childhood and a history of benign thyroid nodules. Because thyroid nodules are more common than thyroid cancers and are associated with thyroid cancer risk, we evaluated several polymorphisms potentially relevant to thyroid tumors and assessed interaction with ionizing radiation exposure to the thyroid gland. Thyroid nodules were detected in 1998 by ultrasound screening of 2997 persons who lived near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan when they were children (1949-62). Cases with thyroid nodules (n=907) were frequency matched (1:1) to those without nodules by ethnicity (Kazakh or Russian), gender, and age at screening. Thyroid gland radiation doses were estimated from fallout deposition patterns, residence history, and diet. We analyzed 23 polymorphisms in 13 genes and assessed interaction with ionizing radiation exposure using likelihood ratio tests (LRT). Elevated thyroid nodule risks were associated with the minor alleles of RET S836S (rs1800862, p = 0.03) and GFRA1 -193C>G (rs not assigned, p = 0.05) and decreased risk with XRCC1 R194W (rs1799782, p-trend = 0.03) and TGFB1 T263I (rs1800472, p = 0.009). Similar patterns of association were observed for a small number of papillary thyroid cancers (n=25). Ionizing radiation exposure to the thyroid gland was associated with significantly increased risk of thyroid nodules (age and gender adjusted excess odds ratio/Gy = 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.05-0.56), with evidence for interaction by genotype found for XRCC1 R194W (LRT p value = 0.02). Polymorphisms in RET signaling, DNA repair, and proliferation genes may be related to risk of thyroid nodules, consistent with some previous reports on thyroid cancer. Borderline support for gene-radiation interaction was found for a variant in XRCC1, a key base excision repair protein. Other pathways, such as genes in double strand break repair, apoptosis, and

  3. In situ radiation measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipton, W.J.

    1996-06-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted a series of in situ radiological measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, during the period of July 21-30, 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at selected areas on the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. The survey was part of a cooperative effort between the United States team and teams of radiation scientists from the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. In addition to in situ radiation measurements made by the United States and Russian teams, soil samples were collected and analyzed by the Russian and Kazakhstani teams. All teams conducted their measurements at ten locations within the test site. The United States team also made a number of additional measurements to locate and verify the positions of three potential fallout plumes containing plutonium contamination from nonnuclear tests. In addition, the United States team made several measurements in Kurchatov City, the housing area used by personnel and their families who work(ed) at the test sites. Comparisons between the United States and Russian in situ measurements and the soil sample results are presented as well as comparisons with a Soviet aerial survey conducted in 1990-1991. The agreement between the different types of measurements made by all three countries was quite good

  4. Radiation consequences of the nuclear tests on the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logachev, V.A.; Logacheva, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the results of retrospective evaluation for radiation situation and radiation doses of population in the zones of the Semipalatinsk test site activity influence are presented. For the measurements the data obtained during analysis, study and summarizing of the archival materials including information on nuclear tests on this site and results of radiation surveys, those were carried out after each test were used. The information testifying most substantial environment contamination taking place after four surface explosions (29.08.1949, 24.09.1951, 12.08.1953, 24.08.1956) is presented as well. After these dose-forming explosions the irradiation doses of the population inhabiting out the regime zone have been exceeded the maximum permissible levels. Results of analysis of archival materials were used for assessment of doses of internal and external irradiation of residents of inhabited points situated on the both the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan - mainly close to the test site - and the territories of a number of regions of the Russian Federation are locating on the little distance from the tests site

  5. Environmental restoration plans and activities in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.

    1997-01-01

    During the period of uranium mining activities in the Republic of Kazakhstan so far more gm 200 million tonnes of radioactive waste with a total activity of about 250,000 Ci has accumulated. The problem of environmental restoration of contaminated uranium mining and milling sites is very topical and important for Kazakhstan. This paper presents the radiological status of the situation in Kazakhstan, the characteristics of the uranium mining and mill tailings and the approach to the tailings management for stabilization and isolation from the human environment. Legislation in the field of atomic energy including radwaste management has been established in Kazakhstan through a structure of State Bodies such as Ministries of Science, Ecology, Bioresources, Health and Atomic Energy Agency. An organization for radiation safety regulation has also been created. Studies regarding stabilization of radiological situation have been started in Kazakhstan with the support of IAEA and EU. This paper deals with the regional project for assessment of immediate measures to be taken for remediation of uranium mining and mill tailings sites. (author)

  6. Uranium of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsalyuk, Yu.; Gurevich, D.

    2000-01-01

    Over 25 % of the world's uranium reserves are concentrated in Kazakhstan. So, the world's largest Shu-Sarysu uranium province is situated on southern Kazakhstan, with resources exceeding 1 billion tonnes of uranium. No less, than 3 unique deposits with resources exceeding 100,000 tonnes are situated here. From the economic point of view the most important thing is that these deposits are suitable for in-situ leaching, which is the cheapest, environmentally friendly and most efficient method available for uranium extracting. In 1997 the Kazatomprom National Joint-Stock Company united all Kazakhstan's uranium enterprises (3 mine and concentrating plants, Volkovgeologiya Joint-Stock Company and the Ulbinskij Metallurgical plant). In 1998 uranium production came to 1,500 tonnes (860 kg in 1997). In 1999 investment to the industry were about $ 30 million. Plans for development of Kazakhstan's uranium industry provide a significant role for foreign partners. At present, 2 large companies (Comeco (Canada), Cogema (France) working in Kazakhstan. Kazakatomprom continues to attract foreign investors. The company's administration announced that in that in next year they have plan to make a radical step: to sell 67 % of stocks to strategic investors (at present 100 % of stocks belongs to state). Authors of the article regard, that the Kazakhstan's uranium industry still has significant reserves to develop. Even if the scenario for the uranium industry could be unfavorable, uranium production in Kazakhstan may triple within the next three to four years. The processing of uranium by the Ulbinskij Metallurgical Plant and the production of some by-products, such as rhenium, vanadium and rare-earth elements, may provide more profits. Obviously, the sale of uranium (as well as of any other reserves) cannot make Kazakhstan a prosperous country. However, country's uranium industry has a god chance to become one of the most important and advanced sectors of national economy

  7. Geopolitical warm spots : Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isautier, B.

    2004-01-01

    Kazakhstan has become an economic leader in the region of the former Soviet Union. This presentation described the economic transformation of the Republic of Kazakhstan since 1991 when it became an independent country and committed to a market economy. The newly formed government developed policies to attract foreign investment and implemented sound fiscal policies, paving the way for strong economic growth. Oil production in Kazakhstan has grown significantly since 1991 and the country has become an important player in world energy markets. Its' importance will continue to grow, given the new discovery of the large Kashagan Oil Field and the oil potential of the Caspian Sea. This presentation also outlined the challenges facing Kazakhstan, with reference to the need for sufficient pipeline capacity and a link to new markets. The need to refine government policies to promote competition and efficiency in the oil industry are two other challenges that will determine the future success of the country. PetroKazakhstan has succeeded in being a leader in the Kazakhstan oil sector. tabs., figs

  8. Assessment of Soybean Flowering and Seed Maturation Time in Different Latitude Regions of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugalieva, Saule; Didorenko, Svetlana; Anuarbek, Shynar; Volkova, Lubov; Gerasimova, Yelena; Sidorik, Ivan; Turuspekov, Yerlan

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is still a minor crop in Kazakhstan despite an increase in planting area from 4,500 to 11,400 km2 between 2006 and 2014. However, the Government's recently accepted crop diversification policy projects the expansion of soybean cultivation area to more than 40,000 km2 by 2020. The policy is targeting significant expansion of soybean production in South-eastern, Eastern, and Northern regions of Kazakhstan. Successful realization of this policy requires a comprehensive characterization of plant growth parameters to identify optimal genotypes with appropriate adaptive phenotypic traits. In this study 120 soybean accessions from different parts of the World, including 18 accessions from Kazakhstan, were field tested in South-eastern, Eastern, and Northern regions of the country. These studies revealed positive correlation of yield with flowering time in Northern Kazakhstan, with seed maturity time in Eastern Kazakhstan, and with both these growth stages in South-eastern Kazakhstan. It was determined that in South-eastern, Eastern and Northern regions of Kazakhstan the majority of productive genotypes were in maturity groups MGI, MG0, and MG00, respectively. The accessions were genotyped for four major maturity genes (E1, E2, E3, and E4) in order to assess the relationship between E loci and agronomic traits. The allele composition of the majority of accessions was e1-as/e2/E3/E4 (specific frequencies 57.5%, 91.6%, 65.0%, and 63.3%, respectively). Accessions with dominant alleles in either E3 or E4 genes showed higher yield in all three regions, although the specific genotype associated with greatest productivity was different for each site. Genotype-environment interaction studies based on yield performances suggest that South-east and East regions formed one mega-environment, which was well separated from North Kazakhstan where significantly earlier time to maturation is required. The results provide important insights into the relationship between genetic and

  9. Space monitoring of temperature regime of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: 10 years of observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spivak, L.F.; Arkhipkin, O.P.; Vitkovskaya, I.S.; Batyrbaeva, M.Zh.; Sagatdinova, G.N.

    2006-01-01

    A brief description of the results of temperature anomaly routine research by specialists from Space Research Institute of Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, revealed in 1997 within Semipalatinsk Test Site in the process of remote sounding of Kazakhstani territory, is given. Results of map analysis for snow cover, day and night temperatures and vegetation (during vegetation season) for the period since 1997 till 2006 testify a hypothesis on natural temperature anomaly, though there is a number of questions to be answered for further complex investigation. (author)

  10. Residual radioactivity in the soil of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Tsukatani, Tsuneo; Katayama, Yukio

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with our efforts to survey residual readioactivity in the soil sampled at teh Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site and at off-site areas in Kazakhstan. The soil sampled at the hypocenter where the first Soviet nuclear explosion was carried out on 29 August 1949, and at the bank of the crater called open-quotes Bolapan,close quotes which was formed by an underground nuclear detonation on 15 January 1965 along the Shagan River. As a comparison, other soil was also sampled in the cities of Kurchatov and Almaty. These data have allowed a preliminary evaluation of the contemporary radioactive contamination of the land in and around the test site. At the first nuclear explosion site and at Bolapan, higher than background levels of 239,240 Pu with weapons-grade plutonium were detected together with fission and activation products such as 137 Cs, 60 Co, 152 Eu, and 154 Eu. 20 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Residual radioactivity in the soil of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in the former USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Tsukatani, T; Katayama, Y

    1996-08-01

    This paper deals with our efforts to survey residual radioactivity in the soil sampled at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site and at off-site areas in Kazakhstan. The soil was sampled at the hypocenter where the first Soviet nuclear explosion was carried out on 29 August 1949, and at the bank of the crater called "Bolapan," which was formed by an underground nuclear detonation on 15 January 1965 along the Shagan River. As a comparison, other soil was also sampled in the cities of Kurchatov and Almaty. These data have allowed a preliminary evaluation of the contemporary radioactive contamination of the land in and around the test site. At the first nuclear explosion site and at Bolapan, higher than background levels of 239,240Pu with weapons-grade plutonium were detected together with fission and activation products such as 137Cs, 60Co, 152Eu, and 154Eu.

  12. Environmental problems on Kazakhstan and the Nevada-Semipalatinsk antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesipbaeva, K.; Chang, C.

    1997-01-01

    In this coherent and consistently - argued article, the authors explore ecological problems in Kazakhstan, a process of Kazakhstan's integration into international antinuclear movement. They look at what a moratorium on nuclear weapons testing Semipalatinsk meant to peoples in Kazakhstan. The authors research a history of the Nevada-Semipalatinsk antinuclear movement. (author)

  13. Buffer mass test - Site documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile test site data that are assumed to be of importance for the interpretation of the Buffer Mass Test. Since this test mainly concerns water uptake and migration processes in the integrated rock/backfill system and the development of temperature fields in this system, the work has been focused on the constitution and hydrology of the rock. The major constitutional rock feature of interest for the BMT is the frequency and distribution of joints and fractures. The development of models for water uptake into the highly compacted bentonite in the heater holes requires a very detailed fracture survey. The present investigation shows that two of the holes (no. 1 and 2) are located in richly fractured rock, while the others are located in fracture-poor to moderately fractured rock. The hydrological conditions of the rock in the BMT area are characterized by water pressures of as much as 100 m water head at a few meters distance from the test site. The average hydraulic conductivity of the rock that confines the BMT tunnel has been estimated at about 10 -10 m/s by Lawrence Laboratory. The actual distribution of the water that enters the tunnel has been estimated by observing the successive moistening after having switched off the ventilation, and this has offered basis of predicting the rate and uniformity of the water uptake in the tunnel backfill. As to the heater holes the detailed fracture patterns and various inflow measurements have yielded a similar basis. The report also gives major data on the rock temperature, gas conditions, mineralogy, rock mechanics, and groundwater chemistry for BMT purposes. (author)

  14. Assessment of epidemiologic situation in aero-ecological systems of north part of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdarkhanova, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    The vast territories of Central Kazakhstan adjoining to Semipalatinsk test site (STS) are intensively using for agriculture purposes. Radioecological situation of environmental objects in places of active land-using is characterizing by considerable accumulation of artificial radionuclides in local points. In 1965-1988 dynamics of accumulation of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 131 I, 144 Ce, 210 Po is considered. Most high concentration of these radionuclides corresponds to 1965, 1974, 1986-87 in all objects: soil, water, pasture plants. These processes are explained by emergency situation on STS and Chernobyl accident. In objects of veterinary supervision (meat, milk, bones) increasing of concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs established in 1965-1966, 1968, 1972-1974, 1986-1987. In present time significant territories of Semipalatinsk test site as well as territories of other sites are places for foodstuffs production. In this regard all agricultural zones Of Republic of Kazakhstan demand comprehensive research, exploitation of advanced methods of farms implementation improving environmental, epidemiologic and economical situation in regions

  15. Atomic test site (south Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godman, N.A.; Cousins, Jim; Hamilton, Archie.

    1993-01-01

    The debate, which lasted about half an hour, is reported verbatin. It was prompted by the campaign by the Maralinga people of South Australia to have their traditional lands restored to them. Between 1953 and 1957 the United Kingdom government carried out of atomic tests and several hundred minor trials on the lands. A clean-up programme had taken place in 1967 but further decontamination was needed before the area is safe for traditional aboriginal life and culture. A small area will remain contaminated with plutonium for thousands of years. The cost and who would pay, the Australian or UK government was being negotiated. The UK government's position was that the site is remote, the health risk is slight and the clean-up operation of 1967 was acknowledged as satisfactory by the Australian government. (UK)

  16. Study of ecological situation for the West Kazakhstan south districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, N.P.; Bolotov, B.M.; Gajtinov, A.Sh.; Zashkvara, O.V.; Matveeva, I.M.; Polyakov, A.I.; Ryabikin, Yu.A.; Chasnikov, I.Ya.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the results of comprehensive research for ecological status of Karabota, Kaztal, Dzhangaly, Dzhanibek and Akzhaik districts of the West Kazakhstan districts adjoining to 'Kapustin Yar' and A zgir' test sites are presented. In the indicated districts the following examinations were conducted: analysis of soils samples; bottom sediments, flora and fauna samples for determination of radionuclide and heavy metals content in its; determination of absorption dose with population by the EPR dosimetry method by human teeth enamel; study of α-radiation accumulation in a diverse trees' annual rings

  17. ISC origin times for announced and presumed underground nuclear explosions at several test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Announced data for US and French underground nuclear explosions indicate that nearly all detonations have occurred within one or two tenths of a second after the minute. This report contains ISC origin-time data for announced explosions at two US test sites and one French test site, and includes similar data for presumed underground nuclear explosions at five Soviet sites. Origin-time distributions for these sites are analyzed for those events that appeared to be detonated very close to the minute. Particular attention is given to the origin times for the principal US and Soviet test sites in Nevada and Eastern Kazakhstan. The mean origin times for events at the several test sites range from 0.4 s to 2.8 s before the minute, with the earlier mean times associated with the Soviet sites and the later times with the US and French sites. These times indicate lower seismic velocities beneath the US and French sites, and higher velocities beneath the sites in the USSR 9 figures, 8 tables

  18. Characteristics of acoustic wave from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2015-04-01

    Availability of the acoustic wave on the record of microbarograph is one of discriminate signs of atmospheric (surface layer of atmosphere) and contact explosions. Nowadays there is large number of air wave records from chemical explosions recorded by the IMS infrasound stations installed during recent decade. But there is small number of air wave records from nuclear explosions as air and contact nuclear explosions had been conducted since 1945 to 1962, before the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963 (the treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water) by the Great Britain, USSR and USA. That time there was small number of installed microbarographs. First infrasound stations in the USSR appeared in 1954, and by the moment of the USSR collapse the network consisted of 25 infrasound stations, 3 of which were located on Kazakhstan territory - in Kurchatov (East Kazakhstan), in Borovoye Observatory (North Kazakhstan) and Talgar Observatory (Northern Tien Shan). The microbarograph of Talgar Observatory was installed in 1962 and recorded large number of air nuclear explosions conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site and Novaya Zemlya Test Site. The epicentral distance to the STS was ~700 km, and to Novaya Zemlya Test Site ~3500 km. The historical analog records of the microbarograph were analyzed on the availability of the acoustic wave. The selected records were digitized, the database of acoustic signals from nuclear explosions was created. In addition, acoustic signals from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites were recorded by analogue broadband seismic stations at wide range of epicentral distances, 300-3600 km. These signals coincide well by its form and spectral content with records of microbarographs and can be used for monitoring tasks and discrimination in places where infrasound observations are absent. Nuclear explosions which records contained acoustic wave were from 0.03 to 30 kt yield for

  19. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site

  20. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  1. Kazakhstan Country Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Almaty; - scarcity of land in Almaty preventing the city’s expansion for administrative needs; - need for economic uplift of the poor northern...6,846 km border with Russia) and the mood of the large Russian Diaspora in Kazakhstan. There are other important factors influencing the U.S

  2. Organ Transplants in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigenzhin, Abay; Doskaliyev, Zhaksylyk; Tuganbekova, Saltanat; Zharikov, Serik; Altynova, Sholpan; Gaipov, Abduzhappar

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the fastest developing countries in the world and has a health care system that is unique in Central Asia. Its organ transplant services are also developing rapidly. We aimed to analyze and briefly report on the current status of organ transplant in the Republic of Kazakhstan. We analyzed organ transplant activities in that country for the period 2012 to 2014. All data were collected from the official database of the National Transplant Coordinating Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. At the end of 2014, the number of transplant centers had increased to 10, three of which could perform multiorgan transplants; during the same period, the number of deceased-donor organ-donating hospitals increased up to 37. By 2013, the transplant activity rate for all centers had reached 9.22 per million population. During the previous 3 years (2012-2014), there was a 3-fold increase in the number of living donors and an 18-fold increase in the number of kidney transplants. Between 2012 and 2014, the number of living-donor liver transplants increased from 17 to 25, and the number of deceased-donor transplants increased from 3 to 7. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), the number of heart transplants increased to 7 cases. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), Kazakhstan achieved a significant improvement in the organization of its transplant services, and a noticeable upward trend in the system continues.

  3. 90Sr and 137Cs in environmental samples from Dolon near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastberger, M; Steinhäusler, F; Gerzabek, M H; Hubmer, A; Lettner, H

    2000-09-01

    The (90)Sr and (137)Cs activities of soil, plant, and milk samples from the village of Dolon, located close to the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan, were determined. The areal deposition at the nine sampling sites is in the range of sites both nuclides mainly have remained in the top 6 cm of the soil profiles; at others they were partly transported into deeper soil layers since the deposition. For most of the samples the (90)Sr yield after destruction of the soil matrix is significantly higher than after extracting with 6 M HCl indicating that (90)Sr is partly associated with fused silicates. The low mean (90)Sr activity concentrations of vegetation samples (14 Bq kg(-1) dw) and milk samples (0.05 Bq kg(-1) fw) suggest that this has favorable consequences in terms of limiting its bioavailability.

  4. Tyura Tam Space Launch Facility, Kazakhstan, CIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Located in Kazakhstan on the Syr Darya River, the Tyura Tam Cosmodrome has been the launch site for 72 cosmonaut crews. The landing runway of the Buran space shuttle can be seen in the left center. Further to the right, near the center is the launch site for the Soyuz. The mission control center is located 1,300 miles away near Moscow. In the lower right, is the city of Leninsk, seen as a dark region next to the river.

  5. Rabies in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanov, Akmetzhan A; Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K; Abdybekova, Aida M; Karatayev, Bolat S; Torgerson, Paul R

    2016-08-01

    Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease. There is a sparsity of data on this disease with regard to the incidence of human and animal disease in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, rabies results in a large economic impact and a high human burden of disease. Kazakhstan is a large landlocked middle income country that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and is endemic for rabies. We used detailed public health and veterinary surveillance data from 2003 to 2015 to map where livestock rabies is occurring. We also estimate the economic impact and human burden of rabies. Livestock and canine rabies occurred over most of Kazakhstan, but there were regional variations in disease distribution. There were a mean of 7.1 officially recorded human fatalities due to rabies per year resulting in approximately 457 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). A mean of 64,289 individuals per annum underwent post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) which may have resulted in an additional 1140 DALYs annually. PEP is preventing at least 118 cases of human rabies each year or possibly as many as 1184 at an estimated cost of $1193 or $119 per DALY averted respectively. The estimated economic impact of rabies in Kazakhstan is $20.9 million per annum, with nearly half of this cost being attributed to the cost of PEP and the loss of income whilst being treated. A further $5.4 million per annum was estimated to be the life time loss of income for fatal cases. Animal vaccination programmes and animal control programmes also contributed substantially to the economic losses. The direct costs due to rabies fatalities of agricultural animals was relatively low. This study demonstrates that in Kazakhstan there is a substantial economic cost and health impact of rabies. These costs could be reduced by modifying the vaccination programme that is now practised. The study also fills some data gaps on the epidemiology and economic effects of rabies in respect to Kazakhstan.

  6. Radiation doses to local populations near nuclear weapons test sites worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André

    2002-05-01

    Nuclear weapons testing was conducted in the atmosphere at numerous sites worldwide between 1946 and 1980, which resulted in exposures to local populations as a consequence of fallout of radioactive debris. The nuclear tests were conducted by five nations (United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France, and China) primarily at 16 sites. The 16 testing sites, located in nine different countries on five continents (plus Oceania) contributed nearly all of the radioactive materials released to the environment by atmospheric testing; only small amounts were released at a fewother minor testing sites. The 16 sites discussed here are Nevada Test Site, USA (North American continent), Bikini and Enewetak, Marshall Islands (Oceania); Johnston Island, USA (Oceania), Christmas and Malden Island, Kiribati (Oceania); Emu Field, Maralinga, and Monte Bello Islands, Australia (Australian continent); Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia (Oceania), Reggane, Algeria (Africa), Novaya Zemlya and Kapustin Yar, Russia (Europe), Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan (Asia), and Lop Nor, China (Asia). There were large differences in the numbers of tests conducted at each location and in the total explosive yields. Those factors, as well as differences in population density, lifestyle, environment, and climate at each site, led to large differences in the doses received by local populations. In general, the tests conducted earliest led to the highest individual and population exposures, although the amount of information available for a few of these sites is insufficient to provide any detailed evaluation of radiation exposures. The most comprehensive information for any site is for the Nevada Test Site. The disparities in available information add difficulty to determining the radiation exposures of local populations at each site. It is the goal of this paper to summarize the available information on external and internal doses received by the public living in the regions near each of the

  7. Measures of transparency for decommissioning of test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrusenko, B. A.; Smirnov, V. G.; Sherbina, A. N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents non-traditional directions of activity of the Institute specialists to solve complicated scientific and technical tasks within the framework of observance of international obligations on non-proliferation. In the latest time much attention is paid to the reaching of mutual confidence between sides during a control over the observance of agreements regarding disarmament. How can we demonstrate implementation of agreements to each of both sides, not having leakage of confidential or, so called, 'sensitive' information? That means to ensure 'transparency' of activity, not doing a damage to both sides. It is needed to note that the meaning of the above term can be substantially varied, depending on what field of activity it is used in. For instance, the meaning of the transparency measures adopted in joint program of RFNC and SNL for future control of disassembling of nuclear weapon is represented as ''...measures which can be taken for building of the confidence of both sides, assuring that these sides reach mutual understanding, and one side can inspect activity of another side as well as its outcomes which are a part of lifetime cycle of nuclear weapon. We consider this meaning to be acceptable for objectives and principles indicated in joint Russian-Kazakhstani activity on decommisioning of the test site. Hereafter in this paper we will use terminology on the transparency measures which is adopted for future control of the nuclear weapon disassembling. The transparency measures application distates a necessity of development of documentation drawing system of individual procedures and operations, which has 'sensitive' information and to which some transporancy measures, and be in accord with the existent legislation of Russia and Kazakhstan. There is an example of nuclear device (ND) destruction in a tunnel 108 located on the former Semipalatinsk test site, that represents experience gained by specialists of RFNC-RITP in the field of the

  8. Ship Systems Survivability Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Area for testing survivability of shipboard systems to include electrical, communications, and fire suppression. Multipurpose test range for supporting gun firing,...

  9. Cytogenetic biomonitoring carried out in a village (Dolon) adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear weapon test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Stronati, L; Ranaldi, R; Spanò, M; Steinhäusler, F; Gastberger, M; Hubmer, A; Ptitskaya, L; Akhmetov, M

    2001-06-01

    The Semipalatinsk region (Kazakhstan Republic) has been affected by extensive radioactive contamination due to more than 450 nuclear tests of which almost 100 were exploded in the atmosphere. The present results refer to cytogenetic assessments in a study cohort of the population of Dolon, a settlement located on the NE boundary of the nuclear weapon test site, which was exposed to elevated doses of ionising radiation primarily due to the first Soviet nuclear test in 1949. Conventional cytogenetic analyses were carried out on 21 blood samples from individuals (more than 50 years old) living in Dolon since the very beginning of nuclear testing. A matched control group included 20 individuals living in non-contaminated areas. Higher frequencies of chromosome aberrations were found in the Dolon cohort compared to the control group, even though they remain within the range of the background levels reported for large normal human population studies on elderly individuals.

  10. Prospects for nuclear power development in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : The possible use of NPP with single medium-sized units (600-700 MW) and large-sized units (over 1000 MW) is considered in the Republic of Kazakhstan as base electric power sources in order to meet the rising demand of electric power in conditions of national economy development. The results of feasibility studies on NPP construction estimability in Kazakhstan which were pursued within by efforts of NNC RK and other Kazakhstan organizations with methodical support of JAPC (Japan) within the period from 2006 to 2009, are discussed. The feasibility studies have been conducted based on data on electric power consumption and generation considering characteristics of electrical power systems and plans for transmitting lines construction in Kazakhstan, available conditions for NPP siting (cooling water, roads and communication lines, human resources, other elements of infrastructure and control), natural conditions, potential hazards for NPP caused with industrial economic activity; social factors, consequences of NPP impact on the environment including the radiation effect on population in case of radiation accident

  11. New data on the structure of shear wave attenuation field in the region of the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Sokolova, I.N.

    2001-01-01

    Using the recordings of the chemical explosions in Kazakhstan, obtained by locally deployed stations, we have studied the structure of the attenuation field in the earth's crust and upper mantle in the areas of the Degelen and Balapan test sites. We have analyzed the characteristics of short-period coda envelopes at frequencies of 1.25 and 5 Hz. The study has shown that abnormally high S-wave attenuation is observed at the Balapan site in the depth range of 10-120 km, where two large fault zones pass. At the Degelen site, the attenuation for the same depth range is much weaker. However, Q values sharply increase at the depth over 200 km in the area of the Semipalatinsk test site. We suppose that spatial-temporal variations of the attenuation field structure are associated with a rise of juvenile fluids through the deep fault zones caused by the long and intensive influence of the explosions. Such a mechanism also allows us to explain the existence of a large-scale heat anomaly in the area of the northeastern Kazakhstan, including the Semipalatinsk test site. (author)

  12. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  13. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal

  14. Rabies in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Sultanov, Akmetzhan A.; Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K.; Abdybekova, Aida M.; Karatayev, Bolat S.; Torgerson, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease. There is a sparsity of data on this disease with regard to the incidence of human and animal disease in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, rabies results in a large economic impact and a high human burden of disease. Kazakhstan is a large landlocked middle income country that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and is endemic for rabies. Methodology/Principal Findings We used detailed public health and veterina...

  15. Kazakhstan sells its silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul.

    1995-01-01

    Kazakhstan's government seems keen to involve foreign companies in financing the large scale exploitation of Central Asia's hydrocarbon reserves. Despite domestic uncertainty about free market ethics, the country's rulers seem keen to sell off some of its present wealth, in terms of oil production, in order to raise finance for internal projects. The author explores which of several options for financing these large projects would prove most beneficial to the Kazakhs themselves. (UK)

  16. Grimsel Test Site: heat test, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneefuss, J.; Glaess, F.; Gommlich, G.; Schmidt, M.

    1989-05-01

    The Swiss concept for the storage of radioactive waste consists in placing it in compact, dense rock formations. An experiment 'Heat Test' carried out by the 'Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung' in Nagra's Grimsel rock laboratory simulated the heat production of stored radioactive waste. The aim was to evaluate processes for the demonstration of the suitability of a final repository for heat-producing radioactive waste in cristalline rock, to investigate the thermic, mechanic and hydraulic reactions to an artificial heat source, and to develop corresponding calculating models. The duration of the tests was about 3 years. In this report the measured thermic, mechanic and hydraulic reactions are documented and discussed in detail. A simple, rotation symmetrical FEM-model was used for the preparatory and experiment-accompanying modelling of the thermomechanical conditions in the heat test. The test showed that suitable measuring methods for the surveillance of the geomechanics of a final repository are available and that the reactions of the crystalline host rock to the heat source remain locally limited and can be modelled with relatively small effort. 29 refs., 33 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Controlled Archaeological Test Site (CATS) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...

  18. Colloid research for the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, E.A.

    1992-05-01

    Research is needed to understand the role of particulates in the migration of radionuclides away from the sites of nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. The process of testing itself may produce a reservoir of particles to serve as vectors for the transport of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater. Exploratory experiments indicate the presence of numerous particulates in the vicinity of the Cambric test but a much lower loading in a nearby well that has been pumped continuously for 15 years. Recent groundwater colloid research is briefly reviewed to identify sampling and characterization methods that may be applicable at the Nevada Test Site

  19. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-01-01

    The ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' was prepared by Bechtel Nevada (BN) to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2004''. It was produced this year to provide a more cost-effective and wider distribution of a hardcopy summary of the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' to interested DOE stakeholders

  20. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-01-01

    This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report

  1. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  2. The 1st Nuclear Test in the former USSR of 29 August 1949: Comparison of individual dose estimates by modeling with EPR retrospective dosimetry and luminescence retrospective dosimetry data for Dolon village, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, V.F.; Hoshi, M.; Ivannikov, A.I.; Bailiff, I.K.; Zhumadilov, K.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Argembaeva, R.; Tsyb, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    Three methods of individual dose reconstruction, namely dose calculations based on the available archive data and on the individual questioning of inhabitants, EPR dosimetry in human tooth enamel, and retrospective luminescence dosimetry (RLD) with quartz inclusions in the bricks were applied for assessment of accumulated external doses in Dolon village (Kazakhstan), which is one of the most affected settlements as a result of 29.08.1949 nuclear test at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Dose values obtained by EPR and RLD methods were compared with computed dose values. The available data on soil contamination with 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu in the vicinity and inside Dolon village were used for interpretation of the results of comparison. Based on a calculated value of 2260 mGy for the dose in the air along the central axis of the trace located NW of Dolon, the doses in the air over whole village and for the south-eastern part of the village containing the RLD sampling points were estimated as 775±40 and 645±70mGy, respectively, the latter correlates well with the RLD dose value of 460±92mGy. The 'upper level' of the mean 'shielding and behavior' factor of dose reduction for inhabitants of Dolon village was estimated as 0.28±0.07; this was performed by comparing the individual EPR tooth enamel doses with the calculated mean dose for the settlement. The individual dose estimates by EPR dosimetry were compared with individual dose values obtained by modeling. Uncertainties of the calculated individual doses were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. The individual dose estimates by EPR method are lower in comparison with mean computed doses and with RLD data, but they are in a good consistency with computed individual dose values in Dolon village based on the results of individual questioning with account of individual 'shielding and behavior' factors

  3. The 1st Nuclear Test in the former USSR of 29 August 1949: Comparison of individual dose estimates by modeling with EPR retrospective dosimetry and luminescence retrospective dosimetry data for Dolon village, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, V.F. [Medical Radiological Research Center of RAMS, 4 Korolev Str., Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)], E-mail: mrrc@obninsk.ru; Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Ivannikov, A.I. [Medical Radiological Research Center of RAMS, 4 Korolev Str., Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Bailiff, I.K. [Luminescence Dating and Dosimetry Laboratory, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DHI 3LE (United Kingdom); Zhumadilov, K. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Skvortsov, V.G. [Medical Radiological Research Center of RAMS, 4 Korolev Str., Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Argembaeva, R. [Scientifical Research Institute for Radiation Medicine, 258, Gagarina Str., P.B. 49, Semipalatinsk 490026 (Kazakhstan); Tsyb, A.F. [Medical Radiological Research Center of RAMS, 4 Korolev Str., Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-15

    Three methods of individual dose reconstruction, namely dose calculations based on the available archive data and on the individual questioning of inhabitants, EPR dosimetry in human tooth enamel, and retrospective luminescence dosimetry (RLD) with quartz inclusions in the bricks were applied for assessment of accumulated external doses in Dolon village (Kazakhstan), which is one of the most affected settlements as a result of 29.08.1949 nuclear test at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Dose values obtained by EPR and RLD methods were compared with computed dose values. The available data on soil contamination with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu in the vicinity and inside Dolon village were used for interpretation of the results of comparison. Based on a calculated value of 2260 mGy for the dose in the air along the central axis of the trace located NW of Dolon, the doses in the air over whole village and for the south-eastern part of the village containing the RLD sampling points were estimated as 775{+-}40 and 645{+-}70mGy, respectively, the latter correlates well with the RLD dose value of 460{+-}92mGy. The 'upper level' of the mean 'shielding and behavior' factor of dose reduction for inhabitants of Dolon village was estimated as 0.28{+-}0.07; this was performed by comparing the individual EPR tooth enamel doses with the calculated mean dose for the settlement. The individual dose estimates by EPR dosimetry were compared with individual dose values obtained by modeling. Uncertainties of the calculated individual doses were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. The individual dose estimates by EPR method are lower in comparison with mean computed doses and with RLD data, but they are in a good consistency with computed individual dose values in Dolon village based on the results of individual questioning with account of individual 'shielding and behavior' factors.

  4. After Action Report - Kazakhstan NSDD July 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Caterina [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eppich, Gary [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kips, Ruth [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knight, Kim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Belian, Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gray, Paul [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Canazaro, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-25

    On Monday 20 July, Caterina Fox, Ruth Kips and Kim Knight were invited to participate in Kazakhstan's nuclear material inventory management working group meeting coordinated by Alexander Vasilliev as nuclear forensics subject matter experts. The meeting included participants from Kazakhstan's nuclear regulatory agency (CAESC, the Committee on Atomic and Energetic Supervision and Control) and 3 institutes 1. Institute of Nuclear Physics, INP (Almaty), 2. National Nuclear Center, NNC (Kurchatov), and 3. Ulba Metallurgical Plant, UMP (Oskemen). CAESC requested attendance of an MC&A expert, an IT Specialist, and a Physical Security Specialist from each site. The general meeting concerned considerations for creating unified or compatible systems for nuclear material inventory management. NSDD representatives provided an overview of nuclear forensics and presented considerations for developments of inventory management that might be synergistic with future consideration of development of a National Nuclear Forensics Library to support nuclear forensics investigations.

  5. Petroleum investment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1994-01-01

    There is no specific petroleum legislation as such in place in Kazakhstan and tax legislation is unsophisticated. Regulation of operations is subject to generally applicable legislation. A brief account of the difficulties which exist for both sides in renegotiating a contract is given. Since the competence to enter into contracts with foreign companies has not been fully defined, the first problem when applying for petroleum rights is the identification of a negotiating partner. A summary of terms and conditions and a list of the main laws applicable to petroleum operations are included. (UK)

  6. KAZAKHSTAN ECONOMIC SAFETY RISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rakhmatulina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic safety of the Republic of Kazakhstan essentially depends on how the Republic’s transit potential is used and how internal demands in energy resources are met. There are many legal, investment, technological and other challenges with respect to these aspects. Main ways to solvethe problems are: to form potential transit development legislation conforming to respective international standards; to take specific transport infrastructure modernization measures; to simplify railway and road transport state border crossing procedures; to develop service facilitiesalong interstate trunk roads; to improve competitiveness of domestic oil-processing enterprises; to further develop integrative cooperation withRussia in the oil processing field.

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of mammals from ecologically unfavourable regions of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhapbasov, R.; Sejsebaev, A.T.

    2000-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring of mammals' natural population living in unfavorable regions of Kazakhstan were carried out. With this purpose level of chromosomal aberration and genome mutation different species of mammals were studied in comparative aspect. It was revealed reliable increase of chromosomal disturbances and genome mutation in rodents' somatic cells living in Semipalatinsk test site. Genome instabilities common level for different age sheep keeping on pasture areas of the Semipalatinsk site with different rate of radiation contamination in 2-3 times exceeds indexes of animals from other regions of the Republic. Same chromosomal disturbances in bone marrow cells were established with sheep breeding in Atyrau oblast. In bone marrow of 2-3 year-age of sheep there are 3.61 % cells with chromosomal aberration, 2.96 % cells with hyperploid chromosomes set and 3.28 % with polyploid chromosome set

  8. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    This appendix expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2008). Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  9. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-01-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal

  10. Double tracks test site characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of site characterization activities performed at the Double Tracks Test Site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. Site characterization activities included reviewing historical data from the Double Tracks experiment, previous site investigation efforts, and recent site characterization data. The most recent site characterization activities were conducted in support of an interim corrective action to remediate the Double Tracks Test Site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Site characterization was performed using a phased approach. First, previously collected data and historical records sere compiled and reviewed. Generalized scopes of work were then prepared to fill known data gaps. Field activities were conducted and the collected data were then reviewed to determine whether data gaps were filled and whether other areas needed to be investigated. Additional field efforts were then conducted, as required, to adequately characterize the site. Characterization of the Double Tracks Test Site was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER)

  11. Problems of overcoming medical consequences of nuclear tests at the former Semipalatinsk test site (STS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devyatko, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    Tests conducted for many years resulted in large radioactive contamination of Semipalatinsk, East Kazakhstan, Pavlodar and Karaganda regions. About 1,5 million people underwent multiple acute and chronic influence of small ionizing radiation doses basically.In this connection Ministry of Heals Protection and Social Protection Organizations are worried about the problem of recovering and rehabilitating the population of the above regions. to solve these problems Ministry of Health Protection Republic of Kazakhstan established Scientific Research Institutes of Medicine and Ecology in Semipalatinsk and regional Medical and Diagnostic Center in Kurchatov. With the help of regional Administrations there were created medical centers: diagnostic, children's, recovering, ophthalmological, of motherhood and childhood protection. Work on creating State National Medical Registration for people who underwent influence of ionizing radiation is being performed

  12. Effect of Introducing Xpert MTB/RIF to Test and Treat Individuals at Risk of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Kazakhstan: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Christine van Kampen

    Full Text Available Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert was piloted in Kazakhstan to detect tuberculosis (TB and rifampicin resistance (RR-TB among individuals at risk of multidrug-resistant (MDR- TB. This study assessed the performance of Xpert compared to conventional diagnostic methods, RR-TB case detection among various risk groups, treatment initiation and time to diagnosis and treatment.Eligible individuals were tested with Xpert, smear microscopy, culture and drug-susceptibility testing (DST at the national TB reference laboratory and three provincial laboratories. Data was collected prospectively from August 2012 to May 2013 from routine laboratory and treatment registers.A total of 5,611 Xpert tests were performed mostly targeting contacts of MDR-TB patients, 'other' presumptive MDR-TB patients, and retreatment cases (26%, 24% and 22%, respectively. Compared to phenotypic DST, the positive predictive value of Xpert to detect RR-TB was 93.1% and 96.4% and the negative predictive value was 94.6% and 92.7% using solid and liquid culture media, respectively. RR-TB detection was highest among (former prisoners, retreatment cases, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, and TB patients with positive smears after intensive phase of treatment (59%, 58%, 54% and 53% among TB positives, respectively. 88.9% of RR-TB patients were registered to have started second-line TB treatment. Median time to diagnosis with Xpert was 0.0 days (IQR 0.0-1.0, time from diagnosis to start of first-line treatment 3.0 days (IQR 1.0-7.0, and to start of second-line treatment 7.0 days (IQR 4.0-16.Compared to conventional culture and DST, Xpert had a shorter result turn-around-time and excellent concordance to detect RR-TB. Time from sputum collection to start of second-line treatment was reduced to one week. The yield of Xpert could be maximized by increasing referrals from penitentiary and HIV centers to TB centers.

  13. Effect of Introducing Xpert MTB/RIF to Test and Treat Individuals at Risk of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Kazakhstan: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, Sanne Christine; Tursynbayeva, Aigul; Koptleuova, Aliya; Murzakhmetova, Zauresh; Murzabekova, Zauresh; Bigalieva, Lyazzat; Aubakirova, Moldir; Pak, Svetlana; van den Hof, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) was piloted in Kazakhstan to detect tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance (RR-)TB among individuals at risk of multidrug-resistant (MDR-) TB. This study assessed the performance of Xpert compared to conventional diagnostic methods, RR-TB case detection among various risk groups, treatment initiation and time to diagnosis and treatment. Eligible individuals were tested with Xpert, smear microscopy, culture and drug-susceptibility testing (DST) at the national TB reference laboratory and three provincial laboratories. Data was collected prospectively from August 2012 to May 2013 from routine laboratory and treatment registers. A total of 5,611 Xpert tests were performed mostly targeting contacts of MDR-TB patients, 'other' presumptive MDR-TB patients, and retreatment cases (26%, 24% and 22%, respectively). Compared to phenotypic DST, the positive predictive value of Xpert to detect RR-TB was 93.1% and 96.4% and the negative predictive value was 94.6% and 92.7% using solid and liquid culture media, respectively. RR-TB detection was highest among (former) prisoners, retreatment cases, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and TB patients with positive smears after intensive phase of treatment (59%, 58%, 54% and 53% among TB positives, respectively). 88.9% of RR-TB patients were registered to have started second-line TB treatment. Median time to diagnosis with Xpert was 0.0 days (IQR 0.0-1.0), time from diagnosis to start of first-line treatment 3.0 days (IQR 1.0-7.0), and to start of second-line treatment 7.0 days (IQR 4.0-16). Compared to conventional culture and DST, Xpert had a shorter result turn-around-time and excellent concordance to detect RR-TB. Time from sputum collection to start of second-line treatment was reduced to one week. The yield of Xpert could be maximized by increasing referrals from penitentiary and HIV centers to TB centers.

  14. On the Use of Calibration Explosions at the Former Semipalatinsk Test Site for Compiling a Travel-time Model of the Crust and Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyashova, N. N.; Shacilov, V. I.; Mikhailova, N. N.; Komarov, I. I.; Sinyova, Z. I.; Belyashov, A. V.; Malakhova, M. N.

    - Two chemical calibration explosions, conducted at the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in 1998 with charges of 25 tons and 100 tons TNT, have been used for developing travel-time curves and generalized one-dimensional velocity models of the crust and upper mantle of the platform region of Kazakhstan. The explosions were recorded by a number of digital seismic stations, located in Kazakhstan at distances ranging from 0 to 720km. The travel-time tables developed in this paper cover the phases P, Pn, Pg, S, Sn, Lg in a range of 0-740km and the velocity models apply to the crust down to 44km depth and to the mantle down to 120km. A comparison of the compiled travel-time tables with existing travel-time tables of CSE and IASPEI91 is presented.

  15. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2009a). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  16. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009, Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  17. Radiological Situation at the Bomb Test Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of radiological situation at the selected bomb test sites is presented. The report is based on the reports and measurements performed by IAEA while the author was a head of its Physics-Chemistry-Instrumentation Laboratory. Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll (USA testing ground), Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls (French testing ground) and Semipalatinsk (SSSR testing ground) have been discussed in some details. (author)

  18. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2003 was prepared by Bechtel Nevada to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy and the information needs of the public. This report is meant to be useful to members of the public, public officials, regulators, and Nevada Test Site contractors. The Executive Summary strives to present in a concise format the purpose of the document, the NTS mission and major programs, a summary of radiological releases and doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, and an overview of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Management System. The Executive Summary, combined with the following Compliance Summary, are written to meet all the objectives of the report and to be stand-alone sections for those who choose not to read the entire document.

  19. Interdisciplinary hydrogeologic site characterization at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, W.L.; Wagoner, J.L.; Drellack, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site was established in 1950 as a continental area for testing nuclear devices. Hydrogeologic investigations began in earnest with the US Geological Survey mapping much of the area from 1960 to 1965. Since 1963, all nuclear detonations have been underground. Most tests are conducted in vertical shafts, but a small percentage are conducted in tunnels. The majority of detonation points are above the water table, primarily in volcanic rocks, but sometimes in alluvium. Hydrogeologic investigations began in earnest with the US Geological Survey's mapping of much of the NTS region from 1960 to 1965. Following the BANEBERRY test in December 1970, which produced an accidental release of radioactivity to the atmosphere, the US Department of Energy (then the Atomic Energy Commission) established the Containment Evaluation Panel (CEP). Results of interdisciplinary hydrogeologic investigations for each test location are included in a Containment Prospectus which is thoroughly reviewed by the CEP

  20. Report of the actual conditions of the radiation exposed residents near the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Noriyuki; Taooka, Yasuyuki; Hiraoka, Takashi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shaimardanovich, Z.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Hiroshima Peace Science Consortium, established in 2002 as part of the local cooperation project of Hiroshima University for peace science, conducted a field research in Semipalatinsk and related areas in 2002 to collect and analyze data on health effects of radiation experiences of people exposed to nuclear test radiation. This book is a report of the research and contains Introductory remarks; 6 chapters of Overview of the study, Medical information analysis on the radiation exposed residents near the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site using questionnaire, Content analysis of testimonies written by hibakusha near the nuclear test site of Semipalatinsk, Comments on the interview, Significance of collecting testimonies of those exposed to radiation in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan/in comparison with those of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and Future tasks and prospective; Conclusion; and 2 Appendices of Research on the conditions of radiation exposure survey response sheet and Testimonies. (N.I.)

  1. Radiostrontium contamination of soil and vegetation within the Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B J; Semioschkina, N; Voigt, G; Mukusheva, M; Clifford, J

    2004-12-01

    The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan was an important site for testing atomic bombs and other civil and military nuclear devices of the former Soviet Union. Results are presented from investigations on the extent of radiostrontium contamination in soils and vegetation at the technical areas of the STS, where the tests were conducted and in pastures used by farmers for grazing animals or for hay production. Our data are compared with those reported largely in the recent Russian language literature that has been reviewed. The extent of (90)Sr contamination of soil is highly variable over the STS with the highest values associated with the technical areas, particularly the Degelen mountains. Recently measured values in both the present data and the Russian language literature confirm the relatively high current contamination of soil and vegetation in the vicinity of tunnels and associated watercourses in the Degelen area. The proportion of (90)Sr in soil which could not be extracted with 6 M HCl was only an average of 20%, which is low compared to other test site areas and possibly indicates a relatively high mobility in this area, because the (90)Sr is derived from leakage from explosion tunnels along watercourses rather than being associated with fused silicates. A comparison of relative activity concentrations in soil and vegetation suggests that the transfer of (90)Sr to vegetation on the STS is high compared to that of (137)Cs and plutonium.

  2. Selection of NPP for Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhotabaev, Zh.R.

    2003-01-01

    Commercial NPP for Kazakhstan should to meet to several main requirements: 1). Safety operation (accident probability not more than 10 -6 1/p. year). 2). High efficiency > 40 %. 3). Possibility of use for high-temperature chemistry and hydrogen production. 4). Possibility for manufacturing of considerable part of equipment in Kazakhstan. 5). Possibility for fuel production and reprocessing in Kazakhstan. 6). Independence from existence of large water-supply sources. Comparative analysis of several NPP with different reactors (WWR-1000, Candu, BREST, VG-400; graphite molten salt reactor) shows that NPP with the graphite molten salt reactor meets to all above requirements, but hydrogen production it is possible by more complete 4-stage technology, since coolant temperature is 800 Deg. C. The principle advantage is possibility of manufacturing of main equipment and fuel in Kazakhstan that reduce the cost of NPP construction and operation

  3. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-10-01

    The ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' was prepared by Bechtel Nevada (BN) to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2004''. It was produced this year to provide a more cost-effective and wider distribution of a hardcopy summary of the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' to interested DOE stakeholders.

  4. Radiological assessment of long-term effects at the Semipalatinsk test site. NATO-Semipalatinsk Project 1995/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.; Bouisset, P.; Calmet, D.; Kluson, J.; Smagulov, S.; Sysebaev, A.

    1996-12-01

    To determine the long-term consequences of atmospheric atomic bomb tests for the population in the surroundings of the former nuclear weapons test site near Semipalatinsk, studies were performed by international cooperation between Kazakh, French, Czech and German institutions at two measuring locations (Moistik, Maisk) in Kazakhstan. Moistik is a village close to Dolon and downwind of the first atomic bomb explosion on August 29, 1947. Maisk is close to Kurchatov and not too far from ground zero. With financial support from NATO, nine experts from Europe went on a field mission to Kazakhstan in September 1995 to assess, together with Kazakh scientists, the radiological situation as far as external doses, environmental contamination and body burden of man are concerned. The results show that surface contamination from nuclear weapons tests has in the meantime decayed to a large extent. External doses largely correspond to the natural background. The remaining incorporation of longer-lived radionuclides is also slight and in 1995 merely led to an annual dose of less than 1% of the natural radiation exposure for 137 Cs and 90 Sr. The question of a dose contribution by the possible incorporation of 239 Pu remains open. Life in the villages of Maisk and Moistik does not currently involve any radiological threat to the inhabitants. However, dose reconstruction for the older inhabitants directly affected by aboveground atomic weapons tests remains difficult. (orig.)

  5. FRANCHISE EXPECTATIONS: CASE OF KAZAKHSTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Raissa Kaziyeva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to provide a critical review of franchising development in Kazakhstan by focusing on the relationship between the franchisor and the franchisee. We have conducted extensive research and communicated with lots of potential and existing Kazakhstani franchisors and franchisees, operating since 2003. Our findings show that the process of signing franchising agreements is quite challenging in Kazakhstan.  Thorough investigation of the differences between expectations ...

  6. Radon measurement studies in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevost'yanov, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    Today, one has to admit that despite the important role and certain achievements in providing the radiation control in Kazakhstan, radon measurements still present some problems related to clear definition of physical quantities applied, correct use of methods, and application of adequate measuring devices to meet requirements of regulatory documents currently in effect, such as NRB-99. The paper provides some data on radon measurements, describes the problem status in Kazakhstan and proposes ways to solve it. (author)

  7. Around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: Progress of dose estimations relevant to the consequences of nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, Valeriy F.; Hoshi, Masaharu; Bailiff, Ian K.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is an analytical overview of the main results presented at the 3rd Dosimetry Workshop in Hiroshima (9-11 of March 2005), where different aspects of the dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) were discussed and summarized. The results of the international intercomparison of the retrospective luminescence dosimetry (RLD) method for Dolon' village (Kazakhstan) were presented at the Workshop and good concurrence between dose estimations by different laboratories from 6 countries (Japan, Russia, USA, Germany, Finland and UK) was pointed out. The accumulated dose values in brick for a common depth of 10 mm depth of 10 mm depth obtained independently by all participating laboratories were in good agreement for all four brick samples from Dolon' village, Kazakhstan, with the average value of the local gamma dose due to fallout (near the sampling locations) being about 220 mGy (background dose has been subtracted). Furthermore, using a conversion factor of about 2 to obtain the free-in-air dose, a value of local dose ∼440 mGy is obtained, which supports the results of external dose calculations for Dolon': recently published soil contamination data, archive information and new models were used for refining dose calculations and the external dose in air for Dolon village was estimated to be about 500 mGy. The results of electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry with tooth enamel have demonstrated the notable progress in application of ESR dosimetry to the problems of dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. At the present moment, dose estimates by the ESR method have become more consistent with calculated values and with retrospective luminescence dosimetry data, but differences between ESR dose estimates and RLD/calculation data were noted. For example mean ESR dose for eligible tooth samples from Dolon' village was estimated to be about 140 mGy (above background dose), which is less than dose values obtained

  8. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  9. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  10. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wruble, D T; McDowell, E M [eds.

    1990-11-01

    Prior to 1989 annual reports of environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were prepared in two separate parts. Onsite effluent monitoring and environmental monitoring results were reported in an onsite report prepared by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Results of the offsite radiological surveillance program conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada, were reported separately by that Agency. Beginning with this 1989 annual Site environmental report for the NTS, these two documents are being combined into a single report to provide a more comprehensive annual documentation of the environmental protection program conducted for the nuclear testing program and other nuclear and non-nuclear activities at the Site. The two agencies have coordinated preparation of this combined onsite and offsite report through sharing of information on environmental releases and meteorological, hydrological, and other supporting data used in dose-estimate calculations. 57 refs., 52 figs., 65 tabs.

  11. Influence of the atomic industry branches' on the Kazakhstan environment status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraev, R.; Tugel'baev, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper an the atomic industry branches' influence on the Kazakhstan environment status is considered. It is noted that Kazakhstan in only country in the world where nuclear strategic programs (USSR and CIS) were carried out without control, any limits, wide-scaly and in a full cycle. This is mine, reprocessing of strategic ores, preparation (partial), testing and use of nuclear and thermonuclear warheads in both military and peaceful aims, radioactive wastes disposal. Due to non-observance by industry branches of the principal normative requirements of radiation safety (were in existence and present ones) in the republic there is not territorial delimitation of the special objects with control area that caused negative influence of these objected were exposed vast regions both out-side and inter-sites area. So Kazakhstan nature scale-wide contamination is the existing reality. It is stressed, that mining and reprocessing uranium enterprises have negative contribution in the bio-geo-media. In this case it is especially hazard the underground sulfuric leaching technology is applying in the uranium mine industry. The technology is much cheaper but it ecologically in dozen times danger in comparison with applied in other countries the carbonate leaching method

  12. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2007. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This report meets these objectives for the NTS and three offsite Nevada facilities mentioned in this report.

  13. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathy Wills

    2008-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2007. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This report meets these objectives for the NTS and three offsite Nevada facilities mentioned in this report

  14. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2007 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  15. Geologic structure of Semipalatinsk test site territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaliev, G.Kh.; Myasnikov, A.K.; Nikitina, O.I.; Sergeeva, L.V.

    2000-01-01

    This article gives a short description of the territory of Semipalatinsk test site. Poor knowledge of the region is noted, and it tells us about new data on stratigraphy and geology of Paleozoic layers, obtained after termination of underground nuclear explosions. The paper contains a list a questions on stratigraphy, structural, tectonic and geologic formation of the territory, that require additional study. (author)

  16. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs) are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1A, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NTSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2009 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL)-Nellis. It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  17. Contemporary radioecological situation on the Republic of Kazakhstan territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malgazhdarov, S. M.

    2001-01-01

    Common radioecological situation related with nuclear tests and radioactive waste disposal in Kazakhstan is considered. It is noted, that area of three tests sites are contaminated by products of nuclear tests. In the result of atmospheric tests on Semipalatinsk test site (STS) the strontium-90 and cesium-137 with activity 0.62·10 17 and 1·10 17 Bq, relatively have being formed. Because of radioactive gases release into atmosphere after underground explosions on STS the cesium-137 with activity 1.1-1.5·10 15 Ci has been discharged. Total activity of nuclear explosions wastes make up 4.77·10 18 Bq. In the modern conditions after termination of all kinds of test the main source of environment contamination are wastes of uranium mining industry, with total mass - 217.7 million tones and sum activity 8.8·10 18 Bq. Global contamination of environment by products of nuclear decay results to widespread increase of natural radiation background, which varying from 10 to 10,000 μR/h. However, high values of exposure doses capacity are keeping only on the places where open nuclear tests are conducted (200-10,000 μR/h) and places of nuclear wastes disposal (2,800-50,000 μR/h)

  18. Risk Perception of Radiation Exposure of Villagers Living Near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis-Roberts, K. L.

    2006-12-01

    Connecting scientific data to societal needs is particularly important with the complex environmental issues that face us in the near future, such as global warming and natural hazards. Once the scientific data is collected and analyzed, dissemination of the results needs to be communicated to the public in a way that can be easily understood without glossing over the complexity of the issue. An interesting case study derives from the primary nuclear test site for the former Soviet Union, located near the city of Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan. Villagers living directly adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were exposed continuously to radioactive clouds from atmospheric, above ground and underground nuclear tests. The people living in the region are still exposed to low levels of radiation through the environmental contamination of their food and water and have experienced a higher incidence of cancers and birth defects than people living in other regions of the country. A database of historical environmental data was collected throughout the nuclear testing period by the Soviet government, tracking radiation concentrations through food, water, and soil samples around the SNTS, but this environmental data was never shared with the villagers. In fact, only after the Soviet Union fell apart in 1989 did the people discover that they had been exposed to radiation during the past 40 years. Through preliminary interviews with villagers, physicians, and scientists who live near the SNTS, it was discovered that the three groups viewed the risk of radiation exposure very differently. By developing a risk perception survey to understand how the different groups perceived radiation risk, and then comparing the scientific data to the survey results, a better way to communicate the risk could be developed. The risk perception survey was given to over 800 people in East Kazakhstan Oblast, including villagers living near the SNTS, scientists who study the

  19. Wave Pattern Peculiarities of Different Types of Explosions Conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2014-05-01

    The historical seismograms of the explosions conducted at the STS in 1949 - 1989 are of great interest for the researchers in the field of monitoring. Large number of air (86), surface (30) and underground nuclear explosions were conducted here in boreholes and tunnels (340). In addition to nuclear explosions, large chemical explosions were conducted at the Test Site. It is known that tectonic earthquakes occur on the Test Site territory and near it. Since 2005 the Institute of Geophysical Researches conducts works on digitizing the historical seismograms of nuclear explosions. Currently, the database contains more than 6000 digitized seismograms of nuclear explosions used for investigative monitoring tasks, major part of them (4000) are events from the STS region. Dynamic parameters of records of air, surface and underground nuclear explosions, as well as large chemical explosions with compact charge laying were investigated for seismic stations located on the territory of Kazakhstan using digitized records of the STS events. In addition, the comparison between salvo wave pattern and single explosions was conducted. The records of permanent and temporary seismic stations (epicentral distances range 100 - 800 km) were used for the investigations. Explosions spectra were analyzed, specific features of each class of events were found. The seismograms analysis shows that the wave pattern depends significantly on the explosion site and on the source type.

  20. PSYCHROPHILIC PSEUDOMONAS SP. RESISTANT TO MERCURY FROM PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    As mercury circulates and deposits globally, the remediation of extensive mercury contamination surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan is critical. High-levels of mercury contamination exist within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and e...

  1. THE BEHAVIOR OF MICROORGANISMS RESISTANT TO MERCURY FROM PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is extensive mercury contamination surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan that operated from 1970 to 1990. High-level mercury contamination exists within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and evaporation ponds, in Balkyldak Lake w...

  2. Electricity demand in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakhanova, Zauresh; Howie, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Properties of electricity demand in transition economies have not been sufficiently well researched mostly due to data limitations. However, information on the properties of electricity demand is necessary for policy makers to evaluate effects of price changes on different consumers and obtain demand forecasts for capacity planning. This study estimates Kazakhstan's aggregate demand for electricity as well as electricity demand in the industrial, service, and residential sectors using regional data. Firstly, our results show that price elasticity of demand in all sectors is low. This fact suggests that there is considerable room for price increases necessary to finance generation and distribution system upgrading. Secondly, we find that income elasticity of demand in the aggregate and all sectoral models is less than unity. Of the three sectors, electricity demand in the residential sector has the lowest income elasticity. This result indicates that policy initiatives to secure affordability of electricity consumption to lower income residential consumers may be required. Finally, our forecast shows that electricity demand may grow at either 3% or 5% per year depending on rates of economic growth and government policy regarding price increases and promotion of efficiency. We find that planned supply increases would be sufficient to cover growing demand only if real electricity prices start to increase toward long-run cost-recovery levels and policy measures are implemented to maintain the current high growth of electricity efficiency

  3. Computerised safeguards in Kazakhstan and its problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeligbayeva, G.Zh.

    1999-01-01

    Hereby will be described the Kazakhstan computerized safeguards system. Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency (KAEA) developed guides concerning of Y2K problem for facilities. The results of preliminary analyze of this problem are presented. (author)

  4. Atomic industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhakishev, M.E.; Yazikov, V.G.; Dujsebaev, B.O.

    2001-01-01

    The report presents a structure of uranium-extractive industry in the Republic of Kazakhstan and the prospects of atomic industry in the Republic of Kazakhstan in the aspect of uranium world market tendencies. (author)

  5. Nuclear test at Semipalatinsk test site and their environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logachev, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper present classification of nuclear tests conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site by tier radiation hazards. The Institute of Biophysics of the Russian Ministry of Health established a data base the archival data on radiation situation parameters and compiled an album of radioactive plum footprints. The paper states that external and internal exposure doses received by population lived in the test vicinity can sufficiently reliably assesses using archival data. (author)

  6. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  7. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts

  8. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts.

  9. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal

  10. Plutonium in the air in Kurchatov, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, J.; Salminen, S.; Jaakkola, T.; Outola, I.; Pulli, S. [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Tarvainen, M.; Ristonmaa, S. [Finnish Authority for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Zilliacus, R. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Ossintsev, A.; Larin, V. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan)

    2006-07-31

    Weekly air samples of 25000 m{sup 3} volume were taken with two air samplers over a period of one year in 2000-2001 in the town of Kurchatov in Kazakhstan. For another three-month period in 2001, the samplers were run in the city of Astana, about 500 km west of Kurchatov. {sup 137}Cs, Pu and U concentrations were determined from the filters. Pu activities in Kurchatov varied in a 100-fold range; median {sup 239,240}Pu activities were 100 nBq/m{sup 3} and {sup 238}Pu activities 34 nBq/m{sup 3}. The corresponding values for Astana were considerably lower: 29 and 9 nBq/m{sup 3}, respectively, and in half of the filters the {sup 238}Pu activity was below the detection limit. Plutonium concentration correlated with the amount of dust retained on the filters only at the highest dust loads. Also no correlation between wind speed and the plutonium activity in the filters was observed. Thus, resuspension does not seem to be the mechanism responsible for the airborne plutonium. No clear seasonal variation of Pu air concentration was observed, though levels were somewhat elevated in February to April. There was no correlation between the plutonium and {sup 137}Cs concentrations. In most of the filters the cesium concentration was below the detection limit, but in those filters where it could be detected the cesium concentration was practically constant at 3.9+/-1.6 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}. Dose estimation for the inhalation of the airborne plutonium gave a low value of 0.018 {mu}Sv/a for the inhabitants in Kurchatov, which is about a thousand times lower than the dose caused by the naturally occurring {sup 210}Po. Air parcel trajectory analysis indicated that the observed Pu activities in the air could not unambiguously be attributed to the most contaminated areas at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. (author)

  11. Hydrogeologic investigations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, W.L.; Trudeau, D.A.; Drellack, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site was established in 1950 as a continental area for testing nuclear devices and, since 1963, all nuclear detonations there have been underground. Most tests are conducted in vertical shafts with a small percentage conducted in tunnels. The majority of detonation points are above the water table, primarily in volcanic rocks or alluvium. In the testing areas the water table is 450--700 m below the surface. Pre- and post- event geologic investigations are conducted for each test location and long-term studies assess the impact of underground testing on a more regional scale. Studies in progress have not identified any impact on the regional ground water system from testing, but some local effects have been recognized. In some areas where several large tests have been conducted below the water table, water levels hundreds of meters above the regional water table have been measured and radioactivity has been discovered associated with fractures in a few holes. Flow-through and straddle packer testing has revealed unexpectedly high hydraulic pressures at depth. Recently, a multiple completion monitoring well installed to study three zones has confirmed the existence of a significant upward hydraulic gradient. These observations of local pressurization and fracture flow are being further explored to determine the influence of underground nuclear testing on the regional hydrogeologic system

  12. Report on the actual conditions of the radiation exposed residents near the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Noriyuki; Taooka, Yasuyuki; Hiraoka, Takashi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Zhumadilov Zhaxybay Shaimardanovich

    2003-03-01

    This report describes results of the investigation conducted in July 2002 on the health and exposure of the residents in the title of the Kazakhstan Republic, involving the summary of the investigation; hearing of the residents' health states and philological considerations; verbal evidences on the exposure around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and their analysis; impressions on the above hearing results; significance of the hearing results in relation to those in ''Hiroshima and Nagasaki''; perspective; and appendix materials (composing 1/2 volume of the report) on the investigation schedule and participants, questionnaire in Japanese and Russian, their actual answering examples in Russian and Kazakhstan languages, pictures drawn in the answering, and appeared newspaper articles related to the present investigation. The exposure in Semipalatinsk is the low dose rate one occurring in the range of several weeks to months, differing from that in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (immediate exposure). Therefore, the present investigation that has been being done for 8 years, can give a novel knowledge on the effects of the low dose rate radiation on humans. (N.I.)

  13. Energy wealth and tax reform in Russia and Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinthal, E.; Luong, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Resource-rich states throughout the developing world are prone to rent-seeking, excessive borrowing, wasteful spending, and unbalanced growth as well as states with weak institutions and authoritarian regimes. Are the five energy-rich Soviet successor states necessarily doomed to repeat this experience, often referred to as the 'resource curse'? This paper advances and tests the hypothesis that Russia and Kazakhstan are more likely to avoid the 'resource curse' than Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan because they privatized their energy sectors. Specifically, we find that privatization offers a potential path out of the 'resource curse' when it involves a transfer of ownership to domestic actors. Although Kazakhstan initially appeared to be developing a viable tax regime in response to foreign investors, over the long term Kazakhstan's tax regime has become increasingly volatile and dependent upon these foreign investors. In contrast, domestic oil companies are helping to foster the development of an increasingly viable tax regime in Russia. (author)

  14. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NNSA/NSO prepares the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) to provide the public an understanding of the environmental monitoring and compliance activities that are conducted on the NTS to protect the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. This summary provides an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER. It does not contain detailed descriptions or presentations of monitoring designs, data collection methods, data tables, the NTS environment, or all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  15. Freshwater algae of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.D.; Giles, K.R.

    1979-06-01

    Fifty-two species of freshwater algae were identified in samples collected from the eight known natural springs of the Nevada Test Site. Although several species were widespread, 29 species were site specific. Diatoms provided the greatest variety of species at each spring. Three-fifths of all algal species encountered were diatoms. Well-developed mats of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) were common in many of the water tanks associated with the springs and accounted for most of the algal biomass. Major nutrients were adequate, if not abundant, in most spring waters - growth being limited primarily by light and physical habitat. There was some evidence of cesium-137 bioconcentration by algae at several of the springs

  16. Implementing the ICPD Plan of Action in Central Asian Republics and Kazakhstan (CARAK). Kazakhstan. Looming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujsekeev, A; Kajupova, N

    1995-01-01

    An ecological disaster besets the central Asian republic of Kazakhstan. The Aral Sea has shrunk so much, due to removal of its water for massive irrigation projects, that it may even disappear soon. The soils of the coastal zone have been degraded and denuded. Radiation activity from nuclear tests and chemical fertilizers pose a major health hazard. The poor economy and declining social services exacerbate Kazakhstan's problems. The new Republic of Kazakhstan has passed legislation that denotes the state and society as protectors of family, maternity, paternity, and childhood. Women comprise 62% of specialists with higher and secondary specialized education. Their critical contribution to the national economy merits policies to protect the social, economic, and health status of women. The quality of their reproductive health connects them with their social and economic status. Kazakhstan's relatively high maternal mortality rate has fallen over the last four years. Complications of pregnancy and labor as well as during the postpartum period account for most causes of maternal death. The percentage of maternal deaths from such complications has declined from 40% to 31.1% between 1991 and 1993. In fact, the percentage of maternal deaths from other causes has also decreased. The general state of women's health, reproductive function, and the quality of health services are interdependent factors influencing maternal mortality. The main determinants of maternal mortality are maternal age and parity, especially when the birth interval is less than two years. Unwanted pregnancies contribute greatly to maternal mortality. Health officials consider family planning to be a means to prevent and reduce abortions. They use the mass media to inform the public about family planning and the reproductive system. They promote breast feeding.

  17. Eurasia International Sculpture Biennale, Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Heywood, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The first Eurasia International Sculpture Biennale was held from 4 July to 4 August 2017 in the atrium of the Palace of Peace and Reconciliation as one of the most important events of the cultural program EXPO-2017, commissioned by the Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  18. Information report of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrey, K.

    2000-01-01

    Since the beginning of 50 th years in Kazakhstan there exists a number of industries producing different radioactive wastes. Also, on the territory of the Kazakhstan more than 400 nuclear explosions have taken place. According to the sources of origin all radioactive wastes are divided into 5 types: uranium processing and geological works - 250 000 Ci, 219 mill. t; mining and processing with high content of radioactive elements - 519 Ci, 1,57 mill. t; nuclear explosions - 11 600 Ci (surface) and 12, 87 mill. Ci (underground), 12.3 mill. t; nuclear sites - power 26562 Ci, 9000 t intermediate activity); research - 50 Ci 3000 t (low activity); isotope production - 25 000 Ci, 100 000 pieces. In connection with the decommissioning of the fast breeder reactor BN-350 in Aktau and exploration of oil deposits in West Kazakstan a considerable growth of the radioactive waste on the territory is expected. A decision for the building of a regional storage facility on the territory of Aktau city has been adopted. The general contractor for design and construction of the facility as well for decommissioning of the BR-350 is Open Joint Stock Company 'KATEP'

  19. Application Features of Language Acquisition Assessment System in Kazakhstan: KAZTEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinayeva, Bekzat B.; Sapina, Sabira M.; Utanova, Aizada K.; Aitova, Nurlykhan N.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of peculiarities of language acquisition assessment system in Kazakhstan--KAZTEST. The author pays attention to the role of control as a way of assessment students' skills, habits and knowledge. In addition, author determined the place and functions of tests as a form of control. The author explores the…

  20. Rehabilitation of nuclear test site at Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, P.

    1997-01-01

    A program to rehabilitate contaminated areas at the Maralinga Nuclear Test Range in South Australia is being undertaken by the Australian Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE). A major part of the program is directed at reducing the risk presented by the contaminated debris buried at Taranaki, Maralinga's most heavily contaminated site. The rehabilitation program is using the insitu vitrification technology developed for the US Department of Energy. The program is now in its third phase, involving the construction of the full-scale treatment plant. This will be completed later this year. The fourth and last phase will involve the treatment of the Taranaki pits. This will commence in 1998. Tests carried out so far indicated that the normalized leach rates for all oxides in the vitrified product were less than 0.1g/m 2 . ills

  1. Nevada test site water-supply wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, D.; Donithan, D.; Seaber, P.

    1996-05-01

    A total of 15 water-supply wells are currently being used at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The purpose of this report is to bring together the information gleaned from investigations of these water-supply wells. This report should serve as a reference on well construction and completion, static water levels, lithologic and hydrologic characteristics of aquifers penetrated, and general water quality of water-supply wells at the NTS. Possible sources for contamination of the water-supply wells are also evaluated. Existing wells and underground nuclear tests conducted near (within 25 meters (m)) or below the water table within 2 kilometers (km) of a water-supply were located and their hydrogeologic relationship to the water-supply well determined

  2. GES [Ground Engineering System] test site preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.; Schade, A.R.; Toyoda, K.G.

    1987-10-01

    Activities are under way at Hanford to convert the 309 containment building and its associated service wing to a nuclear test facility for the Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Conceptual design is about 80% complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system, a test article cell and handing system, control and data handling systems, and safety andl auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 25% complete. Cleanout of some 1000 m 3 of equipment from the earlier reactor test in the facility is 85% complete. An Environmental Assessment was prepared and revised to incorporate Department of Energy (DOE) comments. It is now in the DOE approval chain, where a Finding of No Significant Impact is expected. During the next year, definite design will be well advanced, long-lead procurements will be initiated, construction planning will be completed, an operator training plan will be prepared, and the site (preliminary) safety analysis report will be drafted

  3. Radiation exposure and health damage of residents at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolebay, Rakhypbekov; Noso, Yoshihiro; Takechi, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Although the nuclear test site of Semipalatinsk (former Soviet Union and presently the Republic of Kazakhstan) stopped nuclear tests 25 years ago, there are presumably more than 200,000 victims near the site, including persons with a low dose and a high dose. Semey Medical University and Shimane University, together with the Kazakh Scientific Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology, have been conducting the measurement of radiation concentration of soil and the thyroid screening of residents. The following were surveyed: (1) chromosomal abnormality for 55 female residents (average 45 years in age) in heavily polluted areas and 25 female residents (average 42 years in age) in non-polluted areas, (2) mental abnormality of residents in polluted areas and non-polluted areas of Semey City, and (3) changes in the frequency of surgery cases for cancer between 1989 and 2014 at Semey Medical University Cancer Center. As for chromosomal abnormality, 3-5 times many mutation cases were observed in heavily polluted areas than in non-polluted areas. The nodules of thyroid gland were four times more frequent in heavily polluted areas. The frequency of a whole variety of cancers was nearly twice in polluted areas compared with in non-polluted areas, most of which were digestive system cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer in the order. The frequency of mental abnormality has also increased nearly twice as compared to non-polluted areas, and it included neurological disorder, adjustment disorder, neuralgia, moderate depression, and learning disability. These results suggest that some physical effects can be caused by exposure. In the future, this study will investigate the effects of radiation exposure at the nuclear test site. (A.O.)

  4. Immediate tasks in realization of 52-53 Sessions of United Nations Organization General Assembly resolution on Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraev, S.

    2000-01-01

    The author points out, that ecological heritage of Semipalatinsk test site is not studied, scattered investigations does not give objective assessment about radiation situation in the region. Only operations of close down of wells on the base of inter-state agreement between Republic of Kazakhstan and the United States of America were carried out. There are following main rehabilitation measures on liquidation of nuclear tests consequences in the region: study, deactivation and re-cultivation of populated territories; study of radioactive contamination level in underground waters and definition radionuclides migration by biological chain for taking preventative measures. It is noted, that citizens of the region with gratitude took solution of 52-53 Sessions of United Nations Organization General Assembly 'On liquidation of nuclear tests consequences on Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

  5. Nevada test site waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document

  6. Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Management Plan (RMP) describes the NTS Stewardship Mission and how its accomplishment will preserve the resources of the ecoregion while accomplishing the objectives of the mission. The NTS Stewardship Mission is to manage the land and facilities at the NTS as a unique and valuable national resource. The RMP has defined goals for twelve resource areas based on the principles of ecosystem management. These goals were established using an interdisciplinary team of DOE/NV resource specialists with input from surrounding land managers, private parties, and representatives of Native American governments. The overall goal of the RMP is to facilitate improved NTS land use management decisions within the Great Basin and Mojave Desert ecoregions.

  7. Nevada test site waste acceptance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document.

  8. Kazakhstan: there are no nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golev, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the article it is noted, that in 1992 Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Ukraine signed Strategic Attack Weapon-1 Treaty, and actually refuse from nuclear bases on theirs territories. On the whole Kazakhstan had in technical capability two missile basis and one basis of strategic bombardment aviation. During 1996-1999 in period of nuclear objects liquidation in Kazakhstan 96 S S-18 missiles and 18,000 tones components of missile fuel were taken out to Russia

  9. Business Ethical Decisions In Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn Erdener

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of a larger study designed to explore the effects of ethnicity, nationality, and gender on responses to a variety of business ethical dilemmas in Central Asia.  The data were collected in spring 2010 from MBA students at an American-style business school located in Kazakhstan.  The findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the conceptual categories of western philosophies of ethics (utilitarianism, deontology, individual rights, justice, etc.).  Possible implica...

  10. Radiating conditions in Republic Kazakhstan and measures accepted on its improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baev, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    Radiating conditions in republic remains intense. The complication of radiating conditions in territory of Republic Kazakhstan is caused: by activity of former Semipalatinsk test nuclear range; by nuclear explosions executed for the decision of economic task; by functioning of the enterprises of a nuclear-industrial complex and connected with production and processing of poly metal ores, oil and gas; by natural anomalies of radionuclide in objects of an environment. The radioactive deposits on traces of radioactive clouds were distributed to territory 304 thousand km 2 , on with lives more than 1.7 m. persons. In 711 settlements the effective doze exceeded sanitary annual norm at a rate of 0.1 rad. The maximal meanings reach 448 rad for the whole period of tests (s.Dolon). For an estimation of a radiating situation practically in the whole territory of a Semipalatinsk zone of ecological disaster dURING 1993 - 1996 the radioecological researches which have allowed to reveal and localize territory with above permitted standard pollution radionuclides as artificial, and natural origin, and also heavy metals and other toxic elements are carried out (spent). However there is poorly investigated a situation with a level of pollution plutonium-239 and other transuranium elements.Only last years the radiating inspection of the third of territory of republic, 34 cities and 55 settlements is carried out (spent), where is revealed and up to thousand unattended radioactive sources and subjects is withdrawn, some hundreds sites of radioactive pollution are located. Nowadays in Kazakhstan the large work on the tx of the information about all radiating supervision in territory of republic for last 40 years is carried out and these items of information prepare for the opened publication as the collection 'Radioecological conditions in Republic Kazakhstan'

  11. Kazakhstan big oil transportation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakipov, K.E.; Mazhkenov, S.A.; Kunaev, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    One the most important priority identified with the framework of the long-term Republican development aim implementation defined in the Programme of Long-Term Development of Republic of Kazakhstan by 2030 is exploration of huge hydrocarbon reserves. Strategic direction of Kazakhstan petroleum industry development is a comprehensive approach towards the improvement all elements of the complex processing chain, from exploration to production and from transportation to oil and processed product marketing. Republican Association of Young Engineers and Specialists, Engineering Academy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RAMIS EA RK) considers the most perspective and realistic route. The pipeline will pass from Western region of Kazakhstan to Kumkol further via the existing Omsk-Chardzhou pipeline, Turkmenistan, Western Afghanistan, Pakistan to sea terminal; on the Pakistan coast of the Arabian Sea. Omsk-Chardzhou pipeline was built 12 years ago and is currently no operating. Its length is 2.000 km with 1.800 km crossing Kazakhstan's territory. Even now this pipeline is enable of transporting up to 20 million tonnes of oil per year with the optional increase up to 30 million. Construction of similar pipeline could have cost $2 billion. Connecting Atyrau-Kumkol and Omsk-Chardzhou pipelines could enable Russia and Kazakhstan to penetrate, via Central Asia, Indian and South Asian countries to the Arabian Sea. According to the World Bank Data this region will be rapidly developing within next 15-20 years. During 1995-2010 the estimated demand for the hydrocarbon should double, from 18.0 to 31.69 million tonnes per annual. This means an annual average growth rate of 3.8 %, the highest demand growth rate in the world on petroleum. Transportation of one barrel of West-Siberian oil via Omsk-Pavlodar-Shymkent-Chardzhou route towards the Indian Ocean will bring additional two dollars revenue as compared with the existing route transportation. For the pre-Caspian oil revenue will reach

  12. Testing the ecological site group concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2016 “Ecological Sites for Landscape Management” special issue of Rangelands recommended an update to our thinking of Ecological Sites, suggesting that in our desire to make Ecological Sites more quantitative, we abandoned consideration of Ecological Sites’ spatial context. In response, Ecologic...

  13. Environmental assessment for double tracks test site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), with appropriate approvals from the U.S. Air Force (USAF), proposes to conduct environmental restoration operations at the Double Tracks test site located on the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in Nye County, Nevada. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental consequences of four alternative actions for conducting the restoration operation and of the no action alternative. The EA also identifies mitigation measures, where appropriate, designed to protect natural and cultural resources and reduce impacts to human health and safety. The environmental restoration operation at the Double Tracks test site would serve two primary objectives. First, the proposed work would evaluate the effectiveness of future restoration operations involving contamination over larger areas. The project would implement remediation technology options and evaluate how these technologies could be applied to the larger areas of contaminated soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), and the NAFR. Second, the remediation would provide for the removal of plutonium contamination down to or below a predetermined level which would require cleanup of 1 hectare (ha) (2.5 acres), for the most likely case, or up to 3.0 ha (7.4 acres) of contaminated soil, for the upper bounding case

  14. Interpreting Results from the Standardized UXO Test Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    May, Michael; Tuley, Michael

    2007-01-01

    ...) and the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESCTP) to complete a detailed analysis of the results of testing carried out at the Standardized Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Test Sites...

  15. Radiation exposures from nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, G M

    1958-12-01

    A summary of the pertinent data on radiation exposures from nuclear tests in Nevada is presented. The data are presented in categories of external ..gamma.. radiation, activity concentrations in air, and activity concentrations in water. Methods used to estimate exposure and to evaluate data are described. The data are tabulated. The maximum external exposure was 7 to 8 r for 15 persons involved. In terms of relatively large populations, the average exposure for the 1,000,000 people living nearest the site was at the rate of 1/2 r/30 yr. The highest concentration of fallout activity in the air was about 1.3 ..mu..c/m/sup 3/ averaged over the 30 hr that the activity was present in significant quantities. The highest concentration of fallout activity in a potential drinking water supply was about 1.4 x 10/sup -/ ..mu..c/me extrapolated to D + 3 days. Evaluation of these data is given.

  16. Nevada Test Site Site Treatment Plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Treatment Plans (STPS) are required for facilities at which the US Department of Energy (DOE) or stores mixed waste, defined by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) as waste containing both a hazardous waste subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and a radioactive material subject to the Atomic Energy Act. On April 6, 1993, DOE published a Federal Register notice (58 FR 17875) describing its proposed process for developing the STPs in three phases including a Conceptual, a Draft, and a Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). All of the DOE Nevada Operations Office STP iterations have been developed with the state of Nevada's input. The options and schedules reflect a ''bottoms-up'' approach and have been evaluated for impacts on other DOE sites, as well as impacts to the overall DOE program. Changes may have occurred in the preferred option and associated schedules between the PSTP, which was submitted to the state of Nevada and US Environmental Protection Agency April 1995, and the Final STP (hereafter referred to as the STP) as treatment evaluations progressed. The STP includes changes that have occurred since the submittal of the PSTP as a result of state-to-state and DOE-to-state discussions

  17. Nevada Test Site, site treatment plan 1999 annual update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    A Site Treatment Plan (STP) is required for facilities at which the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) generates or stores mixed waste (MW), defined by the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFC Act) as waste containing both a hazardous waste subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and a radioactive material subject to the Atomic Energy Act. This STP was written to identify specific treatment facilities for treating DOE/NV generated MW and provides proposed implementation schedules. This STP was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and provided the basis for the negotiation and issuance of the FFC Act Consent Order (CO) dated March 6, 1996, and revised June 15, 1998. The FFC Act CO sets forth stringent regulatory requirements to comply with the implementation of the STP

  18. Republic of Kazakhstan : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report on the report on the observance of standards and codes (ROSC) in Kazakhstan provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Kazakhstan. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and draws on international exper...

  19. Legal Regulation of Employment in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamzin, Amangeldy Sh.; Aldashev, Sarsengali; Tileubergenov, Yerazak M.; Kussainova, Ainur K.; Khamzina, Zhanna A.; Buribayev, Yermek A.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the ongoing financial and economic crisis which had begun in 2014 the main prerequisite for employment in Kazakhstan acts unemployment which is accompanied by various social, economic and psychological problems. Analysis of the current state of labor market in Kazakhstan needs urgent actions in prevention and reducing…

  20. International Voices: Reading in Kazakhstan and Oceania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Keith; Golopyatova, Nina; Goodwin, Maureen; Peirce, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This column focuses on the innovative strategies some teachers from Kazakhstan and Oceania are using to overcome the challenges they face. In Kazakhstan, schools organize reading days to encourage and inspire children to read. In the predominantly oral culture of the Cook Islands, Niue Island, and Rarotonga, teachers and administrators model…

  1. Features of social modernization of Kazakhstan society

    OpenAIRE

    Southbaeva S.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of social modernization of the Kazakhstan society is carried out. The article provides information on sociological analysis, analysis of normative legal acts aimed at improving the social modernization of Kazakhstan society. The level of legal culture and spiritual and moral values of the Kazakh society are singled out. Further development prospects for improving social modernization are given.

  2. Uranium production and the environment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, G.V.

    2002-01-01

    The production of uranium from open-pit and underground mines in Kazakhstan has terminated. Currently, uranium is extracted in Kazakhstan only by the In Situ Leaching (ISL) method. This method has a number of economical and ecological advantages. During a short period in the 70s-80s, Kazakhstan created a firm basis for developing uranium extraction by the ISL method. Now more than half of the world's uranium reserves amenable to the ISL method are located in Kazakhstan. By 2005, a significant increase in uranium production is planned. Thereby, Kazakhstan has the ability to grow into a world leader in uranium extraction through a lower cost and low environmental impact operations using the ISL method. (author)

  3. Structural geology report: Spent Fuel Test - Climax Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    We performed underground mapping and core logging in the Climax Stock, a granitic intrusive at the Nevada Test Site, as part of a major field test to determine the feasibility of using granitic or crystalline rock for the underground storage of spent fuel from a nuclear reactor. This mapping and logging identified more than 2500 fractures, over 1500 of which were described in enough detail to allow statistical analyses and orientation studies to be performed. We identified eight joint sets, three major shear sets, and a fault zone within the Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) portion of the Stock. Joint sets identified within the SFT-C and elsewhere in the Stock correlated well. The orientations of joint sets identified by other investigators were consistent with our findings, indicating that the joint sets are persistent and have a relatively uniform orientation throughout a major portion of the Stock. The one joint set not seen elsewhere in the Stock is healed and the wall rock is altered, implying that healed joints were not included in the mapping criteria used by other investigators. The shear sets were distinguished from the joint sets by virtue of crushed minerals, continuous clay infilling, and other evidences of shearing, and from faults by the lack of offsetting. Previous investigators working mainly in the Pile Driver Drifts identified two of the shear sets. The third set, being nearly parallel to these Drifts had not been identified previously. The fault zone identified at the far (Receiving Room) end of the project is oriented approximately N45 0 E-75 0 SE, similar to both the Boundary and Shaft Station Faults. We have, therefore, concluded that the Receiving Room Fault is one of a series of normal faults that occur within the Climax Stock and that are possibly related, in both age and genesis, to the Boundary Fault. 52 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Estimation of radioactive contamination of soils from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" technical areas of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T; Belykh, E; Geras'kin, S; Majstrenko, T

    2012-07-01

    In spite of the long history of the research, radioactive contamination of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan has not been adequately characterized. Our cartographic investigation has demonstrated highly variable radioactive contamination of the SNTS. The Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Am-241 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Balapan" site were 42.6-17646, 96-18250, 1.05-11222, 0.6-4865, 0.23-4893, and 1.2-1037 Bq kg(-1), correspondingly. Cs-137 and Sr-90 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Experimental field" site were varied from 87 up to 400 and from 94 up to 1000 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Activity concentrations of Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154 were lower than the minimum detectable activity of the method used. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226, U-238, and Th-232) in the majority of soil samples from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites did not exceed typical for surrounding of the SNTS areas levels. Estimation of risks associated with radioactive contamination based on the IAEA clearance levels for a number of key radionuclides in solid materials shows that soils sampled from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites might be considered as radioactive wastes. Decrease in specific activity of soil from the sites studied up to safety levels due to Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154 radioactive decay and Am-241 accumulation-decay will occur not earlier than 100 years. In contrast, soils from the "Experimental field" and the "Balapan" sites (except 0.5-2.5 km distance from the "Chagan" explosion point) cannot be regarded as the radioactive wastes according safety norms valid in Russia and Kazakhstan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. About status of oncological illness rate in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omarova, K.O.

    2000-01-01

    One of the principal problem of Republic of Kazakhstan's pediatricians is onco-hematological diseases. In 1999 hematological illness rate in the Republic makes up 2964.8 per 100,000 of children's population. Side by side with widespread iron-deficit anemia the aplastic anemia and the acute leukemia are often meeting. Annual index of acute leukemia illness number in Kazakhstan makes up 2.6 per 100,000 of children's population. Core of examined children group with acute leukemia presents children living nearby nuclear sites and arrived from Chernobyl and who in consequence (after 3-5 years) fallen ill. It is concluded, that cause of leukemia is sum of unfavourable epidemiologic factors

  6. Minisatellite mutations and retrospective biodosimetry of population living close to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, C.; Bersimbacv, R. I.; Dubrova, Y. E.; Hulten, M.; Bigbee, W. I.; Murphy, B. P.; Koivistoinen, A.; Tankimonova, M.; Mamyrbaeva, Z.; Djansugarova, L.; Mustonen, R.; Salomaa, S.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine minisatellite mutation rates in families in three generations and to perform retrospective biodosimetry of individuals in these families living close to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. The oldes generation (Po) lived in the area at the time of the first Soviet nuclear test in 1949 whereas the younger generations (F1,F2) were exposed to smaller doses from the residual fallout and later tests. Matched control families in three generations living in non-contamianted areas were analysed in parallel. The retrospective biodosimetry comprehended two endpoints; chromosomal translocations determined by FISH chromosome painting and the glycophorin A (GPA) somatic mutation assay. The minisatellite mutation rate in the cohort of P0 parents was 1-8-fold higher than in the control non-exposed population. Moreover, the minisatellite mutatin rate in the cohort of f1 parents from the exposed area showed a significant negative correlation with with the year of birth, fully consistent with the decay of radioisotopes after the cessation of surface and atmospheric nuclear tests. The results from the FISH painting analysis showed similar translocation frequencies in the Semipalatinsk cohort and the control group. Based on the FISH results it can be concluded that the P0 generation has received a cumulative mean dose of less than 0.5 Gy. The GPA assay did not reveal significant diffrences in the variant cell frequencies for all subjects from the Semipalatinsk area compared with the matched controls. However, a significant increase (P<0.05) of the mean allele-loss φN variant frequency was observed among the exposed P0 generation in comparison to controls. Considering the sensitivity of the GPA assay, the results suggest that the mean dose to the P0 generation of the affected villages was relatively low and in accordance to the results obtained using FISH. (Author) 17 refs

  7. Minisatellite mutations and retrospective biodosimetry of population living close to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, C.; Bersimbacv, R. I.; Dubrova, Y. E.; Hulten, M.; Bigbee, W. I.; Murphy, B. P.; Koivistoinen, A.; Tankimonova, M.; Mamyrbaeva, Z.; Djansugarova, L.; Mustonen, R.; Salomaa, S.

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine minisatellite mutation rates in families in three generations and to perform retrospective biodosimetry of individuals in these families living close to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. The oldes generation (Po) lived in the area at the time of the first Soviet nuclear test in 1949 whereas the younger generations (F1,F2) were exposed to smaller doses from the residual fallout and later tests. Matched control families in three generations living in non-contamianted areas were analysed in parallel. The retrospective biodosimetry comprehended two endpoints; chromosomal translocations determined by FISH chromosome painting and the glycophorin A (GPA) somatic mutation assay. The minisatellite mutation rate in the cohort of P0 parents was 1-8-fold higher than in the control non-exposed population. Moreover, the minisatellite mutatin rate in the cohort of f1 parents from the exposed area showed a significant negative correlation with with the year of birth, fully consistent with the decay of radioisotopes after the cessation of surface and atmospheric nuclear tests. The results from the FISH painting analysis showed similar translocation frequencies in the Semipalatinsk cohort and the control group. Based on the FISH results it can be concluded that the P0 generation has received a cumulative mean dose of less than 0.5 Gy. The GPA assay did not reveal significant diffrences in the variant cell frequencies for all subjects from the Semipalatinsk area compared with the matched controls. However, a significant increase (P<0.05) of the mean allele-loss {phi}N variant frequency was observed among the exposed P0 generation in comparison to controls. Considering the sensitivity of the GPA assay, the results suggest that the mean dose to the P0 generation of the affected villages was relatively low and in accordance to the results obtained using FISH. (Author) 17 refs.

  8. Multiple Site Damage in Flat Panel Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shrage, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    This report aimed to experimentally verify analytical models that predict the residual strength of representative aircraft structures, such as wide panels, that are subjected to Multiple Site Damage (MSD...

  9. Dosimetry study of East Kazakhstan residents by tooth enamel EPR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhumadilov Kassym

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tooth enamel electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR dosimetry method was used to determine accidental doses of population of settlements in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS, Kazakhstan. The influence of four explosions to the populations was included into this report. The distances between investigated settlements and Ground Zero (SNTS are in the range of 70-200 km from SNTS. Most of settlements (Dolon, Mostik, Bodene, Cheremushki, Kanonerka are located near the central axis of radioactive fallout trace from the most contaminating surface nuclear test, which was conducted in 29, August 1949. The other settlements located close to radioactive fallout trace result in a surface nuclear tests in 24, August 1956 (Ust-Kamenogorsk, Znamenka, Shemonaikha, Glubokoe, Tavriya, Gagarino, in 12 august 1953 (Sarzhal and in 7, August 1962 (Akzhar, Kurchatov, Begen, Semenovka, Buras, Grachi. Tooth samples were extracted according to medical recommendations in a course of ordinary dental treatment.

  10. Dosimetry study of East Kazakhstan residents by tooth enamel EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumadilov, Kassym; Ivannikov, Alexander; Skvortsov, Valeriy; Stepanenko, Valeriy; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2017-11-01

    The tooth enamel electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry method was used to determine accidental doses of population of settlements in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS), Kazakhstan. The influence of four explosions to the populations was included into this report. The distances between investigated settlements and Ground Zero (SNTS) are in the range of 70-200 km from SNTS. Most of settlements (Dolon, Mostik, Bodene, Cheremushki, Kanonerka) are located near the central axis of radioactive fallout trace from the most contaminating surface nuclear test, which was conducted in 29, August 1949. The other settlements located close to radioactive fallout trace result in a surface nuclear tests in 24, August 1956 (Ust-Kamenogorsk, Znamenka, Shemonaikha, Glubokoe, Tavriya, Gagarino), in 12 august 1953 (Sarzhal) and in 7, August 1962 (Akzhar, Kurchatov, Begen, Semenovka, Buras, Grachi). Tooth samples were extracted according to medical recommendations in a course of ordinary dental treatment.

  11. Kashagan oil field development. Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbaniak, D.; Gerebizza, E.; Wasse, G.; Kochladze, M.

    2007-12-01

    Based on our research and field investigations of the Kashagan oil field development and relevant infrastructure in the Atyrau and Mangistau regions of Kazakhstan (cities and vicinities of Aktau, Atash, Atyrau, Bautino, Bolashak, Karabatan and Koshanai) evidence has been collected that raises serious concerns about environmental, social and health effects of this oil field development - such as sulphur emissions and storage which may pose serious threats for the communities close to the Kashagan oil facilities and for the Caspian Sea environment. Furthermore, since becoming the single Operator of the North Caspian Sea Production Sharing Agreement (PSA), the Agip Kazakhstan North Caspian Operating Company N.V. (Agip KCO) has failed to release all information available on the environmental, health and social impacts of its operations in the Kashagan oil field. As requested by the local communities and required by Constitution of Kazakhstan Republic and Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters ratified by Kazakhstan in 2001, such information must be made available. There is also a growing concern among the civil society that the European Commission through its officials is publicly expressing support to European oil companies' members of the Agip KCO despite their failure to fulfil basic environmental regulations. This continued support contradicts the European Union's fundamental values and frequent statements related to Human Rights and Sustainable Development. Thousands of people have already been relocated in the region because of sulphur emissions and other highly poisonous chemicals such as mercaptans, which are present at very high levels in Northern Caspian oil. Unprotected storage of large quantities of sulphur is also recognised as a major cause of acid rain on a global level. This Report implores Agip KCO to release all available and required information on the

  12. Kazakhstan's Mangistaumunaigaz: a striking deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The reasons for the severe fall in output at Manistau, once Kazakhstan's biggest producing oil field complex, are discussed. Many of the oil fields are still operating in accordance with old Soviet traditions based on massive cost-ineffective use of manpower and machinery. Persistent labor problems and the inability of the Kazakh authorities to pay the labor force, coupled with the fall in oil prices, are all discussed. The lack of foreign investment and the Asian financial crisis are also cited as contributory problems. (UK)

  13. The "Geoparks" as a way to raise geoconservation in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Ilya; Kazakova, Julia; Abdov, Nurlan

    2013-04-01

    Kazakhstan is one of the nine largest countries of the world and not only has significant mineral resources but rich geological heritage. However, to date geology is considered only as a way to search for minerals due to the established traditions. Faced with a geologist, we usually ask: "What are you looking for?". But the man with the hammer must answer the more important question - about the future of the Planet and Humanity. But it is necessary to save and to study the stone chronicle page for this. Only history of the Earth, recorded in the annals of rock sheets, gives a scientific answer on the fate of Planet and Mankind, and allows realistically assess the risk of disasters, floods, global warming, etc. During 20 years we are trying to give a push to protection and use of geological heritage of Kazakhstan. In our country this new direction gets accustomed with large labor. The spread of the world experience on geoconservation, the databases created of the geological heritage of Kazakhstan, numerous performances in the scientific press and the media has not lead to real steps to preserve and use geodiversity in our country. Today we are trying to raise the idea of geoconservation in Kazakhstan based on Geoparks. A project "Geological study of the geoparks development in Kazakhstan" is developed. 12 representative areas were selected on a background of the database that includes 500 sites of geological heritage, embracing a large variety of geological processes in all regions of Kazakhstan. On October 31st, 2012 in Astana the "Kazakh Geographical Society" held an international conference including "Geoparks" section. At the conference reports of all the regions of Kazakhstan representatives were presented, as well as European countries with extensive experience in geoconservation and geoparks creation (Portugal, Bulgaria, Turkey). The conference was supported by UNESCO. Album "Millions of years before the Silk Road", which represents the future Kazakhstan

  14. Field testing a soil site field guide for Allegheny hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.B. Jones

    1991-01-01

    A site quality evaluation decision model, developed for Allegheny hardwoods on the non-glaciated Allegheny Plateau of Pennsylvania and New York, was field tested by International Paper (IP) foresters and the author, on sites within the region of derivation and on glaciated sites north and west of the Wisconsin drift line. Results from the field testing are presented...

  15. Radiostrontium uptake by plants from different soil types in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savinkov, A.; Semioshkina, N.; Howard, B.J.; Voigt, G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of 90 Sr to a range of different plant species grown on a range of different soil types in Kazakhstan, including three from the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), has been measured in a lysimeter experiment. 90 Sr uptake by Stipa spp was significantly higher than for other vegetation species. The uptake of 90 Sr from chernozem was significantly lower than that from the other soil types which is consistent with other literature. There was a significant negative relationship between 90 Sr uptake and calcium, humus and CEC concentration in the soil for Agropyrum spp, Artemisia spp but not for Stipa spp or Bromus spp. The transfer to vegetation from soil has been quantified using the aggregated transfer coefficients for each species. Tag values range from 0.6 to 11.9 m 2 kg -1 x 10 -3 over all measurements. The transfer of 90 Sr to plants from the Kazakh soils was low compared to previously reported data and to that given from literature reviews

  16. Radiostrontium uptake by plants from different soil types in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savinkov, A. [Scientific Research Agricultural Institute of the National Biotechnology Center, Ministry for Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan (SRAI), 480544, Gvardeiski (Kazakhstan)]. E-mail: Chebotar@srai.kz; Semioshkina, N. [GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Ingolstaedter Land str.1, D-85764, Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: semi@gsf.de; Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk; Voigt, G. [Agency' s Laboratories - Seibersdorf, IAEA, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: g.voigt@iaea.org

    2007-02-01

    The transfer of {sup 90}Sr to a range of different plant species grown on a range of different soil types in Kazakhstan, including three from the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), has been measured in a lysimeter experiment. {sup 90}Sr uptake by Stipa spp was significantly higher than for other vegetation species. The uptake of {sup 90}Sr from chernozem was significantly lower than that from the other soil types which is consistent with other literature. There was a significant negative relationship between {sup 90}Sr uptake and calcium, humus and CEC concentration in the soil for Agropyrum spp, Artemisia spp but not for Stipa spp or Bromus spp. The transfer to vegetation from soil has been quantified using the aggregated transfer coefficients for each species. Tag values range from 0.6 to 11.9 m{sup 2} kg {sup -1}x 10{sup -3} over all measurements. The transfer of {sup 90}Sr to plants from the Kazakh soils was low compared to previously reported data and to that given from literature reviews.

  17. Interim report on flash floods, Area 5 - Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    Examination of the presently available data indicates that consideration must be given to the possibility of flash floods when siting waste management facilities in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. 6 figures, 7 tables

  18. Upgrading nuclear safeguards in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Maribeth; Murakami, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    When the Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991, Kazakhstan inherited 1,410 nuclear warheads. Within three years, by 1994, Kazakhstan had formally acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and transferred its last nuclear warhead to Russia in April 1995. Its NPT safeguards agreement with the IAEA came into force in 1994 and all facilities are under safeguards. In February 2004 Kazakhstan signed the Additional Protocol to its IAEA safeguards agreement, though this not yet in force. Kazakhstan played a key role during the Soviet era as a supplier and processor of uranium. The BN-350 fast reactor at Aktau (formerly Shevchenko), on the shore of the Caspian Sea, successfully produced up to 135 MWe of electricity and 80,000 m3/day of potable water over some 27 years until it was closed down in mid-1999. The IAEA being involved in upgrading the nuclear material accountancy and control systems of all Member States requested, Japan and Sweden to conduct independent evaluations at the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee (KAEC), and specifically at the Ulba Metallurgical Plant (UMP) and identified areas that could be improved with respect to nuclear material accountancy and control. In June 2003 the Agency, with four Member States and the European Union, undertook a programme to upgrade the nuclear accountancy and control systems within Kazakhstan with special emphasis on the UMP in Ust-Kamenogorsk in northeast Kazakhstan. The current IAEA programme is focused on upgrading hardware and software systems and the training of personnel in Kazakhstan. Due to the complexity of the facility, special emphasis is on training personnel and upgrading systems at the UMP. At the UMP the focus is on reducing the uncertainty in the hold-up (material which cannot be cleaned out) in the process lines, better determining the amount of nuclear material that is released from the facility as waste or retained at the facility as waste, increasing the ability of the facility to more

  19. Testing Pearl Model In Three European Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraoui, F.; Bidoglio, G.

    The Plant Protection Product Directive (91/414/EEC) stresses the need of validated models to calculate predicted environmental concentrations. The use of models has become an unavoidable step before pesticide registration. In this context, European Commission, and in particular DGVI, set up a FOrum for the Co-ordination of pes- ticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS). In a complementary effort, DG research supported the APECOP project, with one of its objective being the validation and im- provement of existing pesticide fate models. The main topic of research presented here is the validation of the PEARL model for different sites in Europe. The PEARL model, actually used in the Dutch pesticide registration procedure, was validated in three well- instrumented sites: Vredepeel (the Netherlands), Brimstone (UK), and Lanna (Swe- den). A step-wise procedure was used for the validation of the PEARL model. First the water transport module was calibrated, and then the solute transport module, using tracer measurements keeping unchanged the water transport parameters. The Vrede- peel site is characterised by a sandy soil. Fourteen months of measurements were used for the calibration. Two pesticides were applied on the site: bentazone and etho- prophos. PEARL predictions were very satisfactory for both soil moisture content, and pesticide concentration in the soil profile. The Brimstone site is characterised by a cracking clay soil. The calibration was conducted on a time series measurement of 7 years. The validation consisted in comparing predictions and measurement of soil moisture at different soil depths, and in comparing the predicted and measured con- centration of isoproturon in the drainage water. The results, even if in good agreement with the measuremens, highlighted the limitation of the model when the preferential flow becomes a dominant process. PEARL did not reproduce well soil moisture pro- file during summer months, and also under-predicted the arrival of

  20. Neutron activation and radiometric investigation of Kazakhstan soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwozdz, R.; Popov, J.V.; Shishkov, I.A.; Poznyak, V.; Solodukhin, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Great diversity of radio-ecological problems requires measurement of materials with vastly differing chemical composition and density, and varying volume. In case of gamma spectrometry such variation in composition, density and volume changes the response of a measuring system quite drastically. A necessary correction is usually achieved by applying one of the four correction methods. The first one is applying a standard with composition as close to the measured sample as possible. The second method needs some previous knowledge about the chemical composition of the sample and a subsequent calculation of the mass absorption coefficient. The third method, an intensity ratio of two gamma lines, can only be applied when an isotope in the investigated sample has two measurable gamma lines. The fourth method consists in an additional gamma transmission measurement, using an isotopic source. Application of the first two methods to samples collected in Kazakhstan is evaluated and the results achieved are described. Instrumental neutron activation analysis by either long, or short irradiation was applied to three groups of samples. The first 15 samples were from the Semipalatinsk area, the next 15 from the area north for the Kara-Tau range. The third group of 5 samples was from the Syr-Darya valley. The Kara-Tau and Syr-Darya samples originate from the area adjacent to an uranium mining site. Only two samples are collected at cultivated soil, all the other are collected at the steppe or semi-desert areas, In the additional group measured there were ten sub-samples of the environmental soil standard, prepared at the Institute of Nuclear Physics. Activation analysis was applied as well to Soil-6 and Soil IAEA-375, two reference materials distributed by IAEA. Determination of concentration of about 40 elements in very sample enabled computation of mass absorption coefficients for all the investigated samples. Results of calculation and experimental testing prove

  1. The use of TLD-700H dosemeters in the assessment of external doses at the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P; Dederichs, H; Pillath, J; Schlecht, W; Hille, R; Artemev, O; Ptitskaya, L; Akhmetov, M

    2002-01-01

    The joint projects performed since 1995 by the Jülich Research Centre in co-operation with the Kazakh National Nuclear Centre in the area of the former nuclear test site near Semipalatinsk, in eastern Kazakhstan, have assessed the current dose rate of the population at and around the test site, as well as determining retrospectively the dose rate of persons affected by the atmospheric tests. Measurements of the population by personal dosemeters depend on reliably wearing these dosemeters over prolonged periods of time, and of a sufficient dosemeter return. In the past, such measurements have been particularly successful whenever short wearing times were possible. This requires high sensitivity of the dosemeters. The suitability of the highly sensitive TLD material of the BICRON TLD 700H type for such personal dosimetry measurements was investigated. It was tested in practical field application at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in September 2000. Initial results are available from individual doses received by a group of geologists and a group of herdsmen at the test site. For the first time, the individual dose was measured directly in these population groups. Detection limits below 1 microSv permit informative measurements for wearing times of less than two weeks. Most individual doses did not arise significantly out of local fluctuations of natural background. A conservative assessment from the aspect of practical health physics yielded a mean personal dose of 0.55 microSv per day for the herdsmen, whereas the geologists received a mean personal dose of 0.45 microSv per day. For an annual exposure period of typically, about three months, the radiation dose received by the persons investigated, in addition to the natural radiation exposure, is thus well below the international limit value of 1 mSv x a(-1) for the population dose.

  2. Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan: Annual summary, January 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan published in December of 1998 (DOE/NV--518) describes the Nevada Test Site stewardship mission and how its accomplishment will preserve the resources of the ecoregion while accomplishing the objectives of the mission. As part of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, DOE Nevada Operations Office has committed to perform and publish an annual summary review of DOE Nevada Operations' stewardship of the Nevada Test Site. This annual summary includes a description of progress made toward the goals of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, pertinent monitoring data, actions that were taken to adapt to changing conditions, and any other changes to the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan

  3. Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan: Annual summary, January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan published in December of 1998 (DOE/NV--518) describes the Nevada Test Site stewardship mission and how its accomplishment will preserve the resources of the ecoregion while accomplishing the objectives of the mission. As part of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, DOE Nevada Operations Office has committed to perform and publish an annual summary review of DOE Nevada Operations' stewardship of the Nevada Test Site. This annual summary includes a description of progress made toward the goals of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, pertinent monitoring data, actions that were taken to adapt to changing conditions, and any other changes to the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan.

  4. Kazakhstan innovation projects in nuclear technologies field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkol'nik, V.S.; Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.

    2005-01-01

    At present in the Republic of Kazakhstan in preparation and realization stage there are several innovation projects related with use of advanced nuclear technologies. Projects are as follows: 'Implementation of Kazakhstan thermonuclear reactor tokamak (KTM)'; 'Implementation at the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University the inter-disciplinary research complex on the heavy ions accelerator base'; 'Development of the Technological Park 'Nuclear Technologies Center in Kurchatov city'; 'Development the first in the Central-Asian region Center of Nuclear Medicine and Biophysics'. The initiator and principal operator of these projects is the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

  5. Historical distribution and molecular diversity of Bacillus anthracis, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikembayev, Alim M; Lukhnova, Larissa; Temiraliyeva, Gulnara; Meka-Mechenko, Tatyana; Pazylov, Yerlan; Zakaryan, Sarkis; Denissov, Georgiy; Easterday, W Ryan; Van Ert, Matthew N; Keim, Paul; Francesconi, Stephen C; Blackburn, Jason K; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Hadfield, Ted

    2010-05-01

    To map the distribution of anthrax outbreaks and strain subtypes in Kazakhstan during 1937-2005, we combined geographic information system technology and genetic analysis by using archived cultures and data. Biochemical and genetic tests confirmed the identity of 93 archived cultures in the Kazakhstan National Culture Collection as Bacillus anthracis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis genotyping identified 12 genotypes. Cluster analysis comparing these genotypes with previously published genotypes indicated that most (n = 78) isolates belonged to the previously described A1.a genetic cluster, 6 isolates belonged to the A3.b cluster, and 2 belonged to the A4 cluster. Two genotypes in the collection appeared to represent novel genetic sublineages; 1 of these isolates was from Krygystan. Our data provide a description of the historical, geographic, and genetic diversity of B. anthracis in this Central Asian region.

  6. Hanford Site Emergency Alerting System siren testing report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, L.B.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the test was to determine the effective coverage of the proposed upgrades to the existing Hanford Site Emergency Alerting System (HSEAS). The upgrades are to enhance the existing HSEAS along the Columbia River from the Vernita Bridge to the White Bluffs Boat Launch as well as install a new alerting system in the 400 Area on the Hanford Site. Five siren sites along the Columbia River and two sites in the 400 Area were tested to determine the site locations that will provide the desired coverage

  7. HIV/AIDS testing sites and locator services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The HIV Testing Sites & Care Services Locator is a first-of-its-kind, location-based search tool that allows you to search for testing services, housing...

  8. Assessment of the Nevada Test Site as a Site for Distributed Resource Testing and Project Plan: March 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horgan, S.; Iannucci, J.; Whitaker, C.; Cibulka, L.; Erdman, W.

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a location for performing dedicated, in-depth testing of distributed resources (DR) integrated with the electric distribution system. In this large scale testing, it is desired to operate multiple DRs and loads in an actual operating environment, in a series of controlled tests to concentrate on issues of interest to the DR community. This report includes an inventory of existing facilities at NTS, an assessment of site attributes in relation to DR testing requirements, and an evaluation of the feasibility and cost of upgrades to the site that would make it a fully qualified DR testing facility.

  9. Global Daily Climatology Network: Kazakhstan subset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily meteorological observations for Kazakhstan within the framework of joint efforts to create Global Daily Climatology...

  10. Astana, Kazakhstan: A Full-Year Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higdon, Melody

    2006-01-01

    This Country Climatology Digest is a climatological study of Astana, Kazakhstan. After describing the geography and major meteorological features of the entire region, the study discusses in detail the climatic controls of Astana's weather...

  11. Informed Questions Paper: Kazakhstan Domestic Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brannon, Robert B

    2003-01-01

    .... Mainly Muslim, native Kazakhs "speak a Turkic language, but are Mongol in appearance." A Kazakh Empire emerged in the 15th Century from a conglomeration of nomadic hordes living on the plains of present day Kazakhstan...

  12. Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This environmental statement for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) considers underground nuclear detonations with yields of one megaton or less, along with the preparations necessary for such detonations. The testing activities considered also include other continuing and intermittent activities, both nuclear and nonnuclear, which can best be conducted in the remote and controlled area of the Nevada Test Site. These activities are listed, with emphasis on weapons testing programs which do not remain static

  13. Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-09-01

    This environmental statement for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) considers underground nuclear detonations with yields of one megaton or less, along with the preparations necessary for such detonations. The testing activities considered also include other continuing and intermittent activities, both nuclear and nonnuclear, which can best be conducted in the remote and controlled area of the Nevada Test Site. These activities are listed, with emphasis on weapons testing programs which do not remain static.

  14. On-site cell field test support program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniunas, J. W.; Merten, G. P.

    1982-09-01

    Utility sites for data monitoring were reviewed and selected. Each of these sites will be instrumented and its energy requirements monitored and analyzed for one year prior to the selection of 40 Kilowatt fuel cell field test sites. Analyses in support of the selection of sites for instrumentation shows that many building sectors offered considerable market potential. These sectors include nursing home, health club, restaurant, industrial, hotel/motel and apartment.

  15. The Road Side Unit for the A270 Test Site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, I.; Driessen, B.J.F.; Heijligers, B.M.R.; Netten, B.D.; Schackmann, P.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design and implementation of the Road Side Unit for the A270 Test Site is presented. It consists of a sensor platform and V2I communication platform with full coverage of the test site. A service platform enables applications to make use of these facilities. The RSU will be used both for the

  16. Methods of Usability Testing in Libraries Web Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Fawzy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A Study about libraries' web sites evaluation, that is the Usability, the study talking about methods of usability testing and define it, and its important in web sites evaluation, then details the methods of usability: questionnaire, core groups, testing experimental model, cards arrangement, and composed evaluation.

  17. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal.

  18. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal

  19. Industrial types of uranium deposits in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, G.V.

    2001-01-01

    The main industrial uranium deposits of Kazakhstan that can be commercially mined, are located in two ore regions and are represented by two types of the uranium deposits. The first region is named Chu-Syrdarya (75.6% of total resources of Kazakhstan) and is located in the South of Kazakhstan and this one is the largest in the world among the regions of the deposits connected with the bed oxidation zone, localized in the permeable sediments and amenable for in-situ leach mining. The second region is named Kokshetau (16% of total resources) and is located in the North of Kazakhstan at the north edge of Kazak Shield and is characterized by the vein-stockwork type of deposit. Other industrial deposits (8.4% of total resources) are grouped in two regions that have been determined and are retained as reserves for economical and ecological reasons. These are: Pricaspian region with the organic phosphate type of uranium deposits; and Ili-Balkhash region with mainly the coal-uranium type. There are 44 industrial uranium deposits with resources ranging from 1000 t to 100000 t U and more in each of them, in all, in Kazakhstan. Seven of them are completely mined now. Total uranium resources in Kazakhstan are determined at 1670000 t U. (author)

  20. Results of EPR dosimetry for population in the vicinity of the most contaminating radioactive fallout trace after the first nuclear test in the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivannikov, Alexander; Zhumadilov, Kassym; Tieliewuhan, Eldana

    2006-01-01

    The method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for tooth enamel is applied to individual radiation dose determination to residents of two villages (Dolon and Mostik) in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. These villages are located near the central axis of the radioactive fallout trace of the most contaminating surface nuclear test conducted in 1949. It is found that excess doses obtained by subtraction of natural background dose from dose absorbed in enamel range up to 440 mGy to residents of Dolon, whose enamel was formed before 1949, and do not exceed 120 mGy to younger residents. To residents of Mostik, excess doses do not exceed 100 mGy regardless of age except for one resident with an extremely high dose of 1.25 Gy. These results are in agreement with the pattern of radioactive contamination of the territory after the nuclear test of 1949 except one case of extremely high dose, which should be additionally investigated. (author)

  1. Tritium activities in selected wells on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.F.

    1993-05-01

    Literature and data were reviewed related to radionuclides in groundwater on and near the Nevada Test Site. No elevated tritium activities have been reported outside of the major testing regions of the Nevada Test Site. Three wells were identified as having water with above-background (>50 pCi/l) tritium activities: UE-15d Water Well; USGS Water Well A; and USGS Test Well B Ex. Although none of these wells have tritium activities greater than the Nevada State Drinking Water standard (20,000 pCi/l), their time-series tritium trends may be indicative to potential on-site radionuclide migration

  2. Penetration Testing Model for Web sites Hosted in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan; Saaidi Ismail; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Norzalina Nasiruddin; Raja Murzaferi Mokhtar

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Malaysia web sites has been very crucial in providing important and useful information and services to the clients as well as the users worldwide. Furthermore, a web site is important as it reflects the organisation image. To ensure the integrity of the content of web site, a study has been made and a penetration testing model has been implemented to test the security of several web sites hosted at Nuclear Malaysia for malicious attempts. This study will explain how the security was tested in the detailed condition and measured. The result determined the security level and the vulnerability of several web sites. This result is important for improving and hardening the security of web sites in Nuclear Malaysia. (author)

  3. Regulatory issues related to long-term storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.; Romanenko, O.; Tazhibayeva, I.; Zhunussova, T.

    2012-01-01

    corresponding concept of Radioactive Wastes management strategy in the Republic of Kazakhstan. 3. Development of a draft of the regulations on Radioactive Wastes disposal in the Kazakhstan Republic. Based on the Radioactive Wastes classification suggested within the second stage, as a result of the third part of work there were developed a draft of the regulations on disposal of radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan, as well as a draft of regulations on radiological protection and management of radioactive wastes in the extractive and processing industries in Kazakhstan. Within the last document the special emphasis is put on the specific requirements for uranium mining by underground leaching, since at present uranium in Kazakhstan is mined only by such a method. Taking into account that till recently the management of Radioactive Wastes at the enterprises of the extractive and processing industries in Kazakhstan has been regulated inefficiently, the introduction of these regulations will allow to improve, to a considerable extent, the system of radioactive waste management at the active enterprises and to minimize a possibility of leaving the Government of Kazakhstan with non-rehabilitated and contaminated territories to be considered as new liability sites in the future.

  4. Tools for DIY site-testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Federico; Rondanelli, Roberto; Abarca, Accel; Diaz, Marcos; Querel, Richard

    2012-09-01

    Our group has designed, sourced and constructed a radiosonde/ground-station pair using inexpensive opensource hardware. Based on the Arduino platform, the easy to build radiosonde allows the atmospheric science community to test and deploy instrumentation packages that can be fully customized to their individual sensing requirements. This sensing/transmitter package has been successfully deployed on a tethered-balloon, a weather balloon, a UAV airplane, and is currently being integrated into a UAV quadcopter and a student-built rocket. In this paper, the system, field measurements and potential applications will be described. As will the science drivers of having full control and open access to a measurement system in an age when commercial solutions have become popular but are restrictive in terms of proprietary sensor specifications, "black-box" calibration operations or data handling routines, etc. The ability to modify and experiment with both the hardware and software tools is an essential part of the scientific process. Without an understanding of the intrinsic biases or limitations in your instruments and system, it becomes difficult to improve them or advance the knowledge in any given field.

  5. Malignant tumors and Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmukhanov, S.B.; Gusev, B.I.; Abdrakhmanov, Zh.N.

    1998-01-01

    Mutational biological effect of ionizing irradiation initiates and promotes neoplastic process (cancer or leukemia) as well as genetic defects in further generations. It is well-known that the far-off irradiation effects, caused by deoxyribonucleic acid mutation, take place for adulterers when irradiation dose is within 20 c Sv and for foetus when it is 1.0 c Sv. According to information obtained by a number of researches, irradiation dose of within 0.5-0.9 c Sv, and even 0.1 c Sv, cannot be considered to be safe in regards to their capabilities to cause formation of malignant tumors. Number of people, being effected by the ionizing irradiation during 40 years of nuclear weapon testiness conduction (more than 600), comes to about 3 mill., half of which are Kazakstan people. In addition, more than 500 different areas in Semipalatinsk region, which have different level of radiation contamination. The excess malignant tumor sick rate, caused by irradiation effect, was studied for two groups of population that were being continuously examined since 1960. The exposure external irradiation dose was from 80 to 274 c Sv for the main population group (10 thousands). The testing group of population (11 thousands) was effected by the irradiation dose of 7-10 c Sv

  6. Estimation of radioactive contamination of soils from the “Balapan” and the “Experimental field” technical areas of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evseeva, T.; Belykh, E.; Geras’kin, S.; Majstrenko, T.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the long history of the research, radioactive contamination of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan has not been adequately characterized. Our cartographic investigation has demonstrated highly variable radioactive contamination of the SNTS. The Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Am-241 activity concentrations in soil samples from the “Balapan” site were 42.6–17646, 96–18250, 1.05–11222, 0.6–4865, 0.23–4893, and 1.2–1037 Bq kg −1 , correspondingly. Cs-137 and Sr-90 activity concentrations in soil samples from the “Experimental field” site were varied from 87 up to 400 and from 94 up to 1000 Bq kg −1 , respectively. Activity concentrations of Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154 were lower than the minimum detectable activity of the method used. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226, U-238, and Th-232) in the majority of soil samples from the “Balapan” and the “Experimental field” sites did not exceed typical for surrounding of the SNTS areas levels. Estimation of risks associated with radioactive contamination based on the IAEA clearance levels for a number of key radionuclides in solid materials shows that soils sampled from the 'Balapan' and the “Experimental field” sites might be considered as radioactive wastes. Decrease in specific activity of soil from the sites studied up to safety levels due to Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154 radioactive decay and Am-241 accumulation-decay will occur not earlier than 100 years. In contrast, soils from the “Experimental field” and the “Balapan” sites (except 0.5–2.5 km distance from the “Chagan” explosion point) cannot be regarded as the radioactive wastes according safety norms valid in Russia and Kazakhstan. - Highlights: ► Distribution of radionuclides in soil of Semipalatinsk test site was mapped. ► The main contributors into soil radioactive contamination were 137 Cs and 90 Sr. ► Soils

  7. Around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: progress of dose estimations relevant to the consequences of nuclear tests (a summary of 3rd Dosimetry Workshop on the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area, RIRBM, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, 9-11 of March, 2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Hoshi, Masaharu; Bailiff, Ian K; Ivannikov, Alexander I; Toyoda, Shin; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Simon, Steven L; Matsuo, Masatsugu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Sasaki, Masao S; Rosenson, Rafail I; Apsalikov, Kazbek N

    2006-02-01

    The paper is an analytical overview of the main results presented at the 3rd Dosimetry Workshop in Hiroshima(9-11 of March 2005), where different aspects of the dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site(SNTS) were discussed and summarized. The results of the international intercomparison of the retrospective luminescence dosimetry(RLD) method for Dolon' village(Kazakhstan) were presented at the Workshop and good concurrence between dose estimations by different laboratories from 6 countries (Japan, Russia, USA, Germany, Finland and UK) was pointed out. The accumulated dose values in brick for a common depth of 10mm depth obtained independently by all participating laboratories were in good agreement for all four brick samples from Dolon' village, Kazakhstan, with the average value of the local gamma dose due to fallout (near the sampling locations) being about 220 mGy(background dose has been subtracted).Furthermore, using a conversion factor of about 2 to obtain the free-in-air dose, a value of local dose approximately 440 mGy is obtained, which supports the results of external dose calculations for Dolon': recently published soil contamination data, archive information and new models were used for refining dose calculations and the external dose in air for Dolon village was estimated to be about 500 mGy. The results of electron spin resonance(ESR) dosimetry with tooth enamel have demonstrated the notable progress in application of ESR dosimetry to the problems of dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. At the present moment, dose estimates by the ESR method have become more consistent with calculated values and with retrospective luminescence dosimetry data, but differences between ESR dose estimates and RLD/calculation data were noted. For example mean ESR dose for eligible tooth samples from Dolon' village was estimated to be about 140 mGy(above background dose), which is less than dose values obtained by RLD and

  8. Hanford tank initiative test facility site selection study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehr, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project is developing equipment for the removal of hard heel waste from the Hanford Site underground single-shell waste storage tanks. The HTI equipment will initially be installed in the 241-C-106 tank where its operation will be demonstrated. This study evaluates existing Hanford Site facilities and other sites for functional testing of the HTI equipment before it is installed into the 241-C-106 tank

  9. OCCURRENCE OF MICROORGANISMS RESISTANT TO MERCURY IN MERCURY CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is extensive mercury contamination of soil surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan that operated from 1970 to 1990. High-level mercury contamination exists within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and evaporation ponds, and in Balky...

  10. OCCURRENCE OF MERCURY-RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS IN MERCURY-CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is extensive mercury contamination of soil surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan that operated from 1970 to 1990. High-level mercury contamination exists within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and evaporation ponds, and in Balky...

  11. Database on radioecological situation in Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkebaev, T.Eh.; Kislitsin, S.B.; Lopuga, A.D.; Kuketaev, A.T.; Kikkarin, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan is to define radioecological situation in details, conduct a continuous monitoring and eliminate consequences of nuclear explosions at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Investigations of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area contamination by radioactive substances and vindication activity are the reasons for development of computer database on radioecological situation of the test site area, which will allow arranging and processing the available and entering information about the radioecological situation, assessing the effect of different testing factors on the environment and health of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area population.The described conception of database on radioecological situation of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area cannot be considered as the final one. As new information arrives, structure and content of the database is updated and optimized. New capabilities and structural elements may be provided if new aspects in Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area contamination study (air environment study, radionuclides migration) arise

  12. Usability Testing in a Library Web Site Redesign Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the need for an intuitive library information gateway to meet users' information needs and describes the process involved in redesigning a library Web site based on experiences at Roger Williams University. Explains usability testing methods that were used to discover how users were interacting with the Web site interface. (Author/LRW)

  13. Activity on non-destructive testing as constituent element of the quality management in accordance with ISO 9001:2000 standard at The Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Kislitsin, S.B.; Ablanov, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    An increase of technical and public safety requirements for facilities of nuclear industries, an efficient quality control based on non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques is crucial. Therefore, Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) through NDT Division makes efforts towards a competent NDT inspection of its facilities starting from research reactor of WWR-K type with a further activity according to the National Program for Development in Nuclear Industry. The additional objective is to harmonize the present codes and standards for Nuclear Industry as an integral part of the INP policy in a quality management according ISO 9001:2000 Standard. (author)

  14. Grid site testing for ATLAS with HammerCloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmsheuser, J; Hönig, F; Legger, F; LLamas, R Medrano; Sciacca, F G; Ster, D van der

    2014-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyze collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling virtual organisations (VO) and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test workflows. These new workflows comprise e.g. tests of the ATLAS nightly build system, ATLAS Monte Carlo production system, XRootD federation (FAX) and new site stress test workflows. We report on the development, optimization and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  15. Tonopah Test Range Environmental Restoration Corrective Action Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald B. Jackson

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Clean Closure/No Further Action, Closure in Place, or Closure in Progress

  16. Grid Site Testing for ATLAS with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Elmsheuser, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Legger, F; Medrano LLamas, R; Sciacca, G; van der Ster, D

    2014-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyze collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test work-flows. These new work-flows comprise e.g. tests of the ATLAS nightly build system, ATLAS MC production system, XRootD federation FAX and new site stress test work-flows. We report on the development, optimization and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  17. Grid Site Testing for ATLAS with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Elmsheuser, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Legger, F; Medrano LLamas, R; Sciacca, G; van der Ster, D

    2013-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyze collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test work-flows. These new work-flows comprise e.g. tests of the ATLAS nightly build system, ATLAS MC production system, XRootD federation FAX and new site stress test work-flows. We report on the development, optimization and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  18. New data on the Paleozoic of the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaliev, G.Kh.; Myasnikov, A.K.; Nikitin, I.F.; Polyanskij, N.V.; Sergeeva, L.V.; Sergieva, M.N.; Sal'menova, L.T.; Utegulov, M.T.; Tsaj, D.T.; Shuzhanov, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    The latest data on Paleozoic of the Semipalatinsk test site acquired as result of the stratigraphic and pale ontological investigation which have been conducted for the first time after 46-year interval in geological studies are presented. (author)

  19. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Kazakhstan. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Low Impact Soil Sites' and consists of the following 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt; CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2); CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm; CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area; CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area; CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area; CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a; CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site; CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil; CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10; and CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky). Closure activities were conducted from February through April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996; as amended February 2008) and Revision 1 of the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 107 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2009). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized.

  1. Mineral wealth and the economic transition: Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auty, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The exploitation of mineral wealth can amplify the problems of the transition economies in three basic ways. First, the rebound of the real exchange rate that characterises a successful transition may be augmented by the capital inflow required to expand mineral production. This can cause both recession in the short-run and lower growth in the medium-term. Second, when the mineral revenues expand, the Dutch Disease effects may intensify the transition-related shrinkage of the non-mining tradable sector, thereby retarding economic diversification and rendering the economy vulnerable to external shocks. Third, a mineral boom tends to concentrate revenue on the government, which may use it to postpone difficult decisions on economic reform and/or dissipate the revenue due to weak financial markets and inadequate public accountability. Kazakhstan, like oil-rich Azerbaijan, is a late reformer and displays evidence of a faster transition rebound than other less resource-rich countries in the CIS do. However, Kazakhstan has two advantages over Azerbaijan. First, Kazakhstan has a more diversified mineral endowment with which to counter any trend towards single commodity specialization. Second, Kazakhstan is making a later start on oil expansion so that it can learn from the experience of Azerbaijan. Priorities for Kazakhstan are the continuation of prudent economic policies, the creation of institutions to enhance the transparency of the revenue flows, and the use of environmental accounting to provide a rationale for the deployment of the oil rents. (author)

  2. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 and Site Description (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2006 produced to be a more cost-effective means of distributing information contained in the NTSER to interested DOE stakeholders.

  3. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 and Site Description (Volume 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathy Wills

    2007-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2006 produced to be a more cost-effective means of distributing information contained in the NTSER to interested DOE stakeholders

  4. Nuclear Materials Management for the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse C. Schreiber

    2007-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has transitioned from its historical role of weapons testing to a broader role that is focused on being a solution to multiple National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) challenges and opportunities with nuclear materials for the nation. NTS is supporting other NNSA sites challenged with safe nuclear materials storage and disposition. NNSA, with site involvement, is currently transforming the nuclear stockpile and supporting infrastructure to meet the 2030 vision. Efforts are under way to make the production complex smaller, more consolidated, and more modern. With respect to the nuclear material stockpile, the NNSA sites are currently reducing the complex nuclear material inventory through dispositioning and consolidating nuclear material. This includes moving material from other sites to NTS. State-of-the-art nuclear material management and control practices at NTS are essential for NTS to ensure that these new activities are accomplished in a safe, secure, efficient, and environmentally responsible manner. NTS is aggressively addressing this challenge

  5. Intra-site Secure Transport Vehicle test and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.

    1995-01-01

    In the past many DOE and DoD facilities involved in handling nuclear material realized a need to enhance the safely and security for movement of sensitive materials within their facility, or ''intra-site''. There have been prior efforts to improve on-site transportation; however, there remains a requirement for enhanced on-site transportation at a number of facilities. The requirements for on-site transportation are driven by security, safety, and operational concerns. The Intra-site Secure Transport Vehicle (ISTV) was designed to address these concerns specifically for DOE site applications with a standardized vehicle design. This paper briefly reviews the ISTV design features providing significant enhancement of onsite transportation safety and security, and also describes the test and evaluation activities either complete of underway to validate the vehicle design and operation

  6. Long-range tropospheric transport of uranium and plutonium weapons fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site to Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Cato Christian; Fifield, L Keith; Oughton, Deborah H; Lind, Ole Christian; Skipperud, Lindis; Bartnicki, Jerzy; Tims, Stephen G; Høibråten, Steinar; Salbu, Brit

    2013-09-01

    A combination of state-of-the-art isotopic fingerprinting techniques and atmospheric transport modelling using real-time historical meteorological data has been used to demonstrate direct tropospheric transport of radioactive debris from specific nuclear detonations at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan to Norway via large areas of Europe. A selection of archived air filters collected at ground level at 9 stations in Norway during the most intensive atmospheric nuclear weapon testing periods (1957-1958 and 1961-1962) has been screened for radioactive particles and analysed with respect to the concentrations and atom ratios of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Digital autoradiography screening demonstrated the presence of radioactive particles in the filters. Concentrations of (236)U (0.17-23nBqm(-3)) and (239+240)Pu (1.3-782μBqm(-3)) as well as the atom ratios (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.237) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.7) varied widely indicating several different sources. Filter samples from autumn and winter tended to have lower atom ratios than those sampled in spring and summer, and this likely reflects a tropospheric influence in months with little stratospheric fallout. Very high (236)U, (239+240)Pu and gross beta activity concentrations as well as low (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.077), (241)Pu/(239)Pu (0.00025-0.00062) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.046) atom ratios, characteristic of close-in and tropospheric fallout, were observed in filters collected at all stations in Nov 1962, 7-12days after three low-yield detonations at Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan). Atmospheric transport modelling (NOAA HYSPLIT_4) using real-time meteorological data confirmed that long range transport of radionuclides, and possibly radioactive particles, from Semipalatinsk to Norway during this period was plausible. The present work shows that direct tropospheric transport of fallout from atmospheric nuclear detonations periodically may have

  7. Prevention of the wind migration of Semipalatinsk test site contaminated topsoil by inter-polymer complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudaibergenov, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: It is well known that Semipalatinsk Test Site has been contaminated by radionuclides mainly as a result of atmospheric, aboveground and underground intensive nuclear tests during more than 40 years. Survey of residual radioactivity in the soil at ten Semipalatinsk Test Site areas showed that a great number of Plutonium-239, 240, Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 are concentrated in the depth of soil layer 0-8 cm. The residual radioactivity within the Semipalatinsk Test Site is tightly bound to the topsoil as a result of extreme heating and melting of the soils during the tests. The maximal amount of radionuclides is accumulated on the fine soil particles having 0.1-1.0 mm size. Wind erosion is responsible for suspension of contaminated soil particles in the air and further spreading of contamination far away. For instance, dust particles of diameter 0,05-0,1 mm are dropped within a couple of kilometers of the erosion site, while particles of about 0.005-0.01 mm diameter can move hundreds and thousands of kilometers. According to the results of the Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology, Kazakhstan, in “Degelen” massive, where the intensive nuclear tests were carried out, the concentration of radionuclides in air increases for Sr-90 up to 5 times, for Pu-239,240 up to 100-250 times during the elevation of thin dust from the ground surface. In this connection agglomeration of thin dust containing radionuclides is of primary importance to protect the population from inhalation of re-suspended dust. Inter-polymer complexes are water-insoluble, moisture and gas permeable substances that form a “cobweb” on the surface of soil particles and consequently leading to formation of protective crust. Inter-polymer complexes enhance the intrusion of water into the soil, resulting in increased soil moisture to promote seed germination and plant growth. Inter-polymer complexes are also able to accumulate radionuclides via inclusion of metal ions into the Inter

  8. Fruit and vegetable radioactivity survey, Nevada Test Site environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, V.E.; Vandervort, J.C.

    1978-04-01

    During the 1974 growing season, the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory-Las Vegas, of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, collected samples of fruits and vegetables grown in the off-site area surrounding the Nevada Test Site. The objective was to estimate the potential radiological dose to off-site residents from consumption of locally grown foodstuffs. Irrigation water and soil were collected from the gardens and orchards sampled. Soil concentrations of cesium-137 and plutonium-239 reflected the effects of close-in fallout from nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site. The only radionuclide measured in fruit and vegetable samples which might be related to such fallout was strontium-90, for which the first year estimated dose to bone marrow of an adult with an assumed rate of consumption of the food would be 0.14 millirad

  9. The State Language of Kazakhstan and Multilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazilyz M. Abduova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some actual problems of real bilingualism (polylingualism in modern Kazakhstan.One of the most important aspects of the Kazakhstani society of economic and social modernization is the policy in the field of language. In the modern world, multilingual and multicultural, the problem of language conjugation is more urgent than ever, the search for effective and viable programs in the field of languageson the consolidation of societies. Integration of Kazakhstan into the world community depends today on the realization and realization of a simple truth: the world is open to those who can master new knowledge through mastering the dominant languages. In Kazakhstan the notions of “bilingualism” and “polylingualism” mean the equality of languages.It is quite natural that bilingualism (polylingualism gains more and more importance in our republic.

  10. The 1997 remote sensing mission to Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmaus, K.; Robert, B.; Berezin, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    In June and July of 1997, the US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Republic of Kazakhstan Ministry of Science - Academy of Science conducted a remote sensing mission to Kazakhstan. The mission was conducted as a technology demonstration under a Memorandum of Understanding between the United States Department of Energy and the Republic of Kazakhstan's Ministry of science - Academy of Science. The mission was performed using a US Navy P-3 Orion aircraft and imaging capabilities developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Non-proliferation and National Security. The imaging capabilities consisted of two imaging pods - a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) pod and a multi sensor imaging pod (MSI). Seven experiments were conducted to demonstrate how remote sensing can be used to support city planning, land cover mapping, mineral exploration, and non-proliferation monitoring. Results of the mission will be presented

  11. Medical And Genetic Monitoring of Population Around Semipalatinsk Test-site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayupova, N.A.; Svyatova, G.S.; Abildinova, G.Zh.

    1998-01-01

    Up to present, there is no one positive opinion about the effect of a small amount of ionizing radiation doses on the genetic system of a human being. In connection with it, the all-round medical and genetic researches conducted by a united methodical basis and intended to study general mutagen and teratogen radiation effects are of a certain significance. With that end in view, the medical and genetic testing of a number of rural population around Semipalatinsk test-site (STS) was conducted. The all-round methods of medical and genetic consequences evaluation were developed, and 'active revealing of the congenital fetation disease (CFD)' method was submitted for consideration. Aside from analysis of the general genetic and demographic data, outcomes of more than 160.000 confinements were studied, and a high frequency rate of the CFD of 'the strict recording' (6.11 per 1000 new-born children in areas of extreme radiation hazard) was discovered, that surely exceeded the similar index for the monitored areas (2.92 per 1000 new-born children). A higher frequency rate of the Down's syndrome and numerous CFD (1.66 and 1.07 per 1000 new-born children accordingly) were revealed as well. As a result of the cytogenetic monitoring of the tested population, it was ascertained that a total frequency rate of the aberrant cell emergence was equal to 4.9 per 100 cells, that is 3.9 times as much than the similar index for the monitored area. A high frequency rate of the markers induced by radiation was discovered, which proved the increased mutagen effect of the environment. Biological presentation of the radiation effect on population was conducted in two methods of the biological monitoring, and according to the frequency rate of the chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood, that are induced by radiation, and electro paramagnetic resonance of teeth enamel (Kazakhstan national Nuclear Center). The results of the medical and genetic research conducted were an

  12. BIOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TEST SITES FOR MAIZE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Šimić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield stability of genotypes and analysis of genotype×environment interaction (GEI as important objects in analyses of multienvironment trials are well documented in Croatia. However, little is known about suitability and biometrical characters of the sites where genotypes should be tested. Objectives of this study were in combined analysis of balanced maize trials i to compare test sites in joint linear regression analysis and ii to compare several stability models by clustering test sites in order to assess biometrical suitability of particular test sites. Partitioning of GEI sum of squares according to the symmetrical joint linear regression analysis revealed highly significant Tukey's test, heterogeneity of environmental regressions and residual deviations. Mean grain yields, within-macroenvironment error mean squares, and stability parameters varied considerably among 16 macroenvironments. The highest grain yields were recorded in Osijek in both years and in Varaždin in 1996, with more than 11 t ha-1 . It seems that Feričanci would be optimum test site with relatively high and consistent yield and high values of entry mean squares indicating satisfactory differentiation among cultivars. However, four clustering methods generally did not correspond. According to three out of four clustering methods, two macroenvironments of Feričanci provide similar results. Employing other methods such as shifted multiplicative models, which effectively eliminate significant rank-change interaction, appears to be more reasonable.

  13. Health status of radiation exposed residents living near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site based on health assessment by interview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Kyoko; Kawano, Noriyuki; Ohtaki, Megu; Harada, Yuka; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hadara, Hironori; Muldagaliyev, Talgat; Apsalikov, Kazbek

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to examine the aftereffects of radiation exposure on residents of villages near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan. Our Hiroshima University (Japan) research team began field research in 2002 by means of health assessments conducted via interviews. We focus on persons who responded to questions concerning their medical conditions and symptoms. In this paper, we summarize and analyze, using multiple linear logistic regression analysis, the answers obtained by questionnaire survey. The results show: 31% of the residents reported that they felt bad or were in very poor health. Residents living in villages having higher radiation levels were more likely to report having poor or very poor health, minor complaints such as loss of sleep, headaches, nighttime sweating and swollen arms or legs, and the need for nursing care in performing activities of daily living. Symptoms reported by over 40% of the respondents included high blood pressure, heart disease and arthralgia/lower back pain/arthritis. Our results suggest that radiation exposure in the Semipalatinsk area is one of the causes of poor health in general among residents. There is also a possibility that radiation exposure has influenced the incidence of some specific medical conditions. (author)

  14. Correlation of cytoplasmic beta-catenin and cyclin D1 overexpression during thyroid carcinogenesis around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirmanov, Serik; Nakashima, Masahiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Matsufuji, Reiko; Takamura, Noboru; Ishigaki, Katsu; Ito, Masahiro; Prouglo, Yuri; Yamashita, Shunichi; Sekine, Ichiro

    2003-06-01

    The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS), the Republic of Kazakhstan, has been contaminated by radioactive fallout. The alteration of oncogenic molecules in thyroid cancer around the SNTS was considered worthy of analysis because it presented the potential to elucidate the relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid cancer. This study aimed to analyze both beta-catenin and cyclin D1 expressions in thyroid carcinomas around the SNTS. We examined nine cases of chronic thyroiditis, eight cases of follicular adenomas, and 23 cases of papillary carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, all carcinomas displayed a strong cytosolic beta-catenin expression, while both chronic thyroiditis and follicular adenomas showed a significantly lower cytoplasmic beta-catenin (22.2% and 37.5%, respectively). No cyclin D1 immunoreactivity was evident in chronic thyroiditis. In contrast, 62.5% of follicular adenomas and 87.0% of papillary carcinoma showed cyclin D1 overexpression. Additionally, a strong correlation between cytoplasmic beta-catenin and cyclin D1 expression was suggested in thyroid tumors. This study revealed a higher prevalence of both aberrant beta-catenin expression and cyclin D1 overexpression in papillary thyroid cancers around the SNTS than sporadic cases. The analysis of the alteration of the Wnt signaling-related molecules in thyroid cancer around the SNTS may be important to gain an insight into radiation-induced thyroid tumorigenesis.

  15. Results of tooth enamel EPR dosimetry for population living in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, K. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan)], E-mail: kassym@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Ivannikov, A. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan); Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, 249036 (Russian Federation); Apsalikov, K. [Scientific-Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology, Semipalatinsk 490050 (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilov, Zh. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy, Semipalatinsk 490050 (Kazakhstan); Zharlyganova, D. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan); Stepanenko, V.; Skvortsov, V. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, 249036 (Russian Federation); Berekenova, G. [Scientific-Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology, Semipalatinsk 490050 (Kazakhstan); Toyoda, S. [Department of Applied Physics Faculty of Science Okayama University of Science, 700-0005 (Japan); Endo, S.; Tanaka, K. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan); Miyazawa, C. [School of Dentistry, Ohu University, Koriyama-shi, Fukushima Pref. 963-8611 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 734-8553 (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    The method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry was used on human tooth enamel to obtain individual absorbed doses of residents of settlements in the vicinity of the Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Semipalatinsk region, Kazakhstan. Measured teeth were extracted according to medical indications. In total, 105 tooth enamel samples were analyzed, including eight tooth samples from control settlement Kokpekty, which is located 400 km to the Southeast from SNTS and was not subjected to any radioactive contamination. It was found that the excess doses obtained after subtraction of the contribution of natural background radiation ranged up to about 440 mGy for residents of Dolon, whose tooth enamel was formed before 1949, and do not exceed 100 mGy for younger residents. For residents of Mostik, excess doses do not exceed 100 mGy for all ages except in one resident, for whom an extremely high dose of 1250 mGy was registered. For Bodene settlement, excess doses higher than 100 mGy were obtained for two samples from the residents having enamel formed before 1949. An extremely high dose (2800{+-}400 mGy) was obtained for one resident of Semipalatinsk City. The average excess dose for Semipalatinsk samples with enamel formation before 1949 was determined close to the average excess dose for tooth enamel samples from Dolon village.

  16. Health status of radiation exposed residents living near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site based on health assessment by interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Kyoko; Kawano, Noriyuki; Ohtaki, Megu; Harada, Yuka; Harada, Hironori; Muldagaliyev, Talgat; Apsalikov, Kazbek; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to examine the aftereffects of radiation exposure on residents of villages near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan. Our Hiroshima University (Japan) research team began field research in 2002 by means of health assessments conducted via interviews. We focus on persons who responded to questions concerning their medical conditions and symptoms. In this paper, we summarize and analyze, using multiple linear logistic regression analysis, the answers obtained by questionnaire survey. The results show: (1) 31% of the residents reported that they felt bad or were in very poor health. (2) Residents living in villages having higher radiation levels were more likely to report having poor or very poor health, minor complaints such as loss of sleep, headaches, nighttime sweating and swollen arms or legs, and the need for nursing care in performing activities of daily living. (3) Symptoms reported by over 40% of the respondents included high blood pressure, heart disease and arthralgia/ lower back pain/ arthritis. Our results suggest that radiation exposure in the Semipalatinsk area is one of the causes of poor health in general among residents. There is also a possibility that radiation exposure has influenced the incidence of some specific medical conditions.

  17. Defense waste management operations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.; Kendall, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Waste management activities were initiated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of low-level wastes (LLW) produced by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) weapons testing program. Disposal activities have expanded from the burial of atmospheric weapons testing debris to demonstration facilities for greater-than-Class C (GTCC) waste, transuranic (TRU) waste storage and certification, and the development of a mixed waste (MW) facility. Site specific operational research projects support technology development required for the various disposal facilities. The annual cost of managing the facilities is about $6 million depending on waste volumes and types

  18. Defense waste management operations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.; Kendall, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Waste management activities were initiated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of low-level wastes (LLW) produced by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) weapons testing program. Disposal activities have expanded from the burial of atmospheric weapons testing debris to demonstration facilities for greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) waste, transuranic (TRU) waste storage and certification, and the development of a mixed waste (MW) facility. Site specific operational research projects support technology development required for the various disposal facilities. The annual cost of managing the facilities is about $6 million depending on waste volumes and types. The paper discusses site selection; establishment of the Radioactive Waste Management Project; operations with respect to low-level radioactive wastes, transuranic waste storage, greater confinement disposal test, and mixed waste management facility; and related research activities such as tritium migration studies, revegetation studies, and in-situ monitoring of organics

  19. Kazakhstan or challenges of an oil economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coville, Th.

    2006-01-01

    The economic growth of Kazakhstan is in full rise, marked by an activity supported by a public demand for full expansion and financed by the rise of the oil incomes. The budgetary expenditure consists mainly of investments in infrastructures in Astana and Almaty, and in the social fields and education. Exports are also in very big rise (+ 40% in 2005) induced by the rise to power of the quantities of exported hydrocarbons. An economic boom which depends on the oil receipts, in spite of the reforms resulting from the economic growth, Kazakhstan remains confronted with the Islamism rise like its neigh ours of the Central Asia. (author)

  20. Closure report for CAU No. 450: Historical UST release sites, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report addresses the closure of 11 historical underground storage tank (UST) release sites within various areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The closure of each hydrocarbon release has not been documented, therefore, this report addresses the remedial activities completed for each release site. The hydrocarbon release associated with each tank site within CAU 450 was remediated by excavating the impacted soil. Clean closure of the release was verified through soil sample analysis by an off-site laboratory. All release closure activities were completed following standard environmental and regulatory guidelines. Based upon site observations during the remedial activities and the soil sample analytical results, which indicated that soil concentrations were below the Nevada Administrative code (NAC) Action Level of 100 mg/kg, it is anticipated that each of the release CASs be closed without further action

  1. On the population dose around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Dederichs, H.; Ostapczuk, P.; Hille, R.; Artemev, O.; Ptitskaya, L.; Akhmetov, M.; Pivovarov, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1949 the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (NTS) was extensively used by the former Soviet government as a testing range for atomic weapons. Atmospheric and underground tests were finally stopped in 1962 and 1989, respectively. The Ministry of the Russian Federation of Atomic Energy officially counts a total of 456 tests, including 116 atmospheric tests. The total yield of the nuclear explosions carried out was 6.3 Megatons equivalent with 6.7 PetaBq of 1 37C s and 3.7 PetaBq of 9 0S r being released into the athmosphere. Some of the athmospheric radioactive tests shielded plumes, which extended far beyond the outer borders of the NTS. Already the first Soviet atomic bomb test on August 29, 1949 due to unfavourable meteorological conditions affected the villages of Dolon and Moistik. Since 1995 joint investigations performed by the Research Centre Julich in cooperation with the Kazakh National Nuclear Centre in the region of the former nuclear test site near Semipalatinsk besides environmental measurents also involve the assessment of the current dose of the population at and around the test site in addition to the important retrospective determination of the dose of persons affected by the atmospheric tests

  2. Measured data from the Avery Island Site C heater test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldman, H.; Stickney, R.G.

    1984-11-01

    Over the past six years, a comprehensive field testing program was conducted in the Avery Island salt mine. Three single canister heater tests were included in the testing program. Specifically, electric heaters, which simulate canisters of heat-generating nuclear waste, were placed in the floor of the Avery Island salt mine, and measurements were made of the response of the salt to heating. These tests were in operation by June 1978. One of the three heater tests, Site C, operated for a period of 1858 days and was decommissioned during July and August 1983. This data report presents the temperature and displacement data gathered during the operation and decommissioning of the Site C heater test. The purpose of this data report is to transmit the data to the scientific community. Rigorous analysis and interpretation of the data are considered beyond the scope of a data report. 6 references, 21 figures, 1 table

  3. Kazakhstan participation in International Experimental Reactor ITER Construction project. Work status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibayeva, I.L.; Tukhvatullin, Sh.T.; Shestakov, V.P.; Kuznetsov, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    Kazakhstan takes part in ITER project in partnership with Russian Federation since the year of 1994. At present the technical stage of the project is completed and ITER Council should take a decision on the site for international reactor. Four countries such as Canada, Japan, Spain and France have offered their territories for being used as site for launching ITER construction. ITER partners started preparing new international agreement that will cover activities on construction, operation and decommissioning of ITER. It will also include the list of research and experimental work that is conducted in support of ITER project. Kazakhstan has already made an important contribution into technical stage realization of ITER project due to scientific and technical researches conducted by National Nuclear Center, by Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics and by JSC 'Ulba Metallurgical plant' ('UMP'). Research activity carried out for the support of ITER project is performed in accordance with the following main trends: Tritium safety (permeability and retentin of hydrogen isotopes during in-pile irradiation in various structural materials, co-deposed layers and protective coatings); Verification of computer codes (LOCA type) loss of coolant accidents modeling in ITER reactor; Investigation of liquid metal blanket of thermonuclear reactor (tritium production in lithium containing eutectics Li17Pb83 and ceramics Li 2 TiO 3 , study of tritium permeability). At present the working group of ITER project participants started introducing proposals for cost distribution and for placing the orders on reactor construction. Further Kazakhstan participation in ITER project may be in manufacturing high-tech parts and assemblies from commercial grades of beryllium. They will be used for armouring the reactor first wall, for its thermal protection and for protection of superconductor's components for magnetic systems that are at JSC U MP'. Scientific and technical support of

  4. Cytogenetic abnormalities of the descendants of permanent residents of heavily contaminated East Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Madiyeva, Madina; Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Noso, Yoshihiro; Takeichi, Nobuo; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Urazalina, Nailya; Dovgal, Galina; Rymbaeva, Tamara; Tokanova, Sholpan; Beisengazina, Meruert; Kembayeva, Kulypash; Inoue, Ken

    2017-11-01

    More than 400 nuclear explosion tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) and significant radioactive substances were released. The long-term consequences of the activities at the SNTS and the appearance of any hereditary effects remain insufficiently studied about 25 years after the test site was closed. The population living in villages near the SNTS are considered to have been heavily exposed to external and internal radiation. This study aims to perform an assessment and comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of the inhabitants living near the SNTS, and their first-(F1) and second-(F2) generation children. Residents of the East Kazakhstan region living in the area covered by the former SNTS were included in the study. To evaluate the hereditary effects of nuclear testing, comprehensive chromosome analyses were performed in lymphocytes using conventional Giemsa and fluorescent in situ hybridization methods in 115 F1 and F2 descendants in the villages of Dolon and Sarzhal, which were heavily contaminated. The parents of the subjects had permanently lived in the villages. A higher number of stable-type chromosome aberrations such as translocations was found in these residents than in 80 residents of the control area, Kokpecty, which indicates the possibility that radiation had biological effects on the exposed subjects.

  5. Hanford Site physical separations CERCLA treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct a physical separations soil treatability test in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site, Washington. The objective of this test is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems as a means of concentrating chemical and radioactive contaminants into fine soil fractions and thereby minimizing waste volumes. If successful the technology could be applied to clean up millions of cubic meters of contaminated soils in waste sites at Hanford and other sites. It is not the intent of this test to remove contaminated materials from the fine soils. Physical separation is a simple and comparatively low cost technology to potentially achieve a significant reduction in the volume of contaminated soils. Organic contaminants are expected to be insignificant for the 300-FF-I Operable Unit test, and further removal of metals and radioactive contaminants from the fine fraction of soils will require secondary treatment such as chemical extraction, electromagnetic separation, or other technologies. Additional investigations/testing are recommended to assess the economic and technical feasibility of applying secondary treatment technologies, but are not within the scope of this test. This plan provides guidance and specifications for the treatability test to be conducted as a service contract. More detailed instructions and procedures will be provided as part of the vendors (sellers) proposal. The procedures will be approved by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and finalized by the seller prior to initiating the test

  6. Site Release Report for C-Well Pipeline, UE-25 Large Rocks Test Site, and 29 GSF Test Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.E. Rasmuson

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has implemented a program to reclaim lands disturbed by site characterization at Yucca Mountain. Long term goals of the program are to re-establish processes on disturbed sites that will lead to self-sustaining plant communities. The Biological Opinion for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Studies required that the U.S. Department of Energy develop a Reclamation Standards and Monitoring Plan to evaluate the success of reclamation efforts. According to the Reclamation Standards and Monitoring Plan, reclaimed sites will be monitored periodically, remediated if necessary, and eventually compared to an appropriate reference area to determine whether reclamation goals have been achieved and the site can be released from further monitoring. Plant cover, density, and species richness (success parameters) on reclaimed sites are compared to 60 percent of the values (success criteria) for the same parameters on the reference area. Small sites (less than 0.1 ha) are evaluated for release using qualitative methods while large sites (greater than 0.1 ha) are evaluated using quantitative methods. In the summer of 2000, 31 small sites reclaimed in 1993 and 1994 were evaluated for reclamation success and potential release from further monitoring. Plant density, cover, and species richness were estimated on the C-Well Pipeline, UE-25 Large Rocks test site, and 29 ground surface facility test pits. Evidence of erosion, reproduction and natural recruitment, exotic species abundance, and animal use (key attributes) also were recorded for each site and used in success evaluations. The C-Well Pipeline and ground surface facility test pits were located in a ''Larrea tridentata - Ephedra nevadensis'' vegetation association while the UE-25 Large Rocks test site was located in an area dominated by ''Coleogyne ramosissima and Ephedra nevadensis''. Reference areas in the same vegetation associations with similar slope and aspect were chosen for comparison to

  7. Site Release Reports for C-Well Pipeline, UE-25 Large Rocks Test Site, and 29 GSF Test Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.E. Rasmuson

    2002-04-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy has implemented a program to reclaim lands disturbed by site characterization at Yucca Mountain. Long term goals of the program are to re-establish processes on disturbed sites that will lead to self-sustaining plant communities. The Biological Opinion for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Studies required that the U.S. Department of Energy develop a Reclamation Standards and Monitoring Plan to evaluate the success of reclamation efforts. According to the Reclamation Standards and Monitoring Plan, reclaimed sites will be monitored periodically, remediated if necessary, and eventually compared to an appropriate reference area to determine whether reclamation goals have been achieved and the site can be released from further monitoring. Plant cover, density, and species richness (success parameters) on reclaimed sites are compared to 60 percent of the values (success criteria) for the same parameters on the reference area. Small sites (less than 0.1 ha) are evaluated for release using qualitative methods while large sites (greater than 0.1 ha) are evaluated using quantitative methods. In the summer of 2000, 31 small sites reclaimed in 1993 and 1994 were evaluated for reclamation success and potential release from further monitoring. Plant density, cover, and species richness were estimated on the C-Well Pipeline, UE-25 Large Rocks test site, and 29 ground surface facility test pits. Evidence of erosion, reproduction and natural recruitment, exotic species abundance, and animal use (key attributes) also were recorded for each site and used in success evaluations. The C-Well Pipeline and ground surface facility test pits were located in a ''Larrea tridentata - Ephedra nevadensis'' vegetation association while the UE-25 Large Rocks test site was located in an area dominated by ''Coleogyne ramosissima and Ephedra nevadensis''. Reference areas in the same vegetation associations with similar slope

  8. Omega test series - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, C.P.

    2001-01-01

    The United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has supported a series of high explosive calibration experiments that were conducted in the Degelen Mountain area of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan (ROK). This paper will provide an overview of the second and third tests of this series which have been designated Omega-2 and Omega-3. Omega-2 was conducted on Saturday, September 25, 1999 and Omega-3 on Saturday, July 29, 2000. (author)

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting corrective action

  10. Overview of software development at the parabolic dish test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazono, C. K.

    1985-01-01

    The development history of the data acquisition and data analysis software is discussed. The software development occurred between 1978 and 1984 in support of solar energy module testing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Parabolic Dish Test Site, located within Edwards Test Station. The development went through incremental stages, starting with a simple single-user BASIC set of programs, and progressing to the relative complex multi-user FORTRAN system that was used until the termination of the project. Additional software in support of testing is discussed including software in support of a meteorological subsystem and the Test Bed Concentrator Control Console interface. Conclusions and recommendations for further development are discussed.

  11. Preliminary site design for the SP-100 ground engineering test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Miller, W.C.; Mahaffey, M.K.

    1986-04-01

    In November, 1985, Hanford was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the preferred site for a full-scale test of the integrated nuclear subsystem for SP-100. The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company, was assigned as the lead contractor for the Test Site. The nuclear subsystem, which includes the reactor and its primary heat transport system, will be provided by the System Developer, another contractor to be selected by DOE in late FY-1986. In addition to reactor operations, test site responsibilities include preparation of the facility plus design, procurement and installation of a vacuum chamber to house the reactor, a secondary heat transport system to dispose of the reactor heat, a facility control system, and postirradiation examination. At the conclusion of the test program, waste disposal and facility decommissioning are required. The test site must also prepare appropriate environmental and safety evaluations. This paper summarizes the preliminary design requirements, the status of design, and plans to achieve full power operation of the test reactor in September, 1990

  12. Statement to Conference for a Nuclear-Weapons-Free World, 12 October 2011, Astana, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: It is a great honour for me to address this Conference for a Nuclear-Weapons-Free World. Astana is a highly appropriate venue for this Conference. Kazakhstan has made a very important contribution to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. Under the leadership of President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Kazakhstan renounced the nuclear weapons which it inherited from the Soviet Union and closed the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, where over 450 underground and atmospheric nuclear tests had been conducted. It joined the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) as a non-nuclear-weapon State and has concluded both a safeguards agreement and an additional protocol with the IAEA. Kazakhstan played a significant role in establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central Asia in 2009. The treaty creating this nuclear-weapon-free zone established an important precedent as it is the only arms control treaty to date that requires its parties to bring into force an additional protocol to their IAEA safeguards agreements. The treaty, which was supported by the IAEA, forbids the development, manufacture, stockpiling, acquisition or possession of any nuclear explosive device within the zone. Peaceful uses of nuclear energy are permitted if placed under enhanced IAEA safeguards. The treaty also requires Parties to meet international standards regarding security of nuclear facilities. This is intended to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism and prevent smuggling of nuclear and radioactive materials in the region. Today, the scientific and technical facilities at Semipalatinsk are being converted to peaceful uses under the jurisdiction of the National Nuclear Centre of the Republic of Kazakhstan. IAEA is pleased to have assisted in this work. Shutting down the nuclear test range at Semipalatinsk sends a strong signal of support for the nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament regime. It contributes both directly and symbolically to the goals of the

  13. History of creation of Semipalatinsk test nuclear site. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In 1949 August USSR's Government adopted decision about creation of nuclear site with conditional name Uchebnyj polygon 2. For its building was chosen territory in 140 km from Semipalatinsk city. Semipalatinsk test site consists of the land of three regions: Semipalatinsk, Pavlodar, Karaganda and it occupies 18,500 km 2 of fertile land, rich with minerals. Now this territory was alienated from national using. Polygon was complex object and it incorporated three main zones: Opytnoe Pole, zone of radiation safety, site Sh. Opytnoe Pole was equipped by special constructions ensuring nuclear test conducting, its observing and registration of physical measurements and occupied 2,300 km 2 . Around of the Opytnoe Pole is situated zone of radiation safety with area 45 thousand ha. Site Sh was situated in 14 km from center of Opytnoe Pole and it was intended for distribution of individual protection devices, dosimeters and for conducting of dis-activation and sanitary works. History of the site creation is connected with building of Kurchatov city. In dozen and hundred of kilometers from Kurchatov city there were top secret objects: site Balapan with total area 100,000 ha intended for conducting of nuclear tests in wells with threshold capacity 100-200 kt. Here simultaneously with main problems on the site the military-applied works were conducted on mechanics, physics of combustion, simulation of Earthquakes and determination of seismic stability of buildings and constructions. Research site Degelen with total area 33,100 ha which has been used for underground testing of nuclear charges with small capacity. Site 10 one of large research technical complex on which two reactor units were installed. Main tasks of the complex were as follows: high-temperature fuel materials testing, conducting of fundamental researches in field of physics of fissile products, thermal physics and gas hydrodynamics. On site M a laboratory base for radiochemical, radiological and chemical

  14. Assessing EU perception in Kazakhstan's mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2017-01-01

    Our main findings suggest that Kazakhstan's mass media positively perceives the role of the EU in the region. Moreover, they tend to portray the EU mainly as an economic powerhouse. Our findings support some suggestions by similar studies of the EU's external perception.

  15. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Anna; Amoroso, Jeremie; Herczynski, Jan; Kheyfets, Igor; Lockheed, Marlaine; Santiago, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This joint OECD-World Bank report for Kazakhstan forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the Review is to explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are…

  16. Media Education in Kazakhstan: Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laila, Akhmetova

    2016-01-01

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2012 started work on formation of literacy in the field of media education for journalists, educators, and youth. Studied publishing foreign scientists, work experience in different countries, manuals, seminars and workshops, publishes scientific works in the Kazakh and Russian languages, and considers issues of…

  17. Radiation situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudebekov, D.K.; Murtazin, E.Zh.; Bultekov, N.U.

    2005-01-01

    The article presents results of environmental monitoring at the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2000-2004 that was executed by RSE 'Kazgidromet' personnel. Radiation situation is monitored via sampling of atmospheric fallout for total beta-activity and measurements of gamma-dose rate. (author)

  18. Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeAnn Long; Michael Murphy

    2008-01-01

    Prior to April 2007, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation department. Calibration and performance testing on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor was performed, but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no performance test program. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability Manager volunteered to take over performance testing of all SNM portal monitors at NTS in order to strengthen the program and meet U.S. Department of Energy Order requirements. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with developing a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, developing and implementing procedures, troubleshooting and repair, validating the process, physical control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and implementing the performance test program

  19. Closure report for CAU No. 450: Historical UST release sites, Nevada Test Site. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report addresses the closure of 11 historical underground storage tank release sites within various areas of the Nevada Test Site. This report contains remedial verification of the soil sample analytical results for the following: Area 11 Tweezer facility; Area 12 boiler house; Area 12 service station; Area 23 bypass yard; Area 23 service station; Area 25 power house; Area 25 tech. services building; Area 25 tech. operations building; Area 26 power house; and Area 27 boiler house

  20. Direct tropospheric transport of debris from nuclear weapon detonations at the Semipalatinsk test site to Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendel, Cato C.; Oughton, Deborah H.; Lind, Ole Christian; Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Fifield, L. Keith; Tims, Stephen G. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT0200 (Australia); Bartnicki, Jerzy [Norwegian Meteorological institute (met.no), Oslo (Norway); Hoeibraaten, Steinar [Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), Kjeller (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    During 7.11.1962 through 13.11.1962 a wave of highly elevated gross beta activities were registered at surveillance air filter stations situated in different regions of Norway. A selection of air filters collected daily during this time period, was screened for radioactive particles using digital autoradiography and analysed with respect to the concentrations and atom ratios of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Elevated concentrations of {sup 236}U (1.4-20.1 nBq m{sup -3}) and {sup 239+240}Pu (5.6-782 μBq m{sup -3}) were found to be in good correlation with the observed gross beta activities (R{sup 2}>0.9), indicating the presence of fresh fallout from nuclear weapon detonations. The digital autoradiography images demonstrated the presence of radioactive particles in the filters. Low {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu (0.0517-0.083), {sup 241}Pu/{sup 239}Pu (0.00025-0.00062) and {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu (0.0188-0.046) atom ratios, characteristic of close-in and tropospheric fallout, were observed in filters collected during this incidence. Atmospheric transport modelling (NOAA HYSPLIT-4) using real-time meteorological data confirmed that long range transport to Norway of radioactive debris, including particles, from detonations 7 - 12 days earlier at the Semipalatinsk test site, Kazakhstan during this period was plausible. The present work shows that direct tropospheric transport of fallout from atmospheric nuclear detonations periodically may have had much larger influence than previously anticipated on radionuclide air concentrations and deposition at locations far from the test site. (authors)

  1. Leptospirosis in Cattle From Markets of Almaty Province, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkimbayeva Zhumagul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first study of the prevalence of leptospirosis in the cattle at slaughter from a rural area of Kazakhstan. Five hundred and seventy three samples of serum, urine, and kidneys from cattle of Alatau, Kazakh white and Auliyekol breed, aged from 2 to 5 years (unknown vaccination status, from the province of Almaty in the South-Eastern region were collected during four years (March 2010 to October 2013. The serological, bacteriological, and molecular analyses were performed. Serum samples were tested with 14 reference Leptospira serovars by microscopic agglutination test (MAT. MAT results showed that 89 (15.53% serum samples had detectable antibodies against seven serovars of L. interrogans at a dilution of ≥1:100. Serovars: Pomona (38.2%, Tarassovi (27.2%, and Kabula (18.8% were the most prevalent and their titres ranged from 100 to 1200. The spirochetes were detected in 11 samples of urine and nine samples of kidneys under dark-field microscope observation. The pure cultures were obtained from three samples. PCR technique confirmed leptospirosis in 23 out of 89 urine samples from cows, which showed the presence of leptospiral antibodies in microagglutination test. The high disease prevalence in cows indicates the high Leptospira contamination in this area. It was concluded that the bovine leptospirosis is an endemic and locally widespread disease in Kazakhstan, and that it may play a role in zoonotic transmission to humans.

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Sites quality assurance project plan: Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) describes the measures that shall be taken to ensure that the environmental data collected during characterization and closure activities of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are meaningful, valid, defensible, and can be used to achieve project objectives. These activities are conducted by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Nevada Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The Nevada ER Project consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The RCRA Industrial Sites subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada ER Project. Currently, this QAPjP is limited to the seven RCRA Industrial Sites identified within this document that are to be closed under an interim status and pertains to all field- investigation, analytical-laboratory, and data-review activities in support of these closures. The information presented here supplements the RCRA Industrial Sites Project Management Plan and is to be used in conjunction with the site-specific subproject sampling and analysis plans

  3. Fallout exposure and thyroid diseases prevalence in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Z.S.; Bhattarcharjee, Deborshi; Abisheva, G.

    2004-01-01

    The thyroid gland is considered to be especially susceptible to nuclear fallout because radioactive isotopes of iodine, and 131 I in particular, are major components of the fallout. During the 40 year period from 1949 to 1989, at Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) near the Semipalatinsk city, 30 surface, 88 atmospheric and 340 underground explosions of nuclear and thermonuclear devices were conducted by the former Soviet Union. The radionuclides emanating from these tests resulted in atmospheric and environmental contamination in the region of Semipalatinsk and parts of region of north-eastern Kazakhstan leading to various levels of acute and chronic radiation exposure. The radiation dosimetry results revealed that external dose to the population around Semipalatinsk due to radioactive cloud and fallout from the SNTS ranged from 35cGy-100cGy. The possible relationships between radiation exposure and the prevalence of thyroid gland abnormalities around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area are not well established and hence a detailed study of the same is suggested

  4. Radioactive contamination of former Semipalatinsk test site area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'ev, O.I.; Akhmetov, M.A.; Ptitskaya, L.D.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear weapon infrastructure elimination activities and related surveys of radioactive contamination are virtually accomplished at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS). The radioecological surveys accompanied closure of tunnels which were used for underground nuclear testing at Degelen technical field and elimination of intercontinental ballistic missile silo launchers at Balapan technical field. At the same time a ground-based route survey was carried out at the Experimental Field where aboveground tests were conducted and a ground-based area survey was performed in the south of the test site where there are permanent and temporary inhabited settlements. People dwelling these settlements are mainly farmers. The paper presents basic results of radiological work conducted in the course of elimination activities. (author)

  5. Nuclear industrial and power complex of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemanskiy, V.A.; Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Zelenski, D.I.; Papafanasopulo, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    While selecting the national power supply strategy of economic potential development four factors are laid in the basis of discussions and technical and economic decisions: effect either power complexes on people health, consequences environmental, economics and resources existence. Atomic power requires the balanced approach to power politics which, by that, avoids the dependence on any energy source. The existing electric power generation structure in Kazakhstan is Featured by the following numbers: -TEPP on coal - 79%; - TEPP on gas-black-oil fuel - 12-13%; - HEPP - 6-7%; - Atomic PP - about 0.7%. The ground for nuclear power development is considerable uranium deposits and rather developed atomic industry. Kazakhstan atomic industry includes: - uranium extractive enterprise - State Holding Company 'Tselinnyi Mining-Chemical Plant' (SHC 'TCMP'), Stepnoy Ore Division (SOD), Central ore Division 6 (COD 6), KASKOR (Aktau); - plant on fuel pellets production for APP (JSC 'UMP'); - plants on production of rare and rare-earth metals - Irtysh Chemical and Metallurgical (JSC 'CMP') and Ulba Metallurgical Plant (JSC 'UMP'); - Mangyshlak Power Plant (MAEK); - Scientific Complex of NNC RK of Ministry of Science-Academy of Science. About 25% of world deposits and uranium resources are concentrated in Kazakhstan bowels. The scientific potential of atomic production complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan is concentrated in NNC RK divisions (IAE and INP) and at JSC 'UMP' and MAEK enterprises. Ministry Energy and Nature Resources is a Board responsible for the development of atomic industry and power branches. Atomic Energy Agency of the Republic Kazakhstan performs the independent effective state supervision and control providing safety of atomic industry power installations operation

  6. Irradiation and contamination owed to nuclear weapons experimentations on the Kazakhstan Semipalatinsk polygon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenal, C.

    1996-01-01

    Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan was one of the nuclear weapons polygon for atmospheric, excavation and underground tests. After a description of the actual state of the polygon, a dosimetric approach inside and outside the polygon is presented from 1949 to 1989. (A.B.). 5 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Geomechanics of the Climax mine-by, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-03-01

    A generic test of retrievable geologic storage of spent fuel assemblies in an underground chamber is being conducted at the Nevada Test Site. The horizontal shrinkage of the pillars is not explainable, but the vertical pillar stresses are easily understood. A two-phase project was initiated to estimate the in-situ deformability of the Climax granite and to refine the in-situ stress field data, and to model the mine-by

  8. Operational radioactive waste management plan for the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Operational Radioactive Waste Management Plan for the Nevada Test Site establishes procedures and methods for the safe shipping, receiving, processing, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. Included are NTS radioactive waste disposition program guidelines, procedures for radioactive waste management, a description of storage and disposal areas and facilities, and a glossary of specifications and requirements

  9. Tonopah Test Range Environmental Restoration Corrective Action Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the status (closed, closed in place, or closure in progress) of the Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range. CASs and CAUs where contaminants were either not detected or were cleaned up to within regulatory action levels are summarized

  10. Nevada test site radionuclide inventory and distribution: project operations plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, J.F.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    This document is the operational plan for conducting the Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The basic objective of this program is to inventory the significant radionuclides of NTS origin in NTS surface soil. The expected duration of the program is five years. This plan includes the program objectives, methods, organization, and schedules

  11. Soil monitoring in Pavlodar region adjoining to Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Ramazanov, Zh.R.; Askarov, E.V.

    2004-01-01

    A problem of territory study and rehabilitation contaminated with man-caused radionuclides is an important task and it has economic, social, and ecology aspects. The problem is crucial for Pavlodar region due to real proximity and to partial location of Semipalatinsk Test Site on its territory. (author)

  12. Integrated radiobioecological monitoring of Semipalatinsk test site: general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejsebaev, A.T.; Shenal', K.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Kadyrova, N.Zh.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents major research directions and general methodology for establishment of an integrated radio-bio-ecological monitoring system at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Also, it briefly provides the first results of monitoring the natural plant and animal populations at STS. (author)

  13. Environmental survey of southern part of former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharikov, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper discusses results of the environmental survey performed in selected areas of Semipalatinsk test site southern part and gives calculations of possible annual radionuclide (Cs-37, Sr-90 and Pu-239/240) intake due to local husbandry products. (author)

  14. Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2010-02-09

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, “Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,” Revision 0 issued in October 2009. Brief Description of Revision: A minor revision to correct oversights made during revision to incorporate the 10 CFR 835 Update; and for use as a reference document for Tenant Organization Radiological Protection Programs.

  15. Options for clean-up of the Maralinga test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    This report examines the limit of contamination of the soil and ground cover by 239 Pu, 235 U and 241 Am which may be considered as permitting the unrestricted land use of the former nuclear weapon test sites at Emu and Maralinga by Aboriginal groups. It reports on the options available to achieve this objective and their cost

  16. 78 FR 12259 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... addressing potential UAS privacy concerns, as set out herein, contact Gregory C. Carter, Office of the Chief... address privacy concerns relating to the operation of the test site program, the FAA intends to include in... among policymakers, privacy advocates, and the industry regarding broader questions concerning the use...

  17. Environmental assessment of SP-100 ground engineering system test site: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to modify an existing reactor containment building (decommissioned Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) 309 Building) to provide ground test capability for the prototype SP-100 reactor. The 309 Building (Figure 1.1) is located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that Federal agencies assess the potential impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This Environmental Assessment describes the consideration given to environmental impacts during reactor concept and test site selection, examines the environmental effects of the DOE proposal to ground test the nuclear subsystem, describes alternatives to the proposed action, and examines radiological risks of potential SP-100 use in space. 73 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Probabilistic Description of a Clay Site using CPTU tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sarah; Lauridsen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2012-01-01

    A clay site at the harbour of Aarhus, where numerous cone penetration tests have been conducted, is assessed. The upper part of the soil deposit is disregarded, and only the clay sections are investigated. The thickness of the clay deposit varies from 5 to 6 meters, and is sliced into sections of...... a geotechnical assessment of a site, using both the method for classifying soil behaviour types and applying statistics, yield a new level of information, and certainty about the estimates of the strength parameters which are the important outcome of such a site description.......A clay site at the harbour of Aarhus, where numerous cone penetration tests have been conducted, is assessed. The upper part of the soil deposit is disregarded, and only the clay sections are investigated. The thickness of the clay deposit varies from 5 to 6 meters, and is sliced into sections of 1...... meter in thickness. For each slice, a map of the variation of the undrained shear strength is created through Kriging and the probability of finding weak zones in the deposit is calculated. This results in a description of the spatial variation of the undrained shear strength at the site. Making...

  19. Plutonium Particle Migration in the Shallow Vadose Zone: The Nevada Test Site as an Analog Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. R.; Smith, D. K.

    2004-12-01

    The upper meter of the vadose zone in desert environments is the horizon where wastes have been released and human exposure is determined through dermal, inhalation, and food uptake pathways. This region is also characterized by numerous coupled processes that determine contaminant transport, including precipitation infiltration, evapotranspiration, daily and annual temperature cycling, dust resuspension, animal burrowing, and geochemical weathering reactions. While there is considerable interest in colloidal transport of minerals, pathogenic organisms, and contaminants in the vadose zone, there are limited field sites where the actual occurrence of contaminant migration can be quantified over the appropriate spatial and temporal scales of interest. At the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site, there have been numerous releases of radionuclides since the 1950's that have become field-scale tracer tests. One series of tests was the four safety shots conducted in an alluvial valley of Area 11 in the 1950's. These experiments tested the ability of nuclear materials to survive chemical explosions without initiating fission reactions. Four above-ground tests were conducted and they released plutonium and uranium on the desert valley floor with only one of the tests undergoing some fission. Shortly after the tests, the sites were surveyed for radionuclide distribution on the land surface using aerial surveys and with depth. Additional studies were conducted in the 1970's to better understand the fate of plutonium in the desert that included studies of depth distribution and dust resuspension. More recently, plutonium particle distribution in the soil profile was detected using autoradiography. The results to date demonstrate the vertical migration of plutonium particles to depths in excess of 30 cm in this arid vadose zone. While plutonium migration at the Nevada Test Site has been and continues to be a concern, these field experiments have become analog sites for the

  20. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, Ruben P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, Wendy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-04

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  1. LLNL Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, R. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  2. Off-site monitoring for the Mighty Oak nuclear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Smith, A.E.; Costa, C.F.

    1986-07-01

    After a nuclear explosives test, code name Mighty Oak, the tunnel leading to the test point became contaminated with radioactive debris. To re-enter and recover valuable equipment and data, the DOE purged the tunnel air using particulate and charcoal filters to minimize discharge of radioactivity to the atmosphere. During this purging, the EPA established special air samples supplementing their routine air monitoring networks. Analysis of the collected samples for radioactive noble gases and for gamma-emitting radionuclides indicated that only low levels of xenon-133 were released in amounts detectable in populated areas near the Nevada Test Site. The maximum dose to an individual was calculated to be 0.36 microrem, assuming that person remained in the open field at the measurement site during the whole period of the purging

  3. Environmental site assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most site assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more lenders and state governments likely to follow this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and site assessment to protect the parties involved from any legal liabilities

  4. On-site tests on the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.; Favennec, J.M.; Neau, P.; Preudhomme, E.

    1996-01-01

    On-site tests and experiments are performed by EDF Research and Development Division on the nuclear power plants to assess the behaviour of major components submitted to thermal and vibratory solicitations. On-going studies deal with the qualification of new nuclear power plant standard and with the feedback of plants under operation. The tests, particularly the investigation tests, correspond to large investments and entail an important data volume which must ensure the continuity over a long period of the order of magnitude of the in-service plant life (around 40 years). This paper addresses the on-site experimental activities, describes the means to be used, and gives an example: the qualification of SG of new 1450 MW nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. Rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites at Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.; Davoren, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra, has commenced tendering procedures for appointment of a Project Management Organisation for the Rehabilitation of the former British atomic weapon test sites at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia. This paper gives a historical background to the atomic tests, and reports scientific and engineering studies conducted by the Technical Assessment Group (TAG) to define practical and economic options for rehabilitation of the former test sites. The rehabilitation option preferred by the Australian Government will focus on removal and burial of soil and fragments highly contaminated with plutonium oxide, and erection of warning fences around areas where permanent residence will not be permitted. The application of in-situ vitrification is under investigation for stabilisation of twenty one disposal pits containing up to twenty kilograms of plutonium at Taranaki. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  7. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-01-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material

  8. Land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site: A field tour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.

    1993-01-01

    An all-day tour to observe and land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site was conducted in conjunction with the 8th Wildland Shrub and Arid Land Restoration Symposium. Tour participants were introduced to the US Department of Energy reclamation programs for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and Treatability Studies for Soil Media (TSSM) Project. The tour consisted of several stops that covered a variety of topics and studies including revegetation by seeding, topsoil stockpile stabilization, erosion control, shrub transplanting, shrub herbivory, irrigation, mulching, water harvesting, and weather monitoring

  9. Site study plan for intermediate hydrology clusters tests wells Deaf Smith County Site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic characteristics of intermediate-depth formations at the proposed Deaf Smith County, Texas, repository site, wells called Intermediate Hydrology clusters will test the Dewey Lake, Alibates, Salado, Yates, Upper and Lower Seven Rivers, and Queen Grayburg Formations. Sixteen wells will be installed at six locations. One location will have four wills, two locations will have three wells, and three locations will have two wells for a total of 16 wells. Testing of the formations is to proceed from the bottom up, with 2-day pumping tests at the less permeable formations. Tracer tests and tests for verticall hydraulic properties will be designed and performed after other hydrologic tests are completed. After testing, selected wells are to be completed as single or possibly dual monitoring wells to observe water-level trends. To develop a hydrogeologic testing plan, the response of each formation to potential testing procedures was evaluated using design values and an assumend range for hydraulic parameters. These evaluations indicate that hydraulic properties of a sandy zone of the Dockum, the lower Sever Rivers, and possibly the Alibates and Queen/Grayburg can be determined by pumping tests. Standard of shut-in slug tests must be conducted in the remaining formations. Tests of very long duration would be required to determine the verticla properties of less permeable formations. Tracer tests would also require weeks or months. 61 figs., 34 refs., 4 tabs

  10. Evaluation of soil radioactivity data from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Since 1951, 933 nuclear tests have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and test areas on the adjacent Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR). Until the early 1960s. the majority of tests were atmospheric, involving detonation of nuclear explosive devices on the ground or on a tower, suspended from a balloon or dropped from an airplane. Since the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, most tests have been conducted underground, although several shallow subsurface tests took place between 1962 and 1968. As a result of the aboveground and near-surface nuclear explosions, as well as ventings of underground tests, destruction of nuclear devices with conventional explosives, and nuclear-rocket engine tests, the surface soil on portions of the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides. Relatively little consideration was given to the environmental effects of nuclear testing during the first two decades of operations at the NTS. Since the early 1970s, however, increasingly strict environmental regulations have forced greater attention to be given to contamination problems at the site and how to remediate them. One key element in the current environmental restoration program at the NTS is determining the amount and extent of radioactivity in the surface soil. The general distribution of soil radioactivity on the NTS is already well known as a result of several programs carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. However, questions have been raised as to whether the data from those earlier studies are suitable for use in the current environmental assessments and risk analyses. The primary purpose of this preliminary data review is to determine to what extent the historical data collected at the NTS can be used in the characterization/remediation process

  11. The Utility of Focus Group Interviews to Capture Dietary Consumption Data in the Distant Past: Dairy Consumption in Kazakhstan Villages 50 Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, Michael; Schonfeld, Sara; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Akimzhanov, Kuat; Aldyngurov, Daulet; Bouville, André; Land, Charles; Luckyanov, Nicholas; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Semenova, Yulia; Simon, Steven; Tokaeva, Alma; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Potischman, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    From 1949 to 1962, residents of several villages in Kazakhstan Abstract: received substantial doses of radiation to the thyroid gland resulting from nuclear tests conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site. The primary source of radiation was internal from an intake of radioactive iodine by consumption of contaminated dairy products. A previous research study of childhood exposure and thyroid disease in this region gathered limited data on study participants’ dairy intake at the time of the fallout for the purpose of estimating past radiation doses. Because many subjects were too young at the time of the nuclear tests to recall dietary consumption and existing sources of archival data are limited, it was necessary to interview parents and other village residents who cared for children during this time; older adults ranging in age from 75 to 90 years old. Results from 11 focus group interviews conducted in 2007 with 82 women from 4 villages in Kazakhstan yielded group-level estimates of age-, gender-, ethnicity- and village-specific dairy consumption patterns in rural Kazakhstan during the 1950s. Children typically consumed cow’s milk with limited consumption of mare, goat, and sheep milk; and consumed dairy products such as sour milk (airan), soft cottage cheese (tvorog), and fermented mare milk (koumiss) with the greatest amounts of koumiss reported at ages 15–21. The consumption patterns differed by age and between Kazakh and Russian children, which should lead to different estimates of radiation exposure to the thyroid. This study demonstrated the utility of focus groups to obtain quantitative estimates for dietary intake in the distant past. PMID:24286002

  12. Potential sites for a spent unreprocessed fuel facility (SURFF), southwesten part of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, D.L.; Eckel, E.B.; Ohl, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    In the absence of specific criteria, the topography, geomorphology, and geology of Jackass Flats and vicinity in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site are evaluated by arbitrary guidelines for a Spent Unreprocessed Fuel Facility. The guidelines include requirements for surface slopes of less than 5%, 61 m of alluvium beneath the site, an area free of active erosion or deposition, lack of faults, a minimum area of 5 km 2 , no potential for flooding, and as many logistical support facilities as possible. The geology of the Jackass Flats area is similar to the rest of the Nevada Test Site in topographic relief (305-1,200 m), stratigraphy (complexly folded and faulted Paleozoic sediments overlain by Tertiary ash-flow tuffs and lavas overlain in turn by younger alluvium), and structure (Paleozoic thrust faults and folds, strike-slip faults, proximity to volcanic centers, and Basin and Range normal faults). Of the stratigraphic units at the potential Spent Unreprocessed Fuel Facility site in Jackass Flats, only the thickness and stability of the alluvium are of immediate importance. Basin and Range faults and a possible extension of the Mine Mountain fault need further investigation. The combination of a slope map and a simplified geologic and physiographic map into one map shows several potential sites for a Spent Unreprocessed Fuel Facility in Jackass Flats. The potential areas have slopes of less than 5% and contain only desert pavement or segmented pavement--the two physiographic categories having the greatest geomorphic and hydraulic stability. Before further work can be done, specific criteria for a Spent Unreprocessed Fuel Facility site must be defined. Following criteria definition, potential sites will require detailed topographic and geologic studies, subsurface investigations (including geophysical methods, trenching, and perhaps shallow drilling for faults in alluvium), detailed surface hydrologic studies, and possibly subsurface hydrologic studies

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant Evenson

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139

  14. Lightning vulnerability of nuclear explosive test systems at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasbrouck, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A task force chartered to evaluate the effects of lightning on nuclear explosives at the Nevada Test Site has made several recommendations intended to provide lightning-invulnerable test device systems. When these recommendations have been implemented, the systems will be tested using full-threat-level simulated lightning

  15. The modern trends in energy and nuclear industry of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenzhemurat, D.; Sergey, K.; Timur, A.

    2000-01-01

    Kazakhstan has in perspective the potential to be self-sufficient in energy resources and also to export such resources to other countries. This article describes the energy sector of Kazakhstan, the perspectives of the development the energy and nuclear industry and shows the problems and methods of its solutions. The energy sector of Kazakhstan has diversified sources of energy resources. The open market of electricity will generate the investments and direct them to the development for more efficiency use of these resources. Rehabilitation of old power stations and their modernisation will allow to cover the future needs of Kazakhstan. The nuclear industry of Kazakhstan has the infrastructure, high-qualified staff, enterprises, reactors and investments for the development. The energy policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan is directed to find the balance between different sources of energy to decrease the emissions of greenhouse gas. (author)

  16. Mixed waste disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Kendall, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a law suit brought against DOE resulted in the requirement that DOE be subject to regulation by the state and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for all hazardous wastes, including mixed wastes. Therefore, all DOE facilities generating, storing, treating, or disposing of mixed wastes will be regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCTA). In FY 1985, DOE Headquarters requested DOE low-level waste (LLW) sites to apply for a RCRA Part B Permit to operate radioactive mixed waste facilities. An application for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was prepared and submitted to the EPA, Region IX in November 1985 for review and approval. At that time, the state of Nevada had not yet received authorization for hazardous wastes nor had they applied for regulatory authority for mixed wastes. In October 1986, DOE Nevada Operations Office was informed by the Rocky Flats Plant that some past waste shipments to NTS contained trace quantities of hazardous substances. Under Colorado law, these wastes are defined as mixed. A DOE Headquarters task force was convened by the Under Secretary to investigate the situation. The task force concluded that DOE has a high priority need to develop a permitted mixed waste site and that DOE Nevada Operations Office should develop a fast track project to obtain this site and all necessary permits. The status and issues to be resolved on the permit for a mixed waste site are discussed

  17. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report.

  18. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report

  19. EVALUATION OF SHALE GAS POTENTIAL IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Parkhomchik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the primary evaluation of the shale gas resource potential in Kazakhstan, as well as defines the most problematic issues for the large-scale shale gas production over the state. The authors pay special attention to the national strategy of the Kazakhstani government in the sphere of the unconventional energy sources production, defining the possible technological and environmental problems for the shale gas extraction. The article also notes that implementation of the fracking technologies in the country could cause both positive and negative effects on the economy of Kazakhstan. Therefore, further steps in this direction should be based on the meaningful and comprehensive geological data regarding the shale gas potential.

  20. Integaration capacity of Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Auganbaevna Kalieva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this article, the analysis of various theoretical approaches to assessment of international integration is carried out (3 blocks of criterions of degrees of countries integration are allocated: degree of involvement of nationaleconomy into international trade, degree of participation of national economy at the international movement of production factors and level of economic development of the country as well as the author's approach is offered to assessment of level of trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia on the basis of following coefficients: coefficient of preference, coefficient of mutual preference and coefficient of relative preference. The approach offered by the author to an assessment of the international economic cooperation, in particular trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia, can be used for the analysis of bilateral cooperation within the SCO, the CIS, the Eurasian economic community and other integration groups.

  1. Application to transfer radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    All waste described in this application has been, and will be, generated by LANL in support of the nuclear weapons test program at the NTS. All waste originates on the NTS. DOE Order 5820.2A states that low-level radioactive waste shall be disposed of at the site where it is generated, when practical. Since the waste is produced at the NTS, it is cost effective for LANL to dispose of the waste at the NTS

  2. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. Medical Effects and Dosimetric Data from Nuclear Tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balmukhanov, S. B; Abdrakhmanov, J. N; Balmukhanov, T. S; Gusev, B. I; Kurakina, N. N; Raisov, T. G

    2006-01-01

    .... The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), or Polygon as it was called, was instituted in 1947. Data relating to the radiation levels were declassified in 1992 and are published in the first two tables of this report...

  4. Rehabilitation of former nuclear test sites in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A range of options with indicative cost estimates and timescale has been defined for clean-up of the former British nuclear test sites at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia. The situation at the former test sites on the Monte Bello Islands has been reported separately. The predominant contributor to potential radiation dose at the test sites is residual plutonium contamination of soil which may be incorporated into the body through inhalation of resuspended dust. Acceptable levels of radioactive soil contamination based upon organ doses from incorporated plutonium and the associated health detriment are proposed by the Technical Assessment Group for a series of land-use options ranging from fully unrestricted habitation by Aboriginals including the case of high dependence on local plants and animals for food: to casual access by Aboriginals assuming retained or, if necessary, extended fences. The area of land affected and the quantity of soil and other material with more than the proposed limit of contamination as well as a range of remedial measures for reduction of the contamination to a level acceptable for each of the land-use options has been assessed and methods proposed for safe disposal of the contaminated materials. The associated costs of these remedial measures and disposal methods have also been estimated. 28 refs., 71 tabs., 45 figs

  5. DOUBLE TRACKS Test Site interim corrective action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The DOUBLE TRACKS site is located on Range 71 north of the Nellis Air Force Range, northwest of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). DOUBLE TRACKS was the first of four experiments that constituted Operation ROLLER COASTER. On May 15, 1963, weapons-grade plutonium and depleted uranium were dispersed using 54 kilograms of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. The explosion occurred in the open, 0.3 m above the steel plate. No fission yield was detected from the test, and the total amount of plutonium deposited on the ground surface was estimated to be between 980 and 1,600 grams. The test device was composed primarily of uranium-238 and plutonium-239. The mass ratio of uranium to plutonium was 4.35. The objective of the corrective action is to reduce the potential risk to human health and the environment and to demonstrate technically viable and cost-effective excavation, transportation, and disposal. To achieve these objectives, Bechtel Nevada (BN) will remove soil with a total transuranic activity greater then 200 pCI/g, containerize the soil in ``supersacks,`` transport the filled ``supersacks`` to the NTS, and dispose of them in the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site. During this interim corrective action, BN will also conduct a limited demonstration of an alternative method for excavation of radioactive near-surface soil contamination.

  6. Development testing of grouting and liner technology for humid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, N.D.

    1981-01-01

    Shallow land burial, although practiced for many years, has not always secured radionuclides from the biosphere in humid environments. To develop and demonstrate improved burial technology the Engineered Test Facility was implemented. An integral part of this experiment was site characterization, with geologic and hydrologic factors as major the components. Improved techniques for burial of low-level waste were developed and tested in the laboratory before being applied in the field. The two techniques studied were membrane trench liner and grouting void spaces

  7. Study of radionuclide contamination at the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemyev, O.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper the contamination technical areas of the former Semipalatinsk test site is discussed in details. It is concluded, that radioactive contamination of the Degelen technical area caused by underground nuclear tests is mainly retained within tunnels and cavities. Investigation showed that many tunnel portal areas here are contaminated by radioactive substances. Areas of significantly high contamination levels are also found at the Balapan technical area mainly around borehole sleeves. A serious source of radioactive contamination is tritium in used boreholes and high content of radionuclides produced due to the fission of nuclear device and activation of rocks at crater rim around the Atom lake

  8. Flower Retail in Kazakhstan: Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Talgat, Baidauletov; Alikhan, Abdigali

    2010-01-01

    Executive summary Flower retail industry in Kazakhstan is estimated to be around USD $80-100 million. Current market environment allows for entrance of a new player, focused on highly lucrative part segment of the market. Our business will differentiate itself by offering exceptional level of service while retaining competitive market prices. This business plan describes a way to turn USD $204,000 into a business with a turnover above $ 7 million in four years by capturing premium 10% o...

  9. Geologic surface effects of underground nuclear testing, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, D.N.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a new Geographic Information System composite map of the geologic surface effects caused by underground nuclear testing in the Yucca Flat Physiographic Area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was established in 1951 as a continental location for testing nuclear devices (Allen and others, 1997, p.3). Originally known as the ''Nevada Proving Ground'', the NTS hosted a total of 928 nuclear detonations, of which 828 were conducted underground (U.S. Department of Energy, 1994). Three principal testing areas of the NTS were used: (1) Yucca Flat, (2) Pahute Mesa, and (3) Rainier Mesa including Aqueduct Mesa. Underground detonations at Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa were typically emplaced in vertical drill holes, while others were tunnel emplacements. Of the three testing areas, Yucca Flat was the most extensively used, hosting 658 underground tests (747 detonations) located at 719 individual sites (Allen and others, 1997, p.3-4). Figure 1 shows the location of Yucca Flat and other testing areas of the NTS. Figure 2 shows the locations of underground nuclear detonation sites at Yucca Flat. Table 1 lists the number of underground nuclear detonations conducted, the number of borehole sites utilized, and the number of detonations mapped for surface effects at Yucca Flat by NTS Operational Area

  10. Retrospective dose assessment for the population living in areas of local fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Part 1: external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, Konstantin; Shinkarev, Sergey; Ilyin, Leonid; Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Simon, Steven L.; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    A short analysis of all 111 atmospheric events conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in 1949-1962 with regard to significant off-site exposure (more than 5 mSv of the effective dose during the first year after the explosion) has been made. The analytical method used to assess external exposure to the residents living in settlements near the STS is described. This method makes used of the archival data on the radiological conditions, including the measurements of exposure rate. Special attention was given to the residents of Dolon and Kanonerka villages exposed mainly as a result of the first test, detonated on August 29, 1949. For the residents of those settlements born in 1935, the dose estimates calculated according to the analytical method, are compared to those derived from the thermoluminescence measurements in bricks and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements in teeth. The methods described in this paper were used for external dose assessment for the cohort members at an initial stage of an ongoing epidemiological study conducted by the U.S. National Cancer Institute in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Recently revised methods and estimates of external exposure for that cohort are given in another paper (Simon et al.) in this conference. (author)

  11. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-01-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells

  12. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-09-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells.

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, T.J.; Riedhauser, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site including three neighboring areas during August and September 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the Nevada Test Site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey included the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The results of the aerial survey showed a terrestrial background exposure rate that varied from less than 6 microroentgens per hour (mR/h) to 50 mR/h plus a cosmic-ray contribution that varied from 4.5 mR/h at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) to 8.5 mR/h at 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). In addition to the principal gamma-emitting, naturally occurring isotopes (potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228), the man-made radioactive isotopes found in this survey were cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-152, protactinium-234m an indicator of depleted uranium, and americium-241, which are due to human actions in the survey area. Individual, site-wide plots of gross terrestrial exposure rate, man-made exposure rate, and americium-241 activity (approximating the distribution of all transuranic material) are presented. In addition, expanded plots of individual areas exhibiting these man-made contaminations are given. A comparison is made between the data from this survey and previous aerial radiological surveys of the Nevada Test Site. Some previous ground-based measurements are discussed and related to the aerial data. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from the gamma-ray measurements collected during this survey agreed very well with the exposure rates inferred from previous aerial surveys

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed, and a UR was

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed

  16. Spent fuel handling system for a geologic storage test at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.E.; House, P.A.; Wright, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is conducting a test of the geologic storage of encapsulated spent commercial reactor fuel assemblies in a granitic rock at the Nevada Test Site. The test, known as the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C), is sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. Eleven pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies are stored retrievably for three to five years in a linear array in the Climax stock at a depth of 420 m

  17. Nevada Test Site craters used for astronaut training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Craters produced by chemical and nuclear explosives at the Nevada Test Site were used to train astronauts before their lunar missions. The craters have characteristics suitable for reconnaissance-type field investigations. The Schooner test produced a crater about 300 m across and excavated more than 72 m of stratigraphic section deposited in a fairly regular fashion so that systematic observations yield systematic results. Other features common on the moon, such as secondary craters and glass-coated rocks, are present at Schooner crater. Smaller explosive tests on Buckboard Mesa excavated rocks from three horizontal alteration zones within basalt flows so that the original sequence of the zones could be determined. One crater illustrated the characteristics of craters formed across vertical boundaries between rock units. Although the exercises at the Nevada Test Site were only a small part of the training of the astronauts, voice transcripts of Apollo missions 14, 16, and 17 show that the exercises contributed to astronaut performance on the moon.

  18. OSI Passive Seismic Experiment at the Former Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J J; Harben, P

    2010-11-11

    On-site inspection (OSI) is one of the four verification provisions of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Under the provisions of the CTBT, once the Treaty has entered into force, any signatory party can request an on-site inspection, which can then be carried out after approval (by majority voting) of the Executive Council. Once an OSI is approved, a team of 40 inspectors will be assembled to carry out an inspection to ''clarify whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of Article I''. One challenging aspect of carrying out an on-site inspection (OSI) in the case of a purported underground nuclear explosion is to detect and locate the underground effects of an explosion, which may include an explosion cavity, a zone of damaged rock, and/or a rubble zone associated with an underground collapsed cavity. The CTBT (Protocol, Section II part D, paragraph 69) prescribes several types of geophysical investigations that can be carried out for this purpose. One of the methods allowed by the CTBT for geophysical investigation is referred to in the Treaty Protocol as ''resonance seismometry''. This method, which was proposed and strongly promoted by Russia during the Treaty negotiations, is not described in the Treaty. Some clarification about the nature of the resonance method can be gained from OSI workshop presentations by Russian experts in the late 1990s. Our understanding is that resonance seismometry is a passive method that relies on seismic reverberations set up in an underground cavity by the passage of waves from regional and teleseismic sources. Only a few examples of the use of this method for detection of underground cavities have been presented, and those were done in cases where the existence and precise location of an underground cavity was known. As is the case with many of the geophysical methods allowed during an OSI under the Treaty, how

  19. Test site experiments with a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Piro, Salvatore; Rizzo, Enzo; Capozzoli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, some new possibilities offered by a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR system are exposed. In particular, results achieved from a prototypal system achieved in two scientific test sites will be shown together with the results achieved in the same test sites with traditional systems. Moreover a novel technique for the rejection of undesired interferences is shown, with the use of interferences caused on purpose. Key words GPR, reconfigurable stepped frequency. Introduction A reconfigurable GPR system is meant as a GPR where some parameter can be changed vs. the frequency (if the system is stepped frequency) or vs. the time (if the system is pulsed) in a programmable way. The programming should then account for the conditions met in the scenario at hand [1]. Within the research project AITECH (http://www.aitechnet.com/ibam.html), the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage, together with the University of Florence and the IDS corporation have implemented a prototype, that has been used in sites of cultural interest in Italy [2], but also abroad in Norway and Malta. The system is a stepped frequency GPR working in the frequency range 50-1000 MHz, and its reconfigurability consists in three properties. The first one is the fact that the length of the antennas can be modulated by the aperture and closure of two electronic switches present along the arms of the antennas, so that the antennas can become electrically (and electronically) longer or shorter, so becoming more suitable to radiate some frequencies rather than some other. In particular, the system can radiate three different bands in the comprehensive range between 50-1000 MHz, so being suitable for different depth range of the buried targets, and the three bands are gathered in a unique "going through" because for each measurement point the system can sweep the entire frequency range trhee times, one for each configuration of the switchres on the arms. The second property is

  20. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS), conducted June 22 through July 10, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the NTS. The Survey covers all environment media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations and activities performed at the NTS, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by the Battelle Columbus Division under contract with DOE. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the NTS Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the NTS Survey. 165 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs

  1. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS), conducted June 22 through July 10, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the NTS. The Survey covers all environment media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations and activities performed at the NTS, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by the Battelle Columbus Division under contract with DOE. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the NTS Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the NTS Survey. 165 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs.

  2. Sustainable land use planning at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Ridgway, R.B.; Baumann, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The UK Department for International Development (DFID) has recently agreed to support a project to develop a participatory sustainable land use plan for areas affected by nuclear weapons testing at Semipalatinsk. This three year project is expected to be initiated in April 2001 and will form one component of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Semipalatinsk Rehabilitation Programme. The project will be undertaken by a combination of Kazakh organizations working with UK consultants and will meet its overall aim through the following main activities: Development of institutional capacity in data management and analysis; Provision of information and education on environmental contamination, hazards and risks; Development of a participatory land use planning process and piloting of the process in specific areas and communities around the test site; Integration of mineral resource extraction in the land planning process with a focus- on water resource and environmental protection and participatory approaches to resolving land use conflicts; Development of legislative tools to permit the implementation of environmental management of resource exploitation. The project will make use of both modern satellite-based imagery and more traditional methods to determine the potential for different land uses within the test site. The results obtained will be incorporated with additional information on land use. radiological and hydrological conditions at the test site through a geographical information system (GIS) provided by the project. The GIS will form the core component for collation and distribution of information on options available for use of different areas of the test site and its vicinity. A participatory rural appraisal, using tried and tested techniques, will identify local interest groups in land use planning and identify the details of their stake in the process. The groups will include owners-herders, employee-herders, and subsistence

  3. Site characterization and monitoring data from Area 5 Pilot Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Special Projects Section (SPS) of Reynolds Electrical ampersand Engineering Co., Inc. (REECO) is responsible for characterizing the subsurface geology and hydrology of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division, Waste Operations Branch. The three Pilot Wells that comprise the Pilot Well Project are an important part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program designed to determine the suitability of the Area 5 RWMS for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW), and transuranic waste (TRU). The primary purpose of the Pilot Well Project is two-fold: first, to characterize important water quality and hydrologic properties of the uppermost aquifer; and second, to characterize the lithologic, stratigraphic, and hydrologic conditions which influence infiltration, redistribution, and percolation, and chemical transport through the thick vadose zone in the vicinity of the Area 5 RWMS. This report describes Pilot Well drilling and coring, geophysical logging, instrumentation and stemming, laboratory testing, and in situ testing and monitoring activities

  4. Exploitation by in-situ leaching of an uranium deposit in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belieres, M.

    2006-01-01

    ISL is a process allowing recovery of valuable metal from a low grade deposit without mining operation. Geological and physical conditions are very strict. The reagent used may be alkaline (mixture of alkaline carbonate and bicarbonate) or acid (sulfuric acid).The paper describes such an operation in Kazakhstan, pointing out the preliminary studies, pilot operations and industrial operation starting up and explains the specific difficulties due to the environment and the remoteness of the mine site. (author)

  5. Draft Underground Test Plan for site characterization and testing in an exploratory shaft facility in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An exploratory shaft facility (ESF) at the Deaf Smith County, Texas is a potential candidate repository site in salt. This program of underground testing constitutes part of the effort to determine site suitability, provide data for repository design and performance assessment, and prepare licensing documentation. This program was developed by defining the information needs, as derived from the governing regulatory requirements and associated performance issues; evaluating the efficacy of available tests in satisfying the information needs; and selecting the suite of underground tests that are most cost-effective and timely, considering the other surface-based, surface borehole, and laboratory test programs. Tests are described conceptually, categorized in terms of geology, geomechanics, thermomechanics, geohydrology, or geochemistry, and range in scope from site characterization to site/engineered system interactions. The testing involves construction testing, conducted in the shafts during construction, and in situ testing at depth, conducted in the shafts and in the at-depth test facility at the repository horizon after shaft connection. 41 refs., 67 figs., 16 tabs

  6. The influence of macroeconomic factors to the dynamics of stock exchange in the republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakizada Uteulievna Niyazbekova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the influence of macroeconomic factors on Kazakhstan Stock Exchange Market by using data from 2005 to 2014. Engle-Granger cointegration test has shown that stock index is cointegrated with the exchange rate, interest rate, CPI and oil price. Vector error correction model has confirmed that macroeconomic variables and the stock index has a long-term equilibrium relationship. Moreover, empirical results have shown that stock index can be used as a leading indicator of the economic situation in Kazakhstan. Therefore, the authors decided to consider the impact of major macroeconomic indicators to the dynamics of the stock market of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Engle-Granger cointegration test results show that the following variables such as exchange rate, 10-years long-term bond rate, the consumer price index and the Brent oil price are cointegrated with stock index, which means that there is a long-term relationship between this stock market index and these variables. With the help of econometric models, the authors have found the factors such as the exchange rate, the 10-year long-term bonds rate, the consumer price index and the Brent oil price (these factors have the long-term relationship with stock market index. Changes in the dynamics of the stock market index in Kazakhstan are caused by changes in the dynamics of Central bank's reserves and export. The analysis has shown that the economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (the index reflects the situation in the real sector of the economy remains dependent on world oil prices, the volume of exports and the rate of the national currency

  7. Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mike Murphy

    2008-01-01

    In the past, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site has been performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation Department. Calibration and performance tests on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor were performed but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor because it had never been put into service. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no program in place to test them quarterly. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) Manager at the time decided that the program needed to be strengthened and MC and A took over performance testing of all SNM portal monitoring equipment. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with creating a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, writing procedures, troubleshooting/repairing, validating the process, control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and running the program

  8. Radionuclide migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The United States government routinely tests nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. A significant amount of radioactive material exists underground at the NTS with no containers or engineered barriers to inhibit its subsequent migration. The Department of Energy has sponsored for many years a research program on radionuclide movement in the geologic media at this location. Goals of this research program are to measure the extent of movement of radionuclides away from underground explosion sites and to determine the mechanisms by which such movement occurs. This program has acquired significance in another aspect of nuclear waste management because of the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain at the NTS is being intensively studied as the possible site for a mined repository for high level nuclear waste. The NTS provides a unique setting for field studies concerning radionuclide migration; there is the potential for greatly increasing our knowledge of the behavior of radioactive materials in volcanogenic media. This review summarizes some of the significant findings made under this research program at the NTS and identifies reports in which the details of the research may be found. 36 refs., 4 figs

  9. Avalanche hazard and control in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Blagoveshchensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Kazakhstan, area of 124 thousand km2 is prone to the avalanche hazard. Avalanches are released down in mountain regions situated along the eastern boundary of Kazakhstan. Systematic studies of avalanches here were started in 1958 by explorer I.S. Sosedov; later on, I.V. Seversky continued these investigations in Institute of Geography of the Kazakh Soviet Republic. Actually, he founded the Kazakh school of the avalanche studies. In 1970–1980s, five snow-avalanche stations operated in Kazakhstan: two in Il’ Alatau, two in Zhetysu Alatau, and one in the Altai. At the present time, only two stations and two snow-avalanche posts operate, and all of them are located in Il’ Alatau.Since 1951 to 2013, 75 avalanches took place in Kazakhstan, releases of them caused significant damages. For this period 172 people happened to be under avalanches, among them 86 perished. Large avalanche catastrophes causing human victims and destructions took place in Altai in 1977 and in Karatau in 1990. In spring of 1966, only in Il’ Alatau avalanches destroyed more 600 ha of mature fir (coniferous forest, and the total area of forest destroyed here by avalanches amounts to 2677 ha or 7% of the total forest area.For 48 years of the avalanche observations, there were 15 winters with increased avalanche activity in the river Almatinka basin when total volume of released snow exceeded annual mean value of 147 thousand m3. During this period, number of days with winter avalanches changed from three (in season of 1973/1974 to 28 (1986/1987, the average for a year is 16 days for a season. Winter with the total volume of snow 1300 thousand m3 occur once in 150 years. Individual avalanches with maximal volume of 350 thousand m3 happen once in 80 years.Preventive avalanche releases aimed at protection of roads and settlements are used in Kazakhstan since 1974. These precautions are taken in Il’ Alatau, Altai, and on Kalbinsky Range. Avalanches are released with the

  10. [Current malaria situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismil'din, F B; Shapieva, Zh Zh; Anpilova, E N

    2001-01-01

    risk (Aktyubinsk and Akmolinsk oblasts), and low risk (Kostanay oblast). The malaria risk of the other oblasts has been calculated using data from earlier years (map attached) [Translator's Note: map missing]. Preventive malaria control measures in Kazakhstan are divided into three categories to suit three different groups of communities. One hundred and seventy-nine communities have been allocated to the first group, at high risk of malaria resurgence; 1377 communities to the second group, at medium risk; and the remainder to the third group, at little or no risk of malaria resurgence. The following factors were used to categorize communities according to the risk that malaria might become reestablished if the disease should be imported from elsewhere: species of malarial mosquito present; changes in mosquito numbers and in the area of water susceptible to population by Anopheles; temperature conditions and, consequently, the length of the malaria transmission season and the season of effective susceptibility of the mosquito to infection; population migration; quality of laboratory testing for the diagnosis of malaria. Measures aimed at the destruction of mosquitoes are intended to reduce the numbers of Anopheles in the communities most at risk of malaria resurgence, i.e. those in group 1 above and the actual foci of malaria infection. Because of the economic crisis and financial difficulties, fewer areas have been treated in recent years. In 1999, 1387 hectares of water and 450,000 square metres of buildings were treated (see Fig. 2). Measures to control biting flies in health establishments, recreation areas, etc. Certainly also help to protect people from malarial mosquitoes. In 1999, 12,501 hectares of water and land were treated from the ground or the air (see Fig. 3). In the present situation, the main reasons for the difficulties affecting the malaria control and prevention campaign are as follows. Staff numbers in the Republic's parasitology service have been

  11. Nevada Test Site fallout in the area of Enterprise, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, P.W.; Hardy, E.P.; Heit, M.

    1980-04-01

    The analysis of a sediment core from the Enterprise reservoir in southwestern Utah has provided a record of fallout in the area dating to 1945. Assming that all the 137 Cs fallout that occurred at Enterprise reservoir between 1951 and 1957 came exclusively from the Nevada tests, an upper limit of the integrated deposit from this source is 18 mCi/km 2 of 137 Cs decay corrected to 1979 out of a total of 101 measured in 1979. The maximum infinity dose from the external radiation caused by this Nevada Test Site fallout is estimated to be 1700 mrad. This maximum dose is only a factor of two higher than the cumulative estimated dose in Enterprise derived from the radiological surveys conducted after each test. This indicates that the region around Enterprise reservoir did not experience an intrusion of fallout from NTS greatly in excess of what had been deduced from the post-shot external radiation surveys

  12. Savannah River Site TEP-SET tests uncertainty report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.J.N.

    1993-09-01

    This document presents a measurement uncertainty analysis for the instruments used for the Phase I, II and III of the Savannah River One-Fourth Linear Scale, One-Sixth Sector, Tank/Muff/Pump (TMP) Separate Effects Tests (SET) Experiment Series. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory conducted the tests for the Savannah River Site (SRS). The tests represented a range of hydraulic conditions and geometries that bound anticipated Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents in the SRS reactors. Important hydraulic phenomena were identified from experiments. In addition, code calculations will be benchmarked from these experiments. The experimental system includes the following measurement groups: coolant density; absolute and differential pressures; turbine flowmeters (liquid phase); thermal flowmeters (gas phase); ultrasonic liquid level meters; temperatures; pump torque; pump speed; moderator tank liquid inventory via a load cells measurement; and relative humidity meters. This document also analyzes data acquisition system including the presampling filters as it relates to these measurements

  13. Preliminary interpretation of thermal data from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sass, J.H.; Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of data from 60 wells in and around the Nevada Test Site, including 16 in the Yucca Mountain area, indicates a thermal regime characterized by large vertical and lateral gradients in heat flow. Estimates of heat flow indicate considerable variation on both regional and local scales. The variations are attributable primarily to hydrologic processes involving interbasin flow with a vertical component of (seepage) velocity (volume flux) of a few mm/yr. Apart from indicating a general downward movement of water at a few mm/yr, the reults from Yucca Mountain are as yet inconclusive. The purpose of the study was to determine the suitability of the area for proposed repository sites

  14. Cs-137 in milk, vegetation, soil, and water near the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimov, Aitbek; Yessimbekov, Zhanibek; Kakimova, Zhainagul; Bepeyeva, Aigerim; Stuart, Marilyne

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate Cs-137 activity concentration in soil, water, vegetation, and cow's milk at 10 locations within three regions (Abai, Ayaguz, and Urdzhar) to the southeast of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan. Cs-137 activity concentrations, determined using a pure Ge gamma-ray spectrometer, showed that, all samples collected did not exceed the National maximum allowable limits of 10,000 Bq/kg for soil, 100 Bq/kg for cow's milk, 74 Bq/kg for vegetation, and 11 Bq/kg for water. Cs-137 is, therefore, not considered a health hazard in these regions. The highest levels of contamination were found in the Abai region, where the highest activity concentration of Cs-137 was 18.0 ± 1.0 Bq/kg in soil, 7.60 ± 0.31 Bq/kg in cow's milk, 4.00 ± 0.14 Bq/kg in the vegetation, and 3.00 ± 0.24 Bq/kg in water. The lowest levels were measured within the Urdzhar region, where 4.00 ± 0.14 Bq/kg was found in the soil, 0.30 ± 0.02 Bq/kg in the cow's milk, 1.00 ± 0.03 Bq/kg in the vegetation, and 0.20 ± 0.02 Bq/kg in the water.

  15. Hydrogeologic testing plan for Deep Hydronest Test Wells, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This report discusses methods of hydraulic testing which are recommended for use in the Deep Hydronest Test Wells at the proposed high level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The deep hydronest wells are intended to provide geologic, geophysical and hydrologic information on the interval from the Upper San Andres Formation to the base of the Pennsylvanian system at the site. Following the period of drilling and testing, the wells will be converted into permanent monitoring installations through which fluid pressures and water quality can be monitored at various depths in the section. 19 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. 131 I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided

  17. Site study plan for Deep Hydronest Test Wells, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    Wells called Deep Hydronest Wells will be installed at six locations at the Deaf Smith County Site to characterize hydraulic parameters in the geologic column between the top of the San Andres Formation and the base of Pennsylvanian System. Three hydronests will be drilled during early stages of site characterization to provide data for performance assessment modeling. Four wells are proposed for each of these 3 nests. Results of drilling, testing, and preliminary modeling will direct drilling and testing activities at the last 3 nests. Two wells are proposed at each of the last 3 nests for a total of 18 wells. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which this program will operate. Drilling and hydrologic testing of the first Deep Hydronest will begin early in the Surface Investigation Program. Drilling and testing of the first three Deep Hydronests will require about 18 months. After 12 months of evaluating and analyzing data from the first three hydronests, the remaining three hydronests will be drilled during a 12-month period. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be used to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 36 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 537: Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 537 is identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) of 1996 as Waste Sites. CAU 537 is located in Areas 3 and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-23-06, Bucket; Yellow Tagged Bags; and CAS 19-19-01, Trash Pit. CAU 537 closure activities were conducted in April 2007 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2003). At CAS 03-23-06, closure activities included removal and disposal of a 15-foot (ft) by 15-ft by 8-ft tall wooden shed containing wood and metal debris and a 5-gallon plastic bucket containing deteriorated plastic bags with yellow radioactive contamination tape. The debris was transported to the Area 9 U10c Landfill for disposal after being screened for radiological contamination according to the ''NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). At CAS 19-19-01, closure activities included segregation, removal, and disposal of non-friable, non-regulated asbestos-containing material (ACM) and construction debris. The ACM was determined to be non-friable by waste characterization samples collected prior to closure activities. The ACM was removed and double-bagged by licensed, trained asbestos workers and transported to the Area 9 U10c Landfill for disposal. Construction debris was transported in end-dump trucks to the Area 9 U10c Landfill for disposal. Closure activities generated sanitary waste/construction debris and ACM. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste characterization sample results are included as Appendix A of this report, and waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix B of this report. Copies of the Sectored Housekeeping Site Closure

  19. External doses of residents near semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu; Nagatomo, Tsuneto

    1999-01-01

    Accumulated external radiation doses of residents near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site of the former USSR are presented as a results of study by the thermoluminescence technique for bricks sampled at several settlements in 1995 and 1996. The external doses that we evaluated from exposed bricks were up to about 100 cGy for resident. The external doses at several points in the center of Semipalatinsk City ranged from a background level to 60 cGy, which was remarkably high compared with the previously reported values based on military data. (author)

  20. Environmental plutonium levels near the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, W.A.; Jakubowski, F.M.

    1977-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory-Las Vegas is engaged in a study to define the distribution of plutonium in the environment surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Extensive soil sampling has been conducted around the NTS, both to define areal distribution and to investigate local concentrating effects by natural phenomena. Additionally, air filters used in the off-NTS air surveillance network as well as those collected in special studies have been analyzed for plutonium to better define ambient levels and to investigate the possibility of resuspension. Results of these, as well as other studies related to defining the ambient plutonium levels around the NTS, are given in this report

  1. Drilling Automation Tests At A Lunar/Mars Analog Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B.; Cannon, H.; Hanagud, S.; Lee, P.; Paulsen, G.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. The limited mass, energy and manpower in planetary drilling situations makes application of terrestrial drilling techniques problematic. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project is developing drilling automation and robotics for projected use in missions to the Moon and Mars in the 2011-15 period. This has been tested recently, drilling in permafrost at a lunar/martian analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada).

  2. Cytogenetic Monitoring of Mammals of Semipalatinsk Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhapbasov, R.Zh.; Tusupbaev, V.I.; Karimbaeva, K.S.; Seisebaev, A.T.; Nurgalieva, K.G.; Chenal, C.

    1998-01-01

    The cytogenetic monitoring of the natural populations of mammals living under conditions of environment radioactive contamination is the simplest method to study the genetic consequences of nuclear tests. This work presents the preliminary results of the cytogenetic monitoring of the natural populations of rodents (Allactaga maior Kerr., Allactaga saltafor Eversm., Citellus erytrogenus Brandt) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries). The exposure of gonads is considered to be the most hazardous among the consequences of the chronic ionizing exposure since the exposure of gonads can cause not only somatic damages but also hereditary ones transferring to the farther generations, The genetic damage assessment of rodent reproductive cells was performed using the morphological test for abnormal form of the sperm head. It is generally accepted, that spermatogenesis disorders, which result in abnormal spermatozoa, are bound to the genetic disturbances during mitotic and meiotic division stages of male sex cells. The analysis of data obtained shows that the rodent males living on the radioactive contaminated sites (Balapan, Degelen) have the higher numbers of abnormal spermatozoa. So, the Allactaga maior taken from the sites with the gamma background of 250 μr/h showed the frequency of abnormal spermatozoa within 48.27 - 62.73 %. This value for the control animals from the gamma background of 11 - 16 μr/h did not exceed 5.8 %. The most objective and sensitive method for assessment of environmental contamination genetic consequences for the natural populations is to determine the damages of the cell genetic apparatus, e. g. the frequency of the visible changes in chromosome number and structure. The cytogenetic study of animals showed that the significant number of marrow cells of rodents and sheep living on the technical fields of the Test Site are the metaphase cells with polyploid (0.98 - 3.50 %) and aneuploidy (11.03 -19.72 %) chromosomal sets. There were also found the

  3. ESR dosimetry study for the residents of Kazakhstan exposed to radioactive fallout on 24, August 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, K., E-mail: kassym@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Ivannikov, A. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Zharlyganova, D. [Astana Medical University, 51a, Beibitshilik str., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilov, Zh. [Nazarbayev University, Life Sciences Center, D. Kunayev str., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Stepanenko, V. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Abralina, Sh.; Sadvokasova, L. [Semey State Medical Academy, Semey 071400, Abay str. 103 (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilova, A. [Astana Medical University, 51a, Beibitshilik str., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Toyoda, S. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Okayama University of Science, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Endo, S. [Department of Quantum Energy Applications, Graduated School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Okamoto, T. [Department of Molecular Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    The method of electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry has been applied to human tooth enamel in order to obtain individual absorbed doses from the population of settlements within the vicinity of the central axis of the radioactive fallout trace from the contaminating nuclear surface test of 24, August 1956. Most of the settlements (Glubokoe, Tavriya, and Gagarino) are located near Ust-Kamenogorsk city, in Kazakhstan (about 400 km to the east from the epicenter of the explosion at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS)). It was found that the excess doses obtained after the subtraction of natural background radiation ranged up to about 120 mGy for the residents of Ust-Kamenogorsk city, whose tooth enamel was formed before 1956. For the residents of Gagarino, excess doses do not exceed 47 mGy for all ages. For the residents of Tavriya, the maximum of excess dose was determined as 54 mGy and for the residents of Glubokoe, the maximum excess dose was about 83 mGy. For the population of the Shemonaikha settlements (about 70 km from the centerline of the radioactive fallout trace) the highest excess dose is 110 mGy. Also for this study, Znamenka village (about 130 km from the epicenter) was included. The Kokpekty settlement was chosen as a control and not subjected to any radioactive contamination and is located 400 km to the Southeast from SNTS.

  4. Evaluative Testing of 5LA3421: A Multicomponent Prehistoric and Historic Site, Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles, Mona; Baker, Thann; Markussen, Christine; Nathan, Randy; Duke, Philip

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 2002, evaluative testing was undertaken at a large multicomponent site for the purpose of evaluating the potential of this site to yield significant information about the prehistory...

  5. Refinement of parameters of weak nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site on the basis of historical seismograms study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2014-05-01

    Many researchers working in the field of monitoring and discriminating of nuclear tests encounter the problem of lacking in seismic catalogues the information about source parameters for weak nuclear explosions. As usual, the information about origin time, coordinates and magnitude is absent, there is information about date, approximate coordinates and information about explosion yield. Huge work conducted on recovery of parameters of small underground nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site using records of analogue seismic stations of the USSR located at regional distances was conducted by V. Khalturin, T. Rayutian, P. Richards (Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2001). However, if underground nuclear explosions are studied and described in literature quite well, then air and contact explosions were small and were not recorded by standard permanent seismic stations. In 1961-1962 maximum number of air and contact explosions was conducted at Opytnoye polye site of the STS. We managed to find and analyze additional seismic data from some temporary and permanent stations. That time IPE AS USSR installed a network of high-sensitive stations along Pamir-Baykal profile to study earth crust structure and upper mantle, the profile length was 3500 km. Epicentral distance from some stations of the profile to Opytnoye polye was 300-400 km. In addition, a permanent seismic station Semipalatinsk (SEM) located 175 km away from the site started its operation. The seismograms from this station became available recently. The digitized historical seismograms allowed to recover and add parameters for more than 36 air and surface explosions. Origin time, coordinates, magnitudes mpv, MLV and energy class K were determined for explosions. A regional travel-time curve for Central Kazakhstan constructed using records of calibration chemical explosions conducted at the STS in 1997-2000 and ground-truth underground nuclear explosions was used to determine kinematic parameters

  6. WILDFIRE INDUCED DEGRADATION OF WOODY VEGETATION IN DRY ZONE OF KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Terekhov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Small bushy tree species dominate the semi-arid areas of Kazakhstan. In the course of their life cycle, they form a layer of litter that is resistant to wind transport. This small shrub species with its own litter play a significant role in the spectral characteristics of the Earth surface. Changes in the density of shrub canopy forms or replacing them with herbaceous species is accompanied by significant changes in the spectral characteristics in the visible and near infrared spectral bands in the autumn. These changes can be recorded from satellite data. LANDSAT-TM images during 1985–2007 years and MODIS data (USGS: MOD09Q1, 2000–2010 used to diagnose changes in relation between woody\\herbaceous vegetation species in the dry zone of Kazakhstan. It was found that over the past 10 years, spreading small shrub forms of semi-arid vegetation significantly decreased. There is a persistent expansion of herbal forms, leading to the semi-steppe formation areas. The mechanism of repression of wood forms constructed through the accumulation of dry plant mass during wet years, with its subsequent burnout during wildfires. In the case of a strong fire, a complete destruction of species is observed. The restoration of small shrub cover demands more than 20 years. Comparative analysis of LANDSAT-TM images showed a 10 times increasing of the fire scar areas in the test area in the central part of Kazakhstan between 1985 and 2007. According MOD09Q1 was conducted mapping small shrub forms of degradation in Kazakhstan. Reducing the area occupied by woody vegetation, semi-desert was about 30 million hectares or over 30% of their total range in Kazakhstan.

  7. Reanalysis data underestimate significant changes in growing season weather in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C K; Henebry, G M [Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence (GIScCE), South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD (United States); De Beurs, K M [Department of Geography, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Akhmadieva, Z K [Kazakhstan Scientific Research Institute of Ecology and Climate, Ministry of Environment Protection of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Astana (Kazakhstan); Groisman, P Y, E-mail: Geoffrey.Henebry@sdstate.ed [National Climatic Data Center, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Asheville, NC (United States)

    2009-10-15

    We present time series analyses of recently compiled climate station data which allowed us to assess contemporary trends in growing season weather across Kazakhstan as drivers of a significant decline in growing season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) recently observed by satellite remote sensing across much of Central Asia. We used a robust nonparametric time series analysis method, the seasonal Kendall trend test to analyze georeferenced time series of accumulated growing season precipitation (APPT) and accumulated growing degree-days (AGDD). Over the period 2000-2006 we found geographically extensive, statistically significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends in APPT and increasing trends in AGDD. The temperature trends were especially apparent during the warm season and coincided with precipitation decreases in northwest Kazakhstan, indicating that pervasive drought conditions and higher temperature excursions were the likely drivers of NDVI declines observed in Kazakhstan over the same period. We also compared the APPT and AGDD trends at individual stations with results from trend analysis of gridded monthly precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) Full Data Reanalysis v4 and gridded daily near surface air temperature from the National Centers for Climate Prediction Reanalysis v2 (NCEP R2). We found substantial deviation between the station and the reanalysis trends, suggesting that GPCC and NCEP data substantially underestimate the geographic extent of recent drought in Kazakhstan. Although gridded climate products offer many advantages in ease of use and complete coverage, our findings for Kazakhstan should serve as a caveat against uncritical use of GPCC and NCEP reanalysis data and demonstrate the importance of compiling and standardizing daily climate data from data-sparse regions like Central Asia.

  8. Reanalysis data underestimate significant changes in growing season weather in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, C K; Henebry, G M; De Beurs, K M; Akhmadieva, Z K; Groisman, P Y

    2009-01-01

    We present time series analyses of recently compiled climate station data which allowed us to assess contemporary trends in growing season weather across Kazakhstan as drivers of a significant decline in growing season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) recently observed by satellite remote sensing across much of Central Asia. We used a robust nonparametric time series analysis method, the seasonal Kendall trend test to analyze georeferenced time series of accumulated growing season precipitation (APPT) and accumulated growing degree-days (AGDD). Over the period 2000-2006 we found geographically extensive, statistically significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends in APPT and increasing trends in AGDD. The temperature trends were especially apparent during the warm season and coincided with precipitation decreases in northwest Kazakhstan, indicating that pervasive drought conditions and higher temperature excursions were the likely drivers of NDVI declines observed in Kazakhstan over the same period. We also compared the APPT and AGDD trends at individual stations with results from trend analysis of gridded monthly precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) Full Data Reanalysis v4 and gridded daily near surface air temperature from the National Centers for Climate Prediction Reanalysis v2 (NCEP R2). We found substantial deviation between the station and the reanalysis trends, suggesting that GPCC and NCEP data substantially underestimate the geographic extent of recent drought in Kazakhstan. Although gridded climate products offer many advantages in ease of use and complete coverage, our findings for Kazakhstan should serve as a caveat against uncritical use of GPCC and NCEP reanalysis data and demonstrate the importance of compiling and standardizing daily climate data from data-sparse regions like Central Asia.

  9. Flood Assessment Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-01-01

    A flood assessment was conducted at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The study area encompasses the watershed of Yucca Flat, a closed basin approximately 780 square kilometers (km2) (300 square miles) in size. The focus of this effort was on a drainage area of approximately 94 km2 (36 mi2), determined from review of topographic maps and aerial photographs to be the only part of the Yucca Flat watershed that could directly impact the Area 3 RWMS. This smaller area encompasses portions of the Halfpint Range, including Paiute Ridge, Jangle Ridge, Carbonate Ridge, Slanted Buttes, Cockeyed Ridge, and Banded Mountain. The Area 3 RWMS is located on coalescing alluvial fans emanating from this drainage area

  10. HIV testing sites' communication about adolescent confidentiality: potential barriers and facilitators to testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyden, Christel; Allegrante, John P; Cohall, Alwyn T

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to evaluate HIV testing locations in New York City in terms of staff communication of confidentiality policies for adolescent clients. Using the New York State Directory of HIV Counseling and Testing Resources as a sampling frame, this study made telephone contact with 164 public HIV testing locations in New York City and used a semistructured interview to ask questions about confidentiality, parental permission, and parent access to test results. At 48% of locations, either HIV testing was not offered or we were unable to reach a staff member to ask questions about testing options and confidentiality. At the remaining sites, information provided regarding confidentiality, parental consent, and privacy of test results was correct only 69% to 85% of the time. Additionally, 23% of sites successfully contacted offered testing exclusively between 9:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. weekdays, when most adolescents are in school. Our findings point to a need for increased training and quality control at the clinical level to ensure that consumers in need of HIV testing are provided with accurate information and accessible services. Furthermore, these results highlight the need for more "patient-centric" sites with enhanced accessibility for potential clients, particularly youth.

  11. The 'Guetsch' Alpine wind power test site; Alpine Test Site Guetsch. Handbuch und Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattin, R.

    2008-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the influence of icing-up on the operation of wind turbines in mountainous areas. Within the Swiss research project 'Alpine Test Site Guetsch', extensive icing studies were carried out at the Guetsch site near Andermatt, Switzerland. This document deals with the following subjects: Information about ice formation on structures, in particular with respect to wind turbines, standards and international research activities, wind measurements under icing-up conditions, estimation of the frequency of icing-up conditions, effects of icing-up on wind turbines, ice detection, measures available for de-icing and anti-icing as well as ice throw. A list of factors to be taken into account by the planners and operators of wind turbines in alpine environments is presented.

  12. Closure Strategy Nevada Test Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the strategy for closure of part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The Area 5 RWMS is in the northern part of Frenchman Flat, approximately 14 miles north of Mercury. The Area 5 RWMS encompasses 732 acres subdivided into quadrants, and is bounded by a 1,000-foot (ft)-wide buffer zone. The northwest and southwest quadrants have not been developed. The northeast and southeast quadrants have been used for disposal of unclassified low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and indefinite storage of classified materials. This paper focuses on closure of the 38 waste disposal and classified material storage units within the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 RWMS, called the ''92-Acre Area''. The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently planning to close the 92-Acre Area by 2011. Closure planning for this site must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. For ease of discussion, the 92-Acre Area has been subdivided into six closure units defined by waste type, location, and similarity in regulatory requirements. Each of the closure units contains one or more waste disposal units; waste disposal units are also called waste disposal cells. The paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues for the 92-Acre Area, recommends actions to address the issues, and provides the National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), schedule for closure.

  13. External exposure estimates for individuals near the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.W.; Smale, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Individuals living near the Nevada Test Site were exposed to both beta and gamma radiations from fission products and activation products resulting from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. These exposures were functions of the amount of material deposited, the time of arrival of the debris, and the amount of shielding afforded by structures. Results are presented for each of nine generic life styles. These are representative of the living patterns of the people residing in the area. For each event at each location for which data exist, a representative of each life style was closely followed for a period of thirty days. The results of these detailed calculations are then extrapolated to the present. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Bologna Process Principles Integrated into Education System of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessipbayeva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fulfillment of the parameters of the Bologna Process in the education system of Kazakhstan. The author gives short review of higher education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan with necessary data. And the weaknesses of the system of higher education are identified. Moreover, implementing…

  15. 78 FR 58556 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty orders on imports of silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to... Venezuela. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on October 1, 2012 (77 FR 59970) and...

  16. Monitoring Rangeland Ecosystems with Remote Sensing: An example from Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper introduces the problem of desertification in Kazakhstan in both a historical and modern context. The vegetation of Kazakhstan is dominated by shrubs and grasses, many of which are adapted to saline or sandy soils, with a very limited growing season. A model of vegetation production under ...

  17. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada & Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Amber L.; Wagner, Katrina; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b).

  18. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Amber L.; Wagner, Katrina; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-01-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b)

  19. Calcination/dissolution testing for Hanford Site tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, S.A.; Delegard, C.H.; McLaughlin, D.F.; Danielson, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Thermal treatment by calcination offers several benefits for the treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes, including the destruction of organics and ferrocyanides and an hydroxide fusion that permits the bulk of the mostly soluble nonradioactive constituents to be easily separated from the insoluble transuranic residue. Critical design parameters were tested, including: (1) calciner equipment design, (2) hydroxide fusion chemistry, and (3) equipment corrosion. A 2 gal/minute pilot plant processed a simulated Tank 101-SY waste and produced a free flowing 700 C molten calcine with an average calciner retention time of 20 minutes and >95% organic, nitrate, and nitrite destruction. Laboratory experiments using actual radioactive tank waste and the simulated waste pilot experiments indicate that 98 wt% of the calcine produced is soluble in water, leaving an insoluble transuranic fraction. All of the Hanford Site tank wastes can benefit from calcination/dissolution processing, contingent upon blending various tank waste types to ensure a target of 70 wt% sodium hydroxide/nitrate/nitrite fluxing agent. Finally, corrosion testing indicates that a jacketed nickel liner cooled to below 400 C would corrode <2 mil/year (0.05 mm/year) from molten calcine attack

  20. Laboratory and On-Site Tests for Rapid Runway Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Leonelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The attention to rapid pavement repair has grown fast in recent decades: this topic is strategic for the airport management process for civil purposes and peacekeeping missions. This work presents the results of laboratory and on-site tests for rapid runway repair, in order to analyse and compare technical and mechanical performances of 12 different materials currently used in airport. The study focuses on site repairs, a technique adopted most frequently than repairs with modular elements. After describing mechanical and physical properties of the examined materials (2 bituminous emulsions, 5 cement mortars, 4 cold bituminous mixtures and 1 expanding resin, the study presents the results of carried out mechanical tests. The results demonstrate that the best performing material is a one-component fast setting and hardening cement mortar with graded aggregates. This material allows the runway reopening 6 h after the work. A cold bituminous mixture (bicomponent premixed cold asphalt with water as catalyst and the ordinary cement concrete allow the reopening to traffic after 18 h, but both ensure a lower service life (1000 coverages than the cement mortar (10,000 coverages. The obtained results include important information both laboratory level and field, and they could be used by airport management bodies and road agencies when scheduling and evaluating pavement repairs.

  1. Geologic investigations of drill hole sloughing problems, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Davies, W.J.; Gonzales, J.L.; Hawkins, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    Severe sloughing zones encountered while drilling large diameter emplacement holes in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, have been identified, correlated and predicted through detailed geologic investigations. In central and southeastern Area 7 and in northern Area 3, the unstable zones are a very fine-grained, well-sorted, unconsolidated sand deposit, probably eolian in origin, which will readily flow into large diameter drill holes. Other areas exhibit hole erosion related to poor induration or extensive zeolitization of the Tertiary tuff units which are very friable and porous. By examining drill hole samples, geophysical logs, caliper logs and drilling histories, these problem zones can be characterized, correlated and then projected into nearby sites. Maps have been generated to show the depth, thickness and areal extent of these strata. In some cases, they are local and have a lenticular geometry, while in others they are quite extensive. The ability to predict such features can enhance the quality of the hole construction and completion operations to avoid costly delays and the loss of valuable testing real estate. The control of hole enlargements will also eliminate related containment concerns, such as stemming uncertainties

  2. Cost effective safety enhancements for research reactors in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan - results of a joint program with US DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, O.K.; Carlson, R.B.; Rakhmanov, A.; Salikhbaev, U.S.; Chernyaev, V.; Chakrov, P.

    2004-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of International Nuclear Safety and Cooperation established the Integrated Research Reactor Safety Enhancement Program (IRRSEP) in February 2002 to support U.S. nonproliferation goals by implementing safety upgrades, or assisting with the safe shutdown and decommissioning of foreign test and research reactors which present security concerns. IRRSEP's key program components are: Phase I: Self-evaluation by facility using provided checklists followed by prioritization to identify the 20 highest risk facilities; Phase II: Site visits with technical evaluation to finalize a list of projects that will enhance safety consistent with IAEA observations; Phase III: Corrective measures to implement the projects. Phases I, II and III are accomplished on a rolling basis, such that work is ongoing at three or four reactors per year. IRRSEP's key objective is to resolve the highest-priority nuclear safety issues at the most vulnerable foreign research reactors as quickly as possible. The prioritization methodology employed identified which research reactors fell into this category. The corrective measures mutually developed with the host facility are based on the premise of developing a sustainable infrastructure within each country to deal with its own nuclear material safety, security, and response issues in the future. IRRSEP also assists in creating an international framework of cooperation and openness between research and test reactor operators, and national and international regulators. The initial projects under IRRSEP are underway at research reactors in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Romania. This paper focuses on the projects undertaken at the WWR-K research reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Alatau, Kazakhstan and the WWR-SM research reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Ulugbek, Uzbekistan. These projects demonstrate the success and cost effectiveness of the IRRSEP program

  3. Cost effective safety enhancements for research reactors in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan - results of a joint program with US DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, O.K.; Carlson, R.B.; Rakhmanov, A.; Salikhbaev, U.S.; Chernyaev, V.; Chakrov, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The US Department of Energy's Office of International Nuclear Safety and Cooperation established the Integrated Research Reactor Safety Enhancement Program (IRRSEP) in February 2002 to support U.S. nonproliferation goals by (1) implementing safety upgrades, or (2) assisting with the safe shutdown and decommissioning of foreign test and research reactors which present security concerns. IRRSEP's key program components are: Phase I: Self-evaluation by facility using provided checklists followed by prioritization to identify the 20 highest risk facilities; Phase II: Site visits with technical evaluation to finalize a list of projects that will enhance safety consistent with IAEA observations; Phase III: Corrective measures to implement the projects. Phases I, II and III are accomplished on a rolling basis, such that work is ongoing at three or four reactors per year. IRRSEP's key objective is to resolve the highest-priority nuclear safety issues at the most vulnerable foreign research reactors as quickly as possible. The prioritization methodology employed identified which research reactors fell into this category. The corrective measures mutually developed with the host facility are based on the premise of developing a sustainable infrastructure within each country to deal with its own nuclear material safety, security, and response issues in the future. IRRSEP also assists in creating an international framework of cooperation and openness between research and test reactor operators, and national and international regulators. The initial projects under IRRSEP are underway at research reactors in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Romania. This paper focuses on the projects undertaken at the WWR-K research reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Alatau, Kazakhstan and the WWR-SM research reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Ulugbek, Uzbekistan. These projects demonstrate the success and cost effectiveness of the IRRSEP program

  4. Report on Japan/Republic of Kazakhstan cooperative research project (March, 1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Development was agreed of highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment technology as a cooperative R and D project between Japan and Kazakhstan in March, 1995. This paper explains the 1996 results. Kazakhstan is a mineral resources country and has a number of base metal mines. However, as the result of production/treatment processes, a lot of by-products are produced consisting of low grade ores and tailings. These by-products contain a variety of metals. If a process is developed for extracting metals from the by-products, it will contribute to the prevention of environmental pollution caused by mining activities as well as increasing metal production in Kazakhstan. The development begun in 1995 will continue until fiscal 2000. The report describes a sampling method for test specimens, and chemical/mineralogical analysis. Concerning leaching tests for low grade ore, methods are explained covering Cu maximum, column, and flotation froth leaching tests. Also described are leaching tests for tailings. A flotation test and bacteria leaching test are mentioned in addition. The report further refers to the basic study of solvent extraction and treatment of waste water. (NEDO)

  5. Kazakhstan and America: the Frontiers of Energy Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekbolat Almadiyev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development and use of policy instruments and tools for energy cooperation promotion between Kazakhstan and the United States. The role of energy diplomacy in foreign policy strategy of the Republic of Kazakhstan is due to the progressive growth of the relationship between the economic interests of Kazakhstan and the United States. The main objectives of the energy policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan are: the internal energy market formation, energy supplies on a competitive basis and energy security provision, as well as the improvement of the environmental sustainability of the energy. Modern American transnational enterprises have at their disposal significant financial resources, technological and managerial capacity. They are able to develop oil and gas fields effectively in the Republic of Kazakhstan with the least financial costs and minimal environmental damage.

  6. The evaluation of a user-friendly lateral flow assay for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis in Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mizanbayeva, Sulushash; Smits, Henk L.; Zhalilova, Katya; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Kozakov, Stanislaw; Ospanov, Kenes S.; Elzer, Philip H.; Douglas, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Serum samples from all patients with culture-confirmed brucellosis including those with chronic disease from Kazakhstan tested positive in the serum agglutination test for titers > or = 1:25 and reacted in the Brucella immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G lateral flow assay (LFA) confirming the high

  7. Fiber optic utilization at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Golob, J.E.; Looney, L.D.; Robichaud, R.E.; Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

    1978-11-01

    Optical fiber cables have been successfully used for 100-MHz analog data transmission during an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site. Two 700-m Corning Corguide cables were used to provide thirteen single fiber data channels from the vicinity of the underground detonation, 350 meters below ground level, to recording instrumentation, 350 meters from the downhole shaft. No fiber performance degradation was observed during the extensive procedures used to seal the shaft. These procedures included backfilling the shaft with layers of sand and gravel, as well as poured epoxy plugs. Techniques were developed for internal sealing of the Corguide cable to prevent any possible radioactive gas flow through voids within the cable. The effects on optical fibers of intense, pulsed neutron and gamma irradiation were studied. Specialized tools, including a system for location of faults or breaks in the optical fibers, were developed. The success of this first test will allow consideration of fiber optic cables for future nuclear tests as well as for other applications involving extremely rough handling in field environments

  8. Hydrogeologic testing strategy for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logsdon, M.J.; Verma, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    At the time of licensing for a proposed deep geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste, the Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to present and defend a complete licensing/performance assessment of the geologic repository system. As part of its responsibilities, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff will be required to perform an independent assessment of the groundwater flow system with respect to the technical criteria of 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 60. Specifically, the staff expects to use mathematical models to predict pre-emplacement and post-emplacement groundwater flow paths and travel times. These predictive assessments will be used to reach findings on compliance with the proposed EPA Standards (10 CFR 60.112), which apply to post-emplacement groundwater travel time along the path of likely radionuclide travel (10 CFR 60.113(2)). Predictive modeling of groundwater flow will require defensible conceptual models of the flow system, defensible boundary conditions, and defensible values of hydraulic parameters. The purpose fo this technical position is to provide guidance to DOE on an approach that the NRC staff considers acceptable in determining what hydrogeologic testing (including types of tests, scale of tests, and number of tests) at the Hanford site will be required to produce the hydraulic data necessary and sufficient to perform rigorous, quantitative modeling to support predictions of repository performance. 2 figures

  9. Safeguards First Principles Initiative at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was selected as a test bed for the Safeguards First Principles Initiative (SFPI). The implementation of the SFPI is evaluated using the system effectiveness model and the program is managed under an approved MC and A Plan. The effectiveness model consists of an evaluation of the critical elements necessary to detect, deter, and/or prevent the theft or diversion of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). The modeled results indicate that the MC and A program established under this variance is still effective, without creating unacceptable risk. Extensive performance testing is conducted through the duration of the pilot to ensure the protection system is effective and no material is at an unacceptable risk. The pilot was conducted from January 1, 2007, through May 30, 2007. This paper will discuss the following activities in association with SFPI: (1) Development of Timeline; (2) Crosswalk of DOE Order and SFPI; (3) Peer Review; (4) Deviation; (5) MC and A Plan and Procedure changes; (6) Changes implemented at NTS; (7) Training; and (8) Performance Test

  10. ESCAR, tests of superconducting bending magnets at the accelerator site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, W.S.; Lambertson, G.R.; Meuser, R.B.; Rechen, J.B.

    1979-03-01

    ESCAR (Experimental Superconducting Accelerator Ring) was conceived as a project in accelerator technology development which would provide data and experience to insure that planning for larger superconducting synchrotrons would proceed in a knowledgeable and responsible manner. It was to consist of the fabrication and operation of a relatively small proton synchrotron and storage ring with superconducting magnet elements for all of the main ring. The project was funded and design work began in July 1974. During the next two years it became increasingly apparent that the funding rate was directly limiting the rate of completion of ESCAR and that an intermediate goal, a test of the unconventional aspects of the project, was desirable. To that end, twelve dipole bending magnets, one-half of those required for the total ring, were installed at the site along with the 1500 watt helium refrigerator, cryogenic distribution system, electrical power supplies, vacuum systems, and necessary instrumentation. This truncated system was put through an extended series of tests which were completed in June 1978 at which time the ESCAR Project was terminated. ESCAR, and the dipole magnets have been described previously. The results of the systems tests have also been reported. The tests involving the dipole magnets are described

  11. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Nevada Test Site and support facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan applies to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) operations on the Continental US (including Amchitka Island, Alaska) that are under the purview of the DOE Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV). The primary purpose of these operations is the conduct of the nuclear weapons testing program for the DOE and the Department of Defense. Since 1951, these tests have been conducted principally at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. In accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, this Environmental Monitoring Plan brings together in one document a description of the environmental activities conducted at the NTS by user organizations, operations support contractors, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA conducts both the offsite environmental monitoring program around the NTS and post-operational monitoring efforts at non-NTS test locations used between 1961 and 1973 in other parts of the continental US. All of these monitoring activities are conducted under the auspices of the DOE/NV, which has the stated policy of conducting its operations in compliance with both the letter and the spirit of applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards

  12. Epidemiology of fishborne trematodiasis in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanov, A; Abdybekova, A; Abdibaeva, A; Shapiyeva, Z; Yeshmuratov, T; Torgerson, P R

    2014-10-01

    Fish borne trematodes are an important cause of morbidity in Kazakhstan. The number of human cases of opisthorchiidosis (infection with parasites of the family opisthorchiidae) reached a peak of 2521 recorded cases (17 cases per 100,000) in 2002 with a gradual decline to 1225 cases (7.4 cases per 100,000) in 2011. Most human cases are found in the north and north east part of Kazakhstan in areas drained by the Irtysh River and it tributaries. A further focus is found in the north west in the Ural river basin in the European part of Kazakhstan. The most common occupations of patients with opisthorchiidosis included the manual laborers, those employed in the home or unemployed. Necropsy investigations of village dogs in an endemic region revealed 37 of 51 (72%) village dogs infected with either Opisthorchis felineus or Methorchis bilis. Likewise an investigation of 242 cats consisting of strays, village, suburban and city cats revealed 79 (33%) animals infected with O. felineus. Higher prevalences were seen in strays and village cats compared to suburban cats. No urban cats, which lived in apartments, were found to be infected. Other important zoonoses included Echinococcus granulosus, detected in 2 of the 51 necropsied village dogs and E. multilocularis was found in 2 out of 124 necropsied stray cats. Investigations of locally caught fish revealed 10 of 107 (9%) roach (Rutilus rutilus), 49 of 68(72%) ide (Leuciscus idus) and 2 of 79 (2.5%) bream (Abramis brama) infested with trematode metacercariae. No metacercariae were found in 609 crucian carp (Carassius carassius), 35 tench (Tinca tinca), 79 carp (Cyprinus carpio), 46 perch (Perca fluviatilis) or 20 zander (Sander lucioperca). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Applied field test procedures on petroleum release sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, G.; Nichols, L.

    1995-01-01

    The effective remediation of petroleum contaminated soils and ground water is a significant issue for Williams Pipe Line Co. (Williams): costing $6.8 million in 1994. It is in the best interest, then, for Williams to adopt approaches and apply technologies that will be both cost-effective and comply with regulations. Williams has found the use of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS) field test procedures at the onset of a petroleum release investigation/remediation accomplish these goals. This paper focuses on the application of AS/SVE as the preferred technology to a specific type of remediation: refined petroleum products. In situ field tests are used prior to designing a full-scale remedial system to first validate or disprove initial assumptions on applicability of the technology. During the field test, remedial system design parameters are also collected to tailor the design and operation of a full-scale system to site specific conditions: minimizing cost and optimizing effectiveness. In situ field tests should be designed and operated to simulate as close as possible the operation of a full-scale remedial system. The procedures of an in situ field test will be presented. The results of numerous field tests and the associated costs will also be evaluated and compared to full-scale remedial systems and total project costs to demonstrate overall effectiveness. There are many advantages of As/SVE technologies over conventional fluid extraction or SVE systems alone. However, the primary advantage is the ability to simultaneously reduce volatile and biodegradable compound concentrations in the phreatic, capillary fringe, and unsaturated zones

  14. Determinants of internal migration in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Alisher; Dietz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the determinants of interregional migration in Kazakhstan using quarterly panel data on region to region migration in 2008–2010. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on interregional population flows in Central Asia. We find that migration is determined by economic factors, first of all income: People are more likely to leave regions where incomes are low and more likely to move to regions with a higher income level. Furthermore, mobility is larger bet...

  15. Market reforms and 'Economic miracle' in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazakhstan's postcommunist transition is characterized by gradual changes under the conditions of a limited democracy. These changes have embraced extensive price and trade liberalization, and resolutely promoted privatization and the building of market institutions, although structural reforms and the struggle against corruption have made little progress. The country's financial independence was established with the introduction of the tenge in 1993. Transformational recession reached its maximum in 1995, since when only the 1998 Asian and Russian crises have interrupted continuous growth. However, the Kazakh economy is very sensitive to fluctuations in world energy and mineral prices, as the extractive industries, primarily oil and gas, have a crucial role in its development.

  16. Currency strategy of constructivism in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoryana Lutsyshyn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The strategy of constructivism is one of the most efficient ones for the countries which stand at the intersection of interests of large players in the global economy. The modern currency reformation and principles of positioning of Kazakhstan could be a bright example of how the internal policy should be implemented to ensure the interests of a socially oriented state, including definitions of the currency mechanism. All measures and actions of the central bank and the government have always been weighted, consistent and foreseeable: the logic and economic substantiation have always been adhered to in the exchange rate policy at simultaneous liberalization of the foreign exchange market

  17. TC-13 Mod 0 and Mod 2 Steam Catapult Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located on 11,000 feet of test runway, the TC-13 Mod 0 and Mod 2 Steam Catapult Test Site has in-ground catapults identical to those aboard carriers. This test site...

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 536 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Area 3 Release Site, and comprises a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): (sm b ullet) CAS 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 03-44-02 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-impacted soil, soil impacted with plutonium (Pu)-239, and concrete pad debris. CAU 536 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 536 Corrective Action Plan (CAP), with minor deviations as approved by NDEP. The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 536 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 536 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 1,000 cubic yards (yd3) of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH- and PAH-impacted soil and debris, approximately 8 yd3 of Pu-239-impacted soil, and approximately 100 yd3 of concrete debris were generated, managed, and disposed of appropriately. Additionally, a previously uncharacterized, buried drum was excavated, removed, and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste as a best management practice. Waste minimization techniques, such as the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure

  19. Siting and constructing very deep monitoring wells on the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, J.J.; Jacobson, R.L.; Russell, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Many aspects of the Nevada Test Site's (NTS) hydrogeologic setting restrict the use of traditional methods for the siting and construction of ground-water characterization and monitoring wells. The size of the NTS precludes establishing high-density networks of characterization wells, as are typically used at smaller sites. The geologic complexity and variability of the NTS requires that the wells be criticality situated. The hydrogeologic complexity requires that each well provide access to many aquifers. Depths to ground water on the NTS require the construction of wells averaging approximately 1000 meters in depth. Wells meeting these criteria are uncommon in the ground-water industry, therefore techniques used by petroleum engineers are being employed to solve certain siting-, design- and installation-related problems. To date, one focus has been on developing completion strings that facilitate routine and efficient ground-water sampling from multiple intervals in a single well. The method currently advocated employs a new design of sliding side door sleeve that is actuated by an electrically operated hydraulic shifting tool. Stemming of the wells is being accomplished with standard materials (cement based grouts and sands); however, new stemming methods are being developed, to accommodate the greater depths, to minimize pH-related problems caused by the use of cements, to enhance the integrity of the inter-zone seals, and to improve the representativeness of radionuclide analyses performed on ground-water samples. Bench-scale experiments have been used to investigate the properties of more than a dozen epoxy-aggregate grout mixtures -- materials that are commonly used in underwater sealing applications

  20. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to 1989, annual reports of environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were prepared in two separate parts. Onsite effluent monitoring and environmental monitoring results were reported in an onsite report prepared by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Results of the Offsite Radiological Surveillance and Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Programs conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Laboratory (various names) in Las Vegas, Nevada, were reported separately by that Agency. Beginning with the 1989 Annual Site Environmental Report for the NTS, these two documents were combined into a single report to provide a more comprehensive annual documentation of the environmental protection activities conducted for the nuclear testing program and other nuclear and non-nuclear operations at the NTS. The two agencies have coordinated preparation of this tenth combined onsite and offsite report through sharing of information on environmental surveillance and releases as well as meteorological, hydrological, and other supporting data used in dose-estimation calculations

  1. Nevada Test Site Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Y.E.; Grossman, R.F.

    2000-10-01

    Prior to 1989, annual reports of environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were prepared in two separate parts. Onsite effluent monitoring and environmental monitoring results were reported in an onsite report prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Results of the Offsite Radiological Surveillance and Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring programs conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Laboratory (various names) in Las Vegas, Nevada, were reported separately by that Agency. Beginning with the 1989 Annual Site Environmental Report for the NTS, these two documents were combined into a single report to provide a more comprehensive annual documentation of the environmental protection activities conducted for the nuclear testing program and other nuclear and non-nuclear operations at the NTS. The two agencies have coordinated preparation of this eleventh combined onsite and offsite report through sharing of information on environmental surveillance and releases as well as meteorological, hydrological, and other supporting data used in dose-estimation calculations.

  2. Nevada Test Site Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Y.E.; Grossman, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Prior to 1989, annual reports of environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were prepared in two separate parts. Onsite effluent monitoring and environmental monitoring results were reported in an onsite report prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Results of the Offsite Radiological Surveillance and Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring programs conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Laboratory (various names) in Las Vegas, Nevada, were reported separately by that Agency. Beginning with the 1989 Annual Site Environmental Report for the NTS, these two documents were combined into a single report to provide a more comprehensive annual documentation of the environmental protection activities conducted for the nuclear testing program and other nuclear and non-nuclear operations at the NTS. The two agencies have coordinated preparation of this eleventh combined onsite and offsite report through sharing of information on environmental surveillance and releases as well as meteorological, hydrological, and other supporting data used in dose-estimation calculations

  3. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1999-10-01

    Prior to 1989, annual reports of environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were prepared in two separate parts. Onsite effluent monitoring and environmental monitoring results were reported in an onsite report prepared by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Results of the Offsite Radiological Surveillance and Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Programs conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Laboratory (various names) in Las Vegas, Nevada, were reported separately by that Agency. Beginning with the 1989 Annual Site Environmental Report for the NTS, these two documents were combined into a single report to provide a more comprehensive annual documentation of the environmental protection activities conducted for the nuclear testing program and other nuclear and non-nuclear operations at the NTS. The two agencies have coordinated preparation of this tenth combined onsite and offsite report through sharing of information on environmental surveillance and releases as well as meteorological, hydrological, and other supporting data used in dose-estimation calculations.

  4. Classification of groundwater at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    Groundwater occurring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has been classified according to the ''Guidelines for Ground-Water Classification Under the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Ground-Water Protection Strategy'' (June 1988). All of the groundwater units at the NTS are Class II, groundwater currently (IIA) or potentially (IIB) a source of drinking water. The Classification Review Area (CRA) for the NTS is defined as the standard two-mile distance from the facility boundary recommended by EPA. The possibility of expanding the CRA was evaluated, but the two-mile distance encompasses the area expected to be impacted by contaminant transport during a 10-year period (EPA,s suggested limit), should a release occur. The CRA is very large as a consequence of the large size of the NTS and the decision to classify the entire site, not individual areas of activity. Because most activities are located many miles hydraulically upgradient of the NTS boundary, the CRA generally provides much more than the usual two-mile buffer required by EPA. The CRA is considered sufficiently large to allow confident determination of the use and value of groundwater and identification of potentially affected users. The size and complex hydrogeology of the NTS are inconsistent with the EPA guideline assumption of a high degree of hydrologic interconnection throughout the review area. To more realistically depict the site hydrogeology, the CRA is subdivided into eight groundwater units. Two main aquifer systems are recognized: the lower carbonate aquifer system and the Cenozoic aquifer system (consisting of aquifers in Quaternary valley fill and Tertiary volcanics). These aquifer systems are further divided geographically based on the location of low permeability boundaries

  5. Development of Onsite Transportation Safety Documents for Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank Hand; Willard Thomas; Frank Sciacca; Manny Negrete; Susan Kelley

    2008-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders require each DOE site to develop onsite transportation safety documents (OTSDs). The Nevada Test Site approach divided all onsite transfers into two groups with each group covered by a standalone OTSD identified as Non-Nuclear and Nuclear. The Non-Nuclear transfers involve all radioactive hazardous material in less than Hazard Category (HC)-3 quantities and all chemically hazardous materials. The Nuclear transfers involve all radioactive material equal to or greater than HC-3 quantities and radioactive material mated with high explosives regardless of quantity. Both OTSDs comply with DOE O 460.1B requirements. The Nuclear OTSD also complies with DOE O 461.1A requirements and includes a DOE-STD-3009 approach to hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis as needed. All Nuclear OTSD proposed transfers were determined to be non-equivalent and a methodology was developed to determine if 'equivalent safety' to a fully compliant Department of Transportation (DOT) transfer was achieved. For each HA scenario, three hypothetical transfers were evaluated: a DOT-compliant, uncontrolled, and controlled transfer. Equivalent safety is demonstrated when the risk level for each controlled transfer is equal to or less than the corresponding DOT-compliant transfer risk level. In this comparison the typical DOE-STD-3009 risk matrix was modified to reflect transportation requirements. Design basis conditions (DBCs) were developed for each non-equivalent transfer. Initial DBCs were based solely upon the amount of material present. Route-, transfer-, and site-specific conditions were evaluated and the initial DBCs revised as needed. Final DBCs were evaluated for each transfer's packaging and its contents

  6. Source effects on surface waves from Nevada Test Site explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, H.J.; Vergino, E.S.

    1981-11-01

    Surface waves recorded on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) digital network have been used to study five underground nuclear explosions detonated in Yucca Valley at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this study is to characterize the reduced displacement potential (RDP) at low frequencies and to test secondary source models of underground explosions. The observations consist of Rayleigh- and Love-wave amplitude and phase spectra in the frequency range 0.03 to 0.16 Hz. We have found that Rayleigh-wave spectral amplitudes are modeled well by a RDP with little or no overshoot for explosions detonated in alluvium and tuff. On the basis of comparisons between observed and predicted source phase, the spall closure source proposed by Viecelli does not appear to be a significant source of Rayleigh waves that reach the far field. We tested two other secondary source models, the strike-slip, tectonic strain release model proposed by Toksoez and Kehrer and the dip-slip thrust model of Masse. The surface-wave observations do not provide sufficient information to discriminate between these models at the low F-values (0.2 to 0.8) obtained for these explosions. In the case of the strike-slip model, the principal stress axes inferred from the fault slip angle and strike angle are in good agreement with the regional tectonic stress field for all but one explosion, Nessel. The results of the Nessel explosion suggest a mechanism other than tectonic strain release

  7. Underground radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimz, G.J.; Thompson, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This document reviews results from a number of studies concerning underground migration of radionuclides from nuclear test cavities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Discussed are all cases known to the Department of Energy's Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program where radionuclides have been detected outside of the immediate vicinity of nuclear test cavities that are identifiable as the-source of the nuclides, as well as cases where radionuclides might have been expected and were intentionally sought but not fixed. There are nine locations where source-identifiable radionuclide migration has been detected, one where migration was purposely induced by pumping, and three where migration might be expected but was not found. In five of the nine cases of non-induced migration, the inferred migration mechanism is prompt fracture injection during detonation. In the other four cases, the inferred migration mechanism is water movement. In only a few of the reviewed cases can the actual migration mechanism be stated with confidence, and the attempt has been made to indicate the level of confidence for each case. References are cited where more information may be obtained. As an aid to future study, this document concludes with a brief discussion of the aspects of radionuclide migration that, as the present review indicates, are not yet understood. A course of action is suggested that would produce a better understanding of the phenomenon of radionuclide migration

  8. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site: formation permeability analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The report evaluates previous investigations of the gas permeability of the rock surrounding emplacement holes at the Nevada Test Site. The discussion sets the framework from which the present uncertainty in gas permeability can be overcome. The usefulness of the barometric pressure testing method has been established. Flow models were used to evaluate barometric pressure transients taken at NTS holes U2fe, U19ac and U20ai. 31 refs., 103 figs., 18 tabs

  9. Laboratory testing of ozone oxidation of Hanford site waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Stubbs, A.M.; Bolling, S.D.; Colby, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Organic constituents in radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site provoke safety concerns arising from their low-temperature reactions with nitrate and nitrite oxidants. Destruction of the organics would eliminate both safety problems. Oxone oxidation was investigated to destroy organic species present in simulated and genuine waste from Hanford Site Tank 241-SY-101. Bench-scale tests showed high-shear mixing apparatus achieved efficient gas-to-solution mass transfer and utilization of the ozone reagent. Oxidations of nitrite (to form nitrate) and organic species were observed. The organics formed carbonate and oxalate as well as nitrate and nitrogen gas from organic nitrogen. Formate, acetate and oxalate were present both in source waste and as reaction intermediates. Metal species oxidations also were observed directly or inferred by solubilities. Chemical precipitations of metal ions such as strontium and americium occurred as the organic species were destroyed by ozone. Reaction stoichiometries were consistent with the reduction of one oxygen atom per ozone molecule

  10. Soil microbiota of Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, F.H.F.; Leavitt, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of two desert plants, Atriplex canescens and Eurotia lanata, on kind and abundance of soil microbiota was determined in soil samples collected from Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site. This study was part of a larger research program to elucidate the role of soil microorganisms on the biological availability and the mobility of soil-deposited plutonium. The fungi identified in the soil samples included Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Stachybotrys, stysanus, Circinella, Cheaetomium, and Fusarium. The numbers of bacteria and fungi were generally highest at the 2.5- to 5.0-cm soil depth at both the mound and the interspace sampling sites. The highest numbers of fungi were found around the mound. The relative abundance of Aspergillus increased with increasing distance from the plants, whereas that of Penicillium decreased. Dematiaceae and chaetomium, both cellulose decomposers, were highest in the 0- to 2.5-cm soil segment. The abundance and distribution of soil microorganisms capable of incorporating plutonium (and probably other radionuclides as well) around the plants investigated indicate that this may be a factor in the bioavailability and movement of plutonium in the edaphic system. 17 references, 1 figure, 27 tables

  11. Coda Spectral Peaking for Nevada Nuclear Test Site Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, K R; Mayeda, K; Walter, W R

    2007-09-10

    We have applied the regional S-wave coda calibration technique of Mayeda et al. (2003) to earthquake data in and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) using 4 regional broadband stations from the LLNL seismic network. We applied the same path and site corrections to tamped nuclear explosion data and averaged the source spectra over the four stations. Narrowband coda amplitudes from the spectra were then regressed against inferred yield based on the regional m{sub b}(Pn) magnitude of Denny et al. (1987), along with the yield formulation of Vergino and Mensing (1990). We find the following: (1) The coda-derived spectra show a peak which is dependent upon emplacement depth, not event size; (2) Source size estimates are stable for the coda and show a dependence upon the near-source strength and gas porosity; (3) For explosions with the same m{sub b}(Pn) or inferred yield, those in weaker material have lower coda amplitudes at 1-3 Hz.

  12. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Nevada Test Site and support facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This Operational Area Monitoring Plan for environmental monitoring, is for EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG ampersand G/EM) which operates several offsite facilities in support of activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These facilities include: (1) Amador Valley Operations (AVO), Pleasanton, California; (2) Kirtland Operations (KO), Kirtland Air Force base, Albuquerque, New Mexico (KAFB); (3) Las Vegas Area Operations (LVAO), Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), and North Las Vegas (NLV) Complex at Nellis Air Force Base (NAFB), North Las Vegas, Nevada; (4) Los Alamos Operations (LAO), Los Alamos, New Mexico; (5) Santa Barbara Operations (SBO), Goleta, California; (6) Special Technologies Laboratory (STL), Santa Barbara, California; (7) Washington Aerial Measurements Department (WAMD), Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland; and, (8) Woburn Cathode Ray Tube Operations (WCO), Woburn, Massachusetts. Each of these facilities has an individual Operational Area Monitoring Plan, but they have been consolidated herein to reduce redundancy

  13. Nevada Test Site Experimental Farm: summary report 1963-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Smith, D.D.

    1984-08-01

    This report summarizes the findings from experiments conducted at the Experimental Dairy Farm located on the Nevada Test Site. These experiments included the air-forage-cow-milk transport of the radioiodines, and the metabolism and milk transfer of other fission products and several actinides. Major studies are listed in chronological order from 1964 to 1978 and include the purpose, procedures, isotopes used, and findings for each such study. Animal exposures occurred from fallout, from artificial aerosol generation, and from oral or intravenous administration. A complete bibliography and references to published reports of the experiments are included. The findings from the radioisotope studies at the Experimental Dairy Farm and the results obtained from the Animal Investigation Program provide a rationale for making predictions and for planning protective actions that could be useful in emergency response to accidental contaminating events where fresh fission products are involved. 61 references

  14. Relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautenstrauch, K.R.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    Seven hundred fifty-nine transects having a total length of 1,191 km were walked during 1981--1986 to determine the distribution and relative abundance of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The abundance of tortoises on NTS was low to very low relative to other populations in the Mojave Desert. Sign of tortoises was found from 880 to 1,570 m elevation and was more abundant above 1,200 m than has been reported previously for Nevada. Tortoises were more abundant on NTS on the upper alluvial fans and slopes of mountains than in valley bottoms. They also were more common on or near limestone and dolomite mountains than on mountains of volcanic origin

  15. Nevada Test Site waste acceptance criteria [Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-08-01

    Revision one updates the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document.

  16. Biodiversity Analysis of Vegetation on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. K. Ostler; D. J. Hansen

    2001-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) located in south central Nevada encompasses approximately 3,561 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996-1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. These data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Species diversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in ecosystem diversity at the ecoregion, alliance, association, and ecological landform unit levels are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors (elevation, soil, precipitation) and anthropogenic disturbance on biodiversity are assessed

  17. Biodiversity analysis of vegetation on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostler, W. K.; Hansen, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in south-central Nevada, encompasses approximately 3,500 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996 to 1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. The data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Biodiversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in biodiversity among ecoregions and vegetation alliances are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species' presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors, such as elevation, soil, and precipitation, on biodiversity are assessed

  18. Nevada Test Site waste acceptance criteria [Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1997-01-01

    Revision one updates the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document

  19. Correlation of alluvial deposits at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grothaus, B.; Howard, N.

    1977-01-01

    Because characteristics of rock layers and problems in drilling must be studied before radioactive waste can be safely contained, an evaluation was made of methods for correlating alluvial deposits at Yucca Flat of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Although correlation of Tertiary volcanic tuff beds at the NTS has been successfully achieved, correlation of stratigraphic zones in the overlying alluvium has posed technical difficulties. We have evaluated several methods for correlating alluvial deposits from drillholes, including electric resistivity logs (E logs), visual examination of sidewall samples and comparison of their carbonate (CO 2 ) content, downhole stereo photography for identifying debris flow deposits, caliche age-dating, and specific yield and permeability measurements of deposits. For predicting the thickness of zones having similar physical properties in the alluvium, E log measurements were found to be the most useful of these methods

  20. Mixed waste characterization and certification at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.A.; Dodge, R.L.; Fitzsimmons, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was recently granted interim status by the state of Nevada to receive mixed waste. The RCRA Part B permit application has been revised and submitted to the state. Preliminary indications are that the permit will be granted. In conjunction with revision of the Part B permit application, pertinent DOE guidelines governing waste acceptance criteria and waste characterization were also revised. The guidelines balance the need for full characterization of hazardous constituents with ALARA precepts. Because it is not always feasible to obtain a full chemical analysis without undue or unnecessary radiological exposure of personnel, process knowledge is considered an acceptable method of waste characterization. A balance of administrative controls and verification procedures, as well as careful documentation and high standards of quality assurance, are essential to the characterization and certification program developed for the NTS

  1. Mixed waste characterization and certification at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.A.; Dodge, R.L.; Fitzsimmons, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Project (RWMP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was recently granted interim status by the state of Nevada to receive mixed waste (MW). The RCRA Part B permit application has been revised and submitted to the state. Preliminary indications are that the permit will be granted. In conjunction with revision of the Part B Permit application, pertinent DOE guidelines governing waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and waste characterization were also revised. The guidelines balance the need for full characterization of hazardous constituents with as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) precepts. Because it is not always feasible to obtain a full chemical analysis without undue or unnecessary radiological exposure of personnel, process knowledge is considered an acceptable method of waste characterization. A balance of administrative controls and verification procedures, as well as careful documentation and high standards of quality assurance, are essential to the characterization and certification program developed for the NTS

  2. ERDA test facilities, East Mesa Test Site. Geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Detailed specifications which must be complied with in the construction of the ERDA Test Facilities at the East Mesa Site for geothermal resource investigations in Imperial Valley, California are presented for use by prospective bidders for the construction contract. The principle construction work includes a 700 gpm cooling tower with its associated supports and equipment, pipelines from wells, electrical equipment, and all earthwork. (LCL)

  3. Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, 'Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,' Revision 0 issued in October 2009. Brief Description of Revision: A minor revision to correct oversights made during revision to incorporate the 10 CFR 835 Update; and for use as a reference document for Tenant Organization Radiological Protection Programs. This manual contains the radiological control requirements to be used for all radiological activities conducted by programs under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Compliance with these requirements will ensure compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection.' Programs covered by this manual are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS); Nellis Air Force Base and North Las Vegas, Nevada; Santa Barbara and Livermore, California; and Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. In addition, fieldwork by NNSA/NSO at other locations is covered by this manual. The NTS is located in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas. It is a remote facility that covers approximately 3,500 square kilometers (1,375 square miles) of land. The dimensions of the NTS vary from 46 to 56 kilometers (28 to 35 miles) in width (eastern to western border) and from 64 to 88 kilometers (40 to 55 miles) in length (northern to southern border). The NTS is surrounded to the west, north, and east by additional thousands of acres of land withdrawn from the public domain for use as a protected wildlife range and as a military gunnery range. These public exclusion areas comprise the Nellis Air Force Range complex, previously designated as the Nellis Air Force Base Bombing and Gunnery Range, and the Tonopah Test Range. These two areas provide a buffer zone between the test areas and public lands administered by the Federal Bureau of Land

  4. Small scale heater tests in argillite of the Eleana Formation at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Thomas, R.K.; Lappin, A.R.

    1979-11-01

    Near-surface heater tests were run in the Eleana Formation at the Nevada Test Site, in an effort to evaluate argillaceous rock for nuclear waste storage. The main test, which employed a full-scale heater with a thermal output approximating commercial borosilicate waste, was designed to operate for several months. Two smaller, scaled tests were run prior to the full-scale test. This report develops the thermal scaling laws, describes the pretest thermal and thermomechanical analysis conducted for these two tests, and discusses the material properties data used in the analyses. In the first test, scaled to a large heater of 3.5 kW power, computed heater temperatures were within 7% of measured values for the entire 96-hour test run. The second test, scaled to a large heater having 5.0 kW power, experienced periodic water in-flow onto the heater, which tended to damp the temperature. For the second test, the computed temperatures were within 7% of measured for the first 20 hours. After this time, the water effect became significant and the measured temperatures were 15 to 20% below those predicted. On the second test, rock surface spallation was noted in the bore hole above the heater, as predicted. The scaled tests indicated that in-situ argillite would not undergo major thermostructural failure during the follow-on, 3.5 kW, full-scale test. 24 figures, 6 tables

  5. THE PROSPECT OF INFLATION TARGETING IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhandos Ybrayev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, there has been a significant increase in the number of countries that began to pursue an Inflation Targeting monetary policy framework. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, each of the fifteen newly created independent countries started to develop and run their own autonomous monetary policies. Kazakhstan announced the implementation of an Inflation Targeting policy in August 2015. At the same time, a number of researches show that Inflation Targeting might not work as well for developing countries as it does for developed ones due to certain fundamental differences and preconditions that must be met before the implementation phase. Thus, this paper discusses the case of Kazakhstan as a typical emerging market economy example, examines its ability to respond to various external shocks and identifies the main transmission channels in order to contribute to the knowledge in this particular area. Identification assumptions generate contemporaneous monetary shocks on domestic inflation behavior, which also take into account various features of the small open economy as well as indicate different important transitory and persistent effects. The results show, based on the interpretation of impulse response functions, a positive interest rate shock has an uncertain inflationary impact, which raises questions about the effectiveness of interest rate manipulation in keeping inflation within the given band. In addition, a positive exchange rate shock leads to a stronger upward pressure in inflation rates. Finally, inflation inertia explains a substantial increase in future inflation rates.

  6. Near-field modeling in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmann, K.; Shirley, C.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating the effects of nuclear testing in underground test areas (the UGTA program) at the Nevada Test Site. The principal focus of the UGTA program is to better understand and define subsurface radionuclide migration. The study described in this report focuses on the development of tools for generating maps of hydrogeologic characteristics of subsurface Tertiary volcanic units at the Frenchman Flat corrective Action Unit (CAU). The process includes three steps. The first step involves generation of three-dimensional maps of the geologic structure of subsurface volcanic units using geophysical logs to distinguish between two classes: densely welded tuff and nonwelded tuff. The second step generates three-dimensional maps of hydraulic conductivity utilizing the spatial distribution of the two geologic classes obtained in the first step. Each class is described by a correlation structure based on existing data on hydraulic conductivity, and conditioned on the generated spatial location of each class. The final step demonstrates the use of the maps of hydraulic conductivity for modeling groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in volcanic tuffs from an underground nuclear test at the Frenchman Flat CAU. The results indicate that the majority of groundwater flow through the volcanic section occurs through zones of densely welded tuff where connected fractures provide the transport pathway. Migration rates range between near zero to approximately four m/yr, with a mean rate of 0.68 m/yr. This report presents the results of work under the FY96 Near-Field Modeling task of the UGTA program

  7. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, S.E.; Novo, M.G.; Shinn, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated.

  8. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, S.E.; Novo, M.G.; Shinn, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated

  9. The Development of a Tourist Brand in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madina Smykova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the development of a tourist brand in Kazakhstan, taking into account the theoretical materials and relying on applied research. There is a necessity to form a tourist brand in Kazakhstan, which is currently connected with low level of recognition. On the basis of empirical research, an approximate model of the tourist brand in Kazakhstan was developed. The analysis revealed an ambiguous attitude from the sides of foreign tourists and residents. Priority indicators for the development of a tourist brand in Kazakhstan were identified; in particular the most important tourist destinations, the symbol and slogan of the country's iconic events and preferred cuisine, attractive historical monuments, and natural resources. The analysis showed that the tourist brand in Kazakhstan, with its identification and attributes, should be aimed at associating with the nature and cultural traditions of Kazakhstan. The research also identified priority types of tourism at each stage of the life cycle of the tourist product of Kazakhstan.

  10. Land surface cleanup of plutonium at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeling, L.L.; Evans, R.B.; Walsh, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) covers approximately 3300 km 2 of high desert and is located approximately 100 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Soil contaminated by plutonium exists on the NTS and surrounding areas from safety tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s. About 150 curies of contamination have been measured over 1200 hectares of land surface. Most contamination is found in the top 5 cm of soil but may be found deep as 25 cm. The cost of conventional removal and disposal of the full soil volume has been estimated at over $500,000,000. This study is directed toward minimizing the volume of waste which must be further processed and disposed of by precisely controlling soil removal depth. The following soil removal machines were demonstrated at the NTS: (1) a CMI Corporation Model PR-500FL pavement profiler, (2) a CMI Corporation Model Tr-225B trimmer reclaimer, (3) a Caterpillar Model 623 elevating scraper equipped with laser depth control, (4) a Caterpillar Model 14G motor grader equipped with laser depth control, (5) a Caterpillar Model 637 auger scraper, and (6) a XCR Series Guzzler vacuum truck. 5 refs., 5 figs

  11. Slingram survey at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanigan, V.J.

    1981-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) data presented in this report is part of study by the US Geological Survey aimed at evaluating the Miocene and Pliocene Yucca Mountain Member of various units of the Paintbrush Tuff in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain as a possible repository for nuclear wastes. The survey area is located about 97 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada on the Nevada Test Site. Data contained in this report were taken along the eastern edge of Yucca Mountain. The specific purpose of this survey was to determine with EM methods, whether or not northwest-trending valleys in the Yucca Mountain area were fault controlled. Fault and fracture zones in the tuff units were expected to have a somewhat higher conductivity than the unfractured tuff. This is due to the greater porosity, clay and moisture content expected in the fault zones than in unfaulted rock. Depending upon a number of factors, such as the conductivity contrast between fault zones and unfaulted rock, and the depth and conductivity of the overburden, it may be possible to recognize fault zones from surface EM measurements. Several EM methods were tested to determine which one gave the best results in this environment. The methods tried included slingram, Turam and VLF (very low frequency). Slingram data proved to be most diagnostic in delineating a mapped fault on the east edge of Yucca Mountain, and hence was used in the survey traverses crossing the northwest valleys cutting into Yucca Mountain

  12. Tritium migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Weaver, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    Emanation of tritium from waste containers is a commonly known phenomenon. Release of tritium from buried waste packages was anticipated; therefore, a research program was developed to study both the rate of tritium release from buried containers and subsequent migration of tritium through soil. Migration of tritium away from low-level radioactive wastes buried in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site was studied. Four distinct disposal events were investigated. The oldest burial event studied was a 1976 emplacement of 3.5 million curies of tritium in a shallow land burial trench. In another event, 248 thousand curies of tritium was disposed of in an overpack emplaced 6 m below the floor of a low-level waste disposal pit. Measurement of the emanation rate of tritium out of 55 gallon drums to the overpack was studied, and an annual doubling of the emanation rate over a seven year period, ending in 1990, was found. In a third study, upward tritium migration in the soil, resulting in releases in the atmosphere were observed in a greater confinement disposal test. Releases of tritium to the atmosphere were found to be insignificant. The fourth event consisted of burial of 2.2 million curies of tritium in a greater confinement disposal operation. Emanation of tritium from the buried containers has been increasing since disposal, but no significant migration was found four years following backfilling of the disposal hole

  13. Yield and Depth of Burial Hydrodynamic Calculations in Granodiorite: Implications for the North Korean Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    the existence of a test site body wave magnitude (mb) bias between U. S. and the former Soviet Union test sites in Nevada and Semipalatinsk . The use...YIELD AND DEPTH OF BURIAL HYDRODYNAMIC CALCULATIONS IN GRANODIORITE:IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NORTH KOREAN TEST SITE Esteban Rougier, Christopher R...Korean test site and the May 2009 test . When compared to the Denny and Johnson (1991) and to the Heard and Ackerman (1967) cavity radius scaling models

  14. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1998-10-01

    Monitoring and surveillance, on and around the Nevada Test Site, (NTS) by US Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and NTS user organizations during 1997, indicated that operations on the NTS were conducted in compliance with applicable DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. All discharges of radioactive liquids remained onsite in containment ponds, and there was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater. Surveillance around the NTS indicated that airborne radioactivity from diffusion, evaporation of liquid effluents, or resuspension of soil was not detectable offsite, and exposure above existing background to members of the offsite population was not measured by the offsite monitoring program. Using the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Clean Air Package 1988 (CAP88)-PC model and NTS radionuclide emissions and environmental monitoring data, the calculated effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the maximally exposed individual offsite would have been 0.089 mrem. Hazardous wastes were shipped offsite to approved disposal facilities

  15. Geology, physical properties, and surface effects at Discus Thrower Site, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, W.J.; Miller, C.H.; Dodge, H.W. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Geologic studies in connection with Project Discus Thrower have furnished detailed stratigraphic and structural information about northwestern Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site. The Paleozoic rocks consist of a lower carbonate sequence, argillite of the Eleana Formation, and an upper carbonate sequence. The distribution of these rocks suggests that both top and bottom of the Eleana are structural contacts, probably thrusts or reverse faults. The overlying tuff includes several units recognized in the subsurface, such as the Fraction Tuff and tuff of Redrock Valley. Other units recognized include bedded tuff associated with the Grouse Canyon Member of Belted Range Tuff, and the Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks Members of the Timber Mountain Tuff. The Timber Mountain and Grouse Canyon are extensively altered to montmorillonite (a swelling clay), possibly as a result of ponding of alkaline water. The overlying alluvium locally contains at the base a clayey, tuffaceous sandstone

  16. Grimsel Test Site. Further Development of Seismic Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, W.; Buehnemann, J.; Holliger, K.; Maurer, H.R.; Pratt, G.; Stekl, I.

    1999-03-01

    Experience gained by NAGRA and its partner organisations in the Grimsel underground rock laboratory has led to the identification of two main areas of investigation: The first part of the present project deals with the evaluation and testing of underground seismic sources suitable for large measurement distances. Various high-frequency seismic sources have been tested at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) (Buehnemann, 1996; Buehnemann and Holliger, 1998). The tests were designed to facilitate future tomographic studies of potential radioactive waste disposal sites. A key objective was to identify borehole and tunnel seismic sources capable of generating and sustaining high-frequency signals over distances of up to 1000 m. Seismic sources were located in both water-filled boreholes (sparker, two piezo-electric sources, explosives) and at the tunnel wall (accelerated weight drop, minivibrator, bolt gun, buffalo gun, explosives). The second focal point of the project was dealing with improvement (and development) of analysis techniques in terms of stability, quality and resolution. 3 inversion techniques were tested and developed using the dataset US85 (Gelbke, 1988). Two travel time inversions - anisotropic velocity tomography - AVT (Pratt and Chapman, 1992) and coupled inversion - CI (Maurer, 1996; Maurer and Green, 1997) - and a wave field inversion (WFI Song et al., 1995) were used. Several problems occurred in the first inversion of the US85 dataset using the Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT); these were due to the velocity anisotropy of the rock, the triggering inaccuracy of the shots and uncertainties regarding the source/receiver locations in the boreholes. In the AVT, the velocity anisotropy of the rock is taken into account as a free parameter. In addition to an 'isotropic' velocity image, this involves producing tomograms of anisotropy. Taking into account the anisotropy of the rock allows the artefacts of the SIRT inversion to be explained

  17. Resettlement of Bikini Atoll: US nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.; Conrado, C.; Stuart, M.; Stoker, A.; Hamilton, T.

    1999-01-01

    Bikini Atoll was one of two sites in the Marshall Islands that were used in the 1950's by the United States for testing nuclear weapons. The testing produced widespread radioactive contamination in Bikini and much of the Northern Marshall Islands. The Bikini people, relocated in 1946 before the test program began, have long desired to return to their homeland. Coral soil on Bikini Island makes cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) much more available for plant uptake than do soils of North America and Europe. Hence, when locally grown crops mature and become available for consumption, the resulting body burden of 137 Cs and the associated doses to humans exceeds federal guidelines. The dose from the terrestrial food ingestion pathway dominates all other pathways and contributes about 90% of the total dose to returning residents. We are, therefore, involved in cost-effective efforts to reduce the dose associated with resettlement. We have evaluated several measures, in addition to soil removal, to eliminate 137 Cs from the soil and to reduce its uptake into food crops. The most effective, and the easiest to implement, is the application of potassium to the atoll soils. A dramatic reduction in 137 Cs occurs in tropical fruits after applications of potassium-rich fertilizer to experimental soil plots. This treatment reduces the associated ingestion dose to about 5% of the pre-treatment levels, and this option avoids removal of the organic-rich surface soils. In addition, the added potassium increases plant productivity. We are now focusing on determining the duration of the effects of potassium treatment on 137 Cs uptake into plants, and the rate of environmental loss of 137 Cs in the atoll ecosystem. (author)

  18. Land surface cleanup of plutonium at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeling, L.L.; Evans, R.B.; Walsh, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) covers approximately 3300 km 2 of high desert and is located approximately 100 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Soil contaminated by plutonium exists on the NTS and surrounding areas from safety tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s. About 150 curies of contamination have been measured over 1200 hectares of land surface. Most contamination is found in the top 5 cm of soil but may be found as deep as 25 cm. The cost of conventional removal and disposal of the full soil volume has been estimated at over $500,000,000. This study is directed toward minimizing the volume of waste which must be further processed and disposed of by precisely controlling soil removal depth. The following soil removal machines were demonstrated at the NTS: (1) a CMI Corporation Model PR-500FL pavement profiler, (2) a CMI Corporation Model TR-225B trimmer reclaimer, (3) a Caterpillar Model 623 elevating scraper equipped with laser depth control, (4) a Caterpillar Model 14G motor grader equipped with laser depth control, (5) a Caterpillar Model 637 auger scraper, and (6) a XCR Series Guzzler vacuum truck. The most effective removal technique tested was the pavement profiler, which provided for dust control and precisely removed thin layers of soil. Soil removal with the motor grader and paddle scraper generated unacceptable dust levels, even after the soil was extensively watered. The vacuum truck was ineffective because of its limited intake volume which is a function of its small intake size, its weak intake force, and the tendency of its filters to clog

  19. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Repackaging at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sanza, E.F.; Pyles, G.; Ciucci, J.; Arnold, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the activities required to modify a facility and the process of characterizing, repackaging, and preparing for shipment the Nevada Test Site's (NTS) legacy transuranic (TRU) waste in 58 oversize boxes (OSB). The waste, generated at other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites and shipped to the NTS between 1974 and 1990, requires size-reduction for off-site shipment and disposal. The waste processing approach was tailored to reduce the volume of TRU waste by employing decontamination and non-destructive assay. As a result, the low-level waste (LLW) generated by this process was packaged, with minimal size reduction, in large sea-land containers for disposal at the NTS Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The remaining TRU waste was repackaged and sent to the Idaho National Laboratory Consolidation Site for additional characterization in preparation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the NTS Management and Operating (M and O) contractor, NSTec, successfully partnered to modify and upgrade an existing facility, the Visual Examination and Repackaging Building (VERB). The VERB modifications, including a new ventilation system and modified containment structure, required an approved Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis prior to project procurement and construction. Upgrade of the VERB from a radiological facility to a Hazard Category 3 Nuclear Facility required new rigor in the design and construction areas and was executed on an aggressive schedule. The facility Documented Safety Analysis required that OSBs be vented prior to introduction into the VERB. Box venting was safely completed after developing and implementing two types of custom venting systems for the heavy gauge box construction. A remotely operated punching process was used on boxes with wall thickness of up to 3.05 mm (0.120 in) to insert aluminum

  20. Radioactive contamination on land and external radiation dose in residential areas around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a review of our studies since 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Sakaguchi, A.; Takada, J.; Apsalikov, K.N.; Gusev, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    A review is presented on our studies about radioactive contamination on land and external radiation doses to residents by the thermoluminescence technique, performed around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan since 1995. Surface and core soil samples have been collected from different sites around the SNTS and long-lived radionuclides such as 137 Cs and Pu isotopes were measured. Unlike 137 Cs, the inventories of 239,240 Pu for most of the sites we visited were several to a few hundred times higher than those (40-120 Bq/m 2 ) for global fallout observed in Japan. Pu in soil around the SNTS was found to be tightly incorporated into various sizes of particles formed in the course of the condensation of melting materials, such as vaporized soil and bomb components. Lower atomic ratios of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu (0.03-0.05) for samples indicated that the nuclear tests conducted at the SNTS resulted in a relatively large amount of close-in fallout Pu even in the outside regions. External radiation doses to residents near the SNTS were evaluated by the thermoluminescence technique for brick samples collected from several settlements: Dolon, Semipalatinsk and Ust'-Kamenogorsk cities. The external radiation doses to population were estimated to be up to 1.0 Gy for resident in Dolon settlement. The doses in other two cities were evaluated to be several hundreds mGy. The present doses in Ust'-Kamenogorsk City were consistent with the human acute health effect on the citizens just after 1956 fallout. (author)

  1. Material Science Activities for Fusion Reactors in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibayeva, I.; Kenzhin, E.; Kulsartov, T.; Shestakov, V.; Chikhray, Y.; Azizov, E.; Filatov, O.; Chernov, V.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Paper contains results of fusion material testing national program and results of activities on creation of material testing spherical tokamak. Hydrogen isotope behavior (diffusion, permeation, and accumulation) in the components of the first wall and divertor was studied taking into account temperature, pressure, and reactor irradiation. There were carried out out-of-pile and in-pile (reactors IVG-IM, WWRK, RA) studies of beryllium of various grades (TV-56, TShG-56, DV-56, TGP-56, TIP-56), graphites (RG-T, MPG-8, FP 479, R 4340), molybdenum, tungsten, steels (Cr18Ni10Ti, Cr16Ni15, MANET, F82H), alloys V-(4-6)Cr-( 4-5)Ti, Cu+1%Cr+0.1%Zr, and double Be/Cu and triple Be/Cu/steel structures. Tritium permeability from eutectic Pb+17%Li through steels Cr18Ni10Ti, Cr16Ni15, MANET, and F82H were studied taking into account protective coating effects. The tritium production rate was experimentally assessed during in-pile and post-reactor experiments. There were carried out radiation tests of ceramic Li 2 TiO 3 (96% enrichment by Li-6) with in-situ registration of released tritium and following post-irradiation material tests of irradiated samples. Verification of computer codes for simulation of accidents related to LOCA in ITER reactor was carried out. Codes' verification was carried out for a mockup of first wall in a form of three-layer cylinder of beryllium, bronze (Cu-Cr-Zr) and stainless steel. At present Kazakhstan Tokamak for Material testing (tokamak KTM) is created in National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan in cooperation with Russian Federation organizations (start-up is scheduled on 2008). Tokamak KTM allows for expansion and specification of the studies and tests of materials, protection options of first wall, receiving divertor tiles and divertor components, methods for load reduction at divertor, and various options of heat/power removal, fast evacuation of divertor volume and development of the techniques for

  2. The model of interaction with the National Operator when doing uranium mining in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yermilov, A.; Niyetbayev, M.; Sakharova, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The report presents a model of organizational and production interaction with the National Operator, NAC Kazatomprom JSC, with regard to uranium mining in Kazakhstan by means of mechanism of joint management of mining, processing and service companies. NAC Kazatomprom JSC is the world's largest producer of uranium, and Uranium One Holding is the largest foreign partner of the National Operator. The mining assets of Uranium One Holdings include the following joint ventures: Betpak Dala LLP (South Inkai and Akdala Mines), Karatau LLP, Akbastau JSC, Kyzylkum LLP and KRC Zarechnoye JSC. It shows that the project management in the form of joint ventures allows for minimization of investment risks in Kazakhstan. The practice of corporate communication with NAC Kazatomprom JSC goes far beyond the “investment– receipt of dividends” scheme when the investment guarantees mean control over the enterprise activities through participation in the meetings of enterprise management bodies. The sustainable model has been developed for the interaction with the National Operator and with state authorities of the Republic of Kazakhstan through or together with the National Operator, whereby various projects have been implemented starting with the joint support of social development of Kazakhstan regions in excess of the minimum amounts established by the government in subsoil use contracts (through Kazatomprom-Demeu LLP, specially established for this purpose) and ending with the implementation of such major projects as the “Atomic Ring” or innovative projects on the construction of alternative energy sources (solar power plant) on sites of joint industrial projects. Effective cooperation with the National operator Kazatomprom allowed to successfully establish and run at the jointly owned mines the program of efficiency improvement which stimulates continuous improvement of current operations and results in considerable cost reduction. The key ideas of the Efficiency

  3. Distribution, typology and assessment of degraded soils Piedmont Plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Kussainova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification of land degradation is essential to check the problem and to implement the remedial measures needed. The study area falls under parts of foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, that is an arid region in climate. Recent data on the status of study area refer to the 80s of the last century, and the intensive use of them led to a significant anthropogenic transformation. This study was carried out in 2015-2016 as part of a project aimed to study features and causes of land degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan. Under the conditions of rainfed soil degradation manifests itself in the development of erosion processes, agro depletion of soils, reducing the productivity of agriculture. The use of land for irrigation often accompanied by secondary salinization. In this regard, at present there is need to assess current state of the soil, with the identification of changes in their properties as a result of the impact of various anthropogenic factors and creation of new electronic soil maps and applied the powerful capabilities of advanced remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS techniques to identify the geomorphological units and degradation risk assessment. Satellite imagery in addition to the field and laboratory studies to identify salinity-induced soil degradation was adopted in this study. Morphological, chemical and physical characteristics of soils in degraded sites in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, were depicted. The main results of a thorough evaluation of soil degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, are presented. The data revealed that extent of salinity-induced degradation was generally related to some physical properties of soil, uncontrolled livestock grazing and previous soil management practices. These results are useful as the basis for designing soil conservation and restoration programs, as a base line for evaluating the performance of conservation

  4. Radiological effluents released from nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests at the Nevada Test Site 1959 through 1969: Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 25 and Area 26, about 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, from July 1959 through September 1969. This document presents a brief history of the nuclear rocket engine tests, information on the off-site radiological monitoring, and descriptions of the tests.

  5. Preoperational test report, cross-site transfer system integrated test (POTR-007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacquet, E.A.

    1998-04-02

    This report documents the results obtained during the performance of Preoperational Test POTP-007, from December 12, 1997 to March 27, 1998. The main objectives were to demonstrate the operation of the following Cross-Site Transfer System components: Booster pumps P-3125A and P-3125B interlocks and controls, both local and remote; Booster pump P-3125A and P-3125B and associated variable speed drives VSD-1 and VSD-2 performance in both manual and automatic modes; and Water filling, circulation, venting and draining of the transfer headers (supernate and slurry line). As described in reference 1, the following components of the Cross-Site Transfer System that would normally be used during an actual waste transfer, are not used in this specific test: Water Flush System; Valving and instrumentation associated with the 241-SY-A valve pit jumpers; and Valving and instrumentation associated with the 244-A lift station.

  6. Preoperational test report, cross-site transfer system integrated test (POTR-007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacquet, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the results obtained during the performance of Preoperational Test POTP-007, from December 12, 1997 to March 27, 1998. The main objectives were to demonstrate the operation of the following Cross-Site Transfer System components: Booster pumps P-3125A and P-3125B interlocks and controls, both local and remote; Booster pump P-3125A and P-3125B and associated variable speed drives VSD-1 and VSD-2 performance in both manual and automatic modes; and Water filling, circulation, venting and draining of the transfer headers (supernate and slurry line). As described in reference 1, the following components of the Cross-Site Transfer System that would normally be used during an actual waste transfer, are not used in this specific test: Water Flush System; Valving and instrumentation associated with the 241-SY-A valve pit jumpers; and Valving and instrumentation associated with the 244-A lift station

  7. Heater experiments in the Climax Stock, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramspott, L.; Ballou, L.

    1977-01-01

    The Climax Stock is a composite granitic intrusive at the Nevada Test Site, with an existing shaft and an open drift about 1400 ft. below the surface. In September 1977, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory plans to operate three in-situ heater experiments in this area. The first experiment consists of a single heater surrounded by thermocouples at distances of from 1/10 to 5 meters. The close spacing will scale down the time required for useful thermal measurements. The heater, which is 3 meters long and capable of about 3 kW, will be energized for a month, turned off for a month, and the cycle repeated. The rock surface temperature in the heater hole is not expected to exceed 500 to 600 0 C, and the temperature beyond 0.1 m into the rock is not expected to exceed 400 0 C. Measurements will be taken during all four months. These measurements will be compared with numerical simulations to determine the thermal properties of the medium. The second experiment, also involving only a single heater, will be more completely instrumented to include the measurement of permeability, rock displacement, stress/strain, and possibly acoustic emission measurements. The scale of the experiment will be larger, and the heater will be energized continuously for about 4 months. The third test in the series is envisioned to be a scale-up of the second, except that multiple heaters will be used. These heaters will be energized for about a year. They will be arranged around a pillar structure left in the room to obtain information on mine stability in the presence of multiple heaters

  8. Construction site Voice Operated Information System (VOIS) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Debbie J.; Hettchen, William

    1991-01-01

    The Voice Activated Information System (VAIS), developed by USACERL, allows inspectors to verbally log on-site inspection reports on a hand held tape recorder. The tape is later processed by the VAIS, which enters the information into the system's database and produces a written report. The Voice Operated Information System (VOIS), developed by USACERL and Automated Sciences Group, through a ESACERL cooperative research and development agreement (CRDA), is an improved voice recognition system based on the concepts and function of the VAIS. To determine the applicability of the VOIS to Corps of Engineers construction projects, Technology Transfer Test Bad (T3B) funds were provided to the Corps of Engineers National Security Agency (NSA) Area Office (Fort Meade) to procure and implement the VOIS, and to train personnel in its use. This report summarizes the NSA application of the VOIS to quality assurance inspection of radio frequency shielding and to progress payment logs, and concludes that the VOIS is an easily implemented system that can offer improvements when applied to repetitive inspection procedures. Use of VOIS can save time during inspection, improve documentation storage, and provide flexible retrieval of stored information.

  9. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research, Development, and Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will Lewis, Compiler

    2006-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site-Directed Research, Development, and Demonstration (SDRD) program completed a very successful year of research and development activities in FY 2005. Fifty new projects were selected for funding this year, and five FY 2004 projects were brought to conclusion. The total funds expended by the SDRD program were $5.4 million, for an average per project cost of just under $100,000. Two external audits of SDRD accounting practices were conducted in FY 2005. Both audits found the program's accounting practices consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 413.2A, and one included the observation that the NTS contractor ''did an exceptional job in planning and executing year-start activities.'' Highlights for the year included: the filing of 18 invention disclosures for intellectual property generated by FY 2005 projects; programmatic adoption of 17 FY 2004 SDRD-developed technologies; participation in the tri-lab Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and SDRD program review that was broadly attended by NTS, NNSA, LDRD, and U.S. Department of Homeland Security representatives; peer reviews of all FY 2005 projects; and the successful completion of 55 R and D projects, as presented in this report

  10. Population distribution around the Nevada Test Site, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Coogan, J.S.

    1984-08-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory (EMSL-LV) conducts an offsite radiological safety program outside the boundaries of the Nevada Test Site. As part of this program, the EMSL-LV maintains a comprehensive and current listing of all rural offsite residents and dairy animals within the controllable sectors (areas where the EMSL-LV could implement protective or remedial actions that would assure public safety). This report was produced to give a brief overview of the population distribution and information on the activities within the controllable sectors. Obviously the numbers of people in a sector change dependent upon the season of the year, and such diverse information as the price of minerals which relates to the opening and closing of mining operations. Currently, the controllable sectors out to 200 kilometers from the Control Point on the NTS are considered to be the entire northeast, north-northeast, north, north-northwest, west-northwest sectors and portions of the east and east-northeast sectors. The west-southwest and south-southwest sections are considered controllable out to 40 to 80 kilometers. No major population centers or dairy farms lie within these sectors. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  11. Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renkey, E.J. Jr.; Bazinet, G.D.; Bitten, E.J.; Brackenbury, P.J.; Carlson, W.F.; Irwin, J.J.; Edwards, P.A.; Shen, E.J.; Titzler, P.A.

    1989-05-01

    The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper

  12. Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renkey, E.J. Jr.; Bazinet, G.D.; Bitten, E.J.; Brackenbury, P.J.; Carlson, W.F.; Irwin, J.J.; Edwards, P.A.; Shen, E.J.; Titzler, P.A.

    1989-05-01

    The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU is located in Areas 3 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 356 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; 03-09-03, Mud Pit; 03-09-04, Mud Pit; 03-09-05, Mud Pit; 20-16-01, Landfill; and 20-22-21, Drums. This CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no further corrective action and closure in place is deemed necessary for CAU 356. This recommendation is based on the results of field investigation/closure activities conducted November 20, 2001, through January 3, 2002, and March 11 to 14, 2002. These activities were conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan (SAFER) for CAU 356. For CASs 03-09-01, 03-09-03, 20-16-01, and 22-20-21, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) and it was determined that no Contaminants of Concern (COCs) were present. Therefore, no further action is necessary for the soil at these CASs. For CASs 03-04-01, 03-09-04, and 03-09-05, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against PALs and identifies total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and radionuclides (i.e., americium-241 and/or plutonium 239/240) as COCs. The nature, extent, and concentration of the TPH and radionuclide COCs were bounded by sampling and shown to be relatively immobile. Therefore, closure in place is recommended for these CASs in CAU 356. Further, use restrictions are not required at this CAU beyond the NTS use restrictions identified in

  14. AIChe equipment testing procedure centrifugal compressors : a guide to performance evaluation and site testing

    CERN Document Server

    AIChE

    2013-01-01

    With its engineer-tested procedures and thorough explanations, Centrifugal Compressors is an essential text for anyone engaged in implementing new technology in equipment design, identifying process problems, and optimizing equipment performance.  This condensed book presents a step by step approach to preparing for, planning, executing, and analyzing tests of centrifugal compressors, with an emphasis on methods that can be conducted on-site and with an acknowledgement of the strengths and limitations of these methods. The book opens with an extensive and detailed section offering definitions

  15. Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

    1982-05-01

    Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

  16. Environment pollution observation service in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poznyak, Eh.L.

    1997-01-01

    Information about Environment Pollution Observation Service attached to Main Department of Hydro-meteorology of Republic of Kazakhstan is cited. General stages of observation organization for atmospheric pollution, surface waters, soil by substances of origin are described. Analysis of formation of methodical and laboratory base of the service is given. It is noted, that in 1954 the State Observation System for Radioactive Contamination on the base of meteorologic stations of Kazgidromet is created. Assays have been taken on summary beta-activity and isotope content. Taking of water samples for determination of strontium-90 content has conducted. Measuring of exposure dose rate has been implemented on 170 meteorological stations. Isotope content of aerosol samples and falls have being determined by semiconductor detectors and impulse analyzers

  17. INES application in Kazakhstan, annual review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krechetov, S.

    1997-01-01

    For the period from the last TCM meeting all Kazakhstani facilities operated rather good. Only one event which attracted public attention occurred at BN-350 on 23 March and was rated as level 0. It had been reported according to INES procedure. I would like to suggest the TCM participants some additional information related to our nuclear activities in Kazakhstan. Our first own law of the Atomic energy use put into force on 14th of April 1997. The research reactor WWER-K nearby to Almaty after 8 years under shutdown reached first critically on 18 April under restarting program. The program to restart of the reactor have to be completed at the end of this year. For the improvement of the relations with the public since this year IAEA started to provide our government TV channel the information about safety status and radiation situation at and around of the nuclear facilities on weekly basis

  18. Pricing of natural gas in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhapargaliev, I.K.

    1996-01-01

    Two state companies are in charge of natural gas supply in Kazakhstan. They buy, transport and sell natural gas and have monopolized the industry and provoked increase of gas prices. Ministry of Oil and gas Industry proposed demonopolization. The restructuring that took place caused new distribution of tasks in the gas industry. A more competitive environment was created leading to normalization of the natural gas prices. All economic subjects were granted the right to acquire gas regardless the type of ownership. Measures implemented for reorganization of gas companies contributed to the reduction of gas transport costs and prices by 50% and to decrease of gas prices in the southern regions by 50%. Despite these measures gas prices for household sector are still unchanged and are below the import prices, the main reason being the low average household income

  19. New Records of Raptors in Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.

  20. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-07-01

    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line